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Sample records for anterior tibial muscle

  1. Measurement of anterior tibial muscle size using real-time ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed

    Martinson, H; Stokes, M J

    1991-01-01

    Cross-sectional images of the anterior tibial muscle group were obtained using real-time ultrasound scanning in 17 normal women. From photographs taken of the images, the cross-sectional area (CSA) and two linear measurements of muscle cross-section were determined. A measurement of the shortest distance of the muscle depth was termed DS, and a measurement of the longest distance through the muscle group was termed DL. Both linear dimensions showed a positive correlation with CSA and the best correlations were obtained when the dimensions were squared or combined (DS x DL). The correlation values were: CSA vs DS2, r = 0.9; CSA vs DL2, r = 0.75 and CSA vs DS x DL, r = 0.88. An approximate value for CSA could be calculated from DS2 by the equation 2 x DS2 + 1. A shape ratio, obtained by dividing DL by DS, was consistent within the group [mean 2.1 (SD 0.2)] and characterised the muscle geometrically. The CSA of repeated scans was assessed for repeatability between-days and between-scans by analysis of variance and the coefficient of variation (CV) calculated. Areas were repeatable between-days (CV 6.5%) and between-scans (CV 3.6%). Linear dimensions of the anterior tibial muscle group reflected CSA and their potential for assessing changes in muscle size with atrophy and hypertrophy have yet to be established.

  2. Group-level variations in motor representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscles: Navigated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study.

    PubMed

    Niskanen, Eini; Julkunen, Petro; Säisänen, Laura; Vanninen, Ritva; Karjalainen, Pasi; Könönen, Mervi

    2010-08-01

    Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can be used to stimulate functional cortical areas at precise anatomical location to induce measurable responses. The stimulation has commonly been focused on anatomically predefined motor areas: TMS of that area elicits a measurable muscle response, the motor evoked potential. In clinical pathologies, however, the well-known homunculus somatotopy theory may not be straightforward, and the representation area of the muscle is not fixed. Traditionally, the anatomical locations of TMS stimulations have not been reported at the group level in standard space. This study describes a methodology for group-level analysis by investigating the normal representation areas of thenar and anterior tibial muscle in the primary motor cortex. The optimal representation area for these muscles was mapped in 59 healthy right-handed subjects using navigated TMS. The coordinates of the optimal stimulation sites were then normalized into standard space to determine the representation areas of these muscles at the group-level in healthy subjects. Furthermore, 95% confidence interval ellipsoids were fitted into the optimal stimulation site clusters to define the variation between subjects in optimal stimulation sites. The variation was found to be highest in the anteroposterior direction along the superior margin of the precentral gyrus. These results provide important normative information for clinical studies assessing changes in the functional cortical areas because of plasticity of the brain. Furthermore, it is proposed that the presented methodology to study TMS locations at the group level on standard space will be a suitable tool for research purposes in population studies. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Cerebral correlates of muscle tone fluctuations in restless legs syndrome: a pilot study with combined functional magnetic resonance imaging and anterior tibial muscle electromyography.

    PubMed

    Spiegelhalder, Kai; Feige, Bernd; Paul, Dominik; Riemann, Dieter; van Elst, Ludger Tebartz; Seifritz, Erich; Hennig, Jürgen; Hornyak, Magdolna

    2008-01-01

    The pathology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is still not understood. To investigate the pathomechanism of the disorder further we recorded a surface electromyogram (EMG) of the anterior tibial muscle during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in patients with idiopathic RLS. Seven subjects with moderate to severe RLS were investigated in the present pilot study. Patients were lying supine in the scanner for over 50 min and were instructed not to move voluntarily. Sensory leg discomfort (SLD) was evaluated on a 10-point Likert scale. For brain image analysis, an algorithm for the calculation of tonic EMG values was developed. We found a negative correlation of tonic EMG and SLD (p <0.01). This finding provides evidence for the clinical experience that RLS-related subjective leg discomfort increases during muscle relaxation at rest. In the fMRI analysis, the tonic EMG was associated with activation in motor and somatosensory pathways and also in some regions that are not primarily related to motor or somatosensory functions. By using a newly developed algorithm for the investigation of muscle tone-related changes in cerebral activity, we identified structures that are potentially involved in RLS pathology. Our method, with some modification, may also be suitable for the investigation of phasic muscle activity that occurs during periodic leg movements.

  4. Bypass grafting to the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Armour, R H

    1976-01-01

    Four patients with severe ischaemia of a leg due to atherosclerotic occlusion of the tibial and peroneal arteries had reversed long saphenous vein grafts to the patent lower part of the anterior tibial artery. Two of these grafts continue to function 19 and 24 months after operation respectively. One graft failed on the fifth postoperative day and another occluded 4 months after operation. The literature on femorotibial grafting has been reviewed. The early failure rate of distal grafting is higher than in the case of femoropopliteal bypass, but a number of otherwise doomed limbs can be salvaged. Contrary to widely held views, grafting to the anterior tibial artery appears to give results comparable to those obtained when the lower anastomosis is made to the posterior tibial artery.

  5. Anterior knee pain and thigh muscle strength after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture: an 8-year follow-up of 28 consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Väistö, Olli; Toivanen, Jarmo; Kannus, Pekka; Järvinen, Markku

    2007-03-01

    Chronic anterior knee pain is a common complication after intramedullary nailing of a tibial shaft fracture. The source of pain is often not known, although it correlates with a simultaneous decrease in thigh muscle strength. No long-term follow-up study has assessed whether weakness of the thigh muscles is associated with anterior knee pain after the procedure in question. Prospective study. University Hospital of Tampere, University of Tampere. The muscular performance of 40 consecutive patients with a nailed tibial shaft fracture was tested isokinetically in a follow-up examination an average of 3.2 +/- 0.4 (SD) years after the initial surgery. An 8-year follow-up was possible in 28 of these cases. Isokinetic muscle strength measurements were made in 28 patients at an average 8.1 +/- 0.3 (SD) years after nail insertion and an average 6.6 +/- 0.3 (SD) years after nail extraction. All nails were extracted at an average 1.6 +/- 0.2 years after the nailing. : Seven patients were painless initially and still were at final follow-up (never pain, or NP). In 13 patients, the previous symptom of anterior knee pain was no longer present at final follow-up [pain, no pain (PNP)], and the remaining 8 had anterior knee pain initially and at final follow-up [always pain group (AP)]. With reference to the hamstring muscles, the mean peak torque difference between the injured and uninjured limb was -2.2% +/- 12% in the NP group, 1.6% +/- 15% in the PNP group, and 10.3% +/- 30% in the AP group at a speed of 60 degrees/second (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi(2) = 1.0; P = 0.593). At a speed of 180 degrees/second, the corresponding differences were -2.9% +/- 23% and 7.0% +/- 19% and 4.4% +/- 16% (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi = 1.7; P = 0.429). With reference to the quadriceps muscles, the mean peak torque difference was -2.8% +/- 9% in the NP group, 5.9% +/- 15% in the PNP group, and -13.0% +/- 16% in the AP group at a speed of 60 degrees/second (Kruskal-Wallis test; chi(2) = 7.9; P = 0

  6. Histological analysis of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament insertion.

    PubMed

    Oka, Shinya; Schuhmacher, Peter; Brehmer, Axel; Traut, Ulrike; Kirsch, Joachim; Siebold, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the morphology of the tibial anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) by histological assessment. The native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into four sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. For histological evaluation, the slices were stained with haematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analysed at a magnification of 20×. The anterior tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibres inserted from the medial tibial spine and were adjacent to the articular cartilage of the medial tibial plateau. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact with the lateral part of the tibial ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the functional ACL fibres. The anterior-posterior length of the medial ACL insertion was an average of 10.8 ± 1.1 mm compared with the lateral, which was only 6.2 ± 1.1 mm (p < 0.001). There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibres. The shape of the bony tibial ACL insertion was 'duck-foot-like'. In contrast to previous findings, the functional mid-substance fibres arose from the most posterior part of the 'duck-foot' in a flat and 'c-shaped' way. The most anterior part of the tibial ACL insertion was bordered by a bony anterior ridge and the most medial by the medial tibial spine. No posterolateral fibres nor ACL bundles have been found histologically. This histological investigation may improve our understanding of the tibial ACL insertion and may provide important information for anatomical ACL reconstruction.

  7. Histological Analysis of the Tibial Anterior Cruciate Ligament Insertion

    PubMed Central

    Siebold, Rainer; Oka, Shinya; Traut, Ulrike; Schuhmacher, Peter; Kirsch, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To describe the morphology of the tibial ACL insertion by histological assessment in the sagittal plane. Methods: For histology the native (undissected) tibial ACL insertion of 6 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees was cut into 4 sagittal sections parallel to the long axis of the medial tibial spine. The slices were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Safranin O and Russell-Movat pentachrome. All slices were digitalized and analyzed at a magnification of ×20. Results: From medial to lateral the anterior-posterior lengths of the ACL insertion were an average of 10.2, 9.3, 7.6 and 5.8 mm. The anterior margin of the tibial ACL insertion raised from an anterior ridge. The most medial ACL fibers rose along with a peak of the anterior part of the medial tibial spine in which the direct insertion was adjacent to the articular cartilage. Parts of the bony insertions of the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral meniscus were in close contact to the lateral ACL insertion. A small fat pad was located just posterior to the tibial ACL insertion. There were no central or posterolateral inserting ACL fibers in the area intercondylaris anterior. Conclusion: The functional intraligamentous midsubstance ACL fibers arose from the most posterior part of its bony tibial insertion in a flat and “C-shape” way. The anterior border of this functional ACL started from a bony ‘anterior ridge’ and the medial border was along with a peak of the medial tibial spine.

  8. Anterior tibial stress fractures treated with anterior tension band plating in high-performance athletes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Alexandre Santa; de Hollanda, João Paris Buarque; Duarte, Aires; Hungria Neto, José Soares

    2013-06-01

    The non-surgical treatment of anterior tibial cortex stress fractures requires long periods of abstention from sports activities and often results in non-union. Many different surgical techniques have already been previously described to treat these fractures, but there is no consensus on the best treatment. We describe the outcome of treatment using anterior tibial tension band plating in three high-performance athletes (4 legs) with anterior tibial cortex stress fractures. Tibial osteosynthesis with a 3.5-mm locking compression plate in the anterolateral aspect of the tibia was performed in all patients diagnosed with anterior tibial stress fracture after September 2010 at Santa Casa Hospital. All of the fractures were consolidated within a period of 3 months after surgery, allowing for an early return to pre-injury levels of competitive sports activity. There were no infection, non-union, malunion or anterior knee pain complications. Anterior tibial tension band plating leads to prompt fracture consolidation and is a good alternative for the treatment of anterior tibial cortex stress fractures. Bone grafts were shown to be unnecessary.

  9. Tibial plateau fracture following gracilis-semitendinosus anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The tibial tunnel stress-riser.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R O; Cohen, D; Barton-Hanson, N

    2006-06-01

    Tibial plateau fractures following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are extremely rare. This is the first reported case of a tibial plateau fracture following four-strand gracilis-semitendinosus autograft ACL reconstruction. The tibial tunnel alone may behave as a stress riser which can significantly reduce bone strength.

  10. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Tibial Attachment Preserving Hamstring Graft without Implant on Tibial Side

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Skand; Naik, Ananta Kumar; Maheshwari, Mridul; Sandanshiv, Sumedh; Meena, Durgashankar; Arya, Rajendra K

    2018-01-01

    Background: Tibial attachment preserving hamstring graft could prevent potential problems of free graft in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction such as pull out before graft-tunnel healing or rupture before ligamentization. Different implants have been reportedly used for tibial side fixation with this technique. We investigated short-term outcome of ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with tibial attachment sparing hamstring graft without implant on the tibial side by outside in technique. Materials and Methods: Seventy nine consecutive cases of ACL tear having age of 25.7 ± 6.8 years were included after Institutional Board Approval. All subjects were male. The mean time interval from injury to surgery was of 7.5 ± 6.4 months. Hamstring tendons were harvested with open tendon stripper leaving the tibial insertion intact. The free ends of the tendons were whip stitched, quadrupled, and whip stitched again over the insertion site of hamstring with fiber wire (Arthrex). Single bundle ACLR was done by outside in technique and the femoral tunnel was created with cannulated reamer. The graft was pulled up to the external aperture of femoral tunnel and fixed with interference screw (Arthrex). The scoring was done by Lysholm, Tegner, and KT 1000 by independent observers. All cases were followed up for 2 years. Results: The mean length of quadrupled graft attached to tibia was 127.65 ± 7.5 mm, and the mean width was 7.52 ± 0.78 mm. The mean preoperative Lysholm score of 47.15 ± 9.6, improved to 96.8 ± 2.4 at 1 year. All cases except two returned to the previous level of activity after ACLR. There was no significant difference statistically between preinjury (5.89 ± 0.68) and postoperative (5.87 ± 0.67) Tegner score. The anterior tibial translation (ATT) (KT 1000) improved from 11.44 ± 1.93 mm to 3.59 ± 0.89 mm. The ATT of operated knee returned to nearly the similar value as of the opposite knee (3.47 ± 1.16 mm). The Pivot shift test was negative in all cases

  11. Quadriceps force and anterior tibial force occur obviously later than vertical ground reaction force: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Ryo; Ishida, Tomoya; Yamanaka, Masanori; Taniguchi, Shohei; Ikuta, Ryohei; Samukawa, Mina; Saito, Hiroshi; Tohyama, Harukazu

    2017-11-18

    Although it is well known that quadriceps force generates anterior tibial force, it has been unclear whether quadriceps force causes great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the quadriceps force induced great anterior tibial force during the early phase of a landing task. Fourteen young, healthy, female subjects performed a single-leg landing task. Muscle force and anterior tibial force were estimated from motion capture data and synchronized force data from the force plate. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance and the post hoc Bonferroni test were conducted to compare the peak time of the vertical ground reaction force, quadriceps force and anterior tibial force during the single-leg landing. In addition, we examined the contribution of vertical and posterior ground reaction force, knee flexion angle and moment to peak quadriceps force using multiple linear regression. The peak times of the estimated quadriceps force (96.0 ± 23.0 ms) and anterior tibial force (111.9 ± 18.9 ms) were significantly later than that of the vertical ground reaction force (63.5 ± 6.8 ms) during the single-leg landing. The peak quadriceps force was positively correlated with the peak anterior tibial force (R = 0.953, P < 0.001). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the peak knee flexion moment contributed significantly to the peak quadriceps force (R 2  = 0.778, P < 0.001). The peak times of the quadriceps force and the anterior tibial force were obviously later than that of the vertical ground reaction force for the female athletes during successful single-leg landings. Studies have reported that the peak time of the vertical ground reaction force was close to the time of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disruption in ACL injury cases. It is possible that early contraction of the quadriceps during landing might induce ACL disruption as a result of

  12. Pseudoaneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery following Ankle Arthroscopy in a Soccer Player.

    PubMed

    Tonogai, Ichiro; Matsuura, Tetsuya; Iwame, Toshiyuki; Wada, Keizo; Takasago, Tomoya; Goto, Tomohiro; Hamada, Daisuke; Kawatani, Yohei; Fujimoto, Eiki; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Takao, Shyoichiro; Iwamoto, Seiji; Yamanaka, Moriaki; Harada, Masafumi; Sairyo, Koichi

    2017-01-01

    Ankle arthroscopy carries a lower risk of vascular complications when standard anterolateral and anteromedial portals are used. However, the thickness of the fat pad at the anterior ankle affords little protection for the thin-walled anterior tibial artery, rendering it susceptible to indirect damage during procedures performed on the anterior ankle joint. To our knowledge, only 11 cases of pseudoaneurysm involving the anterior tibial artery after ankle arthroscopy have been described in the literature. Here we reported a rare case of a 19-year-old soccer player who presented with pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery following ankle arthroscopy using an ankle distraction method and underwent anastomosis for the anterior tibial artery injury. Excessive distraction of the ankle puts the neurovascular structures at greater risk for iatrogenic injury of the anterior tibial artery during ankle arthroscopy. Surgeons should look carefully for postoperative ankle swelling and pain after ankle arthroscopy.

  13. Pseudoaneurysm of the Anterior Tibial Artery following Ankle Arthroscopy in a Soccer Player

    PubMed Central

    Iwame, Toshiyuki; Hamada, Daisuke; Fujimoto, Eiki; Kitagawa, Tetsuya; Takao, Shyoichiro; Iwamoto, Seiji; Yamanaka, Moriaki; Harada, Masafumi

    2017-01-01

    Ankle arthroscopy carries a lower risk of vascular complications when standard anterolateral and anteromedial portals are used. However, the thickness of the fat pad at the anterior ankle affords little protection for the thin-walled anterior tibial artery, rendering it susceptible to indirect damage during procedures performed on the anterior ankle joint. To our knowledge, only 11 cases of pseudoaneurysm involving the anterior tibial artery after ankle arthroscopy have been described in the literature. Here we reported a rare case of a 19-year-old soccer player who presented with pseudoaneurysm of the anterior tibial artery following ankle arthroscopy using an ankle distraction method and underwent anastomosis for the anterior tibial artery injury. Excessive distraction of the ankle puts the neurovascular structures at greater risk for iatrogenic injury of the anterior tibial artery during ankle arthroscopy. Surgeons should look carefully for postoperative ankle swelling and pain after ankle arthroscopy. PMID:28607785

  14. Predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel in anterior crucitate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Chernchujit, Bancha; Barthel, Thomas

    2009-12-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using bone-patellar tendon bone graft is a common procedure in orthopedics. One challenging problem found is a graft-tunnel mismatch. Previous studies have reported the mathematic formula to predict the tibial angle length and angle to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch but these formulas have shown limited predictability. To propose a predictive formula for the length of tibial tunnel and to examine its predictability. Thirty six patients (26 males, 14 females) with ACL injury were included in this study. The preoperativemedial proximal tibial angle was measured. Intraoperatively, the tibial tunnel length and tibial entry point were measured. The postoperative coronal and saggital angle of tibial tunnel were measured from knee radiograph. The data were analysed by using trigonometry correlation and formulate the predictive formula of tibial tunnel length. We found that tibial tunnel length (T) has trigonometric correlation between the location of tibial tunnel entry point (w), coronal angle of tibial tunnel (b), saggital angle of tibial tunnel (a) and the medial proximal tibial slope (c) by using this formula T = Wcos(c)tan(b)/sin(a) This proposed predictive formula can well predict the length of the tibial tunnel at preoperative period to avoid graft-tunnel mismatch.

  15. Posterior tibial slope as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament rupture in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Senişik, Seçkin; Ozgürbüz, Cengizhan; Ergün, Metin; Yüksel, Oğuz; Taskiran, Emin; Işlegen, Cetin; Ertat, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the primary stabilizer of the knee. An impairment of any of the dynamic or static stability providing factors can lead to overload on the other factors and ultimately to deterioration of knee stability. This can result in anterior tibial translation and rupture of the ACL. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of tibial slope on ACL injury risk on soccer players. A total of 64 elite soccer players and 45 sedentary controls were included in this longitudinal and controlled study. The angle between the tibial mid-diaphysis line and the line between the anterior and posterior edges of the medial tibial plateau was measured as the tibial slope via lateral radiographs. Individual player exposure, and injuries sustained by the participants were prospectively recorded. Eleven ACL injuries were documented during the study period. Tibial slope was not different between soccer players and sedentary controls. Tibial slope in the dominant and non-dominant legs was greater for the injured players compared to the uninjured players. The difference reached a significant level only for the dominant legs (p < 0.001). While the tibial slopes of the dominant and non-dominant legs were not different on uninjured players (p > 0.05), a higher tibial slope was observed in dominant legs of injured players (p < 0.05). Higher tibial slope on injured soccer players compared to the uninjured ones supports the idea that the tibial slope degree might be an important risk factor for ACL injury. Key pointsDominant legs' tibial slopes of the injured players were significantly higher compared to the uninjured players (p < 0.001).Higher tibial slope was determined in dominant legs compared to the non-dominant side, for the injured players (p = 0.042). Different tibial slope measures in dominant and non-dominant legs might be the result of different loading and/or adaptation patterns in soccer.

  16. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases. PMID:29304102

  17. Activation of biceps femoris long head reduces tibiofemoral anterior shear force and tibial internal rotation torque in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Azmi, Nur Liyana; Ding, Ziyun; Xu, Rui; Bull, Anthony M J

    2018-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) provides resistance to tibial internal rotation torque and anterior shear at the knee. ACL deficiency results in knee instability. Optimisation of muscle contraction through functional electrical stimulation (FES) offers the prospect of mitigating the destabilising effects of ACL deficiency. The hypothesis of this study is that activation of the biceps femoris long head (BFLH) reduces the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee. Gait data of twelve healthy subjects were measured with and without the application of FES and taken as inputs to a computational musculoskeletal model. The model was used to investigate the optimum levels of BFLH activation during FES gait in reducing the anterior shear force to zero. This study found that FES significantly reduced the tibial internal rotation torque at the knee during the stance phase of gait (p = 0.0322) and the computational musculoskeletal modelling revealed that a mean BFLH activation of 20.8% (±8.4%) could reduce the anterior shear force to zero. At the time frame when the anterior shear force was zero, the internal rotation torque was reduced by 0.023 ± 0.0167 Nm/BW, with a mean 188% reduction across subjects (p = 0.0002). In conclusion, activation of the BFLH is able to reduce the tibial internal rotation torque and the anterior shear force at the knee in healthy control subjects. This should be tested on ACL deficient subject to consider its effect in mitigating instability due to ligament deficiency. In future clinical practice, activating the BFLH may be used to protect ACL reconstructions during post-operative rehabilitation, assist with residual instabilities post reconstruction, and reduce the need for ACL reconstruction surgery in some cases.

  18. Delayed Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in Young Patients With Previous Anterior Tibial Spine Fractures.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Justin J; Mayo, Meredith H; Axibal, Derek P; Kasch, Anthony R; Fader, Ryan R; Chadayammuri, Vivek; Terhune, E Bailey; Georgopoulos, Gaia; Rhodes, Jason T; Vidal, Armando F

    2016-08-01

    Avulsion fractures of the anterior tibial spine in young athletes are injuries similar to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in adults. Sparse data exist on the association between anterior tibial spine fractures (ATSFs) and later ligamentous laxity or injuries leading to ACL reconstruction. To better delineate the incidence of delayed instability or ACL ruptures requiring delayed ACL reconstruction in young patients with prior fractures of the tibial eminence. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. We identified 101 patients between January 1993 and January 2012 who sustained an ATSF and who met inclusion criteria for this study. All patients had been followed for at least 2 years after the initial injury and were included for analysis after completion of a questionnaire via direct contact, mail, and/or telephone. If patients underwent further surgical intervention and/or underwent later ACL reconstruction, clinical records and operative reports pertaining to these secondary interventions were obtained and reviewed. Differences between categorical variables were assessed using the Fisher exact test. The association between time to revision ACL surgery and fracture type was assessed by Kaplan-Meier plots. The association between need for revision ACL surgery and age, sex, and mechanism of surgery was assessed using logistic regression. Nineteen percent of all patients evaluated underwent delayed ACL reconstruction after a previous tibial spine fracture on the ipsilateral side. While there were a higher proportion of ACL reconstructions in type II fractures, there was not a statistically significant difference in the number of patients within each fracture group who went on to undergo later surgery (P = .29). Further, there was not a significant association between fracture type, sex, or mechanism of injury as it related to the progression to later ACL reconstruction. However, there was a significant association between age at the time of injury and progression

  19. Outcomes of Surgical Treatment for Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in Athletes: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Zaira S; Raikin, Steven M; Harwood, Marc I; Bishop, Meghan E; Ciccotti, Michael G; Hammoud, Sommer

    2017-12-01

    Although most anterior tibial stress fractures heal with nonoperative treatment, some may require surgical management. To our knowledge, no systematic review has been conducted regarding surgical treatment strategies for the management of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures from which general conclusions can be drawn regarding optimal treatment in high-performance athletes. This systematic review was conducted to evaluate the surgical outcomes of anterior tibial stress fractures in high-performance athletes. Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4. In February 2017, a systematic review of the PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL databases was performed to identify studies that reported surgical outcomes for anterior tibial stress fractures. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened, and reported outcome measures were documented. A total of 12 studies, published between 1984 and 2015, reporting outcomes for the surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures were included in this review. All studies were retrospective case series. Collectively, surgical outcomes for 115 patients (74 males; 41 females) with 123 fractures were evaluated in this review. The overall mean follow-up was 23.3 months. The most common surgical treatment method reported in the literature was compression plating (n = 52) followed by drilling (n = 33). Symptom resolution was achieved in 108 of 123 surgically treated fractures (87.8%). There were 32 reports of complications, resulting in an overall complication rate of 27.8%. Subsequent tibial fractures were reported in 8 patients (7.0%). Moreover, a total of 17 patients (14.8%) underwent a subsequent procedure after their initial surgery. Following surgical treatment for anterior tibial stress fracture, 94.7% of patients were able to return to sports. The available literature indicates that surgical treatment of anterior tibial stress fractures is associated with a high rate of symptom resolution and return

  20. Anterior Tibial Translation in Collegiate Athletes with Normal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Integrity

    PubMed Central

    Rosene, John M.; Fogarty, Tracey D.

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To examine differences in anterior tibial translation (ATT) among sports, sex, and leg dominance in collegiate athletes with normal anterior cruciate ligament integrity. Design and Setting: Subjects from various athletic teams were measured for ATT in right and left knees. Subjects: Sixty subjects were measured for ATT with a KT-1000 knee arthrometer. Measurements: Statistical analyses were computed for each sex and included a 2 × 3 × 4 mixed-factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) for anterior cruciate ligament displacement, right and left sides, and force and sport. A 2 × 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare means for sex and force. A 2 × 3 mixed-factorial ANOVA was computed to compare sex differences across 3 forces. Results: For males and females, no significant interactions were found among leg, force, and sport for mean ATT, for leg and sport or leg and force, or for translation values between dominant and nondominant legs. Males had a significant interaction for force and sport, and a significant difference was found for side of body, since the right side had less translation than the left side. Females had greater ATT than males at all forces. Conclusions: Sex differences exist for ATT, and differences in ATT exist among sports for both sexes. Differences between the right and left sides of the body should be expected when making comparisons of ligamentous laxity. ImagesFigure 2.Figure 3.Figure 5. PMID:16558565

  1. Tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Alberto; Mahajan, Vivek; Karnatzikos, Georgios

    2011-05-01

    Tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is rare. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a tibial plateau fracture after primary anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction. In our patient the tibial plateau fracture occurred after a torsional injury to the involved extremity. The fracture occurred 4.5 years after the ACL reconstruction. The fracture was intra-articular Schatzker type IV and had a significant displacement. The patient was treated operatively by open reduction-internal fixation. He recovered well. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Isokinetic evaluation of internal/external tibial rotation strength after the use of hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Armour, Tanya; Forwell, Lorie; Litchfield, Robert; Kirkley, Alexandra; Amendola, Ned; Fowler, Peter J

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of the knee after an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the use of the semitendinosus and gracilis (hamstring) autografts has primarily focused on flexion and extension strength. The semitendinosus and gracilis muscles contribute to internal tibial rotation, and it has been suggested that harvest of these tendons for the purpose of an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction contributes to internal tibial rotation weakness. Internal tibial rotation strength may be affected by the semitendinosus and gracilis harvest after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Prospective evaluation of internal and external tibial rotation strength. Inclusion criteria for subjects (N = 30): unilateral anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at least 2 years previously, a stable anterior cruciate ligament (<5-mm side-to-side difference) at time of testing confirmed by surgeon and KT-1000 arthrometer, no history of knee problems after initial knee reconstruction, a normal contralateral knee, and the ability to comply with the testing protocol. In an attempt to minimize unwanted subtalar joint motion, subjects were immobilized using an ankle brace and tested at angular velocities of 60 degrees /s, 120 degrees /s, and 180 degrees /s at a knee flexion angle of 90 degrees . The mean peak torque measurements for internal rotation strength of the operative limb (60 degrees /s, 17.4 +/- 4.5 ft-lb; 120 degrees /s, 13.9 +/- 3.3 ft-lb; 180 degrees /s, 11.6 +/- 3.0 ft-lb) were statistically different compared to the nonoperated limb (60 degrees /s, 20.5 +/- 4.7 ft-lb; 120 degrees /s, 15.9 +/- 3.8 ft-lb; 180 degrees /s, 13.4 +/- 3.8 ft-lb) at 60 degrees /s (P = .012), 120 degrees /s (P = .036), and 180 degrees /s (P = .045). The nonoperative limb demonstrated greater strength at all speeds. The mean torque measurements for external rotation were statistically similar when compared to the nonoperated limb at all angular velocities. We have shown through our study that

  3. Effect of tibial slope on the stability of the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Voos, James E; Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Musa; Petrigliano, Frank P; Bosscher, Marianne R F; Citak, Mustafa; Wickiewicz, Thomas L; Pearle, Andrew D

    2012-08-01

    We aimed to quantify the effect of changes in tibial slope on the magnitude of anterior tibial translation (ATT) in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee during the Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests. We hypothesized that increased posterior tibial slope would increase the amount of ATT of an ACL-deficient knee, while leveling the slope of the tibial plateau would decrease the amount of ATT. Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests were performed on hip-to-toe cadaveric specimens, and ATT of the lateral and the medial compartments was measured using navigation (n = 11). The ACL was then sectioned. Stability testing was repeated, and ATT was recorded. A proximal tibial osteotomy in the sagittal plane was then performed achieving either +5 or -5° of tibial slope variation after which stability testing was repeated (n = 10). Sectioning the ACL resulted in a significant increase in ATT in both the Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests (P < 0.05). Increasing or decreasing the slope of the tibial plateau had no effect on ATT during the Lachman test (n.s.). During the mechanized pivot shift tests, a 5° increase in posterior slope resulted in a significant increase in ATT compared to the native knee (P < 0.05), while a 5° decrease in slope reduced ATT to a level similar to that of the intact knee. Tibial slope changes did not affect the magnitude of translation during a Lachman test. However, large changes in tibial slope variation affected the magnitude of the pivot shift.

  4. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    PubMed

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Flat midsubstance of the anterior cruciate ligament with tibial "C"-shaped insertion site.

    PubMed

    Siebold, Rainer; Schuhmacher, Peter; Fernandez, Francis; Śmigielski, Robert; Fink, Christian; Brehmer, Axel; Kirsch, Joachim

    2015-11-01

    This anatomical cadaver study was performed to investigate the flat appearance of the midsubstance shape of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and its tibial "C"-shaped insertion site. The ACL midsubstance and the tibial ACL insertion were dissected in 20 cadaveric knees (n = 6 fresh frozen and n = 14 paraffined). Magnifying spectacles were used for all dissections. Morphometric measurements were performed using callipers and on digital photographs. In all specimens, the midsubstance of the ACL was flat with a mean width of 9.9 mm, thickness of 3.9 mm and cross-sectional area of 38.7 mm(2). The "direct" "C"-shaped tibial insertion runs from along the medial tibial spine to the anterior aspect of the lateral meniscus. The mean width (length) of the "C" was 12.6 mm, its thickness 3.3 mm and area 31.4 mm(2). The centre of the "C" was the bony insertion of the anterior root of the lateral meniscus overlayed by fat and crossed by the ACL. No posterolateral (PL) inserting ACL fibres were found. Together with the larger "indirect" part (area 79.6 mm(2)), the "direct" one formed a "duck-foot"-shaped footprint. The tibial ACL midsubstance and tibial "C"-shaped insertion are flat and are resembling a "ribbon". The centre of the "C" is the bony insertion of the anterior root of the lateral meniscus. There are no central or PL inserting ACL fibres. Anatomical ACL reconstruction may therefore require a flat graft and a "C"-shaped tibial footprint reconstruction with an anteromedial bone tunnel for single bundle and an additional posteromedial bone tunnel for double bundle.

  6. The transverse ligament as a landmark for tibial sagittal insertions of the anterior cruciate ligament: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Kongcharoensombat, Wirat; Ochi, Mitsuo; Abouheif, Mohamed; Adachi, Nobuo; Ohkawa, Shingo; Kamei, Goki; Okuhara, Atushi; Shibuya, Hoyatoshi; Niimoto, Takuya; Nakasa, Tomoyuki; Nakamae, Atsuo; Deie, Masataka

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relation between the position of the transverse ligament, the anterior edge of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial footprint, and the center of the ACL tibial insertion. We used arthroscopy for localization of the anatomic landmarks, followed by insertions of guide pins under direct visualization, and then the position of these guide pins was checked on plain lateral radiographs. The transverse ligament and the anterior aspect of the ACL tibial footprint were identified by arthroscopy in 20 unpaired cadaveric knees (10 left and 10 right). Guide pins were inserted with tibial ACL adapter drill guides under direct observation at the transverse ligament, the anterior aspect of the tibial footprint, and the center of tibial insertion of the ACL. Then, plain lateral radiographs of specimens were taken. The Amis and Jakob line was used to define the attachment of the ACL tibial insertion and the transverse ligament. A sagittal percentage of the location of the insertion point was determined and calculated from the anterior margin of the tibia in the anteroposterior direction. The transverse ligament averaged 21.20% ± 4.1%, the anterior edge of the ACL tibial insertion averaged 21.60% ± 4.0%, and the center of the ACL tibial insertion averaged 40.30% ± 4.8%. There were similar percent variations between the transverse ligament and the anterior edge of the ACL tibial insertion, with no significant difference between them (P = .38). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was high, with small standard errors of measurement. This study shows that the transverse ligament coincides with the anterior edge of the ACL tibial footprint in the sagittal plane. The transverse ligament can be considered as a new landmark for tibial tunnel positioning during anatomic ACL reconstruction. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A Case of Nonunion Avulsion Fracture of the Anterior Tibial Eminence

    PubMed Central

    Atsumi, Satoru; Arai, Yuji; Nakagawa, Shuji; Inoue, Hiroaki; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2016-01-01

    Avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial eminence is an uncommon injury. If bone union does not occur, knee extension will be limited by impingement of the avulsed fragment and knee instability will be induced by dysfunction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). This report describes a 55-year-old woman who experienced an avulsion fracture of the right anterior tibial eminence during recreational skiing. Sixteen months later, she presented at our hospital with limitation of right knee extension. Plain radiography showed nonunion of the avulsion fracture region, and arthroscopy showed that the avulsed fragment impinged the femoral intercondylar notch during knee extension. The anterior region of the bony fragment was debrided arthroscopically until the knee could be extended completely. There was no subsequent instability, and the patient was able to climb a mountain 6 months after surgery. These findings indicate that arthroscopic debridement of an avulsed fragment for nonunion of an avulsion fracture of the anterior tibial eminence is a minimally invasive and effective treatment for middle-aged and elderly patients with a low level of sports activity. PMID:27119035

  8. Tension band plating of a nonunion anterior tibial stress fracture in an athlete.

    PubMed

    Merriman, Jarrad A; Villacis, Diego; Kephart, Curtis J; Rick Hatch, George F

    2013-07-01

    The authors present a rare technique of tension band plating of the anterior tibia in the setting of a nonunion stress fracture. Surgical management with an intramedullary nail is a viable and proven option for treating such injuries. However, in treating elite athletes, legitimate concerns exist regarding the surgical disruption of the extensor mechanism and the risk of anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nail use. The described surgical technique demonstrates the use of tension band plating as an effective treatment of delayed union and nonunion anterior tibial stress fractures in athletes without the potential risks of intramedullary nail insertion. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. ACL Roof Impingement Revisited: Does the Independent Femoral Drilling Technique Avoid Roof Impingement With Anteriorly Placed Tibial Tunnels?

    PubMed

    Tanksley, John A; Werner, Brian C; Conte, Evan J; Lustenberger, David P; Burrus, M Tyrrell; Brockmeier, Stephen F; Gwathmey, F Winston; Miller, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Anatomic femoral tunnel placement for single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is now well accepted. The ideal location for the tibial tunnel has not been studied extensively, although some biomechanical and clinical studies suggest that placement of the tibial tunnel in the anterior part of the ACL tibial attachment site may be desirable. However, the concern for intercondylar roof impingement has tempered enthusiasm for anterior tibial tunnel placement. To compare the potential for intercondylar roof impingement of ACL grafts with anteriorly positioned tibial tunnels after either transtibial (TT) or independent femoral (IF) tunnel drilling. Controlled laboratory study. Twelve fresh-frozen cadaver knees were randomized to either a TT or IF drilling technique. Tibial guide pins were drilled in the anterior third of the native ACL tibial attachment site after debridement. All efforts were made to drill the femoral tunnel anatomically in the center of the attachment site, and the surrogate ACL graft was visualized using 3-dimensional computed tomography. Reformatting was used to evaluate for roof impingement. Tunnel dimensions, knee flexion angles, and intra-articular sagittal graft angles were also measured. The Impingement Review Index (IRI) was used to evaluate for graft impingement. Two grafts (2/6, 33.3%) in the TT group impinged upon the intercondylar roof and demonstrated angular deformity (IRI type 1). No grafts in the IF group impinged, although 2 of 6 (66.7%) IF grafts touched the roof without deformation (IRI type 2). The presence or absence of impingement was not statistically significant. The mean sagittal tibial tunnel guide pin position prior to drilling was 27.6% of the sagittal diameter of the tibia (range, 22%-33.9%). However, computed tomography performed postdrilling detected substantial posterior enlargement in 2 TT specimens. A significant difference in the sagittal graft angle was noted between the 2 groups. TT grafts were

  10. [A case of anterior tibial arteriovenous fistula after closed fracture of the leg].

    PubMed

    Touzard, R C

    1975-01-01

    This case permits one to emphasize the great rareness of arteriovenous fistula after closed fractures of the shaft of the tibia. Fistulas in this anterior tibial position are remarkably latent, cause no symptoms below the fistula nor symptoms of heart failure. Treatment by several ligatures, permitted this patient to return to work 15 days after operation without any further treatment. The patient no longer has any symptoms.

  11. Rupture of the anterior tibial tendon: three clinical cases, anatomical study, and literature review.

    PubMed

    Anagnostakos, Konstantinos; Bachelier, Felix; Fürst, Oliver Alexander; Kelm, Jens

    2006-05-01

    We report three cases of anterior tibial tendon ruptures and the results of an anatomical study in regard to the tendon's insertion site and a literature review. Three patients were referred to our hospital with anterior tibial tendon ruptures. In the anatomical study, 53 feet were dissected, looking in particular for variants of the bony insertion of the tendon. Two patients had surgical treatment (one primary repair and one semimembranosus tendon graft) and one conservative treatment. After a mean followup of 14 weeks all patients had satisfactory outcomes. In the anatomical study, we noted three different insertion sites: in 36 feet the tendon inserted into the medial side of the cuneiform and the base of the first metatarsal bone and in 13 feet only into the medial side of the cuneiform bone. In the remaining four feet the tendon inserted into the cuneiform and the first metatarsal bone, but an additional tendon was noted taking its origin from the anterior tibial tendon near its insertion into the medial cuneiform and attaching to the proximal part of the first metatarsal. According to literature, surgical repair is the treatment of choice for acute ruptures and for patients with high activity levels. For chronic ruptures and patients with low demands, conservative management may lead to an equally good outcome. Knowledge of the anatomy in this region may be helpful for diagnosis and for the interpretation of intraoperative findings and choosing the most appropriate surgical procedure.

  12. Reflex muscle contraction in anterior shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Wallace, D A; Beard, D J; Gill, R H; Eng, B; Carr, A J

    1997-01-01

    Reduced proprioception may contribute to recurrent anterior shoulder instability. Twelve patients with unilateral shoulder instability were investigated for evidence of deficient proprioception with an activated pneumatic cylinder and surface electromyography electrodes; the contralateral normal shoulder was used as a control. The latency between onset of movement and the detection of muscle contraction was used as an index of proprioception. No significant difference in muscle contraction latency was detected between the stable and unstable shoulders, suggesting that there was no significant defect in muscular reflex activity. This study does not support the use proprioception-enhancing physiotherapy in the treatment of posttraumatic anterior shoulder instability.

  13. Tension Band Plating for Chronic Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures in High-Performance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Zbeda, Robert M; Sculco, Peter K; Urch, Ekaterina Y; Lazaro, Lionel E; Borens, Olivier; Williams, Riley J; Lorich, Dean G; Wellman, David S; Helfet, David L

    2015-07-01

    Anterior tibial stress fractures are associated with high rates of delayed union and nonunion, which can be particularly devastating to a professional athlete who requires rapid return to competition. Current surgical treatment strategies include intramedullary nailing, which has satisfactory rates of fracture union but an associated risk of anterior knee pain. Anterior tension band plating is a biomechanically sound alternative treatment for these fractures. Tension band plating of chronic anterior tibial stress fractures leads to rapid healing and return to physical activity and avoids the anterior knee pain associated with intramedullary nailing. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Between 2001 and 2013, there were 13 chronic anterior tibial stress fractures in 12 professional or collegiate athletes who underwent tension band plating after failing nonoperative management. Patient charts were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, injury history, and surgical details. Radiographs were used to assess time to osseous union. Follow-up notes and phone interviews were used to determine follow-up time, return to training time, and whether the patient was able to return to competition. Cases included 13 stress fractures in 12 patients (9 females, 3 males). Five patients were track-and-field athletes, 4 patients played basketball, 2 patients played volleyball, and 1 was a ballet dancer. Five patients were Division I collegiate athletes and 7 were professional or Olympic athletes. Average age at time of surgery was 23.6 years (range, 20-32 years). Osseous union occurred on average at 9.6 weeks (range, 5.3-16.9 weeks) after surgery. Patients returned to training on average at 11.1 weeks (range, 5.7-20 weeks). Ninety-two percent (12/13) eventually returned to preinjury competition levels. Thirty-eight percent (5/13) underwent removal of hardware for plate prominence. There was no incidence of infection or nonunion. Anterior tension band plating for chronic tibial stress

  14. Management of combined knee medial compartmental and patellofemoral osteoarthritis with lateral closing wedge osteotomy with anterior translation of the distal tibial fragment: Does the degree of anteriorization affect the functional outcome and posterior tibial slope?

    PubMed

    Sadek, Ahmed F; Osman, Mohammed K; Laklok, Mohamed A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of degree of anterior translation of the distal tibial fragment after lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy in patients having combined knee medial compartmental and patellofemoral osteoarthritis. A retrospective study was conducted on 64 patients who were operated on for combined knee medial compartmental and patellofemoral osteoarthritis, by lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy with anterior translation of the distal tibial fragment. They were divided into two groups; Group I comprising 32 patients (34 knees, mean age of 51.4±7years) whose degree of anterior translation was <1cm and Group II comprising 32 patients (33 knees, mean age of 52.2±8.3years) whose degree of anterior translation was >1.5cm. The final assessment was performed via: visual analog scale, postoperative Knee Society clinical rating system function score, active range of motion, time to union, degree of correction of mechanical axis, posterior tibial slope, and Insall-Salvati ratio. Group II patients exhibited statistically superior mean postoperative score and better return to their work than Group I (P=0.013, 0.076, respectively). Both groups showed statistically significant differences between the preoperative and postoperative evaluation parameters (P<0.001). The posterior tibial slope was decreased in both groups but with no significant difference (P=0.527). Lateral closing wedge high tibial osteotomy combined with anterior translation of the distal tibial fragment more than 1.5cm achieved significantly better postoperative functional knee score. Both groups exhibited comparatively decreased posterior tibial slope. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of tibial slope changes in the stability of fixed bearing medial unicompartmental arthroplasty in anterior cruciate ligament deficient knees.

    PubMed

    Suero, Eduardo M; Citak, Musa; Cross, Michael B; Bosscher, Marianne R F; Ranawat, Anil S; Pearle, Andrew D

    2012-08-01

    Patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency may have increased failure rates with UKA as a result of abnormal contact stresses and altered knee kinematics. Variations in the slope of the tibial component in UKA may alter tibiofemoral translation, and affect outcomes. This cadaveric study evaluated tibiofemoral translation during the Lachman and pivot shift tests after changing the slope of a fixed bearing unicondylar tibial component. Sectioning the ACL increased tibiofemoral translation in both the Lachman and pivot shift tests (P<0.05). Tibial slope leveling (decreasing the posterior slope) of the polyethylene insert in a UKA decreases anteroposterior tibiofemoral translation in the sagittal plane to a magnitude similar to that of the intact knee. With 8° of tibial slope leveling, anterior tibial translation during the Lachman test decreased by approximately 5mm. However, no variation in slope altered the pivot shift kinematics in the ACL deficient knees. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The effect of muscle fatigue on in vivo tibial strains.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Radeva-Petrova, Denitsa R; Finestone, Aharon; Nyska, Meir; Mendelson, Stephen; Benjuya, Nisim; Simkin, Ariel; Burr, David

    2007-01-01

    Stress fracture is a common musculoskeletal problem affecting athletes and soldiers. Repetitive high bone strains and strain rates are considered to be its etiology. The strain level necessary to cause fatigue failure of bone ex vivo is higher than the strains recorded in humans during vigorous physical activity. We hypothesized that during fatiguing exercises, bone strains may increase and reach levels exceeding those measured in the non-fatigued state. To test this hypothesis, we measured in vivo tibial strains, the maximum gastrocnemius isokinetic torque and ground reaction forces in four subjects before and after two fatiguing levels of exercise: a 2km run and a 30km desert march. Strains were measured using strain-gauged staples inserted percutaneously in the medial aspect of their mid-tibial diaphysis. There was a decrease in the peak gastrocnemius isokinetic torque of all four subjects' post-march as compared to pre-run (p=0.0001), indicating the presence of gastrocnemius muscle fatigue. Tension strains increased 26% post-run (p=0.002, 95 % confidence interval (CI) and 29% post-march (p=0.0002, 95% CI) as compared to the pre-run phase. Tension strain rates increased 13% post-run (p=0.001, 95% CI) and 11% post-march (p=0.009, 95% CI) and the compression strain rates increased 9% post-run (p=0.0004, 95% CI) and 17% post-march (p=0.0001, 95% CI). The fatigue state increases bone strains well above those recorded in rested individuals and may be a major factor in the stress fracture etiology.

  17. Plate Versus Intramedullary Nail Fixation of Anterior Tibial Stress Fractures: A Biomechanical Study.

    PubMed

    Markolf, Keith L; Cheung, Edward; Joshi, Nirav B; Boguszewski, Daniel V; Petrigliano, Frank A; McAllister, David R

    2016-06-01

    Anterior midtibial stress fractures are an important clinical problem for patients engaged in high-intensity military activities or athletic training activities. When nonoperative treatment has failed, intramedullary (IM) nail and plate fixation are 2 surgical options used to arrest the progression of a fatigue fracture and allow bone healing. A plate will be more effective than an IM nail in preventing the opening of a simulated anterior midtibial stress fracture from tibial bending. Controlled laboratory study. Fresh-frozen human tibias were loaded by applying a pure bending moment in the sagittal plane. Thin transverse saw cuts, 50% and 75% of the depth of the anterior tibial cortex, were created at the midtibia to simulate a fatigue fracture. An extensometer spanning the defect was used to measure the fracture opening displacement (FOD) before and after the application of IM nail and plate fixation constructs. IM nails were tested without locking screws, with a proximal screw only, and with proximal and distal screws. Plates were tested with unlocked bicortical screws (standard compression plate) and locked bicortical screws; both plate constructs were tested with the plate edge placed 1 mm from the anterior tibial crest (anterior location) and 5 mm posterior to the crest. For the 75% saw cut depth, the mean FOD values for all IM nail constructs were 13% to 17% less than those for the saw cut alone; the use of locking screws had no significant effect on the FOD. The mean FOD values for all plate constructs were significantly less than those for all IM nail constructs. The mean FOD values for all plates were 28% to 46% less than those for the saw cut alone. Anterior plate placement significantly decreased mean FOD values for both compression and locked plate constructs, but the mean percentage reductions for locked and unlocked plates were not significantly different from each other for either plate placement. The percentage FOD reductions for all plate

  18. Posterior tibial slope influences static anterior tibial translation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a minimum 2-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Li, Yue; Hong, Lei; Feng, Hua; Wang, Qianqian; Zhang, Jin; Song, Guanyang; Chen, Xingzuo; Zhuo, Hongwu

    2014-04-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) has recently been identified as a risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries because of an associated increase in anterior tibial translation (ATT) and ACL loading. However, few studies concerning the correlation between PTS and postoperative ATT have been published. To analyze the relationship between PTS and postoperative ATT in ACL reconstruction (ACLR). Case control study; Level of evidence, 3. Included in this retrospective study were 40 consecutive patients who underwent ACLR (28 male, 12 female; median age, 22 years; range, 14-44 years) from October 2010 to June 2011. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on medial and lateral PTS values as measured on MRI. Demographic data and results of the manual maximum side-to-side difference with a KT-1000 arthrometer at 30° of knee flexion before ACLR and at final follow-up were collected; results were divided into ATT ≤2 mm, 2 mm < ATT < 5 mm, and ATT ≥5 mm. First, the distribution of ATT in the 3 groups was compared, and then correlation analysis and logistic regression were conducted to determine the correlation between PTS and ATT. Finally, the thresholds of medial and lateral PTS were calculated. Results of the ATT measurements were collected at a mean of 27.5 months (range, 24.0-37.0 months) after ACLR. The group with a PTS ≥5° had significantly more cases of ATT ≥5 mm than the group with a PTS <3° (medial PTS: P = .005; lateral PTS: P = .016). There were statistically significant correlations with ATT for both medial (r = 0.43, P = .005) and lateral (r = 0.36, P = .02) PTS. Medial or lateral PTS resulted in the increased probability of ATT ≥5 mm, with an odds ratio of 1.76 (P = .011) and 1.68 (P = .008), respectively. The threshold of an increased risk of ATT ≥5 mm was a medial PTS >5.6° (P = .003) or a lateral PTS >3.8° (P = .002). There was a significant correlation between PTS and postoperative anterior knee static stability in this study

  19. Location of the tibial tunnel aperture affects extrusion of the lateral meniscus following reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Yuya; Furumatsu, Takayuki; Miyazawa, Shinichi; Fujii, Masataka; Tanaka, Takaaki; Inoue, Hiroto; Ozaki, Toshifumi

    2017-08-01

    The anterior root of the lateral meniscus provides functional stability to the meniscus. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the position of the tibial tunnel and extrusion of the lateral meniscus after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, where extrusion provides a proxy measure of injury to the anterior root. The relationship between extrusion and tibial tunnel location was retrospectively evaluated from computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of 26 reconstructed knees, contributed by 25 patients aged 17-31 years. A measurement grid was used to localize the position of the tibial tunnel based on anatomical landmarks identified from the three-dimensional reconstruction of axial computed tomography images of the tibial plateaus. The reference point-to-tibial tunnel distance (mm) was defined as the distance from the midpoint of the lateral edge of the grid to the posterolateral aspect of the tunnel aperture. The optimal cutoff of this distance to minimize post-operative extrusion was identified using receiver operating curve analysis. Extrusion of the lateral meniscus was positively correlated to the reference point-to-tibial tunnel distance (r 2  = 0.64; p < 0.001), with a cutoff distance of 5 mm having a sensitivity to extrusion of 83% and specificity of 93%. The mean extrusion for a distance >5 mm was 0.40 ± 0.43 mm, compared to 1.40 ± 0.51 mm for a distance ≤5 mm (p < 0.001). Therefore, a posterolateral location of the tibial tunnel aperture within the footprint of the anterior cruciate ligament decreases the reference point-to-tibial tunnel distance and increases extrusion of the lateral meniscus post-reconstruction. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1625-1633, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Tibial plateau fracture after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: Role of the interference screw resorption in the stress riser effect.

    PubMed

    Thaunat, Mathieu; Nourissat, Geoffroy; Gaudin, Pascal; Beaufils, Philippe

    2006-06-01

    We report a case of tibial plateau fracture after previous anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using patellar tendon autograft and bioabsorbable screws 4 years previously. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel. The interference screw had undergone complete resorption and the tunnel widening had increased. The resorption of the interference screw did not simultaneously promote and foster the growth of surrounding bone tissue. Therefore, the area of reactive tissue left by the screw resorption in an enlarged bone tunnel may lead to vulnerability of the tibial plateau. Stress risers would occur following ACL reconstruction if either resorption is not complete or bony integration is not complete.

  1. Regional fibrocartilage variations in human anterior cruciate ligament tibial insertion: a histological three-dimensional reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Dai, Can; Guo, Lin; Yang, Liu; Wu, Yi; Gou, Jingyue; Li, Bangchun

    2015-02-01

    We studied anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial insertion architecture in humans and investigated regional differences that could suggest unequal force transmission from ligament to bone. ACL tibial insertions were processed histologically. With Photoshop software, digital images taken from the histological slides were collaged, contour lines were drawn, and different gray values were filled based on the structure. The data were exported to Amira software for three-dimensional reconstruction. The uncalcified fibrocartilage (UF) layer was divided into three regions: lateral, medial and posterior according to the architecture. The UF zone was significantly thicker laterally than medially or posteriorly (p < 0.05). Similarly, the calcified fibrocartilage (CF) thickness was significantly greater in the lateral part of the enthesis compared to the medial and posterior parts (p < 0.05). The UF quantity (more UF laterally) corresponding to the CF quantity (more CF laterally) at the ACL tibial insertion provides further evidence suggesting that the load transferred from the ACL to the tibia was greater laterally than medially and posteriorly.

  2. Radiologic assessment of femoral and tibial tunnel placement based on anatomic landmarks in arthroscopic single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Nema, Sandeep Kumar; Balaji, Gopisankar; Akkilagunta, Sujiv; Menon, Jagdish; Poduval, Murali; Patro, Dilip

    2017-01-01

    Background: Accurate tibial and femoral tunnel placement has a significant effect on outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Postoperative radiographs provide a reliable and valid way for the assessment of anatomical tunnel placement after ACLR. The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic location of tibial and femoral tunnels in patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR using anatomic landmarks. Patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR from January 2014 to March 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Materials and Methods: 45 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR, postoperative radiographs were studied. Femoral and tibial tunnel positions on sagittal and coronal radiographic views, graft impingement, and femoral roof angle were measured. Radiological parameters were summarized as mean ± standard deviation and proportions as applicable. Interobserver agreement was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient. Results: The position of the tibial tunnel was found to be at an average of 35.1% ± 7.4% posterior from the anterior edge of the tibia. The femoral tunnel was found at an average of 30% ± 1% anterior to the posterior femoral cortex along the Blumensaat's line. Radiographic impingement was found in 34% of the patients. The roof angle averaged 34.3° ± 4.3°. The position of the tibial tunnel was found at an average of 44.16% ± 3.98% from the medial edge of the tibial plateau. The coronal tibial tunnel angle averaged 67.5° ± 8.9°. The coronal angle of the femoral tunnel averaged 41.9° ± 8.5°. Conclusions: The femoral and tibial tunnel placements correlated well with anatomic landmarks except for radiographic impingement which was present in 34% of the patients. PMID:28566780

  3. Radiologic assessment of femoral and tibial tunnel placement based on anatomic landmarks in arthroscopic single bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Nema, Sandeep Kumar; Balaji, Gopisankar; Akkilagunta, Sujiv; Menon, Jagdish; Poduval, Murali; Patro, Dilip

    2017-01-01

    Accurate tibial and femoral tunnel placement has a significant effect on outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Postoperative radiographs provide a reliable and valid way for the assessment of anatomical tunnel placement after ACLR. The aim of this study was to examine the radiographic location of tibial and femoral tunnels in patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR using anatomic landmarks. Patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR from January 2014 to March 2016 were included in this retrospective cohort study. 45 patients who underwent arthroscopic ACLR, postoperative radiographs were studied. Femoral and tibial tunnel positions on sagittal and coronal radiographic views, graft impingement, and femoral roof angle were measured. Radiological parameters were summarized as mean ± standard deviation and proportions as applicable. Interobserver agreement was measured using intraclass correlation coefficient. The position of the tibial tunnel was found to be at an average of 35.1% ± 7.4% posterior from the anterior edge of the tibia. The femoral tunnel was found at an average of 30% ± 1% anterior to the posterior femoral cortex along the Blumensaat's line. Radiographic impingement was found in 34% of the patients. The roof angle averaged 34.3° ± 4.3°. The position of the tibial tunnel was found at an average of 44.16% ± 3.98% from the medial edge of the tibial plateau. The coronal tibial tunnel angle averaged 67.5° ± 8.9°. The coronal angle of the femoral tunnel averaged 41.9° ± 8.5°. The femoral and tibial tunnel placements correlated well with anatomic landmarks except for radiographic impingement which was present in 34% of the patients.

  4. [ARTHROSCOPIC TREATMENT OF ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TIBIAL EMINENCE AVULSION FRACTURE IN ADOLESCENTS WITH EPIPHYSEAL UNCLOSURE].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Sun, Xuebin; Zhang, Keyuan; Li, Gang; Ni, Jiati

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of arthroscopic treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial eminence avulsion fractures in adolescents with epiphyseal unclosure. Between January 2011 and October 2013, 35 knees with ACL tibial eminence avulsion fractures (35 patients with epiphyseal unclosure) were arthroscopically treated with suture fixation. There were 25 males and 10 females, aged 8-16 years (mean, 14.7 years). The causes included sports injury in 24 cases, traffic accident injury in 9 cases, and daily life injury in 2 cases. According to Meyers-McKeever classification criteria, there were 27 cases of type II and 8 cases of type III. Five cases had meniscus injury. The preoperative the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 48.7 ± 3.2, and Lysholm score was 51.2 ± 4.5. The time from injury to operation was 2-16 days (mean, 5 days). Primary healing of incision was obtained in all patients. The mean follow-up time was 22.4 months (range, 12-32 months). Anatomical reduction was achieved in 28 cases and satisfactory reduction in 7 cases. X-ray films showed all fractures healing at last follow-up. There was no limb shortening deformity, varus knee, or valgus knee. Lachman test results were all negative. The other knees had normal range of motion except 1 knee with limited flexion, whose range of motion returned to 0-120° after treatment. At last follow-up, the IKDC score was significantly improved to 93.2 ± 4.1 (t = -53.442, P = 0.000), and the Lysholm score was significantly increased to 96.2 ± 2.5 (t = -56.242, P = 0.000). The arthroscopic fixation technique has satisfactory results for the reduction and fixation of ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture in the adolescents with epiphyseal unclosure because of little trauma and quick recovery.

  5. The Lateral Meniscus as a Guide to Anatomical Tibial Tunnel Placement During Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kassam, A M; Tillotson, L; Schranz, P J; Mandalia, V I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study is to show, on an MRI scan, that the posterior border of the anterior horn of the lateral meniscus (AHLM) could guide tibial tunnel position in the sagittal plane and provide anatomical graft position. One hundred MRI scans were analysed with normal cruciate ligaments and no evidence of meniscal injury. We measured the distance between the posterior border of the AHLM and the midpoint of the ACL by superimposing sagittal images. The mean distance between the posterior border of the AHLM and the ACL midpoint was -0.1mm (i.e. 0.1mm posterior to the ACL midpoint). The range was 5mm to -4.6mm. The median value was 0.0mm. 95% confidence interval was from -0.5 to 0.3mm. A normal, parametric distribution was observed and Intra- and inter-observer variability showed significant correlation (p<0.05) using Pearsons Correlation test (intra-observer) and Interclass correlation (inter-observer). Using the posterior border of the AHLM is a reproducible and anatomical marker for the midpoint of the ACL footprint in the majority of cases. It can be used intra-operatively as a guide for tibial tunnel insertion and graft placement allowing anatomical reconstruction. There will inevitably be some anatomical variation. Pre-operative MRI assessment of the relationship between AHLM and ACL footprint is advised to improve surgical planning. Level 4.

  6. Proximal tibial fracture following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a biomechanical analysis of the tibial tunnel as a stress riser.

    PubMed

    Aldebeyan, Wassim; Liddell, Antony; Steffen, Thomas; Beckman, Lorne; Martineau, Paul A

    2017-08-01

    This is the first biomechanical study to examine the potential stress riser effect of the tibial tunnel or tunnels after ACL reconstruction surgery. In keeping with literature, the primary hypothesis tested in this study was that the tibial tunnel acts as a stress riser for fracture propagation. Secondary hypotheses were that the stress riser effect increases with the size of the tunnel (8 vs. 10 mm), the orientation of the tunnel [standard (STT) vs. modified transtibial (MTT)], and with the number of tunnels (1 vs. 2). Tibial tunnels simulating both single bundle hamstring graft (8 mm) and bone-patellar tendon-bone graft (10 mm) either STT or MTT position, as well as tunnels simulating double bundle (DB) ACL reconstruction (7, 6 mm), were drilled in fourth-generation saw bones. These five experimental groups and a control group consisting of native saw bones without tunnels were loaded to failure on a Materials Testing System to simulate tibial plateau fracture. There were no statistically significant differences in peak load to failure between any of the groups, including the control group. The fracture occurred through the tibial tunnel in 100 % of the MTT tunnels (8 and 10 mm) and 80 % of the DB tunnels specimens; however, the fractures never (0 %) occurred through the tibial tunnel of the standard tunnels (8 or 10 mm) (P = 0.032). In the biomechanical model, the tibial tunnel does not appear to be a stress riser for fracture propagation, despite suggestions to the contrary in the literature. Use of a standard, more vertical tunnel decreases the risk of ACL graft compromise in the event of a fracture. This may help to inform surgical decision making on ACL reconstruction technique.

  7. The modified tibial tubercle osteotomy for anterior knee pain due to chondromalacia patellae in adults

    PubMed Central

    Jack, C. M.; Rajaratnam, S. S.; Khan, H. O.; Keast-Butler, O.; Butler-Manuel, P. A.; Heatley, F. W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the effectiveness of a modified tibial tubercle osteotomy as a treatment for arthroscopically diagnosed chondromalacia patellae. Methods A total of 47 consecutive patients (51 knees) with arthroscopically proven chondromalacia, who had failed conservative management, underwent a modified Fulkerson tibial tubercle osteotomy. The mean age was 34.4 years (19.6 to 52.2). Pre-operatively, none of the patients exhibited signs of patellar maltracking or instability in association with their anterior knee pain. The minimum follow-up for the study was five years (mean 72.6 months (62 to 118)), with only one patient lost to follow-up. Results A total of 50 knees were reviewed. At final follow-up, the Kujala knee score improved from 39.2 (12 to 63) pre-operatively to 57.7 (16 to 89) post-operatively (p < 0.001). The visual analogue pain score improved from 7.8 (4 to 10) pre-operatively to 5.0 (0 to 10) post-operatively. Overall patient satisfaction with good or excellent results was 72%. Patients with the lowest pre-operative Kujala score benefitted the most. Older patients benefited less than younger ones. The outcome was independent of the grade of chondromalacia. Six patients required screw removal. There were no major complications. Conclusions We conclude that this modification of the Fulkerson procedure is a safe and useful operation to treat anterior knee pain in well aligned patellofemoral joints due to chondromalacia patellae in adults, when conservative measures have failed. PMID:23610687

  8. Scapular kinematic and shoulder muscle activity alterations after serratus anterior muscle fatigue.

    PubMed

    Umehara, Jun; Kusano, Ken; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Nishishita, Satoru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Shimizu, Itsuroh; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2018-02-23

    Although the serratus anterior muscle has an important role in scapular movement, no study to date has investigated the effect of serratus anterior fatigue on scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of serratus anterior fatigue on scapular movement and shoulder muscle activity. The study participants were 16 healthy men. Electrical muscle stimulation was used to fatigue the serratus anterior muscle. Shoulder muscle strength and endurance, scapular movement, and muscle activity were measured before and after the fatigue task. The muscle activity of the serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius, anterior and middle deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles was recorded, and the median power frequency of these muscles was calculated to examine the degree of muscle fatigue. The muscle endurance and median power frequency of the serratus anterior muscle decreased after the fatigue tasks, whereas the muscle activities of the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, and infraspinatus muscles increased. External rotation of the scapula at the shoulder elevated position increased after the fatigue task. Selective serratus anterior fatigue due to electric muscle stimulation decreased the serratus anterior endurance at the flexed shoulder position. Furthermore, the muscle activities of the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, and infraspinatus increased and the scapular external rotation was greater after serratus anterior fatigue. These results suggest that the rotator cuff and scapular muscle compensated to avoid the increase in internal rotation of the scapula caused by the dysfunction of the serratus anterior muscle. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Maryam; Farahmand, Farzam; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Golestanha, Seyed Ali; Rezaeian, Tahmineh; Shirvani Broujeni, Shahram; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Esfandiarpour, Fateme

    2015-07-01

    Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured patients. For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down) and concentric (up) phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL deficient patients during lunge exercise.

  10. Leg Muscle Usage on Tibial Elasticity During Running

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    relative risk of forefoot versus heel- strike running. In summary, there is no evidence in the literature that either study arm is at more risk than...tested in TSF, or even studied in runners. These basic validation studies will determine if modulators of tibial stress, .such as heel- strike mechanics...the other for acute injuries, although it was agreed that forefoot runners will be periodically evaluated for injuries to the Achilles tendon. After

  11. Intravital multiphoton imaging of mouse tibialis anterior muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Jasmine; Goh, Chi Ching; Devi, Sapna; Keeble, Jo; See, Peter; Ginhoux, Florent; Ng, Lai Guan

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intravital imaging by multiphoton microscopy is a powerful tool to gain invaluable insight into tissue biology and function. Here, we provide a step-by-step tissue preparation protocol for imaging the mouse tibialis anterior skeletal muscle. Additionally, we include steps for jugular vein catheterization that allow for well-controlled intravenous reagent delivery. Preparation of the tibialis anterior muscle is minimally invasive, reducing the chances of inducing damage and inflammation prior to imaging. The tibialis anterior muscle is useful for imaging leukocyte interaction with vascular endothelium, and to understand muscle contraction biology. Importantly, this model can be easily adapted to study neuromuscular diseases and myopathies. PMID:28243520

  12. The Role of Fibers in the Femoral Attachment of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament in Resisting Tibial Displacement

    PubMed Central

    Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Takeda, Ryo; Akita, Keiichi; Yasuda, Kazunori; Amis, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to clarify the load-bearing functions of the fibers of the femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) attachment in resisting tibial anterior drawer and rotation. Methods A sequential cutting study was performed on 8 fresh-frozen human knees. The femoral attachment of the ACL was divided into a central area that had dense fibers inserting directly into the femur and anterior and posterior fan-like extension areas. The ACL fibers were cut sequentially from the bone: the posterior fan-like area in 2 stages, the central dense area in 4 stages, and then the anterior fan-like area in 2 stages. Each knee was mounted in a robotic joint testing system that applied tibial anteroposterior 6-mm translations and 10° or 15° of internal rotation at 0° to 90° of flexion. The reduction of restraining force or moment was measured after each cut. Results The central area resisted 82% to 90% of the anterior drawer force; the anterior fan-like area, 2% to 3%; and the posterior fan-like area, 11% to 15%. Among the 4 central areas, most load was carried close to the roof of the intercondylar notch: the anteromedial bundle resisted 66% to 84% of the force and the posterolateral bundle resisted 16% to 9% from 0° to 90° of flexion. There was no clear pattern for tibial internal rotation, with the load shared among the posterodistal and central areas near extension and mostly the central areas in flexion. Conclusions Under the experimental conditions described, 66% to 84% of the resistance to tibial anterior drawer arose from the ACL fibers at the central-proximal area of the femoral attachment, corresponding to the anteromedial bundle; the fan-like extension fibers contributed very little. This work did not support moving a single-bundle ACL graft to the side wall of the notch or attempting to cover the whole attachment area if the intention was to mimic how the natural ACL resists tibial displacements. Clinical Relevance There is ongoing debate about how best

  13. The role of fibers in the femoral attachment of the anterior cruciate ligament in resisting tibial displacement.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Yasuyuki; Kondo, Eiji; Takeda, Ryo; Akita, Keiichi; Yasuda, Kazunori; Amis, Andrew A

    2015-03-01

    The purpose was to clarify the load-bearing functions of the fibers of the femoral anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) attachment in resisting tibial anterior drawer and rotation. A sequential cutting study was performed on 8 fresh-frozen human knees. The femoral attachment of the ACL was divided into a central area that had dense fibers inserting directly into the femur and anterior and posterior fan-like extension areas. The ACL fibers were cut sequentially from the bone: the posterior fan-like area in 2 stages, the central dense area in 4 stages, and then the anterior fan-like area in 2 stages. Each knee was mounted in a robotic joint testing system that applied tibial anteroposterior 6-mm translations and 10° or 15° of internal rotation at 0° to 90° of flexion. The reduction of restraining force or moment was measured after each cut. The central area resisted 82% to 90% of the anterior drawer force; the anterior fan-like area, 2% to 3%; and the posterior fan-like area, 11% to 15%. Among the 4 central areas, most load was carried close to the roof of the intercondylar notch: the anteromedial bundle resisted 66% to 84% of the force and the posterolateral bundle resisted 16% to 9% from 0° to 90° of flexion. There was no clear pattern for tibial internal rotation, with the load shared among the posterodistal and central areas near extension and mostly the central areas in flexion. Under the experimental conditions described, 66% to 84% of the resistance to tibial anterior drawer arose from the ACL fibers at the central-proximal area of the femoral attachment, corresponding to the anteromedial bundle; the fan-like extension fibers contributed very little. This work did not support moving a single-bundle ACL graft to the side wall of the notch or attempting to cover the whole attachment area if the intention was to mimic how the natural ACL resists tibial displacements. There is ongoing debate about how best to reconstruct the ACL to restore normal knee function

  14. [Effects of posterior tibial slope on non-contact anterior cruciate ligament rupture and stability of anterior cruciate ligament rupture knee].

    PubMed

    Yue, De-bo; E, Sen; Wang, Bai-liang; Wang, Wei-guo; Guo, Wan-shou; Zhang, Qi-dong

    2013-05-07

    To retrospectively explore the correlation between anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-ruptured knees, stability of ACL-rupture knee and posterior tibial slope (PTS). From January 2008 to October 2012, 150 knees with ACL rupture underwent arthroscopic surgery for ACL reconstruction. A control group was established for subjects undergoing arthroscopic surgery without ACL rupture during the same period. PTS was measured on a digitalized lateral radiograph. Lachman and mechanized pivot shift tests were performed for assessing the stability of knee. There was significant difference (P = 0.007) in PTS angle between the patients with ACL rupture (9.5 ± 2.2 degrees) and the control group (6.6 ± 1.8 degrees). Only among females, increased slope of tibial plateau had effect on the Lachman test. There was a higher positive rate of pivot shift test in patients of increased posterior slope in the ACL rupture group. Increased posterior tibial slope (>6.6) appears to contribute to non-contact ACL injuries in females. And the changes of tibial slope have no effect upon the Lachman test. However, large changes in tibial slope affect pivot shift.

  15. Early tension loss in an anterior cruciate ligament graft. A cadaver study of four tibial fixation devices.

    PubMed

    Grover, Dustin M; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2005-02-01

    The tensile force applied to an anterior cruciate ligament graft determines the maximal anterior translation; however, it is unknown whether the tensile force is transferred to the intra-articular portion of the graft and whether the intra-articular tension and maximal anterior translation are maintained shortly after ligament reconstruction. Ten cadaveric knees were reconstructed with a double-looped tendon graft. The graft was looped through a femoral fixation transducer that measured the resultant force on the proximal end of the graft. A pneumatic cylinder applied a tensile force of 110 N to the graft exiting the tibial tunnel with the knee in full extension. The graft was fixed sequentially with four tibial fixation devices (a spiked metal washer, double staples, a bioabsorbable interference screw, and a WasherLoc). Three cyclic loading treatments designed to conservatively load the graft and its fixation were applied. The combined loss in intra-articular graft tension from friction, insertion of the tibial fixation device, and three cyclic loading treatments was 50% for the spiked washer (p = 0.0004), 100% for the double staples (p < 0.0001), 64% for the interference screw (p = 0.0001), and 56% for the WasherLoc (p < 0.0001). The tension loss caused an increase in the maximal anterior translation from that of the intact knee of 2.0 mm for the spiked washer (p = 0.005), 7.8 mm for the double staples (p < 0.0001), 2.7 mm for the interference screw (p = 0.001), and 2.1 mm for the WasherLoc (p < 0.0001). The tensile force applied to a soft-tissue anterior cruciate ligament graft is not transferred intra-articularly and is not maintained during graft fixation. The loss in tension is caused by friction in the tibial tunnel and wrapping the graft around the shank of the screw of the spiked washer, insertion of the tibial fixation device, and cyclical loading of the knee. The amount of tension loss is sufficient to increase the maximal anterior translation.

  16. [Tibial press-fit fixation of flexor tendons for reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament].

    PubMed

    Ettinger, M; Liodakis, E; Haasper, C; Hurschler, C; Breitmeier, D; Krettek, C; Jagodzinski, M

    2012-09-01

    Press-fit fixation of hamstring tendon autografts for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction is an interesting technique because no hardware is necessary. This study compares the biomechanical properties of press-fit fixations to an interference screw fixation. Twenty-eight human cadaveric knees were used for hamstring tendon explantation. An additional bone block was harvested from the tibia. We used 28 porcine femora for graft fixation. Constructs were cyclically stretched and then loaded until failure. Maximum load to failure, stiffness and elongation during failure testing and cyclic loading were investigated. The maximum load to failure was 970±83 N for the press-fit tape fixation (T), 572±151 N for the bone bridge fixation (TS), 544±109 N for the interference screw fixation (I), 402±77 N for the press-fit suture fixation (S) and 290±74 N for the bone block fixation technique (F). The T fixation had a significantly better maximum load to failure compared to all other techniques (p<0.001). This study demonstrates that a tibial press-fit technique which uses an additional bone block has better maximum load to failure results compared to a simple interference screw fixation.

  17. Fluoroscopic Analysis of Tibial Translation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injured Knees With and Without Bracing During Forward Lunge

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Maryam; Farahmand, Farzam; Mousavi, Seyed Mohammad Ebrahim; Golestanha, Seyed Ali; Rezaeian, Tahmineh; Shirvani Broujeni, Shahram; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Esfandiarpour, Fateme

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite several studies with different methods, the effect of functional knee braces on knee joint kinematics is not clear. Direct visualization of joint components through medical imaging modalities may provide the clinicians with more useful information. Objectives: In this study, for the first time in the literature, video fluoroscopy was used to investigate the effect of knee bracing on the sagittal plane kinematics of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injured patients. Patients and Methods: For twelve male unilateral ACL deficient subjects, the anterior tibial translation was measured during lunge exercise in non-braced and braced conditions. Fluoroscopic images were acquired from the subjects using a digital fluoroscopy system with a rate of 10 fps. The image of each frame was scaled using a calibration coin and analyzed in AutoCAD environment. The angle between the two lines, tangent to the posterior cortexes of the femoral and tibial shafts was measured as the flexion angle. For the fluoroscopic images associated with 0°, 15°, 30°, 45° and 60° knee flexion angles, the relative anterior-posterior configuration of the tibiofemoral joint was assessed by measuring the position of landmarks on the tibia and femur. Results: Results indicated that the overall anterior translations of the tibia during the eccentric (down) and concentric (up) phases of lunge exercise were 10.4 ± 1.7 mm and 9.0 ± 2.2 mm for non-braced, and 10.1 ± 3.4 mm and 7.4 ± 2.5 mm, for braced conditions, respectively. The difference of the tibial anterior-posterior translation behaviors of the braced and non-braced knees was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Fluoroscopic imaging provides an effective tool to measure the dynamic behavior of the knee joint in the sagittal plane and within the limitations of this study, the pure mechanical stabilizing effect of functional knee bracing is not sufficient to control the anterior tibial translation of the ACL deficient

  18. Does the tibial remnant of the anterior cruciate ligament promote ligamentization?

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Ill; Kim, Byoung Min; Kho, Duk Hwan; Kwon, Sai Won; Kim, Hyeung June; Hwang, Hyun Ryong

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the difference in ligamentization between the remnant-preserving (RP) and remnant-sacrificing (RS) techniques in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A retrospective comparative study was carried out on 98 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction using either an RP (n=56) or RS (n=42) technique. MRI was performed at one of four time points postoperatively, and the signal intensity of the ACL graft was analyzed using the signal to noise quotient (SNQ) ratio and inter-bundle high signal intensity, along with an analysis of the survival rate of remnant tissue. The mean SNQ ratio of grafted tendons in the RP group was significantly higher than that seen in the RS group in the proximal and middle regions two to four months after surgery (P<0.05) and was significantly lower than that seen in the RS group in all regions at 12 -18months (P<0.05). The inter-bundle high signal intensity was observed more frequently in the RP group (73.7%) at two to four months. Tibial remnants were observed on postoperative MRI regardless of when MRI was conducted. The ACL graft of the RP group showed higher signal intensity in the early stage and lower signal intensity in the late stage compared to that of the RS group. The ligamentization of grafts in the RP group proceeded more quickly. Preserving the remnant in ACL reconstruction appears to have a positive effect on ligamentization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A morphologic and quantitative comparison of mechanoreceptors in the tibial remnants of the ruptured human anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Sha, Lin; Xie, Guoming; Zhao, Song; Zhao, Jinzhong

    2017-02-01

    Reconstruction of the ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) does not always result in expected successful outcome. A satisfactory outcome depends not only on the tightness or strength of the graft but also on the quality of proprioceptive restoration. Mechanoreceptors of ACL are supposed to play considerable roles in the proprioceptive feedback system of knee. This study aimed to observe the condition and number of the surviving mechanoreceptors in the tibial remnant of ruptured ACL in human knees.From April 2009 to January 2012, 60 patients with existing free tibial remnants who had undergone arthroscopic ACL reconstruction were enrolled and divided into 4 groups according to the time duration of injury to surgery (Group I: no more than 3 months; Group II: 3 to 6 months; Group III, 6 months to 1 year; Group IV: more than 1 year). Six normal ACL specimens were taken as controls. Specimens were obtained from ACL tibial remnant and stained by the immunohistochemical staining method. The type, size, and quantity of mechanoreceptors were observed under the light microscope. A total of 92 Ruffini-like corpuscles, 9 Pacini-like corpuscles, 5 unclassified neural endings, and free nerve endings were identified via immunohistochemical staining.There were no significant differences in the number of mechanoreceptors in the 5 groups (P = 0.238). Some degenerative changes were observed in Group IV. The results suggest that the residual mechanoreceptors in the ruptured ACL exhibit long-term survival and showed no obvious signs of withering within 1 year.Residual mechanoreceptors do exist in the tibial remnants of ruptured anterior cruciate ligament in human knees and identified clearly by using immunohistochemistry staining. No significant difference was found regarding quantitative variation of the residual mechanoreceptors about the injury duration.

  20. Variation in the shape of the tibial insertion site of the anterior cruciate ligament: classification is required.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Daniel; Irarrázaval, Sebastian; Nishizawa, Yuichiro; Vernacchia, Cara; Thorhauer, Eric; Musahl, Volker; Irrgang, James J; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-08-01

    To propose a classification system for the shape of the tibial insertion site (TIS) of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and to demonstrate the intra- and inter-rater agreement of this system. Due to variation in shape and size, different surgical approaches may be feasible to improve reconstruction of the TIS. One hundred patients with a mean age of 26 ± 11 years were included. The ACL was cut arthroscopically at the base of the tibial insertion site. Arthroscopic images were taken from the lateral and medial portal. Images were de-identified and duplicated. Two blinded observers classified the tibial insertion site according to a classification system. The tibial insertion site was classified as type I (elliptical) in 51 knees (51 %), type II (triangular) in 33 knees (33 %) and type III (C-shaped) in 16 knees (16 %). There was good agreement between raters when viewing the insertion site from the lateral portal (κ = 0.65) as well as from the medial portal (κ = 0.66). Intra-rater reliability was good to excellent. Agreement in the description of the insertion site between the medial and lateral portals was good for rater 1 and good for rater 2 (κ = 0.74 and 0.77, respectively). There is variation in the shape of the ACL TIS. The classification system is a repeatable and reliable tool to summarize the shape of the TIS using three common patterns. For clinical relevance, different shapes may require different types of reconstruction to ensure proper footprint restoration. Consideration of the individual TIS shape is required to prevent iatrogenic damage of adjacent structures like the menisci. III.

  1. Tibial rotation under combined in vivo loading after single- and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tsarouhas, Alexander; Iosifidis, Michael; Spyropoulos, Giannis; Kotzamitelos, Dimitrios; Tsatalas, Themistoklis; Giakas, Giannis

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate in vivo the differences in tibial rotation between single- and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-reconstructed knees under combined loading conditions. An 8-camera optoelectronic system and a force plate were used to collect kinematic and kinetic data from 14 patients with double-bundle ACL reconstruction, 14 patients with single-bundle reconstruction, 12 ACL-deficient subjects, and 12 healthy control individuals while performing 2 tasks. The first included walking, 60° pivoting, and stair ascending, and the second included stair descending, 60° pivoting, and walking. The 2 variables evaluated were the maximum range of internal-external tibial rotation and the maximum knee rotational moment. Tibial rotation angles were not significantly different across the 4 groups (P = .331 and P = .851, respectively) or when side-to-side differences were compared within groups (P = .216 and P = .371, respectively) for the ascending and descending maneuvers, nor were rotational moments among the 4 groups (P = .418 and P = .290, respectively). Similarly, for the descending maneuver, the rotational moments were not significantly different between sides (P = .192). However, for the ascending maneuver, rotational moments of the affected sides were significantly lower by 20.5% and 18.7% compared with their intact counterparts in the single-bundle (P = .015) and double-bundle (P = .05) groups, respectively. High-intensity activities combining stair ascending or descending with pivoting produce similar tibial rotation in single- and double-bundle ACL-reconstructed patients. During such maneuvers, the reconstructed knee may be subjected to significantly lower rotational loads compared with the intact knee. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrical stimulation attenuates morphological alterations and prevents atrophy of the denervated cranial tibial muscle.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Cleuber Rodrigo de Souza; Pereira, Mizael; Favaretto, Idvaldo Aparecido; Bortoluci, Carlos Henrique Fachin; Santos, Thais Caroline Pereira Dos; Dias, Daniel Ventura; Daré, Letícia Rossi; Rosa, Geraldo Marco

    2017-01-01

    To investigate if electrical stimulation through Russian current is able to maintain morphology of the cranial tibial muscle of experimentally denervated rats. Thirty-six Wistar rats were divided into four groups: the Initial Control Group, Final Control Group, Experimental Denervated and Treated Group, Experimental Denervated Group. The electrostimulation was performed with a protocol of Russian current applied three times per week, for 45 days. At the end, the animals were euthanized and histological and morphometric analyses were performed. Data were submitted to statistical analysis with a significance level of p<0.05. The Experimental Denervated Group and the Experimental Denervated and Treated Group had cross-sectional area of smaller fiber compared to the Final Control Group. However, there was significant difference between the Experimental Denervated Group and Experimental Denervated and Treated Group, showing that electrical stimulation minimized muscle atrophy. The Experimental Denervated and Treated Group and Initial Control Group showed similar results. Electrical stimulation through Russian current acted favorably in maintaining morphology of the cranial tibial muscle that was experimentally denervated, minimizing muscle atrophy. Investigar se a estimulação elétrica pela corrente russa é capaz de manter a morfologia do músculo tibial cranial de ratos desnervados experimentalmente. Foram utilizados 36 ratos Wistar, distribuídos em quatro grupos: Grupo Controle Inicial, Grupo Controle Final, Grupo Experimental Desnervado Tratado, Grupo Experimental Desnervado. A eletroestimulação foi realizada com um protocolo de corrente russa aplicada três vezes por semanas, durante 45 dias. Ao final, os animais foram eutanasiados e, em seguida, foram realizadas as análises histológica e morfométrica. Os dados foram submetidos à análise estatística, com nível de significância de p<0,05. Os Grupos Experimental Desnervado e o Grupo Experimental

  3. [Ultrabraid SUTURE WITH FOOTPRINT RIVET FOR ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT TIBIAL EMINENCE AVULSION FRACTURE IN ADOLESCENTS UNDER ARTHROSCOPY].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinying; Zheng, Jiapeng; Ll, Qiang; Zhong, Shuyu; Chen, Minzhen

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the clinical effects of the Ultrabraid suture with FOOTPRINT rivet by arthroscopic technique for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial eminence avulsion fracture. Between May 2011 and December 2013, 19 adolescent patients with ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture were treated with arthroscopic reduction and fixation by Ultrabraid sutures with FOOTPRINT rivet. There were 13 males and 6 females with an average age of 15.8 years (range, 8-18 years). The left knees were involved in 10 cases and the right knees in 9 cases. The injury causes included traffic accident injury in 8 cases, sport injury in 6 cases, and sprain injury in 5 cases. Three patients had old fractures, and the others had fresh fractures. The results of Lachman test and anterior drawer test were both positive. The International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subject score was 54.2 ± 4.0. Based on Meyers-McKeever classification, there were 3 cases of type II, 10 cases of type III, and 6 cases of type IV. The operation time was 50-60 minutes (mean, 55.2 minutes). X-ray film showed satisfactory fracture reduction at 1 day after operation. Primary healing of incision was obtained with no infection. Eighteen patients were followed up for 1-3 years (mean, 1.7 years). All fractures healed with smooth joint surface on the X-ray film at 3 months after operation. The results of Lachman test and anterior drawer test were both negative in 17 cases, and the results was negative for anterior drawer test and was weakly positive for Lachman test in 1 case. The IKDC subject score was significantly improved to 96.1 ± 2.1 at last follow-up (t = 34.600, P = 0.000). It could achieve early restoration of knee joint function to treat the ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture by arthroscopic technique of the Ultrabraid suture with FOOTPRINT rivet because of satisfactory reduction, reliable fixation, small wound, and early rehabilitation.

  4. Action of vanillin (Vanilla planifolia) on the morphology of tibialis anterior and soleus muscles after nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Peretti, Ana Luiza; Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Kunz, Regina Inês; Castor, Lidyane Regina Gomes; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the action of vanillin (Vanilla planifolia) on the morphology of tibialis anterior and soleus muscles after peripheral nerve injury. Wistar rats were divided into four groups, with seven animals each: Control Group, Vanillin Group, Injury Group, and Injury + Vanillin Group. The Injury Group and the Injury + Vanillin Group animals were submitted to nerve injury by compression of the sciatic nerve; the Vanillin Group and Injury + Vanillin Group, were treated daily with oral doses of vanillin (150mg/kg) from the 3rd to the 21st day after induction of nerve injury. At the end of the experiment, the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy and submitted to morphological analysis. The nerve compression promoted morphological changes, typical of denervation, and the treatment with vanillin was responsible for different responses in the studied muscles. For the tibialis anterior, there was an increase in the number of satellite cells, central nuclei and fiber atrophy, as well as fascicular disorganization. In the soleus, only increased vascularization was observed, with no exacerbation of the morphological alterations in the fibers. The treatment with vanillin promoted increase in intramuscular vascularization for the muscles studied, with pro-inflammatory potential for tibialis anterior, but not for soleus muscle. Avaliar a ação da vanilina (Vanilla planifolia) sobre a morfologia dos músculos tibial anterior e sóleo após lesão nervosa periférica. Ratos Wistar foram divididos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada, sendo Grupo Controle, Grupo Vanilina, Grupo Lesão e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina. Os animais dos Grupos Lesão e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina foram submetidos à lesão nervosa por meio da compressão do nervo isquiático, e os Grupos Vanilina e Grupo Lesão + Vanilina foram tratados diariamente com doses orais de vanilina (150mg/kg) do 3o ao 21o dia após a indução da lesão nervosa. Ao término do

  5. Dynamic augmentation restores anterior tibial translation in ACL suture repair: a biomechanical comparison of non-, static and dynamic augmentation techniques.

    PubMed

    Hoogeslag, Roy A G; Brouwer, Reinoud W; Huis In 't Veld, Rianne; Stephen, Joanna M; Amis, Andrew A

    2018-02-03

    There is a lack of objective evidence investigating how previous non-augmented ACL suture repair techniques and contemporary augmentation techniques in ACL suture repair restrain anterior tibial translation (ATT) across the arc of flexion, and after cyclic loading of the knee. The purpose of this work was to test the null hypotheses that there would be no statistically significant difference in ATT after non-, static- and dynamic-augmented ACL suture repair, and they will not restore ATT to normal values across the arc of flexion of the knee after cyclic loading. Eleven human cadaveric knees were mounted in a test rig, and knee kinematics from 0° to 90° of flexion were recorded by use of an optical tracking system. Measurements were recorded without load and with 89-N tibial anterior force. The knees were tested in the following states: ACL-intact, ACL-deficient, non-augmented suture repair, static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation after 10 and 300 loading cycles. Only static tape augmentation and dynamic augmentation restored ATT to values similar to the ACL-intact state directly postoperation, and maintained this after cyclic loading. However, contrary to dynamic augmentation, the ATT after static tape augmentation failed to remain statistically less than for the ACL-deficient state after cyclic loading. Moreover, after cyclic loading, ATT was significantly less with dynamic augmentation when compared to static tape augmentation. In contrast to non-augmented ACL suture repair and static tape augmentation, only dynamic augmentation resulted in restoration of ATT values similar to the ACL-intact knee and decreased ATT values when compared to the ACL-deficient knee immediately post-operation and also after cyclic loading, across the arc of flexion, thus allowing the null hypotheses to be rejected. This may assist healing of the ruptured ACL. Therefore, this study would support further clinical evaluation of dynamic augmentation of ACL repair.

  6. Impact of Isometric Contraction of Anterior Cervical Muscles on Cervical Lordosis.

    PubMed

    Fedorchuk, Curtis A; McCoy, Matthew; Lightstone, Douglas F; Bak, David A; Moser, Jacque; Kubricht, Brett; Packer, John; Walton, Dustin; Binongo, Jose

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the impact of isometric contraction of anterior cervical muscles on cervical lordosis. 29 volunteers were randomly assigned to an anterior head translation (n=15) or anterior head flexion (n=14) group. Resting neutral lateral cervical x-rays were compared to x-rays of sustained isometric contraction of the anterior cervical muscles producing anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. Paired sample t-tests indicate no significant difference between pre and post anterior head translation or anterior head flexion. Analysis of variance suggests that gender and peak force were not associated with change in cervical lordosis. Chamberlain's to atlas plane line angle difference was significantly associated with cervical lordosis difference during anterior head translation (p=0.01). This study shows no evidence that hypertonicity, as seen in muscle spasms, of the muscles responsible for anterior head translation and anterior head flexion have a significant impact on cervical lordosis.

  7. Muscle stiffness of posterior lower leg in runners with a history of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saeki, J; Nakamura, M; Nakao, S; Fujita, K; Yanase, K; Ichihashi, N

    2018-01-01

    Previous history of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is a risk factor for MTSS relapse, which suggests that there might be some physical factors that are related to MTSS development in runners with a history of MTSS. The relationship between MTSS and muscle stiffness can be assessed in a cross-sectional study that measures muscle stiffness in subjects with a history of MTSS, who do not have pain at the time of measurement, and in those without a history of MTSS. The purpose of this study was to compare the shear elastic modulus, which is an index of muscle stiffness, of all posterior lower leg muscles of subjects with a history of MTSS and those with no history and investigate which muscles could be related to MTSS. Twenty-four male collegiate runners (age, 20.0±1.7 years; height, 172.7±4.8 cm; weight, 57.3±3.7 kg) participated in this study; 14 had a history of MTSS, and 10 did not. The shear elastic moduli of the lateral gastrocnemius, medial gastrocnemius, soleus, peroneus longus, peroneus brevis, flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and tibialis posterior were measured using shear wave elastography. The shear elastic moduli of the flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior were significantly higher in subjects with a history of MTSS than in those with no history. However, there was no significant difference in the shear elastic moduli of other muscles. The results of this study suggest that flexor digitorum longus and tibialis posterior stiffness could be related to MTSS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. A descriptive study of potential effect of anterior tibial translation, femoral tunnel and anterior cruciate ligament graft inclination on clinical outcome and degenerative changes.

    PubMed

    Snoj, Žiga; Zupanc, Oskar; Stražar, Klemen; Salapura, Vladka

    2017-04-01

    There is no evidence that anatomically correct anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) offers lower rate of degenerative changes development or that it would lead to a better outcome. The significance and understanding of the abnormal anterior tibial translation (ATT) in ACLR patients is yet to be established. Sixty subjects (40 patients at 5.9 years after ACLR, 20 healthy controls) underwent 3 T MRI. Quantitative cartilage T2 mapping and morphological whole organ magnetic resonance imaging score (WORMS) evaluation was performed. Self-reported questionnaires were used for subjective clinical evaluation. Correlations were calculated with the following MRI measurements; femoral tunnel inclination, ACL graft inclination, lateral and medial compartment ATT. In the ACLR group positive correlation was found between the patellar cartilage T2 values and sagittal ACL graft inclination. In the ACLR group lateral compartment ATT showed negative correlation with ACL graft inclination and subjective clinical evaluation, and positive correlation with morphological degenerative changes. Femoral tunnel showed positive correlation with ACL graft inclination in the same plane. Increased ATT offers worse clinical outcome and increased rate of degenerative changes. Furthermore, ATT is affected by the ACL inclination. Inclination of the drilling tunnel affects ACL graft inclination; thereby independent drilling techniques provide superior results of anatomical ACL graft positioning.

  9. Reconstruction of long digital extensor tendon by cranial tibial muscle fascia graft in a dog.

    PubMed

    Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures.

  10. Reconstruction of long digital extensor tendon by cranial tibial muscle fascia graft in a dog

    PubMed Central

    Sabiza, Soroush; Khajeh, Ahmad; Naddaf, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Tendon rupture in dogs is generally the result of a direct trauma. This report described the use of adjacent muscle autogenic fascial graft for reconstruction of distal rupture of long digital extensor tendon in a dog. A two-year-old male mix breed dog, was presented with a non-weight bearing lameness of the right hind limb and a deep rupture of lateral side of right tarsus. History taking revealed that this rupture appeared without any apparent cause, when walking around the farm, three days before. Radiography was done and no fracture was observed. Hyperextension of right tarsal joint compared to left limb was observed. Under general anesthesia, after dissections of the ruptured area, complete rupture of long digital extensor tendon was revealed. Then, we attempted to locate the edge of the tendon, however, the tendon length was shortened approximately 1 cm. Hence, a strip of 1 cm length from fascia of cranial tibial muscle was harvested to fill the defect. The graft was sutured to the two ends of tendon using locking loop pattern. Subcutaneous layers and the skin were sutured routinely. Ehmer sling bandage was applied to prevent weight bearing on the surgical region. Re-examination and phone contact with the owner eight weeks and six months postoperatively revealed a poor lameness and excellent function of the dog, respectively. It could be concluded that the fascia of adjacent muscles can be used as an autogenic graft for reconstruction of some tendon ruptures. PMID:27872726

  11. Reverse Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Fixation: A Biomechanical Comparison Study of Tibial Cross-Pin and Femoral Interference Screw Fixation.

    PubMed

    Lawley, Richard J; Klein, Samuel E; Chudik, Steven C

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the biomechanical performance of tibial cross-pin (TCP) fixation relative to femoral cross-pin (FCP), femoral interference screw (FIS), and tibial interference screw (TIS) fixation. We randomized 40 porcine specimens (20 tibias and 20 femurs) to TIS fixation (group 1, n = 10), FIS fixation (group 2, n = 10), TCP fixation (group 3, n = 10), or FCP fixation (group 4, n = 10) and performed biomechanical testing to compare ultimate load, stiffness, yield load, cyclic displacement, and load at 5-mm displacement. We performed cross-pin fixation of the looped end and interference screw fixation of the free ends of 9-mm-diameter bovine extensor digitorum communis tendon grafts. Graft fixation constructs were cyclically loaded and then loaded to failure in line with the tunnels. Regarding yield load, FIS was superior to TIS (704 ± 125 N vs 504 ± 118 N, P = .002), TCP was superior to TIS (1,449 ± 265 N vs 504 ± 118 N, P < .001), and TCP was superior to FCP (1,449 ± 265 N vs 792 ± 397 N, P < .001). Cyclic displacement for FCP was superior to TCP. Cyclic displacement for TIS versus FIS showed no statistically significant difference (2.5 ± 1.0 mm vs 2.2 ± 0.6 mm, P = .298). Interference screw fixation consistently failed by graft slippage, whereas TCP fixation failed by tibial bone failure. FCP fixation failed by either femoral bone failure or failure elsewhere in the testing apparatus. Regarding yield load, TCP fixation performed biomechanically superior to the clinically proven FCP at time zero. Because TIS fixation shows the lowest yield strength, it represents the weak link, and combined TCP-FIS fixation theoretically would be biomechanically superior relative to combined FCP-TIS fixation with regard to yield load. Cyclic displacement showed a small difference in favor of FCP over TCP fixation and no difference between TIS and FIS. Time-zero biomechanics of TCP fixation paired with FIS fixation show that this method of fixation can be

  12. The effect of thigh muscle activity on anterior knee laxity in the uninjured and anterior cruciate ligament-injured knee.

    PubMed

    Barcellona, Massimo G; Morrissey, Matthew C; Milligan, Peter; Amis, Andrew A

    2014-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to describe the nature of the relationship between hamstring muscle activity and anterior knee laxity. This was a cross-sectional study. Anterior knee laxity was measured at 133N and manual maximal forces using the KT2000 knee arthrometer, in 8 ACL-injured and 13 uninjured individuals. Electromyographic activity of the lateral hamstrings was measured during laxity testing. Subjects contracted the hamstrings during anterior knee laxity testing at eight predetermined levels of maximal voluntary isometric contraction. Volitional contraction of the lateral hamstrings reduced anterior knee laxity logarithmically for both the 133N and manual maximal tests in both the ACL-injured and uninjured knees. A simple linear regression model, with the log of percentage of maximum lateral hamstrings activity as the sole predictor, explained approximately 70-80% of the variation in anterior knee laxity. Both ACL-injured and uninjured subjects reduced anterior knee laxity at the same rate with increases in muscle activity. However, initial lateral hamstrings muscle activity had a greater effect on percentage anterior knee laxity scores in the ACL-injured as compared to the uninjured knee. Lateral hamstrings activity reduces anterior knee laxity in a nonlinear manner, whereby the initial lower level of activation produces the greatest change in anterior knee laxity. Therefore, hamstrings muscle activity must be monitored during anterior knee laxity testing.

  13. Effect of tibial bone resection on the development of fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles in foetal sheep.

    PubMed

    West, J M; Williams, N A; Luff, A R; Walker, D W

    2000-04-01

    To determine if longitudinal bone growth affects the differentiation of fast- and slow-twitch muscles, the tibial bone was sectioned at 90 days gestation in foetal sheep so that the lower leg was permanently without structural support. At 140 days (term is approximately 147 days) the contractile properties of whole muscles, activation profiles of single fibres and ultrastructure of fast- and slow-twitch muscles from the hindlimbs were studied. The contractile and activation profiles of the slow-twitch soleus muscles were significantly affected by tibial bone resection (TIBX). The soleus muscles from the TIBX hindlimbs showed: (1) a decrease in the time to peak of the twitch responses from 106.2 +/- 10.7 ms (control, n = 4) to 65.1 +/- 2.48 ms (TIBX, n = 5); (2) fatigue profiles more characteristic of those observed in the fast-twitch muscles: and (3) Ca2+ - and Sr2+ -activation profiles of skinned fibres similar to those from intact hindlimbs at earlier stages of gestation. In the FDL, TIBX did not significantly change whole muscle twitch contraction time, the fatigue profile or the Ca2+ - and Sr2+ -activation profiles of skinned fibres. Electron microscopy showed an increased deposition of glycogen in both soleus and FDL muscles. This study shows that the development of the slow-twitch phenotype is impeded in the absence of the physical support normally provided by the tibial bone. We suggest that longitudinal stretch is an important factor in allowing full expression of the slow-twitch phenotype.

  14. Ankle and toe muscle strength characteristics in runners with a history of medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saeki, Junya; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Nakao, Sayaka; Fujita, Kosuke; Yanase, Ko; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2017-01-01

    A high proportion of flexor digitorum longus attachment is found at the posteromedial border of the tibia, which is the most common location of medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS). Therefore, plantar flexion strength of the lesser toes could be related to MTSS; however, the relationship between MTSS and muscle strength of the hallux and lesser toes is not yet evaluated due to the lack of quantitative methods. This study investigated the muscle strength characteristics in runners with a history of MTSS by using a newly developed device to measure the muscle strength of the hallux, lesser toes, and ankle. This study comprised 27 collegiate male runner participants (20.0 ± 1.6 years, 172.1 ± 5.1 cm, 57.5 ± 4.0 kg). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque of the plantar flexion, dorsiflexion, inversion, and eversion of the ankle were measured by using an electric dynamometer. MVIC torque of the 1st metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) and 2nd-5th MTPJ were measured by using a custom-made torque-measuring device. MVIC torques were compared between runners with and without a history of MTSS. MVIC torque of the 1st MTPJ plantar flexion was significantly higher in runners with a history of MTSS than in those without it. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the MVIC torque values of the 2nd-5th MTPJ plantar flexion and each MVIC torque of the ankle between runners with and without a history of MTSS. A history of MTSS increased the isometric FHL strength.

  15. Voluntary run training but not estradiol deficiency alters the tibial bone-soleus muscle functional relationship in mice.

    PubMed

    Warren, Gordon L; Moran, Amy L; Hogan, Harry A; Lin, Angela S; Guldberg, Robert E; Lowe, Dawn A

    2007-11-01

    The study's objective was to investigate how estrogen deficiency and run training affect the tibial bone-soleus muscle functional relationship in mice. Female mice were assigned into one of two surgical conditions, ovariectomy (OVX) or sham ovariectomy (sham), and one of two activity conditions, voluntary wheel running (Run) or sedentary (Sed). To determine whether differences observed between OVX and sham conditions could be attributed to estradiol (E(2)), additional OVX mice were supplemented with E(2). Tibial bones were analyzed for their functional capacities, ultimate load, and stiffness. Soleus muscles were analyzed for their functional capacities, maximal isometric tetanic force (P(o)), and peak eccentric force. The ratios of bone functional capacities to those of muscle were calculated. The bone functional capacities were affected by both surgical condition and activity but more strongly by surgical condition. Ultimate load and stiffness for the sham group were 7-12% greater than those for OVX animals (P = 0.002), whereas only stiffness was greater for Run than for Sed animals (9%; P = 0.015). The muscle functional capacities were affected by both surgical condition and activity; however, in contrast to the bone, the muscle was more affected by activity. P(o) and peak eccentric force were 10-21% greater for Run than for Sed animals (P < or = 0.016), whereas only P(o) was greater in sham than in OVX animals (9%; P = 0.011). The bone-to-muscle ratios of functional capacities were affected by activity but not by surgical condition or E(2) supplementation. Thus a mismatch of bone-muscle function occurred in mice that voluntarily ran on wheels, irrespective of estrogen status.

  16. Technique tip: use of anterior cruciate ligament jig for hindfoot fusion by calcanio-talo-tibial nail.

    PubMed

    Haque, Syed; Sarkar, Jay

    2012-08-01

    The use of intramedullary nail fixation for tibio-talo-calcaneal fusion is gaining popularity. There is chance of failure of procedure following faulty operative technique specially alignment. The article describes a useful application of tibial tunnel jig in inserting the calcanio-talo-tibial guide wire. There is precision of few millimeters in the exit point of guide wire on talus. The authors believe that this helps in better positioning of nail and hence better alignment and better operative outcome.

  17. Assessing the validity of surface electromyography for recording muscle activation patterns from serratus anterior.

    PubMed

    Hackett, Lucien; Reed, Darren; Halaki, Mark; Ginn, Karen A

    2014-04-01

    No direct evidence exists to support the validity of using surface electrodes to record muscle activity from serratus anterior, an important and commonly investigated shoulder muscle. The aims of this study were to determine the validity of examining muscle activation patterns in serratus anterior using surface electromyography and to determine whether intramuscular electromyography is representative of serratus anterior muscle activity. Seven asymptomatic subjects performed dynamic and isometric shoulder flexion, extension, abduction, adduction and dynamic bench press plus tests. Surface electrodes were placed over serratus anterior and around intramuscular electrodes in serratus anterior. Load was ramped during isometric tests from 0% to 100% maximum load and dynamic tests were performed at 70% maximum load. EMG signals were normalised using five standard maximum voluntary contraction tests. Surface electrodes significantly underestimated serratus anterior muscle activity compared with the intramuscular electrodes during dynamic flexion, dynamic abduction, isometric flexion, isometric abduction and bench press plus tests. All other test conditions showed no significant differences including the flexion normalisation test where maximum activation was recorded from both electrode types. Low correlation between signals was recorded using surface and intramuscular electrodes during concentric phases of dynamic abduction and flexion. It is not valid to use surface electromyography to assess muscle activation levels in serratus anterior during isometric exercises where the electrodes are not placed at the angle of testing and dynamic exercises. Intramuscular electrodes are as representative of the serratus anterior muscle activity as surface electrodes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Jung; Lee, Jin-Hyuck; Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001) and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001) lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001). Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees.

  19. Influence of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tear on Thigh Muscle Strength and Hamstring-to-Quadriceps Ratio: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sung-Eun; Park, Min-Ji; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical compensation after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear could cause quadriceps weakness and hamstring activation, preventing anterior tibial subluxation and affecting the expected hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio. Although quadriceps weakness often occurs after ACL tears, it remains unclear whether hamstring strength and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio increase in ACL deficient knees. This meta-analysis compared the isokinetic muscle strength of quadriceps and hamstring muscles, and the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio, of the injured and injured limbs of patients with ACL tears. This meta-analysis included all studies comparing isokinetic thigh muscle strengths and hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in the injured and uninjured legs of patients with ACL tear, without or before surgery. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quadriceps and hamstring strengths were 22.3 N∙m (95% CI: 15.2 to 29.3 N∙m; P<0.001) and 7.4 N∙m (95% CI: 4.3 to 10.5 N∙m; P<0.001) lower, respectively, on the injured than on the uninjured side. The mean hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio was 4% greater in ACL deficient than in uninjured limbs (95% CI: 1.7% to 6.3%; P<0.001). Conclusively, Decreases were observed in both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of patients with ACL tear, with the decrease in quadriceps strength being 3-fold greater. These uneven reductions slightly increase the hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio in ACL deficient knees. PMID:26745808

  20. Area of the tibial insertion site of the anterior cruciate ligament as a predictor for graft size.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Daniel; Irarrázaval, Sebastian; Albers, Marcio; Vernacchia, Cara; Irrgang, James J; Musahl, Volker; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-05-01

    To determine the distribution of different sizes of the area of the tibial insertion site among the population and to evaluate whether preoperative MRI measurements correlate with intraoperative findings to enable preoperative planning of the required graft size to cover the tibial insertion site sufficiently. The hypothesis was that the area of the tibial insertion site varies among individuals and that there is good agreement between MRI and intraoperative measurements. Intraoperative measurements of the tibial insertion site were taken on 117 patients. Three measurements were taken in each plane building a grid to cover the tibial insertion site as closely as possible. The mean of the three measurements in each plane was used for determination of the area. Two orthopaedic surgeons, who were blinded to the intraoperative measurements, took magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements of the area of the tibial insertion site at two different time points. The intraoperative measured mean area was 123.8 ± 21.5 mm 2 . The mean area was 132.8 ± 15.7 mm 2 (rater 1) and 136.7 ± 15.4 mm 2 (rater 2) when determined using MRI. The size of the area was approximately normally distributed. Inter-rater (0.89; 95 % CI 0.84, 0.92; p < 0.001) and intrarater reliability (rater 1: 0.97; 95 % CI 0.95, 0.98; p < 0.001; rater 2: 0.95; 95 % CI 0.92, 0.96; p < 0.001) demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability. There was good agreement between MRI and intraoperative measurement of tibial insertion site area (ICCs rater 1: 0.80; 95 % CI 0.71, 0.87; p < 0.001; rater 2: 0.87; 95 % CI 0.81, 0.91; p < 0.001). The tibial insertion site varies in size and shape. Preoperative determination of the area using MRI is repeatable and enables planning of graft choice and size to optimally cover the tibial insertion site. III.

  1. Unilateral hypoplasia with contralateral hypertrophy of anterior belly of digastric muscle: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Escudero, Martin; Juliano, Amy F

    2016-10-01

    Anomalies of the anterior belly of the digastric muscle (DM) are uncommon. We present a case of hypoplasia of the anterior belly of the left DM with hypertrophy of the anterior belly of the contralateral DM. The importance of recognizing this finding is to differentiate hypoplasia of the anterior belly of the DM from denervation atrophy, and not to confuse contralateral hypertrophy with a submental mass or lymphadenopathy. In denervation atrophy of the anterior belly of the DM, associated atrophy of the ipsilateral mylohyoid muscle is present. Hypertrophy of the anterior belly of the contralateral DM can be differentiated from a submental mass or lymphadenopathy by recognizing its isodensity on computed tomography and isointensity on magnetic resonance imaging to other muscles, without abnormal contrast enhancement.

  2. Morphologic Characteristics and Strength of the Hamstring Muscles Remain Altered at 2 Years After Use of a Hamstring Tendon Graft in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Konrath, Jason M; Vertullo, Christopher J; Kennedy, Ben A; Bush, Hamish S; Barrett, Rod S; Lloyd, David G

    2016-10-01

    The hamstring tendon graft used in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has been shown to lead to changes to the semitendinosus and gracilis musculature. We hypothesized that (1) loss of donor muscle size would significantly correlate with knee muscle strength deficits, (2) loss of donor muscle size would be greater for muscles that do not experience tendon regeneration, and (3) morphological adaptations would also be evident in nondonor knee muscles. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. Twenty participants (14 men and 6 women, mean age 29 ± 7 years, mean body mass 82 ± 15 kg) who had undergone an ACL reconstruction with a hamstring tendon graft at least 2 years previously underwent bilateral magnetic resonance imaging and subsequent strength testing. Muscle and tendon volumes, peak cross-sectional areas (CSAs), and lengths were determined for 12 muscles and 6 functional muscle groups of the surgical and contralateral limbs. Peak isokinetic concentric strength was measured in knee flexion/extension and internal/external tibial rotation. Only 35% of the patients showed regeneration of both the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons. The regenerated tendons were longer with larger volume and CSA compared with the contralateral side. Deficits in semitendinosus and gracilis muscle size were greater for muscles in which tendons did not regenerate. In addition, combined hamstring muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris) and combined medial knee muscles (semitendinosus, semimembranosus, gracilis, vastus medialis, medial gastrocnemius, and sartorius) on the surgical side were reduced in volume by 12% and 10%, respectively. A 7% larger volume was observed in the surgical limb for the biceps femoris muscle and corresponded with a lower internal/external tibial rotation strength ratio. The difference in volume, peak CSA, and length of the semitendinosus and gracilis correlated significantly with the deficit in knee flexion strength, with

  3. Morphological and molecular comparisons between tibialis anterior muscle and levator veli palatini muscle: A preliminary study on their augmentation potential.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xu; Song, Lei; Lan, Min; Shi, Bing; Li, Jingtao

    2018-01-01

    Tibialis anterior (TA) muscle and other somite-derived limb muscles remain the prototype in skeletal muscle study. The majority of head muscles, however, develop from branchial arches and maintain a number of heterogeneities in comparison with their limb counterparts. Levator veli palatini (LVP) muscle is a deep-located head muscle responsible for breathing, swallowing and speech, and is central to cleft palate surgery, yet lacks morphological and molecular investigation. In the present study, multiscale in vivo analyses were performed to compare TA and LVP muscle in terms of their myofiber composition, in-situ stem cell population and augmentation potential. TA muscle was identified to be primarily composed of type 2B myofibers while LVP muscle primarily consisted of type 2A and 2X myofibers. In addition, LVP muscle maintained a higher percentage of centrally-nucleated myofibers and a greater population of satellite cells. Notably, TA and LVP muscle responded to exogenous Wnt7a stimulus in different ways. Three weeks after Wnt7a administration, TA muscle exhibited an increase in myofiber number and a decrease in myofiber size, while LVP muscle demonstrated no significant changes in myofiber number or myofiber size. These results suggested that LVP muscle exhibits obvious differences in comparison with TA muscle. Therefore, knowledge acquired from TA muscle studies requires further testing before being applied to LVP muscle.

  4. Bracing can partially limit tibial rotation during stressful activities after anterior crucial ligament reconstruction with a hamstring graft.

    PubMed

    Giotis, D; Paschos, N K; Zampeli, F; Pappas, E; Mitsionis, G; Georgoulis, A D

    2016-09-01

    Hamstring graft has substantial differences with BPTB graft regarding initial mechanical strength, healing sequence, and vascularization, which may imply that a different approach during rehabilitation period is required. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of knee bracing on tibial rotation in ACL-reconstructed patients with a hamstring autograft during high loading activities. The hypothesis was that there would be a decrease in tibial rotation in the ACL-reconstructed braced knee as compared to the unbraced knee. Twenty male patients having undergone unilateral ACL reconstruction with a semitendinosus/gracilis autograft were assessed. Kinematic data were collected with an eight-camera optoelectronic system during two stressful tasks: (1) descending from a stair and subsequent pivoting; and (2) landing from a platform and subsequent pivoting. In each patient, three different experimental conditions were evaluated: (A) wearing a prophylactic brace (braced condition); (B) wearing a patellofemoral brace (sleeved condition); (C) without brace (unbraced condition). The intact knee without brace served as a control. Tibial rotation was significantly lower in the intact knee compared to all three conditions of the ACL-reconstructed knee (P≤0.01 for both tasks). Presence of a brace or sleeve resulted in lower tibial rotation than in the unbraced condition (p=0.003 for descending/pivot and P=0.0004 for landing/pivot). The braced condition resulted in lower rotation than the sleeved condition for descending/pivoting (P=0.031) while no differences were found for landing/pivoting (P=0.230). Knee bracing limited the excessive tibial rotation during pivoting under high loading activities in ACL-reconstructed knees with a hamstring graft. This partial restoration of normal kinematics may have a potential beneficial effect in patients recovering from ACL reconstruction with a hamstring autograft. Level III, case-control therapeutic study. Copyright

  5. [Effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment of anterior cruciate ligament tibial eminence avulsion fracture with non-absorbable suture fixation combined with mini-plate].

    PubMed

    Wang, Suiyuan; Xiao, Yang; Tong, Zuoming; Li, Guiqiu; Jiang, Juhua; Yao, Jinghui; Wu, Zhiyong; Li, Tengfei; Wu, Qun

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the surgical techniques and effectiveness of arthroscopic treatment of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tibial eminence avulsion fracture with non-absorbable suture fixation combined with the miniplate. Between January 2009 and March 2012, 32 patients with ACL tibial eminence avulsion fractures were treated. There were 18 males and 14 females, aged 12-40 years (mean, 17.5 years). The injury causes included traffic accident injury in 15 cases, sport injury in 6 cases, and falling injury in 11 cases. The time from injury to operation ranged 7-18 days with an average of 9.5 days. Before operation, the results of Lachman test were all positive; the Lysholm score was 52.13 +/- 4.22 and the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score was 44.82 +/- 2.44. According to Meyers-McKeever classification criteria, there were 12 cases of type II and 20 cases of type III. After arthroscopic poking reduction of fracture, tibial eminence avulsion fractures were fixed with the Ethibond non-absorbable sutures bypass figure-of-eight tibial tunnel combined with the metacarpal and phalangeal mini-plate. Primary healing was obtained in all incisions; no joint infection or skin necrosis occurred after operation. All patients were followed up with an average time of 22.4 months (range, 12-50 months). The patients showed negative Lachman test at 12 weeks after operation. Except 3 patients having knee extension limitation at last follow-up, the knee extension range of motion (ROM) was normal in the other patients; the knee flexion ROM was normal in all patients. The Lysholm score and IKDC score were significantly improved to 94.19 +/- 0.93 and 94.35 +/- 1.22 at last follow-up, showing significant differences when compared with preoperative values (t = 55.080, P = 0.000; t = 101.715, P = 0.000). The arthroscopic treatment of ACL tibial eminence avulsion fracture with Ethibond non-absorbable suture fixation combined with mini-plate is an effective procedure with the

  6. Influence of knee flexion and atraumatic mobilisation of infrapatellar fat pad on incidence and severity of anterior knee pain after tibial nailing.

    PubMed

    Jankovic, Andrija; Korac, Zelimir; Bozic, Nenad-Bozo; Stedul, Ivan

    2013-09-01

    We evaluated the incidence and aetiology of anterior knee pain (AKP) in a series of patients that underwent intramedullary nailing for stabilisation of tibial fractures. During the preparation of the entry site no excision of the infrapatellar fat was allowed and electrical haemostasis was kept at the lowest level. Medullary canal was reamed and the nails inserted in position of knee flexion over 100 degrees. All fractures were fixed using medial paratendinous approach. Functional outcome was measured using Lysholm knee score. The knee range of movement and return to previous level of activity were also documented and analysed. Mean follow up was 38.9 months (range 12-84 months). In total 60 patients with 62 tibial shaft fractures were analysed. The mean age at the time of final follow up was 49.4 years (range 20-87). In 22 (35.5%) a newly developed and persisting pain in the anterior region of the operated knee was reported. According to VAP scale, the pain was mild (VAS 1-3) in 12 cases (19.4%) and moderate (VAS 4-6) in 10 (16.1%). In 16 cases (73%) the pain was noticed 6-12 months after injury and subjectively related to return to full range of working and recreational activities. The mean Lysholm knee score in the group without AKP was 90.8. In the AKP group with mild pain it was 88.4 and in the group with moderate AKP it was 79.9. Complete return to previous professional and recreational activities occurred in 49/60 patients (81.7%). Content with the treatment regarding expectations in recovery dynamics and return to desired level of activity was present in 98.3% of patients; one patient was unsatisfied with the treatment. Our results indicate that respecting the physiological motion of Hoffa pad and menisci during knee flexion, accompanied with atraumatic mobilisation of retrotendinous fat, reduces incidence and severity of anterior knee pain following intramedullary fixation of tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Spontaneous patella fracture associated with anterior tibial tubercle pseudarthrosis in a revised knee replacement following knee Arthrodesis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conversion of a knee arthrodesis to a Total Knee Arthroplasty is an uncommon procedure. Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty in this setting presents the surgeon with a number of challenges including the management of the extensor mechanism and patella. Case presentation We describe a unique case of a 69 years old Caucasian man who underwent a revision Total Knee Arthroplasty using a tibial tubercle osteotomy after a previous conversion of a knee arthrodesis without patella resurfacing. Unfortunately 9 months following surgery a tibial tubercle pseudarthrosis and spontaneous patella fracture occurred. Both were managed with open reduction and internal fixation. At 30 months follow-up the tibial tubercle osteotomy had completely consolidated while the patella fracture was still evident but with no signs of further displacement. The patient was completely satisfied with the outcome and had a painless range of knee flexion between 0-95°. Conclusions We believe that patients undergoing this type of surgery require careful counseling regarding the risk of complications both during and after surgery despite strong evidence supporting improved functional outcomes. PMID:24195600

  8. The modified tibial tubercle osteotomy for anterior knee pain due to chondromalacia patellae in adults: A five-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Jack, C M; Rajaratnam, S S; Khan, H O; Keast-Butler, O; Butler-Manuel, P A; Heatley, F W

    2012-08-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a modified tibial tubercle osteotomy as a treatment for arthroscopically diagnosed chondromalacia patellae. A total of 47 consecutive patients (51 knees) with arthroscopically proven chondromalacia, who had failed conservative management, underwent a modified Fulkerson tibial tubercle osteotomy. The mean age was 34.4 years (19.6 to 52.2). Pre-operatively, none of the patients exhibited signs of patellar maltracking or instability in association with their anterior knee pain. The minimum follow-up for the study was five years (mean 72.6 months (62 to 118)), with only one patient lost to follow-up. A total of 50 knees were reviewed. At final follow-up, the Kujala knee score improved from 39.2 (12 to 63) pre-operatively to 57.7 (16 to 89) post-operatively (p < 0.001). The visual analogue pain score improved from 7.8 (4 to 10) pre-operatively to 5.0 (0 to 10) post-operatively. Overall patient satisfaction with good or excellent results was 72%. Patients with the lowest pre-operative Kujala score benefitted the most. Older patients benefited less than younger ones. The outcome was independent of the grade of chondromalacia. Six patients required screw removal. There were no major complications. We conclude that this modification of the Fulkerson procedure is a safe and useful operation to treat anterior knee pain in well aligned patellofemoral joints due to chondromalacia patellae in adults, when conservative measures have failed.

  9. Innervation of the anterior byssal retractor muscle in Mytilus edulis L. II. Ultrastructure of the glio-interstitial cells.

    PubMed

    Gilloteaux, J

    1975-08-27

    Studies on the intrinsic innervation of the anterior byssal retractor muscle (ABRM) in Mytilus edulis L. were continued at the ultrastructural level. Electron micrographs show nerve processes ensheathed by glio-interstitial cells running between muscle fibers. The glio-interstitial cells may represent all the types of osmiophilic cells previously described by the light microscopic ZIO technique in the anterior byssal retractor muscle.

  10. Measurement of the end-to-end distances between the femoral and tibial insertion sites of the anterior cruciate ligament during knee flexion and with rotational torque.

    PubMed

    Wang, Joon Ho; Kato, Yuki; Ingham, Sheila J M; Maeyama, Akira; Linde-Rosen, Monica; Smolinski, Patrick; Fu, Freddie H

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the end-to-end distance changes in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) fibers during flexion/extension and internal/external rotation of the knee. The positional relation between the femur and tibia of 10 knees was digitized on a robotic system during flexion/extension and with an internal/external rotational torque (5 Nm). The ACL insertion site data, acquired by 3-dimensional scanning, were superimposed on the positional data. The end-to-end distances of 5 representative points on the femoral and tibial insertion sites of the ACL were calculated. The end-to-end distances of all representative points except the most anterior points were longest at full extension and shortest at 90°. The distances of the anteromedial (AM) and posterolateral (PL) bundles were 37.2 ± 2.1 mm and 27.5 ± 2.8 mm, respectively, at full extension and 34.7 ± 2.4 mm and 20.7 ± 2.3 mm, respectively, at 90°. Only 4 knees had an isometric point, which was 1 of the 3 anterior points. Under an internal torque, both bundles became longer with statistical meaning at all flexion angles (P = .005). The end-to-end distances of all points became longest with internal torque at full extension and shortest with an external torque at 90°. Only 4 of 10 specimens had an isometric point at a variable anterior point. The end-to-end distances of the AM and PL bundles were longer in extension and shorter in flexion. The nonisometric tendency of the ACL and the end-to-end distance change during knee flexion/extension and internal/external rotation should be considered during ACL reconstruction to avoid overconstraint of the graft. Copyright © 2012 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fiber types of the anterior and lateral cervical muscles in elderly males.

    PubMed

    Cornwall, Jon; Kennedy, Ewan

    2015-09-01

    The anterior and lateral cervical muscles (ALCM) are generally considered to be postural, yet few studies have investigated ALCM fiber types to help clarify the function of these muscles. This study aimed to systematically investigate ALCM fiber types in cadavers. Anterior and lateral cervical muscles (four scalenus anterior, medius, posterior muscles; five longus colli, five longus capitis taken bilaterally from one cadaver) were removed from four male embalmed cadavers (mean age 87.25 years). Paraffin-embedded specimens were sectioned then stained immunohistochemically to identify type I and II skeletal muscle fibers. Proportional fiber type numbers and cross-sectional area (CSA) occupied by fiber types were determined using stereology (random systematic sampling). Results were analyzed using ANOVA (P < 0.05) and descriptive statistics. Scalenus anterior had the greatest average number and CSA of type I fibers (71.9 and 83.7%, respectively); longus capitis had the lowest number (48.5%) and CSA (61.4%). All scalene muscles had significantly greater type I CSA than longus capitis and longus colli; scalenus anterior and medius had significantly greater type I numbers than longus capitis and longus colli. Some significant differences were observed between individual cadavers in longus colli for CSA, and longus capitis for number. The ALCM do not share a common functional fiber type distribution, although similar fiber type distributions are shared by longus colli and longus capitis, and by the scalene muscles. Contrary to conventional descriptions, longus colli and longus capitis have type I fiber proportions indicative of postural as well as phasic muscle function.

  12. Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome: Muscles Located at the Site of Pain

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ato Ampomah

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the location of the MTSS pain (posteromedial border of tibia) and the muscles that originate from that site. Method. The study was conducted in the Department of Anatomy of the School of Medical Sciences, University of Cape Coast, and involved the use of 22 cadaveric legs (9 paired and 4 unpaired) from 11 males and 2 females. Findings. The structures that were thus observed to attach directly to the posteromedial border of the tibia were the soleus, the flexor digitorum longus, and the deep crural fascia. The soleus and flexor digitorum longus muscles were observed to attach directly to the posteromedial border of the tibia. The tibialis posterior muscle had no attachment to this site. Conclusion. The findings of this study suggest that if traction is the cause of MTSS then soleus and the flexor digitorum muscles and not the tibialis posterior muscle are the likely cause of MTSS. PMID:27066291

  13. Comparison of Bioabsorbable Interference Screws Composed of Poly-l-lactic Acid and Hydroxyapatite (PLLA-HA) to WasherLoc Tibial Fixation in Patients After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction of the Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Patkowski, Mateusz; Królikowska, Aleksandra; Reichert, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    The reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee joint is a standard in ACL complete rupture treatment in athletes. One of the weakest points of this procedure is tibial fixation of grafts. The aim was, firstly, to evaluate patients 3-4 years after primary ACL reconstruction with the use of autologous ipsilateral STGR grafts and with tibial fixation using a bioabsorbable interference screw composed of PLLA-HA or WasherLoc, comparing the postoperative result to the preoperative condition and, secondly, to compare the results between the two groups of patients with different tibial fixation. Group I consisted of 20 patients with a bioabsorbable interference screw composed of PLLA-HA tibial fixation. In Group II, there were 22 patients after ACL reconstruction with the use of WasherLoc tibial fixation. The Lachman test, pivot-shift test, Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale and 2000 International Knee Documentation Committee (2000 IKDC) Subjective Knee Evaluation Form were used to evaluate the results. The intra-group comparison of the results of the 2000 IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Form and Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale obtained in the groups studied showed statistically significant differences between the evaluation performed preoperatively and postoperatively. The inter-group comparison of the results of the 2000 IKDC Subjective Knee Evaluation Form and Lysholm Knee Scoring Scale obtained postoperatively showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. An evaluation 3-4 years after ACL reconstruction with the use of autologous ipsilateral STGR grafts demonstrated significant progress from the preoperative condition to the postoperative result in patients with tibial fixation using a bioabsorbable interference screw composed of PLLA-HA as well as in patients with WasherLoc tibial fixation. There were no differences found between the two groups of patients after ACL reconstruction in terms of manual stability testing or a

  14. Function of transected or avulsed rectus muscles following recovery using an anterior orbitotomy approach.

    PubMed

    Pineles, Stacy L; Laursen, Jessica; Goldberg, Robert A; Demer, Joseph L; Velez, Federico G

    2012-08-01

    To assess the function of muscles retrieved from a retrobulbar location using an anterior orbitotomy approach and to identify the prognostic factors favoring a good outcome. The records of all patients undergoing anterior orbitotomy for the retrieval of a transected or avulsed muscle in a retrobulbar location were reviewed. Ocular motility, before and after retrieval (with ductions scaled from -4 to +4), was evaluated. Record review identified 11 patients who had suffered trauma to 12 muscles (5 inferior, 6 medial, and 1 lateral rectus muscle). Ductions improved from -4 ± 0.4 preoperatively to -2.7 ± 0.9 postoperatively (P = 0.002); mean primary position deviation improved from 34(Δ) ± 14(Δ)-15(Δ) ± 9(Δ) (P < 0.001), and mean deviation in the field of action improved from 47(Δ) ± 20(Δ)-20(Δ) ± 22(Δ) (P = 0.02). Ductions improved by at least two units in three patients, all of whom had medial rectus trauma. Single binocular vision in primary gaze was achieved in 6 patients. Patients with medial rectus muscle injury and patients injured by sinus surgery had the lowest likelihood of recovering single binocular vision. Our results are similar to historical series in which muscles were not retrieved and transpositions performed; however, muscle retrieval avoids risks associated with transposition surgeries such as anterior segment ischemia. Muscle recovery via the anterior orbitotomy approach may be reasonable to consider in those cases with a reasonable possibility of having active force generation postoperatively. Copyright © 2012 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Selective contribution of each hamstring muscle to anterior cruciate ligament protection and tibiofemoral joint stability in leg-extension exercise: a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Botti, Fabio Massimo; Pettorossi, Vito Enrico

    2013-09-01

    A biomechanical model was developed to simulate the selective effect of the co-contraction force provided by each hamstring muscle on the shear and compressive tibiofemoral joint reaction forces, during open kinetic-chain knee-extension exercises. This model accounts for instantaneous values of knee flexion angle [Formula: see text], angular velocity and acceleration, and for changes in magnitude, orientation, and application point of external resistance. The tibiofemoral shear force (TFSF) largely determines the tensile force on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Biceps femoris is the most effective hamstring muscle in decreasing the ACL-loading TFSF developed by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. In this range, the semimembranosus generates the dominant tibiofemoral compressive force, which enhances joint stability, opposes anterior/posterior tibial translations, and protects cruciate ligaments. The semitendinosus force provides the greatest decreasing gradient of ACL-loading TFSF for [Formula: see text], and the greatest increasing gradient of tibiofemoral compressive force for [Formula: see text]. However, semitendinosus efficacy is strongly limited by its small physiological section. Hamstring muscles behave as a unique muscle in enhancing the PCL-loading TFSF produced by quadriceps contractions for [Formula: see text]. The levels of hamstrings co-activation that suppress the ACL-loading TFSF considerably shift when the knee angular acceleration is changed while maintaining the same level of knee extensor torque by a concurrent adjustment in the magnitude of external resistance. The knowledge of the specific role and the optimal activation level of each hamstring muscle in ACL protection and tibiofemoral stability are fundamental for planning safe and effective rehabilitative knee-extension exercises.

  16. Intramuscular Electrical Stimulation for Muscle Activation of the Tibialis Anterior After Surgical Repair: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Hollis, Sharon; McClure, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Background Loss of voluntary activation of musculature can result in muscle weakness. External neuromuscular stimulation can be utilized to improve voluntary activation but is often poorly tolerated because of pain associated with required stimulus level. Intramuscular electrical stimulation requires much lower voltage and may be better tolerated, and therefore more effective at restoring voluntary muscle activation. Case Description A 71-year-old man sustained a rupture of the distal attachment of the tibialis anterior tendon. Thirty-two weeks after surgical repair, there was no palpable or visible tension development in the muscle belly or tendon. Dorsiflexion was dependent on toe extensors. Electrical stimulation applied via a dry needling placement in the muscle belly was utilized to induce an isometric contraction. Outcomes Five sessions of intramuscular electrical stimulation were delivered. By day 4 (second visit), the patient was able to dorsiflex without prominent use of the extensor hallucis longus. By day 6 (third visit), active-range-of-motion dorsiflexion with toes flexed increased 20° (-10° to 10°). Eighteen days after the initial treatment, the patient walked without his previous high-step gait pattern, and the tibialis anterior muscle test improved to withstanding moderate resistance (manual muscle test score, 4/5). Discussion The rapid change in muscle function observed suggests that intramuscular electrical stimulation may facilitate voluntary muscle activation. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 5. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(12):965-969. Epub 15 Oct 2017. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.7368.

  17. Tibial tunnel defect size as a risk factor in growth arrest following paediatric transphyseal anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: an anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Pananwala, Hasitha; Jabbar, Yaser; Mills, Leonora; Symes, Michael; Nandapalan, Haren; Sefton, Andrew; Delungahawatte, Lasitha; Dao, Quang

    2016-09-01

    There is ongoing controversy regarding growth disturbances in younger patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Animal models have shown that an injury of 7-9% of the physeal area is a risk factor for growth disturbances. A total of 39 magnetic resonance imaging studies of the knee were examined. The proximal tibial physeal area was determined using a calibrated 'region of interest' ligature encompassing the tibial physis in the axial plane. The potential defect left by commonly used drill sizes was calculated as a percentage of the physeal area. A 7-mm drill leaves a mean defect of 1.45% physeal area (range: 1.11-1.89%, SD: 0.28, 95% CI: ±0.09), 8-mm drill leaves a 1.84% mean defect (range: 1.43-2.49%, SD: 0.38, 95% CI: ±0.12) and a 9-mm drill leaves a 2.30% mean defect (range: 1.83-3.19%, SD: 0.58, 95% CI: ±0.17). At 55°, 7-mm drill leaves a mean defect of 1.96% (range: 1.32-2.28%, SD: 0.37, 95% CI: ±0.12), 8-mm drill leaves a mean defect of 2.19% (range: 1.71-2.95%, SD: 0.46, 95% CI: ±0.14) and a 9-mm drill leaves a mean defect of 2.76% (range: 2.16-3.73%, SD: 0.58, 95% CI: ±0.18). There was a statistically significant difference in the tunnel area with a change of drill angle (7-mm drill P = 0.005, 8-mm drill P = 0.001, 9-mm drill P = 0.001). On the basis of this study in the context of animal model and observational evidence, the area of physeal injury using drill tunnels for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction would not appear to contribute to potential growth disturbances. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. Ultrasound Imaging of Muscle Contraction of the Tibialis Anterior in Patients with Facioscapulohumeral Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gijsbertse, Kaj; Goselink, Rianne; Lassche, Saskia; Nillesen, Maartje; Sprengers, André; Verdonschot, Nico; van Alfen, Nens; de Korte, Chris

    2017-11-01

    A need exists for biomarkers to diagnose, quantify and longitudinally follow facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) and many other neuromuscular disorders. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to muscle weakness in most neuromuscular disorders are not completely understood. Dynamic ultrasound imaging (B-mode image sequences) in combination with speckle tracking is an easy, applicable and patient-friendly imaging tool to visualize and quantify muscle deformation. This dynamic information provides insight in the pathophysiological mechanisms and may help to distinguish the various stages of diseased muscle in FSHD. In this proof-of-principle study, we applied a speckle tracking technique to 2-D ultrasound image sequences to quantify the deformation of the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with FSHD and in healthy controls. The resulting deformation patterns were compared with muscle ultrasound echo intensity analysis (a measure of fat infiltration and dystrophy) and clinical outcome measures. Of the four FSHD patients, two patients had severe peroneal weakness and two patients had mild peroneal weakness on clinical examination. We found a markedly varied muscle deformation pattern between these groups: patients with severe peroneal weakness showed a different motion pattern of the tibialis anterior, with overall less displacement of the central tendon region, while healthy patients showed a non-uniform displacement pattern, with the central aponeurosis showing the largest displacement. Hence, dynamic muscle ultrasound of the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with FSHD revealed a distinctively different tissue deformation pattern among persons with and without tibialis anterior weakness. These findings could clarify the understanding of the pathophysiology of muscle weakness in FSHD patients. In addition, the change in muscle deformation shows good correlation with clinical measures and quantitative muscle ultrasound measurements. In

  19. The effect of plate position and size on tibial slope in high tibial osteotomy: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Rubino, L Joseph; Schoderbek, Robert J; Golish, S Raymond; Baumfeld, Joshua; Miller, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    Opening wedge high tibial osteotomies are performed for degenerative changes and varus. Opening wedge osteotomies can change proximal tibial slope in the sagittal plane, possibly imparting stability in the ACL-deficient knee. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of plate position and size on change in tibial slope. Eight cadaveric knees underwent opening wedge high tibial osteotomy with Puddu plates of each different size. Plates were placed anterior, central, and posterior for each size used. Lateral radiographs were obtained. Tibial slope was measured and compared with baseline slope. Tibial slope was affected by plate position (P < 0.05) and size (P < 0.001). Smaller, posterior plates had less effect on tibial slope. However, anterior and central plates increased tibial slope over all plate sizes (P < 0.05). This study found that tibial slope increases with opening wedge high tibial osteotomy. Larger corrections and anterior placement of the plate are associated with larger increases in slope.

  20. Fiber number and size in overloaded chicken anterior latissimus dorsi muscle.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, P D; Parsons, D; Riedy, M; Moore, R L

    1983-05-01

    The relative contribution of increases in fiber area and number was evaluated in the chicken anterior latissimus dorsi (ALD) muscle in which enlargement was induced by hanging a weight on one wing. ALD muscles from wings to which weights had been attached for periods ranging from 6 to 65 days weighed an average of 105% (range 22-225%) more than control muscles. Total muscle fiber number, determined by direct counts after nitric acid digestion and fiber dissection, and the frequency of branched fibers were unchanged by muscular enlargement. Fiber cross-sectional area was greater (P less than 0.01) in the enlarged muscles. A close relationship existed (r = 0.78) between actual muscle weight and weight calculated as the product of fiber volume, total fiber number, and muscle density for the control and enlarged muscles. Histochemical staining revealed a conversion of type IIa to type I fibers in the stretched muscles. These results support the concept that skeletal muscle enlargement in response to chronic overload is produced by hypertrophy of preexisting fibers and not be a formation of new fibers.

  1. Relative changes with contraction in the central excitability state of the tibialis anterior and calf muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, M A

    1980-01-01

    F responses were recorded from the surface of the tibialis muscle and medial aspect of the soleus muscle in 14 normal subjects. The persistence (that is the fraction of measurable F responses found with a series of supramaximal stimuli) and average F amplitudes (measured peak-to-peak and based on at least five F responses) were determined both at rest and with isometric contraction with the ankle maintained at 90 degrees. Although the persistence at rest was significantly less in the tibialis anterior soleus than the (p less than 0.001), no significant difference was found with the muscles contracted. This was associated with a significant increase in both average F amplitudes and average F amplitude/direct motor response ratios in the tibialis anterior in comparison to the soleus. In four of the subjects, studies were also performed when the H reflex in the soleus muscle was eliminated by thigh compression. Comparable changes in both F response persistence and average F amplitude were found with and without an H reflex. These data indicate that, in contrast to the situation at rest, with isometric contraction the "central excitatory state" of the tibialis anterior is at least as great as in its antagonist antigravity muscles and that this is not due simply to increased large fiber reflex input associated with agonist contraction. PMID:7373321

  2. Implications of Anomalous Pectoralis Muscle in Reconstructive Breast Surgery: The Oblique Pectoralis Anterior

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Katherine Marie; Boyd, Travis Guthrie; Quillo, Amy R; Wilhelmi, Bradon J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Many case reports have described anatomical variants of the pectoralis muscles. However, there is a paucity of published literature on the consequence of such presentations in reconstructive breast surgery. Methods: A 45-year-old female patient with breast cancer presented for left mastectomy and immediate reconstruction with tissue expander. During mastectomy, she was noted to have an extra muscle anterior to her pectoralis major muscle. This variant had not previously been described in the literature and was therefore named the oblique pectoralis anterior. After inspection of the aberrant musculature, the decision was made to release the inferolateral insertion of the accessory muscle with the inferior edge of pectoralis major. An adequate pocket for the expander was created. Results: After routine expansion and implant exchange, muscular coverage of the implant from pectoralis major and the oblique pectoralis anterior muscle approximated 70%. The patient was left with good symmetry and a cosmetic result, despite the challenges presented by her anomalous chest wall musculature. Discussion: Prior knowledge of the various anatomic aberrations described in the literature can prepare a surgeon to properly incorporate and utilize the variant anatomy, should it be encountered, to benefit the outcome of the operation. PMID:22977679

  3. Muscle recruitment patterns of the subscapularis, serratus anterior and other shoulder girdle muscles during isokinetic internal and external rotations.

    PubMed

    Gaudet, Sylvain; Tremblay, Jonathan; Begon, Mickael

    2018-05-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the differences in peak muscle activity and recruitment patterns during high- and low-velocity, concentric and eccentric, internal and external isokinetic shoulder rotations. Electromyographic activity of the rotator cuff and eight superficial muscles of the shoulder girdle was recorded on 25 healthy adults during isokinetic internal and external shoulder rotation at 60°/s and 240°/s. Peak muscle activity, electromyographic envelopes and peak isokinetic moments were analyzed using three-factor ANOVA and statistical parametric mapping. The subscapularis and serratus anterior showed moderate to high peak activity levels during each conditions, while the middle and posterior deltoids, upper, middle and lower trapezius, infraspinatus and supraspinatus showed higher peak activity levels during external rotations (+36.5% of maximum voluntary activation (MVA)). The pectoralis major and latissimus dorsi were more active during internal rotations (+40% of MVA). Only middle trapezius and pectoralis major electromyographic activity decreased with increasing velocity. Peak muscle activity was similar or lower during eccentric contractions, although the peak isokinetic moment increased by 35% on average. The subscapularis and serratus anterior appear to be important stabilizers of the glenohumeral joint and scapula. Isokinetic eccentric training at high velocities may allow for faster recruitment of the shoulder girdle muscles, which could improve joint stability during shoulder internal and external rotations.

  4. Limited fiber type grouping in self-reinnervation cat tibialis anterior muscles.

    PubMed

    Unguez, G A; Roy, R R; Bodine-Fowler, S; Edgerton, V R

    1996-10-01

    The percent and distribution patterns of three immunohistochemically identified fiber types within the anterior compartment of the cat tibialis anterior were determined 6 months after denervation and self-reinnervation. After self-reinnervation, mean frequencies of slow (9%) and fast (91%) fibers were similar to those in control (12% and 88%, respectively) muscles. However, a lower proportion of fast-1 (26%) and a higher proportion of fast-2 (65%) fibers were observed in self-reinnervated than control (32% and 56%) muscles. Quantitation of adjacencies between fibers of similar myosin heavy chain (MHC) phenotype, a measure of type grouping, revealed that the frequencies of two slow or two fast-1 fibers being adjacent in self-reinnervated muscles were similar to control. In contrast, the frequency of fast-2/fast-2 fiber adjacencies found in self-reinnervated muscles (45%) was significantly higher than in control muscles (37%). In both groups, the frequency of adjacencies between slow, fast-1, or fast-2 fibers was largely attributable to the number of each fiber type present. These data show that the incidence of grouping within each fiber type present was not altered after 6 months of self-reinnervation. Minimal changes in the spatial distribution of fiber types following self-reinnervation in adults suggests a limited degree of conversion of muscle fibers to a MHC phenotype matching the motoneuron characteristics.

  5. Outcomes of Latarjet versus Distal Tibial Allograft for Anterior Shoulder Instability Repair: A Prospective Matched Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Rachel M.; Kim, Jae; O’Donnell, Patrick Joseph; O’Brien, Michael; Newgren, Jonathan; Verma, Nikhil N.; Nicholson, Gregory P.; Cole, Brian J.; Romeo, Anthony A.; Provencher, Matthew T.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Recently, the use of fresh distal tibia allograft (DTA) for glenoid reconstruction in anterior shoulder instability has been described, with encouraging short-term outcomes, however, there is little available comparative data to the Latarjet procedure, long considered the gold standard for bone loss treatment. Thus, the purpose of this study was to determine the clinical outcomes for patients undergoing DTA compared to a matched cohort of patients undergoing Latarjet. Methods: A review of prospectively collected data of patients with a minimum 15% anterior glenoid bone loss who underwent shoulder stabilization with either DTA or Latarjet with a minimum follow-up of 2 years was conducted. Consecutive patients undergoing DTA were matched by age, body mass index, and number of previous ipsilateral shoulder surgeries to patients undergoing Latarjet in a 1-to- 1 format. Patients were evaluated preoperatively and at a minimum 2 years post operatively with American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) outcomes assessments. Complications, reoperations, and episodes of recurrent instability were also analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with student T-tests, with P<0.05 considered significant. Results: A total of 60 patients (30 Latarjet, 30 DTA) with an average age of 26.5±7.8 years were analyzed at an average 46±17 months (range, 24-87) following surgery. Twenty-two patients (73%) in each group underwent prior ipsilateral shoulder surgery (range, 1 to 3 surgeries) prior to Latarjet or DTA. There were no statistical differences in age, BMI, or number of prior surgeries between the groups. There were no differences between the groups in regards to recurrent instability events, subluxation, or apprehension on final examination (P>0.8). Patients in both groups experienced significant improvements in all outcomes scores following surgery (P>0.05 for all

  6. Effect of ACL Transection on Internal Tibial Rotation in an in Vitro Simulated Pivot Landing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youkeun K.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The amount of resistance provided by the ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) to axial tibial rotation remains controversial. The goal of this study was to test the primary hypotheses that ACL transection would not significantly affect tibial rotation under the large impulsive loads associated with a simulated pivot landing but would increase anterior tibial translation. Methods: Twelve cadaveric knees (mean age of donors [and standard deviation] at the time of death, 65.0 ± 10.5 years) were mounted in a custom testing apparatus to simulate a single-leg pivot landing. A compound impulsive load was applied to the distal part of the tibia with compression (∼800 N), flexion moment (∼40 N-m), and axial tibial torque (∼17 N-m) in the presence of five trans-knee muscle forces. A differential variable reluctance transducer mounted on the anteromedial aspect of the ACL measured relative strain. With the knee initially in 15° of flexion, and after five combined compression and flexion moment (baseline) loading trials, six trials were conducted with the addition of either internal or external tibial torque (internal or external loading), and then six baseline trials were performed. The ACL was then sectioned, six baseline trials were repeated, and then six trials of either the internal or the external loading condition, whichever had initially resulted in the larger relative ACL strain, were carried out. Tibiofemoral kinematics were measured optoelectronically. The results were analyzed with a nonparametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Results: Following ACL transection, the increase in the normalized internal tibial rotation was significant but small (0.7°/N-m ± 0.3°/N-m to 0.8°/N-m ± 0.3°/N-m, p = 0.012), while anterior tibial translation increased significantly (3.8 ± 2.9 to 7.0 ± 2.9 mm, p = 0.017). Conclusions: ACL transection leads to a small increase in internal tibial rotation, equivalent to a 13% decrease in the dynamic rotational resistance

  7. Homologies of the transversospinalis muscles in the anterior presacral region of Sauria (crown Diapsida).

    PubMed

    Tsuihiji, Takanobu

    2005-02-01

    Homologies of muscles of the m. transversospinalis group in the dorsal and cervical regions in Sauria are established based on detailed dissections and published accounts of lepidosaurs, crocodylians, and birds. Attachments and directions of tendons comprising this muscle group are fairly conserved among the saurian clades, enabling rather robust inferences on muscle homologies. The innervation pattern indicates that mm. ascendentes are the most lateral muscles of the m. transversospinalis group in Aves, and are inferred to be homologous with the crocodylian m. tendinoarticularis based on their topological similarities. It is suggested here that the lepidosaurian articulo-parietalis part of m. longissimus cervico-capitis actually belongs to the m. transversospinalis group because its tendons of origin are shared with those of m. semispinalis. The avian m. complexus and the lateral part of the crocodylian m. transversospinalis capitis have origins and insertions similar to this lepidosaurian muscle, and are proposed to be homologous with the latter. In some birds, m. longus colli dorsalis, pars profunda continues directly into the anterior cervical region as m. splenius accessorius, suggesting a serially homologous relationship. Similarly, m. splenius anticus continues anteriorly from m. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis, and both of these muscles lie dorsal to m. splenius accessorius. Therefore, the currently used nomenclature that regards m. splenius accessorius as a part of m. longus colli dorsalis, pars cranialis and that regards m. splenius anticus as a part of the former muscle does not accurately reflect the serial homologies among these muscles and may not be justified. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Intramuscular pressure varies with depth. The tibialis anterior muscle studied in 12 volunteers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhostine, M.; Styf, J. R.; van Leuven, S.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    Pressures in the tibialis anterior muscle were recorded at rest and during exercise with transducer-tipped catheters in 12 volunteers while they were supine or standing. The recordings were repeated with venous stasis created by an inflated tourniquet cuff on the thigh. Catheters were placed at 3 different sites in the muscle: catheter I adjacent to the deep surface of the fascia over the anterior compartment; catheter II between the fascia and the central tendon; and catheter III deep in the muscle close to the interosseous membrane. In both the supine and standing positions the intramuscular pressure at rest and the muscle relaxation pressure during exercise, obtained by catheter II, were greater than the corresponding pressures measured by the superficially located catheter I in the normal as well as in the volume loaded limb. The same conditions for pressure measurement consistently revealed lower pressures recorded by catheter III compared to II, but the difference was not significant. Our results indicate that intramuscular pressure increases centripetally, as the centrally lying tendon is approached. We conclude that pressure measurements for diagnosis of acute and chronic compartment syndromes and in ergonomic studies should be based on recordings from a standard location of the catheter within the muscle and a standard posture of the subject.

  9. Influence of screw length and diameter on tibial strain energy density distribution after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Jie; Kuang, Guan-Ming; Wong, Duo Wai-Chi; Niu, Wen-Xin; Zhang, Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-04-01

    Postoperative tunnel enlargement has been frequently reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Interference screw, as a surgical implant in ACL reconstruction, may influence natural loading transmission and contribute to tunnel enlargement. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify the alteration of strain energy den sity (SED) distribution after the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction; and (2) to characterize the influence of screw length and diameter on the degree of the SED alteration. A validated finite element model of human knee joint was used. The screw length ranging from 20 to 30mm with screw diameter ranging from 7 to 9 mm were investigated. In the post-operative knee, the SED increased steeply at the extra-articular tunnel aperture under compressive and complex loadings, whereas the SED decreased beneath the screw shaft and nearby the intra-articular tunnel aperture. Increasing the screw length could lower the SED deprivation in the proximal part of the bone tunnel; whereas increasing either screw length or diameter could aggravate the SED deprivation in the distal part of the bone tunnel. Decreasing the elastic modulus of the screw could lower the bone SED deprivation around the screw. In consideration of both graft stability and SED alteration, a biodegradable interference screw with a long length is recommended, which could provide a beneficial mechanical environment at the distal part of the tunnel, and meanwhile decrease the bone-graft motion and synovial fluid propagation at the proximal part of the tunnel. These findings together with the clinical and histological factors could help to improve surgical outcome, and serve as a preliminary knowledge for the following study of biodegradable interference screw. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Three dimensional finite element analysis of the influence of posterior tibial slope on the anterior cruciate ligament and knee joint forward stability.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yong; Sun, Hongtao; Fan, Yueguang; Li, Feimeng; Wang, Yunting; Ge, Chana

    2018-03-23

    To explore the biomechanical influence of posterior tibial angle on the anterior cruciate ligament and knee joint forward stability. The left knee joint of a healthy volunteer was scanned by CT and MRI. The data were imported into Mimics software to obtain 3D models of bone, cartilage, meniscus and ligament structures, and then Geomagic software was used to modify of the image. The relative displacement between tibia and femur and the stress of ACL were recorded. ACL tension was 12.195 N in model with 2∘ PTS, 12.639 N in model with 7∘ PTS, 18.658 N in model with 12∘ PTS. the relative displacement of the tibia and femur was 2.735 mm in model with 2∘ PTS, 3.086 mm in model with 7∘ PTS, 3.881 mm in model with 12∘ PTS. In the model with 30∘ flexion, the maximum tension of ACL was 24.585 N in model with 2∘ PTS, 25.612 N in model with 7∘ PTS, 31.481 N in model with 12∘ PTS. The relative displacement of the tibia and femur was 5.590 mm in model with 2∘ PTS, 6.721 mm in model with 7∘ PTS, 6.952 mm in model with 12∘ PTS. In the 90∘ flexion models, ACL tension was 5.119 N in model with 2∘ PTS, 8.674 N in model with 7∘ PTS, 9.314 N in model with 12∘ PTS. The relative displacement of the tibia and femur was 0.276 mm in model with 2∘ PTS, 0.577 mm in model with 7∘ PTS, 0.602 mm in model with 12∘ PTS. The steeper PTS may be a risk factor in ACL injury.

  11. Maturity- and sex-related changes in tibial bone geometry, strength and bone-muscle strength indices during growth: a 20-month pQCT study.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Heather M; Kontulainen, Saija A; Mackelvie-O'Brien, Kerry J; Petit, Moira A; Janssen, Patricia; Khan, Karim M; McKay, Heather A

    2005-06-01

    During growth, bone strength is conferred through subtle adaptations in bone mass and geometry in response to muscle forces. Few studies have examined the changes in bone geometry, strength and the bone-muscle strength relationship across maturity in boys and girls. Our aims were to describe (i) 20-month changes in bone geometry and strength at the tibial midshaft across three maturity groups of boys and girls, (ii) differences in these adaptations between sexes at the same approximate level of maturity and (iii) the bone-muscle strength relationship across maturity groups of boys and girls and between sexes. We used peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT, Stratec XCT-2000) to measure change in total bone cross-sectional area (ToA, mm(2)), cortical area (CoA, mm(2)), average cortical thickness (C.Th., mm), section modulus (mm(3)) and muscle cross-sectional area (mm(2)) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) in 128 EARLY-, PERI- and POST-pubertal girls (n = 69, 11.9 +/- 0.6 years) and boys (n = 59, 12.0 +/- 0.6 years) across 20 months. We also calculated two bone-muscle strength indices (BMSI) for compression (CoA/MCSA) and bending [strength index/MCSA; where strength index = Z / (tibial length / 2)]. EARLY boys and girls had smaller ToA at baseline than same sex PERI or POST participants. There were no sex differences in ToA or CoA at baseline; however, boys increased both parameters significantly more than girls in every maturity group (8.5-11.1%, P < 0.01). These changes in bone geometry conferred greater gains in bone strength for boys compared with girls in each maturity group (13.8-15.6%, P < 0.01). Baseline BMSIs did not differ between sexes for EARLY and PERI groups, whereas BMSIs were significantly higher for POST boys compared with POST girls (P < 0.05). BMSIs decreased for EARLY and PERI girls (-7.4-(-1.1%)) whereas the ratios remained stable for EARLY and PERI boys (-0.6-2.5%). This sex difference in BMSI change was due to a relatively greater

  12. Effects of Inclined Treadmill Walking on Pelvic Anterior Tilt Angle, Hamstring Muscle Length, and Trunk Muscle Endurance of Seated Workers with Flat-back Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hee; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of inclined treadmill walking on pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance of seated workers with flat-back syndrome. [Subjects] Eight seated workers with flat-back syndrome who complained of low-back pain in the L3-5 region participated in this study. [Methods] The subjects performed a walking exercise on a 30° inclined treadmill. We measured the pelvic anterior tilt angle, hamstring muscle length, and back muscle endurance before and after inclined treadmill walking. [Results] Anterior pelvic tilt angle and active knee extension angle significantly increased after inclined treadmill walking. Trunk extensor and flexor muscle endurance times were also significantly increased compared to the baseline. [Conclusion] Inclined treadmill walking may be an effective approach for the prevention or treatment of low-back pain in flat-back syndrome.

  13. Trifurcation of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel.

    PubMed

    Develi, Sedat

    2018-05-01

    The tibial nerve is the larger terminal branch of the sciatic nerve and it terminates in the tarsal tunnel by giving lateral and medial plantar nerves. We present a rare case of trifurcation of the tibial nerve within the tarsal tunnel. The variant nerve curves laterally after branching from the tibial nerve and courses deep to quadratus plantae muscle. Interestingly, posterior tibial artery was also terminating by giving three branches. These branches were accompanying the terminal branches of the tibial nerve.

  14. Pharmacological inhibition of myostatin protects against skeletal muscle atrophy and weakness after anterior cruciate ligament tear.

    PubMed

    Wurtzel, Caroline Nw; Gumucio, Jonathan P; Grekin, Jeremy A; Khouri, Roger K; Russell, Alan J; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2017-11-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears are among the most frequent knee injuries in sports medicine, with tear rates in the US up to 250,000 per year. Many patients who suffer from ACL tears have persistent atrophy and weakness even after considerable rehabilitation. Myostatin is a cytokine that directly induces muscle atrophy, and previous studies rodent models and patients have demonstrated an upregulation of myostatin after ACL tear. Using a preclinical rat model, our objective was to determine if the use of a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin could prevent muscle atrophy and weakness after ACL tear. Rats underwent a surgically induced ACL tear and were treated with either a bioneutralizing antibody against myostatin (10B3, GlaxoSmithKline) or a sham antibody (E1-82.15, GlaxoSmithKline). Muscles were harvested at either 7 or 21 days after induction of a tear to measure changes in contractile function, fiber size, and genes involved in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. These time points were selected to evaluate early and later changes in muscle structure and function. Compared to the sham antibody group, 7 days after ACL tear, myostatin inhibition reduced the expression of proteolytic genes and induced the expression of hypertrophy genes. These early changes in gene expression lead to a 22% increase in muscle fiber cross-sectional area and a 10% improvement in maximum isometric force production that were observed 21 days after ACL tear. Overall, myostatin inhibition lead to several favorable, although modest, changes in molecular biomarkers of muscle regeneration and reduced muscle atrophy and weakness following ACL tear. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:2499-2505, 2017. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Muscle wasting in osteoarthritis model induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection.

    PubMed

    Silva, Jordana Miranda de Souza; Alabarse, Paulo Vinicius Gil; Teixeira, Vivian de Oliveira Nunes; Freitas, Eduarda Correa; de Oliveira, Francine Hehn; Chakr, Rafael Mendonça da Silva; Xavier, Ricardo Machado

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the molecular pathways involved in muscle wasting in an animal model of osteoarthritis (OA) induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) in rats. Reduction of protein syntheses, increased proteolysis and impaired muscle regeneration are important pathways related to muscle wasting, and myogenin, MyoD, myostatin and MuRF-1 are some of their markers. Female Wistar rats were allocated into two groups: OA (submitted to the ACLT) and SHAM (submitted to surgery without ACLT). Nociception, spontaneous exploratory locomotion and body weight of animals were evaluated weekly. Twelve weeks after the disease induction, animals were euthanized, and the right knee joints were collected. Gastrocnemius muscle of the right hind paw were dissected and weighed. Gastrocnemius was used for evaluation of muscle atrophy and expression of IL-1β, TNF-α, Pax7, myogenin, MyoD, myostatin and MuRF-1. Histopathology of the knee confirmed the development of the disease in animals of OA group. Gastrocnemius of OA animals showed a reduction of about 10% in area and an increased IL-1β expression compared to animals of SHAM group. Expression of myostatin was increased in OA group, while myogenin expression was decreased. TNF-α, Pax7, MuRF-1 and MyoD expression was similar in both OA and SHAM groups. Nociception was significantly elevated in OA animals in the last two weeks of experimental period. Spontaneous exploratory locomotion, body weight and weight of gastrocnemius showed no difference between OA and SHAM groups. Gastrocnemius atrophy in OA induced by ACLT involves elevated expression of IL-1β within the muscle, as well as increased expression of myostatin and decreased expression of myogenin. Therefore, muscle wasting may be linked to impaired muscle regeneration.

  16. Bilateral anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome variant secondary to extensor hallucis brevis muscle hypertrophy in a ballet dancer: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Joshua N; Rungprai, Chamnanni; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2014-12-01

    We present a case of bilateral anterior tarsal tunnel syndrome secondary EHB hypertrophy in a dancer, with successful treatment with bilateral EHB muscle excisions for decompression. The bilateral presentation of this case with the treatment of EHB muscle excision is the first of its type reported in the literature. Copyright © 2014 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Does severity of femoral trochlear dysplasia affect outcome in patellofemoral instability treated by medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction and anterior tibial tuberosity transfer?

    PubMed

    Moitrel, G; Roumazeille, T; Arnould, A; Migaud, H; Putman, S; Ramdane, N; Pasquier, G

    2015-10-01

    Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction associated to anterior tibial tuberosity transfer (ATTT) is recommended in objective patellofemoral instability (PFI). Efficacy, however, has not been precisely determined in trochlear dysplasia with spur. A case-control study was performed in a PFI population, comparing groups with trochlear dysplasia with and without spur (S+ vs. S-) to assess the impact of trochlear dysplasia on (1) patellofemoral stability, (2) functional results and complications, and (3) patellofemoral cartilage status on MRI. Trochlear spur does not affect outcome in PFI managed by MPFL reconstruction and ATTT. Twenty-eight knees (26 patients) with PFI were analyzed retrospectively and divided into 2 groups of 14 knees each according to presence of trochlear spur (S+ vs. S-). All 28 knees had undergone ATTT and MPFL reconstruction by semitendinosus autograft. Results were assessed on Lille and IKDC functional scores, and cartilage status was determined on MRI at last follow-up. At a mean 24 months' follow-up (range, 12-52 months), there was no recurrence of dislocation. IKDC and Lille scores tended to improve in both groups, although the only significant improvement was in IKDC score (S- gain, 21.3±16; S+ gain, 18.1±14) (P=0.01). IKDC scores at last follow-up were better in the S+ than S- group (79±19 [range, 21-92] vs. 68±13 [range, 35-84], respectively; P=0.012). Lille scores showed no significant inter-group differences in mean gain (P=0.492) or mean value (P=0.381). The S+ group showed more cartilage lesions (n=14/14 knees, including 12/14 with grade≥2 lesions) than the S- group (n=9/14 knees, all grade≤2). MPFL reconstruction with ATTT provided good short-term patellofemoral stability independently of the severity of trochlear dysplasia. Functional results and gain on IKDC, however, were poorer in case of dysplasia with trochlear spur. This is probably due to cartilage lesions, observed more frequently pre- and post

  18. Changes in tibialis anterior corticospinal properties after acute prolonged muscle vibration.

    PubMed

    Farabet, Adrien; Souron, Robin; Millet, Guillaume Y; Lapole, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged local vibration is known to impair muscle performance. While involved mechanisms were previously evidenced at the spinal level, changes at the cortical level were also hypothesized. The aims of the present study were to investigate the effects of 30 min of 100-Hz tibialis anterior muscle vibration on force production capacities and to further identify the respective changes in spinal loop properties, descending voluntary drive and corticospinal properties. Thirteen subjects were tested before and after a vibration condition, and before and after a resting control condition. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in dorsiflexion was measured. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was superimposed during MVCs to assess cortical voluntary activation (VATMS), motor-evoked potential amplitude (MEP) and cortical silent period length (CSP). MEP and CSP were also measured during 50 and 75 % MVC contractions. Spinal excitability was investigated by mean of H-reflex. There were no vibration effects on MVC (p = 0.805), maximal EMG activity (p = 0.653), VATMS (p = 1), and CSP (p = 0.877). Vibration tended to decrease MEP amplitude (p = 0.117). H-reflex amplitude was depressed following vibration (p = 0.008). Dorsiflexion maximal force production capacities were unaffected by 30 min of tibialis anterior muscle vibration, despite spinal loop and corticospinal excitabilities being reduced. These findings suggest that acute prolonged vibration has the potential to modulate corticospinal excitability of lower limb muscles without a concomitant functional consequence.

  19. Neurotized lateral gastrocnemius muscle transfer for persistent traumatic peroneal nerve palsy: Surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Leclère, F M; Badur, N; Mathys, L; Vögelin, E

    2015-08-01

    Persistent traumatic peroneal nerve palsy, following nerve surgery failure, is usually treated by tendon transfer or more recently by tibial nerve transfer. However, when there is destruction of the tibial anterior muscle, an isolated nerve transfer is not possible. In this article, we present the key steps and surgical tips for the Ninkovic procedure including transposition of the neurotized lateral gastrocnemius muscle with the aim of restoring active voluntary dorsiflexion. The transposition of the lateral head of the gastrocnemius muscle to the tendons of the anterior tibial muscle group, with simultaneous transposition of the intact proximal end of the deep peroneal nerve to the tibial nerve of the gastrocnemius muscle by microsurgical neurorrhaphy is performed in one stage. It includes 10 key steps which are described in this article. Since 1994, three clinical series have highlighted the advantages of this technique. Functional and subjective results are discussed. We review the indications and limitations of the technique. Early clinical results after neurotized lateral gastrocnemius muscle transfer appear excellent; however, they still need to be compared with conventional tendon transfer procedures. Clinical studies are likely to be conducted in this area largely due to the frequency of persistant peroneal nerve palsy and the limitations of functional options in cases of longstanding peripheral nerve palsy, anterior tibial muscle atrophy or destruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Could anterior papillary muscle partial necrosis explain early mitral valve repair failure?

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Matteo; Generali, Tommaso; Henaine, Roland; Mitchell, Julia; Lemaire, Anais; Chiari, Pascal; Fran, Jean; Obadia, Jean François

    2014-09-01

    Standardized techniques of mitral valve repair (MVR) have recently witnessed the introduction of a 'respect rather than resect' concept, the strategy of which involves the use of artificial chordae. MVR displays several advantages over mitral valve replacement in degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR), but the risk of reoperation for MVR failure must be taken into account. Different mechanisms could be advocated as the leading cause of MVR failure; procedure-related mechanisms are usually involved in early MVR failure, while valve-related mechanisms are common in late failure. Here, the case is reported of an early failure of MVR using artificial chordae that could be explained by an unusual procedure-related mechanism, namely anterior papillary muscle necrosis. MVR failure is a well-known complication after surgical repair of degenerative MR, but anterior papillary muscle partial necrosis might also be considered a possible mechanism of procedure-related MVR failure, especially when considering the increasing use of artificial chordae. Owing to the encouraging results obtained, mitral valve re-repair might be considered a viable solution, but must be selected after only a meticulous evaluation of the underlying mechanism of MVR failure.

  1. Net joint moments and muscle activation in barbell squats without and with restricted anterior leg rotation.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Loren Z F; vonGaza, Gabriella L; Jean, Liane M Y

    2017-01-01

    Muscle utilisation in squat exercise depends on technique. The purpose of this study was to compare net joint moments (NJMs) and muscle activation during squats without and with restricted leg dorsiflexion. Experienced men (n = 5) and women (n = 4) performed full squats at 80% one repetition maximum. 3D motion analysis, force platform and (EMG) data were collected. Restricting anterior leg rotation reduced anterior leg (P = 0.001) and posterior thigh (P < 0.001) rotations, resulting in a smaller knee flexion range of motion (P < 0.001). At maximum squat depth, ankle plantar flexor (P < 0.001) and knee extensor (P < 0.001) NJM were higher in unrestricted squats. Hip extensor NJM (P = 0.14) was not different between squat types at maximum squat depth. Vastus lateralis (P > 0.05), vastus medialis (P > 0.05) and rectus femoris (P > 0.05) EMG were not different between squat types. Unrestricted squats have higher ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM than previously reported from jumping and landing. However, ankle plantar flexor and knee extensor NJM are lower in restricted squats than previous studies of jumping and landing. The high NJM in unrestricted squat exercise performed through a full range of motion suggests this squat type would be more effective to stimulate adaptations in the lower extremity musculature than restricted squats.

  2. Landing strategies focusing on the control of tibial rotation in the initial contact period of one-leg forward hops.

    PubMed

    Chen, W-L; Chen, Y-T; Huang, S-Y; Yang, C-Y; Wu, C-D; Chang, C-W

    2017-08-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction (ACLR) surgeries successfully restore anterior tibial translation but not tibial rotation. This study aimed to explore landing strategies focusing on the control of tibial rotation at landing when the ACL is most vulnerable. Three groups of male subjects (50 ACLRs, 26 basketball players, and 31 controls) participated in one-leg forward hop tests for determining the tibial rotatory landing strategies adopted during the initial landing phase. The differences in knee kinematics and muscle activities between internal and external tibial rotatory (ITR, ETR) landing strategies were examined. A higher proportion of basketball players (34.6%) were found to adopt ITR strategies (controls: 6.5%), exhibiting significantly greater hopping distance and knee strength. After adjusting for hopping distance, subjects adopting ITR strategies were found to hop faster with straighter knees at foot contact and with greater ITR and less knee adduction angular displacement during the initial landing phase. However, significantly greater angular displacement in knee flexion, greater medial hamstring activities, and greater co-contraction index of hamstrings and medial knee muscles were also found during initial landing. Our results support the importance of the recruitments of medial hamstrings or the local co-contraction in assisting the rotatory control of the knee during initial landing for avoiding ACL injuries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. EMG analysis of peroneal and tibialis anterior muscle activity prior to foot contact during functional activities.

    PubMed

    McLoda, T A; Hansen, A J; Birrer, D A

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the pre-activity of the tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), and peroneus brevis (PB) prior to foot contact during three conditions. Twenty-six subjects (age 22 +/- 2 yrs; 15 male, 11 female) with no lower extremity injuries reported for data collection. Data were collected from each subject's dominant leg using surface electromyography (EMG). EMG electrodes were applied over the test muscles using a standard protocol. A heel-toe strike transducer was affixed to the bottom of the subject's shoe. The subject completed two randomized trials of walking on a treadmill (5.6 kph), jogging on a treadmill (9.3 kph) and drop landing from a 38 cm box. Isometric reference positions (IRPs) were recorded for the TA, PL, and PB. Muscle data were normalized to IRPs and the average processed EMG for the 200 ms prior to heel strike during walking and jogging and prior to toe strike when dropping from the box was used for analysis. A one-way repeated measures MANOVA was used to detect differences in pre-activity of the muscles between the three conditions. Univariate tests were used to determine differences for each muscle and Tukey's was applied post hoc to determine individual effect differences. The MANOVA revealed significant differences among the three conditions (F2.50 = 10.770; P < .0005). Average TA activity was significantly higher during jogging (Tukey's; P < .0005). Significant differences existed between each condition for the TA. Average PL and PB activity was significantly higher when drop landing (Tukey's; P < .0005). There was no significant difference between walking and jogging for the PL and PB. The amount of muscle pre-activity occurring before heel or toe strike provides useful information for the examination of reaction times to unexpected inversion during dynamic activities.

  4. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training for overactive bladder syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Scaldazza, Carlo Vecchioli; Morosetti, Carolina; Giampieretti, Rosita; Lorenzetti, Rossana; Baroni, Marinella

    2017-01-01

    This study compared percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS) versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training (ES + PFMT) in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB). 60 women with OAB were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. In group A, women underwent ES with PFMT, in group B women underwent PTNS. A statistically significant reduction in the number of daily micturitions, episodes of nocturia and urge incontinence was found in the two groups but the difference was more substantial in women treated with PTNS; voided volume increased in both groups. Quality of life improved in both groups, whereas patient perception of urgency improved only in women treated with PTNS. Global impression of improvement revealed a greater satisfaction in patients treated with PTNS. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTNS and ES with PFMT in women with OAB, but greater improvements were found with PTNS. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  5. Electromechanical delay of the knee flexor muscles is impaired after harvesting hamstring tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ristanis, Stavros; Tsepis, Elias; Giotis, Dimitrios; Stergiou, Nicholas; Cerulli, Guiliano; Georgoulis, Anastasios D

    2009-11-01

    Changes in electromechanical delay during muscle activation are expected when there are substantial alterations in the structural properties of the musculotendinous tissue. In anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, specific tendons are being harvested for grafts. Thus, there is an associated scar tissue development at the tendon that may affect the corresponding electromechanical delay. This study was conducted to investigate whether harvesting of semitendinosus and gracilis tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction will affect the electromechanical delay of the knee flexors. Case-control study; Level of evidence, 3. The authors evaluated 12 patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with a semitendinosus and gracilis autograft, 2 years after the reconstruction, and 12 healthy controls. Each participant performed 4 maximally explosive isometric contractions with a 1-minute break between contractions. The surface electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus was recorded from both legs during the contractions. The statistical comparisons revealed significant increases of the electromechanical delay of the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee for both investigated muscles. Specifically, the electromechanical delay values were increased for both the biceps femoris (P = .029) and the semitendinosus (P = .005) of the reconstructed knee when compared with the intact knee. Comparing the anterior cruciate ligament-reconstructed knee against healthy controls revealed similar significant differences for both muscles (semitendinosus, P = .011; biceps femoris, P = .024). The results showed that harvesting the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction significantly increased the electromechanical delay of the knee flexors. Increased hamstring electromechanical delay might impair knee safety and performance by modifying the transfer time of muscle tension to the tibia and

  6. Improvement of isometric dorsiflexion protocol for assessment of tibialis anterior muscle strength☆

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P.; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    It is important to accurately estimate the electromyogram (EMG)/force relationship of triceps surae (TS) muscle for detecting strength deficit of tibalis anterior (TA) muscle. In literature, the protocol for recording EMG and force of dorsiflexion have been described, and the necessity for immobilizing the ankle has been explained. However, there is a significant variability of the results among researchers even though they report the fixation of the ankle. We have determined that toe extension can cause significant variation in the dorsiflexion force and EMG of TS and this can occur despite following the current guidelines which require immobilizing the ankle. The results also show that there was a large increase in the variability of the force and the RMS of EMG of TS when the toes were not strapped compared with when they were strapped. Thus, with the current guidelines, where there are no instructions regarding the necessity of strapping the toes, the EMG/force relationship of TS could be incorrect and give an inaccurate assessment of the dorsiflexor TA strength. In summary, • Current methodology to estimate the dorsiflexor TA strength with respect to the TS activity, emphasizing on ankle immobilization is insufficient to prevent large variability in the measurements. • Toe extension during dorsiflexion was found to be one source of variability in estimating the TA strength. • It is recommended that guidelines for recording force and EMG from TA and TS muscles should require the strapping of the toes along with the need for immobilizing the ankle. PMID:26150978

  7. Improvement of isometric dorsiflexion protocol for assessment of tibialis anterior muscle strength.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    It is important to accurately estimate the electromyogram (EMG)/force relationship of triceps surae (TS) muscle for detecting strength deficit of tibalis anterior (TA) muscle. In literature, the protocol for recording EMG and force of dorsiflexion have been described, and the necessity for immobilizing the ankle has been explained. However, there is a significant variability of the results among researchers even though they report the fixation of the ankle. We have determined that toe extension can cause significant variation in the dorsiflexion force and EMG of TS and this can occur despite following the current guidelines which require immobilizing the ankle. The results also show that there was a large increase in the variability of the force and the RMS of EMG of TS when the toes were not strapped compared with when they were strapped. Thus, with the current guidelines, where there are no instructions regarding the necessity of strapping the toes, the EMG/force relationship of TS could be incorrect and give an inaccurate assessment of the dorsiflexor TA strength. In summary, •Current methodology to estimate the dorsiflexor TA strength with respect to the TS activity, emphasizing on ankle immobilization is insufficient to prevent large variability in the measurements.•Toe extension during dorsiflexion was found to be one source of variability in estimating the TA strength.•It is recommended that guidelines for recording force and EMG from TA and TS muscles should require the strapping of the toes along with the need for immobilizing the ankle.

  8. Validity of real-time ultrasound imaging to measure anterior hip muscle size: a comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Mendis, M Dilani; Wilson, Stephen J; Stanton, Warren; Hides, Julie A

    2010-09-01

    Clinical measurement, criterion standard. To investigate the validity of real-time ultrasound imaging (USI) to measure individual anterior hip muscle cross-sectional area. The hip flexor muscles are important for hip joint function and could be affected by joint pathology or injury. Objectively documenting individual anterior hip muscle size can be useful in identifying muscle size asymmetry and monitoring treatment efficacy for patients with hip problems. USI offers a novel method of measuring individual muscle size in the clinic, but its validity in measuring the anterior hip muscles has not been investigated. Nine healthy participants (5 males, 4 females) underwent imaging of their iliopsoas, sartorius, and rectus femoris muscles with USI and magnetic resonance imaging. Bilateral muscle cross-sectional areas were measured on images from both modalities. There was no significant difference (P>.05) in mean cross-sectional area measurements from USI and magnetic resonance imaging for each muscle. Agreement between measurements was high for the iliopsoas (left: intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC3,1] = 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51, 0.97; right: ICC3,1 = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.97), sartorius (left: ICC3,1 = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.96; right: ICC3,1 = 0.81; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.95), and rectus femoris (left: ICC3,1 = 0.85; 95% CI: 0.49, 0.96; right: ICC3,1 = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.61, 0.97). Reliability of measuring each muscle with USI was high between 2 trials (ICCs3,1 = 0.84 to 0.94). USI is a valid measure of iliopsoas, sartorius, and rectus femoris muscle size in healthy people, as long as a strict measurement protocol is followed.

  9. Interstitial pressure measurements in the anterior and posterior compartments in athletes with shin splints.

    PubMed

    D'Ambrosia, R D; Zelis, R F; Chuinard, R G; Wilmore, J

    1977-01-01

    We found no basis for increased intercompartmental pressure in either the anterior or posterior compartments as the cause of shin splints. The pain in all 14 of the patients studied was localized to the posterior medial border of the tibia at the origin of the posterior tibial muscle, and evidence of periostitis in this area was seen in two of our patients, suggesting the possible tearing away of the posterior tibial muscle from its origin. Shin splints is a lay term which has assumed medical diagnostic significance and should be removed from common usage by more accurately localizing the focus of pain.

  10. Action of vanillin (Vanilla planifolia) on the morphology of tibialis anterior and soleus muscles after nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Peretti, Ana Luiza; Antunes, Juliana Sobral; Lovison, Keli; Kunz, Regina Inês; Castor, Lidyane Regina Gomes; Brancalhão, Rose Meire Costa; Bertolini, Gladson Ricardo Flor; Ribeiro, Lucinéia de Fátima Chasko

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the action of vanillin (Vanilla planifolia) on the morphology of tibialis anterior and soleus muscles after peripheral nerve injury. Methods Wistar rats were divided into four groups, with seven animals each: Control Group, Vanillin Group, Injury Group, and Injury + Vanillin Group. The Injury Group and the Injury + Vanillin Group animals were submitted to nerve injury by compression of the sciatic nerve; the Vanillin Group and Injury + Vanillin Group, were treated daily with oral doses of vanillin (150mg/kg) from the 3rd to the 21st day after induction of nerve injury. At the end of the experiment, the tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were dissected and processed for light microscopy and submitted to morphological analysis. Results The nerve compression promoted morphological changes, typical of denervation, and the treatment with vanillin was responsible for different responses in the studied muscles. For the tibialis anterior, there was an increase in the number of satellite cells, central nuclei and fiber atrophy, as well as fascicular disorganization. In the soleus, only increased vascularization was observed, with no exacerbation of the morphological alterations in the fibers. Conclusion The treatment with vanillin promoted increase in intramuscular vascularization for the muscles studied, with pro-inflammatory potential for tibialis anterior, but not for soleus muscle. PMID:28767917

  11. Quadriceps Muscle Function After Rehabilitation With Cryotherapy in Patients With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Joseph M.; Kuenze, Christopher M.; Diduch, David R.; Ingersoll, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Context: Persistent muscle weakness after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction may be due to underlying activation failure and arthrogenic muscle inhibition (AMI). Knee-joint cryotherapy has been shown to improve quadriceps function transiently in those with AMI, thereby providing an opportunity to improve quadriceps muscle activation and strength in patients with a reconstructed ACL. Objective: To compare quadriceps muscle function in patients with a reconstructed ACL who completed a 2-week intervention including daily cryotherapy (ice bag), daily exercises, or both. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 30 patients with reconstructed ACLs who were at least 6 months post-index surgery and had measurable quadriceps AMI. Intervention(s): The patients attended 4 supervised visits over a 2-week period. They were randomly assigned to receive 20 minutes of knee-joint cryotherapy, 1 hour of therapeutic rehabilitation exercises, or cryotherapy followed by exercises. Main Outcome Measure(s): We measured quadriceps Hoffmann reflex, normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, central activation ratio using the superimposed-burst technique, and patient-reported outcomes before and after the intervention period. Results: After the 2-week intervention period, patients who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy had higher normalized maximal voluntary isometric contraction torques (P = .002, Cohen d effect size = 1.4) compared with those who received cryotherapy alone (P = .16, d = 0.58) or performed exercise alone (P = .16, d = 0.30). Conclusions: After ACL reconstruction, patients with AMI who performed rehabilitation exercises immediately after cryotherapy experienced greater strength gains than those who performed cryotherapy or exercises alone. PMID:25299442

  12. Contributions of neural excitability and voluntary activation to quadriceps muscle strength following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lepley, Adam S; Ericksen, Hayley M; Sohn, David H; Pietrosimone, Brian G

    2014-06-01

    Persistent quadriceps weakness is common following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLr). Alterations in spinal-reflexive excitability, corticospinal excitability and voluntary activation have been hypothesized as underlying mechanisms contributing to quadriceps weakness. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive capabilities of spinal-reflexive excitability, corticospinal excitability and voluntary activation on quadriceps strength in healthy and ACLr participants. Quadriceps strength was measured using maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVIC). Voluntary activation was quantified via the central activation ratio (CAR). Corticospinal and spinal-reflexive excitability were measured using active motor thresholds (AMT) and Hoffmann reflexes normalized to maximal muscle responses (H:M), respectively. ACLr individuals were also split into high and low strength subsets based on MVIC. CAR was the only significant predictor in the healthy group. In the ACLr group, CAR and H:M significantly predicted 47% of the variance in MVIC. ACLr individuals in the high strength subset demonstrated significantly higher CAR and H:M than those in the low strength subset. Increased quadriceps voluntary activation, spinal-reflexive excitability and corticospinal excitability relates to increased quadriceps strength in participants following ACLr. Rehabilitation strategies used to target neural alterations may be beneficial for the restoration of muscle strength following ACLr. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [Rupture of the tendon of the tibialis anterior muscle : Etiology, clinical symptoms and treatment].

    PubMed

    Waizy, H; Bouillon, B; Stukenborg-Colsman, C; Yao, D; Ettinger, S; Claassen, L; Plaass, C; Danniilidis, K; Arbab, D

    2017-12-01

    Ruptures of the tendon of the tibialis anterior muscle tend to occur in the context of degenerative impairments. This mainly affects the distal avascular portion of the tendon. Owing to the good compensation through the extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum muscles, diagnosis is often delayed. In addition to the clinical examination, magnetic resonance inaging (MRI) diagnostics are of particular importance, although damage or rupture of the tendon can also be demonstrated sonographically. Therapeutic measures include conservative or operative measures, depending on the clinical symptoms. Conservative stabilization of the ankle can be achieved by avoiding plantar flexion using a peroneal orthosis or an ankle-foot orthosis. Subsequent problems, such as metatarsalgia or overloading of the medial foot edge can be addressed by insoles or a corresponding shoe adjustment. An operative procedure is indicated when there is corresponding suffering due to pressure and functional impairment. The direct end-to-end reconstruction of the tendon is only rarely possible in cases of delayed diagnosis due to the degenerative situation and the retraction of the tendon stumps. Depending on the defect size and the tendon quality, various operative techniques, such as rotationplasty, free transplants or tendon transfer can be used.

  14. Applications of In Vivo Functional Testing of the Rat Tibialis Anterior for Evaluating Tissue Engineered Skeletal Muscle Repair

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, Ellen L.; Passipieri, Juliana A.; Lovell, Daniel Y.; Christ, George J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, permanent functional and/or cosmetic deficits (e.g., volumetric muscle loss (VML) resulting from traumatic injury, disease and various congenital, genetic and acquired conditions are quite common. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies have enormous potential to provide a therapeutic solution. However, utilization of biologically relevant animal models in combination with longitudinal assessments of pertinent functional measures are critical to the development of improved regenerative therapeutics for treatment of VML-like injuries. In that regard, a commercial muscle lever system can be used to measure length, tension, force and velocity parameters in skeletal muscle. We used this system, in conjunction with a high power, bi-phase stimulator, to measure in vivo force production in response to activation of the anterior crural compartment of the rat hindlimb. We have previously used this equipment to assess the functional impact of VML injury on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, as well as the extent of functional recovery following treatment of the injured TA muscle with our tissue engineered muscle repair (TEMR) technology. For such studies, the left foot of an anaesthetized rat is securely anchored to a footplate linked to a servomotor, and the common peroneal nerve is stimulated by two percutaneous needle electrodes to elicit muscle contraction and dorsiflexion of the foot. The peroneal nerve stimulation-induced muscle contraction is measured over a range of stimulation frequencies (1-200 Hz), to ensure an eventual plateau in force production that allows for an accurate determination of peak tetanic force. In addition to evaluation of the extent of VML injury as well as the degree of functional recovery following treatment, this methodology can be easily applied to study diverse aspects of muscle physiology and pathophysiology. Such an approach should assist with the more rational

  15. Applications of In Vivo Functional Testing of the Rat Tibialis Anterior for Evaluating Tissue Engineered Skeletal Muscle Repair.

    PubMed

    Mintz, Ellen L; Passipieri, Juliana A; Lovell, Daniel Y; Christ, George J

    2016-10-07

    Despite the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, permanent functional and/or cosmetic deficits (e.g., volumetric muscle loss (VML) resulting from traumatic injury, disease and various congenital, genetic and acquired conditions are quite common. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies have enormous potential to provide a therapeutic solution. However, utilization of biologically relevant animal models in combination with longitudinal assessments of pertinent functional measures are critical to the development of improved regenerative therapeutics for treatment of VML-like injuries. In that regard, a commercial muscle lever system can be used to measure length, tension, force and velocity parameters in skeletal muscle. We used this system, in conjunction with a high power, bi-phase stimulator, to measure in vivo force production in response to activation of the anterior crural compartment of the rat hindlimb. We have previously used this equipment to assess the functional impact of VML injury on the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, as well as the extent of functional recovery following treatment of the injured TA muscle with our tissue engineered muscle repair (TEMR) technology. For such studies, the left foot of an anaesthetized rat is securely anchored to a footplate linked to a servomotor, and the common peroneal nerve is stimulated by two percutaneous needle electrodes to elicit muscle contraction and dorsiflexion of the foot. The peroneal nerve stimulation-induced muscle contraction is measured over a range of stimulation frequencies (1-200 Hz), to ensure an eventual plateau in force production that allows for an accurate determination of peak tetanic force. In addition to evaluation of the extent of VML injury as well as the degree of functional recovery following treatment, this methodology can be easily applied to study diverse aspects of muscle physiology and pathophysiology. Such an approach should assist with the more rational

  16. Acromiohumeral Distance During Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of the Lower Trapezius and Serratus Anterior Muscles in Healthy Participants.

    PubMed

    Bdaiwi, Alya H; Mackenzie, Tanya Anne; Herrington, Lee; Horsley, Ian; Cools, Ann M

    2015-07-01

    Compromise to the acromiohumeral distance has been reported in participants with subacromial impingement syndrome compared with healthy participants. In clinical practice, patients with subacromial shoulder impingement are given strengthening programs targeting the lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscles to increase scapular posterior tilt and upward rotation. We are the first to use neuromuscular electrical stimulation to stimulate these muscle groups and evaluate how the muscle contraction affects the acromiohumeral distance. To investigate if electrical muscle stimulation of the LT and SA muscles, both separately and simultaneously, increases the acromiohumeral distance and to identify which muscle-group contraction or combination most influences the acromiohumeral distance. Controlled laboratory study. Human performance laboratory. Twenty participants (10 men and 10 women, age = 26.9 ± 8.0 years, body mass index = 23.8) were screened. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the LT and SA. Ultrasound measurement of the acromiohumeral distance. Acromiohumeral distance increased during contraction via neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the LT muscle (t(19) = -3.89, P = .004), SA muscle (t(19) = -7.67, P = .001), and combined LT and SA muscles (t(19) = -5.09, P = .001). We observed no differences in the increased acromiohumeral distance among the 3 procedures (F(2,57) = 3.109, P = .08). Our results supported the hypothesis that the muscle force couple around the scapula is important in rehabilitation and scapular control and influences acromiohumeral distance.

  17. Biomechanical properties of patellar and hamstring graft tibial fixation techniques in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: experimental study with roentgen stereometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Adam, Frank; Pape, Dietrich; Schiel, Karin; Steimer, Oliver; Kohn, Dieter; Rupp, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Reliable fixation of the soft hamstring grafts in ACL reconstruction has been reported as problematic. The biomechanical properties of patellar tendon (PT) grafts fixed with biodegradable screws (PTBS) are superior compared to quadrupled hamstring grafts fixed with BioScrew (HBS) or Suture-Disc fixation (HSD). Controlled laboratory study with roentgen stereometric analysis (RSA). Ten porcine specimens were prepared for each group. In the PT group, the bone plugs were fixed with a 7 x 25 mm BioScrew. In the hamstring group, four-stranded tendon grafts were anchored within a tibial tunnel of 8 mm diameter either with a 7 x 25 mm BioScrew or eight polyester sutures knotted over a Suture-Disc. The grafts were loaded stepwise, and micromotion of the graft inside the tibial tunnel was measured with RSA. Hamstring grafts failed at lower loads (HBS: 536 N, HSD 445 N) than the PTBS grafts (658 N). Stiffness in the PTBS group was much greater compared to the hamstring groups (3500 N/mm versus HBS = 517 N/mm and HSD = 111 N/mm). Irreversible graft motion after graft loading with 200 N was measured at 0.03 mm (PTBS), 0.38mm (HBS), and 1.85mm (HSD). Elasticity for the HSD fixation was measured at 0.67 mm at 100 N and 1.32 mm at 200 N load. Hamstring graft fixation with BioScrew and Suture-Disc displayed less stiffness and early graft motion compared to PTBS fixation. Screw fixation of tendon grafts is superior to Suture-Disc fixation with linkage material since it offers greater stiffness and less graft motion inside the tibial tunnel. Our results revealed graft motion for hamstring fixation with screw or linkage material at loads that occur during rehabilitation. This, in turn, may lead to graft laxity.

  18. Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscle Activities During Multi-Joint Isotonic Scapular Exercises and Isometric Contractions.

    PubMed

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd

    2014-11-14

    Context :  Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective :  To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design :  Cross-sectional study. Setting :  Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants :  A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s) :  Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results :  Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions :  Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited.

  19. Serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscle activities during multi-joint isotonic scapular exercises and isometric contractions.

    PubMed

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd S

    2015-02-01

    Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Cross-sectional study. Health Science Laboratory. A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited.

  20. Serratus Anterior and Lower Trapezius Muscle Activities During Multi-Joint Isotonic Scapular Exercises and Isometric Contractions

    PubMed Central

    Tsuruike, Masaaki; Ellenbecker, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Proper scapular function during humeral elevation, such as upward rotation, external rotation, and posterior tilting of the scapula, is necessary to prevent shoulder injury. However, the appropriate intensity of rehabilitation exercise for the periscapular muscles has yet to be clarified. Objective: To identify the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, infraspinatus, and posterior deltoid muscle activities during 2 free-motion exercises using 3 intensities and to compare these muscle activities with isometric contractions during quadruped shoulder flexion and external rotation and abduction of the glenohumeral joint. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Health Science Laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 16 uninjured, healthy, active, male college students (age = 19.5 ± 1.2 years, height = 173.1 ± 6.5 cm, weight = 68.8 ± 6.6 kg). Main Outcome Measure(s): Mean electromyographic activity normalized by the maximal voluntary isometric contraction was analyzed across 3 intensities and 5 exercises. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated for electromyographic activity of the 4 muscles in each free-motion exercise. Results: Significant interactions in electromyographic activity were observed between intensities and exercises (P < .05). The quadruped shoulder-flexion exercise activated all 4 muscles compared with other exercises. Also, the modified robbery free-motion exercise activated the serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus compared with the lawn-mower free-motion exercise. However, neither exercise showed a difference in posterior deltoid electromyographic activity. Conclusions: Three intensities exposed the nature of the periscapular muscle activities across the different exercises. The free-motion exercise in periscapular muscle rehabilitation may not modify serratus anterior, lower trapezius, and infraspinatus muscle activities unless knee-joint extension is limited. PMID:25689561

  1. Effect of Tibial Plateau Levelling Osteotomy on Cranial Tibial Subluxation in the Feline Cranial Cruciate Deficient Stifle Joint: An Ex Vivo Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Bilmont, A; Retournard, M; Asimus, E; Palierne, S; Autefage, A

    2018-06-11

     This study evaluated the effects of tibial plateau levelling osteotomy on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle in a model of feline cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle joint.  Quadriceps and gastrocnemius muscles were simulated with cables, turnbuckles and a spring in an ex vivo limb model. Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were measured radiographically before and after cranial cruciate ligament section, and after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy, at postoperative tibial plateau angles of +5°, 0° and -5°.  Cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle were not significantly altered after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy with a tibial plateau angle of +5°. Additional rotation of the tibial plateau to a tibial plateau angle of 0° and -5° had no significant effect on cranial tibial subluxation and tibial rotation angle, although 2 out of 10 specimens were stabilized by a postoperative tibial plateau angle of -5°. No stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was observed in this model of the feline stifle, after tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.  Given that stabilization of the cranial cruciate ligament deficient stifle was not obtained in this model, simple transposition of the tibial plateau levelling osteotomy technique from the dog to the cat may not be appropriate. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  2. Eccentric activation and muscle damage: biomechanical and physiological considerations during downhill running.

    PubMed Central

    Eston, R G; Mickleborough, J; Baltzopoulos, V

    1995-01-01

    An eccentric muscle activation is the controlled lengthening of the muscle under tension. Functionally, most leg muscles work eccentrically for some part of a normal gait cycle, to support the weight of the body against gravity and to absorb shock. During downhill running the role of eccentric work of the 'anti-gravity' muscles--knee extensors, muscles of the anterior and posterior tibial compartments and hip extensors--is accentuated. The purpose of this paper is to review the relationship between eccentric muscle activation and muscle damage, particularly as it relates to running, and specifically, downhill running. PMID:7551767

  3. Comparison of hamstring muscle behavior for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) patient and normal subject during local marching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amineldin@Aminudin, Nurul Izzaty Bt.; Rambely, A. S.

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the hamstring muscle activity after the surgery by carrying out an electromyography experiment on the hamstring and to compare the behavior of the ACL muscle activity between ACL patient and control subject. Electromyography (EMG) is used to study the behavior of muscles during walking activity. Two hamstring muscles involved which are semitendinosus and bicep femoris. The EMG data for both muscles were recorded while the subject did maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and marching. The study concluded that there were similarities between bicep femoris of the ACL and control subjects. The analysis showed that the biceps femoris muscle of the ACL subject had no abnormality and the pattern is as normal as the control subject. However, ACL patient has poor semitendinosus muscle strength compared to that of control subject because the differences of the forces produced. The force of semitendinosus value for control subject was two times greater than that of the ACL subject as the right semitendinosus muscle of ACL subject was used to replace the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) that was injured.

  4. Dynamic restraint capacity of the hamstring muscles has important functional implications after anterior cruciate ligament injury and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Adam L; Creaby, Mark W; Newton, Robert U; Steele, Julie R

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between knee functionality of anterior cruciate ligament deficient (ACLD) and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) patients and hamstring antagonist torque generated during resisted knee extension. Cross-sectional. Laboratory based. Male ACLD subjects (n=10) (18-35 y) and 27 matched males who had undergone ACLR (14 patella tendon [PT] grafts and 13 combined semitendinosus/gracilis tendon grafts). Not applicable. Knee functionality was rated (0- to 100-point scale) by using the Cincinnati Knee Rating System. Using electromyography data from the semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris muscles, we created a mathematical model to estimate the opposing torque generated by the hamstrings during isokinetic knee extension in 10 degrees intervals from 80 degrees to 10 degrees knee flexion. Pearson product-moment correlations revealed that more functional ACLD subjects generated significantly (P<.05) higher hamstring antagonist torque throughout knee extension. In contrast, more functional PT subjects produced significantly lower hamstring antagonist torque at 80 degrees to 70 degrees knee flexion, whereas no significant associations were found between hamstring antagonist torque and knee functionality for the ST/gracilis tendon subjects. An increased hamstring antagonist torque generated by the more functional ACLD subjects, reflective of increased hamstring contractile force, is thought to represent a protective mechanism to compensate for mechanical instability. The restoration of anterior knee stability through ACLR negates the need for augmented hamstring antagonist torque.

  5. Anteriorization of the Normally Acting Inferior Oblique Muscles to Treat Dissociated Vertical Deviation Associated With Juvenile Glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Rehab Rashad

    2017-10-09

    A case of dissociated vertical deviation, ptosis, and juvenile glaucoma is described. J deformity anteriorization of the normally acting inferior oblique muscles was chosen to preserve the superior fornix for glaucoma surgeries by avoiding superior rectus recession and to prevent narrowing of the palpebral fissure by avoiding an inferior rectus tuck. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54:e63-e66.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. The relationship between quadriceps muscle force, knee flexion, and anterior cruciate ligament strain in an in vitro simulated jump landing.

    PubMed

    Withrow, Thomas J; Huston, Laura J; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2006-02-01

    An instrumented cadaveric knee construct was used to quantify the association between impact force, quadriceps force, knee flexion angle, and anterior cruciate ligament relative strain in simulated unipedal jump landings. Anterior cruciate ligament strain will correlate with impact force, quadriceps force, and knee flexion angle. Descriptive laboratory study. Eleven cadaveric knees (age, 70.8 [19.3] years; 5 male; 6 female) were mounted in a custom fixture with the tibia and femur secured to a triaxial load cell. Quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle forces were simulated using pretensioned steel cables (stiffness, 7 kN/cm), and the quadriceps tendon force was measured using a load cell. Mean strain on the anteromedial bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a DVRT. With the knee in 25 degrees of flexion, the construct was vertically loaded by an impact force initially directed 4 cm posterior to the knee joint center. Tibiofemoral kinematics was measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system. The increase in anterior cruciate ligament relative strain was proportional to the increase in quadriceps force (r(2) = 0.74; P < .00001) and knee flexion angle (r(2) = 0.88; P < .00001) but was not correlated with the impact force (r(2) = 0.009; P = .08). The increase in knee flexion and quadriceps force during this simulated 1-footed landing strongly influenced the relative strain on the anteromedial bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament. These results suggest that even in the presence of knee flexor muscle forces, the increase in quadriceps force required to prevent the knee from flexing during landing can place the anterior cruciate ligament at risk for large strains.

  7. Acromiohumeral Distance During Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation of the Lower Trapezius and Serratus Anterior Muscles in Healthy Participants

    PubMed Central

    Bdaiwi, Alya H.; Mackenzie, Tanya Anne; Herrington, Lee; Horsley, Ian; Cools, Ann M.

    2015-01-01

    Context Compromise to the acromiohumeral distance has been reported in participants with subacromial impingement syndrome compared with healthy participants. In clinical practice, patients with subacromial shoulder impingement are given strengthening programs targeting the lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscles to increase scapular posterior tilt and upward rotation. We are the first to use neuromuscular electrical stimulation to stimulate these muscle groups and evaluate how the muscle contraction affects the acromiohumeral distance. Objective To investigate if electrical muscle stimulation of the LT and SA muscles, both separately and simultaneously, increases the acromiohumeral distance and to identify which muscle-group contraction or combination most influences the acromiohumeral distance. Design Controlled laboratory study. Setting Human performance laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Twenty participants (10 men and 10 women, age = 26.9 ± 8.0 years, body mass index = 23.8) were screened. Intervention(s) Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the LT and SA. Main Outcome Measure(s) Ultrasound measurement of the acromiohumeral distance. Results Acromiohumeral distance increased during contraction via neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the LT muscle (t19 = −3.89, P = .004), SA muscle (t19 = −7.67, P = .001), and combined LT and SA muscles (t19 = −5.09, P = .001). We observed no differences in the increased acromiohumeral distance among the 3 procedures (F2,57 = 3.109, P = .08). Conclusions Our results supported the hypothesis that the muscle force couple around the scapula is important in rehabilitation and scapular control and influences acromiohumeral distance. PMID:25933249

  8. Surface electromyographic patterns of masticatory, neck, and trunk muscles in temporomandibular joint dysfunction patients undergoing anterior repositioning splint therapy.

    PubMed

    Tecco, Simona; Tetè, Stefano; D'Attilio, Michele; Perillo, Letizia; Festa, Felice

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the surface electromyographic (sEMG) activity of neck, trunk, and masticatory muscles in subjects with temporomandibular joint (TMJ) internal derangement treated with anterior mandibular repositioning splints. sEMG activities of the muscles in 34 adult subjects (22 females and 12 males; mean age 30.4 years) with TMJ internal derangement were compared with a control group of 34 untreated adults (20 females and 14 males; mean age 31.8 years). sEMG activities of seven muscles (anterior and posterior temporalis, masseter, posterior cervicals, sternocleidomastoid, and upper and lower trapezius) were studied bilaterally, with the mandible in the rest position and during maximal voluntary clenching (MVC), at the beginning of therapy (T0) and after 10 weeks of treatment (T1). Paired and Student's t-tests were undertaken to determine differences between the T0 and T1 data and in sEMG activity between the study and control groups. At T0, paired masseter, sternocleidomastoid, and cervical muscles, in addition to the left anterior temporal and right lower trapezius, showed significantly greater sEMG activity (P = 0.0001; P = 0.0001; for left cervical, P = 0.03; for right cervical, P = 0.0001; P = 0.006 and P = 0.007 muscles, respectively) compared with the control group. This decreased over the remaining study period, such that after treatment, sEMG activity revealed no statistically significant difference when compared with the control group. During MVC at T0, paired masseter and anterior and posterior temporalis muscles showed significantly lower sEMG activity (P = 0.03; P = 0.005 and P = 0.04, respectively) compared with the control group. In contrast, at T1 sEMG activity significantly increased (P = 0.02; P = 0.004 and P = 0.04, respectively), but no difference was observed in relation to the control group. Splint therapy in subjects with internal disk derangement seems to affect sEMG activity of the masticatory, neck, and trunk

  9. CT-guided injection of the anterior and middle scalene muscles: technique and complications.

    PubMed

    Mashayekh, A; Christo, P J; Yousem, D M; Pillai, J J

    2011-03-01

    Anterior scalene block is a helpful diagnostic test for NTOS and a good predictor of surgical outcome. The purpose of this study was to describe the technique, success rate, and complications associated with CT-guided anesthetic and botulinum toxin injection of the ASM/MSM in patients with NTOS symptoms. One hundred six participants (mean age, 41.5 ± 10 years; 80 women) were identified via a retrospective review of medical records for CT-guided scalene blocks. The procedure was evaluated regarding the technical success, defined as satisfactory detection of the ASM/MSM; intramuscular needle placement; intramuscular injection of contrast; appropriate delivery of medication; and frequency of unintended BP block or other complications. We also determined the outcome of patients who underwent surgery following the block. Study participants underwent 146 scalene injections, 83 blocks, and 63 chemodenervations, which were included in this investigation. In all cases, detection of the ASM/MSM and intramuscular needle placement was satisfactory. Postprocedural complications included 5 (3.4%) temporary BP blocks, 1 patient with (0.7%) Horner sign, 7 (4.8%) needle-induced pain reports, 1 (0.7%) case of dysphagia, and 2 (1.4%) instances of muscle weakness. There were no major complications reported. The rate of good outcome following surgery was the same in patients with positive versus negative blocks, 30/43 (70%) versus 5/7 (71%), respectively. CT guidance is a useful adjunct in performing accurate ASM/MSM blocks with a low rate of minor complications.

  10. Interosseous nerve transfers for tibialis anterior muscle paralysis (foot drop): a human cadaver-based feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Pirela-Cruz, Miguel A; Hansen, Uel; Terreros, Daniel A; Rossum, Alfred; West, Priscilla

    2009-03-01

    This study explored the anatomical feasibility of using an interosseous nerve transfer (routed between the tibia and fibula) to restore motor function to the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle, following injury to the common peroneal nerve (resulting in a foot drop). The specific nerve branches evaluated as possible donor nerves included the nerves to the medial gastrocnemius, the lateral gastrocnemius, and the soleus muscles. All nerve transfers were accomplished using a direct interosseous route and a direct repair (one medial gastrocnemius transfer did require interpositional grafting). The distance from the repair site to the TA muscle was shortest for the transfer using the nerve branch to the soleus. Histologically, the nerve branch to the soleus was most similar to the branch to the TA for both axonal count and cross-sectional area. A two-incision surgical approach using a fibular window (mobilizing a fibular segment after double osteotomy) and interosseous routing of the transfer is proposed.

  11. Kinematically aligned total knee arthroplasty limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and abnormal tibial contact kinematics during passive flexion.

    PubMed

    Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-06-01

    Following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), high tibial forces, large differences in tibial forces between the medial and lateral compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion indicate abnormal knee function. Because the goal of kinematically aligned TKA is to restore native knee function without soft tissue release, the objectives were to determine how well kinematically aligned TKA limits high tibial forces, differences in tibial forces between compartments, and anterior translation of the contact locations of the femoral component on the tibial component during passive flexion. Using cruciate retaining components, kinematically aligned TKA was performed on thirteen human cadaveric knee specimens with use of manual instruments without soft tissue release. The tibial forces and tibial contact locations were measured in both the medial and lateral compartments from 0° to 120° of passive flexion using a custom tibial force sensor. The average total tibial force (i.e. sum of medial + lateral) ranged from 5 to 116 N. The only significant average differences in tibial force between compartments occurred at 0° of flexion (29 N, p = 0.0008). The contact locations in both compartments translated posteriorly in all thirteen kinematically aligned TKAs by an average of 14 mm (p < 0.0001) and 18 mm (p < 0.0001) in the medial and lateral compartments, respectively, from 0° to 120° of flexion. After kinematically aligned TKA, average total tibial forces due to the soft tissue restraints were limited to 116 N, average differences in tibial forces between compartments were limited to 29 N, and a net posterior translation of the tibial contact locations was observed in all kinematically aligned TKAs during passive flexion from 0° to 120°, which are similar to what has been measured previously in native knees. While confirmation in vivo is warranted, these findings give

  12. Acute fatigue impairs neuromuscular activity of anterior cruciate ligament-agonist muscles in female team handball players.

    PubMed

    Zebis, M K; Bencke, J; Andersen, L L; Alkjaer, T; Suetta, C; Mortensen, P; Kjaer, M; Aagaard, P

    2011-12-01

    In sports, like team handball, fatigue has been associated with an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. While effects of fatigue on muscle function are commonly assessed during maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MVC), such measurements may not relate to the muscle function during match play. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of muscle fatigue induced by a simulated handball match on neuromuscular strategy during a functional sidecutting movement, associated with the incidence of ACL injury. Fourteen female team handball players were tested for neuromuscular activity [electromyography (EMG)] during a sidecutting maneuver on a force plate, pre and post a simulated handball match. MVC was obtained during maximal isometric quadriceps and hamstring contraction. The simulated handball match consisted of exercises mimicking handball match activity. Whereas the simulated handball match induced a decrease in MVC strength for both the quadriceps and hamstring muscles (P<0.05), a selective decrease in hamstring neuromuscular activity was seen during sidecutting (P<0.05). This study shows impaired ACL-agonist muscle (i.e. hamstring) activity during sidecutting in response to acute fatigue induced by handball match play. Thus, screening procedures should involve functional movements to reveal specific fatigue-induced deficits in ACL-agonist muscle activation during high-risk phases of match play. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. The soleal line: a cause of tibial pseudoperiostitis.

    PubMed

    Levine, A H; Pais, M J; Berinson, H; Amenta, P S

    1976-04-01

    An unusually prominent soleal line (a normal anatomic variant) may mimic periosteal reaction along the posterior margin of the proximal tibial shaft. This area of pseudoperiostitis is differentiated from hyperostoses arising from the anterior tibial tubercle and the interosseous membrane. It is always associated with normal, undisturbed architecture of the underlying bone.

  14. Aberrant gastrocnemius muscle innervation by tibial nerve afferents after implantation of chitosan tubes impregnated with progesterone favored locomotion recovery in rats with transected sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Sarabia-Estrada, Rachel; Bañuelos-Pineda, Jacinto; Osuna Carrasco, Laura P; Jiménez-Vallejo, Salvador; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Rivas-Celis, Efrain; Dueñas-Jiménez, Judith M; Dueñas-Jiménez, Sergio H

    2015-07-01

    Transection of peripheral nerves produces loss of sensory and/or motor function. After complete nerve cutting, the distal and proximal segment ends retract, but if both ends are bridged with unaltered chitosan, progesterone-impregnated chitosan, or silicone tubes, an axonal repair process begins. Progesterone promotes nerve repair and has neuroprotective effects thwarting regulation of neuron survival, inflammation, and edema. It also modulates aberrant axonal sprouting and demyelination. The authors compared the efficacy of nerve recovery after implantation of progesterone-loaded chitosan, unaltered chitosan, or silicone tubes after sciatic nerve transection in rats. After surgical removal of a 5-mm segment of the proximal sciatic nerve, rats were implanted with progesterone-loaded chitosan, unaltered chitosan, or silicone tubes in the transected nerve for evaluating progesterone and chitosan effects on sciatic nerve repair and ipsilateral hindlimb kinematic function, as well as on gastrocnemius electro-myographic responses. In some experiments, tube implantation was performed 90 minutes after nerve transection. At 90 days after sciatic nerve transection and tube implantation, rats with progesterone-loaded chitosan tubes showed knee angular displacement recovery and better outcomes for step length, velocity of locomotion, and normal hindlimb raising above the ground. In contrast, rats with chitosan-only tubes showed reduced normal raising and pendulum-like hindlimb movements. Aberrant fibers coming from the tibial nerve innervated the gastrocnemius muscle, producing electromyographic responses. Electrical responses in the gastrocnemius muscle produced by sciatic nerve stimulation occurred only when the distal nerve segment was stimulated; they were absent when the proximal or intratubular segment was stimulated. A clear sciatic nerve morphology with some myelinated fiber fascicles appeared in the tube section in rats with progesterone-impregnated chitosan tubes

  15. Comparison of the effects of fatigue on kinematics and muscle activation between men and women after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Lessi, Giovanna Camparis; Silva, Rodrigo Scattone; Serrão, Fábio Viadanna

    2018-05-01

    Studies comparing the effects of fatigue between men and women after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction are lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of muscle fatigue on trunk, pelvis and lower limb kinematics and on lower limb muscle activation between male and female athletes who underwent ACL reconstruction. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory setting. Fourteen recreational athletes (7 males and 7 females) with unilateral ACL reconstruction participated of this study. Trunk, pelvis and lower limb kinematics and muscle activation of the vastus lateralis, gluteus medius and gluteus maximus were evaluated during a single-leg drop vertical jump landing before and after a fatigue protocol. Females had greater peak knee abduction after fatigue in relation to before fatigue (P = 0.008), and in relation to men after fatigue (P = 0.011). Also, in females, peak knee abduction was greater in the reconstructed limb in relation to the non-reconstructed limb after fatigue (P = 0.029). Males showed a greater mean amplitude of activation of the vastus lateralis muscle after fatigue in relation to before fatigue (P < 0.001). Muscle fatigue produced kinematic alterations that have been shown to increase the risk for a second ACL injury in female athletes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Electrocoagulation on a fragment of anterior abdominal rectal muscle for the control of presacral bleeding during rectal resection].

    PubMed

    Casal Núñez, José Enrique; Martínez, María Teresa García; Poblador, Alejandro Ruano

    2012-03-01

    Presacral venous haemorrhage during rectal movement is low, but is often massive, and even fatal. Our objective is the "in vitro" determination of the results of electrocoagulation applied to a fragment of muscle on the sacral bone surface during rectal resection due to a malignant neoplasm of the rectum. Single-pole coagulation was applied "in vitro" with the selector at maximum power on a 2×2 cms muscle fragment, applied to the anterior side of the IV sacral vertebra until reaching boiling point. The method was used on 6 patients with bleeding of the presacral venous plexus. In the "in vitro" study, boiling point was reached in 90 seconds from applying the single-pole current on the muscle fragment. Electrocoagulation was applied to a 2×2 cm rectal muscle fragment in 6 patients with presacral venous haemorrhage, using pressure on the surface of the presacral bone, with the stopping of the bleeding being achieved in all cases. The use of indirect electrocoagulation on a fragment of the rectus abdominis muscle is a straightforward and highly effective technique for controlling presacral venous haemorrhage. Copyright © 2011 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Isometric muscle activation of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles varies by arm position: a pilot study with healthy volunteers with implications for rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Junsuke; Arai, Ryuzo; Ito, Taisuke; Shingu, Nobuyuki; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Ibuki, Satoko; Ichihashi, Noriaki; Matsuda, Shuichi; Moritani, Toshio

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the most appropriate angle and moving direction of the arm for improving coordination of the periscapular muscles, including the serratus anterior (SA), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), and lower trapezius (LT). Muscle activation amplitudes were evaluated in the SA, UT, MT, and LT in 11 healthy subjects by use of surface electromyography. The subjects were asked to maintain the arm position at 5 elevated positions with maximal effort against applied manual forces, which were directed from upper to lower (test 1), lower to upper (test 2), posterior to anterior in the frontal plane and lateral to medial in the sagittal plane (test 3), and anterior to posterior in the frontal plane and medial to lateral in the sagittal plane (test 4). The relative activity of the UT with respect to the SA, MT, and LT was calculated, resulting in the UT/SA, UT/MT, and UT/LT ratios. Test 4 in all positions but 150° of elevation in the frontal plane showed high activity of the SA with a low UT/SA ratio. High MT activity with a low UT/MT ratio was observed during test 3 at the 90° elevated position, whereas high LT activity without UT hyperactivation was not found. To strengthen the periscapular muscles in the balanced condition, horizontal adduction is recommended for the SA. Horizontal abduction at the 90° elevated position should be effective for the MT. Because no technique in this study was effective for the LT, further studies are needed. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Application of serratus anterior muscle flap combined with breast implants for breast reconstruction after modified radical mastectomy].

    PubMed

    Chai, Lijun; Zhang, Xuehui

    2017-09-01

    To investigate effectiveness of the combination of serratus anterior muscle flap and breast implants for breast reconstruction after modified radical mastectomy. Between January 2015 and December 2015, 25 female patients with breast cancer were enrolled, aged 24-62 years (mean, 40.6 years). The tumor located at left side in 9 cases and right side in 16 cases; 14 cases were in the left upper quadrant, 4 cases were in the left lower quadrant, 7 cases were on the top of the breast. All cases were invasive ductal carcinoma. According to TNM staging, 14 cases were at stageⅠand 11 cases were at stageⅡA. The diameter of lumps were all less than 3 cm. All those lumps were solitary and without distant metastasis. The sentinel nodes were all negative. After modified radical mastectomy, the breasts were reconstructed by serratus anterior muscle flap and breast implants. The nipples were spared in 22 cases. The operation time was 113-148 minutes (mean, 136 minutes). All breasts survived and incisions healed at stageⅠ. There was no complication such as hematoma, infection, etc . All patients were followed up 6-18 months (mean, 15 months). Except 1 case, the others were evaluated according to the criteria of the reconstructed breast at 12 months after operation. Among them, 23 cases were evaluated as good and 1 case as fair. There was no tumor recurrence during the follow-up period. The combination of serratus anterior muscle flap and breast implants after the modified radical mastectomy is a handy approach of breast reconstruction which is less harmful with few postoperative complications. It also gains a high degree of satisfaction from patients for good breast shape.

  19. Effect of axial tibial torque direction on ACL relative strain and strain rate in an in vitro simulated pivot landing.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youkeun K; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2012-04-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries most frequently occur under the large loads associated with a unipedal jump landing involving a cutting or pivoting maneuver. We tested the hypotheses that internal tibial torque would increase the anteromedial (AM) bundle ACL relative strain and strain rate more than would the corresponding external tibial torque under the large impulsive loads associated with such landing maneuvers. Twelve cadaveric female knees [mean (SD) age: 65.0 (10.5) years] were tested. Pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit forces maintained an initial knee flexion angle of 15°. A compound impulsive test load (compression, flexion moment, and internal or external tibial torque) was applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3D knee loads and tibofemoral kinematics. AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3 mm DVRT. In this repeated measures experiment, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to test the null hypotheses with p < 0.05 considered significant. The mean (±SD) peak AM-ACL relative strains were 5.4 ± 3.7% and 3.1 ± 2.8% under internal and external tibial torque, respectively. The corresponding mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL strain rates reached 254.4 ± 160.1%/s and 179.4 ± 109.9%/s, respectively. The hypotheses were supported in that the normalized mean peak AM-ACL relative strain and strain rate were 70 and 42% greater under internal than under external tibial torque, respectively (p = 0.023, p = 0.041). We conclude that internal tibial torque is a potent stressor of the ACL because it induces a considerably (70%) larger peak strain in the AM-ACL than does a corresponding external tibial torque. Copyright © 2011 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  20. EFFECT OF AXIAL TIBIAL TORQUE DIRECTION ON ACL RELATIVE STRAIN AND STRAIN RATE IN AN IN VITRO SIMULATED PIVOT LANDING

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youkeun K.; Kreinbrink, Jennifer L.; Wojtys, Edward M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries most frequently occur under the large loads associated with a unipedal jump landing involving a cutting or pivoting maneuver. We tested the hypotheses that internal tibial torque would increase the anteromedial (AM) bundle ACL relative strain and strain rate more than would the corresponding external tibial torque under the large impulsive loads associated with such landing maneuvers. Twelve cadaveric female knees [mean (SD) age: 65.0 (10.5) years] were tested. Pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring and gastrocnemius muscle-tendon unit forces maintained an initial knee flexion angle of 15°. A compound impulsive test load (compression, flexion moment and internal or external tibial torque) was applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3-D knee loads and tibofemoral kinematics. AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3mm DVRT. In this repeated measures experiment, the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test was used to test the null hypotheses with p<0.05 considered significant. The mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL relative strains were 5.4±3.7 % and 3.1±2.8 % under internal and external tibial torque, respectively. The corresponding mean (± SD) peak AM-ACL strain rates reached 254.4±160.1 %/sec and 179.4±109.9 %/sec, respectively. The hypotheses were supported in that the normalized mean peak AM-ACL relative strain and strain rate were 70% and 42% greater under internal than external tibial torque, respectively (p=0.023, p=0.041). We conclude that internal tibial torque is a potent stressor of the ACL because it induces a considerably (70%) larger peak strain in the AM-ACL than does a corresponding external tibial torque. PMID:22025178

  1. Musculotendon and fascicle strains in anterior and posterior neck muscles during whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, Anita N; Brault, John R; Siegmund, Gunter P

    2007-04-01

    A biomechanical neck model combined with subject-specific kinematic and electromyographic data were used to calculate neck muscle strains during whiplash. To calculate the musculotendon and fascicle strains during whiplash and to compare these strains to published muscle injury thresholds. Previous work has shown potentially injurious musculotendon strains in sternocleidomastoid (SCM) during whiplash, but neither the musculotendon strains in posterior cervical muscles nor the fascicle strains in either muscle group have been examined. Experimental human subject data from rear-end automobile impacts were integrated with a biomechanical model of the neck musculoskeletal system. Subject-specific head kinematic data were imposed on the model, and neck musculotendon and fascicle strains and strain rates were computed. Electromyographic data from the sternocleidomastoid and the posterior cervical muscles were compared with strain data to determine which muscles were being eccentrically contracted. SCM experienced lengthening during the retraction phase of head/neck kinematics, whereas the posterior muscles (splenius capitis [SPL], semispinalis capitis [SEMI], and trapezius [TRAP]) lengthened during the rebound phase. Peak SCM fascicle lengthening strains averaged (+/-SD) 4% (+/-3%) for the subvolumes attached to the mastoid process and 7% (+/-5%) for the subvolume attached to the occiput. Posteriorly, peak fascicle strains were 21% (+/-14%) for SPL, 18% (+/-16%) for SEMI, and 5% (+/-4%) for TRAP, with SPL strains significantly greater than calculated in SCM or TRAP. Fascicle strains were, on average, 1.2 to 2.3 times greater than musculotendon strains. SCM and posterior muscle activity occurred during intervals of muscle fascicle lengthening. The cervical muscle strains induced during a rear-end impact exceed the previously-reported injury threshold for a single stretch of active muscle. Further, the larger strains experienced by extensor muscles are consistent with

  2. What Strains the Anterior Cruciate Ligament During a Pivot Landing?

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Youkeun K.; Lipps, David B.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The relative contributions of an axial tibial torque and frontal plane moment to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain during pivot landings are unknown. Hypothesis The peak normalized relative strain in the anteromedial (AM) bundle of the ACL is affected by the direction of the axial tibial torque but not by the direction of the frontal plane moment applied concurrently during a simulated jump landing. Study Design Controlled and descriptive laboratory studies. Methods Fifteen adult male knees with pretensioned knee muscle-tendon unit forces were loaded under a simulated pivot landing test. Compression, flexion moment, internal or external tibial torque, and knee varus or valgus moment were simultaneously applied to the distal tibia while recording the 3D knee loads and tibiofemoral kinematics. The AM-ACL relative strain was measured using a 3-mm differential variable reluctance transducer. The results were analyzed using nonparametric Wilcoxon signed–rank tests. A 3D dynamic biomechanical knee model was developed using ADAMS and validated to help interpret the experimental results. Results The mean (SD) peak AM-ACL relative strain was 192% greater (P <.001) under the internal tibial torque combined with a knee varus or valgus moment (7.0% [3.9%] and 7.0% [4.1%], respectively) than under external tibial torque with the same moments (2.4% [2.5%] and 2.4% [3.2%], respectively). The knee valgus moment augmented the AM-ACL strain due to the slope of the tibial plateau inducing mechanical coupling (ie, internal tibial rotation and knee valgus moment); this augmentation occurred before medial knee joint space opening. Conclusion An internal tibial torque combined with a knee valgus moment is the worst-case ACL loading condition. However, it is the internal tibial torque that primarily causes large ACL strain. Clinical Relevance Limiting the maximum coefficient of friction between the shoe and playing surface should limit the peak internal tibial torque

  3. Low-Level Laser Therapy (808 nm) Reduces Inflammatory Response and Oxidative Stress in Rat Tibialis Anterior Muscle After Cryolesion

    PubMed Central

    Assis, Lívia; Moretti, Ana I.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.; Cury, Vivian; Souza, Heraldo P.; Hamblin, Michael R.; Parizotto, Nivaldo A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objective Muscle regeneration is a complex phenomenon, involving coordinated activation of several cellular responses. During this process, oxidative stress and consequent tissue damage occur with a severity that may depend on the intensity and duration of the inflammatory response. Among the therapeutic approaches to attenuate inflammation and increase tissue repair, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may be a safe and effective clinical procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT on oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammatory mediators produced during a cryolesion of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in rats. Material and Methods Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20): control (BC), injured TA muscle without LLLT (IC), injured TA muscle submitted to LLLT (IRI). The injured region was irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days, starting immediately after the lesion using a AlGaAs laser (continuous wave, 808 nm, tip area of 0.00785 cm2, power 30 mW, application time 47 seconds, fluence 180 J/cm2; 3.8 mW/cm2; and total energy 1.4 J). The animals were sacrificed on the fourth day after injury. Results LLLT reduced oxidative and nitrative stress in injured muscle, decreased lipid peroxidation, nitrotyrosine formation and NO production, probably due to reduction in iNOS protein expression. Moreover, LLLT increased SOD gene expression, and decreased the inflammatory response as measured by gene expression of NF-kβ and COX-2 and by TNF-α and IL-1β concentration. Conclusion These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach to modulate oxidative and nitrative stress and to reduce inflammation in injured muscle. PMID:23001637

  4. Greater inadvertent muscle damage in direct anterior approach when compared with the direct superior approach for total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Amanatullah, D F; Masini, M A; Roger, D J; Pagnano, M W

    2016-08-01

    We wished to quantify the extent of soft-tissue damage sustained during minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty through the direct anterior (DA) and direct superior (DS) approaches. In eight cadavers, the DA approach was performed on one side, and the DS approach on the other, a single brand of uncemented hip prosthesis was implanted by two surgeons, considered expert in their surgical approaches. Subsequent reflection of the gluteus maximus allowed the extent of muscle and tendon damage to be measured and the percentage damage to each anatomical structure to be calculated. The DA approach caused substantially greater damage to the gluteus minimus muscle and tendon when compared with the DS approach (t-test, p = 0.049 and 0.003, respectively). The tensor fascia lata and rectus femoris muscles were damaged only in the DA approach. There was no difference in the amount of damage to the gluteus medius muscle and tendon, piriformis tendon, obturator internus tendon, obturator externus tendon or quadratus femoris muscle between approaches. The posterior soft-tissue releases of the DA approach damaged the gluteus minimus muscle and tendon, piriformis tendon and obturator internus tendon. The DS approach caused less soft-tissue damage than the DA approach. However the clinical relevance is unknown. Further clinical outcome studies, radiographic evaluation of component position, gait analyses and serum biomarker levels are necessary to evaluate and corroborate the safety and efficacy of the DS approach. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2016;98-B1036-42. ©2016 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  5. Low-level laser therapy (808 nm) reduces inflammatory response and oxidative stress in rat tibialis anterior muscle after cryolesion.

    PubMed

    Assis, Lívia; Moretti, Ana I S; Abrahão, Thalita B; Cury, Vivian; Souza, Heraldo P; Hamblin, Michael R; Parizotto, Nivaldo A

    2012-11-01

    Muscle regeneration is a complex phenomenon, involving coordinated activation of several cellular responses. During this process, oxidative stress and consequent tissue damage occur with a severity that may depend on the intensity and duration of the inflammatory response. Among the therapeutic approaches to attenuate inflammation and increase tissue repair, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) may be a safe and effective clinical procedure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of LLLT on oxidative/nitrative stress and inflammatory mediators produced during a cryolesion of the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in rats. Sixty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 20): control (BC), injured TA muscle without LLLT (IC), injured TA muscle submitted to LLLT (IRI). The injured region was irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days, starting immediately after the lesion using a AlGaAs laser (continuous wave, 808 nm, tip area of 0.00785 cm(2) , power 30 mW, application time 47 seconds, fluence 180 J/cm(2) ; 3.8 mW/cm(2) ; and total energy 1.4 J). The animals were sacrificed on the fourth day after injury. LLLT reduced oxidative and nitrative stress in injured muscle, decreased lipid peroxidation, nitrotyrosine formation and NO production, probably due to reduction in iNOS protein expression. Moreover, LLLT increased SOD gene expression, and decreased the inflammatory response as measured by gene expression of NF-kβ and COX-2 and by TNF-α and IL-1β concentration. These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach to modulate oxidative and nitrative stress and to reduce inflammation in injured muscle. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Proximal Tibial Bone Graft

    MedlinePlus

    ... All Site Content AOFAS / FootCareMD / Treatments Proximal Tibial Bone Graft Page Content What is a bone graft? Bone grafts may be needed for various ... the proximal tibia. What is a proximal tibial bone graft? Proximal tibial bone graft (PTBG) is a ...

  7. Concordance of the location of the innervation zone of the tibialis anterior muscle using voluntary and imposed contractions by electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Venegas, R A; Bralic, M P; Cordero, J J; Cavada, G; Araneda, O F

    2016-04-01

    The innervation zone (IZ) corresponds to the location of the neuromuscular junctions. Its location can be determined by using arranged surface linear electrode arrays. Typically, voluntary muscle contractions (VC) are used in this method. However, it also may be necessary to locate the IZ under clinical conditions such as spasticity, in which this type of contraction is difficult to perform. Therefore, contractions imposed by electrostimulation (ES) can be an alternative. There is little background comparing the locations of IZ obtained by two different types of contractions. Evaluate the concordance between using voluntary and imposed contractions from electrostimulation in order to determine the location of the innervation zone of the tibialis anterior muscle in healthy volunteers. The tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of sixteen volunteers (men: 8; women: 8; age: 22.1±1.4years, weight: 61.6±7.5kg, height: 167.1±7.5cm) were evaluated using a linear electrode array. The IZ of the TA muscle was located using two types of muscle contractions, voluntary (10% MVC) and imposed contractions by ES. The concordance between both conditions was evaluated using the Bland-Altman method and the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC). The analyses were applied to the absolute and relative positions to the length of an anatomical landmark frame. CCC for absolute position was 0.98 (p<0.0001, 95% CI [0.98-1.00], and CCC for relative positions also was 0.98 (p<0.0001, 95% CI [0.97-1.00]). The Bland-Altman analysis for absolute data showed an average difference of -0.63mm (SD: 4.1). Whereas, for adjusted data, the average difference was -0.20% (SD: 1.2). The power of the results, based on absolute data, was 98%, whereas for relative data, 82%. In healthy volunteers, there was a substantially concordance between the location of the IZ of the TA muscle derived from using contractions imposed by ES and the location derived from using VC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  8. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-12-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period.

  9. Effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Jae-Kwang; Choi, Ho-Suk; Shin, Jun-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined the effects of neuromuscular training on knee joint stability after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 16 adults who underwent arthroscopic anterior cruciate reconstruction and neuromuscular training. The Lysholm scale was used to assess functional disorders on the affected knee joint. A KT-2000 arthrometer was used to measure anterior displacement of the tibia against the femur. Surface electromyography was used to detect the muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus before and after neuromuscular training. [Results] There was significant relaxation in tibial anterior displacement of the affected and sound sides in the supine position before neuromuscular training. Furthermore, the difference in the tibial anterior displacement of the affected knee joints in the standing position was reduced after neuromuscular training. Moreover, the variation of the muscle activation evoked higher muscle activation of the vastus medialis oblique, vastus lateralis, biceps femoris, and semitendinosus. [Conclusion] Neuromuscular training may improve functional joint stability in patients with orthopedic musculoskeletal injuries in the postoperative period. PMID:26834316

  10. Muscle Damage After Total Hip Arthroplasty Through the Direct Anterior Approach for Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Okura, Toshiaki; Ochiai, Satoshi; Fujibayashi, Takayoshi

    2017-08-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) through the direct anterior approach (DAA) is known to cause less muscle damage than other surgical approaches. However, more complex primary cases, such as developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), might often cause muscle damage. The objective of the present study was to clarify the muscle damage observed 1 year after THA through the DAA for DDH using magnetic resonance imaging. We prospectively compared the muscle cross-sectional area (M-CSA) and fatty atrophy (FA) in muscles by magnetic resonance imaging and the Harris hip score before and at 1-year follow-up after THA through the DAA in 3 groups: 37 patients with Crowe group 1 DDH (D1), 13 patients with Crowe group 2 and 3 DDH (D2 + 3), and 12 patients with osteonecrosis as a control. THA through the DAA for D1 displayed significantly decreased M-CSA and significantly increased FA in the gluteus minimus (Gmini), the tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and the obturator internus (OI). Patients with D2 + 3 group did not have decreased M-CSA in the TFL or increased FA in the Gmini. Postoperatively, a significant negative correlation was observed between the M-CSA and FA for the OI in patients with D1 and D2 + 3. THA through the DAA for DDH caused the damage in the Gmini, the TFL, and the OI; severe damage was observed in the OI, showing increased FA with decreased M-CSA in patients with both D1 and D2 + 3. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Individual Strengthening Exercises for Anterior Pelvic Tilt Muscles on Back Pain, Pelvic Angle, and Lumbar ROMs of a LBP Patient with Flat Back.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this paper is to report the effect of individual strengthening exercises for the anterior pelvic tilt muscles on back pain, pelvic tilt angle, and lumbar ROM of a low back pain (LBP) patient with flat back. [Subject] A 37 year-old male, who complained of LBP pain at L3-5 levels with flat back, participated. [Methods] He performed the individual strengthening exercises for anterior pelvic tilt muscles (erector spinae,iliopsoas, rectus femoris). [Results] Pelvic tilt angles of the right and left sides were recovered to normal ranges. His lumbar ROMs increased, and low back pain decreased. [Conclusion] We suggest that individual resistance exercises are a necessary approach for effective and fast strengthening of pelvic anterior tilt muscles in LBP with flat back.

  12. Tibial bone fractures occurring after medioproximal tibial bone grafts for oral and maxillofacial reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Kyu; Cho, Hyun-Young; Pae, Sang-Pill; Jung, Bum-Sang; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Seo, Ji-Hoon

    2013-12-01

    Oral and maxillofacial defects often require bone grafts to restore missing tissues. Well-recognized donor sites include the anterior and posterior iliac crest, rib, and intercalvarial diploic bone. The proximal tibia has also been explored as an alternative donor site. The use of the tibia for bone graft has many benefits, such as procedural ease, adequate volume of cancellous and cortical bone, and minimal complications. Although patients rarely complain of pain, swelling, discomfort, or dysfunction, such as gait disturbance, both patients and surgeons should pay close attention to such after effects due to the possibility of tibial fracture. The purpose of this study is to analyze tibial fractures that occurring after osteotomy for a medioproximal tibial graft. An analysis was intended for patients who underwent medioproximal tibial graft between March 2004 and December 2011 in Inha University Hospital. A total of 105 subjects, 30 females and 75 males, ranged in age from 17 to 78 years. We investigated the age, weight, circumstance, and graft timing in relation to tibial fracture. Tibial fractures occurred in four of 105 patients. There were no significant differences in graft region, shape, or scale between the fractured and non-fractured patients. Patients who undergo tibial grafts must be careful of excessive external force after the operation.

  13. Topographical and depth-dependent glycosaminoglycan concentration in canine medial tibial cartilage 3 weeks after anterior cruciate ligament transection surgery—a microscopic imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Mittelstaedt, Daniel; Kahn, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Medical imaging has become an invaluable tool to diagnose damage to cartilage. Depletion of glycosaminoglycans (GAG) has been shown to be one of the early signs of cartilage degradation. In order to investigate the topographical changes in GAG concentration caused by the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) surgery in a canine model, microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (µMRI) and microscopic computed tomography (µCT) were used to measure the GAG concentration with correlation from a biochemical assay, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), to understand where the topographical and depth-dependent changes in the GAG concentration occur. Methods This study used eight knee joints from four canines, which were examined 3 weeks after ACLT surgery. From right (n=3) and left (n=1) medial tibias of the ACLT and the contralateral side, two ex vivo specimens from each of four locations (interior, central, exterior and posterior) were imaged before and after equilibration in contrast agents. The cartilage blocks imaged using µMRI were approximately 3 mm × 5 mm and were imaged before and after eight hours submersion in a gadolinium (Gd) contrast agent with an in-plane pixel resolution of 17.6 µm2 and an image slice thickness of 1 mm. The cartilage blocks imaged using µCT were approximately 2 mm × 1 mm and were imaged before and after 24 hours submersed in ioxaglate with an isotropic voxel resolution of 13.4 µm3. ICP-OES was used to quantify the bulk GAG at each topographical location. Results The pre-contrast µMRI and µCT results did not demonstrate significant differences in GAG between the ACLT and contralateral cartilage at all topographical locations. The post-contrast µMRI and µCT results demonstrated topographically similar significant differences in GAG concentrations between the ACLT and contralateral tibia. Using µMRI, the GAG concentrations (mg/mL) were measured for the ACLT and contralateral

  14. Electromyographic study of hip muscles involved in total hip arthroplasty: Surprising results using the direct anterior minimally invasive approach.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jules; Razanabola, Fredson; Beldame, Julien; Van Driessche, Stéphane; Brunel, Helena; Poirier, Thomas; Matsoukis, Jean; Billuart, Fabien

    2018-05-16

    The functional and clinical benefit of minimally invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA) is well-known, but the literature reports impaired gait and posture parameters as compared to the general population, especially following use of the anterior minimally invasive approach, which has more severe impact on posture than the posterior approach. The reasons for this impairment, however, remain unexplained. We therefore conducted a surface electromyography (sEMG) study of the hip muscles liable to be affected by arthroplasty surgery: gluteus maximus (GMax), gluteus medius (GMed), tensor fasciae latae (TFL), and sartorius (S). The study addressed the following questions: (1) Is bipodal and unipodal GMed activity greater following anterior THA than in asymptomatic subjects? (2) Is a single manual test sufficient to assess maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) in hip abductors (GMax, GMed, TFL) and flexors (TFL, S)? Bipodal and unipodal GMed activity is greater following anterior THA than in asymptomatic subjects. Eleven patients with anterior THA and 11 asymptomatic subjects, matched for age, gender and body-mass index, were included. Subjects underwent 3 postural tests: bipodal, eyes closed (BEC), unipodal on the operated side (UOP), and unipodal on the non-operated side (UnOP), with unipodal results averaged between both sides in the asymptomatic subjects. Data were recorded from 4-channel EMG and a force plate. EMG test activity was normalized as a ratio of MVC activity. Postural parameters (mean center of pressure displacement speed) were poorer and sEMG activity higher in anterior THA than asymptomatic subjects (p<0.005). On the BEC test, GMax and GMed activity was higher on both operated and non-operated sides than in asymptomatic controls (respectively, 0.15±0.12 and 0.12±0.6 versus 0.07±0.06 for GMax, and 0.13±0.08 and 0.13±0.08 versus 0.08±0.05 for GMed; p<0.05). On unipodal tests, both UOP and UnOP GMed activities were higher than in controls (respectively

  15. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT WITH THE CENTRAL THIRD OF THE QUADRICEPS MUSCLE TENDON: ANALYSIS OF 10-YEAR RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Marcus Valladares; Junior, Lúcio Honório de Carvalho; Terra, Dalton Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Assess clinical results using two different protocols, 10 years after ACL reconstruction surgery with the central third of quadriceps muscle tendon (QT). Method: Between November /1997 and April/1998, 25 patients were submitted to 25 ACL reconstructions with QT by transtibial technique. The bone portion of the graft was fixated on femoral tunnel with interference screw and the tendinous portion of tibial tunnel with screw with washer. Two patients injured the new when playing soccer. Six patients were not available for follow-up (24%). Seventeen patients were evaluated, 15 men and two women, with mean age at surgery time of 28.53 ± 6.64 years. All patients were examined at six months, one year, and ten years after surgery. Clinical evaluation was made by the Lysholm scale, and the knee evaluation, with the Hospital for Special Surgery scale. Results: The patients had their injuries operated after 9.87 ± 14.42 months of the accident. According to Lysholm scale, the results at the end of the first year were 98.71 ± 2.47 and, after 10 years, 97.35 ± 3.12. Using the Hospital for Special Surgery scale, the mean score was 95.07 ± 5.23 in one year, and 94.87 ± 4.16 in 10 years. All patients returned to their professional activities with the same previous status. Fifteen (88.24%) patients were able to return to their sports activities, one by modifying the practice, while another one switched to another sport. No patient complained of pain on the donor area in the medium and long term. The sports return rate was excellent, and no changes were found on the femoropatellar joint. PMID:27022511

  16. Importance of tibial slope for stability of the posterior cruciate ligament deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Giffin, J Robert; Stabile, Kathryne J; Zantop, Thore; Vogrin, Tracy M; Woo, Savio L-Y; Harner, Christopher D

    2007-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that increasing tibial slope can shift the resting position of the tibia anteriorly. As a result, sagittal osteotomies that alter slope have recently been proposed for treatment of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) injuries. Increasing tibial slope with an osteotomy shifts the resting position anteriorly in a PCL-deficient knee, thereby partially reducing the posterior tibial "sag" associated with PCL injury. This shift in resting position from the increased slope causes a decrease in posterior tibial translation compared with the PCL-deficient knee in response to posterior tibial and axial compressive loads. Controlled laboratory study. Three knee conditions were tested with a robotic universal force-moment sensor testing system: intact, PCL-deficient, and PCL-deficient with increased tibial slope. Tibial slope was increased via a 5-mm anterior opening wedge osteotomy. Three external loading conditions were applied to each knee condition at 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees, and 120 degrees of knee flexion: (1) 134-N anterior-posterior (A-P) tibial load, (2) 200-N axial compressive load, and (3) combined 134-N A-P and 200-N axial loads. For each loading condition, kinematics of the intact knee were recorded for the remaining 5 degrees of freedom (ie, A-P, medial-lateral, and proximal-distal translations, internal-external and varus-valgus rotations). Posterior cruciate ligament deficiency resulted in a posterior shift of the tibial resting position to 8.4 +/- 2.6 mm at 90 degrees compared with the intact knee. After osteotomy, tibial slope increased from 9.2 degrees +/- 1.0 degrees in the intact knee to 13.8 degrees +/- 0.9 degrees. This increase in slope reduced the posterior sag of the PCL-deficient knee, shifting the resting position anteriorly to 4.0 +/- 2.0 mm at 90 degrees. Under a 200-N axial compressive load with the osteotomy, an additional increase in anterior tibial translation to 2.7 +/- 1.7 mm at 30 degrees was

  17. ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel provides equal stability compared to two tibial tunnels.

    PubMed

    Drews, Björn Holger; Seitz, Andreas Martin; Huth, Jochen; Bauer, Gerhard; Ignatius, Anita; Dürselen, Lutz

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) double-bundle reconstruction with one tibial tunnel displays the same in vitro stability as a conventional double-bundle reconstruction with two tibial tunnels when using the same tensioning protocol. In 11 fresh-frozen cadaveric knees, ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one and two tibial tunnels was performed. The two grafts were tightened using 80 N in different flexion angles (anteromedial-bundle at 60° and posterolateral-bundle at 15°). Anterior tibial translation (134 N) and translation with combined rotatory and valgus loads (10 Nm valgus stress and 4 Nm internal tibial torque) were determined at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° flexion. Measurements were taken in intact ACL, resected ACL, three-tunnel reconstruction and four-tunnel reconstruction. Additionally, the tension on the grafts was determined. Student's t test was performed for statistical analysis of the related samples. Significance was set at p < 0.017 according to Bonferroni correction. The two reconstructive techniques displayed no significant differences in comparison with the intact ACL in anterior tibial translation at 0°, 60° and 90° of flexion. The same results were obtained for the anterior tibial translation with a combined rotatory load at 60° and 90°. When directly comparing both reconstructive techniques, there were no significant differences for the anterior tibial translation and combined rotatory load at all flexion angles. The measured tension on grafts displayed similar load sharing between both bundles. Except at full extension, both grafts displayed a significantly different tension increase under anterior tibial translation for both techniques (p = 0.0086). Tightening both bundles in ACL double-bundle reconstruction with one or two tibial tunnels in different flexion angles achieved comparable restoration of stability, although there was different load sharing on the bundles

  18. Asymmetric activation of motor cortex controlling human anterior digastric muscles during speech and target-directed jaw movements.

    PubMed

    Sowman, Paul F; Flavel, Stanley C; McShane, Christie L; Sakuma, Shigemitsu; Miles, Timothy S; Nordstrom, Michael A

    2009-07-01

    Like most of the cranial muscles involved in speech, the trigeminally innervated anterior digastric muscles are controlled by descending corticobulbar projections from the primary motor cortex (M1) of each hemisphere. We hypothesized that changes in corticobulbar M1 excitability during speech production would show a hemispheric asymmetry favoring the left side, which is the dominant hemisphere for language processing in most strongly right handed subjects. Fifteen volunteers aged 24.5+/-5.3 (SD) yr participated. All subjects were strongly right handed as reported by questionnaire. A surface electromyograph (EMG) was recorded bilaterally from digastrics and jaw movement detected by an accelerometer attached to a lower incisor. Focal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to assess corticomotor excitability of the digastric representation in M1 of both hemispheres during four tasks: 1) static isometric contraction of digastrics; 2) speaking a single word; 3) visually guided, nonspeech jaw movement that matched the jaw kinematics recorded during task 2; and 4) reciting a sentence. Background EMG was well matched in all tasks and jaw kinematics were similar around the time of the TMS pulse for tasks 2-4. TMS resting thresholds and digastric muscle-evoked potential (MEP) size during isometric contraction did not differ for TMS over left versus right M1. MEPs elicited by TMS over left, but not right M1 increased in size during speech and nonspeech jaw movement compared with isometric contraction. We conclude that left corticobulbar M1 is preferentially engaged for descending control of digastric muscles during speech and the performance of a rapid jaw movement to match a target kinematic profile.

  19. The Valgus Inclination of the Tibial Component Increases the Risk of Medial Tibial Condylar Fractures in Unicompartmental Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Shinji; Akagi, Masao; Asada, Shigeki; Mori, Shigeshi; Zaima, Hironori; Hashida, Masahiko

    2016-09-01

    Medial tibial condylar fractures (MTCFs) are a rare but serious complication after unicompartmental knee arthroplasty. Although some surgical pitfalls have been reported for MTCFs, it is not clear whether the varus/valgus tibial inclination contributes to the risk of MTCFs. We constructed a 3-dimensional finite elemental method model of the tibia with a medial component and assessed stress concentrations by changing the inclination from 6° varus to 6° valgus. Subsequently, we repeated the same procedure adding extended sagittal bone cuts of 2° and 10° in the posterior tibial cortex. Furthermore, we calculated the bone volume that supported the tibial component, which is considered to affect stress distribution in the medial tibial condyle. Stress concentrations were observed on the medial tibial metaphyseal cortices and on the anterior and posterior tibial cortices in the corner of cut surfaces in all models; moreover, the maximum principal stresses on the posterior cortex were larger than those on the anterior cortex. The extended sagittal bone cuts in the posterior tibial cortex increased the stresses further at these 3 sites. In the models with a 10° extended sagittal bone cut, the maximum principal stress on the posterior cortex increased as the tibial inclination changed from 6° varus to 6° valgus. The bone volume decreased as the inclination changed from varus to valgus. In this finite element method, the risk of MTCFs increases with increasing valgus inclination of the tibial component and with increased extension of the sagittal cut in the posterior tibial cortex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. [Tibial periostitis ("medial tibial stress syndrome")].

    PubMed

    Fournier, Pierre-Etienne

    2003-06-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is characterised by complaints along the posteromedial tibia. Runners and athletes involved in jumping activities may develop this syndrome. Increased stress to stabilize the foot especially when excessive pronation is present explain the occurrence this lesion.

  1. Measurement of muscle thickness of the serratus anterior and lower trapezius using ultrasound imaging in competitive recreational adult swimmers, with and without current shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Leanda J; de Ronde, Mandy; Le, Minyang; Burke, William; Graves, Anna; Williams, Sian A

    2018-02-01

    To compare serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscle thickness between swimmers with and without current shoulder pain, and between sides when measured by real-time ultrasound imaging. A single blinded age and gender-matched case-control study with 26 symptomatic and 26 asymptomatic recreational swimmers. Muscle thickness of serratus anterior and lower trapezius were measured using previously validated real-time ultrasound imaging protocols. Serratus anterior thickness was measured in side lying with 90° of glenohumeral flexion at rest and during a scapular protraction contraction. Lower trapezius thickness was measured in prone with 145° of glenohumeral abduction whilst at rest and when holding the weight of the arm. There was no statistically significant difference between the muscle thickness of serratus anterior and lower trapezius between the symptomatic shoulder and the dominance-matched shoulder in the asymptomatic group of swimmers. There was also no significant difference in muscle thickness between the symptomatic side and asymptomatic side within the symptomatic group. There appears to be no difference in serratus anterior and lower trapezius thickness between swimmers who have mild to moderate shoulder pain, who continue to swim and those who do not have shoulder pain. When imaging the serratus anterior and lower trapezius in swimmers with mild shoulder pain, clinicians should expect no differences between sides. If muscle thickness differences between sides are detected in recreational swimmers, this may indicate that the swimmer is participating in other asymmetrical activities or has a higher level of shoulder pain. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Electromyographic analysis of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles during push-ups on stable and unstable bases in subjects with scapular dyskinesis.

    PubMed

    Pirauá, André Luiz Torres; Pitangui, Ana Carolina Rodarti; Silva, Juliana Pereira; Pereira dos Passos, Muana Hiandra; Alves de Oliveira, Valéria Mayaly; Batista, Laísla da Silva Paixão; Cappato de Araújo, Rodrigo

    2014-10-01

    The present study was performed to assess the electromyographic activity of the scapular muscles during push-ups on a stable and unstable surface, in subjects with scapular dyskinesis. Muscle activation (upper trapezius [UT]; lower trapezius [LT]; upper serratus anterior [SA_5th]; lower serratus anterior [SA_7th]) and ratios (UT/LT; UT/SA_5th; UT/ SA_7th) levels were determined by surface EMG in 30 asymptomatic men with scapular dyskinesis, during push-up performed on a stable and unstable surface. Multivariate analysis of variance with repeated measures was used for statistical analyses. The unstable surface caused a decrease in the EMG activity of the serratus anterior and an increase in EMG activity of the trapezius (p=0.001). UT/SA_5th and UT/ SA_7th ratios were higher during unstable push-ups (p=0.001). The results suggest that, in individuals with scapular dyskinesis, there is increased EMG activity of the trapezius and decreased EMG activity of the serratus anterior in response to an unstable surface. These results suggest that the performance of the push up exercise on an unstable surface may be more favorable to produce higher levels of trapezius activation and lower levels of serratus anterior activation. However, if the goal of the exercise program is the strengthening of the SA muscle, it is suggested to perform the push up on a stable surface. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tibial tunnel aperture location during single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: comparison of tibial guide positions.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young-Soo; Han, Seung-Beom; Hwang, Yeok-Ku; Suh, Dong-Won; Lee, Dae-Hee

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to compare posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) tibial tunnel location after tibial guide insertion medial (between the PCL remnant and the medial femoral condyle) and lateral (between the PCL remnant and the anterior cruciate ligament) to the PCL stump as determined by in vivo 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D-CT). Tibial tunnel aperture location was analyzed by immediate postoperative in vivo CT in 66 patients who underwent single-bundle PCL reconstruction, 31 by over-the-PCL and 35 by under-the-PCL tibial guide insertion techniques. Tibial tunnel positions were measured in the medial to lateral and proximal to distal directions of the posterior proximal tibia. The center of the tibial tunnel aperture was located more laterally (by 2.7 mm) in the over-the-PCL group than in the under-the-PCL group (P = .040) and by a relative percentage (absolute value/tibial width) of 3.2% (P = .031). Tibial tunnel positions in the proximal to distal direction, determined by absolute value and relative percentage, were similar in the 2 groups. Tibial tunnel apertures were located more laterally after lateral-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion than after medial-to-the-PCL tibial guide insertion. There was, however, no significant difference between these techniques in distance from the joint line to the tibial tunnel aperture. Insertion lateral to the PCL stump may result in better placement of the PCL in its anatomic footprint. Level III, retrospective comparative study. Copyright © 2015 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Patterns of anterior and posterior muscle chain interactions during high performance long-hang elements in gymnastics.

    PubMed

    von Laßberg, Christoph; Rapp, Walter; Krug, Jürgen

    2014-06-01

    In a prior study with high level gymnasts we could demonstrate that the neuromuscular activation pattern during the "whip-like" leg acceleration phases (LAP) in accelerating movement sequences on high bar, primarily runs in a consecutive succession from the bar (punctum fixum) to the legs (punctum mobile). The current study presents how the neuromuscular activation is represented during movement sequences that immediately follow the LAP by the antagonist muscle chain to generate an effective transfer of momentum for performing specific elements, based on the energy generated by the preceding LAP. Thirteen high level gymnasts were assessed by surface electromyography during high performance elements on high bar and parallel bars. The results show that the neuromuscular succession runs primarily from punctum mobile towards punctum fixum for generating the transfer of momentum. Additionally, further principles of neuromuscular interactions between the anterior and posterior muscle chain during such movement sequences are presented. The findings complement the understanding of neuromuscular activation patterns during rotational movements around fixed axes and will help to form the basis of more direct and better teaching methods regarding earlier optimization and facilitation of the motor learning process concerning fundamental movement requirements. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Quantification of annular dilatation and papillary muscle separation in functional mitral regurgitation: role of anterior mitral leaflet length as reference.

    PubMed

    Jorapur, Vinod; Voudouris, Apostolos; Lucariello, Richard J

    2005-07-01

    We hypothesized that anterior mitral leaflet length (ALL) does not differ significantly between normal subjects and patients with functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) and hence may be used as a reference measurement to quantify annular dilatation and papillary muscle separation. We prospectively studied 50 controls, 15 patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction (LVD) with significant FMR, and 15 patients with LVD without significant FMR. Significant MR was defined as an effective regurgitant orifice area > or = 0.2 cm2 as measured by the flow convergence method. Annular diameter, interpapillary distance, and ALL were measured, and the following ratios were derived: annular diameter indexed to ALL (ADI) and interpapillary distance indexed to ALL (IPDI). There was no significant difference in ALL among the three groups. The mean ADI was 1.26 times controls in patients with LVD without significant FMR compared to 1.33 times controls in patients with LVD with significant FMR (P = 0.06, no significant difference between groups). The mean IPDI was 1.42 times controls in patients with LVD without significant FMR compared to 2.1 times controls in patients with LVD with significant FMR (P < 0.0001, significant difference between groups). There was no significant difference in ALL between controls and patients with LVD. ALL can be used as a reference measurement to quantify annular dilatation and papillary muscle separation in patients with FMR. Interpapillary distance but not annular diameter indexed to ALL correlates with severity of FMR.

  6. Function-sparing tibialis anterior pivoted muscle flap for reconstruction of post-burn and post-traumatic middle-third leg defects with exposed tibia

    PubMed Central

    Megahed, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Reconstruction of the middle third of the leg is a challenging procedure. The tibialis anterior muscle flap can be useful in reconstruction of the middle third of the leg with exposed tibia. The aim of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of tibialis anterior pivoted muscle flap for reconstruction of the middle third of the leg with functional preservation. This study, performed in the Plastic, Reconstructive and Burn Unit, Menoufiya University Hospital, Egypt, included 16 patients (13 males and 3 females) during the period February 2007/May 2010: seven post-burn and nine post-traumatic patients with post-burn middle-third leg defects with exposed tibia. Their ages ranged from 14 to 67 years. A function-sparing lateral split tibialis anterior pivoted muscle flap was used in all the patients. Follow-up ranged from six months to two years. Partial flap loss occurred in one patient (6.25%), there was no post-operative haematoma or infection, and only one case of wound dehiscence (6.25%), managed by secondary suture. No donor site morbidity or any significant functional impairment was observed, and the subjective aesthetic results were satisfactory. Lateral split tibialis anterior pivoted muscle flap is a useful, simple technique, allowing rapid, durable and reliable coverage of middle-third leg defects without significant impairment of function and without sacrificing major nerves or vessels in the foot, and without any donor site morbidity. PMID:22262962

  7. Distribution of muscle fibre conduction velocity for representative samples of motor units in the full recruitment range of the tibialis anterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, A; Negro, F; Felici, F; Farina, D

    2018-02-01

    Motor units are recruited in an orderly manner according to the size of motor neurones. Moreover, because larger motor neurones innervate fibres with larger diameters than smaller motor neurones, motor units should be recruited orderly according to their conduction velocity (MUCV). Because of technical limitations, these relations have been previously tested either indirectly or in small motor unit samples that revealed weak associations between motor unit recruitment threshold (RT) and MUCV. Here, we analyse the relation between MUCV and RT for large samples of motor units. Ten healthy volunteers completed a series of isometric ankle dorsiflexions at forces up to 70% of the maximum. Multi-channel surface electromyographic signals recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle were decomposed into single motor unit action potentials, from which the corresponding motor unit RT, MUCV and action potential amplitude were estimated. Established relations between muscle fibre diameter and CV were used to estimate the fibre size. Within individual subjects, the distributions of MUCV and fibre diameters were unimodal and did not show distinct populations. MUCV was strongly correlated with RT (mean (SD) R 2  = 0.7 (0.09), P < 0.001; 406 motor units), which supported the hypothesis that fibre diameter is associated with RT. The results provide further evidence for the relations between motor neurone and muscle fibre properties for large samples of motor units. The proposed methodology for motor unit analysis has also the potential to open new perspectives in the study of chronic and acute neuromuscular adaptations to ageing, training and pathology. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effectiveness of various isometric exercises at improving bone strength in cortical regions prone to distal tibial stress fractures.

    PubMed

    Florio, C S

    2018-06-01

    A computational model was used to compare the local bone strengthening effectiveness of various isometric exercises that may reduce the likelihood of distal tibial stress fractures. The developed model predicts local endosteal and periosteal cortical accretion and resorption based on relative local and global measures of the tibial stress state and its surface variation. Using a multisegment 3-dimensional leg model, tibia shape adaptations due to 33 combinations of hip, knee, and ankle joint angles and the direction of a single or sequential series of generated isometric resultant forces were predicted. The maximum stress at a common fracture-prone region in each optimized geometry was compared under likely stress fracture-inducing midstance jogging conditions. No direct correlations were found between stress reductions over an initially uniform circular hollow cylindrical geometry under these critical design conditions and the exercise-based sets of active muscles, joint angles, or individual muscle force and local stress magnitudes. Additionally, typically favorable increases in cross-sectional geometric measures did not guarantee stress decreases at these locations. Instead, tibial stress distributions under the exercise conditions best predicted strengthening ability. Exercises producing larger anterior distal stresses created optimized tibia shapes that better resisted the high midstance jogging bending stresses. Bent leg configurations generating anteriorly directed or inferiorly directed resultant forces created favorable adaptations. None of the studied loads produced by a straight leg was significantly advantageous. These predictions and the insight gained can provide preliminary guidance in the screening and development of targeted bone strengthening techniques for those susceptible to distal tibial stress fractures. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Does pain in the masseter and anterior temporal muscles influence maximal bite force?

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Moreno, Amália; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; de Caxias, Fernanda Pereira; Turcio, Karina Helga Leal

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in pain and muscle force, and the relationship between them, in patients with muscle pain and bruxism, prior to and after treatment. Thirty women with bruxism and myofascial pain (Ia) were included in this study. Sleep bruxism diagnosis was made based on clinical diagnostic criteria, and awake bruxism diagnosis was made by patient questionnaires and the presence of tooth wear. The diagnosis of myofascial pain was established according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC-TMD). Dentulous or partially edentulous patients (rehabilitated with conventional fixed prostheses) were included in the study according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pain treatment protocol included occlusal splints, patient education, and physiotherapy for 30days. Bite force was measured using a dynamometer at the central incisor and the first molar regions on both sides. The exams were performed at baseline, after 7days, and 30days after treatment. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare patient pain level response among the periods analyzed in the study. Bite force data were submitted to two-way repeated-measures ANOVA, followed by the Tukey HSD test (p<0.05). A simple regression analysis was performed to verify the relation between pain level and bite force. Results revealed that there was a statistical difference in pain level over time for both muscles and sides (p<0.01). In the molar region, the bite force exhibited significantly higher values after 30days of treatment, when compared with the baseline (p<0.001). There was a correlation between pain level and bite force only for the temporal muscle in all periods analyzed (p<0.05). There was no strong correlation in the response level points to support the association of pain and bite force. Pain level decreased and bite force increased in the molar region after treatment. No strong correlation or dispersion in the relationship between pain levels

  10. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    PubMed

    de Leeuw, Peter A J; Golanó, Pau; Clavero, Joan A; van Dijk, C Niek

    2010-05-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, whereas in ankle distraction the anterior neurovascular bundle is pulled tight towards the joint, thereby decreasing the safe anterior working area. Six fresh frozen ankle specimens, amputated above the knee, were scanned with computed tomography. Prior to scanning the anterior tibial artery was injected with contrast fluid and subsequently each ankle was scanned both in ankle dorsiflexion and in distraction. A special device was developed to reproducibly obtain ankle dorsiflexion and distraction in the computed tomography scanner. The distance between the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet and the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery was measured. The median distance from the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet to the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery in ankle dorsiflexion and distraction was 0.9 cm (range 0.7-1.5) and 0.7 cm (range 0.5-0.8), respectively. The distance in ankle dorsiflexion significantly exceeded the distance in ankle distraction (P = 0.03). The current study shows a significantly increased distance between the anterior distal tibia and the overlying anterior neurovascular bundle with the ankle in a slightly dorsiflexed position as compared to the distracted ankle position. We thereby conclude that the distracted ankle position puts the neurovascular structures more at risk for iatrogenic damage when performing anterior ankle arthroscopy.

  11. Anterior ankle arthroscopy, distraction or dorsiflexion?

    PubMed Central

    Golanó, Pau; Clavero, Joan A.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    Anterior ankle arthroscopy can basically be performed by two different methods; the dorsiflexion- or distraction method. The objective of this study was to determine the size of the anterior working area for both the dorsiflexion and distraction method. The anterior working area is anteriorly limited by the overlying anatomy which includes the neurovascular bundle. We hypothesize that in ankle dorsiflexion the anterior neurovascular bundle will move away anteriorly from the ankle joint, whereas in ankle distraction the anterior neurovascular bundle is pulled tight towards the joint, thereby decreasing the safe anterior working area. Six fresh frozen ankle specimens, amputated above the knee, were scanned with computed tomography. Prior to scanning the anterior tibial artery was injected with contrast fluid and subsequently each ankle was scanned both in ankle dorsiflexion and in distraction. A special device was developed to reproducibly obtain ankle dorsiflexion and distraction in the computed tomography scanner. The distance between the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet and the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery was measured. The median distance from the anterior border of the inferior tibial articular facet to the posterior border of the anterior tibial artery in ankle dorsiflexion and distraction was 0.9 cm (range 0.7–1.5) and 0.7 cm (range 0.5–0.8), respectively. The distance in ankle dorsiflexion significantly exceeded the distance in ankle distraction (P = 0.03). The current study shows a significantly increased distance between the anterior distal tibia and the overlying anterior neurovascular bundle with the ankle in a slightly dorsiflexed position as compared to the distracted ankle position. We thereby conclude that the distracted ankle position puts the neurovascular structures more at risk for iatrogenic damage when performing anterior ankle arthroscopy. PMID:20217392

  12. Surface electromyographic analysis of differential effects in kettlebell carries for the serratus anterior muscles.

    PubMed

    Caravan, Alex; Scheffey, John O; Briend, Sam J; Boddy, Kyle J

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the Electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the serratus anterior between 45° kettlebell carries and 90° kettlebell carries. Thirty-three men aged roughly between 19 and 23 and who were either college or professional baseball pitchers were chosen and randomly assigned to either perform the 45° kettlebell carry followed by the 90° kettlebell carry ( n = 17) or the 90° kettlebell carry followed by the 45° kettlebell carry ( n = 16). Each pitcher was instructed in the proper usage of the exercise and assigned a short break between the two carries. Changes in EMG amplitude were examined after proper band-pass filtering, normalization, and moving average-smoothing of the raw EMG signal. Differences of the EMG amplitude mean frequencies were examined between each subject's individual carries and the clumped groups of all 45° and 90° carries. Among each individual comparison, eight pitchers had "large" Effect Size differences between the EMG amplitudes of their two carries, with seven of them signaling the 45° carry as the larger value. In addition, when examining the grouped mean differences of the EMG amplitudes, we found the 45° carries to be significantly higher ( p -value of 0.018).

  13. Surface electromyographic analysis of differential effects in kettlebell carries for the serratus anterior muscles

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine differences in the Electromyography (EMG) amplitude of the serratus anterior between 45° kettlebell carries and 90° kettlebell carries. Thirty-three men aged roughly between 19 and 23 and who were either college or professional baseball pitchers were chosen and randomly assigned to either perform the 45° kettlebell carry followed by the 90° kettlebell carry (n = 17) or the 90° kettlebell carry followed by the 45° kettlebell carry (n = 16). Each pitcher was instructed in the proper usage of the exercise and assigned a short break between the two carries. Changes in EMG amplitude were examined after proper band-pass filtering, normalization, and moving average-smoothing of the raw EMG signal. Differences of the EMG amplitude mean frequencies were examined between each subject’s individual carries and the clumped groups of all 45° and 90° carries. Among each individual comparison, eight pitchers had “large” Effect Size differences between the EMG amplitudes of their two carries, with seven of them signaling the 45° carry as the larger value. In addition, when examining the grouped mean differences of the EMG amplitudes, we found the 45° carries to be significantly higher (p-value of 0.018). PMID:29910993

  14. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results

    PubMed Central

    Robin, Jonathan G.; Neyret, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Patients with unstable, malaligned knees often present a challenging management scenario, and careful attention must be paid to the clinical history and examination to determine the priorities of treatment. Isolated knee instability treated with ligament reconstruction and isolated knee malalignment treated with periarticular osteotomy have both been well studied in the past. More recently, the effects of high tibial osteotomy on knee instability have been studied. Lateral closing-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to reduce the posterior tibial slope, which has a stabilising effect on anterior tibial instability that occurs with ACL deficiency. Medial opening-wedge high tibial osteotomy tends to increase the posterior tibia slope, which has a stabilising effect in posterior tibial instability that occurs with PCL deficiency. Overall results from recent studies indicate that there is a role for combined ligament reconstruction and periarticular knee osteotomy. The use of high tibial osteotomy has been able to extend the indication for ligament reconstruction which, when combined, may ultimately halt the evolution of arthritis and preserve their natural knee joint for a longer period of time. Cite this article: Robin JG, Neyret P. High tibial osteotomy in knee laxities: Concepts review and results. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:3-11. doi: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.000001. PMID:28461908

  15. Compartment syndrome after tibial plateau fracture☆

    PubMed Central

    Pitta, Guilherme Benjamin Brandão; dos Santos, Thays Fernanda Avelino; dos Santos, Fernanda Thaysa Avelino; da Costa Filho, Edelson Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are relatively rare, representing around 1.2% of all fractures. The tibia, due to its subcutaneous location and poor muscle coverage, is exposed and suffers large numbers of traumas, not only fractures, but also crush injuries and severe bruising, among others, which at any given moment, could lead compartment syndrome in the patient. The case is reported of a 58-year-old patient who, following a tibial plateau fracture, presented compartment syndrome of the leg and was submitted to decompressive fasciotomy of the four right compartments. After osteosynthesis with internal fixation of the tibial plateau using an L-plate, the patient again developed compartment syndrome. PMID:26229779

  16. Muscle recovery after ACL reconstruction with 4-strand semitendinosus graft harvested through either a posterior or anterior incision: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Dujardin, D; Fontanin, N; Geffrier, A; Morel, N; Mensa, C; Ohl, X

    2015-09-01

    Harvesting of a 4-strand semitendinosis (ST4) graft during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction can be performed through either a posterior or anterior approach. The objective of this study was to evaluate the recovery of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles as a function of the graft harvesting method. We hypothesized that posterior harvesting (PH) would lead to better recovery in hamstring strength than anterior harvesting (AH). In this prospective study, the semitendinosus was harvested through an anterior incision in the first group of patients and through a posterior one in the second group of patients. The patients were enrolled consecutively, without randomization. Isokinetic muscle testing was performed three and six months postoperative to determine the strength deficit in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles of the operated leg relative to the uninjured contralateral leg. Thirty-nine patients were included: 20 in the AH group and 19 in the PH group. The mean quadriceps strength deficit after three and six months was 42% and 26% for AH and 29% and 19% for the PH, respectively (P=0.01 after three months and P=0.16 after six months). The mean hamstring strength deficit after three and six months was 31% and 17% for AH and 23% and 15% for the PH, respectively (P=0.09 after three months and P=0.45 after six months). After three months, the PH group had recovered 12% more quadriceps muscle strength than the AH group (P=0.03). Our hypothesis was not confirmed. Harvesting of a ST4 graft for ACL reconstruction using a posterior approach led to better muscle strength recovery in the quadriceps only after three months. Level 3. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Do peak torque angles of muscles change following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using hamstring or patellar tendon graft?

    PubMed

    Yosmaoğlu, Hayri Baran; Baltacı, Gül; Sönmezer, Emel; Özer, Hamza; Doğan, Deha

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to compare the effects of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction using autogenous hamstring or patellar tendon graft on the peak torque angle. The study included 132 patients (103 males, 29 females; mean age 29±9 year) who were performed ACL reconstruction with autogenous hamstring or patellar tendon graft. The peak torque angles in the quadriceps and hamstring muscles were recorded using an isokinetic dynamometer. Angle of peak knee flexion torque occurred significantly earlier within the range of motion on the operated side than nonoperated side at 180°/second in the hamstring tendon group. Angle of peak knee extension torque occurred significantly earlier within the range of motion on the operated side than nonoperated side at 180°/second in the patellar tendon group. There were no statistically significant differences in the flexion and extension peak torque angles between the operated and nonoperated knees at 60°/second in both groups. The angle of peak torque at relatively high angular velocities is affected after ACL reconstruction in patients with hamstring or patellar tendon grafts. The graft donor site directly influences this parameter. This finding may be important for clinicians in terms of preventing re-injury.

  18. Inter-rater reliability of motor unit number estimates and quantitative motor unit analysis in the tibialis anterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Boe, S G; Dalton, B H; Harwood, B; Doherty, T J; Rice, C L

    2009-05-01

    To establish the inter-rater reliability of decomposition-based quantitative electromyography (DQEMG) derived motor unit number estimates (MUNEs) and quantitative motor unit (MU) analysis. Using DQEMG, two examiners independently obtained a sample of needle and surface-detected motor unit potentials (MUPs) from the tibialis anterior muscle from 10 subjects. Coupled with a maximal M wave, surface-detected MUPs were used to derive a MUNE for each subject and each examiner. Additionally, size-related parameters of the individual MUs were obtained following quantitative MUP analysis. Test-retest MUNE values were similar with high reliability observed between examiners (ICC=0.87). Additionally, MUNE variability from test-retest as quantified by a 95% confidence interval was relatively low (+/-28 MUs). Lastly, quantitative data pertaining to MU size, complexity and firing rate were similar between examiners. MUNEs and quantitative MU data can be obtained with high reliability by two independent examiners using DQEMG. Establishing the inter-rater reliability of MUNEs and quantitative MU analysis using DQEMG is central to the clinical applicability of the technique. In addition to assessing response to treatments over time, multiple clinicians may be involved in the longitudinal assessment of the MU pool of individuals with disorders of the central or peripheral nervous system.

  19. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Purnajyoti; McLean, Christopher

    2011-06-14

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome and medial tibial stress syndrome are uncommon conditions that affect long-distance runners or players involved in team sports that require extensive running. We report 2 cases of bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome, with medial tibial stress syndrome in identical twins diagnosed with the use of a Kodiag monitor (B. Braun Medical, Sheffield, United Kingdom) fulfilling the modified diagnostic criteria for chronic exertional compartment syndrome as described by Pedowitz et al, which includes: (1) pre-exercise compartment pressure level >15 mm Hg; (2) 1 minute post-exercise pressure >30 mm Hg; and (3) 5 minutes post-exercise pressure >20 mm Hg in the presence of clinical features. Both patients were treated with bilateral anterior fasciotomies through minimal incision and deep posterior fasciotomies with tibial periosteal stripping performed through longer anteromedial incisions under direct vision followed by intensive physiotherapy resulting in complete symptomatic recovery. The etiology of chronic exertional compartment syndrome is not fully understood, but it is postulated abnormal increases in intramuscular pressure during exercise impair local perfusion, causing ischemic muscle pain. No familial predisposition has been reported to date. However, some authors have found that no significant difference exists in the relative perfusion, in patients, diagnosed with chronic exertional compartment syndrome. Magnetic resonance images of affected compartments have indicated that the pain is not due to ischemia, but rather from a disproportionate oxygen supply versus demand. We believe this is the first report of chronic exertional compartment syndrome with medial tibial stress syndrome in twins, raising the question of whether there is a genetic predisposition to the causation of these conditions. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. Muscle activity and spine load during anterior chain whole body linkage exercises: the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up.

    PubMed

    McGill, Stuart; Andersen, Jordan; Cannon, Jordan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined anterior chain whole body linkage exercises, namely the body saw, hanging leg raise and walkout from a push-up. Investigation of these exercises focused on which particular muscles were challenged and the magnitude of the resulting spine load. Fourteen males performed the exercises while muscle activity, external force and 3D body segment motion were recorded. A sophisticated and anatomically detailed 3D model used muscle activity and body segment kinematics to estimate muscle force, and thus sensitivity to each individual's choice of motor control for each task. Gradations of muscle activity and spine load characteristics were observed across tasks. On average, the hanging straight leg raise created approximately 3000 N of spine compression while the body saw created less than 2500 N. The hanging straight leg raise created the highest challenge to the abdominal wall (>130% MVC in rectus abdominis, 88% MVC in external oblique). The body saw resulted in almost 140% MVC activation of the serratus anterior. All other exercises produced substantial abdominal challenge, although the body saw did so in the most spine conserving way. These findings, along with consideration of an individual's injury history, training goals and current fitness level, should assist in exercise choice and programme design.

  1. Comparison of volumetric bone mineral density in the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Klein, Scott A; Nyland, John; Caborn, David N M; Kocabey, Yavuz; Nawab, Akbar

    2005-12-01

    Adequate tibial bone mineral density (BMD) is essential to soft tissue graft fixation during anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to compare volumetric bone plug density measurements at the tibial region of interest for ACL reconstruction using a standardized immersion technique and Archimedes' principle. Cancellous bone cores were harvested from the proximal, middle, and distal metaphyseal regions of the lateral tibia and from the standard tibial tunnel location used for ACL reconstruction of 18 cadaveric specimens. Proximal tibial cores displayed 32.6% greater BMD than middle tibial cores and 31.8% greater BMD than distal tibial cores, but did not differ from the BMD of the tibial tunnel cores. Correlational analysis confirmed that the cancellous BMD in the tibial tunnel related to the cancellous BMD of the proximal and distal lateral tibial metaphysis. In conjunction with its adjacent cortical bone, the cancellous BMD of the region used for standard tibial tunnel placement provides an effective foundation for ACL graft fixation. In tibia with poor BMD, bicortical fixation that incorporates cortical bone from the distal tibial tunnel region is recommended.

  2. Bone stress in runners with tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Willson, John D; Gries, Samantha R; Kernozek, Thomas W; Derrick, Timothy R

    2015-11-01

    Combinations of smaller bone geometry and greater applied loads may contribute to tibial stress fracture. We examined tibial bone stress, accounting for geometry and applied loads, in runners with stress fracture. 23 runners with a history of tibial stress fracture & 23 matched controls ran over a force platform while 3-D kinematic and kinetic data were collected. An elliptical model of the distal 1/3 tibia cross section was used to estimate stress at 4 locations (anterior, posterior, medial and lateral). Inner and outer radii for the model were obtained from 2 planar x-ray images. Bone stress differences were assessed using two-factor ANOVA (α=0.05). Key contributors to observed stress differences between groups were examined using stepwise regression. Runners with tibial stress fracture experienced greater anterior tension and posterior compression at the distal tibia. Location, but not group, differences in shear stress were observed. Stepwise regression revealed that anterior-posterior outer diameter of the tibia and the sagittal plane bending moment explained >80% of the variance in anterior and posterior bone stress. Runners with tibial stress fracture displayed greater stress anteriorly and posteriorly at the distal tibia. Elevated tibial stress was associated with smaller bone geometry and greater bending moments about the medial-lateral axis of the tibia. Future research needs to identify key running mechanics associated with the sagittal plane bending moment at the distal tibia as well as to identify ways to improve bone geometry in runners in order to better guide preventative and rehabilitative efforts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Relationships between postural orientation and self reported function, hop performance and muscle power in subjects with anterior cruciate ligament injury.

    PubMed

    Trulsson, Anna; Roos, Ewa M; Ageberg, Eva; Garwicz, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Injury to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is associated not only with knee instability and impaired neuromuscular control, but also with altered postural orientation manifested as observable "substitution patterns". However, tests currently used to evaluate knee function in subjects with ACL injury are not designed to assess postural orientation. Therefore, we are in the process of developing an observational test set that measures postural orientation in terms of the ability to stabilize body segments in relation to each other and to the environment. The aim of the present study was to characterise correlations between this novel test set, called the Test for Substitution Patterns (TSP) and commonly used tests of knee function. In a blinded set-up, 53 subjects (mean age 30 years, range 20-39, with 2-5 years since ACL injury) were assessed using the TSP, the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score subscale sport/recreation (KOOS sport/rec), 3 hop tests and 3 muscle power tests. Correlations between the scores of the TSP and the other tests were determined. Moderate correlations were found between TSP scores and KOOS sport/rec (rs = -0.43; p = 0.001) and between TSP scores and hop test results (rs = -0.40 to -0.46; p < or = 0.003), indicating that altered postural orientation was associated with worse self-reported KOOS sport/rec function and worse hop performance. No significant correlations were found between TSP scores and muscle power results. Subjects had higher TSP scores on their injured side than on their uninjured side (median 4 and 1 points; interquartile range 2-6 and 0-1.5, respectively; p < 0.0001). We conclude that the Test for Substitution Patterns is of relevance to the patient and measures a specific aspect of neuromuscular control not quantified by the other tests investigated. We suggest that the TSP may be a valuable complement in the assessment of neuromuscular control in the rehabilitation of subjects with ACL injury.

  4. Effect of Tibial Posterior Slope on Knee Kinematics, Quadriceps Force, and Patellofemoral Contact Force After Posterior-Stabilized Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Shigetoshi; Mizu-uchi, Hideki; Okazaki, Ken; Hamai, Satoshi; Nakahara, Hiroyuki; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-08-01

    We used a musculoskeletal model validated with in vivo data to evaluate the effect of tibial posterior slope on knee kinematics, quadriceps force, and patellofemoral contact force after posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. The maximum quadriceps force and patellofemoral contact force decreased with increasing posterior slope. Anterior sliding of the tibial component and anterior impingement of the anterior aspect of the tibial post were observed with tibial posterior slopes of at least 5° and 10°, respectively. Increased tibial posterior slope contributes to improved exercise efficiency during knee extension, however excessive tibial posterior slope should be avoided to prevent knee instability. Based on our computer simulation we recommend tibial posterior slopes of less than 5° in posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dependence of the paired motor unit analysis on motor unit discharge characteristics in the human tibialis anterior muscle

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Jennifer L.; Maluf, Katrina S.

    2011-01-01

    The paired motor unit analysis provides in vivo estimates of the magnitude of persistent inward currents (PIC) in human motoneurons by quantifying changes in the firing rate (ΔF) of an earlier recruited (reference) motor unit at the time of recruitment and derecruitment of a later recruited (test) motor unit. This study assessed the variability of ΔF estimates, and quantified the dependence of ΔF on the discharge characteristics of the motor units selected for analysis. ΔF was calculated for 158 pairs of motor units recorded from nine healthy individuals during repeated submaximal contractions of the tibialis anterior muscle. The mean (SD) ΔF was 3.7 (2.5) pps (range −4.2 to 8.9 pps). The median absolute difference in ΔF for the same motor unit pair across trials was 1.8 pps, and the minimal detectable change in ΔF required to exceed measurement error was 4.8 pps. ΔF was positively related to the amount of discharge rate modulation in the reference motor unit (r2=0.335; P<0.001), and inversely related to the rate of increase in discharge rate (r2=0.125; P<0.001). A quadratic function provided the best fit for relations between ΔF and the time between recruitment of the reference and test motor units (r2=0.229, P<0.001), the duration of test motor unit activity (r2=0.110, P<0.001), and the recruitment threshold of the test motor unit (r2=0.237, P<0.001). Physiological and methodological contributions to the variability in ΔF estimates of PIC magnitude are discussed, and selection criteria to reduce these sources of variability are suggested for the paired motor unit analysis. PMID:21459110

  6. Morphologic Characteristics Help Explain the Gender Difference in Peak Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain During a Simulated Pivot Landing

    PubMed Central

    Lipps, David B.; Oh, Youkeun K.; Ashton-Miller, James A.; Wojtys, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gender differences exist in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) cross-sectional area and lateral tibial slope. Biomechanical principles suggest that the direction of these gender differences should induce larger peak ACL strains in females under dynamic loading. Hypothesis Peak ACL relative strain during a simulated pivot landing is significantly greater in female ACLs than male ACLs. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Twenty cadaveric knees from height- and weight-matched male and female cadavers were subjected to impulsive 3-dimensional test loads of 2 times body weight in compression, flexion, and internal tibial torque starting at 15° of flexion. Load cells measured the 3-dimensional forces and moments applied to the knee, and forces in the pretensioned quadriceps, hamstring, and gastrocnemius muscle equivalents. A novel, gender-specific, nonlinear spring simulated short-range and longer range quadriceps muscle tensile stiffness. Peak relative strain in the anteromedial bundle of the ACL (AM-ACL) was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer, while ACL cross-sectional area and lateral tibial slope were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. A repeated-measures Mann-Whitney signed-rank test was used to test the hypothesis. Results Female knees exhibited 95% greater peak AM-ACL relative strain than male knees (6.37% [22.53%] vs 3.26% [11.89%]; P = .004). Anterior cruciate ligament cross-sectional area and lateral tibial slope were significant predictors of peak AM-ACL relative strain (R2 = .59; P = .001). Conclusion Peak AM-ACL relative strain was significantly greater in female than male knees from donors of the same height and weight. This gender difference is attributed to a smaller female ACL cross-sectional area and a greater lateral tibial slope. Clinical Relevance Since female ACLs are systematically exposed to greater strain than their male counterparts, training and injury prevention programs should take

  7. Increased revision rate with posterior tibial tunnel placement after using the 70-degree tibial guide in ACL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Inderhaug, Eivind; Raknes, Sveinung; Østvold, Thomas; Solheim, Eirik; Strand, Torbjørn

    2017-01-01

    To map knee morphology radiographically in a population with a torn ACL and to investigate whether anatomic factors could be related to outcomes after ACL reconstruction at mid- to long-term follow-up. Further, we wanted to assess tibial tunnel placement after using the 70-degree "anti-impingement" tibial tunnel guide and investigate any relation between tunnel placement and revision surgery. Patients undergoing ACL reconstruction involving the 70-degree tibial guide from 2003 to 2008 were included. Two independent investigators analysed pre- and post-operative radiographs. Demographic data and information on revision surgery were collected from an internal database. Anatomic factors and post-operative tibial tunnel placements were investigated as predictors of revision. Three-hundred and seventy-seven patients were included in the study. A large anatomic variation with significant differences between men and women was seen. None of the anatomic factors could be related to a significant increase in revision rate. Patients with a posterior tibial tunnel placement, defined as 50 % or more posterior on the Amis and Jakob line, did, however, have a higher risk of revision surgery compared to patients with an anterior tunnel placement (P = 0.03). Use of the 70-degree tibial guide did result in a high incidence (47 %) of posterior tibial tunnel placements associated with an increased rate of revision surgery. The current study was, however, not able to identify any anatomic variation that could be related to a higher risk of revision surgery. Avoiding graft impingement from the femoral roof in anterior tibial tunnel placements is important, but the insight that overly posterior tunnel placement can lead to inferior outcome should also be kept in mind when performing ACL surgery. IV.

  8. Non-invasive measurements of the dynamic changes in the ciliary muscle, crystalline lens morphology, and anterior chamber during accommodation with a high-resolution OCT.

    PubMed

    Esteve-Taboada, José J; Domínguez-Vicent, Alberto; Monsálvez-Romín, Daniel; Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess non-invasively the changes in the anterior chamber eye, crystalline lens morphology, and ciliary muscle during accommodation by means of an anterior chamber optical coherence tomographer (OCT), and correlate them with vergence. Twenty-five eyes of twenty-five healthy subjects, whose mean age was 29.9±7.1 years, were included and measured with an anterior chamber OCT. The central corneal thickness (CCT), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior crystalline lens radius of curvature (ALRC), crystalline lens thickness (CLT), and ciliary muscle area (CMA) were measured for each participant at 0, -1, -2, and -3 D of target vergence. A linear model was used to assess the correlation of each eye parameter with the vergence demand. The mean CCT showed no change for all the accommodative stimuli. The mean ACD and ALRC decreased with the vergence, about 4.5 and 30 % at -3 D, respectively. On the contrary, the CLT and CMA showed an opposite tendency, where the mean CLT was increased by 4.0 % and the mean CMA was done by 26% at -3 D. Statistical significant differences (p < 0.001) were obtained among all vergences for each eye metric, except for the CCT (p = 0.76). The ACD and ALRC decreased about 2 and 10 % per dioptre of accommodation, respectively; whereas the CLT and CMA increased about 2 and 9 %, respectively. These results add knowledge regarding the understanding of accommodation and give new perspectives for biomechanics and biometry.

  9. Strain Response of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament to Uniplanar and Multiplanar Loads During Simulated Landings: Implications for Injury Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kiapour, Ata M; Demetropoulos, Constantine K; Kiapour, Ali; Quatman, Carmen E; Wordeman, Samuel C; Goel, Vijay K; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-08-01

    Despite basic characterization of the loading factors that strain the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), the interrelationship(s) and additive nature of these loads that occur during noncontact ACL injuries remain incompletely characterized. In the presence of an impulsive axial compression, simulating vertical ground-reaction force during landing (1) both knee abduction and internal tibial rotation moments would result in increased peak ACL strain, and (2) a combined multiplanar loading condition, including both knee abduction and internal tibial rotation moments, would increase the peak ACL strain to levels greater than those under uniplanar loading modes alone. Controlled laboratory study. A cadaveric model of landing was used to simulate dynamic landings during a jump in 17 cadaveric lower extremities (age, 45 ± 7 years; 9 female and 8 male). Peak ACL strain was measured in situ and characterized under impulsive axial compression and simulated muscle forces (baseline) followed by addition of anterior tibial shear, knee abduction, and internal tibial rotation loads in both uni- and multiplanar modes, simulating a broad range of landing conditions. The associations between knee rotational kinematics and peak ACL strain levels were further investigated to determine the potential noncontact injury mechanism. Externally applied loads, under both uni- and multiplanar conditions, resulted in consistent increases in peak ACL strain compared with the baseline during simulated landings (by up to 3.5-fold; P ≤ .032). Combined multiplanar loading resulted in the greatest increases in peak ACL strain (P < .001). Degrees of knee abduction rotation (R(2) = 0.45; β = 0.42) and internal tibial rotation (R(2) = 0.32; β = 0.23) were both significantly correlated with peak ACL strain (P < .001). However, changes in knee abduction rotation had a significantly greater effect size on peak ACL strain levels than did internal tibial rotation (by ~2-fold; P < .001). In the presence

  10. Voluntary enhanced cocontraction of hamstring muscles during open kinetic chain leg extension exercise: its potential unloading effect on the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Biscarini, Andrea; Benvenuti, Paolo; Botti, Fabio M; Brunetti, Antonella; Brunetti, Orazio; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2014-09-01

    A number of research studies provide evidence that hamstring cocontraction during open kinetic chain knee extension exercises enhances tibiofemoral (TF) stability and reduces the strain on the anterior cruciate ligament. To determine the possible increase in hamstring muscle coactivation caused by a voluntary cocontraction effort during open kinetic chain leg-extension exercises, and to assess whether an intentional hamstring cocontraction can completely suppress the anterior TF shear force during these exercises. Descriptive laboratory study. Knee kinematics as well as electromyographic activity in the semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), and quadriceps femoris muscles were measured in 20 healthy men during isotonic leg extension exercises with resistance (R) ranging from 10% to 80% of the 1-repetition maximum (1RM). The same exercises were also performed while the participants attempted to enhance hamstring coactivation through a voluntary cocontraction effort. The data served as input parameters for a model to calculate the shear and compressive TF forces in leg extension exercises for any set of coactivation patterns of the different hamstring muscles. For R≤ 40% 1RM, the peak coactivation levels obtained with intentional cocontraction (l) were significantly higher (P < 10(-3)) than those obtained without intentional cocontraction (l 0). For each hamstring muscle, maximum level l was reached at R = 30% 1RM, corresponding to 9.2%, 10.5%, and 24.5% maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) for the BF, ST, and SM, respectively, whereas the ratio l/l 0 reached its maximum at R = 20% 1RM and was approximately 2, 3, and 4 for the BF, SM, and ST, respectively. The voluntary enhanced coactivation level l obtained for R≤ 30% 1RM completely suppressed the anterior TF shear force developed by the quadriceps during the exercise. In leg extension exercises with resistance R≤ 40% 1RM, coactivation of the BF, SM, and ST can be

  11. Tibial and fibular nerves evaluation using intraoperative electromyography in rats.

    PubMed

    Nepomuceno, André Coelho; Politani, Elisa Landucci; Silva, Eduardo Guandelini da; Salomone, Raquel; Longo, Marco Vinicius Losso; Salles, Alessandra Grassi; Faria, José Carlos Marques de; Gemperli, Rolf

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate a new model of intraoperative electromyographic (EMG) assessment of the tibial and fibular nerves, and its respectives motor units in rats. Eight Wistar rats underwent intraoperative EMG on both hind limbs at two different moments: week 0 and week 12. Supramaximal electrical stimulation applied on sciatic nerve, and compound muscle action potential recorded on the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) and the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDLM) through electrodes at specifics points. Motor function assessment was performaced through Walking Track Test. Exposing the muscles and nerves for examination did not alter tibial (p=0.918) or fibular (p=0.877) function between the evaluation moments. Electromyography of the GM, innervated by the tibial nerve, revealed similar amplitude (p=0.069) and latency (p=0.256) at week 0 and at 12 weeks, creating a standard of normality. Meanwhile, electromyography of the EDLM, innervated by the fibular nerve, showed significant differences between the amplitudes (p=0.003) and latencies (p=0.021) at the two different moments of observation. Intraoperative electromyography determined and quantified gastrocnemius muscle motor unit integrity, innervated by tibial nerve. Although this study was not useful to, objectively, assess extensor digitorum longus muscle motor unit, innervated by fibular nerve.

  12. Quantitative and qualitative MR-imaging assessment of vastus medialis muscle volume loss in asymptomatic patients after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Marcon, Magda; Ciritsis, Bernhard; Laux, Christoph; Nanz, Daniel; Fischer, Michael A; Andreisek, Gustav; Ulbrich, Erika J

    2015-08-01

    To quantitatively and qualitatively assess vastus medialis muscle atrophy in asymptomatic patients with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, using the nonoperated leg as control. Prospective Institutional Review Board approved study with written informed patient consent. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients (men, 21; women,12) with ACL-reconstruction underwent MR imaging of both legs (axial T1-weighted spin-echo and 3D spoiled dual gradient-echo sequences). Muscle volume and average fat-signal fraction (FSF) of the vastus medialis muscles were measured. Additionally, Goutallier classification was used to classify fatty muscle degeneration. Significant side differences were evaluated using the Wilcoxon test and, between volumes and FSF, using student t-tests with P-value < 0.05 and < 0.025, respectively. The muscle volume was significantly smaller in the operated (mean ± SD, 430.6 ± 119.6 cm(3) ; range, 197.3 to 641.7 cm(3) ) than in the nonoperated leg (479.5 ± 124.8 cm(3) ; 261.4 to 658.9 cm(3) ) (P < 0.001). Corresponding FSF was 6.3 ± 1.5% (3.9 to 9.2%) and 5.8 ± 0.9% (4.0 to 7.4%), respectively, with a nonsignificant (P > 0.025) difference. The relative muscle-volume and FSF differences were -10.1 ± 8.6% (7.1 to -30.1%) and 10.9 ± 29.4% (39.7 to 40.1%). The qualitative assessment revealed no significant differences (P > 0.1). A significant muscle volume loss of the vastus medialis muscle does exist in asymptomatic patients with ACL-reconstruction, but without fatty degeneration. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Non-invasive measurement of tibialis anterior muscle temperature during rest, cycling exercise and post-exercise recovery.

    PubMed

    Flouris, Andreas D; Dinas, Petros C; Tsitoglou, Kiriakos; Patramani, Ioanna; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Kenny, Glen P

    2015-07-01

    We introduce a non-invasive and accurate method to assess tibialis anterior muscle temperature (Tm) during rest, cycling exercise, and post-exercise recovery using the insulation disk (INDISK) technique. Twenty-six healthy males (23.6  ±  6.2 years; 24.1  ±  3.1 body mass index) were randomly allocated into the 'model' (n = 16) and the 'validation' (n = 10) groups. Participants underwent 20 min supine rest, 20 min cycling exercise at 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate, and 20 min supine post-exercise recovery. In the model group, Tm (34.55  ±  1.02 °C) was greater than INDISK temperature (Tid; 32.44  ±  1.23 °C; p < 0.001) and skin surface temperature (Tsk; 29.84  ±  1.47 °C; p < 0.001) throughout the experimental protocol. The strongest prediction model (R(2) = 0.646) incorporated Tid and the difference between the current Tid temperature and that recorded four minutes before. No mean difference (p > 0.05) and a strong correlation (r = 0.804; p < 0.001) were observed between Tm and predicted Tm (predTm) in the model group. Cross-validation analyses in the validation group demonstrated no mean difference (p > 0.05), a strong correlation (r = 0.644; p < 0.001), narrow 95% limits of agreement (-0.06  ±  1.51), and low percent coefficient of variation (2.24%) between Tm (34.39  ±  1.00 °C) and predTm (34.45  ±  0.73 °C). We conclude that the novel technique accurately predicts Tm during rest, cycling exercise, and post-exercise recovery, providing a valid and cost-efficient alternative when direct Tm measurement is not feasible.

  14. Nontraumatic tibial polyethylene insert cone fracture in mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tanikake, Yohei; Hayashi, Koji; Ogawa, Munehiro; Inagaki, Yusuke; Kawate, Kenji; Tomita, Tetsuya; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2016-12-01

    A 72-year-old male patient underwent mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis. He experienced a nontraumatic polyethylene tibial insert cone fracture 27 months after surgery. Scanning electron microscopy of the fracture surface of the tibial insert cone suggested progress of ductile breaking from the posterior toward the anterior of the cone due to repeated longitudinal bending stress, leading to fatigue breaking at the anterior side of the cone, followed by the tibial insert cone fracture at the anterior side of the cone, resulting in fracture at the base of the cone. This analysis shows the risk of tibial insert cone fracture due to longitudinal stress in mobile-bearing posterior-stabilized total knee arthroplasty in which an insert is designed to highly conform to the femoral component.

  15. Modified arthroscopic suture fixation of a displaced tibial eminence fracture.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Ronald A; Murphy, Kevin P; Machen, M Shaun; Kuklo, Timothy R

    2003-02-01

    This study describes a new arthroscopic method using a whip-stitch technique for treating a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture. A 12-year-old girl who sustained a displaced type III tibial eminence fracture was treated with arthroscopic fixation using the Arthrosew disposable suture device (Surgical Dynamics, Norwalk, CT) to place a whip stitch into the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). The Arthrex ACL guide (Arthrex, Naples, FL) was used to reduce the avulsed tibial spine fragment. Sutures were then passed through the tibial tunnel and secured over a bony bridge with the knee in 20 degrees of flexion. At 9 months, the patient has a full range of motion with normal Lachman and anterior drawer testing, and she has returned to competitive basketball. Radiographs show complete fracture healing. KT-1000 and isokinetic testing at 9-month follow-up show only minimal side-to-side differences. The Arthrosew device provides a significant advantage in the treatment of type III and IV fractures of the tibial eminence by obtaining arthroscopic fixation within the substance of the ACL, thus obviating arthrotomy and hardware placement. This technique also restores the proper length and tension to the ACL, and provides a simplified, reproducible method of treatment for this injury.

  16. Longitudinal tear of the medial meniscus posterior horn in the anterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee significantly influences anterior stability.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jin Hwan; Bae, Tae Soo; Kang, Ki-Ser; Kang, Soo Yong; Lee, Sang Hak

    2011-10-01

    Longitudinal tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn (MMPH) are commonly associated with a chronic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency. Many studies have demonstrated the importance of the medial meniscus in terms of limiting the amount of anterior-posterior tibial translation in response to anterior tibial loads in ACL-deficient knees. An MMPH tear in an ACL-deficient knee increases the anterior-posterior tibial translation and rotatory instability. In addition, MMPH repair will restore the tibial translation to the level before the tear. Controlled laboratory study. Ten human cadaveric knees were tested sequentially using a custom testing system under 5 conditions: intact, ACL deficient, ACL deficient with an MMPH peripheral longitudinal tear, ACL deficient with an MMPH repair, and ACL deficient with a total medial meniscectomy. The knee kinematics were measured at 0°, 15°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion in response to a 134-N anterior and 200-N axial compressive tibial load. The rotatory kinematics were also measured at 15° and 30° of flexion in a combined rotatory load of 5 N·m of internal tibial torque and 10 N·m of valgus torque. Medial meniscus posterior horn longitudinal tears in ACL-deficient knees resulted in a significant increase in anterior-posterior tibial translation at all flexion angles except 90° (P < .05). An MMPH repair in an ACL-deficient knee showed a significant decrease in anterior-posterior tibial translation at all flexion angles except 60° compared with the ACL-deficient/MMPH tear state (P < .05). The total anterior-posterior translation of the ACL-deficient/MMPH repaired knee was not significantly increased compared with the ACL (only)-deficient knee but was increased compared with the ACL-intact knee (P > .05). A total medial meniscectomy in an ACL-deficient knee did not increase the anterior-posterior tibial translation significantly compared with MMPH tears in ACL-deficient knees at all flexion angles (P > .05

  17. Gender differences in passive knee biomechanical properties in tibial rotation.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyung-Soon; Wilson, Nicole A; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2008-07-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most commonly injured knee ligament with the highest incidence of injury in female athletes who participate in pivoting sports. Noncontact ACL injuries commonly occur with both internal and external tibial rotation. ACL impingement against the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch during tibial external rotation and abduction has been proposed as an injury mechanism, but few studies have evaluated in vivo gender-specific differences in laxity and stiffness in external and internal tibial rotations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate these differences. The knees of 10 male and 10 female healthy subjects were rotated between internal and external tibial rotation with the knee at 60 degrees of flexion. Joint laxity, stiffness, and energy loss were compared between male and female subjects. Women had higher laxity (p = 0.01), lower stiffness (p = 0.038), and higher energy loss (p = 0.008) in external tibial rotation than did men. The results suggest that women may be at greater risk of ACL injury resulting from impingement against the lateral wall of the intercondylar notch, which has been shown to be associated with external tibial rotation and abduction.

  18. Posterior shift of the anterior papillary muscle in patients with heart failure: a potential role in the effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Hara, Tetsuya; Yamashiro, Kohei; Okajima, Katsunori; Hayashi, Takatoshi; Kajiya, Teishi

    2009-11-01

    The anatomical relationship between left ventricular pacing site and the anterior papillary muscle (A-PM) may have a major influence on the improvement of mitral regurgitation (MR) in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). The aims of the present study were to assess the anatomical relationship between coronary veins and papillary muscles in patients with and without heart failure (HF), and to examine its contribution to the response to CRT. Sixty-one patients (36 patients with HF, 25 patients without HF) who underwent multi-detector computed tomography were studied. We measured the angle between the anterior papillary muscle and coronary veins (Ang. 1) and the angle between the anterior edge of the left ventricular free wall and A-PM (Ang. 2). Angle 1 of the posterolateral vein in the patients with HF was significantly smaller than those without HF (54.9 +/- 11.1, 68.7 +/- 15.8 degrees, respectively, P = 0.02). Supportively, Angle 2 of patients with HF was larger than that of patients without HF (100 +/- 13.0, 87.3 +/- 10.7 degrees, respectively, P < 0.01). Significant decreases in left ventricular end-diastolic diameter, the grade of MR, and brain natriuretic peptide level after 6 months of CRT were observed (P < 0.01, P = 0.04, P < 0.01, respectively) in patients with severe A-PM displacement (Ang. 2 > 100 degrees), but not in patients with Ang. 2 < 100 degrees. A-PM tends to be located in a more posterior wall in patients with HF. Displacement of A-PM may have a potential role as a predictor of the response to CRT.

  19. Initiating running barefoot: Effects on muscle activation and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Priego Quesada, José Ignacio; Giménez, José Vicente; Aparicio, Inma; Jimenez-Perez, Irene; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Runners tend to shift from a rearfoot to a forefoot strike pattern when running barefoot. However, it is unclear how the first attempts at running barefoot affect habitually rearfoot shod runners. Due to the inconsistency of their recently adopted barefoot technique, a number of new barefoot-related running injuries are emerging among novice barefoot runners. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the influence of three running conditions (natural barefoot [BF], barefoot with a forced rearfoot strike [BRS], and shod [SH]) on muscle activity and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners. Twenty-two participants ran at 60% of their maximal aerobic speed while foot strike, tibial and head impact accelerations, and tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscle activity were registered. Only 68% of the runners adopted a non-rearfoot strike pattern during BF. Running BF led to a reduction of TA activity as well as to an increase of GL and GM activity compared to BRS and SH. Furthermore, BRS increased tibial peak acceleration, tibial magnitude and tibial acceleration rate compared to SH and BF. In conclusion, 32% of our runners showed a rearfoot strike pattern at the first attempts at running barefoot, which corresponds to a running style (BRS) that led to increased muscle activation and impact accelerations and thereby to a potentially higher risk of injury compared to running shod.

  20. The Tibial Slope in Patients With Achondroplasia: Its Characterization and Possible Role in Genu Recurvatum Development.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jaysson T; Bernholt, David L; Tran, Kevin V; Ain, Michael C

    2016-06-01

    Genu recurvatum, a posterior resting position of the knee, is a common lower extremity deformity in patients with achondroplasia and has been thought to be secondary to ligamentous laxity. To the best of our knowledge, the role of the tibial slope has not been investigated, and no studies describe the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia. Our goals were to characterize the tibial slope in children and adults with achondroplasia, explore its possible role in the development of genu recurvatum, and compare the tibial slope in patients with achondroplasia to that in the general population. We reviewed 252 lateral knee radiographs of 130 patients with achondroplasia seen at our clinic from November 2007 through September 2013. Patients were excluded if they had previous lower extremity surgery or radiographs with extreme rotation. We analyzed patient demographics and, on all radiographs, the tibial slope. We then compared the mean tibial slope to norms in the literature. Tibial slopes >90 degrees had an anterior tibial slope and received a positive prefix. Statistical analysis included intraclass and interclass reliability, Pearson correlation coefficient, and the Student t tests (significance, P<0.05). The overall mean tibial slope for the 252 knees was +1.32±7 degrees, which was significantly more anterior than the normal slopes reported in the literature for adults (7.2 to 10.7 degrees, P=0.0001) and children (10 to 11 degrees, P=0.0001). The Pearson correlation coefficient for mean tibial slope and age showed negative correlations of -0.4011 and -0.4335 for left and right knees, respectively. This anterior tibial slope produces proximal and posterior vector force components, which may shift the knee posteriorly in weightbearing. The mean tibial slope is significantly more anterior in patients with achondroplasia than in the general population; however, this difference diminishes as patients' age. An anterior tibial slope may predispose to a more posterior

  1. Extra- and intramuscular nerve supply of the muscles of the anterior antebrachial compartment: applications for selective neurotomy and for botulinum toxin injection.

    PubMed

    Lepage, D; Parratte, B; Tatu, L; Vuiller, F; Monnier, G

    2005-12-01

    Hypertonia of the upper limb due to spasticity causes pronation of the forearm and flexion of wrist and fingers. Nowadays this spasticity is often treated with injections of botulinum toxin and sometimes with selective fascicular neurotomy. To correctly perform this microsurgical technique, it is necessary to get precise knowledge of the extramuscular nerve branching in order to be better able to select the motor branches which supply the muscles involved in spasticity. The same knowledge is required for botulinum toxin injections which must be made as near as possible to the zones where intramuscular nerve endings are the densest, which is also where neuromuscular junctions are the most numerous. Thus, it is necessary to better know these zones, but their knowledge remains today imprecise. The muscles of the anterior compartment of 30 forearms were dissected, first macroscopically, then microscopically, to study the extra- and intramuscular nerve supply and the distribution of terminal nerve ramifications. The results were then linked to surface topographical landmarks to indicate the precise location of motor branches for each muscle with the aim of proposing appropriate surgical approaches for selective neurotomies. Then for each muscle, the zones with the highest density of nerve endings were divided into segments, thus determining the optimal zones for botulinim toxin injections.

  2. Partially irreversible paresis of the deep peroneal nerve caused by osteocartilaginous exostosis of the fibula without affecting the tibialis anterior muscle.

    PubMed

    Paprottka, Felix Julian; Machens, Hans-Günther; Lohmeyer, Jörn Andreas

    2012-08-01

    Dysfunction of the lower limb's muscles can cause severe impairment and immobilisation of the patient. As one of the leg's major motor and sensory nerves, the deep peroneal nerve (synonym: deep fibular nerve) plays a very important role in muscle innervation in the lower extremities. We report the case of a 19-year-old female patient, who suffered from a brace-like exostosis 6-cm underneath her left fibular head causing a partially irreversible paresis of her deep peroneal nerve. This nerve damage resulted in complete atrophy of her extensor digitorum longus and extensor hallucis longus muscle, and in painful sensory disturbance at her left shin and first web space. The tibialis anterior muscle stayed intact because its motor branch left the deep peroneal nerve proximal to the nerve lesion. Diagnosis was first verified 6 years after the onset of symptoms by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of her complete left lower leg. Subsequently, the patient was operated on in our clinic, where a neurolysis was performed and the 4-cm-long osteocartilaginous exostosis was removed. Paralysis was already irreversible but sensibility returned completely after neurolysis. The presented case shows that an osteocartilaginous exostosis can be the cause for partial deep peroneal nerve paresis. If this disorder is diagnosed at an early stage, nerve damage is reversible. Typical for an exostosis is its first appearance during the juvenile growth phase. Copyright © 2012 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tibial component alignment and risk of loosening in unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: a radiographic and radiostereometric study.

    PubMed

    Barbadoro, P; Ensini, A; Leardini, A; d'Amato, M; Feliciangeli, A; Timoncini, A; Amadei, F; Belvedere, C; Giannini, S

    2014-12-01

    Unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) has shown a higher rate of revision compared with total knee arthroplasty. The success of UKA depends on prosthesis component alignment, fixation and soft tissue integrity. The tibial cut is the crucial surgical step. The hypothesis of the present study is that tibial component malalignment is correlated with its risk of loosening in UKA. This study was performed in twenty-three patients undergoing primary cemented unicompartmental knee arthroplasties. Translations and rotations of the tibial component and the maximum total point motion (MTPM) were measured using radiostereometric analysis at 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Standard radiological evaluations were also performed immediately before and after surgery. Varus/valgus and posterior slope of the tibial component and tibial-femoral axes were correlated with radiostereometric micro-motion. A survival analysis was also performed at an average of 5.9 years by contacting patients by phone. Varus alignment of the tibial component was significantly correlated with MTPM, anterior tibial sinking, varus rotation and anterior and medial translations from radiostereometry. The posterior slope of the tibial component was correlated with external rotation. The survival rate at an average of 5.9 years was 89%. The two patients who underwent revision presented a tibial component varus angle of 10° for both. There is correlation between varus orientation of the tibial component and MTPM from radiostereometry in unicompartmental knee arthroplasties. Particularly, a misalignment in varus larger than 5° could lead to risk of loosening the tibial component. Prognostic studies-retrospective study, Level II.

  4. The influence of gender-specific loading patterns of the stop-jump task on anterior cruciate ligament strain.

    PubMed

    Weinhold, Paul S; Stewart, Jason-Dennis N; Liu, Hsin-Yi; Lin, Cheng-Feng; Garrett, William E; Yu, Bing

    2007-08-01

    Studies have shown that women are at higher risk of sustaining noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in specific sports. Recent gait studies of athletic tasks have documented that gender differences in knee movement, muscle activation, and external loading patterns exist. The objective of this study was to determine in a knee cadaver model if application of female-specific loading and movement patterns characterised in vivo for a stop-jump task cause higher ACL strains than male patterns. Gender-specific loading patterns of the landing phase of the vertical stop-jump task were applied to seven cadaver knees using published kinetic/kinematic results for recreational athletes. Loads applied consecutively included: tibial compression, quadriceps, hamstrings, external posterior tibial shear, and tibial torque. Knee flexion was fixed based on the kinematic data. Strain of the ACL was monitored by means of a differential variable reluctance transducer installed on the anterior-medial bundle of the ACL. The ACL strain was significantly increased (P<0.05) for the female loading pattern relative to the male loading pattern after the posterior tibial shear force was applied, and showed a similar trend (P=0.1) to be increased after the final tibial torque was applied. This study suggests that female motor control strategies used during the stop-jump task may place higher strains on the ACL than male strategies, thus putting females at greater risk of ACL injury. We believe these results suggest the potential effectiveness of using training programs to modify motor control strategies and thus modify the risk of injury.

  5. Electromyographic evaluation of masseter and anterior temporalis muscles in rest position of edentulous patients with temporomandibular disorders, before and after using complete dentures with sliding plates.

    PubMed

    Zuccolotto, Maria Cristina Candelas; Vitti, Mathias; Nóbilo, Krunislave Antônio; Regalo, Simone Cecílio Hallak; Siéssere, Selma; Bataglion, César

    2007-06-01

    This study was performed with the purpose of investigating electromyographic (EMG) activity of the anterior temporalis and masseter muscles in edentulous individuals with temporomandibular disorder (TMD), before and after using sliding plates on complete dentures in the mandibular rest position. Edentulous patients may present TMD, which is characterised by pain in temporomandibular joints, masticatory and neck muscles, uncoordinated and limited mandible movements, joint sounds and an altered occlusal relationship. It is imperative to offer treatment in order to re-establish stomatognathic system structures before submitting the individual to any definitive restorative treatment. The patients were edentulous for at least 10 years. EMG recordings were made before the insertion of the dentures (0 months) and also after using the sliding plates at the fourth month, 9th month and 12th month, using computerised electromyography K6-I/ EMG Light Channel Surface. EMG evaluations of the muscles were performed under the following clinical conditions: rest position with dentures (R1), rest position without dentures (R2), rest position with dentures post-activity (chewing) (R3), rest position without dentures post-activity (chewing) (R4). All patients obtained remission of muscular fatigue and reduced pain in stomatognathic system structures. Temporalis muscle showed significant increase in EMG activity compared with initial values (p < 0.01). Masseter muscles showed significantly lower mean values (p < 0.01) compared with initial values. The sliding plates allowed the process of neuromuscular deprogramming, contributing to muscular balance of the masticatory system, and are therefore indicated to be used before the fabrication of definitive complete dentures in patients with TMD.

  6. Effects of Experimental Anterior Knee Pain on Muscle Activation During Landing and Jumping Performed at Various Intensities.

    PubMed

    Park, Jihong; Denning, W Matt; Pitt, Jordan D; Francom, Devin; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2017-01-01

    Although knee pain is common, some facets of this pain are unclear. The independent effects (ie, independent from other knee injury or pathology) of knee pain on neural activation of lower-extremity muscles during landing and jumping have not been observed. To investigate the independent effects of knee pain on lower-extremity muscle (gastrocnemius, vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus) activation amplitude during landing and jumping, performed at 2 different intensities. Laboratory-based, pretest, posttest, repeated-measures design, where all subjects performed both data-collection sessions. Thirteen able-bodied subjects performed 2 different land and jump tasks (forward and lateral) under 2 different conditions (control and pain), at 2 different intensities (high and low). For the pain condition, experimental knee pain was induced via a hypertonic saline injection into the right infrapatellar fat pad. Functional linear models were used to evaluate the influence of experimental knee pain on muscle-activation amplitude throughout the 2 land and jump tasks. Experimental knee pain independently altered activation for all of the observed muscles during various parts of the 2 different land and jump tasks. These activation alterations were not consistently influenced by task intensity. Experimental knee pain alters activation amplitude of various lower-extremity muscles during landing and jumping. The nature of the alteration varies between muscles, intensities, and phases of the movement (ie, landing and jumping). Generally, experimental knee pain inhibits the gastrocnemius, medial hamstring, and gluteus medius during landing while independently increasing activation of the same muscles during jumping.

  7. The Interaction of Trunk-Load and Trunk-Position Adaptations on Knee Anterior Shear and Hamstrings Muscle Forces During Landing

    PubMed Central

    Kulas, Anthony S.; Hortobágyi, Tibor; DeVita, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Context: Because anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries can occur during deceleration maneuvers, biomechanics research has been focused on the lower extremity kinetic chain. Trunk mass and changes in trunk position affect lower extremity joint torques and work during gait and landing, but how the trunk affects knee joint and muscle forces is not well understood. Objective: To evaluate the effects of added trunk load and adaptations to trunk position on knee anterior shear and knee muscle forces in landing. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Controlled laboratory environment. Patients or Other Participants: Twenty-one participants (10 men: age  =  20.3 ± 1.15 years, height  =  1.82 ± 0.04 m, mass  =  78.2 ± 7.3 kg; 11 women: age  =  20.0 ± 1.10 years, height  =  1.72 ± 0.06 m, mass  =  62.3 ± 6.4 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed 2 sets of 8 double-leg landings under 2 conditions: no load and trunk load (10% body mass). Participants were categorized into one of 2 groups based on the kinematic trunk adaptation to the load: trunk flexor or trunk extensor. Main Outcome Measure(s): We estimated peak and average knee anterior shear, quadriceps, hamstrings, and gastrocnemius forces with a biomechanical model. Results: We found condition-by-group interactions showing that adding a trunk load increased peak (17%) and average (35%) knee anterior shear forces in the trunk-extensor group but did not increase them in the trunk-flexor group (peak: F1,19  =  10.56, P  =  .004; average: F1,19  =  9.56, P  =  .006). We also found a main effect for condition for quadriceps and gastrocnemius forces. When trunk load was added, peak (6%; F1,19  =  5.52, P  =  .030) and average (8%; F1,19  =  8.83, P  =  .008) quadriceps forces increased and average (4%; F1,19  =  4.94, P  =  .039) gastrocnemius forces increased, regardless of group. We found a condition-by-group interaction for peak (F1,19

  8. Assessment of cross-sectional thickness and activity of masseter, anterior temporalis and orbicularis oris muscles in oral submucous fibrosis patients and healthy controls: an ultrasonography and electromyography study

    PubMed Central

    Bhowate, R R; Sharda, N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is an insidious chronic disease that is associated with significant functional morbidity and an increased risk for malignancy. It initially affects the lamina propria of the oral mucosa, and, as the disease progresses, it involves the submucosa and deeper tissue, including muscles of the oral cavity, resulting in loss of fibroelasticity. OSMF is a pre-malignant condition mainly caused by areca nut chewing. The aim of this study was to find out the involvement of muscles of mastication and facial expression in patients with OSMF by assessing the cross-sectional thickness and activity of the masseter, anterior temporalis and orbicularis oris muscles by ultrasonography and electromyography and comparing with healthy controls and also to find out any correlation between the ultrasonographic cross-sectional thicknesses of the masseter, anterior temporalis and orbicularis oris muscles with electromyographic activity. Methods: 40 patients with OSMF were included in the study group, and the patients were divided into four groups on the basis of interincisal mouth opening, i.e. Group I (mouth opening >35 mm), Group II (mouth opening between 30 and 35 mm), Group III (mouth opening between 20 and 30 mm) and Group IV (mouth opening <20 mm). Ultrasonographic cross-sectional thickness and electromyographic activity (amplitude and duration) of the masseter, anterior temporalis and orbicualris oris muscles were recorded in patients with OSMF and 20 controls. Intergroup comparison of ultrasonographic cross-sectional thickness and activity (amplitude and duration) was done, and Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to find out any relation between ultrasonographic and electromyographic findings. Results: Thickness and activity of the masseter muscle was significantly reduced in Group IV (mouth opening <20 mm) when compared with the control group. The anterior temporalis and orbicularis oris muscles remained unaffected. A

  9. Assessment of cross-sectional thickness and activity of masseter, anterior temporalis and orbicularis oris muscles in oral submucous fibrosis patients and healthy controls: an ultrasonography and electromyography study.

    PubMed

    Kant, P; Bhowate, R R; Sharda, N

    2014-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is an insidious chronic disease that is associated with significant functional morbidity and an increased risk for malignancy. It initially affects the lamina propria of the oral mucosa, and, as the disease progresses, it involves the submucosa and deeper tissue, including muscles of the oral cavity, resulting in loss of fibroelasticity. OSMF is a pre-malignant condition mainly caused by areca nut chewing. The aim of this study was to find out the involvement of muscles of mastication and facial expression in patients with OSMF by assessing the cross-sectional thickness and activity of the masseter, anterior temporalis and orbicularis oris muscles by ultrasonography and electromyography and comparing with healthy controls and also to find out any correlation between the ultrasonographic cross-sectional thicknesses of the masseter, anterior temporalis and orbicularis oris muscles with electromyographic activity. 40 patients with OSMF were included in the study group, and the patients were divided into four groups on the basis of interincisal mouth opening, i.e. Group I (mouth opening >35 mm), Group II (mouth opening between 30 and 35 mm), Group III (mouth opening between 20 and 30 mm) and Group IV (mouth opening <20 mm). Ultrasonographic cross-sectional thickness and electromyographic activity (amplitude and duration) of the masseter, anterior temporalis and orbicualris oris muscles were recorded in patients with OSMF and 20 controls. Intergroup comparison of ultrasonographic cross-sectional thickness and activity (amplitude and duration) was done, and Pearson's correlation coefficient was applied to find out any relation between ultrasonographic and electromyographic findings. Thickness and activity of the masseter muscle was significantly reduced in Group IV (mouth opening <20 mm) when compared with the control group. The anterior temporalis and orbicularis oris muscles remained unaffected. A positive correlation was

  10. Effects of nutritional supplementation with l-arginine on repair of injuries due to muscle strain: experimental study on rats☆

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Lauren Izabel Medeiros; Wuicik, William Luiz; Kuhn, Ivan; Capriotti, Juan Rodolfo Vilela; Repka, João Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influence of oral supplementation with arginine on regeneration of injuries due to straining of the anterior tibial muscle of rats. Methods Twenty-four Wistar rats of weight 492.5 ± 50.45 g were used. Injuries were induced through straining the anterior tibial muscles. The rats were separated into three groups of eight rats each. In the untreated group (UTG), after induction of injuries, the rats were observed for 24 h. In the simulation group (SG) and the arginine group (AG) respectively, the rats received isotonic saline solution and arginine solution via direct gavage, over a seven-day period. At the end of the period, blood samples were collected for serum evaluations of creatine kinase (CK), lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and C-reactive protein (CRP). The right and left anterior tibial muscles were resected for histopathological evaluations on the muscle injuries, investigating edema, hemorrhage and disorganization or morphometric alteration of the muscle fibers. The tissue repair was investigated in terms of proliferation of adipose tissue, angiogenesis and collagen fibers. The ANOVA and Student's t methods were used and p ≤ 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. Results In the serum evaluations, the AG showed lower CK assay values and higher AST values. In the histopathological evaluation, the UTG presented edema and hemorrhage compatible with injuries due to strain; the SG presented edema and hemorrhage with proliferation of adipose tissue and collagen fibers; and the AG presented not only the findings of the SG but also, especially, intense angiogenesis. Conclusion Oral supplementation with arginine did not cause any significant metabolic alterations that would contraindicate its use and it induced angiogenesis during the repair of muscles injured due to strain. PMID:26401505

  11. Automated Measurement of Patient-Specific Tibial Slopes from MRI

    PubMed Central

    Amerinatanzi, Amirhesam; Summers, Rodney K.; Ahmadi, Kaveh; Goel, Vijay K.; Hewett, Timothy E.; Nyman, Edward

    2017-01-01

    Background: Multi-planar proximal tibial slopes may be associated with increased likelihood of osteoarthritis and anterior cruciate ligament injury, due in part to their role in checking the anterior-posterior stability of the knee. Established methods suffer repeatability limitations and lack computational efficiency for intuitive clinical adoption. The aims of this study were to develop a novel automated approach and to compare the repeatability and computational efficiency of the approach against previously established methods. Methods: Tibial slope geometries were obtained via MRI and measured using an automated Matlab-based approach. Data were compared for repeatability and evaluated for computational efficiency. Results: Mean lateral tibial slope (LTS) for females (7.2°) was greater than for males (1.66°). Mean LTS in the lateral concavity zone was greater for females (7.8° for females, 4.2° for males). Mean medial tibial slope (MTS) for females was greater (9.3° vs. 4.6°). Along the medial concavity zone, female subjects demonstrated greater MTS. Conclusion: The automated method was more repeatable and computationally efficient than previously identified methods and may aid in the clinical assessment of knee injury risk, inform surgical planning, and implant design efforts. PMID:28952547

  12. Transitioning to the direct anterior approach in total hip arthroplasty. Is it a true muscle sparing approach when performed by a low volume hip replacement surgeon?

    PubMed

    Nistor, Dan-Viorel; Caterev, Sergiu; Bolboacă, Sorana-Daniela; Cosma, Dan; Lucaciu, Dan Osvald Gheorghe; Todor, Adrian

    2017-11-01

    We conducted this study to establish if the transition from a lateral approach (LA) to the direct anterior approach (DAA) for a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon during the steep learning curve can be performed maintaining the muscle sparing approach of the DAA without increasing the complication rates. In this controlled, prospective, randomized clinical study we investigated 70 patients (35 DAA, 35 LA) with similar demographics that underwent a total hip arthroplasty. Assessment of the two approaches consisted of determining the invasiveness through serum markers for muscle damage (i.e. myoglobin, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase), the operative parameters such as post-operative pain and rescue medication consumption, the component positioning and complication rates. Post-operative myoglobin levels were higher (p < 0.001) in the LA group (326.42 ± 84.91 ng/mL) as compared to the DAA group (242.80 ± 71.03 ng/mL), but with no differences regarding other biomarkers for muscle damage. Pain levels were overall lower in the DAA group, with a statistical and clinical difference during surgery day (p < 0.001) associated with lower (p < 0.001) rescue medication consumption (median 1 (1; 3) mg morphine vs. 3 (2; 4) mg morphine). Most patients in the LA group reported chronic post-operative pain throughout all three evaluated months, while the majority of patients in the DAA group reported no pain after week six. Component positioning did not differ significantly between groups and neither did complication rates. The DAA can be transitioned from the LA safely, without higher complication rates while maintaining its muscle spearing advantages when performed by a low volume hip arthroplasty surgeon.

  13. Computational stability of human knee joint at early stance in Gait: Effects of muscle coactivity and anterior cruciate ligament deficiency.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, M; Shirazi-Adl, A; Marouane, H

    2017-10-03

    As one of the most complex and vulnerable structures of body, the human knee joint should maintain dynamic equilibrium and stability in occupational and recreational activities. The evaluation of its stability and factors affecting it is vital in performance evaluation/enhancement, injury prevention and treatment managements. Knee stability often manifests itself by pain, hypermobility and giving-way sensations and is usually assessed by the passive joint laxity tests. Mechanical stability of both the human knee joint and the lower extremity at early stance periods of gait (0% and 5%) were quantified here for the first time using a hybrid musculoskeletal model of the lower extremity. The roles of muscle coactivity, simulated by setting minimum muscle activation at 0-10% levels and ACL deficiency, simulated by reducing ACL resistance by up to 85%, on the stability margin as well as joint biomechanics (contact/muscle/ligament forces) were investigated. Dynamic stability was analyzed using both linear buckling and perturbation approaches at the final deformed configurations in gait. The knee joint was much more stable at 0% stance than at 5% due to smaller ground reaction and contact forces. Muscle coactivity, when at lower intensities (<3% of its maximum active force), increased dynamic stability margin. Greater minimum activation levels, however, acted asan ineffective strategy to enhance stability. Coactivation also substantially increased muscle forces, joint loads and ACL force and hence the risk of further injury and degeneration. A deficiency in ACL decreases total ACL force (by 31% at 85% reduced stiffness) and the stability margin of the knee joint at the heel strike. It also markedly diminishes forces in lateral hamstrings (by up to 39%) and contact forces on the lateral plateau (by up to 17%). Current work emphasizes the need for quantification of the lower extremity stability margin in gait. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Pathomorphism of spiral tibial fractures in computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    Spiral fractures of the tibia are virtually homogeneous with regard to their pathomorphism. The differences that are seen concern the level of fracture of the fibula, and, to a lesser extent, the level of fracture of the tibia, the length of fracture cleft, and limb shortening following the trauma. While conventional radiographs provide sufficient information about the pathomorphism of fractures, computed tomography can be useful in demonstrating the spatial arrangement of bone fragments and topography of soft tissues surrounding the fracture site. Multiple cross-sectional computed tomography views of spiral fractures of the tibia show the details of the alignment of bone chips at the fracture site, axis of the tibial fracture cleft, and topography of soft tissues that are not visible on standard radiographs. A model of a spiral tibial fracture reveals periosteal stretching with increasing spiral and longitudinal displacement. The cleft in tibial fractures has a spiral shape and its line is invariable. Every spiral fracture of both crural bones results in extensive damage to the periosteum and may damage bellies of the long flexor muscle of toes, flexor hallucis longus as well as the posterior tibial muscle. Computed tomography images of spiral fractures of the tibia show details of damage that are otherwise invisible on standard radiographs. Moreover, CT images provide useful information about the spatial location of the bone chips as well as possible threats to soft tissues that surround the fracture site. Every spiral fracture of the tibia is associated with disruption of the periosteum. 1. Computed tomography images of spiral fractures of the tibia show details of damage otherwise invisible on standard radiographs, 2. The sharp end of the distal tibial chip can damage the tibialis posterior muscle, long flexor muscles of the toes and the flexor hallucis longus, 3. Every spiral fracture of the tibia is associated with disruption of the periosteum.

  15. Influence of disposable, concentric needle electrodes on muscle enzyme and lactate serum levels.

    PubMed

    Finsterer, Josef; Mittendorfer, Bettina; Neuhuber, Werner; Löscher, Wolfgang N

    2002-08-01

    Several studies addressed the question whether needle-EMG causes elevation of muscle enzymes [aspartate-aminotransferase, alanine-aminotransferase, lactate-dehydrogenase, creatine-phosphokinase (CPK), isoenzyme-MB, aldolase] and lactate with conflicting results. However, these studies used sterilizable needle electrodes and different protocols and methods to record EMGs and determine muscle enzymes. This study examined if muscle enzymes are elevated immediately after or 24 h following EMGs with disposable, concentric needle-electrodes, and if they are dependent on age, sex, muscle, number of investigated sites and previous CPK-elevation. In 53 subjects, 24 woman, 29 men, aged 17-88 years, muscle enzymes were determined before, immediately after and 24 h following EMG with disposable, concentric needle-electrodes. Muscle enzymes were not different before, immediately after and 24 h following the EMG. Muscle enzymes were not different between patients 60 years of age. Apart from higher CPK in men than women, muscle enzymes were not different between the genders. Apart from CPK, muscle enzymes were not different between the brachial biceps and anterior tibial muscle. Muscle enzymes were not different if 20 sites were investigated and were independent on pre-EMG CPK-levels. In conclusion this study shows that muscle enzymes do not increase immediately or 24 h following EMG with disposable, concentric needle-electrodes, irrespective of age, gender, muscle, number of investigated sites and pre-EMG CK-levels.

  16. Short-Term effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on muscle architecture of the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius in children with cerebral palsy: preliminary results of a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Karabay, İlkay; Öztürk, Gökhan Tuna; Malas, Fevziye Ünsal; Kara, Murat; Tiftik, Tülay; Ersöz, Murat; Özçakar, Levent

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the short-term effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation application on tibialis anterior (stimulated muscle) and gastrocnemius (antagonist) muscles' size and architecture in children with cerebral palsy by using ultrasound. This prospective, controlled study included 28 children diagnosed with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy. Participants were treated either with neuromuscular electrical stimulation application and conventional physiotherapy (group A) or with conventional physiotherapy alone (group B). Outcome was evaluated by clinical (gross motor function, selective motor control, range of motion, spasticity) and ultrasonographic (cross-sectional area, pennation angle, fascicle length of tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles) measurements before and after treatment in both groups. Cross-sectional area values of tibialis anterior (238.7 ± 61.5 vs. 282.0 ± 67.1 mm) and gastrocnemius (207.9 ± 48.0 vs. 229.5 ± 52.4 mm) (P < 0.001 and P = 0.008, respectively) muscles were increased after treatment in group A. Cross-sectional area values of tibialis anterior muscle were decreased (257.3 ± 64.7 vs. 239.7 ± 60.0 mm) after treatment in group B (P < 0.001), and the rest of the measurements were found not to have changed significantly in either group. These results have shown that cross-sectional area of both the agonist and antagonist muscles increased after 20 sessions of neuromuscular electrical stimulation treatment. Future studies with larger samples and longer follow-up are definitely awaited for better evaluation of neuromuscular electrical stimulation application on muscle architecture and its possible correlates in clinical/functional outcome.

  17. Different roles of the medial and lateral hamstrings in unloading the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    Guelich, David R; Xu, Dali; Koh, Jason L; Nuber, Gordon W; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament injuries are closely associated with excessive loading and motion about the off axes of the knee, i.e. tibial rotation and knee varus/valgus. However, it is not clear about the 3-D mechanical actions of the lateral and medial hamstring muscles and their differences in loading the ACL. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in anterior cruciate ligament strain induced by loading the lateral and medial hamstrings individually. Seven cadaveric knees were investigated using a custom testing apparatus allowing for six degree-of-freedom tibiofemoral motion induced by individual muscle loading. With major muscles crossing the knee loaded moderately, the medial and lateral hamstrings were loaded independently to 200N along their lines of actions at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of knee flexion. The induced strain of the anterior cruciate ligament was measured using a differential variable reluctance transducer. Tibiofemoral kinematics was monitored using a six degrees-of-freedom knee goniometer. Loading the lateral hamstrings induced significantly more anterior cruciate ligament strain reduction (mean 0.764 [SD 0.63] %) than loading the medial hamstrings (mean 0.007 [0.2] %), (P=0.001 and effect size=0.837) across the knee flexion angles. The lateral and medial hamstrings have significantly different effects on anterior cruciate ligament loadings. More effective rehabilitation and training strategies may be developed to strengthen the lateral and medial hamstrings selectively and differentially to reduce anterior cruciate ligament injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. The lateral and medial hamstrings can potentially be strengthened selectively and differentially as a more focused rehabilitation approach to reduce ACL injury and improve post-injury rehabilitation. Different ACL reconstruction procedures with some of them involving the medial hamstrings can be compared to each other for their effect on ACL loading. Copyright

  18. Tibial component coverage based on bone mineral density of the cut tibial surface during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: clinical relevance of the prevention of tibial component subsidence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong Seuk; Yun, Ji Young; Lee, Beom Koo

    2014-01-01

    An optimally implanted tibial component during unicompartmental knee arthroplasty would be flush with all edges of the cut tibial surface. However, this is often not possible, partly because the tibial component may not be an ideal shape or because the ideal component size may not be available. In such situations, surgeons need to decide between component overhang and underhang and as to which sites must be covered and which sites could be undercovered. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the bone mineral density of the cut surface of the proximal tibia around the cortical rim and to compare the bone mineral density according to the inclusion of the cortex and the site-specific matched evaluation. One hundred and fifty consecutive patients (100 men and 50 women) were enrolled in this study. A quantitative computed tomography was used to determine the bone density of the cut tibial surface. Medial and lateral compartments were divided into anterior, middle, and posterior regions, and these three regions were further subdivided into two regions according to containment of cortex. The site-specific matched comparison (medial vs. lateral) of bone mineral density was performed. In medial sides, the mid-region, including the cortex, showed the highest bone mineral density in male and female patients. The posterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in male patients, and the anterior and posterior regions showed the lowest bone mineral density in female patients. Regions including cortex showed higher bone mineral density than pure cancellous regions in medial sides. In lateral sides, posterior regions including cortex showed highest bone mineral density with statistical significance in both male and female patients. The anterior region showed the lowest bone mineral density in both male and female patients. The mid-region of the medial side and the posterior region of the lateral side are relatively safe without cortical coverage when the component

  19. Tibial component considerations in bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty: A 3D MRI evaluation of proximal tibial anatomy.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Vishal; Anari, Jason B; Ruutiainen, Alexander T; Voleti, Pramod B; Stephenson, Jason W; Lee, Gwo-Chin

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of normal anatomy and proper ligament balance are theoretical prerequisites for reproducing physiological kinematics with bicruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The purpose of this study was to use a 3D MRI technique to evaluate the topography of the proximal tibia and outline considerations in tibial component design for bicruciate-retaining TKA. We identified 100 consecutive patients (50 males and 50 females) between ages 20 and 40 years with knee MRIs without arthritis, dysplasia, ACL tears, or prior knee surgery. A novel 3D MRI protocol coordinating axial, coronal, and sagittal images was used to measure: 1) medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes; 2) medial and lateral coronal slopes; and 3) distance from the anterior tibia to the ACL footprint. There was no overall difference in medial and lateral posterior tibial slopes (5.5° (95% CI 5.0 to 6.0°) vs. 5.4° (95% CI 4.8 to 6.0°), respectively (p=0.80)), but 41 patients had side-to-side differences greater than 3°. The medial coronal slope was greater than the lateral coronal slope (4.6° (95% CI 4.0 to 5.1°) vs. 3.3° (95% CI 2.9 to 3.7°), respectively (p<0.0001)). Females had less clearance between the anterior tibia and ACL footprint than males (10.8mm (95% CI 10.4 to 11.2mm) vs. 13.0mm (95% CI 12.5 to 13.5mm), respectively (p<0.0001)). Due to highly variable proximal tibial topography, a monoblock bicruciate-retaining tibial baseplate may not reproduce normal anatomy in all patients. Level IV - Anatomic research study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Epidemiological and clinical outcome comparison of indirect ('strain') versus direct ('contusion') anterior and posterior thigh muscle injuries in male elite football players: UEFA Elite League study of 2287 thigh injuries (2001-2013).

    PubMed

    Ueblacker, Peter; Müller-Wohlfahrt, Hans-Wilhelm; Ekstrand, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Data regarding direct athletic muscle injuries (caused by a direct blunt or sharp external force) compared to indirect ones (without the influence of a direct external trauma) are missing in the current literature--this distinction has clinical implications. To compare incidence, duration of absence and characteristics of indirect and direct anterior (quadriceps) and posterior thigh (hamstring) muscle injuries. 30 football teams and 1981 players were followed prospectively from 2001 until 2013. The team medical staff recorded individual player exposure and time-loss injuries. Muscle injuries were defined as indirect or direct according to their injury mechanism. In total, 2287 thigh muscle injuries were found, representing 25% of all injuries. Two thousand and three were valid for further analysis, of which 88% were indirect and 12% direct. The incidence was eight times higher for indirect injuries (1.48/1000 h) compared to direct muscle injuries (0.19/1000 h) (p<0.01). Indirect muscle injuries caused 19% of total absence, and direct injuries 1%. The mean lay-off time for indirect injuries amounted to 18.5 days and differed significantly from direct injuries which accounted for 7 days (p<0.001). 60% of indirect injuries and 76% of direct injuries occurred in match situations. Foul play was involved in 7% of all thigh muscle injuries, as well as in 2% of indirect injuries and 42% of direct injuries. Muscle anterior and posterior thigh injuries in elite football are more frequent than have been previously described. Direct injuries causing time loss are less frequent than indirect ones, and players can usually return to full activity in under half the average time for an indirect injury. Foul play is involved in 7.5% of all thigh muscle injuries. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  1. Impact of Chiropractic Manipulation on Bone and Skeletal Muscle of Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    López-Herradón, A; Fujikawa, R; Gómez-Marín, M; Stedile-Lovatel, J P; Mulero, F; Ardura, J A; Ruiz, P; Muñoz, I; Esbrit, P; Mahíllo-Fernández, I; Ortega-de Mues, A

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that chiropractic manipulation might exert positive effects in osteoporotic patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chiropractic manipulation on bone structure and skeletal muscle in rats with bone loss caused by ovariectomy (OVX). The 6-month old Sprague-Dawley rats at 10 weeks following OVX or sham operation (Sh) did not suffer chiropractic manipulation (NM group) or were submitted to true chiropractic manipulation using the chiropractic adjusting instrument Activator V ® three times/week for 6 weeks as follows: Force 1 setting was applied onto the tibial tubercle of the rat right hind limb (TM group), whereas the corresponding left hind limb received a false manipulation (FM group) consisting of ActivatorV ® firing in the air and slightly touching the tibial tubercle. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were determined in long bones and L3-L4 vertebrae in all rats. Femora and tibia were analyzed by μCT. Mechano growth factor (MGF) was detected in long bones and soleus, quadriceps and tibial muscles by immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The decrease of BMD and BMC as well as trabecular bone impairment in the long bones of OVX rats vs Sh controls was partially reversed in the TM group versus FM or NM rats. This bone improvement by chiropractic manipulation was associated with an increased MGF expression in the quadriceps and the anterior tibial muscle in OVX rats. These findings support the notion that chiropractic manipulation can ameliorate osteoporotic bone at least partly by targeting skeletal muscle.

  2. Intra and inter-session reliability of rapid Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation stimulus-response curves of tibialis anterior muscle in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Peri, Elisabetta; Ambrosini, Emilia; Colombo, Vera Maria; van de Ruit, Mark; Grey, Michael J; Monticone, Marco; Ferriero, Giorgio; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Ferrante, Simona

    2017-01-01

    The clinical use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a technique to assess corticospinal excitability is limited by the time for data acquisition and the measurement variability. This study aimed at evaluating the reliability of Stimulus-Response (SR) curves acquired with a recently proposed rapid protocol on tibialis anterior muscle of healthy older adults. Twenty-four neurologically-intact adults (age:55-75 years) were recruited for this test-retest study. During each session, six SR curves, 3 at rest and 3 during isometric muscle contractions at 5% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), were acquired. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were normalized to the maximum peripherally evoked response; the coil position and orientation were monitored with an optical tracking system. Intra- and inter-session reliability of motor threshold (MT), area under the curve (AURC), MEPmax, stimulation intensity at which the MEP is mid-way between MEPmax and MEPmin (I50), slope in I50, MEP latency, and silent period (SP) were assessed in terms of Standard Error of Measurement (SEM), relative SEM, Minimum Detectable Change (MDC), and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). The relative SEM was ≤10% for MT, I50, latency and SP both at rest and 5%MVC, while it ranged between 11% and 37% for AURC, MEPmax, and slope. MDC values were overall quite large; e.g., MT required a change of 12%MSO at rest and 10%MSO at 5%MVC to be considered a real change. Inter-sessions ICC were >0.6 for all measures but slope at rest and MEPmax and latency at 5%MVC. Measures derived from SR curves acquired in <4 minutes are affected by similar measurement errors to those found with long-lasting protocols, suggesting that the rapid method is at least as reliable as the traditional methods. As specifically designed to include older adults, this study provides normative data for future studies involving older neurological patients (e.g. stroke survivors).

  3. Reliability of frames of reference used for tibial component rotation in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Page, Stephen R; Deakin, Angela H; Payne, Anthony P; Picard, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated seven different frames of reference used for tibial component rotation in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) to determine which ones showed good reliability between bone specimens. An optoelectronic system based around a computer-assisted surgical navigation system was used to measure and locate 34 individual anatomical landmarks on 40 tibias. Each particular frame of reference was reconstructed from a group of data points taken from the surface of each bone. The transverse axis was used as the baseline to which the other axes were compared, and the differences in angular rotation between the other six reference frames and the transverse axis were calculated. There was high variability in the tibial rotational alignment associated with all frames of reference. Of the references widely used in current TKA procedures, the tibial tuberosity axis and the anterior condylar axis had lower standard deviations (6.1° and 7.3°, respectively) than the transmalleolar axis and the posterior condylar axis (9.3° for both). In conclusion, we found high variability in the frames of reference used for tibial rotation alignment. However, the anterior condylar axis and transverse axis may warrant further tests with the use of navigation. Combining different frames of reference such as the tibial tuberosity axis, anterior condylar axis and transverse axis may reduce the range of errors found in all of these measurements.

  4. Minimizing Alteration of Posterior Tibial Slope During Opening Wedge High Tibial Osteotomy: a Protocol with Experimental Validation in Paired Cadaveric Knees

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Robert W; DeBerardino, Thomas; Amendola, Annunziato

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The High Tibial Osteotomy (HTO) is a reliable procedure in addressing uni- compartmental arthritis with associated coronal deformities. With osteotomy of the proximal tibia, there is a risk of altering the tibial slope in the sagittal plane. Surgical techniques continue to evolve with trends towards procedure reproducibility and simplification. We evaluated a modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique in 18 paired cadaveric knees with the goals of maintaining sagittal slope, increasing procedure efficiency, and decreasing use of intraoperative fluoroscopy. Methods Nine paired cadaveric knees (18 legs) underwent iBalance medial opening wedge high tibial osteotomies. In each pair, the right knee underwent an HTO using the modified technique, while all left knees underwent the traditional technique. Independent observers evaluated postoperative factors including tibial slope, placement of hinge pin, and implant placement. Specimens were then dissected to evaluate for any gross muscle, nerve or vessel injury. Results Changes to posterior tibial slope were similar using each technique. The change in slope in traditional iBalance technique was -0.3° ±2.3° and change in tibial slope using the modified iBalance technique was -0.4° ±2.3° (p=0.29). Furthermore, we detected no differences in posterior tibial slope between preoperative and postoperative specimens (p=0.74 traditional, p=0.75 modified). No differences in implant placement were detected between traditional and modified techniques. (p=0.85). No intraoperative iatrogenic complications (i.e. lateral cortex fracture, blood vessel or nerve injury) were observed in either group after gross dissection. Discussion & Conclusions Alterations in posterior tibial slope are associated with HTOs. Both traditional and modified iBalance techniques appear reliable in coronal plane corrections without changing posterior tibial slope. The present modification of the Arthrex iBalance technique may increase the

  5. Quadriceps muscle function after exercise in men and women with a history of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Kuenze, Christopher M; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Sex differences in lower extremity neuromuscular function have been reported after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Research evidence supports different levels of fatigability in men and women and between patients with ACLR and healthy controls. The influence of sex on the response to continuous exercise in patients with ACLR is not clear. To compare quadriceps neuromuscular function after exercise between men and women with ACLR. Descriptive laboratory study. Laboratory. Twenty-six active volunteers (13 men [50%]: age = 24.1 ± 4.4 years, height = 179.1 ± 9.8 cm, mass = 80.1 ± 9.4 kg, months since surgery = 43.5 ± 37.0; 13 women [50%]: age = 24.2 ± 5.6 years, height = 163.0 ± 5.9 cm, mass = 62.3 ± 8.3 kg, months since surgery = 45.8 ± 42.7) with a history of unilateral primary ACLR at least 6 months earlier. Thirty minutes of continuous exercise comprising 5 separate 6-minute cycles, including 5 minutes of uphill walking and 1 minute of body-weight squatting and step-ups. Normalized knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque, quadriceps superimposed-burst torque, and quadriceps central activation ratio before and after exercise. We performed separate 2 (sex: men, women) × 2 (time: preexercise, postexercise) repeated-measures analyses of variance for the 3 variables. Separate, independent-samples t tests were calculated to compare preexercise with postexercise change in all dependent variables between sexes. A significant group-by-time interaction was present for knee-extension torque (P = .04). The percentage reduction in knee-extension maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (men = 1.94%, women = -10.32%; P = .02) and quadriceps central activation ratio (men = -1.45%, women = -8.69%; P = .03) experienced by men was less than that observed in women. In the presence of quadriceps dysfunction, female participants experienced greater-magnitude reductions in quadriceps function after 30 minutes of exercise than male

  6. Arthroscopic repair of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus with opening wedge high tibial osteotomy: surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang Am; Kim, Sung Jae; Lee, Su Chan; Jeong, Jae Hoon; Song, Moon Bok; Lee, Choon Key

    2009-07-01

    Simultaneous repair of a radial tear at the tibial attachment site of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus under special circumstances requiring tibial valgus osteotomy is technically difficult. First, most patients who need an osteotomy have a narrowed medial tibiofemoral joint space. In such a situation, the pull-out suture technique is more difficult to perform than in a normal joint space. Second, pulling out suture strands that penetrate the posterior horn of the medial meniscus to the anterior tibial cortex increases the risk of transection during osteotomy. We performed a meniscus repair combined with an opening wedge tibial valgus osteotomy without complications and present our technique as a new method for use in selective cases necessitating both meniscus repair of a complete radial tear and opening wedge tibial osteotomy.

  7. Posterior slope of the tibial implant and the outcome of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe; Deschamps, Gerard

    2004-03-01

    Laboratory studies have suggested that the sagittal displacements permitted by a knee replacement are influenced by the posterior slope of the tibial implant. The effect of the posterior slope of the tibial implant on the outcome of unicompartmental arthroplasty is not well known. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of the posterior slope on the long-term outcome of unicompartmental arthroplasty in knees with intact and deficient anterior cruciate ligaments. We retrospectively reviewed the results of ninety-nine unicompartmental arthroplasties after a mean duration of follow-up of sixteen years. At the time of the arthroplasty, the anterior cruciate ligament was considered to be normal in fifty knees, damaged in thirty-one, and absent in eighteen. At the most recent follow-up, we measured the posterior tibial slope and the anterior tibial translation on standing lateral radiographs. The anteroposterior stability of seventy-seven knees that had not been revised by the time of the most recent follow-up was evaluated clinically. In the group of seventy-seven knees that had not been revised by the time of the most recent follow-up, there was a significant linear relationship between anterior tibial translation (mean, 3.7 mm) and posterior tibial slope (mean, 4.3 degrees ) (p < 0.01). The mean posterior slope of the tibial implant was significantly less in the group of seventy-seven knees without loosening of the implant than it was in the group of seventeen knees with loosening of the implant (p < 0.05). Five ruptures of the anterior cruciate ligament occurred in knees in which the ligament had been considered to be normal at the time of implantation; the posterior tibial slope in these five knees was > or = 13 degrees. Clinical evaluation revealed normal or nearly normal anteroposterior stability at the time of the most recent follow-up in all sixty-six unrevised knees in which the anterior cruciate ligament had been present at the time of

  8. Anterior versus posterior approach in reconstruction of infected nonunion of the tibia using the vascularized fibular graft: potentialities and limitations.

    PubMed

    Amr, Sherif M; El-Mofty, Aly O; Amin, Sherif N

    2002-01-01

    The potentialities, limitations, and technical pitfalls of the vascularized fibular grafting in infected nonunions of the tibia are outlined on the basis of 14 patients approached anteriorly or posteriorly. An infected nonunion of the tibia together with a large exposed area over the shin of the tibia is better approached anteriorly. The anastomosis is placed in an end-to-end or end-to-side fashion onto the anterior tibial vessels. To locate the site of the nonunion, the tibialis anterior muscle should be retracted laterally and the proximal and distal ends of the site of the nonunion debrided up to healthy bleeding bone. All the scarred skin over the anterior tibia should be excised, because it becomes devitalized as a result of the exposure. To cover the exposed area, the fibula has to be harvested with a large skin paddle, incorporating the first septocutaneous branch originating from the peroneal vessels before they gain the upper end of the flexor hallucis longus muscle. A disadvantage of harvesting the free fibula together with a skin paddle is that its pedicle is short. The skin paddle lies at the antimesenteric border of the graft, the site of incising and stripping the periosteum. In addition, it has to be sutured to the skin at the recipient site, so the soft tissues (together with the peroneal vessels), cannot be stripped off the graft to prolong its pedicle. Vein grafts should be resorted to, if the pedicle does not reach a healthy segment of the anterior tibial vessels. Defects with limited exposed areas of skin, especially in questionable patency of the vessels of the leg, require primarily a fibula with a long pedicle that could easily reach the popliteal vessels and are thus better approached posteriorly. In this approach, the site of the nonunion is exposed medial to the flexor digitorum muscle and the proximal and distal ends of the site of the nonunion debrided up to healthy bleeding bone. No attempt should be made to strip the scarred skin off

  9. TIBIAL SHAFT FRACTURES.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kodi Edson; Ferreira, Ramon Venzon

    2011-01-01

    The long-bone fractures occur most frequently in the tibial shaft. Adequate treatment of such fractures avoids consolidation failure, skewed consolidation and reoperation. To classify these fractures, the AO/OTA classification method is still used, but it is worthwhile getting to know the Ellis classification method, which also includes assessment of soft-tissue injuries. There is often an association with compartmental syndrome, and early diagnosis can be achieved through evaluating clinical parameters and constant clinical monitoring. Once the diagnosis has been made, fasciotomy should be performed. It is always difficult to assess consolidation, but the RUST method may help in this. Radiography is assessed in two projections, and points are scored for the presence of the fracture line and a visible bone callus. Today, the dogma of six hours for cleaning the exposed fracture is under discussion. It is considered that an early start to intravenous antibiotic therapy and the lesion severity are very important. The question of early or late closure of the lesion in an exposed fracture has gone through several phases: sometimes early closure has been indicated and sometimes late closure. Currently, whenever possible, early closure of the lesion is recommended, since this diminishes the risk of infection. Milling of the canal when the intramedullary nail is introduced is still a controversial subject. Despite strong personal positions in favor of milling, studies have shown that there may be some advantage in relation to closed fractures, but not in exposed fractures.

  10. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options.

  11. Etiologic factors in the development of medial tibial stress syndrome: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Tweed, Jo L; Avil, Steven J; Campbell, Jackie A; Barnes, Mike R

    2008-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome is a type of exercise-induced leg pain that is common in recreational and competitive athletes. Although various studies have attempted to find the exact pathogenesis of this common condition, it remains unknown. Various theories in literature from 1976 to 2006 were reviewed using key words. Until recently, inflammation of the periosteum due to excessive traction was thought to be the most likely cause of medial tibial stress syndrome. This periostitis has been hypothesized by some authors to be caused by the tearing away of the muscle fibers at the muscle-bone interface, although there are several suggestions as to which, if any, muscle is responsible. Recent studies have supported the view that medial tibial stress syndrome is not an inflammatory process of the periosteum but instead a stress reaction of bone that has become painful.

  12. Differences in muscle sympathetic nerve response to isometric exercise in different muscle groups.

    PubMed

    Saito, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of muscle fibre composition on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) in response to isometric exercise. The MSNA, recorded from the tibial nerve by a microneurographic technique during contraction and following arterial occlusion, was compared in three different muscle groups: the forearm (handgrip), anterior tibialis (foot dorsal contraction), and soleus muscles (foot plantar contraction) contracted separately at intensities of 20%, 33% and 50% of the maximal voluntary force. The increases in MSNA relative to control levels during contraction and occlusion were significant at all contracting forces for handgrip and at 33% and 50% of maximal for dorsal contraction, but there were no significant changes, except during exercise at 50%, for plantar contraction. The size of the MSNA response correlated with the contraction force in all muscle groups. Pooling data for all contraction forces, there were different MSNA responses among muscle groups in contraction forces (P = 0.0001, two-way analysis of variance), and occlusion periods (P = 0.0001). The MSNA increases were in the following order of magnitude: handgrip, dorsal, and plantar contractions. The order of the fibre type composition in these three muscles is from equal numbers of types I and II fibres in the forearm to increasing number of type I fibres in the leg muscles. The different MSNA responses to the contraction of different muscle groups observed may have been due in part to muscle metaboreflex intensity influenced by their metabolic capacity which is related to by their metabolic capacity which is related to the fibre type.

  13. Intra and inter-session reliability of rapid Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation stimulus-response curves of tibialis anterior muscle in healthy older adults

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Vera Maria; van de Ruit, Mark; Grey, Michael J.; Monticone, Marco; Ferriero, Giorgio; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Ferrante, Simona

    2017-01-01

    Objective The clinical use of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a technique to assess corticospinal excitability is limited by the time for data acquisition and the measurement variability. This study aimed at evaluating the reliability of Stimulus-Response (SR) curves acquired with a recently proposed rapid protocol on tibialis anterior muscle of healthy older adults. Methods Twenty-four neurologically-intact adults (age:55–75 years) were recruited for this test-retest study. During each session, six SR curves, 3 at rest and 3 during isometric muscle contractions at 5% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), were acquired. Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were normalized to the maximum peripherally evoked response; the coil position and orientation were monitored with an optical tracking system. Intra- and inter-session reliability of motor threshold (MT), area under the curve (AURC), MEPmax, stimulation intensity at which the MEP is mid-way between MEPmax and MEPmin (I50), slope in I50, MEP latency, and silent period (SP) were assessed in terms of Standard Error of Measurement (SEM), relative SEM, Minimum Detectable Change (MDC), and Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC). Results The relative SEM was ≤10% for MT, I50, latency and SP both at rest and 5%MVC, while it ranged between 11% and 37% for AURC, MEPmax, and slope. MDC values were overall quite large; e.g., MT required a change of 12%MSO at rest and 10%MSO at 5%MVC to be considered a real change. Inter-sessions ICC were >0.6 for all measures but slope at rest and MEPmax and latency at 5%MVC. Conclusions Measures derived from SR curves acquired in <4 minutes are affected by similar measurement errors to those found with long-lasting protocols, suggesting that the rapid method is at least as reliable as the traditional methods. As specifically designed to include older adults, this study provides normative data for future studies involving older neurological patients (e.g. stroke survivors). PMID

  14. The relationship between performance on the modified star excursion balance test and the knee muscle strength before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Paula Calori; Serenza, Felipe de Souza; Muniz, Thiago Batista; de Oliveira, Luciano Fonseca Lemos; Salim, Rodrigo; Fogagnolo, Fabricio; Kfuri, Mauricio; Ferreira, Aline Miranda

    2018-06-06

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the dynamic balance of the injured and uninjured limb before and after the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and compare with the control group. Prospective longitudinal. Biomechanics laboratory. Participants are 24 males (mean age, 27.5 years) with unilateral ACL injury (ACLG) and 24 male healthy volunteers (CG). The modified star excursion balance test (SEBT) and isokinetic knee extensor and flexor strength were applied in the ACLG preoperatively and after surgery. The dominant limb of CG was evaluated at a single time. There was no difference between the injured and the uninjured limb of the ACLG (P > 0.05) before and after surgery. Preoperatively, both ACLG limbs had a significantly lower reach distance in posteromedial (PM) and posterolateral (PL) directions and in composite reach (CR) score compared to the control group (P < 0.001). Postoperatively, no significant differences were found between ACLG and CG (P > 0.05). There was a positive correlation between preoperative PL (0.59) and CR (0.51), postoperative PM (0.36), PL (0.36) and CR (0.46) with flexor strength at 12 months after surgery. Patients with ACL injury presented a worse performance in the SEBT in the preoperative period compared to the control group. After ligament reconstruction, the performance in the SEBT became equivalent to that of the control group. The strong correlation between flexor strength and posterior directions of the injured limb demonstrates the importance of the knee flexor muscles in the neuromuscular control of patients submitted to ACL reconstruction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bone microarchitecture of the tibial plateau in skeletal health and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Hubert, Jan; Deymann, Simon; Hapfelmeier, Alexander; Wulff, Birgit; Petersik, Andreas; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael; Hawellek, Thelonius; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-05-07

    Impaired bone structure poses a challenge for the treatment of osteoporotic tibial plateau fractures. As knowledge of region-specific structural bone alterations is a prerequisite to achieving successful long-term fixation, the aim of the current study was to characterize tibial plateau bone structure in patients with osteoporosis and the elderly. Histomorphometric parameters were assessed by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) in 21 proximal tibiae from females with postmenopausal osteoporosis (mean age: 84.3 ± 4.9 years) and eight female healthy controls (45.5 ± 6.9 years). To visualize region-specific structural bony alterations with age, the bone mineral density (Hounsfield units) was additionally analyzed in 168 human proximal tibiae. Statistical analysis was based on evolutionary learning using globally optimal regression trees. Bone structure deterioration of the tibial plateau due to osteoporosis was region-specific. Compared to healthy controls (20.5 ± 4.7%) the greatest decrease in bone volume fraction was found in the medio-medial segments (9.2 ± 3.5%, p < 0.001). The lowest bone volume was found in central segments (tibial spine). Trabecular connectivity was severely reduced. Importantly, in the anterior and posterior 25% of the lateral and medial tibial plateaux, trabecular support and subchondral cortical bone thickness itself were also reduced. Thinning of subchondral cortical bone and marked bone loss in the anterior and posterior 25% of the tibial plateau should require special attention when osteoporotic patients require fracture fixation of the posterior segments. This knowledge may help to improve the long-term, fracture-specific fixation of complex tibial plateau fractures in osteoporosis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tibial lengthening over intramedullary nails

    PubMed Central

    Burghardt, R. D.; Manzotti, A.; Bhave, A.; Paley, D.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the results and complications of tibial lengthening over an intramedullary nail with treatment using the traditional Ilizarov method. Methods In this matched case study, 16 adult patients underwent 19 tibial lengthening over nails (LON) procedures. For the matched case group, 17 patients who underwent 19 Ilizarov tibial lengthenings were retrospectively matched to the LON group. Results The mean external fixation time for the LON group was 2.6 months and for the matched case group was 7.6 months. The mean lengthening amounts for the LON and the matched case groups were 5.2 cm and 4.9 cm, respectively. The radiographic consolidation time in the LON group was 6.6 months and in the matched case group 7.6 months. Using a clinical and radiographic outcome score that was designed for this study, the outcome was determined to be excellent in 17 and good in two patients for the LON group. The outcome was excellent in 14 and good in five patients in the matched case group. The LON group had increased blood loss and increased cost. The LON group had four deep infections; the matched case group did not have any deep infections. Conclusions The outcomes in the LON group were comparable with the outcomes in the matched case group. The LON group had a shorter external fixation time but experienced increased blood loss, increased cost, and four cases of deep infection. The advantage of reducing external fixation treatment time may outweigh these disadvantages in patients who have a healthy soft-tissue envelope. Cite this article: J. E. Herzenberg. Tibial lengthening over intramedullary nails: A matched case comparison with Ilizarov tibial lengthening. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:1–10. doi: 10.1302/2046-3758.51.2000577 PMID:26764351

  17. What are the bias, imprecision, and limits of agreement for finding the flexion-extension plane of the knee with five tibial reference lines?

    PubMed

    Brar, Abheetinder S; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2016-06-01

    Internal-external (I-E) malrotation of the tibial component is associated with poor function after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Kinematically aligned (KA) TKA uses a functionally defined flexion-extension (F-E) tibial reference line, which is parallel to the F-E plane of the extended knee, to set I-E rotation of the tibial component. Sixty-two, three-dimensional bone models of normal knees were analyzed. We computed the bias (mean), imprecision (±standard deviation), and limits of agreement (mean±2 standard deviations) of the angle between five anatomically defined tibial reference lines used in mechanically aligned (MA) TKA and the F-E tibial reference line (+external). The following are the bias, imprecision, and limits of agreement of the angle between the F-E tibial reference line and 1) the tibial reference lines connecting the medial border (-2°±6°, -14° to 10°), medial 1/3 (6°±6°, -6° to 18°), and the most anterior point of the tibial tubercle (9°±4°, -1° to 17°) with the center of the posterior cruciate ligament, and 2) the tibial reference lines perpendicular to the posterior condylar axis of the tibia (-3°±4°, -11° to 5°), and a line connecting the centers of the tibial condyles (1°±4°, -7° to 9°). Based on these in vitro findings, it might be prudent to reconsider setting the I-E rotation of the tibial component to tibial reference lines that have bias, imprecision, and limits of agreement that fall outside the -7° to 10° range associated with high function after KA TKA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy: a technique for eliminating cranial tibial thrust in cranial cruciate ligament repair.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1984-03-01

    Cranial tibial wedge osteotomy, surgical technique for cranial cruciate ligament rupture, was performed on 19 stifles in dogs. This procedure leveled the tibial plateau, thus causing weight-bearing forces to be compressive and eliminating cranial tibial thrust. Without cranial tibial thrust, which was antagonistic to the cranial cruciate ligament and its surgical reconstruction, cruciate ligament repairs were allowed to heal without constant loads. This technique was meant to be used as an adjunct to other cranial cruciate ligament repair techniques.

  19. Does lateral versus medial exposure influence total knee tibial component final external rotation? A CT based study.

    PubMed

    Passeron, D; Gaudot, F; Boisrenoult, P; Fallet, L; Beaufils, P

    2009-10-01

    A previous study demonstrated that performing a total knee arthroplasty through a lateral approach including anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT) osteotomy (refixed in its original position) presented numerous advantages: correcting the preoperative patella lateral tilt and improving postoperative patella tracking. We hypothesized that these improvements in patella centering were, at least in part, due to an increased external rotation of the tibial component. Postoperative scannographic studies were, therefore, undertaken to measure tibial component rotation and analyze the results according the medial and lateral exposure used. Rotational positioning of the tibial component is influenced by the lateral or medial approach selected at surgery. Forty-five CAT scans, performed according to the protocol criteria of the French Hip and Knee Society (SFHG), were studied 3 months postoperatively: 15 knees operated through the lateral approach and 30 knees operated through a standard medial approach. The total knee utilized in all these cases was a posteriorly stabilized, fixed-bearing, design. We measured first the angle formed between the perpendicular to the transverse axis of the tibial component and the axis joining the ATT to the center of the knee; second we also measured the coronal distance between the center of the component and the anterior tibial tuberosity (ATT). In the group using the medial approach, the lateral position of the ATT was 7 + or - 3mm with a rotation angle of 18 degrees . In the group using the lateral approach these measurements were respectively 1 + or - 4mm and 2 degrees (p<0.0001). External rotation of the tibial component is substantially increased by the lateral approach compared to the medial approach. Better exposure of the lateral tibial plateau is probably responsible of this difference. This increased external rotation improves postoperative patella tracking. Prospective; comparative; non-randomized study; level 3. 2009 Elsevier Masson

  20. Reciprocal inhibition between motor neurons of the tibialis anterior and triceps surae in humans.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Utku Ş; Negro, Francesco; Diedrichs, Robin; Farina, Dario

    2018-05-01

    Motor neurons innervating antagonist muscles receive reciprocal inhibitory afferent inputs to facilitate the joint movement in the two directions. The present study investigates the mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibitory afferent inputs between the tibialis anterior (TA) and triceps surae (soleus and medial gastrocnemius) motor units. We assessed this mutual mechanism in large populations of motor units for building a statistical distribution of the inhibition amplitudes during standardized input to the motor neuron pools to minimize the effect of modulatory pathways. Single motor unit activities were identified using high-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG) recorded from the TA, soleus (Sol), and medial gastrocnemius (GM) muscles during isometric dorsi- and plantarflexion. Reciprocal inhibition on the antagonist muscle was elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibial (TN) or common peroneal nerves (CPN). The probability density distributions of reflex strength for each muscle were estimated to examine the strength of mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibitory input. The results showed that the strength of reciprocal inhibition in the TA motor units was fourfold greater than for the GM and the Sol motor units. This suggests an asymmetric transmission of reciprocal inhibition between ankle extensor and flexor muscles. This asymmetry cannot be explained by differences in motor unit type composition between the investigated muscles since we sampled low-threshold motor units in all cases. Therefore, the differences observed for the strength of inhibition are presumably due to a differential reciprocal spindle afferent input and the relative contribution of nonreciprocal inhibitory pathways. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We investigated the mutual transmission of reciprocal inhibition in large samples of motor units using a standardized input (electrical stimulation) to the motor neurons. The results demonstrated that the disynaptic reciprocal inhibition exerted

  1. Intercondylar roof impingement pressure after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Tajima, Goro; Ingham, Sheila J M; Shen, Wei; Horaguchi, Takashi; Saito, Akiyoshi; Smolinski, Patrick; Fu, Freddie H

    2009-06-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) graft impingement against the intercondylar roof has been postulated, but not thoroughly investigated. The roof impingement pressure changes with different tibial and femoral tunnel positions in ACL reconstruction. Anterior tibial translation is also affected by the tunnel positions of ACL reconstruction. The study design included a controlled laboratory study. In 15 pig knees, the impingement pressure between ACL and intercondylar roof was measured using pressure sensitive film before and after ACL single bundle reconstruction. ACL reconstructions were performed in each knee with two different tibial and femoral tunnel position combinations: (1) tibial antero-medial (AM) tunnel to femoral AM tunnel (AM to AM) and (2) tibial postero-lateral (PL) tunnel to femoral High-AM tunnel (PL to High-AM). Anterior tibial translation (ATT) was evaluated after each ACL reconstruction using robotic/universal force-moment sensor testing system. Neither the AM to AM nor the PL to High-AM ACL reconstruction groups showed significant difference when compared with intact ACL in roof impingement pressure. The AM to AM group had a significantly higher failure load than PL to High-AM group. This study showed how different tunnel placements affect the ACL-roof impingement pressure and anterior-posterior laxity in ACL reconstruction. Anatomical ACL reconstruction does not cause roof impingement and it has a biomechanical advantage in ATT when compared with non-anatomical ACL reconstructions in the pig knee. There is no intercondylar roof impingement after anatomical single bundle ACL reconstruction.

  2. Effects of diabetic peripheral neuropathy on gait in vascular trans-tibial amputees.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Sumiko; Katsuhira, Junji

    2018-07-01

    Patients with diabetes often develop diabetic peripheral neuropathy, which is a distal symmetric polyneuropathy, so foot function on the non-amputated side is expected to affect gait in vascular trans-tibial amputees. However, there is little information on the kinematics and kinetics of gait or the effects of diabetic peripheral neuropathy in vascular trans-tibial amputees. This study aimed to clarify these effects, including the biomechanics of the ankle on the non-amputated side. Participants were 10 vascular trans-tibial amputees with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (group V) and 8 traumatic trans-tibial amputees (group T). Each subject's gait was analyzed at a self-selected speed using a three-dimensional motion analyzer and force plates. Ankle plantarflexion angle, heel elevation angle, and peak and impulse of anterior ground reaction force were smaller on the non-amputated side during pre-swing in group V than in group T. Center of gravity during pre-swing on the non-amputated side was lower in group V than in group T. Hip extension torque during loading response on the prosthetic side was greater in group V than in group T. These findings suggest that the biomechanical function of the ankle on the non-amputated side during pre-swing is poorer in vascular trans-tibial amputees with DPN than in traumatic trans-tibial amputees; the height of the center of gravity could not be maintained during this phase in vascular trans-tibial amputees with diabetic peripheral neuropathy. The hip joint on the prosthetic side compensated for this diminished function at the ankle during loading response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [Mobility of a polyethylene tibial insert in a mobile total knee prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Castel, E; Roger, B; Camproux, A; Saillant, G

    1999-03-01

    We have studied the mobility of a mobile tibial implant in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) by a radiographical evaluation. We analyzed mobility of the polyethylene tibial insert of 15 "G2S" TKA implanted for one year or more. We established a dynamic radiographical evaluation. We used 3 weight-bearing radiographs: AP in extension and two lateral (one in extension and one at 90 degrees of flexion), two AP with femoral internal and external rotation, 2 strict lateral X-rays in neutral rotation in antero-posterior replacement with a 25 kilograms strength Telos, and 2 AP in varus and valgus with Telos. Wilcoxon's test and Fisher's exact test were used for statistical evaluation. Our study demonstrated preservation of the polyethylene mobility in tibial TKA implant in all movements: in rotation, in antero-posterior translation with Telos, and even in antero-posterior translation during physiological condition with flexion-extension weight-bearing radiographs. Statistical tests were very significant. We noticed that flexion induced anterior translation of tibial polyethylene when PCL was preserved. This study answered to our question whether mobility of TKA tibial implant persists after implantation. This mobility should reduce loosening forces to the tibia and stress in the polyethylene component. Now we have to determine the amplitude of mobility required to reach this objective.

  4. Ideal tibial intramedullary nail insertion point varies with tibial rotation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Richard M; Zdero, Rad; McKee, Michael D; Waddell, James P; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2011-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how superior entry point varies with tibial rotation and to identify landmarks that can be used to identify suitable radiographs for successful intramedullary nail insertion. The proximal tibia and knee were imaged for 12 cadaveric limbs undergoing 5° increments of internal and external rotation. Medial and lateral arthrotomies were performed, the ideal superior entry point was identified, and a 2-mm Kirschner wire inserted. A second Kirschner wire was sequentially placed at the 5-mm and then the 10-mm position, both medial and lateral to the initial Kirschner wire. Radiographs of the knee were obtained for all increments. The changing position of the ideal nail insertion point was recorded. A 30° arc (range, 25°-40°) provided a suitable anteroposterior radiograph. On the neutral anteroposterior radiograph, the Kirschner wire was 54% ± 1.5% (range, 51-56%) from the medial edge of the tibial plateau. For every 5° of rotation, the Kirschner wire moved 3% of the plateau width. During external rotation, a misleading medial entry point was obtained. A fibular bisector line correlated with an entry point that was ideal or up to 5 mm lateral to this but never medial. The film that best showed the fibular bisector line was between 0° and 10° of internal rotation of the tibia. The fibula head bisector line can be used to avoid choosing external rotation views and, thus, avoid medial insertion points. The current results may help the surgeon prevent malalignment during intramedullary nailing in proximal tibial fractures.

  5. Role of high tibial osteotomy in chronic injuries of posterior cruciate ligament and posterolateral corner.

    PubMed

    Savarese, Eugenio; Bisicchia, Salvatore; Romeo, Rocco; Amendola, Annunziato

    2011-03-01

    High tibial osteotomy (HTO) is a surgical procedure used to change the mechanical weight-bearing axis and alter the loads carried through the knee. Conventional indications for HTO are medial compartment osteoarthritis and varus malalignment of the knee causing pain and dysfunction. Traditionally, knee instability associated with varus thrust has been considered a contraindication. However, today the indications include patients with chronic ligament deficiencies and malalignment, because an HTO procedure can change not only the coronal but also the sagittal plane of the knee. The sagittal plane has generally been ignored in HTO literature, but its modification has a significant impact on biomechanics and joint stability. Indeed, decreased posterior tibial slope causes posterior tibia translation and helps the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee. Vice versa, increased tibial slope causes anterior tibia translation and helps the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-deficient knee. A review of literature shows that soft tissue procedures alone are often unsatisfactory for chronic posterior instability if alignment is not corrected. Since limb alignment is the most important factor to consider in lower limb reconstructive surgery, diagnosis and treatment of limb malalignment should not be ignored in management of chronic ligamentous instabilities. This paper reviews the effects of chronic posterior instability and tibial slope alteration on knee and soft tissues, in addition to planning and surgical technique for chronic posterior and posterolateral instability with HTO.

  6. Prior poliomyelitis-reduced capillary supply and metabolic enzyme content in hypertrophic slow-twitch (type I) muscle fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Borg, K; Henriksson, J

    1991-01-01

    Capillary supply and oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were determined in muscle biopsies from the tibialis anterior muscle in six prior polio patients and a control group. The polio patients, who had paresis and atrophy, but were able to walk normally by making maximal use of all remaining anterior tibial motor units, showed type I (slow-twitch) muscle fibre predominance with a mean (SD) of 98 (2%) type I fibres versus 81 (8)% in the controls (p less than 0.01) and muscle fibre hypertrophy, the average type I fibre cross-sectional area being 108% (p less than 0.005) larger than in the controls. The number of capillaries per muscle fibre was not significantly different from that in the control group, but with the increased muscle fibre area in the polio patients, the capillary density was significantly lower. The number of capillaries in contact with type I fibres relative to fibre area was 40% lower in the patients than in the controls (p less than 0.005). The levels of citrate synthase and phosphofructokinase were significantly lower (38% and 33%, respectively, p less than 0.05) in the patients than in the controls, indicating decreased oxidative and glycolytic potentials in the muscle fibres of the polio patients. It is proposed that the abnormal high-frequency activation of all remaining motor units during each step cycle recorded in these patients constitutes a stimulus for type I muscle fibre predominance and hypertrophy but that the overall low muscle usage results in a decreased stimulation of capillary proliferation and mitochondrial enzyme synthesis. The low capillary density and decreased oxidative and glycolytic enzyme potentials might be important factors for the development of muscle weakness, fatigue and muscle pain, which are commonly occurring symptoms in patients with prior poliomyelitis. PMID:2030351

  7. Effect of tibial positioning on the diagnosis of posterolateral rotatory instability in the posterior cruciate ligament-deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Ishak, Charbel; Inzerillo, Christopher; Walsh, Michael; Yildirim, Gokce; Walker, Peter; Jazrawi, Laith; Rosen, Jeffrey

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether positioning of the tibia affects the degree of tibial external rotation seen during a dial test in the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-posterolateral corner (PLC)-deficient knee. Laboratory investigation. Biomechanics laboratory. An anterior force applied to the tibia in the combined PCL-PLC-deficient knee will yield increased tibial external rotation during a dial test. The degree of tibial external rotation was measured with 5 Nm of external rotation torque applied to the tibia at both 30 degrees and 90 degrees of knee flexion. Before the torque was applied, an anterior force, a posterior force, or neutral (normal, reduced control) force was applied to the tibia. External rotation measurements were repeated after sequential sectioning of the PCL, the posterolateral structures and the fibular collateral ligament (FCL). Baseline testing of the intact specimens demonstrated a mean external rotation of 18.6 degrees with the knee flexed to 30 degrees (range 16.1-21.0 degrees ), and a mean external rotation of 17.3 degrees with the knee flexed to 90 degrees (range 13.8-20.0 degrees ). Sequential sectioning of the PCL, popliteus and popliteofibular ligament, and the FCL led to a significant increase in tibial external rotation compared with the intact knee for all testing scenarios. After sectioning of the popliteus and popliteofibular ligament, the application of an anterior force during testing led to a mean tibial external rotation that was 5 degrees greater than during testing in the neutral position and 7.5 degrees greater than during testing with a posterior force. In the PCL, popliteus/popliteofibular ligament and FCL-deficient knee, external rotation was 9 degrees and 12 degrees greater with the application of an anterior force during testing compared with neutral positioning and the application of a posterior force, respectively. An anterior force applied to the tibia during the dial test in a combined PCL-PLC-injured knee increased the

  8. Free flap reconstructions of tibial fractures complicated after internal fixation.

    PubMed

    Nieminen, H; Kuokkanen, H; Tukiainen, E; Asko-Seljavaara, S

    1995-04-01

    The cases of 15 patients are presented where microvascular soft-tissue reconstructions became necessary after internal fixation of tibial fractures. Primarily, seven of the fractures were closed. Eleven fractures had originally been treated by open reduction and internal fixation using plates and screws, and four by intramedullary nailing. All of the patients suffered from postoperative complications leading to exposure of the bone or fixation material. The internal fixation material was removed and radical revision of dead and infected tissue was carried out in all cases. Soft tissue reconstruction was performed using a free microvascular muscle flap (11 latissimus dorsi, three rectus abdominis, and one gracilis). In eight cases the nonunion of the fracture indicated external fixation. The microvascular reconstruction was successful in all 15 patients. In one case the recurrence of deep infection finally indicated a below-knee amputation. In another case, chronic infection with fistulation recurred postoperatively. After a mean follow-up of 26 months the soft tissue coverage was good in all the remaining 13 cases. All the fractures united. Microvascular free muscle flap reconstruction of the leg is regarded as a reliable method for salvaging legs with large soft-tissue defects or defects in the distal leg. If after internal fixation of the tibial fracture the osteosynthesis material or fracture is exposed, reconstruction of the soft-tissue can successfully be performed by free flap transfer. By radical revision, external fixation, bone grafting, and a free flap the healing of the fracture can be achieved.

  9. Gross, Arthroscopic, and Radiographic Anatomies of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Foundations for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Surgery.

    PubMed

    Irarrázaval, Sebastián; Albers, Marcio; Chao, Tom; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the more studied structures in the knee joint. It is not a tubular structure, but is much narrower in its midsubstance and broader at its ends, producing an hourglass shape. The ACL is composed of 2 functional bundles, the anteromedial and posterolateral bundles, that are named for their location of insertion on the anterior surface of the tibial plateau. Although the relative contribution in terms of total cross-sectional area of the ACL has been noted to be equal in regards to each bundle, dynamically these bundles demonstrate different properties for knee function. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Production of anterior segment ischemia.

    PubMed Central

    Hiatt, R L

    1977-01-01

    Anterior segment ischemic changes can occur without detachment of any muscles. The most common cause of such ischemic changes of the anterior segment is the removal of too many rectus muscles in one operation. Twenty dog eyes and eight monkey eyes were subjected to the disinsertion and detachment of various combinations of extraocular muscles. The dogs were sacrificed at intervals from 30 to 90 days. During the observation period, they were observed for gross and slit-lamp changes. The enucleated eyes were studied microscopically for signs of ischemic and necrotic changes. Two patients who were studied, observed, and treated for anterior segment ischemia following muscle surgery are described. The changes which occur after extraocular muscle surgery are extensive and include corneal edema, cataract, chemosis, corneal changes, decreases in intraocular pressure, decreases in outflow or glaucoma, and frank necrosis. The variables which lead to this reaction are described in detail. Also, some unanswered queries, such as the duration of the reaction and the time interval of the reaction after multiple muscle operations are discussed. Images FIGURE 1 A FIGURE 1 B FIGURE 1 C FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 2 D FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 PMID:418549

  11. Anthropometric measurements of tibial plateau and correlation with the current tibial implants.

    PubMed

    Erkocak, Omer Faruk; Kucukdurmaz, Fatih; Sayar, Safak; Erdil, Mehmet Emin; Ceylan, Hasan Huseyin; Tuncay, Ibrahim

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to make an anthropometric analysis at the resected surfaces of the proximal tibia in the Turkish population and to compare the data with the dimensions of tibial components in current use. We hypothesized that tibial components currently available on the market do not fulfil the requirements of this population and a new tibial component design may be required, especially for female patients with small stature. Anthropometric data from the proximal tibia of 226 knees in 226 Turkish subjects were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the mediolateral, middle anteroposterior, medial and lateral anteroposterior dimensions and the aspect ratio of the resected proximal tibial surface. All morphological data were compared with the dimensions of five contemporary tibial implants, including asymmetric and symmetric design types. The dimensions of the tibial plateau of Turkish knees demonstrated significant differences according to gender (P < 0.05). Among the different tibial implants reviewed, neither asymmetric nor symmetric designs exhibited a perfect conformity to proximal tibial morphology in size and shape. The vast majority of tibial implants involved in this study tend to overhang anteroposteriorly, and a statistically significant number of women (21 %, P < 0.05) had tibial anteroposterior diameters smaller than the smallest available tibial component. Tibial components designed according to anthropometric measurements of Western populations do not perfectly meet the requirements of Turkish population. These data could provide the basis for designing the optimal and smaller tibial component for this population, especially for women, is required for best fit. II.

  12. The use of McConnell taping to correct abnormal biomechanics and muscle activation patterns in subjects with anterior knee pain: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Leibbrandt, Dominique C; Louw, Quinette A

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this review was to present the available evidence for the effect of McConnell taping on knee biomechanics in individuals with anterior knee pain. [Methods] The PubMed, Medline, Cinahl, SPORTDiscus, PEDro and ScienceDirect electronic databases were searched from inception until September 2014. Experimental research on knee biomechanical or EMG outcomes of McConnell taping compared with no tape or placebo tape were included. Two reviewers completed the searches, selected the full text articles, and assessed the risk of bias of eligible studies. Authors were contacted for missing data. [Results] Eight heterogeneous studies with a total sample of 220 were included in this review. All of the studies had a moderate to low risk of bias. Pooling of data was possible for three outcomes: average knee extensor moment, average VMO/VL ratio and average VMO-VL onset timing. None of these outcomes revealed significant differences. [Conclusion] The evidence is currently insufficient to justify routine use of the McConnell taping technique in the treatment of anterior knee pain. There is a need for more evidence on the aetiological pathways of anterior knee pain, level one evidence, and studies investigating other potential mechanisms of McConnell taping. PMID:26311990

  13. Assessment of tibial rotation and meniscal movement using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective This work aimed to assess tibial rotations, meniscal movements, and morphological changes during knee flexion and extension using kinematic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Thirty volunteers with healthy knees were examined using kinematic MRI. The knees were imaged in the transverse plane with flexion and extension angles from 0° to 40° and 40° to 0°, respectively. The tibial interior and exterior rotation angles were measured, and the meniscal movement range, height change, and side movements were detected. Results The tibia rotated internally (11.55° ± 3.20°) during knee flexion and rotated externally (11.40° ± 3.0°) during knee extension. No significant differences were observed between the internal and external tibial rotation angles (P > 0.05), between males and females (P > 0.05), or between the left and right knee joints (P > 0.05). The tibial rotation angle with a flexion angle of 0° to 24° differed significantly from that with a flexion angle of 24° to 40° (P < 0.01). With knee flexion, the medial and lateral menisci moved backward and the height of the meniscus increased. The movement range was greater in the anterior horn than in the posterior horn and greater in the lateral meniscus than in the medial meniscus (P < 0.01). During backward movements of the menisci, the distance between the anterior and posterior horns decreased, with the decrease more apparent in the lateral meniscus (P < 0.01). The side movements of the medial and lateral menisci were not obvious, and a smaller movement range was found than that of the forward and backward movements. Conclusion Knee flexion and extension facilitated internal and external tibial rotations, which may be related to the ligament and joint capsule structure and femoral condyle geometry. PMID:25142267

  14. The use of a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system to accurately reproduce the clinical dial test.

    PubMed

    Stinton, S K; Siebold, R; Freedberg, H; Jacobs, C; Branch, T P

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) determine whether a robotic tibial rotation device and an electromagnetic tracking system could accurately reproduce the clinical dial test at 30° of knee flexion; (2) compare rotation data captured at the footplates of the robotic device to tibial rotation data measured using an electromagnetic sensor on the proximal tibia. Thirty-two unilateral ACL-reconstructed patients were examined using a robotic tibial rotation device that mimicked the dial test. The data reported in this study is only from the healthy legs of these patients. Torque was applied through footplates and was measured using servomotors. Lower leg motion was measured at the foot using the motors. Tibial motion was also measured through an electromagnetic tracking system and a sensor on the proximal tibia. Load-deformation curves representing rotational motion of the foot and tibia were compared using Pearson's correlation coefficients. Off-axis motions including medial-lateral translation and anterior-posterior translation were also measured using the electromagnetic system. The robotic device and electromagnetic system were able to provide axial rotation data and translational data for the tibia during the dial test. Motion measured at the foot was not correlated to motion of the tibial tubercle in internal rotation or in external rotation. The position of the tibial tubercle was 26.9° ± 11.6° more internally rotated than the foot at torque 0 Nm. Medial-lateral translation and anterior-posterior translation were combined to show the path of the tubercle in the coronal plane during tibial rotation. The information captured during a manual dial test includes both rotation of the tibia and proximal tibia translation. All of this information can be captured using a robotic tibial axial rotation device with an electromagnetic tracking system. The pathway of the tibial tubercle during tibial axial rotation can provide additional information about knee

  15. Carbonic Anhydrase III Is Expressed in Mouse Skeletal Muscles Independent of Fiber Type-Specific Myofilament Protein Isoforms and Plays a Role in Fatigue Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Jin, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a metabolic enzyme and a regulator for intracellular pH. CAIII has been reported with high level expression in slow twitch skeletal muscles. Here we demonstrate that CAIII is expressed in multiple slow and fast twitch muscles of adult mouse independent of the expression of myosin isoforms. Expressing similar fast type of myofilament proteins, CAIII-positive tibial anterior (TA) muscle exhibits higher tolerance to fatigue than that of CAIII-negative fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in in situ contractility studies. We further studied the muscles of CAIII knockout (Car3-KO) mice. The loss of CAIII in soleus and TA muscles in Car3-KO mice did not change muscle mass, sarcomere protein isoform contents, and the baseline twitch and tetanic contractility as compared with age-matched wild type (WT) controls. On the other hand, Car3-KO TA muscle showed faster force reduction at the beginning but higher resistance at the end during a fatigue test, followed by slower post fatigue recovery than that of WT TA muscle. Superfused Car3-KO soleus muscle also had faster total force reduction during fatigue test than that of WT soleus. However, it showed a less elevation of resting tension followed by a better post fatigue recovery under acidotic stress. CAIII was detected in neonatal TA and EDL muscle, downregulated during development, and then re-expressed in adult TA but not EDL muscles. The expression of CAIII in Tnnt1-KO myopathy mouse soleus muscle that has diminished slow fiber contents due to the loss of slow troponin T remained high. Car3-KO EDL, TA, and soleus muscles showed no change in the expression of mitochondria biomarker proteins. The data suggest a fiber type independent expression of CAIII with a role in the regulation of intracellular pH in skeletal muscle and may be explored as a target for improving fatigue resistance and for the treatment of TNNT1 myopathies. PMID:28018233

  16. Carbonic Anhydrase III Is Expressed in Mouse Skeletal Muscles Independent of Fiber Type-Specific Myofilament Protein Isoforms and Plays a Role in Fatigue Resistance.

    PubMed

    Feng, Han-Zhong; Jin, J-P

    2016-01-01

    Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a metabolic enzyme and a regulator for intracellular pH. CAIII has been reported with high level expression in slow twitch skeletal muscles. Here we demonstrate that CAIII is expressed in multiple slow and fast twitch muscles of adult mouse independent of the expression of myosin isoforms. Expressing similar fast type of myofilament proteins, CAIII-positive tibial anterior (TA) muscle exhibits higher tolerance to fatigue than that of CAIII-negative fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in in situ contractility studies. We further studied the muscles of CAIII knockout ( Car3 -KO) mice. The loss of CAIII in soleus and TA muscles in Car3 -KO mice did not change muscle mass, sarcomere protein isoform contents, and the baseline twitch and tetanic contractility as compared with age-matched wild type (WT) controls. On the other hand, Car3 -KO TA muscle showed faster force reduction at the beginning but higher resistance at the end during a fatigue test, followed by slower post fatigue recovery than that of WT TA muscle. Superfused Car3 -KO soleus muscle also had faster total force reduction during fatigue test than that of WT soleus. However, it showed a less elevation of resting tension followed by a better post fatigue recovery under acidotic stress. CAIII was detected in neonatal TA and EDL muscle, downregulated during development, and then re-expressed in adult TA but not EDL muscles. The expression of CAIII in Tnnt1 -KO myopathy mouse soleus muscle that has diminished slow fiber contents due to the loss of slow troponin T remained high. Car3 -KO EDL, TA, and soleus muscles showed no change in the expression of mitochondria biomarker proteins. The data suggest a fiber type independent expression of CAIII with a role in the regulation of intracellular pH in skeletal muscle and may be explored as a target for improving fatigue resistance and for the treatment of TNNT1 myopathies.

  17. Bilateral double level tibial lengthening in dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Rolf D; Yoshino, Koichi; Kashiwagi, Naoya; Yoshino, Shigeo; Bhave, Anil; Paley, Dror; Herzenberg, John E

    2015-12-01

    Outcome assessment after double level tibial lengthening in patients with dwarfism. Fourteen patients with dwarfism were analyzed after bilateral simultaneous double level tibial lengthening. Average age was 15.1 years. Average lengthening was 13.5 cm. The two levels were lengthened by an average of 7.5 cm proximally and 6.0 cm distally. Concomitant deformities were also addressed during lengthening. External fixation treatment time averaged 8.8 months. Healing index averaged 0.7 months/cm. Bilateral tibial lengthening for dwarfism is difficult, but the results are usually quite gratifying.

  18. Posterior medial meniscus-femoral insertion into the anterior cruciate ligament. A case report.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, A; Ferrari, D A

    1998-03-01

    Medial meniscal anomalies are rare. The anterior horn insertion into the anterior cruciate ligament is the most common. In the course of an arthroscopy for torn lateral meniscus, an anomalous band in continuity with the posterior horn of the medial meniscus was observed to insert into the anterior cruciate ligament. Although the tibial portion of the anterior cruciate was redundant, the anomalous band provided tension to the anterior cruciate ligament and a negative pivot shift. A previously unreported posterior medial meniscal femoral insertion is described.

  19. Posterior Tibial Slope Angle Correlates With Peak Sagittal and Frontal Plane Knee Joint Loading During Robotic Simulations of Athletic Tasks.

    PubMed

    Bates, Nathaniel A; Nesbitt, Rebecca J; Shearn, Jason T; Myer, Gregory D; Hewett, Timothy E

    2016-07-01

    Tibial slope angle is a nonmodifiable risk factor for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the mechanical role of varying tibial slopes during athletic tasks has yet to be clinically quantified. To examine the influence of posterior tibial slope on knee joint loading during controlled, in vitro simulation of the knee joint articulations during athletic tasks. Descriptive laboratory study. A 6 degree of freedom robotic manipulator positionally maneuvered cadaveric knee joints from 12 unique specimens with varying tibial slopes (range, -7.7° to 7.7°) through drop vertical jump and sidestep cutting tasks that were derived from 3-dimensional in vivo motion recordings. Internal knee joint torques and forces were recorded throughout simulation and were linearly correlated with tibial slope. The mean (±SD) posterior tibial slope angle was 2.2° ± 4.3° in the lateral compartment and 2.3° ± 3.3° in the medial compartment. For simulated drop vertical jumps, lateral compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee adduction (r = 0.60-0.65), flexion (r = 0.64-0.66), lateral (r = 0.57-0.69), and external rotation torques (r = 0.47-0.72) as well as inverse correlations with peak abduction (r = -0.42 to -0.61) and internal rotation torques (r = -0.39 to -0.79). Only frontal plane torques were correlated during sidestep cutting simulations. For simulated drop vertical jumps, medial compartment tibial slope angle expressed moderate, direct correlations with peak internally generated knee flexion torque (r = 0.64-0.69) and lateral knee force (r = 0.55-0.74) as well as inverse correlations with peak external torque (r = -0.34 to -0.67) and medial knee force (r = -0.58 to -0.59). These moderate correlations were also present during simulated sidestep cutting. The investigation supported the theory that increased posterior tibial slope would lead to greater magnitude knee joint moments, specifically

  20. Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and cartilage contact forces--A 3D computational simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lianxin; Lin, Lin; Feng, Yong; Fernandes, Tiago Lazzaretti; Asnis, Peter; Hosseini, Ali; Li, Guoan

    2015-12-01

    Clinical outcome studies showed a high incidence of knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Abnormal joint kinematics and loading conditions were assumed as risking factors. However, little is known on cartilage contact forces after the surgery. A validated computational model was used to simulate anatomic and transtibial single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. Two graft fixation angles (0° and 30°) were simulated for each reconstruction. Biomechanics of the knee was investigated in intact, anterior cruciate ligament deficient and reconstructed conditions when the knee was subjected to 134 N anterior load and 400 N quadriceps load at 0°, 30°, 60° and 90° of flexion. The tibial translation and rotation, graft forces, medial and lateral contact forces were calculated. When the graft was fixed at 0°, the anatomic reconstruction resulted in slightly larger lateral contact force at 0° compared to the intact knee while the transtibial technique led to higher contact force at both 0° and 30° under the muscle load. When graft was fixed at 30°, the anatomic reconstruction overstrained the knee at 0° with larger contact forces, while the transtibial technique resulted in slightly larger contact forces at 30°. This study suggests that neither the anatomic nor the transtibial reconstruction can consistently restore normal knee biomechanics at different flexion angles. The anatomic reconstruction may better restore anteroposterior stability and contact force with the graft fixed at 0°. The transtibial technique may better restore knee anteroposterior stability and articular contact force with the graft fixed at 30° of flexion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Tissue oxygen partial pressure in the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with claudication before, during and after a two-stage treadmill stress test.

    PubMed

    Jung, F; Krüger, A; Pindur, G; Sternitzky, R; Franke, R P; Gori, T

    2014-01-01

    The role of the microcirculation in the pathophysiology and symptoms of peripheral arterial obliterative disease (PAOD) has been progressively emphasized during the past decades. Under resting conditions, already, the tissue oxygen partial pressure in the m. tibialis anterior (pO2im) is reduced to about 50% compared to healthy subjects. In the framework of this study the pO2im of patients with PAOD stage II according to Fontaine (n=16) in the m. tibialis anterior was measured under resting conditions and during walking on a treadmill in comparison to healthy subjects (n=10). Under resting conditions the pO2im only marginally differed between PAOD patients and healthy subjects. But during exercise the pO2im dropped significantly more severely in PAOD patients and a return to baseline values could only be reached when the treadmill was stopped and the patients stood still. The pO2im minima correlated clearly with the clinical symptom of calf pain. The data revealed that the pO2im values were lower in PAOD patients and dropped significantly faster during walking compared to the pO2im values in healthy subjects. The pO2im decrease correlated with the calf pain occurring when the pO2im values approached or fell below 10 mmHg.

  2. Incidence and epidemiology of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Peter; Elsoe, Rasmus; Hansen, Sandra Hope; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Laessoe, Uffe; Rasmussen, Sten

    2015-04-01

    The literature lacks recent population-based epidemiology studies of the incidence, trauma mechanism and fracture classification of tibial shaft fractures. The purpose of this study was to provide up-to-date information on the incidence of tibial shaft fractures in a large and complete population and report the distribution of fracture classification, trauma mechanism and patient baseline demographics. Retrospective reviews of clinical and radiological records. A total of 196 patients were treated for 198 tibial shaft fractures in the years 2009 and 2010. The mean age at time of fracture was 38.5 (21.2SD) years. The incidence of tibial shaft fracture was 16.9/100,000/year. Males have the highest incidence of 21.5/100,000/year and present with the highest frequency between the age of 10 and 20, whereas women have a frequency of 12.3/100,000/year and have the highest frequency between the age of 30 and 40. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. The majority of tibial shaft fractures occur during walking, indoor activity and sports. The distribution among genders shows that males present a higher frequency of fractures while participating in sports activities and walking. Women present the highest frequency of fractures while walking and during indoor activities. This study shows an incidence of 16.9/100,000/year for tibial shaft fractures. AO-type 42-A1 was the most common fracture type, representing 34% of all tibial shaft fractures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quantitative Comparison of the Microscopic Anatomy of the Human ACL Femoral and Tibial Entheses

    PubMed Central

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L.; Carey, Grace E.; Schlecht, Stephen H.; Wojtys, Edward M.; Ashton-Miller, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The femoral enthesis of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is known to be more susceptible to injury than the tibial enthesis. To determine whether anatomic differences might help explain this difference, we quantified the microscopic appearance of both entheses in 15 unembalmed knee specimens using light microscopy, toluidine blue stain and image analysis. The amount of calcified fibrocartilage and uncalcified fibrocartilage, and the ligament entheseal attachment angle were then compared between the femoral and tibial entheses via linear mixed-effects models. The results showed marked differences in anatomy between the two entheses. The femoral enthesis exhibited a 3.9-fold more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis (p < 0.001), a 43% greater calcified fibrocartilage tissue area (p < 0.001), and a 226% greater uncalcified fibrocartilage depth (p < 0.001), with the latter differences being particularly pronounced in the central region. We conclude that the ACL femoral enthesis has more fibrocartilage and a more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis, which provides insight into why it is more vulnerable to failure. PMID:26134706

  4. Quantitative comparison of the microscopic anatomy of the human ACL femoral and tibial entheses.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L; Carey, Grace E; Schlecht, Stephen H; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2015-12-01

    The femoral enthesis of the human anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is known to be more susceptible to injury than the tibial enthesis. To determine whether anatomic differences might help explain this difference, we quantified the microscopic appearance of both entheses in 15 unembalmed knee specimens using light microscopy, toluidine blue stain and image analysis. The amount of calcified fibrocartilage and uncalcified fibrocartilage, and the ligament entheseal attachment angle were then compared between the femoral and tibial entheses via linear mixed-effects models. The results showed marked differences in anatomy between the two entheses. The femoral enthesis exhibited a 3.9-fold more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis (p<0.001), a 43% greater calcified fibrocartilage tissue area (p<0.001), and a 226% greater uncalcified fibrocartilage depth (p<0.001), with the latter differences being particularly pronounced in the central region. We conclude that the ACL femoral enthesis has more fibrocartilage and a more acute ligament attachment angle than the tibial enthesis, which provides insight into why it is more vulnerable to failure. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Potential sites of compression of tibial nerve branches in foot: a cadaveric and imaging study.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sanjib Kumar; Raheja, Shashi; Tuli, Anita

    2013-09-01

    Hypertrophy of abductor hallucis muscle is one of the reported causes of compression of tibial nerve branches in foot, resulting in tarsal tunnel syndrome. In this study, we dissected the foot (including the sole) of 120 lower limbs in 60 human cadavers (45 males and 15 females), aged between 45 and 70 years to analyze the possible impact of abductor hallucis muscle in compression neuropathy of tibial nerve branches. We identified five areas in foot, where tibial nerve branches could be compressed by abductor hallucis. Our findings regarding three of these areas were substantiated by clinical evidence from ultrasonography of ankle and sole region, conducted in the affected foot of 120 patients (82 males and 38 females), aged between 42 and 75 years, who were referred for evaluation of pain and/or swelling in medial side of ankle joint with or without associated heel and/or sole pain. We also assessed whether estimation of parameters for the muscle size could identify patients at risk of having nerve compression due to abductor hallucis muscle hypertrophy. The interclass correlation coefficient for dorso-planter thickness of abductor hallucis muscle was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.63-0.92) and that of medio-lateral width was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.62-0.88) in the imaging study, suggesting both are reliable parameters of the muscle size. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed, if ultrasonographic estimation of dorso-plantar thickness is >12.8 mm and medio-lateral width > 30.66 mm in patients with symptoms of nerve compression in foot, abductor hallucis muscle hypertrophy associated compression neuropathy may be suspected. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Serratus anterior and trapezius muscle activity during knee push-up plus and knee-plus exercises performed on a stable, an unstable surface and during sling-suspension.

    PubMed

    Horsak, Brian; Kiener, Marion; Pötzelsberger, Andreas; Siragy, Tarique

    2017-01-01

    Push-up plus variations are commonly prescribed to clients during shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to compare electromyographic (EMG) activities of the serratus anterior (SA), upper (UT), and lower trapezius (LT) during a knee push-up plus and knee-plus exercise performed on various surfaces. Within-subjects Repeated-Measure Design. 19 healthy, young female participants performed both exercises on a stable and unstable surface and during sling-suspension. Surface EMG activities were recorded and average amplitudes were presented as a percentage of the maximal voluntary contraction. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was performed to determine differences in activity for each muscle. SA showed no significant differences between exercises and was independent of the base of support (p > 0.05). Muscle activity of UT (95% CI [1.2, 1.4]) and LT (95% CI [2.4, 3.5]) showed slightly greater values when performing the knee push-up plus compared to the knee-plus exercise. The isolated protraction of the shoulder girdle in a kneeling position is as sufficient as the push-up plus in activating the SA selectively. Therefore, we recommended this exercise for clients who are unable to perform an entire push-up or should avoid detrimental stress on the shoulder joint. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Association of physical activity and physical performance with tibial cartilage volume and bone area in young adults.

    PubMed

    Antony, Benny; Venn, Alison; Cicuttini, Flavia; March, Lyn; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Cross, Marita; Jones, Graeme; Ding, Changhai

    2015-10-26

    Physical activity has been recommended to patients with knee osteoarthritis for improving their symptoms. However, it is still controversial if physical activity has effects on joint structures including cartilage volume. The aim of this study was to describe the associations between physical activity and performance measured 5 years prior and tibial cartilage volume and bone area in young adults. Subjects broadly representative of the Australian population (n = 328, aged 31-41 years, female 47.3 %) were selected from the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study. They underwent T1-weighted fat-suppressed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of their knees. Tibial bone area and cartilage volume were measured from MRI. Physical activity (measured using long international physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ)) and performance measures (long jump, leg muscle strength, physical work capacity (PWC170)) were measured 5 years prior. In multivariable analyses, total physical activity (min/week) (β: 0.30 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.13,0.47), vigorous (β: 0.54 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.13,0.94), moderate (β: 0.34 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.01,0.67), walking (β: 0.40 mm(3), 95 % CI: 0.07,0.72) and IPAQ category (β: 182.9 mm(3), 95 % CI: 51.8,314.0) were positively associated with total tibial cartilage volume but not tibial bone area. PWC170, long jump and leg muscle strength were positively and significantly associated with both total tibial cartilage volume and total tibial bone area; and the associations with tibial cartilage volume decreased in magnitude but remained significant for PWC170 and long jump after further adjustment for tibial bone area. While tibial bone area is affected only by physical performance, total tibial cartilage volume can be influenced by both physical activity and performance in younger adults. The clinical significance suggests a beneficial effect for cartilage but the bone area association was restricted to performance suggesting other factors

  8. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot

    PubMed Central

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb’s superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature. PMID:28035313

  9. Rare case of tibial hemimelia, preaxial polydactyly, and club foot.

    PubMed

    Granite, Guinevere; Herzenberg, John E; Wade, Ronald

    2016-12-16

    A seven-month old female presented with left tibial hemimelia (or congenital tibial aplasia; Weber type VIIb, Jones et al type 1a), seven-toed preaxial polydactyly, and severe club foot (congenital talipes equinovarus). Definitive amputation surgery disarticulated the lower limb at the knee. This case report describes the anatomical findings of a systematic post-amputation examination of the lower limb's superficial dissection, X-rays, and computed tomography (CT) scans. From the X-rays and CT scans, we found curved and overlapping preaxial supernumerary toes, hypoplastic first metatarsal, lack of middle and distal phalanges in one supernumerary toe, three tarsal bones, hypoplastic middle phalanx and no distal phalanx for fourth toe, and no middle or distal phalanges for fifth toe. The fibula articulated with the anteromedial calcaneus and the tibia was completely absent. We identified numerous muscles and nerves in the superficial dissection that are described in the results section of the case report. Due to the rarity of this combination of anatomical findings, descriptions of such cases are very infrequent in the literature.

  10. Kinematic analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hua-Wei; Ni, Ming; Zhang, Guo-Qiang; Li, Xiang; Chen, Hui; Zhang, Qiang; Chai, Wei; Zhou, Yong-Gang; Chen, Ji-Ying; Liu, Yu-Liang; Cheng, Cheng-Kung; Wang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aims to retain normal knee kinematics after knee replacement surgeries by reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament during total knee arthroplasty. Method: We use computational simulation tools to establish four dynamic knee models, including normal knee model, posterior cruciate ligament retaining knee model, posterior cruciate ligament substituting knee model, and anterior cruciate ligament reconstructing knee model. Our proposed method utilizes magnetic resonance images to reconstruct solid bones and attachments of ligaments, and assemble femoral and tibial components according representative literatures and operational specifications. Dynamic data of axial tibial rotation and femoral translation from full-extension to 135 were measured for analyzing the motion of knee models. Findings: The computational simulation results show that comparing with the posterior cruciate ligament retained knee model and the posterior cruciate ligament substituted knee model, reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament improves the posterior movement of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation through a full range of flexion. The maximum posterior translations of the lateral condyle, medial condyle and tibial internal rotation of the anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knee are 15.3 mm, 4.6 mm and 20.6 at 135 of flexion. Interpretation: Reconstructing anterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty has been approved to be an more efficient way of maintaining normal knee kinematics comparing to posterior cruciate ligament retained and posterior cruciate ligament substituted total knee arthroplasty. PMID:27347334

  11. Mechanisms of anterior-posterior stability of the knee joint under load-bearing.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Ryan J; Walker, Peter S; Buza, John

    2017-05-24

    The anterior-posterior (AP) stability of the knee is an important aspect of functional performance. Studies have shown that the stability increases when compressive loads are applied, as indicated by reduced laxity, but the mechanism has not been fully explained. A test rig was designed which applied combinations of AP shear and compressive forces, and measured the AP displacements relative to the neutral position. Five knees were evaluated at compressive loads of 0, 250, 500, and 750N, with the knee at 15° flexion. At each load, three cycles of shear force at ±100N were applied. For the intact knee under load, the posterior tibial displacement was close to zero, due to the upward slope of the anterior medial tibial surface. The soft tissues were then resected in sequence to determine their role in AP laxity. After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) resection, the anterior tibial displacement increased significantly even under load, highlighting its importance in stability. Meniscal resection further increased displacement but also the vertical displacement increased, implying the meniscus was providing a buffering effect. The PCL had no effect on any of the displacements under load. Plowing cartilage deformation and surface friction were negligible. This work highlighted the particular importance of the upward slope of the anterior medial tibial surface and the ACL to AP knee stability under load. The results are relevant to the design of total knees which reproduce anatomic knee stability behavior. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Posterior tibial slope and femoral sizing affect posterior cruciate ligament tension in posterior cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kuriyama, Shinichi; Ishikawa, Masahiro; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Furu, Moritoshi; Ito, Hiromu; Matsuda, Shuichi

    2015-08-01

    During cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty, surgeons sometimes encounter increased tension of the posterior cruciate ligament. This study investigated the effects of femoral size, posterior tibial slope, and rotational alignment of the femoral and tibial components on forces at the posterior cruciate ligament in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty using a musculoskeletal computer simulation. Forces at the posterior cruciate ligament were assessed with the standard femoral component, as well as with 2-mm upsizing and 2-mm downsizing in the anterior-posterior dimension. These forces were also determined with posterior tibial slope angles of 5°, 7°, and 9°, and lastly, were measured in 5° increments when the femoral (tibial) components were positioned from 5° (15°) of internal rotation to 5° (15°) of external rotation. Forces at the posterior cruciate ligament increased by up to 718N with the standard procedure during squatting. The 2-mm downsizing of the femoral component decreased the force at the posterior cruciate ligament by up to 47%. The 2° increment in posterior tibial slope decreased the force at the posterior cruciate ligament by up to 41%. In addition, posterior cruciate ligament tension increased by 11% during internal rotation of the femoral component, and increased by 18% during external rotation of the tibial component. These findings suggest that accurate sizing and bone preparation are very important to maintain posterior cruciate ligament forces in cruciate-retaining total knee arthroplasty. Care should also be taken regarding malrotation of the femoral and tibial components because this increases posterior cruciate ligament tension. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Effect of Sagittal Plane Deformities after Tibial Plateau Fractures to Functions and Instability of Knee Joint.

    PubMed

    Erdil, M; Yildiz, F; Kuyucu, E; Sayar, Ş; Polat, G; Ceylan, H H; Koçyiğit, F

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of posterior tibial slope after fracture healing on antero-posterior knee laxity, functional outcome and patient satisfaction. 126 patients who were treated for tibial plateau fractures between 2008-2013 in the orthopedics and traumatology department of our institution were evaluated for the study. Patients were treated with open reduction and internal fixation, arthroscopy assisted minimally invasive osteosynthesis or conservative treatment. Mean posterior tibial slope after the treatment was 6.91 ± 5.11 and there was no significant difference when compared to the uninvolved side 6.42 ± 4,21 (p = 0.794). Knee laxity in anterior-posterior plane was 6.14 ± 2.11 and 5.95 ± 2.25 respectively on healthy and injured side. The difference of mean laxity in anterior-posterior plane between two sides was statistically significant. In this study we found no difference in laxity between the injured and healthy knees. However Tegner score decreased significantly in patients who had greater laxity difference between the knees. We did not find significant difference between fracture type and laxity, IKDC functional scores independent of the ligamentous injury. In conclusion despite coronal alignment is taken into consideration in treatment of tibial plateau fractures, sagittal alignment is reasonably important for stability and should not be ignored.

  14. Arthroscopic evaluation of soft tissue injuries in tibial plateau fractures: retrospective analysis of 98 cases.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed Zaki; Chang, Chung-Hsun; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Lo, Yang-Pin; Huang, Jau-Wen; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Wang, Ching-Jen

    2006-06-01

    This investigation arthroscopically assesses the frequency of soft tissue injury in tibial plateau fracture according to the severity of fracture patterns. We hypothesized that use of arthroscopy to evaluate soft tissue injury in tibial plateau fractures would reveal a greater number of associated injuries than have previously been reported. From March 1996 to December 2003, 98 patients with closed tibial plateau fractures were treated with arthroscopically assisted reduction and osteosynthesis, with precise diagnosis and management of associated soft tissue injuries. Arthroscopic findings for associated soft tissue injuries were recorded, and the relationship between fracture type and soft tissue injury was then analyzed. The frequency of associated soft tissue injury in this series was 71% (70 of 98). The menisci were injured in 57% of subjects (56 in 98), the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in 25% (24 of 98), the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in 5% (5 of 98), the lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in 3% (3 of 98), the medial collateral ligament (MCL) in 3% (3 of 98), and the peroneal nerve in 1% (1 of 98); none of the 98 patients exhibited injury to the arteries. No significant association was noted between fracture type and incidence of meniscus, PCL, LCL, MCL, artery, and nerve injury. However, significantly higher injury rates for the ACL were observed in type IV and VI fractures. Soft tissue injury was associated with all types of tibial plateau fracture. Menisci (peripheral tear) and ACL (bony avulsion) were the most commonly injured sites. A variety of soft tissue injuries are common with tibial plateau fracture; these can be diagnosed with the use of an arthroscope. Level III, diagnostic study.

  15. The Effect of Arch Drop on Tibial Rotation and Tibiofemoral Contact Stress in Postpartum Women.

    PubMed

    Rabe, Kaitlin; Segal, Neil A; Waheed, Saphia; Anderson, Donald D

    2018-04-26

    Women are at greater risk for knee osteoarthritis and numerous other lower limb musculoskeletal disorders. Arch drop during pregnancy and the resultant excessive pronation of the feet may alter loading patterns and contribute to the greater prevalence of knee osteoarthritis in women. To determine the effect of arch drop on tibial rotation and tibiofemoral contact stress. Interventional study with internal control. Biomechanics laboratory. Eleven postpartum women (age 33.4 ± 5.3 years, body mass 76.1 ± 13.5 kg) who had lost arch height with pregnancy in a previous study. Subjects underwent standing computed tomography (SCT) with their knees in a 20° fixed-flexed position with and without semirigid arch supports to reconstitute prepregnancy arch height. Magnetic resonance imaging of the knee was acquired at a flexion angle equivalent to that of SCT. Bone and cartilage were manually segmented on the magnetic resonance images and segmented surfaces were registered to the 3-dimensional SCT image sets for the arch-supported and -unsupported conditions. These models were used to measure changes in tibial rotation, as well as to estimate contact stress in the medial and lateral tibiofemoral compartments, using computational methods. Change in tibial rotation and tibiofemoral contact stress with arch drop. Arch drop resulted in a mean tibial internal rotation of 0.75 ± 1.33° (P < .05). Changes in mean or peak contact stress were not detected. Arch drop causes internal tibial rotation, resulting in a shift in the tibiofemoral articulation. An associated increase in contact stress was not detected. Internal rotation of the tibia increases stress on the anterior cruciate ligament and menisci, potentially explaining the greater prevalence of knee disorders in postpartum women. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Contact Kinematics Correlates to Tibial Component Migration Following Single Radius Posterior Stabilized Knee Replacement.

    PubMed

    Teeter, Matthew G; Perry, Kevin I; Yuan, Xunhua; Howard, James L; Lanting, Brent A

    2018-03-01

    Contact kinematics between total knee arthroplasty components is thought to affect implant migration; however, the interaction between kinematics and tibial component migration has not been thoroughly examined in a modern implant system. A total of 24 knees from 23 patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty with a single radius, posterior stabilized implant were examined. Patients underwent radiostereometric analysis at 2 and 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, and 1 and 2 years to measure migration of the tibial component in all planes. At 1 year, patients also had standing radiostereometric analysis examinations acquired in 0°, 20°, 40°, and 60° of flexion, and the location of contact and magnitude of any condylar liftoff was measured for each flexion angle. Regression analysis was performed between kinematic variables and migration at 1 year. The average magnitude of maximum total point motion across all patients was 0.671 ± 0.270 mm at 1 year and 0.608 ± 0.359 mm at 2 years (P = .327). Four implants demonstrated continuous migration of >0.2 mm between the first and second year of implantation. There were correlations between the location of contact and tibial component anterior-posterior tilt, varus-valgus tilt, and anterior-posterior translation. The patients with continuous migration demonstrated atypical kinematics and condylar liftoff in some instances. Kinematics can influence tibial component migration, likely through alterations of force transmission. Abnormal kinematics may play a role in long-term implant loosening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Medial Tibial Stress Shielding: A Limitation of Cobalt Chromium Tibial Baseplates.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-02-01

    Stress shielding is a well-recognized complication associated with total knee arthroplasty. However, this phenomenon has not been thoroughly described. Specifically, no study to our knowledge has evaluated the radiographic impact of utilizing various tibial component compositions on tibial stress shielding. We retrospectively reviewed 3 cohorts of 50 patients that had a preoperative varus deformity and were implanted with a titanium, cobalt chromium (CoCr), or an all polyethylene tibial implant. A radiographic comparative analysis was performed to evaluate the amount of medial tibial bone loss in each cohort. In addition, a clinical outcomes analysis was performed on the 3 cohorts. The CoCr was noted to have a statistically significant increase in medial tibial bone loss compared with the other 2 cohorts. The all polyethylene cohort had a statistically significantly higher final Knee Society Score and was associated with the least amount of stress shielding. The CoCr tray is the most rigid of 3 implants that were compared in this study. Interestingly, this cohort had the highest amount of medial tibial bone loss. In addition, 1 patient in the CoCr cohort had medial soft tissue irritation which was attributed to a prominent medial tibial tray which required revision surgery to mitigate the symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Maximizing tibial coverage is detrimental to proper rotational alignment.

    PubMed

    Martin, Stacey; Saurez, Alex; Ismaily, Sabir; Ashfaq, Kashif; Noble, Philip; Incavo, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, the placement of the tibial component in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) has focused on maximizing coverage of the tibial surface. However, the degree to which maximal coverage affects correct rotational placement of symmetric and asymmetric tibial components has not been well defined and might represent an implant design issue worthy of further inquiry. Using four commercially available tibial components (two symmetric, two asymmetric), we sought to determine (1) the overall amount of malrotation that would occur if components were placed for maximal tibial coverage; and (2) whether the asymmetric designs would result in less malrotation than the symmetric designs when placed for maximal coverage in a computer model using CT reconstructions. CT reconstructions of 30 tibial specimens were used to generate three-dimensional tibia reconstructions with attention to the tibial anatomic axis, the tibial tubercle, and the resected tibial surface. Using strict criteria, four commercially available tibial designs (two symmetric, two asymmetric) were placed on the resected tibial surface. The resulting component rotation was examined. Among all four designs, 70% of all tibial components placed in orientation maximizing fit to resection surface were internally malrotated (average 9°). The asymmetric designs had fewer cases of malrotation (28% and 52% for the two asymmetric designs, 100% and 96% for the two symmetric designs; p < 0.001) and less malrotation on average (2° and 5° for the asymmetric designs, 14° for both symmetric designs; p < 0.001). Maximizing tibial coverage resulted in implant malrotation in a large percentage of cases. Given similar amounts of tibial coverage, correct rotational positioning was more likely to occur with the asymmetric designs. Malrotation of components is an important cause of failure in TKA. Priority should be given to correct tibial rotational positioning. This study suggested that it is easier to balance rotation and

  19. Tibial slope correction combined with second revision ACL produces good knee stability and prevents graft rupture.

    PubMed

    Dejour, David; Saffarini, Mo; Demey, Guillaume; Baverel, Laurent

    2015-10-01

    Revision ACL reconstruction requires careful analysis of failure causes particularly in cases of two previous graft ruptures. Intrinsic factors as excessive tibial slope or narrow femoral notch increase failure risks but are rarely addressed in revision surgery. The authors report outcomes, at minimum follow-up of 2 years, for second revision ACL reconstructions combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy for correction of excessive slope (>12°). Nine patients that underwent second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy were retrospectively studied. The mean age was 30.3 ± 4.4 years (median 28; range 26-37), and mean follow-up was 4.0 ± 2.0 years (median 3.6; range 2.0-7.6). Autografts were harvested from the quadriceps tendon (n = 8) or hamstrings (n = 1), and tibial osteotomy was done by anterior closing wedge, without detachment of the patellar tendon, to obtain a slope of 3° to 5°. All patients had fused osteotomies, stable knees, and there were no intraoperative or postoperative complications. The mean posterior tibial slope decreased from 13.2° ± 2.6° (median 13°; range 12°-18°) preoperatively to 4.4° ± 2.3° (median 4°; range 2°-8°) postoperatively. The mean Lysholm score was 73.8 ± 5.8 (median 74; range 65-82), and the IKDC-SKF was 71.6 ± 6.1 (median 72.8; range 62.2-78.5). The satisfactory results of second revision ACL reconstruction combined with tibial deflexion osteotomy at minimum follow-up of 2 years suggest that tibia slope correction protects reconstructed ACL from fatigue failure in this study. The authors stress the importance of careful analysis failure causes prior to revision ACL reconstruction, and recommend correction of tibial slope if it exceeds 12°, to reduce the risks of graft retear. III.

  20. Do Tibial Plateau Fractures Worsen Outcomes of Knee Ligament Injuries? A Matched Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cinque, Mark E.; Godin, Jonathan A.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Chahla, Jorge; Kruckeberg, Bradley M.; Pogorzelski, Jonas; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tibial plateau fractures account for a small portion of all fractures; however, these fractures can pose a surgical challenge when occurring concomitantly with ligament injuries. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to compare 2-year outcomes of soft tissue reconstruction with or without a concomitant tibial plateau fracture and open reduction internal fixation. We hypothesized that patients with a concomitant tibial plateau fracture at the time of soft tissue surgery would have inferior outcomes compared with patients without an associated tibial plateau fracture. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Forty patients were included in this study: 8 in the fracture group and 32 in the matched control group. Inclusion criteria for the fracture group included patients who were at least 18 years old at the time of surgery and sustained a tibial plateau fracture and a concomitant injury of the anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament, or fibular collateral ligament in isolation or any combination of cruciate or collateral ligaments and who subsequently underwent isolated or combined ligament reconstruction. Patients were excluded if they underwent prior ipsilateral knee surgery, sustained additional bony injuries, or sustained an isolated extra-articular ligament injury at the time of injury. Each patient with a fracture was matched with 4 patients from a control group who had no evidence of a tibial plateau fracture but underwent the same soft tissue reconstruction procedure. Results: Patients in the fracture group improved significantly from preoperatively to postoperatively with respect to Short Form–12 (P < .05) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index total scores (P < .05). The Lysholm (P = .075) and Tegner scores (P = .086) also improved, although this was not statistically significant. Patients in the control group improved significantly from

  1. Proximal tibial osteotomy. A survivorship analysis.

    PubMed

    Ritter, M A; Fechtman, R A

    1988-01-01

    Proximal tibial osteotomy is generally accepted as a treatment for the patient with unicompartmental arthritis. However, a few reports of the long-term results of this procedure are available in the literature, and none have used the technique known as survivorship analysis. This technique has an advantage over conventional analysis because it does not exclude patients for inadequate follow-up, loss to follow-up, or patient death. In this study, survivorship analysis was applied to 78 proximal tibial osteotomies, performed exclusively by the senior author for the correction of a preoperative varus deformity, and a survival curve was constructed. It was concluded that the reliable longevity of the proximal tibial osteotomy is approximately 6 years.

  2. [Surgical approaches to tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Krause, Matthias; Müller, Gunnar; Frosch, Karl-Heinz

    2018-06-06

    Intra-articular tibial plateau fractures can present a surgical challenge due to complex injury patterns and compromised soft tissue. The treatment goal is to spare the soft tissue and an anatomical reconstruction of the tibial articular surface. Depending on the course of the fracture, a fracture-specific access strategy is recommended to provide correct positioning of the plate osteosynthesis. While the anterolateral approach is used in the majority of lateral tibial plateau fractures, only one third of the joint surface is visible; however, posterolateral fragments require an individual approach, e. g. posterolateral or posteromedial. If necessary, osteotomy of the femoral epicondyles can improve joint access for reduction control. Injuries to the posterior columns should be anatomically reconstructed and biomechanically correctly addressed via posterior approaches. Bony posterior cruciate ligament tears can be refixed via a minimally invasive posteromedial approach.

  3. Tibial stress injuries: decisive diagnosis and treatment of 'shin splints'.

    PubMed

    Couture, Christopher J; Karlson, Kristine A

    2002-06-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called 'shin splints,' often result when bone remodeling processes adapt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who care for athletic patients need a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are implications for appropriate diagnosis, management, and prevention.

  4. Tibial Stress Injuries: Decisive Diagnosis and Treatment of "Shin Splints."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couture, Christopher J.; Karlson, Kristine A.

    2002-01-01

    Tibial stress injuries, commonly called shin splints, often result when bone remodeling processes adopt inadequately to repetitive stress. Physicians who are caring for athletic patients must have a thorough understanding of this continuum of injuries, including medial tibial stress syndrome and tibial stress fractures, because there are…

  5. Effect of step width manipulation on tibial stress during running.

    PubMed

    Meardon, Stacey A; Derrick, Timothy R

    2014-08-22

    Narrow step width has been linked to variables associated with tibial stress fracture. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of step width on bone stresses using a standardized model of the tibia. 15 runners ran at their preferred 5k running velocity in three running conditions, preferred step width (PSW) and PSW±5% of leg length. 10 successful trials of force and 3-D motion data were collected. A combination of inverse dynamics, musculoskeletal modeling and beam theory was used to estimate stresses applied to the tibia using subject-specific anthropometrics and motion data. The tibia was modeled as a hollow ellipse. Multivariate analysis revealed that tibial stresses at the distal 1/3 of the tibia differed with step width manipulation (p=0.002). Compression on the posterior and medial aspect of the tibia was inversely related to step width such that as step width increased, compression on the surface of tibia decreased (linear trend p=0.036 and 0.003). Similarly, tension on the anterior surface of the tibia decreased as step width increased (linear trend p=0.029). Widening step width linearly reduced shear stress at all 4 sites (p<0.001 for all). The data from this study suggests that stresses experienced by the tibia during running were influenced by step width when using a standardized model of the tibia. Wider step widths were generally associated with reduced loading of the tibia and may benefit runners at risk of or experiencing stress injury at the tibia, especially if they present with a crossover running style. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Return to sports after stress fractures of the tibial diaphysis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Robertson, G A J; Wood, A M

    2015-06-01

    This review aims to provide information on the time taken to resume sport following tibial diaphyseal stress fractures (TDSFs). A systematic search of Medline, EMBASE, CINHAL, Cochrane, Web of Science, PEDro, Sports Discus, Scopus and Google Scholar was performed using the keywords 'tibial', 'tibia', 'stress', 'fractures', 'athletes', 'sports', 'non-operative', 'conservative', 'operative' and 'return to sport'. Twenty-seven studies were included: 16 reported specifically on anterior TDSFs and 5 on posterior TDSFs. The general principles were to primarily attempt non-operative management for all TDSFs and to consider operative intervention for anterior TDSFs that remained symptomatic after 3-6 months. Anterior TDSFs showed a prolonged return to sport. The best time to return to sport and the optimal management modalities for TDSFs remain undefined. Management of TDSFs should include a full assessment of training methods, equipment and diet to modify pre-disposing factors. Future prospective studies should aim to establish the optimal treatment modalities for TDSFs. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Surgical anatomy of medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy: crucial steps and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Madry, Henning; Goebel, Lars; Hoffmann, Alexander; Dück, Klaus; Gerich, Torsten; Seil, Romain; Tschernig, Thomas; Pape, Dietrich

    2017-12-01

    To give an overview of the basic knowledge of the functional surgical anatomy of the proximal lower leg and the popliteal region relevant to medial high tibial osteotomy (HTO) as key anatomical structures in spatial relation to the popliteal region and the proximal tibiofibular joint are usually not directly visible and thus escape a direct inspection. The surgical anatomy of the human proximal lower leg and its relevance for HTO are illustrated with a special emphasis on the individual steps of the operation involving creation of the osteotomy planes and plate fixation. The posteriorly located popliteal neurovascular bundle, but also lateral structures such as the peroneal nerve, the head of the fibula and the lateral collateral ligament must be protected from the instruments used for osteotomy. Neither positioning the knee joint in flexion, nor the posterior thin muscle layer of the popliteal muscle offers adequate protection of the popliteal neurovascular bundle when performing the osteotomy. Tactile feedback through a loss-of-resistance when the opposite cortex is perforated is only possible when sawing and drilling is performed in a pounding fashion. Kirschner wires with a proximal thread, therefore, always need to be introduced under fluoroscopic control. Due to anatomy of the tibial head, the tibial slope may increase inadvertently. Enhanced surgical knowledge of anatomical structures that are at a potential risk during the different steps of osteotomy or plate fixation will help to avoid possible injuries. Expert opinion, Level V.

  8. Force measurements in the medial meniscus posterior horn attachment: effects of anterior cruciate ligament removal.

    PubMed

    Markolf, Keith L; Jackson, Steven R; McAllister, David R

    2012-02-01

    Tears of the medial meniscus posterior horn attachment (PHA) occur clinically, and an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-deficient knee may be more vulnerable to this injury. The PHA forces from applied knee loadings will increase after removal of the ACL. Controlled laboratory study. A cap of bone containing the medial meniscus PHA was attached to a load cell that measured PHA tensile force. Posterior horn attachment forces were recorded before and after ACL removal during anteroposterior (AP) laxity testing at ±200 N and during passive knee extension tests with 5 N·m tibial torque and varus-valgus moment. Selected tests were also performed with 500 N joint load. For AP tests with no joint load, ACL removal increased laxity between 0° and 90° and increased PHA force generated by applied anterior tibial force between 30° and 90°. For AP tests with an intact ACL, application of joint load approximately doubled PHA forces. Anteroposterior testing of ACL-deficient knees was not possible with joint load because of bone cap failures from high PHA forces. Removal of the ACL during knee extension tests under joint load significantly increased PHA forces between 20° and 90° of flexion. For unloaded tests with applied tibial torque and varus-valgus moment, ACL removal had no significant effect on PHA forces. Applied anterior tibial force and external tibial torque were loading modes that produced relatively high PHA forces, presumably by impingement of the medial femoral condyle against the medial meniscus posterior horn rim. Under joint load, an ACL-deficient knee was particularly susceptible to PHA injury from applied anterior tibial force. Because tensile forces developed in the PHA are also borne by meniscus tissue near the attachment site, loading mechanisms that produce high PHA forces could also produce complete or partial radial tears near the posterior horn, a relatively common clinical observation.

  9. Supinator to ulnar nerve transfer via in situ anterior interosseous nerve bridge to restore intrinsic muscle function in combined proximal median and ulnar nerve injury: a novel cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Namazi, Hamid; HajiVandi, Shahin

    2017-05-01

    In cases of high ulnar nerve palsy, result of nerve repair in term of intrinsic muscle recovery is unsatisfactory. Distal nerve transfer can diminish the regeneration time and improve the results. But, there was no perfect distal nerve transfer for restoring intrinsic hand function in combined proximal median and ulnar nerve injuries. This cadaveric study aims to evaluate the possibility and feasibility of supinator nerve transfer to motor branch of ulnar nerve (MUN). Ten cadaveric upper limbs dissected to identify the location of the supinator branch, anterior interosseous nerve (AIN), and MUN. The AIN was cut from its origin and transferred to the supinator branches. Also, the AIN was distally cut and transferred to the MUN. After nerve coaptation, surface area, fascicle count, and axon number were determined by histologic methods. In all limbs, the proximal and distal stumps of AIN reached the supinator branch and the MUN without tension, respectively. The mean of axon number in the supinator, proximal stump of AIN, distal stump of AIN and MUN branches were 32,426, 45,542, 25,288, and 35,426, respectively. This study showed that transfer of the supinator branches to the MUN is possible via the in situ AIN bridge. The axon count data showed a favorable match between the supinator branches, AIN, and MUN. Therefore, it is suggested that this technique can be useful for patients with combined high median and ulnar nerve injuries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Load Sharing Among Collateral Ligaments, Articular Surfaces, and the Tibial Post in Constrained Condylar Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaonan; Malik, Aamer; Bartel, Donald L; Wright, Timothy M; Padgett, Douglas E

    2016-08-01

    The normal knee joint maintains stable motion during activities of daily living. After total knee arthroplasty (TKA), stability is achieved by the conformity of the bearing surfaces of the implant components, ligaments, and constraint structures incorporated in the implant design. The large, rectangular tibial post in constrained condylar knee (CCK) arthroplasty, often used in revision surgery, provides added stability, but increases susceptibility to polyethylene wear as it contacts the intercondylar box on the femoral component. We examined coronal plane stability to understand the relative contributions of the mechanisms that act to stabilize the CCK knee under varus-valgus loading, namely, load distribution between the medial and lateral condyles, contact of the tibial post with the femoral intercondylar box, and elongation of the collateral ligaments. A robot testing system was used to determine the joint stability in human cadaveric knees as described by the moment versus angular rotation behavior under varus-valgus moments at 0 deg, 30 deg, and 90 deg of flexion. The angular rotation of the CCK knee in response to the physiological moments was limited to ≤1.5 deg. The primary stabilizing mechanism was the redistribution of the contact force on the bearing surfaces. Contact between the tibial post and the femoral box provided a secondary stabilizing mechanism after lift-off of a condyle had occurred. Collateral ligaments provide limited stability because little ligament elongation occurred under such small angular rotations. Compressive loads applied across the knee joint, such as would occur with the application of muscle forces, enhanced the ability of the bearing surfaces to provide resisting internal varus-valgus moment and, thus, reduced the exposure of the tibial post to the external varus-valgus loads. Our results suggest that the CCK stability can be refined by considering both the geometry of the bearing surfaces and the contacting geometry

  11. Biomechanical Evaluation of Knee Joint Laxities and Graft Forces After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction by Anteromedial Portal, Outside-In, and Transtibial Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Jae Ang; Gadikota, Hemanth R.; Li, Jing-Sheng; Li, Guoan; Gill, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Recently, anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is emphasized to improve joint laxity and to potentially avert initiation of cartilage degeneration. There is a paucity of information on the efficacy of ACL reconstructions by currently practiced tunnel creation techniques in restoring normal joint laxity. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Hypothesis Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by the anteromedial (AM) portal technique, outside-in (OI) technique, and modified transtibial (TT) technique can equally restore the normal knee joint laxity and ACL forces. Methods Eight fresh-frozen human cadaveric knee specimens were tested using a robotic testing system under an anterior tibial load (134 N) at 0°, 30°, 60°, and 90° of flexion and combined torques (10-N·m valgus and 5-N·m internal tibial torques) at 0° and 30° of flexion. Knee joint kinematics, ACL, and ACL graft forces were measured in each knee specimen under 5 different conditions (ACL-intact knee, ACL-deficient knee, ACL-reconstructed knee by AM portal technique, ACL-reconstructed knee by OI technique, and ACL-reconstructed knee by TT technique). Results Under anterior tibial load, no significant difference was observed between the 3 reconstructions in terms of restoring anterior tibial translation (P > .05). However, none of the 3 ACL reconstruction techniques could completely restore the normal anterior tibial translations (P <.05). Under combined tibial torques, both AM portal and OI techniques closely restored the normal knee anterior tibial translation (P > .05) at 0° of flexion but could not do so at 30° of flexion (P <.05). The ACL reconstruction by the TT technique was unable to restore normal anterior tibial translations at both 0° and 30° of flexion under combined tibial torques (P <.05). Forces experienced by the ACL grafts in the 3 reconstruction techniques were lower than those experienced by normal ACL under both the loading conditions

  12. A threshold-based approach for muscle contraction detection from surface EMG signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morantes, Gaudi; Fernández, Gerardo; Altuve, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    Surface electromyographic (SEMG) signals are commonly used as control signals in prosthetic and orthotic devices. Super cial electrodes are placed on the skin of the subject to acquire its muscular activity through this signal. The muscle contraction episode is then in charge of activating and deactivating these devices. Nevertheless, there is no gold standard" to detect muscle contraction, leading to delayed responses and false and missed detections. This fact motivated us to propose a new approach that compares a smoothed version of the SEMG signal with a xed threshold, in order to detect muscle contraction episodes. After preprocessing the SEMG signal, the smoothed version is obtained using a moving average lter, where three di erent window lengths has been evaluated. The detector was tuned by maximizing sensitivity and speci city and evaluated using SEMG signals obtained from the anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles, taken during the walking of ve subjects. Compared with traditional detection methods, we obtain a reduction of 3 ms in the detection delay, an increase of 8% in sensitivity but a decrease of 15% in speci city. Future work is directed to the inclusion of a temporal threshold (a double-threshold approach) to minimize false detections and reduce detection delays.

  13. The muscle findings in a pediatric patient with live attenuated oral polio vaccine-related flaccid monoplegia.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Shin-ichi; Nishino, Ichizo; Izumi, Tatsuro

    2014-09-22

    A pediatric patient, who was given live-attenuated oral polio vaccine twice without distinct gait disturbance during infancy, begun to present limp at 3 years. His gait disturbance became remarkable with aging. At 7 years, he was unable to dorsiflex the left ankle, and presented flaccid monoplegia of the left lower extremity, and the left Achilles tendon reflex was diminished. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple crack-lines in the left anterior tibial muscle, but was unable to detect any distinct lesion at responsible level of L4, L5 and S1 anterior horn cells' degeneration. Electromyography showed continuous fibrillation potentials, but muscle biopsy presented nearly normal in this muscle. The serum levels of polio antibody type 1 and type 2 titers were elevated 64× respectively, while the type 3 antibody titer was not elevated 4×. This patient was diagnosed as live attenuated oral polio vaccine-related flaccid monoplegia, with mild clinical course. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis in distal tibial fractures: Results and complications.

    PubMed

    Vidović, Dinko; Matejčić, Aljoša; Ivica, Mihovil; Jurišić, Darko; Elabjer, Esmat; Bakota, Bore

    2015-11-01

    Distal tibial or pilon fractures are usually the result of combined compressive and shear forces, and may result in instability of the metaphysis, with or without articular depression, and injury to the soft tissue. The complexity of injury, lack of muscle cover and poor vascularity make these fractures difficult to treat. Surgical treatment of distal tibial fractures includes several options: external fixation, IM nailing, ORIF and minimally-invasive plate osteosynthesis (MIPO). Management of distal tibial fractures with MIPO enables preservation of soft tissue and remaining blood supply. This is a report of a series of prospectively studied closed distal tibial and pilon fractures treated with MIPO. A total of 21 patients with closed distal tibial or pilon fractures were enrolled in the study between March 2008 and November 2013 and completed follow-up. Demographic characteristics, mechanism of injury, time required for union, ankle range of motion and complications were recorded. Fractures were classified according to the AO/OTA classification. Nineteen patients were initially managed with an ankle-spanning external fixator. When the status of the soft tissue had improved and swelling had subsided enough, a definitive internal fixation with MIPO was performed. Patients were invited for follow-up examinations at 3 and 6 weeks and then at intervals of 6 to 8 weeks until 12 months. Mean age of the patients was 40.1 years (range 19-67 years). Eighteen cases were the result of high-energy trauma and three were the result of low-energy trauma. According to the AO/OTA classification there were extraarticular and intraarticular fractures, but only simple articular patterns without depression or comminution. The average time for fracture union was 19.7 weeks (range 12-38 weeks). Mean range of motion was 10° of dorsiflexion (range 5-15°) and 28.3° of plantar flexion (range 20-35°). Three cases were metalwork-related complications. Two patients underwent plate removal

  15. Diagnostic Value of Knee Arthrometry in the Prediction of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Strain During Landing

    PubMed Central

    Kiapour, Ata M.; Wordeman, Samuel C.; Paterno, Mark V.; Quatman, Carmen E.; Levine, Jason W.; Goel, Vijay K.; Demetropoulos, Constantine K.; Hewett, Timothy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that higher knee joint laxity may be indicative of an increased risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Despite the frequent clinical use of knee arthrometry in the evaluation of knee laxity, little data exist to correlate instrumented laxity measures and ACL strain during dynamic high-risk activities. Purpose/Hypotheses The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between ACL strain and anterior knee laxity measurements using arthrometry during both a drawer test and simulated bipedal landing (as an identified high-risk injurious task). We hypothesized that a high correlation exists between dynamic ACL strain and passive arthrometry displacement. The secondary hypothesis was that anterior knee laxity quantified by knee arthrometry is a valid predictor of injury risk such that specimens with greater anterior knee laxity would demonstrate increased levels of peak ACL strain during landing. Study Design Controlled laboratory study. Methods Twenty cadaveric lower limbs (mean age, 46 ± 6 years; 10 female and 10 male) were tested using a CompuKT knee arthrometer to measure knee joint laxity. Each specimen was tested under 4 continuous cycles of anterior-posterior shear force (±134 N) applied to the tibial tubercle. To quantify ACL strain, a differential variable reluctance transducer (DVRT) was arthroscopically placed on the ACL (anteromedial bundle), and specimens were retested. Subsequently, bipedal landing from 30 cm was simulated in a subset of 14 specimens (mean age, 45 ± 6 years; 6 female and 8 male) using a novel custom-designed drop stand. Changes in joint laxity and ACL strain under applied anterior shear force were statistically analyzed using paired sample t tests and analysis of variance. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to determine the relationship between anterior shear force, anterior tibial translation, and ACL strain. Results During simulated drawer tests, 134 N

  16. Flow-Through Free Fibula Osteocutaneous Flap in Reconstruction of Tibial Bone, Soft Tissue, and Main Artery Segmental Defects.

    PubMed

    Li, Zonghuan; Yu, Aixi; Qi, Baiwen; Pan, Zhenyu; Ding, Junhui

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this report was to present the use of flow-through free fibula osteocutaneous flap for the repair of complex tibial bone, soft tissue, and main artery segmental defects. Five patients with bone, soft tissue, and segmental anterior tibial artery defects were included. The lengths of injured tibial bones ranged from 4 to 7 cm. The sizes of impaired soft tissues were between 9 × 4 and 15 × 6 cm. The lengths of defect of anterior tibial artery segments ranged from 6 to 10 cm. Two patients had distal limb perfusion problems. Flow-through free fibula osteocutaneous flap was performed for all 5 patients. Patients were followed for 12 to 18 months. All wounds healed after 1-stage operation, and all flow-through flaps survived. The distal perfusion after vascular repair was normal in all patients. Superficial necrosis of flap edge was noted in 1 case. After the local debridement and partial thickness skin graft, the flap healed uneventfully, and the surgical operation did not increase injury to the donor site. Satisfactory bone union was achieved in all patients in 2 to 4 months postoperation. Enlargement of fibula graft was observed during follow-up from 12 to 18 months. The functions of adjacent joints were recovered, and all patients were able to walk normally. Flow-through free fibula osteocutaneous flap was shown to be an effective and efficient technique for repairing composite tibial bone, soft tissue, and main artery segmental defects. This 1-stage operation should be useful in clinical practice for the treatment of complex bone, soft tissue, and vessel defects.

  17. Leg Muscle Usage Effects on Tibial Elasticity during Running

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    such a strike mechanics and surface incline, also modulate bone elasticity during running. Because these modulators may operate on the tibia via...co- Investigators (PS) as a prototypical forefoot runner. We have obtained a video showing 6 well-defined forefoot -running without coaching and...completion for 8 subjects. • Baseline data for 3 subjects who started but did not complete study. • Development of training video for forefoot running

  18. Leg Muscle Usage Effects on Tibial Elasticity During Running

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    stress, such a strike mechanics and surface incline, also modulate bone elasticity during running. Because these modulators may operate on the tibia via...prototypical forefoot runner. We have obtained a video showing well-defined forefoot -running without coaching and have developed a short training video for

  19. MRI Anatomy of the Tibial ACL Attachment and Proximal Epiphysis in a Large Population of Skeletally Immature Knees: Reference Parameters for Planning Anatomic Physeal-Sparing ACL Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Swami, Vimarsha Gopal; Mabee, Myles; Hui, Catherine; Jaremko, Jacob Lester

    2014-07-01

    To aid in performing anatomic physeal-sparing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, it is important for surgeons to have reference data for the native ACL attachment positions and epiphyseal anatomy in skeletally immature knees. To characterize anatomic parameters of the ACL tibial insertion and proximal tibial epiphysis at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large population of skeletally immature knees. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. The ACL tibial attachment site and proximal epiphysis were examined in 570 skeletally immature knees with an intact ACL (age, 6-15 years) using 1.5-T proton density-weighted sagittal MRI; also measured were the tibial anteroposterior diameter; anterior, central, and posterior ACL attachment positions; vertical height of the epiphysis; and maximum oblique epiphyseal depth extending from the ACL tibial attachment center to the tibial tuberosity. In adolescents (11-15 years of age), the center of the ACL's tibial attachment was 51.5% ± 5.7% of the anteroposterior diameter of the tibia, with no significant differences between sexes or age groups (P > .05 in all cases). Mean vertical epiphyseal height was 15.9 ± 1.7 mm in the adolescent group, with significant differences between 11-year-olds (15.2 ± 1.5 mm) and 15-year-olds (16.6 ± 1.6 mm), P < .001, and between males (16.6 ± 1.5 mm) and females (14.8 ± 1.4), P < .001. Mean maximum oblique depth was 30.0 ± 5.3 mm, with a significant difference between 11-year-olds (26.7 ± 4.9 mm) and 15-year-olds (32.7 ± 5.1 mm), P < .001, and between males (29.7 ± 6.4 mm) and females (27.8 ± 5.2 mm), P < .001. The maximum oblique depth occurred at a mean angle of ~50°, and this angle did not change with age or sex. There was a significant moderate correlation (r = 0.39, P < .001) between epiphyseal vertical height and maximum oblique depth. The center of the ACL tibial attachment was consistently near 51% of the anteroposterior diameter, regardless of age or sex

  20. Effect of Ankle Position and Noninvasive Distraction on Arthroscopic Accessibility of the Distal Tibial Plafond.

    PubMed

    Akoh, Craig C; Dibbern, Kevin; Amendola, Annuziato; Sittapairoj, Tinnart; Anderson, Donald D; Phisitkul, Phinit

    2017-10-01

    Osteochondral lesions of the tibial plafond (OLTPs) can lead to chronic ankle pain and disability. It is not known how limited ankle motion or joint distraction affects arthroscopic accessibility of these lesions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different fixed flexion angles and distraction on accessibility of the distal tibial articular surface during anterior and posterior arthroscopy. Fourteen below-knee cadaver specimens underwent anterior and posterior ankle arthroscopy using a 30-degree 2.7-mm arthroscopic camera. Intra-articular working space was measured with a precision of 1 mm using sizing rods. The accessible areas at the plafond were marked under direct visualization at varying fixed ankle flexion positions. Arthroscopic accessibilities were normalized as percent area using a surface laser scan. Statistical analyses were performed to assess the relationship between preoperative ankle range of motion, amount of distraction, arthroscopic approach, and arthroscopic plafond visualization. There was significantly greater accessibility during posterior arthroscopy (73.5%) compared with anterior arthroscopy (51.2%) in the neutral ankle position ( P = .007). There was no difference in accessibility for anterior arthroscopy with increasing level of plantarflexion ( P > .05). Increasing dorsiflexion during posterior arthroscopy significantly reduced ankle accessibility ( P = .028). There was a significant increase in accessibility through the anterior and posterior approach with increasing amount of intra-articular working space (parameter estimates ± SE): anterior = 14.2 ± 3.34 ( P < .01) and posterior = 10.6 ± 3.7 ( P < .05). Frequency data showed that the posterior third of the plafond was completely inaccessible in 33% of ankles during anterior arthroscopy. The frequency of inaccessible anterior plafond during posterior arthroscopy was 12%. Intra-articular working space and arthroscopic accessibility were greater during posterior

  1. Muscle activity response to external moment during single-leg drop landing in young basketball players: the importance of biceps femoris in reducing internal rotation of knee during landing.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Meguru; Sato, Haruhiko; Takahira, Naonobu

    2012-01-01

    Internal tibial rotation with the knee close to full extension combined with valgus collapse during drop landing generally results in non-contact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between internal rotation of the knee and muscle activity from internal and external rotator muscles, and between the internal rotation of knee and externally applied loads on the knee during landing in collegiate basketball players. Our hypothesis was that the activity of biceps femoris muscle would be an important factor reducing internal knee rotation during landing. The subjects were 10 collegiate basketball students: 5 females and 5 males. The subjects performed a single-leg drop landing from a 25-cm height. Femoral and tibial kinematics were measured using a 3D optoelectronic tracking system during the drop landings, and then the knee angular motions were determined. Ground reaction forces and muscle activation patterns (lateral hamstring and medial hamstring) were simultaneously measured and computed. Results indicated that lower peak internal tibial rotation angle at the time of landing was associated with greater lateral hamstring activity (r = -0.623, p < 0.001). When gender was considered, the statistically significant correlation remained only in females. There was no association between the peak internal tibial rotation angle and the knee internal rotation moment. Control of muscle activity in the lateral to medial hamstring would be an important factor in generating sufficient force to inhibit excessive internal rotation during landing. Strengthening the biceps femoris might mitigate the higher incidence of non-contact ACL injury in female athletes. Key pointsLower activity of the external rotator muscle of the knee, which inhibits internal rotation of the knee, may be the reason why females tend to show a large internal rotation of the knee during drop landing.Externally applied internal rotation moment of

  2. Electromyographic Analysis of Single-Leg, Closed Chain Exercises: Implications for Rehabilitation After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Beutler, Anthony I.; Cooper, Leslie W.; Kirkendall, Don T.; Garrett, William E.

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Many knee rehabilitation studies have examined open and closed kinetic chain exercises. However, most studies focus on 2-legged, closed chain exercise. The purpose of our study was to characterize 1-legged, closed chain exercise in young, healthy subjects. Subjects: Eighteen normal subjects (11 men, 7 women; age, 24.6 ± 1.6 years) performed unsupported, 1-legged squats and step-ups to approximately tibial height. Measurements: Knee angle data and surface electromyographic activity from the thigh muscles were recorded. Results: The maximum angle of knee flexion was 111 ± 23° for squats and 101 ± 16° for step-ups. The peak quadriceps activation was 201 ± 66% maximum voluntary isometric contraction, occurring at an angle of 96 ± 16° for squats. Peak quadriceps activation was 207 ± 50% maximum voluntary isometric contraction and occurred at 83 ± 12° for step-ups. Conclusions: The high and sustained levels of quadriceps activation indicate that 1-legged squats and step-ups would be effective in muscle rehabilitation. As functional, closed chain activities, they may also be protective of anterior cruciate ligament grafts. Because these exercises involve no weights or training equipment, they may prove more cost effective than traditional modes of rehabilitation. PMID:12937438

  3. Motion at the Tibial and Polyethylene Component Interface in a Mobile-Bearing Total Ankle Replacement.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Gregory A; Clanton, Thomas O; Dunaway, Linda J; Lu, Minggen

    2016-08-01

    Normal biomechanics of the ankle joint includes sagittal as well as axial rotation. Current understanding of mobile-bearing motion at the tibial-polyethylene interface in total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) is limited to anterior-posterior (AP) motion of the polyethylene component. The purpose of our study was to define the motion of the polyethylene component in relation to the tibial component in a mobile-bearing TAA in both the sagittal and axial planes in postoperative patients. Patients who were a minimum of 12 months postoperative from a third-generation mobile-bearing TAA were identified. AP images were saved at maximum internal and external rotation, and the lateral images were saved in maximum plantarflexion and dorsiflexion. Sagittal range of motion and AP translation of the polyethylene component were measured from the lateral images. Axial rotation was determined by measuring the relative position of the 2 wires within the polyethylene component on AP internal and external rotation imaging. This relationship was compared to a table developed from fluoroscopic images taken at standardized degrees of axial rotation of a nonimplanted polyethylene with the associated length relationship of the 2 imbedded wires. Sixteen patients were included in this investigation, 9 (56%) were male and average age was 68 (range, 49-80) years. Time from surgery averaged 25 (range, 12-38) months. Total sagittal range of motion averaged 23±9 (range, 9-33) degrees. Axial motion for total internal and external rotation of the polyethylene component on the tibial component averaged 6±5 (range, 0-18) degrees. AP translation of the polyethylene component relative to the tibial component averaged 1±1 (range, 0-3) mm. There was no relationship between axial rotation or AP translation of the polyethylene component and ankle joint range of motion (P > .05). To our knowledge, this is the first investigation to measure axial and sagittal motion of the polyethylene component at the tibial

  4. [Application of tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Li, Guoliang; Han, Guangpu; Zhang, Jinxiu; Ma, Shiqiang; Guo, Donghui; Yuan, Fulu; Qi, Bingbing; Shen, Runbin

    2013-07-01

    To explore the application value of self-made tibial mechanical axis locator in tibial extra-articular deformity in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) for improving the lower extremity force line. Between January and August 2012, 13 cases (21 knees) of osteoarthritis with tibial extra-articular deformity were treated, including 5 males (8 knees) and 8 females (13 knees) with an average age of 66.5 years (range, 58-78 years). The disease duration was 2-5 years (mean, 3.5 years). The knee society score (KSS) was 45.5 +/- 15.5. Extra-articular deformities included 1 case of knee valgus (2 knees) and 12 cases of knee varus (19 knees). Preoperative full-length X-ray films of lower extremities showed 10-21 degrees valgus or varus deformity of tibial extra joint. Self-made tibial mechanical axis locator was used to determine and mark coronal tibial mechanical axis under X-ray before TKA, and then osteotomy was performed with extramedullary positioning device according to the mechanical axis marker.' All incisions healed by first intention, without related complications of infection and joint instability. All patients were followed up 5-12 months (mean, 8.3 months). The X-ray examination showed < 2 degrees knee deviation angle in the others except 1 case of 2.9 degrees knee deviation angle at 3 days after operation, and the accurate rate was 95.2%. No loosening or instability of prosthesis occurred during follow-up. KSS score was 85.5 +/- 15.0 at last follow-up, showing significant difference when compared with preoperative score (t=12.82, P=0.00). The seft-made tibial mechanical axis locator can improve the accurate rate of the lower extremity force line in TKA for tibia extra-articular deformity.

  5. Intrinsic healing response of the human anterior cruciate ligament: an histological study of reattached ACL remnants.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Duy Tan; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H; van der Hart, Cor P; Blankevoort, Leendert; Tak, Paul Peter; van Dijk, Cornelis Niek

    2014-02-01

    A reattachment of the tibial remnant of the torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) to the posterior cruciate ligament is sometimes observed during surgery and apparently implies that the human ACL does have a healing response. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this reattachment tissue has similar histological characteristics of a healing response as the medial collateral ligament (MCL), which can heal spontaneously. Standard histology and immunostaining of α-smooth muscle actin and collagen type 3 was performed. The results shows that the reattached tissue has typical characteristics of a healing response: there attached ACL remnant could not be released by forceful traction; microscopy showed that the collagen fibers of the reattached tissue were disorganized with no preferred direction; increased neovascularization; the presence of lipid vacuoles; the mean number of cells within the biopsy tissue was 631±269 cells per mm2; and 68±20% was expressing α-SMA; semi-quantitative analysis of collagen type 3 expression showed that collagen type 3 had an high expression with an average score of 3. In conclusion, this study shows that the human proximal 1/3 ACL has an intrinsic healing response with typical histological characteristics similar to the MCL. © 2013 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The indications and donor-site morbidity of tibial cortical strut autografts in the management of defects in long bones.

    PubMed

    Lauthe, O; Soubeyrand, M; Babinet, A; Dumaine, V; Anract, P; Biau, D J

    2018-05-01

    Aims The primary aim of this study was to determine the morbidity of a tibial strut autograft and characterize the rate of bony union following its use. Patients and Methods We retrospectively assessed a series of 104 patients from a single centre who were treated with a tibial strut autograft of > 5 cm in length. A total of 30 had a segmental reconstruction with continuity of bone, 27 had a segmental reconstruction without continuity of bone, 29 had an arthrodesis and 18 had a nonunion. Donor-site morbidity was defined as any event that required a modification of the postoperative management. Union was assessed clinically and radiologically at a median of 36 months (IQR, 14 to 74). Results Donor-site morbidity occurred in four patients (4%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1 to 10). One patient had a stress fracture of the tibia, which healed with a varus deformity, requiring an osteotomy. Two patients required evacuation of a haematoma and one developed anterior compartment syndrome which required fasciotomies. The cumulative probability of union was 90% (95% CI 80 to 96) at five years. The type of reconstruction (p = 0.018), continuity of bone (p = 0.006) and length of tibial graft (p = 0.037) were associated with the time to union. Conclusion The tibial strut autograft has a low risk of morbidity and provides adequate bone stock for treating various defects of long bones. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2018;100-B:667-74.

  7. Avulsion of the anterior medial meniscus root: case report and surgical technique.

    PubMed

    Feucht, Matthias J; Minzlaff, Philipp; Saier, Tim; Lenich, Andreas; Imhoff, Andreas B; Hinterwimmer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Injuries of the meniscus roots have become increasingly recognised as a serious pathology of the knee joint. However, the current available literature focuses primarily on posterior meniscus root tears. In this article, a case with an isolated avulsion of the anterior medial meniscus root is presented, and a new arthroscopic technique to treat this type of injury is described. The anterior horn of the medial meniscus was sutured with a double-looped nonabsorbable suture and reattached to the tibial plateau using a knotless suture anchor. This technique may also be useful to treat avulsion injuries of the anterolateral or posteromedial meniscus root, and symptomatic subluxation of the medial meniscus in case of a variant insertion anatomy with an absent attachment of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus to the tibial plateau. Level of evidence V.

  8. Arthroscopic Management of Tibial Spine Avulsion Fractures: Principles and Techniques.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Eric J; Kaplan, Daniel James; Weinberg, Maxwell E; Egol, Jonathan; Jazrawi, Laith M

    2018-05-15

    Tibial spine fractures are uncommon injuries affecting the insertion of the anterior cruciate ligament on the tibia. They typically occur in skeletally immature patients aged 8 to 14 years and result from hyperextension of the knee with a valgus or rotational force. Diagnosis is based on history, physical examination, and standard radiographs. The use of MRI can identify entrapped soft tissue that may prevent reduction. Open or arthroscopic repair is indicated in patients with partially displaced fractures (>5 mm) with one third to one half of the avulsed fragment elevated, in patients who have undergone unsuccessful nonsurgical reduction and long leg casting or bracing, and in patients with completely displaced fractures. Arthroscopy offers reduced invasiveness and decreased morbidity. Suture fixation and screw fixation have produced successful results. Suture fixation can eliminate the risk of fracture fragment comminution during screw insertion, the risk of neurovascular injury, and the need for hardware removal. Suture fixation is ideal in cases in which existing comminution prevents screw fixation.

  9. [Magnetic resonance imaging of tibial periostitis].

    PubMed

    Meyer, X; Boscagli, G; Tavernier, T; Aczel, F; Weber, F; Legros, R; Charlopain, P; Martin, J P

    1998-01-01

    Tibial periostitis frequently occurs in athletes. We present our experience with MRI in a series of 7 patients (11 legs) with this condition. The clinical presentation and scintigraphic scanning suggested the diagnosis. MRI exploration of 11 legs demonstrated a high band-like juxta-osseous signal enhancement of SE and IR T2 weighted sequences in 6 cases, a signal enhancement after i.v. contrast administration in 4. Tibial periostitis is a clinical diagnosis and MRI and scintigraphic findings can be used to assure the differential diagnosis in difficult cases with stress fracture. MRI can visualize juxta-osseous edematous and inflammatory reactions and an increased signal would appear to be characteristic when the band-like image is fixed to the periosteum.

  10. Biomechanical Factors in Tibial Stress Fracture

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-08-01

    Relationship between Loading Rates and Tibial Accelerometry in Forefoot Strike Runners. Presented at the Annual American Society of Biomechanics Mtg...of the APTA, Seattle, WA, 2/99. McClay, IS, Williams, DS, and Manal, KT. Lower Extremity Mechanics of Runners with a Converted Forefoot Strike ...Management, Inc, 1998-1999 The Effect of Different Orthotic Devices on Lower Extremity Mechanics of Rearfoot and Forefoot Strikers, $3,500. Foot Management

  11. Cranial tibial thrust: a primary force in the canine stifle.

    PubMed

    Slocum, B; Devine, T

    1983-08-15

    A cranially directed force identified within the canine stifle joint was termed cranial tibial thrust. It was generated during weight bearing by tibial compression, of which the tarsal tendon of the biceps femoris is a major contributor, and by the slope of the tibial plateau, found to have a mean cranially directed inclination of 22.6 degrees. This force may be an important factor in cranial cruciate ligament rupture and in generation of cranial drawer sign.

  12. EMG and tibial shock upon the first attempt at barefoot running.

    PubMed

    Olin, Evan D; Gutierrez, Gregory M

    2013-04-01

    As a potential means to decrease their risk of injury, many runners are transitioning into barefoot running. Habitually shod runners tend to heel-strike (SHS), landing on their heel first, while barefoot runners tend to mid-foot or toe-strike (BTS), landing flat-footed or on the ball of their foot before bringing down the rest of the foot including the heel. This study compared muscle activity, tibial shock, and knee flexion angle in subjects between shod and barefoot conditions. Eighteen habitually SHS recreational runners ran for 3 separate 7-minute trials, including SHS, barefoot heel-strike (BHS), and BTS conditions. EMG, tibial shock, and knee flexion angle were monitored using bipolar surface electrodes, an accelerometer, and an electrogoniometer, respectively. A one-way MANOVA for repeated measures was conducted and several significant changes were noted between SHS and BTS, including significant increases in average EMG of the medial gastrocnemius (p=.05), average and peak tibial shock (p<.01), and the minimum knee flexion angle (p<.01). Based on our data, the initial change in mechanics may have detrimental effects on the runner. While it has been argued that BTS running may ultimately be less injurious, these data indicate that habitually SHS runners who choose to transition into a BTS technique must undertake the process cautiously. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative comparison of the pivot shift test results before and after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by using the three-dimensional electromagnetic measurement system.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Kanto; Hoshino, Yuichi; Nishizawa, Yuichiro; Araki, Daisuke; Matsushita, Takehiko; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Takayama, Koji; Nagamune, Kouki; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke

    2015-10-01

    Tibial acceleration during the pivot shift test is a potential quantitative parameter to evaluate rotational laxity of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency. However, clinical application of this measurement has not been fully examined. This study aimed to measure and compare tibial acceleration before and after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) in ACL-injured patients. We hypothesized tibial acceleration would be reduced by ACLR and tibial acceleration would be consistent in the same knee at different time points. Seventy ACL-injured patients who underwent ACLR were enrolled. Tibial acceleration during the pivot shift test was measured using an electromagnetic measurement system before ALCR and at the second-look arthroscopy 1 year post-operatively. Tibial acceleration was compared to clinical grading and between ACL-injured/ACL-reconstructed and contralateral knees. Pre-operative tibial acceleration was increased stepwise with the increase in clinical grading (P < 0.01). Tibial acceleration in ACL-injured knee (1.9 ± 1.2 m/s(2)) was larger than that in the contralateral knee (0.8 ± 0.3 m/s(2), P < 0.01), and reduced to 0.9 ± 0.3 m/s(2) post-operatively (P < 0.01). There was no difference between ACL-reconstructed and contralateral knee (n.s.). Tibial acceleration in contralateral knees was consistent pre- and post-operatively (n.s.). Tibial acceleration measurement demonstrated increased rotational laxity in ACL-injured knees and its reduction by ALCR. Additionally, consistent measurements were obtained in ACL-intact knees at different time points. Therefore, tibial acceleration during the pivot shift test could provide quantitative evaluation of rotational stability before and after ACL reconstruction. III.

  14. Bioengineered anterior cruciate ligament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Ivan (Inventor); Altman, Gregory (Inventor); Kaplan, David (Inventor); Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament ex vivo. The method comprises seeding pluripotent stem cells in a three dimensional matrix, anchoring the seeded matrix by attachment to two anchors, and culturing the cells within the matrix under conditions appropriate for cell growth and regeneration, while subjecting the matrix to one or more mechanical forces via movement of one or both of the attached anchors. Bone marrow stromal cells are preferably used as the pluripotent cells in the method. Suitable matrix materials are materials to which cells can adhere, such as a gel made from collagen type I. Suitable anchor materials are materials to which the matrix can attach, such as Goinopra coral and also demineralized bone. Optimally, the mechanical forces to which the matrix is subjected mimic mechanical stimuli experienced by an anterior cruciate ligament in vivo. This is accomplished by delivering the appropriate combination of tension, compression, torsion, and shear, to the matrix. The bioengineered ligament which is produced by this method is characterized by a cellular orientation and/or matrix crimp pattern in the direction of the applied mechanical forces, and also by the production of collagen type I, collagen type III, and fibronectin proteins along the axis of mechanical load produced by the mechanical forces. Optimally, the ligament produced has fiber bundles which are arranged into a helical organization. The method for producing an anterior cruciate ligament can be adapted to produce a wide range of tissue types ex vivo by adapting the anchor size and attachment sites to reflect the size of the specific type of tissue to be produced, and also adapting the specific combination of forces applied, to mimic the mechanical stimuli experienced in vivo by the specific type of tissue to be produced. The methods of the present invention can be further modified to incorporate other stimuli experienced in vivo by the

  15. Delayed diagnosis of a peroneal artery false aneurysm at a concomitant tibial fracture. A case report.

    PubMed

    Tyllianakis, M; Panagiotopoulos, E; Megas, P; Lambiris, E

    1995-07-01

    A 49-year-old man had posttraumatic persistent calf swelling and a tibial and fibular fracture. Despite the intramedullary nailing of the fracture, the swelling did not improve, and at the 6th postoperative week it was misdiagnosed (using venogram) as deep vein thrombosis. Therefore, it was mistreated with anticoagulants, which led to great deterioration of the local signs. An arteriogram revealed an initially missed false peroneal artery aneurysm. Surgical treatment was performed immediately. The 6-week delay had led to some atrophy of the posterior compartment muscles, fortunately without any permanent disability. The importance of proper and early diagnosis of posttraumatic persistent calf swelling is stressed.

  16. Tibial shaft fractures in football players

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Winston R; Kapasi, Zain; Daisley, Susan; Leach, William J

    2007-01-01

    Background Football is officially the most popular sport in the world. In the UK, 10% of the adult population play football at least once a year. Despite this, there are few papers in the literature on tibial diaphyseal fractures in this sporting group. In addition, conflicting views on the nature of this injury exist. The purpose of this paper is to compare our experience of tibial shaft football fractures with the little available literature and identify any similarities and differences. Methods and Results A retrospective study of all tibial football fractures that presented to a teaching hospital was undertaken over a 5 year period from 1997 to 2001. There were 244 tibial fractures treated. 24 (9.8%) of these were football related. All patients were male with a mean age of 23 years (range 15 to 29) and shin guards were worn in 95.8% of cases. 11/24 (45.8%) were treated conservatively, 11/24 (45.8%) by Grosse Kemp intramedullary nail and 2/24 (8.3%) with plating. A difference in union times was noted, conservative 19 weeks compared to operative group 23.9 weeks (p < 0.05). Return to activity was also different in the two groups, conservative 27.6 weeks versus operative 23.3 weeks (p < 0.05). The most common fracture pattern was AO Type 42A3 in 14/24 (58.3%). A high number 19/24 (79.2%) were simple transverse or short oblique fractures. There was a low non-union rate 1/24 (4.2%) and absence of any open injury in our series. Conclusion Our series compared similarly with the few reports available in the literature. However, a striking finding noted by the authors was a drop in the incidence of tibial shaft football fractures. It is likely that this is a reflection of recent compulsory FIFA regulations on shinguards as well as improvements in the design over the past decade since its introduction. PMID:17567522

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament injury/reinjury in alpine ski racing: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Matthew J; Aagaard, Per; Herzog, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present review was to: 1) provide an overview of the current understanding on the epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and prevention methods for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury in alpine ski racing; and 2) provide an overview of what is known pertaining to ACL reinjury and return to sport after ACL injury in alpine ski racing. Given that most of the scientific studies on ACL injuries in alpine ski racing have been descriptive, and that very few studies contributed higher level scientific evidence, a nonsystematic narrative review was employed. Three scholarly databases were searched for articles on ACL injury or knee injury in alpine ski racing. Studies were classified according to their relevance in relation to epidemiology, etiology, risk factors, and return to sport/reinjury prevention. Alpine ski racers (skiers) were found to be at high risk for knee injuries, and ACL tears were the most frequent diagnosis. Three primary ACL injury mechanism were identified that involved tibial internal rotation and anteriorly directed shear forces from ski equipment and the environment. While trunk muscle strength imbalance and genetics were found to be predictive of ACL injuries in development-level skiers, there was limited scientific data on ACL injury risk factors among elite skiers. Based on expert opinion, research on injury risk factors should focus on equipment design, course settings/speed, and athlete factors (eg, fitness). While skiers seem to make a successful recovery following ACL injury, there may be persistent neuromuscular deficits. Future research efforts should be directed toward prospective studies on ACL injury/reinjury prevention in both male and female skiers and toward the effects of knee injury on long-term health outcomes, such as the early development of osteoarthritis. International collaborations may be necessary to generate sufficient statistical power for ACL injury/reinjury prevention research in alpine ski racing

  18. Secretion of Growth Hormone in Response to Muscle Sensory Nerve Stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Roy, R. R.; Edgerton, V. R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Grossman, E. J.; Sawchenko, P. E.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion is stimulated by aerobic and resistive exercise and inhibited by exposure to actual or simulated (bedrest, hindlimb suspension) microgravity. Moreover, hypothalamic growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and preproGRF mRNA are markedly decreased in spaceflight rats. These observations suggest that reduced sensory input from inactive muscles may contribute to the reduced secretion of GH seen in "0 G". Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the effect of muscle sensory nerve stimulation on secretion of GH. Fed male Wistar rats (304 +/- 23 g) were anesthetized (pentobarbital) and the right peroneal (Pe), tibial (T), and sural (S) nerves were cut. Electrical stimulation of the distal (D) or proximal (P) ends of the nerves was implemented for 15 min. to mimic the EMG activity patterns of ankle extensor muscles of a rat walking 1.5 mph. The rats were bled by cardiac puncture and their anterior pituitaries collected. Pituitary and plasma bioactive (BGH) and immunoactive (IGH) GH were measured by bioassay and RIA.

  19. The distance from the extramedullary cutting guide rod to the skin surface as a reference guide for the tibial slope in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tsukeoka, Tadashi; Tsuneizumi, Yoshikazu

    2016-03-01

    Although sagittal tibial alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is important, no landmarks exist to achieve a reproducible slope. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the distance from the guide rod to the skin surface for the tibial slope in TKA. Computer simulation studies were performed on 100 consecutive knees scheduled for TKA. The angle between the line connecting the most anterior point of the predicted tibial cut surface and the skin surface 20 cm distal to the predicted cut surface (Line S) and the mechanical axis (MA) of the tibia in the sagittal plane was measured. The mean (±SD) absolute angle difference between the Line S and the MA was 0.9°±0.7°. The Line S was almost parallel to the MA in the sagittal plane (95% and 99% within two degrees and three degrees of deviation from MA, respectively). The guide rod orientation is a surrogate for the tibial cut slope because the targeted posterior slope is usually built into the cutting block and ensuring the rod is parallel to the MA in the sagittal plane is recommended. Therefore the distance between the skin surface and the rod can be a useful guide for the tibial slope. II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Anatomic tibial component design can increase tibial coverage and rotational alignment accuracy: a comparison of six contemporary designs.

    PubMed

    Dai, Yifei; Scuderi, Giles R; Bischoff, Jeffrey E; Bertin, Kim; Tarabichi, Samih; Rajgopal, Ashok

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to comprehensively evaluate contemporary tibial component designs against global tibial anatomy. We hypothesized that anatomically designed tibial components offer increased morphological fit to the resected proximal tibia with increased alignment accuracy compared to symmetric and asymmetric designs. Using a multi-ethnic bone dataset, six contemporary tibial component designs were investigated, including anatomic, asymmetric, and symmetric design types. Investigations included (1) measurement of component conformity to the resected tibia using a comprehensive set of size and shape metrics; (2) assessment of component coverage on the resected tibia while ensuring clinically acceptable levels of rotation and overhang; and (3) evaluation of the incidence and severity of component downsizing due to adherence to rotational alignment and overhang requirements, and the associated compromise in tibial coverage. Differences in coverage were statistically compared across designs and ethnicities, as well as between placements with or without enforcement of proper rotational alignment. Compared to non-anatomic designs investigated, the anatomic design exhibited better conformity to resected tibial morphology in size and shape, higher tibial coverage (92% compared to 85-87%), more cortical support (posteromedial region), lower incidence of downsizing (3% compared to 39-60%), and less compromise of tibial coverage (0.5% compared to 4-6%) when enforcing proper rotational alignment. The anatomic design demonstrated meaningful increase in tibial coverage with accurate rotational alignment compared to symmetric and asymmetric designs, suggesting its potential for less intra-operative compromises and improved performance. III.

  1. Tibial Tray Thickness Significantly Increases Medial Tibial Bone Resorption in Cobalt-Chromium Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants.

    PubMed

    Martin, J Ryan; Watts, Chad D; Levy, Daniel L; Miner, Todd M; Springer, Bryan D; Kim, Raymond H

    2017-01-01

    Stress shielding is an uncommon complication associated with primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients are frequently identified radiographically with minimal clinical symptoms. Very few studies have evaluated risk factors for postoperative medial tibial bone loss. We hypothesized that thicker cobalt-chromium tibial trays are associated with increased bone loss. We performed a retrospective review of 100 posterior stabilized, fixed-bearing total knee arthroplasty where 50 patients had a 4-mm-thick tibial tray (thick tray cohort) and 50 patients had a 2.7-mm-thick tibial tray (thin tray cohort). A clinical evaluation and a radiographic assessment of medial tibial bone loss were performed on both cohorts at a minimum of 2 years postoperatively. Mean medial tibial bone loss was significantly higher in the thick tray cohort (1.07 vs 0.16 mm; P = .0001). In addition, there were significantly more patients with medial tibial bone loss in the thick tray group compared with the thin tray group (44% vs 10%, P = .0002). Despite these differences, there were no statistically significant differences in range of motion, knee society score, complications, or revision surgeries performed. A thicker cobalt-chromium tray was associated with significantly more medial tibial bone loss. Despite these radiographic findings, we found no discernable differences in clinical outcomes in our patient cohort. Further study and longer follow-up are needed to understand the effects and clinical significance of medial tibial bone loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The fixation strength of tibial PCL press-fit reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, M; Wehrhahn, T; Petri, M; Liodakis, E; Olender, G; Albrecht, U-V; Hurschler, C; Krettek, C; Jagodzinski, M

    2012-02-01

    A secure tibial press-fit technique in posterior cruciate ligament reconstructions is an interesting technique because no hardware is necessary. For anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, a few press-fit procedures have been published. Up to the present point, no biomechanical data exist for a tibial press-fit posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction. The purpose of this study was to characterize a press-fit procedure for PCL reconstruction that is biomechanically equivalent to an interference screw fixation. Quadriceps and hamstring tendons of 20 human cadavers (age: 49.2 ± 18.5 years) were used. A press-fit fixation with a knot in the semitendinosus tendon (K) and a quadriceps tendon bone block graft (Q) were compared to an interference screw fixation (I) in 30 porcine femora. In each group, nine constructs were cyclically stretched and then loaded until failure. Maximum load to failure, stiffness, and elongation during failure testing and cyclical loading were investigated. The maximum load to failure was 518 ± 157 N (387-650 N) for the (K) group, 558 ± 119 N (466-650 N) for the (I) group, and 620 ± 102 N (541-699 N) for the (Q) group. The stiffness was 55 ± 27 N/mm (18-89 N/mm) for the (K) group, 117 ± 62 N/mm (69-165 N/mm) for the (I) group, and 65 ± 21 N/mm (49-82 N/mm) for the (Q) group. The stiffness of the (I) group was significantly larger (P = 0.01). The elongation during cyclical loading was significantly larger for all groups from the 1st to the 5th cycle compared to the elongation in between the 5th to the 20th cycle (P < 0.03). All techniques exhibited larger elongation during initial loading. Load to failure and stiffness was significantly different between the fixations. The Q fixation showed equal biomechanical properties compared to a pure tendon fixation (I) with an interference screw. All three fixation techniques that were investigated exhibit comparable biomechanical properties

  3. A rare variation of the digastric muscle

    PubMed Central

    KALNIEV, MANOL; KRASTEV, DIMO; KRASTEV, NIKOLAY; VIDINOV, KALIN; VELTCHEV, LUDMIL; APOSTOLOV, ALEXANDER; MILEVA, MILKA

    2013-01-01

    The digastric muscle is composed by two muscle bellies: an anterior and a posterior, joined by an intermediate tendon. This muscle is situated in the anterior region of the neck. The region between the hyoid bone and the mandible is divided by an anterior belly into two triangles: the submandibular situated laterally and the submental triangle which is located medially. We found that the anatomical variations described in the literature relate mainly to the anterior belly and consist of differences in shape and attachment of the muscle. During routine dissection in February 2013 in the section hall of the Department of Anatomy and Histology in Medical University – Sofia we came across a very interesting variation of the digastric muscle. The digastric muscles that presented anatomical variations were photographed using a Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T1 camera, with a Carl Zeiss Vario-Tessar lens. We found out bilateral variation of the digastric muscle in one cadaver. The anterior bellies were very thin and insert to the hyoid bone. Two anterior bellies connect each other and thus they formed a loop. The anatomical variations observed of our study related only to the anterior belly, as previously described by other authors. It is very important to consider the occurrence of the above mentioned variations in the digastric muscle when surgical procedures are performed on the anterior region of the neck. PMID:26527971

  4. Increases in tibial force imbalance but not changes in tibiofemoral laxities are caused by varus-valgus malalignment of the femoral component in kinematically aligned TKA.

    PubMed

    Riley, Jeremy; Roth, Joshua D; Howell, Stephen M; Hull, Maury L

    2018-01-29

    -valgus malalignment did not significantly change varus, internal-external rotation, anterior-posterior, and compression-distraction laxities from 0° to 120° flexion. At only 30° of flexion, 4° of varus malalignment increased valgus laxity 1° (p = 0.0014). At 0° flexion, V-V malalignment of the femoral component caused the tibial force imbalance to increase significantly, whereas the laxities were relatively unaffected. Because tibial force imbalance has the potential to adversely affect patient-reported outcomes and satisfaction, surgeons should strive to limit errors in resecting the distal femoral condyles to within ± 0.5 mm which in turn limits the average increase in tibial force imbalance to 68 N. Because laxities were generally unaffected, instability resulting from large increases in laxity is not a clinical concern within the ± 4° range tested. Therapeutic, Level II.

  5. Relationship between tibial spine size and the occurrence of osteochondritis dissecans: an argument in favour of the impingement theory.

    PubMed

    Cavaignac, Etienne; Perroncel, Geoffroy; Thépaut, Mathias; Vial, Julie; Accadbled, Franck; De Gauzy, Jérôme Sales

    2017-08-01

    Pathophysiology of osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) of the medial femoral condyle remains uncertain. Specifically, the relationship between the size of the anterior tibial spine (ATS) and the presence of OCD has not been explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ATS size and the occurrence of OCD. Seventy-nine children between 8 and 17 years of age were included in two groups: OCD (n = 37) and control (n = 42). The groups were matched in terms of age, gender, BMI and weight. Two independent observers performed an MRI analysis of the size of the tibial spine and intercondylar notch relative to the size of the respective epiphyses. For this study, the "S ratio" was calculated by dividing the height of the tibial spine by the height of the tibial epiphysis. The "N ratio" was calculated by dividing the height of the notch by the height of the femoral epiphysis. These two ratios for both groups were compared using Student's t test. The mean value of the S ratio in the OCD group was 0.39 ± 0.06; the mean value of the S ratio in the control group was 0.32 ± 0.03 (P = 0.004). The mean value of the N ratio in the OCD group was 0.70 ± 0.08; the mean value of the N ratio in the control group was 0.70 ± 0.07 (n.s.). This study's findings confirm our hypothesis that patients with OCD have a more prominent tibial spine than in patients without OCD. IV.

  6. Follistatin: A Potential Anabolic Treatment for Re-Innervated Muscle

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    and force generation studies of tibial nerve and gastrocnemius muscle.- pending • Immunohistology staining and histology of muscle (3 months) Fiber...Cross sections of muscle specimens will be stained and fiber size, axon numbers, and myelination measured.- pending • Data Analysis (3 months...AV-288 Follistatin 5 Control 5 Follistatin Protein 2 Animal Weight ( grams ): AV FS-288 (FPP6 to FPP10) Average 256.72 STDEV 6.28267459

  7. Quantification of residual limb skeletal muscle perfusion with contrast-enhanced ultrasound during application of a focal junctional tourniquet

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Brian P.; Belcik, J. Todd; Mott, Brian H.; Landry, Gregory; Lindner, Jonathan R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Focal junctional tourniquets (JTs) have been developed to control hemorrhage from proximal limb injuries. These devices may permit greater collateral perfusion than circumferential tourniquets. We hypothesized that JTs eliminate large-vessel pulse pressure yet allow a small amount of residual limb perfusion that could be useful for maintaining tissue viability. Methods Ten healthy control subjects were studied. Transthoracic echocardiography, Doppler ultrasound of the femoral artery (FA) and posterior tibial artery, and contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEU) perfusion imaging of the anterior thigh extensor and calf plantar flexor muscles were performed at baseline and during application of a JT over the common FA. Intramuscular arterial pulsatility index was also measured from CEU intensity variation during the cardiac cycle. Results FA flow was eliminated by JTs in all subjects; posterior tibial flow was eliminated in all but one. Perfusion measured in the thigh and calf muscles was similar at baseline (0.33 ± 0.29 vs 0.29 ± 0.22 mL/min/g). Application of the JT resulted in a reduction of perfusion (P < .05) that was similar for the thigh and calf (0.08 ± 0.07 and 0.10 ± 0.03 mL/min/g). On CEU, microvascular flux rate was reduced by ≈55%, and functional microvascular blood volume was reduced by ≈35%. Arterial pulsatility index was reduced by ≈90% in the calf. JT inflation did not alter left ventricle dimensions, fractional shortening, cardiac output, or arterial elastance as a measure of total systolic load. Conclusions Application of a JT eliminates conduit arterial pulse and markedly reduces intramuscular pulse pressure, but thigh and calf skeletal muscle perfusion is maintained at 25% to 35% of basal levels. These data suggest that JTs that are used to control limb hemorrhage allow residual tissue perfusion even when pulse pressure is absent. PMID:25065582

  8. The effect of open kinetic chain knee extensor resistance training at different training loads on anterior knee laxity in the uninjured.

    PubMed

    Barcellona, Massimo G; Morrissey, Matthew C

    2016-04-01

    The commonly used open kinetic chain knee extensor (OKCKE) exercise loads the sagittal restraints to knee anterior tibial translation. To investigate the effect of different loads of OKCKE resistance training on anterior knee laxity (AKL) in the uninjured knee. non-clinical trial. Randomization into one of three supervised training groups occurred with training 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Subjects in the LOW and HIGH groups performed OKCKE resistance training at loads of 2 sets of 20 repetition maximum (RM) and 20 sets of 2RM, respectively. Subjects in the isokinetic training group (ISOK) performed isokinetic OKCKE resistance training using 2 sets of 20 maximal efforts. AKL was measured using the KT2000 arthrometer with concurrent measurement of lateral hamstrings muscle activity at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Twenty six subjects participated (LOW n = 9, HIGH n = 10, ISOK n = 7). The main finding from this study is that a 12-week OKCKE resistance training programme at loads of 20 sets of 2RM, leads to an increase in manual maximal AKL. OKCKE resistance training at high loads (20 sets of 2RM) increases AKL while low load OKCKE resistance training (2 sets of 20RM) and isokinetic OKCKE resistance training at 2 sets of 20RM does not. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Anatomy of the anterior root attachments of the medial and lateral menisci: a quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    LaPrade, Christopher M; Ellman, Michael B; Rasmussen, Matthew T; James, Evan W; Wijdicks, Coen A; Engebretsen, Lars; LaPrade, Robert F

    2014-10-01

    While the biomechanical importance of the meniscal roots has been demonstrated, the anatomy of the anterior meniscal roots remains largely unknown. Defining the quantitative anatomy of the anterior meniscal root attachments is essential for developing improved diagnostic and surgical techniques. The anterior medial (AM) and anterior lateral (AL) meniscal roots could be quantitatively defined relative to open and arthroscopic surgical landmarks. Descriptive laboratory study. Twelve nonpaired human cadaveric knees were used (average age, 51.3 years). A coordinate measuring device quantified the anatomic relationships of the AM and AL root attachments to open and arthroscopic surgical landmarks. The tibial attachments of both anterior roots were defined and quantified by categorizing the fibers of the root as either central, dense attachments or peripheral, supplemental attachments. The center of the tibial tuberosity and the medial tibial eminence apex were 27.0 mm lateral and distal and 27.5 mm posterior to the center of the AM root, respectively. The center of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the lateral tibial eminence apex were 5.0 mm posteromedial and 14.4 mm posterolateral to the center of the AL root, respectively. The AM root attachment had a mean area of 110.4 mm(2) (95% CI, 92.2-128.5) with a central attachment of 56.3 mm(2) (95% CI, 46.9-65.8). The AL root attachment had a mean area of 140.7 mm(2) (95% CI, 121.6-159.8) and inserted deeply beneath the ACL in all specimens. The overlap of the ACL on the AL root averaged 88.9 mm(2) (95% CI, 63.3-114.6), comprising 63.2% of the AL root attachment. The anterior meniscal roots were identified in relation to pertinent open and arthroscopic landmarks. The extended overlap between the AL root and ACL attachment revealed a more intimate tibial attachment relationship than previously recognized. Quantitative descriptions of the anterior meniscal roots elucidate the relationship between the root attachments

  10. Varus alignment leads to increased forces in the anterior cruciate ligament.

    PubMed

    van de Pol, Gerrit Jan; Arnold, Markus P; Verdonschot, Nico; van Kampen, Albert

    2009-03-01

    Varus thrust of the knee is a dynamic increase of an often preexisting varus angle and it is suspected to be a major reason for failure of anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. However, it is not known if a direct relationship exists between varus thrust and forces in the anterior cruciate ligament. Forces in the anterior cruciate ligament increase with increasing varus alignment, and consequently an anterior cruciate ligament deficiency in a varus-aligned leg leads to more lateral tibiofemoral joint opening. Controlled laboratory study. Six human cadaver legs were axially loaded with 3 different weightbearing lines--a neutral weightbearing line, a weightbearing line that passes through the middle of the medial tibial plateau (50% varus), and a line passing the edge of the medial tibial plateau (100% varus)--that were used to create a varus moment. The resulting lateral tibiofemoral joint opening and corresponding anterior cruciate ligament tension were measured. The tests were repeated with and without the anterior cruciate ligament in place. In the neutral aligned legs, there was no apparent lateral joint opening, and no anterior cruciate ligament tension change was noted. The lateral joint opening increased when the weightbearing line increased from 0% to 50% to 100%. The lateral joint opening was significantly higher in 10 degrees of knee flexion compared with knee extension. In the 100% varus weightbearing line, the anterior cruciate ligament tension was significantly higher (53.9 N) compared with neutral (31 N) or the 50% weightbearing line (37.9 N). A thrust could only be observed in the 100% weightbearing line tests. In the absence of an anterior cruciate ligament, there was more lateral joint opening, although this was only significant in the 100% weightbearing line. There is a direct relationship between varus alignment and anterior cruciate ligament tension. In the absence of an anterior cruciate ligament, the amount of lateral opening tends to

  11. Risk of anterior cruciate ligament fatigue failure is increased by limited internal femoral rotation during in vitro repeated pivot landings.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Mélanie L; Wojtys, Edward M; Ashton-Miller, James A

    2015-09-01

    A reduced range of hip internal rotation is associated with increased peak anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) strain and risk for injury. It is unknown, however, whether limiting the available range of internal femoral rotation increases the susceptibility of the ACL to fatigue failure. Risk of ACL failure is significantly greater in female knee specimens with a limited range of internal femoral rotation, smaller femoral-ACL attachment angle, and smaller tibial eminence volume during repeated in vitro simulated single-leg pivot landings. Controlled laboratory study. A custom-built testing apparatus was used to simulate repeated single-leg pivot landings with a 4×-body weight impulsive load that induces knee compression, knee flexion, and internal tibial torque in 32 paired human knee specimens from 8 male and 8 female donors. These test loads were applied to each pair of specimens, in one knee with limited internal femoral rotation and in the contralateral knee with femoral rotation resisted by 2 springs to simulate the active hip rotator muscles' resistance to stretch. The landings were repeated until ACL failure occurred or until a minimum of 100 trials were executed. The angle at which the ACL originates from the femur and the tibial eminence volume were measured on magnetic resonance images. The final Cox regression model (P = .024) revealed that range of internal femoral rotation and sex of donor were significant factors in determining risk of ACL fatigue failure. The specimens with limited range of internal femoral rotation had a failure risk 17.1 times higher than did the specimens with free rotation (P = .016). The female knee specimens had a risk of ACL failure 26.9 times higher than the male specimens (P = .055). Limiting the range of internal femoral rotation during repetitive pivot landings increases the risk of an ACL fatigue failure in comparison with free rotation in a cadaveric model. Screening for restricted internal rotation at the hip in ACL

  12. Failed anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: analysis of factors leading to instability after primary surgery.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yong; Ao, Ying-Fang; Yu, Jia-Kuo; Dai, Ling-Hui; Shao, Zhen-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) surgery can be expected to become more common as the number of primary reconstruction keeps increasing. This study aims to investigate the factors causing instability after primary ACL reconstruction, which may provide an essential scientific base to prevent surgical failure. One hundred and ten revision ACL surgeries were performed at our institute between November 2001 and July 2012. There were 74 men and 36 women, and the mean age at the time of revision was 27.6 years (range 16 - 56 years). The factors leading to instability after primary ACL reconstruction were retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-one knees failed because of bone tunnel malposition, with too anterior femoral tunnels (20 knees), posterior wall blowout (1 knee), vertical femoral tunnels (7 knees), too posterior tibial tunnels (12 knees), and too anterior tibial tunnels (10 knees). There was another knee performed with open surgery, where the femoral tunnel was drilled through the medial condyle and the tibial tunnel was too anterior. Five knees were found with malposition of the fixation. One knee with allograft was suspected of rejection and a second surgery had been made to take out the graft. Three knees met recurrent instability after postoperative infection. The other factors included traumatic (48 knees) and unidentified (12 knees). Technical errors were the main factors leading to instability after primary ACL reconstructions, while attention should also be paid to the risk factors of re-injury and failure of graft incorporation.

  13. Anatomy of the anterior cruciate ligament with regard to its two bundles.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Wolf; Zantop, Thore

    2007-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) consists of two major fiber bundles, namely the anteromedial and posterolateral bundle. When the knee is extended, the posterolateral bundle (PL) is tight and the anteromedial (AM) bundle is moderately lax. As the knee is flexed, the femoral attachment of the ACL becomes a more horizontal orientation; causing the AM bundle to tighten and the PL bundle to relax. There is some degree of variability for the femoral origin of the anterome-dial and posterolateral bundle. The anteromedial bundle is located proximal and anterior in the femoral ACL origin (high and deep in the notch when the knee is flexed at 90 degrees ); the posterolateral bundle starts in the distal and posterior aspect of the femoral ACL origin (shallow and low when the knee is flexed at 90 degrees ). In the frontal plane the anteromedial bundle origin is in the 10:30 clock position and the postero-lateral bundle origin in the 9:30 clock position. At the tibial insertion the ACL fans out to form the foot region. The anteromedial bundle insertion is in the anterior part of the tibial ACL footprint, the posterolateral bundle in the posterior part. While the anteromedial bundle is the primary restraint against anterior tibial translation, the posterolateral bundle tends to stabilize the knee near full extension, particularly against rotatory loads.

  14. ER stress and subsequent activated calpain play a pivotal role in skeletal muscle wasting after severe burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Chuanan; Li, Dawei; Wang, Xiaoteng

    2017-01-01

    Severe burns are typically followed by hypermetabolism characterized by significant muscle wasting, which causes considerable morbidity and mortality. The aim of the present study was to explore the underlying mechanisms of skeletal muscle damage/wasting post-burn. Rats were randomized to the sham, sham+4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA, a pharmacological chaperone promoting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) folding/trafficking, commonly considered as an inhibitor of ER), burn (30% total body surface area), and burn+4-PBA groups; and sacrificed at 1, 4, 7, 14 days after the burn injury. Tibial anterior muscle was harvested for transmission electron microscopy, calcium imaging, gene expression and protein analysis of ER stress / ubiquitin-proteasome system / autophagy, and calpain activity measurement. The results showed that ER stress markers were increased in the burn group compared with the sham group, especially at post-burn days 4 and 7, which might consequently elevate cytoplasmic calcium concentration, promote calpain production as well as activation, and cause skeletal muscle damage/wasting of TA muscle after severe burn injury. Interestingly, treatment with 4-PBA prevented burn-induced ER swelling and altered protein expression of ER stress markers and calcium release, attenuating calpain activation and skeletal muscle damage/wasting after severe burn injury. Atrogin-1 and LC3-II/LC3-I ratio were also increased in the burn group compared with the sham group, while MuRF-1 remained unchanged; 4-PBA decreased atrogin-1 in the burn group. Taken together, these findings suggested that severe burn injury induces ER stress, which in turns causes calpain activation. ER stress and subsequent activated calpain play a critical role in skeletal muscle damage/wasting in burned rats. PMID:29028830

  15. Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-01

    Neurofibromatosis Type 1 PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. David Stevenson CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of Utah SALT LAKE CITY...COVERED 1 April 2013 - 31 March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Tibial Bowing and Pseudarthrosis in Neurofibromatosis Type 1 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Anterolateral tibial bowing is a morbid skeletal manifestation observed in 5% of children with neurofibromatosis

  16. Tibial Lengthening: Extraarticular Calcaneotibial Screw to Prevent Ankle Equinus

    PubMed Central

    Belthur, Mohan V.; Paley, Dror; Jindal, Gaurav; Burghardt, Rolf D.; Specht, Stacy C.

    2008-01-01

    Between 2003 and 2006, we used an extraarticular, cannulated, fully threaded posterior calcaneotibial screw to prevent equinus contracture in 10 patients (four male and six female patients, 14 limbs) undergoing tibial lengthening with the intramedullary skeletal kinetic distractor. Diagnoses were fibular hemimelia (two), mesomelic dwarfism (two), posteromedial bow (one), hemihypertrophy (one), poliomyelitis (one), achondroplasia (one), posttraumatic limb-length discrepancy (one), and hypochondroplasia (one). Average age was 24.5 years (range, 15–54 years). The screw (length, typically 125 mm; diameter, 7 mm) was inserted with the ankle in 10° dorsiflexion. Gastrocnemius soleus recession was performed in two patients to achieve 10° dorsiflexion. Average lengthening was 4.9 cm (range, 3–7 cm). Screws were removed after a mean 3.3 months (range, 2–6 months). Preoperative ankle range of motion was regained within 6 months of screw removal. No neurovascular complications were encountered, and no patients experienced equinus contracture. We also conducted a cadaveric study in which one surgeon inserted screws in eight cadaveric legs under image intensifier control. The flexor hallucis longus muscle belly was the closest anatomic structure noted during dissection. The screw should be inserted obliquely from upper lateral edge of the calcaneus and aimed lateral in the tibia to avoid the flexor hallucis longus muscle. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18800215

  17. Foot and ankle function after tibial overlengthening.

    PubMed

    Emara, Khaled M; Diab, Ramy Ahmed; El Ghazali, Sherif; Farouk, Amr; El Kersh, Mohamed Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Lengthening the tibia more than 25% of its original length can be indicated for proximal femoral deficiency, poliomyelitis, or femoral infected nonunion. Such lengthening of the tibia can adversely affect the ankle or foot shape and function. The present study aimed to assess the effect of tibial lengthening of more than 25% of its original length on the foot and ankle shape and function compared with the preoperative condition. This was a retrospective study of 13 children with severe proximal focal femoral deficiency, Aitken classification type D, who had undergone limb lengthening from June 2000 to June 2008 using Ilizarov external fixators. The techniques used in tibial lengthening included lengthening without intramedullary rodding and lengthening over a nail. The foot assessment was done preoperatively, at fixator removal, and then annually for 3 years, documenting the range of motion and deformity of the ankle and subtalar joints and big toe and the navicular height, calcaneal pitch angle, and talo-first metatarsal angle. At fixator removal, all cases showed equinocavovarus deformity, with decreased ankle, subtalar, and big toe motion. The mean American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score was significantly reduced. During follow-up, the range of motion, foot deformity, and American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society score improved, reaching nearly to the preoperative condition by 2 years of follow-up. The results of our study have shown that tibial overlengthening has an adverse effect on foot and ankle function. This effect was reversible in the patients included in the present study. Lengthening of more than 25% can be safely done after careful discussion with the patients and their families about the probable effects of lengthening on foot and ankle function. Copyright © 2014 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Medial tibial stress syndrome: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Moen, Maarten H; Tol, Johannes L; Weir, Adam; Steunebrink, Miriam; De Winter, Theodorus C

    2009-01-01

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS) is one of the most common leg injuries in athletes and soldiers. The incidence of MTSS is reported as being between 4% and 35% in military personnel and athletes. The name given to this condition refers to pain on the posteromedial tibial border during exercise, with pain on palpation of the tibia over a length of at least 5 cm. Histological studies fail to provide evidence that MTSS is caused by periostitis as a result of traction. It is caused by bony resorption that outpaces bone formation of the tibial cortex. Evidence for this overloaded adaptation of the cortex is found in several studies describing MTSS findings on bone scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scan and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. The diagnosis is made based on physical examination, although only one study has been conducted on this subject. Additional imaging such as bone, CT and MRI scans has been well studied but is of limited value. The prevalence of abnormal findings in asymptomatic subjects means that results should be interpreted with caution. Excessive pronation of the foot while standing and female sex were found to be intrinsic risk factors in multiple prospective studies. Other intrinsic risk factors found in single prospective studies are higher body mass index, greater internal and external ranges of hip motion, and calf girth. Previous history of MTSS was shown to be an extrinsic risk factor. The treatment of MTSS has been examined in three randomized controlled studies. In these studies rest is equal to any intervention. The use of neoprene or semi-rigid orthotics may help prevent MTSS, as evidenced by two large prospective studies.

  19. [Difference analysis of muscle fatigue during the exercises of core stability training].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jinzhuang; Sun, Jinli; Wang, Hongrui; Yang, Xincai; Zhao, Jinkui

    2017-04-01

    The present study was carried out with the surface electromyography signal of subjects during the time when subjects did the exercises of the 6 core stability trainings. We analyzed the different activity level of surface electromyography signal, and finally got various fatigue states of muscles in different exercises. Thirty subjects completed exercises of 6 core stability trainings, which were prone bridge, supine bridge, unilateral bridge (divided into two trainings, i.e. the left and right sides alternatively) and bird-dog (divided into two trainings, i.e. the left and right sides alternatively), respectively. Each exercise was held on for 1 minute and 2 minutes were given to relax between two exercises in this test. We measured both left and right sides of the body's muscles, which included erector spina, external oblique, rectus abdominis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, anterior tibial and gastrocnemius muscles. We adopted the frequency domain characteristic value of the surface electromyography signal, i.e . median frequency slope to analyze the muscle fatigue in this study. In the present paper, the results exhibit different fatigue degrees of the above muscles during the time when they did the core stability rehabilitation exercises. It could be concluded that supine bridge and unilateral bridge can cause more fatigue on erector spina muscle, prone bridge caused Gastrocnemius muscle much fatigue and there were statistical significant differences ( P <0.05) between prone bridge and other five rehabilitation exercises in the degree of rectus abdominis muscle fatigue. There were no statistical significant differences ( P >0.05) between all the left and right sides of the same-named muscles in the median frequency slope during all the exercises of the six core stability trainings, i.e. the degree which the various kinds of rehabilitation exercises effected the left and right side of the same-named muscle had no statistical significant difference ( P >0

  20. Return to Sport After Tibial Shaft Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Greg A. J.; Wood, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Acute tibial shaft fractures represent one of the most severe injuries in sports. Return rates and return-to-sport times after these injuries are limited, particularly with regard to the outcomes of different treatment methods. Objective: To determine the current evidence for the treatment of and return to sport after tibial shaft fractures. Data Sources: OVID/MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Collaboration Database, Web of Science, PEDro, SPORTDiscus, Scopus, and Google Scholar were all searched for articles published from 1988 to 2014. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria comprised studies of level 1 to 4 evidence, written in the English language, that reported on the management and outcome of tibial shaft fractures and included data on either return-to-sport rate or time. Studies that failed to report on sporting outcomes, those of level 5 evidence, and those in non–English language were excluded. Study Design: Systematic review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Data Extraction: The search used combinations of the terms tibial, tibia, acute, fracture, athletes, sports, nonoperative, conservative, operative, and return to sport. Two authors independently reviewed the selected articles and created separate data sets, which were subsequently combined for final analysis. Results: A total of 16 studies (10 retrospective, 3 prospective, 3 randomized controlled trials) were included (n = 889 patients). Seventy-six percent (672/889) of the patients were men, with a mean age of 27.7 years. Surgical management was assessed in 14 studies, and nonsurgical management was assessed in 8 studies. Return to sport ranged from 12 to 54 weeks after surgical intervention and from 28 to 182 weeks after nonsurgical management (mean difference, 69.5 weeks; 95% CI, –83.36 to −55.64; P < 0.01). Fractures treated surgically had a return-to-sport rate of 92%, whereas those treated nonsurgically had a return rate of 67% (risk ratio, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.20 to 1.57; P < 0

  1. Tibial Plateau Fractures in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vemulapalli, Krishna C.; Gary, Joshua L.; Donegan, Derek J.

    2016-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common in the elderly population following a low-energy mechanism. Initial evaluation includes an assessment of the soft tissues and surrounding ligaments. Most fractures involve articular depression leading to joint incongruity. Treatment of these fractures may be complicated by osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and medical comorbidities. Optimal reconstruction should restore the mechanical axis, provide a stable construct for mobilization, and reestablish articular congruity. This is accomplished through a variety of internal or external fixation techniques or with acute arthroplasty. Regardless of the treatment modality, particular focus on preservation and maintenance of the soft tissue envelope is paramount. PMID:27551570

  2. Sagittal Distal Tibial Articular Angle and the Relationship to Talar Subluxation in Total Ankle Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Veljkovic, Andrea; Norton, Adam; Salat, Peter; Abbas, Kaniza Zahra; Saltzman, Charles; Femino, John E; Phisitkul, Phinit; Amendola, Annunziato

    2016-09-01

    Longevity of total ankle replacement (TAR) depends heavily on anatomic alignment. The lateral talar station (LTS) classifies the sagittal position of the talus relative to the tibia. We hypothesized that correcting the sagittal distal tibial articular angle (sDTAA) during TAR would anatomically realign the tibiotalar joint and potentially reduce the risk of prosthesis subluxation. The LTS (millimeters) and sDTAA (degrees) were measured twice by 2 blinded observers using weight-bearing lateral ankle radiographs obtained before (n = 96) and after (n = 94) TAR, with excellent interobserver and intraobserver reliability (correlation coefficient >0.9). Preoperative LTS was as follows: anterior (60.4%), posterior (27.1%), and neutral (12.5%). A strong preoperative correlation was found between LTS and sDTAA (r = 0.81; P < .0001). In ankles that were initially anterior and became less anterior postoperatively (n = 41), LTS decreased from an average 8.1 mm to 6.5 mm and the LTS changed 1.1 mm per degree of sDTAA change. In ankles that were initially posterior (n = 25), LTS increased from an average of -5.1 mm to -2.8 mm and the LTS changed 0.6 mm per degree of sDTAA change. The correlation between LTS and sDTAA was reduced postoperatively (r = 0.62; P < .0001). Our results suggest that rather than following generic recommendations, the surgeon should customize the sagittal distal tibial cut to the individual patient based on the preoperative LTS in order to achieve neutral TAR alignment. Level III, retrospective comparative series. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Tibial lengthening over humeral and tibial intramedullary nails in patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daoyun; Chen, Jianmin; Jiang, Yao; Liu, Fanggang

    2011-06-01

    Leg discrepancy is common after poliomyelitis. Tibial lengthening is an effective way to solve this problem. It is believed lengthening over a tibial intramedullary nail can provide a more comfortable lengthening process than by the conventional technique. However, patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis typically have narrow intramedullary canals allowing limited space for inserting a tibial intramedullary nail and Kirschner wires. To overcome this problem, we tried using humeral nails instead of tibial nails in the lengthening procedure. In this study, we used humeral nails in 20 tibial lengthening procedures and compared the results with another group of patients who were treated with tibial lengthening over tibial intramedullary nails. The mean consolidation index, percentage of increase and external fixation index did not show significant differences between the two groups. However, less blood loss and shorter operating time were noted in the humeral nail group. More patients encountered difficulty with the inserted intramedullary nail in the tibial nail group procedure. The complications did not show a statistically significant difference between the two techniques on follow-up. In conclusion, we found the humeral nail lengthening technique was more suitable in leg discrepancy patients with sequelae of poliomyelitis.

  4. [Operative treatment for complex tibial plateau fractures].

    PubMed

    Song, Qi-Zhi; Li, Tao

    2012-03-01

    To explore the surgical methods and clinical evaluation of complex tibial plateau fractures resulted from high-energy injuries. From March 2006 to May 2009,48 cases with complex tibial plateau fractures were treated with open reduction and plate fixation, including 37 males and 11 females, with an average age of 37 years (ranged from 18 to 63 years). According to Schatzker classification, 16 cases were type IV, 20 cases type V and 12 cases type VI. All patients were examined by X-ray flim and CT scan. The function of knee joint were evaluated according to postoperative follow-up X-ray and Knee Merchant Rating. Forty-eight patients were followed up with a mean time of 14 months. According to Knee Merchant Rating, 24 cases got excellent results, 16 cases good, 6 cases fair and 2 cases poor. Appropriate operation time, anatomical reduction, suitable bone graft and reasonable rehabilitation exercises can maximally recovery the function of knee joint.

  5. Posteromedial Meniscocapsular Lesions Increase Tibiofemoral Joint Laxity With Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency, and Their Repair Reduces Laxity.

    PubMed

    Stephen, Joanna M; Halewood, Camilla; Kittl, Christoph; Bollen, Steve R; Williams, Andy; Amis, Andrew A

    2016-02-01

    Injury to the posteromedial meniscocapsular junction has been identified after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture; however, there is a lack of objective evidence investigating how this affects knee kinematics or whether increased laxity can be restored by repair. Such injury is often overlooked at surgery, with possible compromise to results. (1) Sectioning the posteromedial meniscocapsular junction in an ACL-deficient knee will result in increased anterior tibial translation and rotation. (2) Isolated ACL reconstruction in the presence of a posteromedial meniscocapsular junction lesion will not restore intact knee laxity. (3) Repair of the posteromedial capsule at the time of ACL reconstruction will reduce tibial translation and rotation to normal. (4) These changes will be clinically detectable. Controlled laboratory study. Nine cadaveric knees were mounted in a test rig where knee kinematics were recorded from 0° to 100° of flexion by use of an optical tracking system. Measurements were recorded with the following loads: 90-N anterior-posterior tibial forces, 5-N·m internal-external tibial rotation torques, and combined 90-N anterior force and 5-N·m external rotation torque. Manual Rolimeter readings of anterior translation were taken at 30° and 90°. The knees were tested in the following conditions: intact, ACL deficient, ACL deficient and posteromedial meniscocapsular junction sectioned, ACL deficient and posteromedial meniscocapsular junction repaired, ACL patellar tendon reconstruction with posteromedial meniscocapsular junction repair, and ACL reconstructed and capsular lesion re-created. Statistical analysis used repeated-measures analysis of variance and post hoc paired t tests with Bonferroni correction. Tibial anterior translation and external rotation were both significantly increased compared with the ACL-deficient knee after posterior meniscocapsular sectioning (P < .05). These parameters were restored after ACL reconstruction and

  6. Polyaxial Screws in Locked Plating of Tibial Pilon Fractures.

    PubMed

    Yenna, Zachary C; Bhadra, Arup K; Ojike, Nwakile I; Burden, Robert L; Voor, Michael J; Roberts, Craig S

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the axial and torsional stiffness of polyaxial locked plating techniques compared with fixed-angle locked plating techniques in a distal tibia pilon fracture model. The effect of using a polyaxial screw to cross the fracture site was examined to determine its ability to control relative fracture site motion. A laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the biomechanical stiffness of distal tibia fracture models repaired with 3.5-mm anterior polyaxial distal tibial plates and locking screws. Sawbones Fourth Generation Composite Tibia models (Pacific Research Laboratories, Inc, Vashon, Washington) were used to model an Orthopaedic Trauma Association 43-A1.3 distal tibia pilon fracture. The polyaxial plates were inserted with 2 central locking screws at a position perpendicular to the cortical surface of the tibia and tested for load as a function of axial displacement and torque as a function of angular displacement. The 2 screws were withdrawn and inserted at an angle 15° from perpendicular, allowing them to span the fracture and insert into the opposing fracture surface. Each tibia was tested again for axial and torsional stiffness. In medial and posterior loading, no statistically significant difference was found between tibiae plated with the polyaxial plate and the central screws placed in the neutral position compared with the central screws placed at a 15° position. In torsional loading, a statistically significant difference was noted, showing greater stiffness in tibiae plated with the polyaxial plate and the central screws placed at a 15° position compared with tibiae plated with the central screws placed at a 0° (or perpendicular) position. This study showed that variable angle constructs show similar stiffness properties between perpendicular and 15° angle insertions in axial loading. The 15° angle construct shows greater stiffness in torsional loading. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Inflammation and apoptosis induced by mastoparan Polybia-MPII on skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Thalita; de Barros, Luciano Libardi Soares; Fontana, Karina; de Souza, Bibiana Monson; Palma, Mario Sérgio; da Cruz-Höfling, Maria Alice

    2010-06-15

    Mastoparan firstly described as an inducer of mast cell granules exocytosis has been also related to many essential mechanisms of cell function. In skeletal muscle tissue the best characterization of mastoparan effect was induction of myonecrosis. We examined the ability of mastoparan Polybia-MPII from Polybia paulista wasp venom to induce apoptosis and inflammation in mouse tibial anterior muscle. The activation of caspase 3 and 9, the expression of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, CD68 and CD163 proteins, specific of resident and migrant macrophages, respectively, were examined (3h to 21d). TUNEL-positive nuclei were found both in damaged and normal-looking muscle fibres, whereas the caspases, cytokines and macrophages proteins were only in damaged fibres. The caspase 3 and 9 expression and the immunolabelled areas of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma were significantly higher compared to control. TUNEL-positive nuclei and TNF-alpha expression were also present in regenerating fibres. CD68 and CD163 signalize necrotic debris removal, release of chemo-attractants and cytokines which have been considered a pre-requisite for muscle regeneration. High levels of cytokines coincided with the intense muscle proteolysis by mastoparan (3-24h) and the climax of regeneration (3 d) whereas cytokines decline corresponded to periods of tissue remodeling and intense fibre protein synthesis (7-21 d). We conclude that the mastoparan Polybia-MPII causes myonecrosis and apoptosis, the latter probably involving caspases signalling, corroborated by mitochondrial damage, and cytokines activation. 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Experience with peroneus brevis muscle flaps for reconstruction of distal leg and ankle defects

    PubMed Central

    Bajantri, Babu; Bharathi, Ravindra; Ramkumar, Sanjai; Latheef, Latheesh; Dhane, Smitha; Sabapathy, S. Raja

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Peroneus brevis is a muscle in the leg which is expendable without much functional deficit. The objective of this study was to find out its usefulness in coverage of the defects of the lower leg and ankle. Patients and Methods: A retrospective analysis of the use of 39 pedicled peroneus brevis muscle flaps used for coverage of defects of the lower leg and ankle between November 2010 and December 2012 was carried out. The flaps were proximally based for defects of the lower third of the leg in 12 patients and distally based for reconstruction of defects of the ankle in 26 patients, with one patient having flaps on both ankles. Results: Partial flap loss in critical areas was found in four patients requiring further flap cover and in non-critical areas in two patients, which were managed with a skin graft. Three of the four critical losses occurred when we used it for covering defects over the medial malleolus. There was no complete flap loss in any of the patients. Conclusion: This flap has a unique vascular pattern and fails to fit into the classification of the vasculature of muscles by Mathes and Nahai. The unusual feature is an axial vessel system running down the deep aspect of the muscle and linking the perforators from the peroneal artery and anterior tibial artery, which allows it to be raised proximally or distally on a single perforator. The flap is simple to raise and safe for the reconstruction of small-to moderate-sized skin defects of the distal third of the tibia and all parts of the ankle except the medial malleolus, which is too far from the pedicle of the distally based flap. The donor site can be closed primarily to provide a linear scar. The muscle flap thins with time to provide a good result aesthetically at the primary defect. PMID:23960305

  9. Concurrent prediction of muscle and tibiofemoral contact forces during treadmill gait.

    PubMed

    Guess, Trent M; Stylianou, Antonis P; Kia, Mohammad

    2014-02-01

    Detailed knowledge of knee kinematics and dynamic loading is essential for improving the design and outcomes of surgical procedures, tissue engineering applications, prosthetics design, and rehabilitation. This study used publicly available data provided by the "Grand Challenge Competition to Predict in-vivo Knee Loads" for the 2013 American Society of Mechanical Engineers Summer Bioengineering Conference (Fregly et al., 2012, "Grand Challenge Competition to Predict in vivo Knee Loads," J. Orthop. Res., 30, pp. 503-513) to develop a full body, musculoskeletal model with subject specific right leg geometries that can concurrently predict muscle forces, ligament forces, and knee and ground contact forces. The model includes representation of foot/floor interactions and predicted tibiofemoral joint loads were compared to measured tibial loads for two different cycles of treadmill gait. The model used anthropometric data (height and weight) to scale the joint center locations and mass properties of a generic model and then used subject bone geometries to more accurately position the hip and ankle. The musculoskeletal model included 44 muscles on the right leg, and subject specific geometries were used to create a 12 degrees-of-freedom anatomical right knee that included both patellofemoral and tibiofemoral articulations. Tibiofemoral motion was constrained by deformable contacts defined between the tibial insert and femoral component geometries and by ligaments. Patellofemoral motion was constrained by contact between the patellar button and femoral component geometries and the patellar tendon. Shoe geometries were added to the feet, and shoe motion was constrained by contact between three shoe segments per foot and the treadmill surface. Six-axis springs constrained motion between the feet and shoe segments. Experimental motion capture data provided input to an inverse kinematics stage, and the final forward dynamics simulations tracked joint angle errors for the left

  10. The evaluation of muscle recovery after anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft.

    PubMed

    Iriuchishima, Takanori; Ryu, Keinosuke; Okano, Tatsumasa; Suruga, Makoto; Aizawa, Shin; Fu, Freddie H

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to reveal the degree of muscle recovery and report the clinical results of anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft. Twenty subjects undergoing anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft were included in this study. A 5-mm-wide, 8-cm-long graft, involving the entire layer of the quadriceps tendon, was harvested without bone block. The average graft diameter was 8.1 ± 1.4 mm. An initial tension of 30 N was applied. The femoral tunnel was created from the far-medial portal. Each femoral and tibial tunnel was created close to the antero-medial bundle insertion site. For the evaluation of muscle recovery (quadriceps and hamstring), a handheld dynamometer was used. The evaluation of muscle recovery was performed pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after surgery. Muscle recovery data were calculated as a percentage of leg strength in the non-operated leg. Anterior tibial translation (ATT), pivot shift test, and IKDC score were evaluated. The average quadriceps strength pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ACL reconstruction was 90.5 ± 19, 67.8 ± 21.4, 84 ± 17.5, and 85.1 ± 12.6 %, respectively. The average hamstring strength pre-operatively, and at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after ACL reconstruction was 99.5 ± 13.7, 78.7 ± 11.4, 90.5 ± 19, and 96.7 ± 13.8 %, respectively. ATT pre-operatively and at 12 months after surgery was 5.4 ± 1.3 and 1.0 ± 0.8 mm, respectively. No subjects exhibited positive pivot shift after surgery. Within 6 months following surgery, quadriceps hypotrophy was observed in all subjects. However, the hypotrophy had recovered at 12 months following surgery. No subjects complained of donor site pain after surgery. Anatomical single-bundle ACL reconstruction using a quadriceps autograft resulted in equivalent level of muscle recovery and knee stability when compared with previously reported ACL

  11. MRI analysis of tibial PCL attachment in a large population of adult patients: reference data for anatomic PCL reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Teng, Yuanjun; Guo, Laiwei; Wu, Meng; Xu, Tianen; Zhao, Lianggong; Jiang, Jin; Sheng, Xiaoyun; Xu, Lihu; Zhang, Bo; Ding, Ning; Xia, Yayi

    2016-09-05

    Consistent reference data used for anatomic posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction is not well defined. Quantitative guidelines defining the location of PCL attachment would aid in performing anatomic PCL reconstruction. The purpose was to characterize anatomic parameters of the PCL tibial attachment based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a large population of adult knees. The PCL tibial attachment site was examined in 736 adult knees with an intact PCL using 3.0-T proton density-weighted sagittal MRI. The outcomes measured were the anterior-posterior diameter (APD) of the tibial plateau; angle between the tibial plateau and the posterior tibial 'shelf' (the slope where the PCL tibial attachment site was) (PTS); length of the PTS; proximal, central, and distal PCL attachment positions as well as the width of the PCL attachment site; and vertical dimension of the PCL attachment site inferior from the tibial plateau. The average APD of the tibia plateau was 33.6 ± 3.5 mm, yielding significant differences between males (35.5 ± 3.0 mm) and females (31.6 ± 2.7 mm), P <.05, and there was a significantly decreasing trend with increasing age in males (P <.05). Mean angle between the tibial plateau and the PTS was 122.4° ± 8.1°, and subgroup analysis showed that the young group had a differently smaller angle (120.9° ± 7.5°) than the middle-aged (123.7° ± 8.2°) and the old (123.4° ± 7.7°) in males population, while there were no significant differences between sexes (P >.05). The proximal, central positions and width of the PCL attachment site were 13.4 ± 3.0 mm, 17.8 ± 3.0 mm and 9.6 ± 2.4 mm along the PTS, with significant differences between males and females (P <.05), and accounted for 60.0 % ± 9.1 %, 80.0 % ± 4.6 % and 43.3 % ± 9.7 % of the PTS respectively, with no significant differences between sexes and among age groups (all P >.05). This study provides reference

  12. Gender differences in tibio-femoral kinematics and quadriceps muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wünschel, Markus; Wülker, Nikolaus; Müller, Otto

    2013-11-01

    Females have a higher risk in terms of anterior cruciate ligament injuries during sports than males. Reasons for this fact may be different anatomy and muscle recruitment patterns leading to less protection for the cruciate- and collateral-ligaments. This in vitro study aims to evaluate gender differences in knee joint kinematics and muscle force during weight-bearing knee flexions. Thirty-four human knee specimens (17 females/17 males) were mounted on a dynamic knee simulator. Weight-bearing single-leg knee flexions were performed with different amounts of simulated body weight (BW). Gender-specific kinematics was measured with an ultrasonic motion capture system and different loading conditions were examined. Knee joint kinematics did not show significant differences regarding anteroposterior and medial-lateral movement as well as tibial varus-valgus and internal-external rotation. This applied to all simulated amounts of BW. Simulating 100 N BW in contrast to AF50 led to a significant higher quadriceps overall force in female knees from 45° to 85° of flexion in contrast to BW 50 N. In these female specimens, the quadriceps overall force was about 20 % higher than in male knees being constant in higher flexion angles. It is indicated by our results that in a squatting movement females compared with males produce higher muscle forces, suggesting an increased demand for muscular stabilization, whereas tibio-femoral kinematics was similar for both genders.

  13. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscle ( myopathic changes ) Tissue death of the muscle (necrosis) Disorders that involve inflammation of the blood vessels and affect muscles ( necrotizing vasculitis ) Traumatic muscle damage ...

  14. Do modern total knee replacements improve tibial coverage?

    PubMed

    Meier, Malin; Webb, Jonathan; Collins, Jamie E; Beckmann, Johannes; Fitz, Wolfgang

    2018-01-25

    The purpose of the present study is to compare newer designs of various symmetric and asymmetric tibial components and measure tibial bone coverage using the rotational safe zone defined by two commonly utilized anatomic rotational landmarks. Computed tomography scans (CT scans) of one hundred consecutive patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty were obtained pre-operatively. A virtual proximal tibial cut was performed and two commonly used rotational axes were added for each image: the medio-lateral axis (ML-axis) and the medial 1/3 tibial tubercle axis (med-1/3-axis). Different symmetric and asymmetric implant designs were then superimposed in various rotational positions for best cancellous and cortical coverage. The images were imported to a public domain imaging software, and cancellous and cortical bone coverage was computed for each image, with each implant design in various rotational positions. One single implant type could not be identified that provided the best cortical and cancellous coverage of the tibia, irrespective of using the med-1/3-axis or the ML-axis for rotational alignment. However, it could be confirmed that the best bone coverage was dependent on the selected rotational landmark. Furthermore, improved bone coverage was observed when tibial implant positions were optimized between the two rotational axes. Tibial coverage is similar for symmetric and asymmetric designs, but depends on the rotational landmark for which the implant is designed. The surgeon has the option to improve tibial coverage by optimizing placement between the two anatomic rotational alignment landmarks, the medial 1/3 and the ML-axis. Surgeons should be careful assessing intraoperative rotational tibial placement using the described anatomic rotational landmarks to optimize tibial bony coverage without compromising patella tracking. III.

  15. [The operative treatment of the degenerative rupture of the anterior tibialis tendon].

    PubMed

    Schneppendahl, J; Gehrmann, S V; Stosberg, U; Regenbrecht, B; Windolf, J; Wild, M

    2010-05-01

    A degenerative tear of the anterior tibial tendon is a rare event compared to other tendons. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the functional results after surgical refixation. In a retrospective study, we report the functional outcome of five consecutive operatively treated patients suffering from a tear close to the insertion site of the anterior tibial tendon. All patients were assessed postoperatively, the AOFAS and Richter scores were obtained and the range of motion in the ankle joint was evaluated. Preoperatively all patients presented with a significant walking impairment due to a reduced active dorsiflexion, so the decision for surgical refixation was made. In all cases an MRI scan was performed preoperatively. Postoperative immobilisation without weight-bearing was done for six weeks. All patients returned to their former activity level, were satisfied with the postoperative result and had a normal gait in the follow-up examination. The range of motion was equal on both sides, the median AOFAS score was 86 and the median Richter score was 90 out of 100. There were no postoperative complications. Untreated tears of the anterior tibial tendon lead to significant impairment of the ankle joint and deformities of the foot. There is no consensus about the treatment with recommendations for operative and non-operative treatment. Various surgical procedures have been described. The surgical reconstruction of the tendon leads to a restored function of the ankle joint and allows a normal gait and is therefore desirable. Due to the loss of function and the good results after surgical treatment in our study, the non-operative treatment is not advisable. Surgical repair of degenerative tears of the anterior tibial tendon leads to very good functional results and high patient satisfaction.

  16. Indirect reduction technique using a distraction support in minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis of tibial shaft fractures.

    PubMed

    Dong, Wen-Wei; Shi, Zeng-Yuan; Liu, Zheng-Xin; Mao, Hai-Jiao

    2016-12-01

    To describe an indirect reduction technique during minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis (MIPPO) of tibial shaft fractures with the use of a distraction support. Between March 2011 and October 2014, 52 patients with a mean age of 48 years (16-72 years) sustaining tibial shaft fractures were included. All the patients underwent MIPPO for the fractures using a distraction support prior to insertion of the plate. Fracture angular deformity was assessed by goni- ometer measurement on preoperative and postoperative images. Preoperative radiographs revealed a mean of 7.6°(1.2°-28°) angulation in coronal plane and a mean of 6.8°(0.5°-19°) angulation in sagittal plane. Postoperative anteroposterior and lateral radio- graphs showed a mean of 0.8°(0°-4.0°) and 0.6°(0°-3.6°) of varus/valgus and apex anterior/posterior angulation, respectively. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were noted. This study suggests that the distraction support during MIPPO of tibial shaft fractures is an effective and safe method with no associated complications.

  17. Medial tibial stress syndrome: conservative treatment options.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, R Michael; Lavallee, Mark E

    2009-10-07

    Medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), commonly known as "shin splints," is a frequent injury of the lower extremity and one of the most common causes of exertional leg pain in athletes (Willems T, Med Sci Sports Exerc 39(2):330-339, 2007; Korkola M, Amendola A, Phys Sportsmed 29(6):35-50, 2001; Hreljac A, Med Sci Sports Exerc 36(5):845-849, 2004). Although often not serious, it can be quite disabling and progress to more serious complications if not treated properly. Often, the cause of MTSS is multi-factorial and involves training errors and various biomechanical abnormalities. Few advances have been made in the treatment of MTSS over the last few decades. Current treatment options are mostly based on expert opinion and clinical experience. The purpose of this article is to review published literature regarding conservative treatment options for MTSS and provide recommendations for sports medicine clinicians for improved treatment and patient outcomes.

  18. IS THERE ANY ROOM FOR TENDOSCOPY IN THE SURGICAL TREATMENT OF POSTERIOR TIBIAL TENDON INSUFFICIENCY?

    PubMed

    Bojanić, Ivan; Dimnjaković, Damjan; Mahnik, Alan; Smoljanović, Tomislav

    2016-05-01

    Posterior tibial tendon insufficiency (PTTI) is nowadays considered to be the main cause of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD). The purpose of this study is to report the outcomes of tendoscopic treatment of tibialis poste- rior tendon (TP) in eleven patients with stage 1 or 2 PTTI and failed prior conservative treatment. Tendoscopy was carried out as a solitary procedure in 8 patients, while in 3 patients additional procedures such as ,,mini-open" tubularization of TP or anterior ankle arthroscopy were necessary. In a single patient transfer of flexor digitorum longus tendon was performed as a second stage surgery due to complete rupture of TP. Related with tendoscopic procedure, no complications were re- ported. TP tendoscopy is a useful and beneficial minimally invasive procedure to treat TP pathology at earlier stages of PTTI. It is a technically demanding procedure that requires extensive experience in arthroscopic management of small ioints and excellent knowledge of repional anatomy.

  19. Hamstring Strength Asymmetry at 3 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Alters Knee Mechanics During Gait and Jogging.

    PubMed

    Abourezk, Matthew N; Ithurburn, Matthew P; McNally, Michael P; Thoma, Louise M; Briggs, Matthew S; Hewett, Timothy E; Spindler, Kurt P; Kaeding, Christopher C; Schmitt, Laura C

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) using a hamstring tendon autograft often results in hamstring muscle strength asymmetry. However, the effect of hamstring muscle strength asymmetry on knee mechanics has not been reported. Participants with hamstring strength asymmetry would demonstrate altered involved limb knee mechanics during walking and jogging compared with those with more symmetric hamstring strength at least 2 years after ACLR with a hamstring tendon autograft. Controlled laboratory study. There were a total of 45 participants at least 2 years after ACLR (22 male, 23 female; mean time after ACLR, 34.6 months). A limb symmetry index (LSI) was calculated for isometric hamstring strength to subdivide the sample into symmetric hamstring (SH) (LSI ≥90%; n = 18) and asymmetric hamstring (AH) (LSI <85%; n = 18) groups. Involved knee kinematic and kinetic data were collected using 3-dimensional motion analysis during gait and jogging. Peak sagittal-, frontal-, and transverse-plane knee angles and sagittal-plane knee moments and knee powers were calculated. Independent-samples t tests and analyses of covariance were used to compare involved knee kinematic and kinetic variables between the groups. There were no differences in sagittal- and frontal-plane knee angles between the groups ( P > .05 for all). The AH group demonstrated decreased tibial internal rotation during weight acceptance during gait ( P = .01) and increased tibial external rotation during jogging at initial contact ( P = .03) and during weight acceptance ( P = .02) compared with the SH group. In addition, the AH group demonstrated decreased peak negative knee power during midstance ( P = .01) during gait compared with the SH group, after controlling for gait speed, which differed between groups. Participants with hamstring strength asymmetry showed altered involved knee mechanics in the sagittal plane during gait and in the transverse plane during gait and jogging compared with those

  20. Gender differences in knee kinematics and muscle activity during single limb drop landing.

    PubMed

    Nagano, Yasuharu; Ida, Hirofumi; Akai, Masami; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2007-06-01

    The likelihood of sustaining an ACL injury in a noncontact situation is two to eight times greater for females than for males. However, the mechanism and risk factors of ACL injury are still unknown. We compared knee kinematics as well as electromyographic activity during landing between male and female athletes. Eighteen male athletes and nineteen female athletes participated in the experiment. The angular displacements of flexion/extension, valgus/varus, and internal/external tibial rotation, as well as the translational displacements of anterior/posterior tibial translation during single limb drop landing were calculated. Simultaneous electromyographical activity of the rectus femoris (RF) and hamstrings (Ham) was taken. During landing, internal tibial rotation of the females was significantly larger than that of the males, while differences were not observed in flexion, varus, valgus, and anterior tibial translation. Hamstrings/quadriceps ratio (HQR) for the 50 ms time period before foot contact was greater in males than in females. The mechanism of noncontact ACL injury during a single limb drop landing would be internal tibial rotation combined with valgus rotation of the knee. Increased internal tibial rotation combined with greater quadriceps activity and a low HQR could be one reason female athletes have a higher incidence of noncontact ACL injuries.

  1. [Clinical and radiographic correlation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction].

    PubMed

    González Perales, Aldo Alán; Negrete Corona, Jorge; Chávez Hinojosa, Edgard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to correlate the clinical, functional and radiographic results of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction with the angulation and orientation of the femoral and tibial tunnels. The ACL is one of the most frequently injured articular structures of the knee. The reason for this being that it is the primary limiting structure of anterior tibial translation; its tear causes kinematic alterations and results in long-term degenerative and functional changes. Repair can restore the kinematics. 26 patients, 20-50 years old, post-ACL reconstruction with the semitendinous-gracilis technique. From November 2006 to July 2007. Clinical and functional assessments: Tegner and Lysholm. Radiographic assessment: anteroposterior view with knee extension and lateral view with 30 degrees flexion. Pearson correlations (r) were used in the analysis. 26 patients (100%), 20 males (76.92%), 6 females (23.08%). Mean of 2.4 in the Lysholm scale (fair to good); standard deviation 1.2. Bernard-Lysholm quadrant r = -0.772. Tegner quadrant r = 0.790. The Lysholm and Tegner scale is associated with the graft quadrant. The situation of the tibial implant in the saggital plane is associated with the Lysholm scale. The correlation of patients with an inadequate placement with respect to the quadrants was associated with good-to-excellent results and fair-to-good results. Two patients had a poor clinical outcome; the orientation of the AP angle and the quadrant were within acceptable parameters, with the exception of the lateral angle-shaft axis.

  2. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on osseous healing in dogs undergoing high tibial osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Samuel P; Burke, Emily E; Holmes, Shannon P

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) enhances osseous healing in conjunction with a high tibial osteotomy in dogs. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty-four client-owned pet dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament and that were to be treated with a high tibial osteotomy (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy) were randomized into the treatment or control group. Dogs in the treatment group received autologous platelet-rich plasma activated with calcium chloride and bovine thrombin to produce a well-formed PRP gel that was placed into the osteotomy at the time of surgery. Dogs in the control group received saline lavage of the osteotomy. All dogs had the osteotomy stabilized with identical titanium alloy implants and all aspects of the surgical procedure and post-operative care were identical among dogs of the two groups. Bone healing was assessed at exactly 28, 49, and 70 days after surgery with radiography and ultrasonography and with MRI at day 28. The effect of PRP on bone healing was assessed using a repeated measures analysis of covariance with radiographic and ultrasonographic data and using a t-test with the MRI data. Sixty dogs completed the study. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or gender distribution between the treatment and control groups. Twenty-seven dogs were treated with PRP and 33 were in the control group. The average platelet concentration of the PRP was 1.37x106 platelets/μL (±489x103) with a leukocyte concentration of 5.45x103/μL (±3.5x103). All dogs demonstrated progressive healing over time and achieved clinically successful outcomes. Time since surgery and patient age were significant predictors of radiographic healing and time since surgery was a significant predictor of ultrasonographic assessment of healing. There was no significant effect of PRP treatment as assessed radiographically, ultrasonographically, or with MRI. The PRP used in this study

  3. [Comparison of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing fixation in treatment of tibial diaphysis fractures].

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Tang, Peifu; Yao, Qi

    2007-11-01

    To evaluate the treatment results of LCP and locked intramedullary nailing for tibial diaphysis fractures. From October 2003 to April 2006, 55 patients with tibial diaphysis fractures (58 fractures) were treated. Of them there were 39 males and 16 females with an average of 39 years years ( 14 to 62 years). The fractures were on the left side in 27 patients and on the right side in 31 patients (3 patients had bilateral involvement). Thirty-four fractures were treated by intramedullary nailing (intramedullary nailing group) and 24 fractures by LCP fixation (LCP group). The average disease course was 3 days (intramedullary nailing group) and 3.1 days (LCP group). The operation time, the range of motion of knee and ankle joints, fracture healing time, and complications were evaluated. The patients were followed up 8-26 months (13 months on average). The operation time was 84.0+/-9.2 min (intramedullary nailing group) and 69.0+/-8.4 min (LCP group); the average cost in hospital was yen 19,297.78 in the intramedullary nailing group and yen 14,116.55 in the LCP group respectively, showing significant differences (P < 0.05). The flexion and extension of knee joint was 139.0 +/- 3.7 degrees and 4.0 +/- 0.7 degrees in intramedullary nailing group and 149.0+/-4.2 degrees and 0+/-0.4 degrees in LCP group, showing no significant difference (P>0.05). The doral flexion and plantar flexion of ankle joint were 13.0+/-1.7 degrees and 41.0+/-2.6 degrees in intramedullary nailing group, and 10.0+/-1.4 degrees and 44.0+/-2.3 degrees in LCP group, showing no significant differences (P>0.05). The mean healing time was 3.3 months in intramedullary nailing group, and 3. 1 months in LCP group. Length discrepancy occurred in 1 case (2.5 cm), delayed union in 1 case and nailing end trouble in 3 cases in intramedullary nailing group; moreover rotation deformity occurred 1 case and anterior knee pain occurred in 6 cases (17.1%). One angulation and open fracture developed osteomyelitis in 1

  4. Coronal tibial slope is associated with accelerated knee osteoarthritis: data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative.

    PubMed

    Driban, Jeffrey B; Stout, Alina C; Duryea, Jeffrey; Lo, Grace H; Harvey, William F; Price, Lori Lyn; Ward, Robert J; Eaton, Charles B; Barbe, Mary F; Lu, Bing; McAlindon, Timothy E

    2016-07-19

    Accelerated knee osteoarthritis may be a unique subset of knee osteoarthritis, which is associated with greater knee pain and disability. Identifying risk factors for accelerated knee osteoarthritis is vital to recognizing people who will develop accelerated knee osteoarthritis and initiating early interventions. The geometry of an articular surface (e.g., coronal tibial slope), which is a determinant of altered joint biomechanics, may be an important risk factor for incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis. We aimed to determine if baseline coronal tibial slope is associated with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis or common knee osteoarthritis. We conducted a case-control study using data and images from baseline and the first 4 years of follow-up in the Osteoarthritis Initiative. We included three groups: 1) individuals with incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis, 2) individuals with common knee osteoarthritis progression, and 3) a control group with no knee osteoarthritis at any time. We did 1:1:1 matching for the 3 groups based on sex. Weight-bearing, fixed flexion posterior-anterior knee radiographs were obtained at each visit. One reader manually measured baseline coronal tibial slope on the radiographs. Baseline femorotibial angle was measured on the radiographs using a semi-automated program. To assess the relationship between slope (predictor) and incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis or common knee osteoarthritis (outcomes) compared with no knee osteoarthritis (reference outcome), we performed multinomial logistic regression analyses adjusted for sex. The mean baseline slope for incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis, common knee osteoarthritis, and no knee osteoarthritis were 3.1(2.0), 2.7(2.1), and 2.6(1.9); respectively. A greater slope was associated with an increased risk of incident accelerated knee osteoarthritis (OR = 1.15 per degree, 95 % CI = 1.01 to 1.32) but not common knee osteoarthritis (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 0

  5. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on osseous healing in dogs undergoing high tibial osteotomy

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Emily E.; Holmes, Shannon P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP) enhances osseous healing in conjunction with a high tibial osteotomy in dogs. Study design Randomized controlled trial. Methods Sixty-four client-owned pet dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament and that were to be treated with a high tibial osteotomy (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy) were randomized into the treatment or control group. Dogs in the treatment group received autologous platelet-rich plasma activated with calcium chloride and bovine thrombin to produce a well-formed PRP gel that was placed into the osteotomy at the time of surgery. Dogs in the control group received saline lavage of the osteotomy. All dogs had the osteotomy stabilized with identical titanium alloy implants and all aspects of the surgical procedure and post-operative care were identical among dogs of the two groups. Bone healing was assessed at exactly 28, 49, and 70 days after surgery with radiography and ultrasonography and with MRI at day 28. The effect of PRP on bone healing was assessed using a repeated measures analysis of covariance with radiographic and ultrasonographic data and using a t-test with the MRI data. Results Sixty dogs completed the study. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or gender distribution between the treatment and control groups. Twenty-seven dogs were treated with PRP and 33 were in the control group. The average platelet concentration of the PRP was 1.37x106 platelets/μL (±489x103) with a leukocyte concentration of 5.45x103/μL (±3.5x103). All dogs demonstrated progressive healing over time and achieved clinically successful outcomes. Time since surgery and patient age were significant predictors of radiographic healing and time since surgery was a significant predictor of ultrasonographic assessment of healing. There was no significant effect of PRP treatment as assessed radiographically, ultrasonographically

  6. Tibial stress fracture after computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Massai, F; Conteduca, F; Vadalà, A; Iorio, R; Basiglini, L; Ferretti, A

    2010-06-01

    A correct alignment of the tibial and femoral component is one of the most important factors determining favourable long-term results of a total knee arthroplasty (TKA). The accuracy provided by the use of the computer navigation systems has been widely described in the literature so that their use has become increasingly popular in recent years; however, unpredictable complications, such as displaced or stress femoral or tibial fractures, have been reported to occur a few weeks after the operation. We present a case of a stress tibial fracture that occurred after a TKA performed with the use of a computer navigation system. The stress fracture, which eventually healed without further complications, occurred at one of the pinhole sites used for the placement of the tibial trackers.

  7. Total knee arthroplasty and fractures of the tibial plateau

    PubMed Central

    Softness, Kenneth A; Murray, Ryan S; Evans, Brian G

    2017-01-01

    Tibial plateau fractures are common injuries that occur in a bimodal age distribution. While there are various treatment options for displaced tibial plateau fractures, the standard of care is open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF). In physiologically young patients with higher demand and better bone quality, ORIF is the preferred method of treating these fractures. However, future total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a consideration in these patients as post-traumatic osteoarthritis is a common long-term complication of tibial plateau fractures. In older, lower demand patients, ORIF is potentially less favorable for a variety of reasons, namely fixation failure and the need for delayed weight bearing. In some of these patients, TKA can be considered as primary mode of treatment. This paper will review the literature surrounding TKA as both primary treatment and as a salvage measure in patients with fractures of the tibial plateau. The outcomes, complications, techniques and surgical challenges are also discussed. PMID:28251061

  8. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel

    2008-09-01

    This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

  9. Anterior knee pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... squat to look at muscle imbalance and your core stability. X-rays are very often normal. However, ... and hamstring muscles. Learn exercises to strengthen your core. Lose weight (if you are overweight). Use special ...

  10. Can tibial plateau fractures be reduced and stabilised through an angiosome-sparing antero-lateral approach?

    PubMed

    Solomon, Lucian B; Boopalan, P R J V C; Chakrabarty, Adhiraj; Callary, Stuart A

    2014-04-01

    Tibial plateau fractures (TPFs) are an independent, non-modifiable risk factor for surgical site infections (SSIs). Current antero-lateral approaches to the knee dissect through the anterior tibial angiosome (ATA), which may contribute to a higher rate of SSIs. The aim of this study was to develop an angiosome-sparing antero-lateral approach to allow reduction and fixation of lateral TPFs and to investigate its feasibility in a consecutive cohort. Twenty cadaveric knees were dissected to define the position of the vessels supplying the ATA from the lateral tibial condyle to the skin perforators. Based on these results, an angiosome-sparing surgical approach to treat lateral TPFs was developed. Fifteen consecutive patients were subsequently treated through this approach. Clinical outcomes included assessment of SSI and Lysholm score. Fracture healing and stability were assessed using the Rasmussen score and radiostereometric analysis (RSA). At the latest follow-up between 1 and 4 years, there was no report of SSI. Nine patients (60%) had good or excellent Lysholm scores. The mean Rasmussen score at final follow-up was 17 (median 18, range 14-18) with 10 patients (66%) graded as excellent. Fracture fragment migration measured using RSA was below 2mm in all cases. This study has demonstrated that an angiosome-sparing antero-lateral approach to the lateral tibial plateau is feasible. Adequate stability of these fracture types was achieved by positioning a buttress plate away from the bone and superficial to the regional fascial layer as an 'internal-external fixator'. The angiosome-sparing approach developed was able to be used in a prospective cohort and the clinical results to date are encouraging. Future clinical studies need to investigate the potential benefits of this surgical approach when compared with the previously described antero-lateral approaches. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physeal growth arrest after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose Bilateral tibial lengthening has become one of the standard treatments for upper segment-lower segment disproportion and to improve quality of life in achondroplasia. We determined the effect of tibial lengthening on the tibial physis and compared tibial growth that occurred at the physis with that in non-operated patients with acondroplasia. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis of serial radiographs until skeletal maturity in 23 achondroplasia patients who underwent bilateral tibial lengthening before skeletal maturity (lengthening group L) and 12 achondroplasia patients of similar height and age who did not undergo tibial lengthening (control group C). The mean amount of lengthening of tibia in group L was 9.2 cm (lengthening percentage: 60%) and the mean age at the time of lengthening was 8.2 years. The mean duration of follow-up was 9.8 years. Results Skeletal maturity (fusion of physis) occurred at 15.2 years in group L and at 16.0 years in group C. The actual length of tibia (without distraction) at skeletal maturity was 238 mm in group L and 277 mm in group C (p = 0.03). The mean growth rates showed a decrease in group L relative to group C from about 2 years after surgery. Physeal closure was most pronounced on the anterolateral proximal tibial physis, with relative preservation of the distal physis. Interpretation Our findings indicate that physeal growth rate can be disturbed after tibial lengthening in achondroplasia, and a close watch should be kept for such an occurrence—especially when lengthening of more than 50% is attempted. PMID:22489887

  12. Measurement of Posterior Tibial Slope Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Elham; Norouzian, Mohsen; Birjandinejad, Ali; Zandi, Reza; Makhmalbaf, Hadi

    2017-11-01

    Posterior tibial slope (PTS) is an important factor in the knee joint biomechanics and one of the bone features, which affects knee joint stability. Posterior tibial slope has impact on flexion gap, knee joint stability and posterior femoral rollback that are related to wide range of knee motion. During high tibial osteotomy and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) surgery, proper retaining the mechanical and anatomical axis is important. The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of posterior tibial slope in medial and lateral compartments of tibial plateau and to assess the relationship among the slope with age, gender and other variables of tibial plateau surface. This descriptive study was conducted on 132 healthy knees (80 males and 52 females) with a mean age of 38.26±11.45 (20-60 years) at Imam Reza hospital in Mashhad, Iran. All patients, selected and enrolled for MRI in this study, were admitted for knee pain with uncertain clinical history. According to initial physical knee examinations the study subjects were reported healthy. The mean posterior tibial slope was 7.78± 2.48 degrees in the medial compartment and 6.85± 2.24 degrees in lateral compartment. No significant correlation was found between age and gender with posterior tibial slope ( P ≥0.05), but there was significant relationship among PTS with mediolateral width, plateau area and medial plateau. Comparison of different studies revealed that the PTS value in our study is different from other communities, which can be associated with genetic and racial factors. The results of our study are useful to PTS reconstruction in surgeries.

  13. The medial tibial stress syndrome. A cause of shin splints.

    PubMed

    Mubarak, S J; Gould, R N; Lee, Y F; Schmidt, D A; Hargens, A R

    1982-01-01

    The medial tibial stress syndrome is a symptom complex seen in athletes who complain of exercise-induced pain along the distal posterior-medial aspect of the tibia. Intramuscular pressures within the posterior compartments of the leg were measured in 12 patients with this disorder. These pressures were not elevated and therefore this syndrome is a not a compartment syndrome. Available information suggests that the medial tibial stress syndrome most likely represents a periostitis at this location of the leg.

  14. Inferior Oblique Overaction: Anterior Transposition Versus Myectomy.

    PubMed

    Rajavi, Zhale; Feizi, Mohadeseh; Behradfar, Narges; Yaseri, Mehdi; Sayanjali, Shima; Motevaseli, Tahmine; Sabbaghi, Hamideh; Faghihi, Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    To compare the efficacy of inferior oblique myectomy and anterior transposition for correcting inferior oblique overaction (IOOA). This retrospective study was conducted on 56 patients with IOOA who had either myectomy or anterior transposition of the inferior oblique muscle from 2010 to 2015. The authors compared preoperative and postoperative inferior oblique muscle function grading (-4 to +4) as the main outcome measure and vertical and horizontal deviation, dissociated vertical deviation (DVD), and A- and V-pattern between the two surgical groups as secondary outcomes. A total of 99 eyes of 56 patients with a mean age of 5.9 ± 6.5 years were included (47 eyes in the myectomy group and 52 eyes in the anterior transposition group). There were no differences in preoperative best corrected visual acuity, amblyopia, spherical equivalent, and primary versus secondary IOOA between the two groups. Both surgical procedures were effective in reducing IOOA and satisfactory results were similar between the two groups: 61.7% and 67.3% in the myectomy and anterior transposition groups, respectively (P = .56). After adjustment for the preoperative DVD, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups postoperatively. The preoperative hypertropia was 6 to 14 and 6 to 18 prism diopters (PD) in the myectomy and anterior transposition groups, respectively. After surgery, no patient had a vertical deviation greater than 5 PD. Both the inferior oblique myectomy and anterior transposition procedures are effective in reducing IOOA with similar satisfactory results. DVD and hypertropia were also corrected similarly by these two surgical procedures. [J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2017;54(4):232-237.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Understanding the etiology of the posteromedial tibial stress fracture.

    PubMed

    Milgrom, Charles; Burr, David B; Finestone, Aharon S; Voloshin, Arkady

    2015-09-01

    Previous human in vivo tibial strain measurements from surface strain gauges during vigorous activities were found to be below the threshold value of repetitive cyclical loading at 2500 microstrain in tension necessary to reduce the fatigue life of bone, based on ex vivo studies. Therefore it has been hypothesized that an intermediate bone remodeling response might play a role in the development of tibial stress fractures. In young adults tibial stress fractures are usually oblique, suggesting that they are the result of failure under shear strain. Strains were measured using surface mounted unstacked 45° rosette strain gauges on the posterior aspect of the flat medial cortex just below the tibial midshaft, in a 48year old male subject while performing vertical jumps, staircase jumps and running up and down stadium stairs. Shear strains approaching 5000 microstrain were recorded during stair jumping and vertical standing jumps. Shear strains above 1250 microstrain were recorded during runs up and down stadium steps. Based on predictions from ex vivo studies, stair and vertical jumping tibial shear strain in the test subject was high enough to potentially produce tibial stress fracture subsequent to repetitive cyclic loading without necessarily requiring an intermediate remodeling response to microdamage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reliability of the anterior drawer test, the pivot shift test, and the Lachman test.

    PubMed

    Kim, S J; Kim, H K

    1995-08-01

    In 147 patients with arthroscopically proved chronic injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament, the anterior drawer test, the Lachman test, and the pivot shift test were done before operation under general or spinal anesthesia. Results of the anterior drawer test were positive in 79.6% of the patients, in 98.6% patients having the Lachman test, and in 89.8% of patients having the pivot shift test. In 19 cases (12.9%), arthroscopic examination showed reattachment of the proximally torn end of the anterior cruciate ligament to the posterior cruciate ligament. In these cases, results of the anterior drawer test were positive in 13 patients (68.4%), in 17 (89.5%) patients having the Lachman test, and in 12 patients (63.2%) having the pivot shift test. In 15 cases with a false negative pivot shift test, arthroscopy showed blockage of anterior subluxation of the lateral tibial condyle by a partially functioning portion of the anterior cruciate ligament, which was reattached to the posterior cruciate ligament in 7 cases. In 2 cases with a false negative Lachman test, there was firm reattachment of the torn end of the anterior cruciate ligament to the proximal portion of the posterior cruciate ligament combined with a bucket handle tear of the medial meniscus. The Lachman test was most sensitive in diagnosing chronic injuries of the anterior cruciate ligament. The pivot shift test was also sensitive but was influenced by many factors.

  17. Tibial Fixation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Allograft Tendons. Comparison of 1-, 2-, and 4-Stranded Constructs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    cruciate ligament reconstruction. Arthroscopy . 1998;14:278-284. 2. Anderson AF, Synder RB, Federspiel CF, Lipscomb AB. Instrumented evaluation of... Arthroscopy . 2003;19(10):14-29. 4. Brand JC Jr, Pienkowski D, Steenlage E, Hamilton D, Johnson DL, Caborn DN. Interference screw fixation strength of a...screws. Arthroscopy . 2003;19:991-996. 8. Chang HC, Nyland J, Nawab A, Burden R, Caborn DN. Biomechanical comparison of the bioabsorbable RetroScrew

  18. Fracture reduction and primary ankle arthrodesis: a reliable approach for severely comminuted tibial pilon fracture.

    PubMed

    Beaman, Douglas N; Gellman, Richard

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic arthritis and prolonged recovery are typical after a severely comminuted tibial pilon fracture, and ankle arthrodesis is a common salvage procedure. However, few reports discuss the option of immediate arthrodesis, which may be a potentially viable approach to accelerate overall recovery in patients with severe fracture patterns. (1) How long does it take the fracture to heal and the arthrodesis to fuse when primary ankle arthrodesis is a component of initial fracture management? (2) How do these patients fare clinically in terms of modified American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) scores and activity levels after this treatment? (3) Does primary ankle arthrodesis heal in an acceptable position when anterior ankle arthrodesis plates are used? During a 2-year period, we performed open fracture reduction and internal fixation in 63 patients. Eleven patients (12 ankles) with severely comminuted high-energy tibial pilon fractures were retrospectively reviewed after surgical treatment with primary ankle arthrodesis and fracture reduction. Average patient age was 58 years, and minimum followup was 6 months (average, 14 months; range, 6-22 months). Anatomically designed anterior ankle arthrodesis plates were used in 10 ankles. Ring external fixation was used in nine ankles with concomitant tibia fracture or in instances requiring additional fixation. Clinical evaluation included chart review, interview, the AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score, and radiographic evaluation. All of the ankle arthrodeses healed at an average of 4.4 months (range, 3-5 months). One patient had a nonunion at the metaphyseal fracture, which healed with revision surgery. The average AOFAS ankle-hindfoot score was 83 with 88% having an excellent or good result. Radiographic and clinical analysis confirmed a plantigrade foot without malalignment. No patients required revision surgery for malunion. Primary ankle arthrodesis combined with fracture reduction for the severely comminuted

  19. [Particular posteromedial and posterolateral approaches for the treatment of tibial head fractures].

    PubMed

    Lobenhoffer, P; Gerich, T; Bertram, T; Lattermann, C; Pohlemann, T; Tscheme, H

    1997-12-01

    Tibial plateau fractures with depression of posterior aspects of the proximal tibia cause significant therapeutic problems. Posterior fractures on the medial side are mainly highly instable fracture-dislocations (Moore type I). Posterolateral fractures usually cause massive depression and destruction of the chondral surface. Surgical exposure of these fractures from anterior requires major soft tissue dissection and has a significant complication rate. However, incomplete restoration of the joint surface results in chronic postero-inferior joint subluxation, osteoarthritis and pain. We present new specific approaches for posterior fracture types avoiding large skin incisions, but allowing for atraumatic exposure, reduction and fixation. Posteromedial fracture-dislocations are exposed by a direct posteromedial skin incision and a deep incision between medial collateral ligament and posterior oblique ligament. The posteromedial pillar and the posterior flare of the proximal tibia are visualized. The inferior extent of the joint fragment can be reduced by indirect techniques or direct manipulation of the fragment. Fixation is achieved with subchondral lag screws and an anti-glide plate at the tip of the fragment. Posterolateral fractures are exposed by a transfibular approach: the skin is incised laterally, the peroneal nerve is dissected free. The fibula neck is osteotomized, the tibiofibular syndesmosis is divided and the fibula neck is reflected upwards in one layer with the meniscotibial ligament and the iliotibial tract attachment. Reflexion of the fibula head relaxes the lateral collateral ligament, allows for lateral joint opening and internal rotation of the tibia and thus exposes the posterolateral and posterior aspect of the tibial plateau. Fixation and buttressing on the posterolateral side can be achieved easily with this approach. In closure, the fibula head is fixed back with a lag screw or a tension-band system. These two exposures can be combined in

  20. Biomechanical and clinical factors related to stage I posterior tibial tendon dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rabbito, Melissa; Pohl, Michael B; Humble, Neil; Ferber, Reed

    2011-10-01

    Case control. To investigate differences in arch height, ankle muscle strength, and biomechanical factors in individuals with stage I posterior tibial tendon dysfunction (PTTD) in comparison to healthy individuals. PTTD is a progressive condition, so early recognition and treatment are essential to help delay or reverse the progression. However, no previous studies have investigated stage I PTTD, and no single study has measured static anatomical structure, muscle strength, and gait mechanics in this population. Twelve individuals with stage I PTTD and 12 healthy, age- and gender-matched control subjects, who were engaged in running-related activities, participated in this study. Measurements of arch height index, maximum voluntary ankle invertor muscle strength, and 3-dimensional rearfoot and medial longitudinal arch kinematics during walking were obtained. The runners with PTTD demonstrated significantly lower seated arch height index (P = .02) and greater (P = .03) and prolonged (P = .05) peak rearfoot eversion angle during gait, compared to the healthy runners. No differences were found in standing arch height index values (P = .28), arch rigidity index (P = .06), ankle invertor strength (P = .49), or peak medial longitudinal arch values (P = .49) between groups. The increased foot pronation is hypothesized to place greater strain on the posterior tibialis muscle, which may partially explain the progressive nature of this condition.

  1. Changes in biomechanics and muscle activation in injured ballet dancers during a jump-land task with turnout (Sissonne Fermée).

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsing-Hsan; Lin, Chia-Wei; Wu, Hong-Wen; Wu, Tzu-Chuan; Lin, Cheng-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Large impact loading with abnormal muscle activity and motion patterns may contribute to lower extremity injuries in ballet dancers. Yet, few studies investigated the influence of injury on the ballet movement. The purpose of this study was to find the neuromuscular and biomechanical characteristics in dancers with and without ankle injury during a jump-landing Sissonne Fermée task. Twenty-two ballet dancers were recruited and divided into the injured group (n = 11) and the uninjured group (n = 11). They performed a ballet movement called "Sissonne Fermée" with reflective markers and electrodes attached to their lower extremities. Ground reaction force, joint kinematics, and muscle activity were measured. The injured dancers had greater peak ankle eversion but smaller hindfoot-to-tibial eversion angles. Also, the injured dancers had greater activity of the hamstring of the dominant leg and tibialis anterior of the non-dominant leg during the pre-landing phase. The injured dancers had greater tibialis anterior activity of the dominant leg but less muscle activity in the medial gastrocnemius of the non-dominant leg during the post-landing phase. The injured dancers had a greater co-contraction index in the non-dominant ankle and a lower loading rate. The higher co-contraction indices showed that the injured dancers required more muscle effort to control ankle stability. Furthermore, the injured dancers used a "load avoidance strategy" to protect themselves from re-injury. Neuromuscular control training of the ankle joint for ballet dancers to prevent injury is necessary.

  2. Emerging Trends in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Budny, Jacob; Fox, Joseph; Rauh, Michael; Fineberg, Marc

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is one of the most commonly performed and researched orthopedic procedures. As technology and comparative research have advanced, surgical practices have changed to achieve a superior outcome. Our group performed a survey of orthopedic surgeons to evaluate current practice trends and techniques as a follow-up to similar surveys performed in 1999 and 2006. In a survey between 2013 and 2014 consisting of 35 questions regarding the surgical technique, graft choice, fixation method, and perioperative care in ACL reconstruction was sent electronically to the members of the American Orthopaedic Society of Sports Medicine and the Arthroscopy Association of North America. Responses were recorded and compared with previous results. Survey responses were received from 824 active surgeons. Of the respondents, 89.4% are subspecialty trained, 98% of which in sports medicine. Preoperatively, full-knee extension was the only "very significant" factor in surgical timing. Approach preference via an arthroscopic-assisted single-incision approach predominated (89%)-similar to earlier results. Bone-patellar-tendon-bone use decreased relative to hamstring allograft at 45 and 41%, respectively. Tibial tunnel placement shifted anteriorly and femoral tunnel placement shifted posterosuperiorly as compared with the results obtained 5 years ago. Femoral drilling through a low medial portal was preferred in 47% of responses, increased from 15%. Preferred fixation on both the tibial and femoral sides was either metal or bioabsorbable interference screws. The use of transfixation pins and other devices decreased. Postoperative rehab protocols did not significantly change, 68.7% preferred full-weight bearing, 55% using a range of motion knee brace locked in extension, 66.4% starting physical therapy 1 week postoperatively, with unrestricted activity at 6 to 9 months. Overall, an increasing trend toward using hamstring autograft and drilling the

  3. Shape optimization of tibial prosthesis components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Mraz, P. J.; Davy, D. T.

    1993-01-01

    NASA technology and optimal design methodologies originally developed for the optimization of composite structures (engine blades) are adapted and applied to the optimization of orthopaedic knee implants. A method is developed enabling the shape tailoring of the tibial components of a total knee replacement implant for optimal interaction within the environment of the tibia. The shape of the implant components are optimized such that the stresses in the bone are favorably controlled to minimize bone degradation, to improve the mechanical integrity of the implant/interface/bone system, and to prevent failures of the implant components. A pilot tailoring system is developed and the feasibility of the concept is demonstrated and evaluated. The methodology and evolution of the existing aerospace technology from which this pilot optimization code was developed is also presented and discussed. Both symmetric and unsymmetric in-plane loading conditions are investigated. The results of the optimization process indicate a trend toward wider and tapered posts as well as thicker backing trays. Unique component geometries were obtained for the different load cases.

  4. SPECT/CT tracer uptake is influenced by tunnel orientation and position of the femoral and tibial ACL graft insertion site.

    PubMed

    Hirschmann, Michael T; Mathis, Dominic; Rasch, Helmut; Amsler, Felix; Friederich, Niklaus F; Arnold, Markus P

    2013-02-01

    SPECT/CT is a hybrid imaging modality, which combines a 3D scintigraphy (SPECT) and a conventional computerised tomography (CT). SPECT/CT allows accurate anatomical localisation of metabolic tracer activity. It allows the correlation of surgical factors such as tunnel position and orientation with mechanical alignment, clinical outcome and biological factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the SPECT/CT tracer uptake (intensity and distribution) correlates with the stability and laxity of the knee joint and the position and orientation of the tibial and femoral tunnels in patients after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. A consecutive series of knees (n=66), with symptoms of pain and/or instability after ACL reconstruction were prospectively evaluated using clinical examination and 99mTc-HDP-SPECT/CT. Clinical laxity testing was performed using the Rolimeter (Ormed, Freiburg, Germany) including Lachman testing (0-2 mm, 3-5 mm, 6-10 mm, >10 mm), anterior drawer test (0-2 mm, 3-5 mm, 6-10 mm, >10 mm), pivot shift test (positive versus negative) and patient-based subjective instability (yes versus no). For analysis of SPECT/CT tracer uptake a previously validated SPECT/CT localisation scheme consisting of 17 tibial, nine femoral and four patellar regions on standardised axial, coronal, and sagittal slices was used. The tracer activity on SPECT/CT was localised and recorded using a 3D volumetric and quantitative analysis software. Mean, standard deviation, minimum and maximum of grading for each area of the localisation scheme were recorded. The position and orientation of the tibial and femoral tunnel was assessed using a previously published method on 3D-CT. Correlation of instability, pivot shift as well as clinical laxity testing with 99mTc-HDP-SPECT/CT tracer uptake intensity and distribution showed no significant correlation. 99mTc-HDP-SPECT/CT tracer uptake correlated significantly with the position and orientation of the ACL

  5. Preserving the PCL during the tibial cut in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cinotti, G; Sessa, P; Amato, M; Ripani, F R; Giannicola, G

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that the PCL insertion may be damaged during the tibial cut performed in total knee arthroplasty. We investigated the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL insertion and to what extent the posterior slope of the tibial cut and that of the patient's tibial plateaus affect the outcome. MR images of 83 knees were analysed. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the PCL using a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patient's slope of the tibial plateau, was evaluated. Correlations between the results and the degrees of the posterior slope of the patient's tibial plateaus were also investigated. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserves the entire PCL insertion was, on average, 5.5, 4.7, 4.2 and 3.1 mm when a posterior slope of 0°, 3°, 5° and parallel to the patients' tibial plateaus was used, respectively. When the 25th percentile was considered, the maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was 4 and 3 mm with a tibial cut of 0° and 5° of posterior slope, respectively. The maximum thickness of a tibial cut that preserved the PCL was significantly greater in patients with a sagittal slope of the tibial plateaus more than 8° than in those with a sagittal slope less than 8°. In cruciate retaining implants, the PCL insertion may be spared in the majority of patients by performing a tibial cut of 4 mm, or even less when a posterior slope of 3°-5° is used. The clinical relevance of our study is that the execution of a conservative tibial cut, followed by a second tibial resection to achieve the thickness required for the tibial component to be implanted, may be an alternative technique to spare the PCL in CR TKA. II.

  6. Should the Ipsilateral Hamstrings Be Used for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Case of Medial Collateral Ligament Insufficiency? Biomechanical Investigation Regarding Dynamic Stabilization of the Medial Compartment by the Hamstring Muscles.

    PubMed

    Herbort, Mirco; Michel, Philipp; Raschke, Michael J; Vogel, Nils; Schulze, Martin; Zoll, Alexander; Fink, Christian; Petersen, Wolf; Domnick, Christoph

    2017-03-01

    Semitendinosus and gracilis muscles are frequently harvested for autologous tendon grafts for cruciate ligament reconstruction. This study investigated the joint-stabilizing effects of these hamstring muscles in cases of insufficiency of the medial collateral ligament (MCL). First, both the semitendinosus and gracilis muscles can actively stabilize the joint against valgus moments in the MCL-deficient knee. Second, the stabilizing influence of these muscles decreases with an increasing knee flexion angle. Controlled laboratory study. The kinematics was examined in 10 fresh-frozen human cadaveric knees using a robotic/universal force moment sensor system and an optical tracking system. The knee kinematics under 5- and 10-N·m valgus moments were determined in the different flexion angles of the (1) MCL-intact and (2) MCL-deficient knee using the following simulated muscle loads: (1) 0-N (idle) load, (2) 200-N semitendinosus (ST) load, and (3) 280-N (200/80-N) combined semitendinosus/gracilis (STGT) load. Cutting the MCL increased the valgus angle under all tested conditions and angles compared with the MCL-intact knee by 4.3° to 8.1° for the 5-N·m valgus moment and 6.5° to 11.9° for the 10-N·m valgus moment ( P < .01). The applied 200-N simulated ST load reduced the valgus angle significantly at 0°, 10°, 20°, and 30° of flexion under 5- and 10-N·m valgus moments ( P < .05). At 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion, these values were close to those for the MCL-intact joint under the respective moments (both P > .05). The combined 280-N simulated STGT load significantly reduced the valgus angle in 0°, 10°, and 20° of flexion under 5- and 10-N·m valgus moments ( P < .05) to values near those for the intact joint (5 N·m: 0°, 10°; 10 N·m: 0°, 10°, 20°; P > .05). In 60° and 90° of flexion, ST and STGT loads did not decrease the resulting valgus angle of the MCL-deficient knee without hamstring loads ( P > .05 vs deficient; P = .0001 vs intact). In this

  7. Effect of tibial plateau leveling on stability of the canine cranial cruciate-deficient stifle joint: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Reif, Ullrich; Hulse, Donald A; Hauptman, Joe G

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of tibial plateau leveling on joint motion in canine stifle joints in which the cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) had been severed. In vitro cadaver study. Six canine cadaver hind legs. Radiographs of the stifle joints were made to evaluate the tibial plateau angle with respect to the long axis of the tibia. The specimens were mounted in a custom-made testing device to measure cranio-caudal translation of the tibia with respect to the femur. An axial load was applied to the tibia, and its position was recorded in the normal stifle, after transection of the CCL, and after tibial plateau leveling. Further, the amount of caudal tibial thrust was measured in the tibial plateau leveled specimen while series of eight linearly increasing axial tibial loads were applied. Transection of the CCL resulted in cranial tibial translation when axial tibial load was applied. After tibial plateau leveling, axial loading resulted in caudal translation of the tibia. Increasing axial tibial load caused a linear increase in caudal tibial thrust in all tibial plateau-leveled specimens. After tibial plateau leveling, axial tibial load generates caudal tibial thrust, which increases if additional axial load is applied. Tibial plateau leveling osteotomy may prevent cranial translation during weight bearing in dogs with CCL rupture by converting axial load into caudal tibial thrust. The amount of caudal tibial thrust seems to be proportional to the amount of weight bearing. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  8. Muscle MRI findings in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Gerevini, Simonetta; Scarlato, Marina; Maggi, Lorenzo; Cava, Mariangela; Caliendo, Giandomenico; Pasanisi, Barbara; Falini, Andrea; Previtali, Stefano Carlo; Morandi, Lucia

    2016-03-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is characterized by extremely variable degrees of facial, scapular and lower limb muscle involvement. Clinical and genetic determination can be difficult, as molecular analysis is not always definitive, and other similar muscle disorders may have overlapping clinical manifestations. Whole-body muscle MRI examination for fat infiltration, atrophy and oedema was performed to identify specific patterns of muscle involvement in FSHD patients (30 subjects), and compared to a group of control patients (23) affected by other myopathies (NFSHD). In FSHD patients, we detected a specific pattern of muscle fatty replacement and atrophy, particularly in upper girdle muscles. The most frequently affected muscles, including paucisymptomatic and severely affected FSHD patients, were trapezius, teres major and serratus anterior. Moreover, asymmetric muscle involvement was significantly higher in FSHD as compared to NFSHD patients. In conclusion, muscle MRI is very sensitive for identifying a specific pattern of involvement in FSHD patients and in detecting selective muscle involvement of non-clinically testable muscles. Muscle MRI constitutes a reliable tool for differentiating FSHD from other muscular dystrophies to direct diagnostic molecular analysis, as well as to investigate FSHD natural history and follow-up of the disease. Muscle MRI identifies a specific pattern of muscle involvement in FSHD patients. Muscle MRI may predict FSHD in asymptomatic and severely affected patients. Muscle MRI of upper girdle better predicts FSHD. Muscle MRI may differentiate FSHD from other forms of muscular dystrophy. Muscle MRI may show the involvement of non-clinical testable muscles.

  9. Anterior Segment Ischemia after Strabismus Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Göçmen, Emine Seyhan; Atalay, Yonca; Evren Kemer, Özlem; Sarıkatipoğlu, Hikmet Yavuz

    2017-01-01

    A 46-year-old male patient was referred to our clinic with complaints of diplopia and esotropia in his right eye that developed after a car accident. The patient had right esotropia in primary position and abduction of the right eye was totally limited. Primary deviation was over 40 prism diopters at near and distance. The patient was diagnosed with sixth nerve palsy and 18 months after trauma, he underwent right medial rectus muscle recession. Ten months after the first operation, full-thickness tendon transposition of the superior and inferior rectus muscles (with Foster suture) was performed. On the first postoperative day, slit-lamp examination revealed corneal edema, 3+ cells in the anterior chamber and an irregular pupil. According to these findings, the diagnosis was anterior segment ischemia. Treatment with 0.1/5 mL topical dexamethasone drops (16 times/day), cyclopentolate hydrochloride drops (3 times/day) and 20 mg oral fluocortolone (3 times/day) was initiated. After 1 week of treatment, corneal edema regressed and the anterior chamber was clean. Topical and systemic steroid treatment was gradually discontinued. At postoperative 1 month, the patient was orthophoric and there were no pathologic symptoms besides the irregular pupil. Anterior segment ischemia is one of the most serious complications of strabismus surgery. Despite the fact that in most cases the only remaining sequel is an irregular pupil, serious circulation deficits could lead to phthisis bulbi. Clinical properties of anterior segment ischemia should be well recognized and in especially risky cases, preventative measures should be taken. PMID:28182149

  10. Arthroscopy Up to Date: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Schillhammer, Carl K; Reid, John B; Rister, Jamie; Jani, Sunil S; Marvil, Sean C; Chen, Austin W; Anderson, Chris G; D'Agostino, Sophia; Lubowitz, James H

    2016-01-01

    To categorize and summarize up-to-date anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) research published in Arthroscopy and The American Journal of Sports Medicine and systematically review each subcategory, beginning with ACL anatomy. After searching for "anterior cruciate ligament" OR "ACL" in Arthroscopy and The American Journal of Sports Medicine from January 2012 through December 2014, we excluded articles more pertinent to ACL augmentation; open growth plates; and meniscal, chondral, or multiligamentous pathology. Studies were subcategorized for data extraction. We included 212 studies that were classified into 8 categories: anatomy; basic science and biomechanics; tunnel position; graft selection; graft fixation; injury risk and rehabilitation; practice patterns and outcomes; and complications. Anatomic risk factors for ACL injury and post-reconstruction graft failure include a narrow intercondylar notch, low native ACL volume, and increased posterior slope. Regarding anatomic footprints, the femoral attachment is 43% of the proximal-to-distal lateral femoral condylar length whereas the posterior border of the tendon is 2.5 mm from the articular margin. The tibial attachment of the ACL is two-fifths of the medial-to-lateral interspinous distance and 15 mm anterior to the posterior cruciate ligament. Anatomic research using radiology and computed tomography to evaluate ACL graft placement shows poor interobserver and intraobserver reliability. With a mind to improving outcomes, surgeons should be aware of anatomic risk factors (stenotic femoral notch, low ligament volume, and increased posterior slope) for ACL graft failure, have a precise understanding of arthroscopic landmarks identifying femoral and tibial footprint locations, and understand that imaging to evaluate graft placement is unreliable. Level III, systematic review of Level III evidence. Copyright © 2016 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fractures of the Tibial Plateau Involve Similar Energies as the Tibial Pilon but Greater Articular Surface Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Dibbern, Kevin; Kempton, Laurence B.; Higgins, Thomas F.; Morshed, Saam; McKinley, Todd O.; Marsh, J. Lawrence; Anderson, Donald D.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with tibial pilon fractures have a higher incidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis than those with fractures of the tibial plateau. This may indicate that pilon fractures present a greater mechanical insult to the joint than do plateau fractures. We tested the hypothesis that fracture energy and articular fracture edge length, two independent indicators of severity, are higher in pilon than plateau fractures. We also evaluated if clinical fracture classification systems accurately reflect severity. Seventy-five tibial plateau fractures and fifty-two tibial pilon fractures from a multi-institutional study were selected to span the spectrum of severity. Fracture severity measures were calculated using objective CT-based image analysis methods. The ranges of fracture energies measured for tibial<