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Sample records for anterolateral thigh muscle

  1. Reconstruction of Abdominal Wall Defects Using a Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap including the Vastus Lateralis Muscle: A Report of Two Cases

    PubMed Central

    Fujioka, Masaki; Ishiyama, Satoko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of abdominal wall reconstruction is to prevent hernias and protect the abdominal viscera. In cases involving full-thickness defects of the rectus abdominis muscle, the muscle layer should be repaired. We present 2 cases in which full-thickness lower rectus abdominis muscle defects were reconstructed using vastus lateralis-anterolateral thigh flaps. The pedicled vastus lateralis-anterolateral thigh flap provides skin, fascia, and muscle tissue. Furthermore, it has a long neurovascular pedicle and can reach up to the periumbilical area and cover large defects. We consider that this muscle flap is a good option for repairing full-thickness lower abdominal defects. PMID:28074168

  2. Trans-vastus Intermedius Transfer of the Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap for Posterior Thigh Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Batdorf, Niles J.; Lettieri, Salvatore C.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: Proximal, posterior thigh wounds from oncologic or traumatic defects can be difficult wounds to reconstruct if local flap options have been sacrificed during the trauma or oncologic resection. Free flap options to cover these defects are also difficult because of the lack of convenient recipient vessels in the region. The authors present 2 cases (oncologic and traumatic) wherein a myocutaneous anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap was harvested and tunneled from the anterior muscle compartment to the posterior muscle compartment of the thigh through a medially based transmuscular tunnel, decreasing the required pedicle distance to the wound. This technique of transmuscular tunneling of the ALT flap expands the indications and utility of the ALT flap to cover posterior thigh wounds. PMID:25289275

  3. Dynamic reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects using free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with free anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Iida, Takuya; Mihara, Makoto; Narushima, Mitsunaga; Todokoro, Takeshi; Hara, Hisako; Yoshimatu, Hidehiko; Koshima, Isao; Kadono, Takafumi

    2013-03-01

    Reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects remains a difficult surgical challenge. Although various reconstructive methods, including artificial mesh, pedicled and free flaps, have been reported, most reported reconstruction of only the fascia layer, leaving the resected rectus abdominis muscle unreconstructed. However, recent studies suggested the importance of dynamic reconstruction with functional muscle in preventing abdominal hernia in the long-term. According to the principle of reconstructive surgery, "replace lost tissue with similar tissue," a functionally and aesthetically ideal reconstruction is to reconstruct all components of the abdominal wall structure, including skin, subcutaneous fat, fascia, and muscle. We present 2 cases with full-thickness abdominal wall defects in the upper abdominal region, which we reconstructed with a free innervated vastus lateralis muscle flap combined with a free anterolateral thigh flap. The motor nerve of the vastus lateralis muscle was sutured with the intercostal nerve, and reinnervation was confirmed by electromyography. This method allows reconstruction of all components of the abdominal wall with a single flap, and dynamic reconstruction is achieved which will reduce the risk of postoperative hernia. We believe this method can be a good option for reconstruction of full-thickness abdominal wall defects with long-term stability.

  4. A systematic review of anterolateral thigh flap donor site morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jessica; Ayeni, Olubimpe; Thoma, Achilleas

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is widely used in reconstruction. Its advantage over other flaps is its purported minimal donor site morbidity. The present systematic review summarizes the types of complications and their incidence with this flap. A secondary objective is to delineate factors that influence these complications and make recommendations to avoid them. METHOD: Two independent assessors undertook a systematic review of the literature using multiple databases. All patients with ALT flap reconstruction for any defect were included. Donor site complications including lateral thigh paresthesia, musculoskeletal dysfunction, hypertrophic scarring, wound breakdown, infection, donor site pain, seroma, hematoma, compartment syndrome and muscle necrosis were extracted from identified articles and tabulated. Based on the number of pooled events and the number of cases performed, an incidence rate was calculated. RESULTS: Forty-two relevant articles were identified that included 2324 flaps. Of the 2324 flaps, the majority were fasciocutaneous (n=737), and 1303 of the flaps were used in head and neck reconstruction. The incidence of complications were: lateral thigh paresthesia (24.0%); musculoskeletal dysfunction (4.8%); hypertrophic scarring or wound dehiscence (4.8%); donor site pain (3.3%); seroma (2.4%); infection (2.2%); hematoma (0.7%); compartment syndrome (0.09%); and partial muscle necrosis (0.09%). CONCLUSION: Lateral thigh paresthesia is the most common complication. Severe complications such as compartment syndrome and muscle necrosis can occur, but are rare. Preservation of the lateral cutaneous nerve of the thigh, femoral motor nerve branches and deep fascia decreases the risk of complications. The degree of vastus lateralis disruption did not show a significant impact on musculoskeletal dysfunction. PMID:23598761

  5. Pre-expanded Anterolateral Thigh Perforator Flap for Phalloplasty.

    PubMed

    D'Arpa, Salvatore; Colebunders, Britt; Stillaert, Filip; Monstrey, Stan

    2017-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap for phalloplasty is gaining popularity because it avoids the well-known scars of the radial forearm flap. However, scars are not eliminated, just moved to a different location, the thigh, that can for some patients be of great sexual value. Preexpansion of the ALT flap allows primary donor site closure, thus avoiding not only the unsightly appearance of a skin grafted ALT donor site, but also the skin graft donor site scar. Preoperative perforator location by means of computed tomography angiography allows safe expander placement through 2 small remote incisions.

  6. [Hypogastric abdominal wall reconstruction with a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap].

    PubMed

    Moullot, P; Philandrianos, C; Gonnelli, D; Casanova, D

    2014-10-01

    Looking at a full-thickness abdominal wall defect, it is necessary to use reconstructive surgery techniques. The authors present an original case of reconstruction of the abdominal wall, using an anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) harvested with vascularised fascia lata. We describe the advantages of this technique, which has rarely been used for this indication. An 80-year-old woman presenting a full-thickness abdominal wall defect of 15×18cm was reconstructed by a pedicled ALT flap. Skin wound healing was obtained within 15 days, with no complication. There was no donor site sequela. The pedicled ALT flap appears to be a good solution for hypogastric abdominal wall defect in a one step procedure. Vacularised fascia lata bring with the cutaneous flap is useful to reconstruct the abdominal fascia.

  7. Free anterolateral thigh flaps for upper extremity soft tissue reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Spindler, Nick; Al-Benna, Sammy; Ring, Andrej; Homann, Heinz; Steinsträsser, Lars; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Langer, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Limb-threatening wounds of the upper extremity pose a challenge to the micro vascular surgeon. The aim of this study is to analyze the outcome of free anterolateral thigh flaps for upper extremity soft tissue reconstruction. Methods: A retrospective review of patients undergoing this procedure from 2005 to 2012 was performed. Case note analysis was performed to determine demographic and perioperative factors, and complications and outcomes. Results: Thirty-two patients with a mean age of 53 years (9–84 yrs) underwent upper extremity reconstruction with an anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. There were 24 (75%) males and 8 (25%) females. The etiology of the soft tissue defects was: infection (44.6%); post-tumor ablation (40%); and trauma (15.6%). The defect site was most commonly in the forearm (53.1%), followed by the elbow (12.5 %), arm (12.5%) and hand (21.9%). The mean timing of free flap transfer was 6.8 days after admission to our institution (minimum 1 days, maximum 9 days). Mean operative time of surgery was 4 h 39 min (minimum 3 h 2 min, maximum 6 h 20 min). The mean hospitalization was 24.8 days (minimum 5, maximum 85). The ALT success rate was at 92.3%. Partial flap necrosis was documented in five cases (15.6%). Complete flap loss occurred in two post-traumatic cases who both lost their limbs. Discussion: This flap, in the hands of experienced surgeons, provides reliable coverage of upper extremity defects. PMID:26504734

  8. Usefulness of Harmonic Focus during anterolateral thigh flap elevation.

    PubMed

    Hamahata, Atsumori; Saitou, Takashi; Kubo, Kazuyuki; Beppu, Takeshi; Yamaki, Takashi; Sakurai, Hiroyuki

    2012-11-01

    Meticulous hemostasis and careful ligation of branches are necessary for pedicle dissection during flap elevation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the Harmonic Focus handpiece (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Inc., Blue Ash, Cincinnati, OH, USA) in reducing operation time, bleeding volume, and volume of postoperative drainage during anterolateral thigh flap elevation. Ten patients requiring flap elevation were divided into two groups: (1) Harmonic Focus group (three men, two women), and (2) control group (three men, two women). Operating time was found to be lower in the Harmonic Focus group than in the control group. Bleeding volume and postoperative drainage volume were nearly identical in the Harmonic Focus group and the control group, and the number of silk ligatures was significantly lower in the Harmonic Focus group compared with the control group. Although somewhat costly, the Harmonic Scalpel with the Harmonic Focus handpiece is advantageous for flap elevation, and it is likely that Harmonic Scalpel use will increase in plastic surgery.

  9. Extended Anterolateral Thigh Flaps for Reconstruction of Extensive Defects of the Foot and Ankle

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lifeng; Cao, Xuexin; Zou, Lin; Li, Zongyu; Cao, Xuecheng; Cai, Jinfang

    2013-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap has been used for coverage of defects in the foot and ankle for years. Conventional extended anterolateral thigh flaps do not undergo thinning procedures, which limit their application. Here, a clinical series of 24 patients is reported in which extended anterolateral thigh flaps were used for posttraumatic foot and ankle reconstruction. Of the 24 flaps, 14 were simple extended anterolateral thigh fasciocutaneous flaps and 10 were thinned extended anterolateral thigh flaps. One artery and two veins, including a superficial vein and an accompanying vein, were anastomosed to vascularize each flap. Follow-up of the 24 patients ranged from 10 months to 4 years postoperatively. All 24 flaps survived successfully, except one case that had partial flap necrosis distally due to excessive thinning. The cutaneous flap territory ranged from 250 cm2 to 400 cm2 (mean, 297 cm2). Only one patient received a debulking procedure. No ulceration occurred in any of the flaps due to contact with the shoe. The extended anterolateral thigh flap is a good alternative for extensive soft tissue defects of the foot and ankle. This study also supports the high reliability and excellent vascular supply of moderate thinned extended ALT flaps. PMID:24376731

  10. Multipaddled Anterolateral Thigh Chimeric Flap for Reconstruction of Complex Defects in Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Liu, Wen; Su, Tong; Chen, Xinqun; Zheng, Lian; Jian, Xinchun

    2014-01-01

    The anterolateral thigh flap has been the workhouse flap for coverage of soft-tissue defects in head and neck for decades. However, the reconstruction of multiple and complex soft-tissue defects in head and neck with multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flaps is still a challenge for reconstructive surgeries. Here, a clinical series of 12 cases is reported in which multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flaps were used for complex soft-tissue defects with several separately anatomic locations in head and neck. Of the 12 cases, 7 patients presented with trismus were diagnosed as advanced buccal cancer with oral submucous fibrosis, 2 tongue cancer cases were found accompanied with multiple oral mucosa lesions or buccal cancer, and 3 were hypopharyngeal cancer with anterior neck skin invaded. All soft-tissue defects were reconstructed by multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flaps, including 9 tripaddled anterolateral thigh flaps and 3 bipaddled flaps. The mean length of skin paddle was 19.2 (range: 14–23) cm and the mean width was 4.9 (range: 2.5–7) cm. All flaps survived and all donor sites were closed primarily. After a mean follow-up time of 9.1 months, there were no problems with the donor or recipient sites. This study supports that the multipaddled anterolateral thigh chimeric flap is a reliable and good alternative for complex and multiple soft-tissue defects of the head and neck. PMID:25180680

  11. Total Posterior Leg Open Wound Management With Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap: Case and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Soleiman; Chou, Stephanie; Rosing, James; Sahar, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Soft tissue coverage of the exposed Achilles tendon is a unique reconstructive challenge. In this report, we describe the management of a large posterior leg wound with exposed Achilles tendon using a free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. A careful review of alternative reconstructive options is included, along with their respective advantages and disadvantages. A 32-year-old white man suffered a fulminant right lower extremity soft tissue infection requiring extensive debridement of the entire posterior surface of the right leg. The resulting large soft tissue defect included exposure of the Achilles tendon. Reconstruction of the defect was achieved with an ALT flap and split-thickness skin graft for coverage of the Achilles tendon and gastrocnemius muscle, respectively. The patient was able to ambulate independently within 2 months of the procedure. PMID:24106563

  12. Prelamination of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap With a Fibula Graft to Successfully Reconstruct a Mandibular Defect

    PubMed Central

    Sadigh, Parviz Lionel

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Flap prelamination is the process whereby a complex 3- dimensional construct is fashioned in a staged manner. We present a case whereby the tissues of the anterolateral thigh, nourished by perforators of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery, were prelaminated with a fibula in the setting of salvage head and neck reconstruction. With a paucity of recipient vessels in the neck and a previous failed free fibula transfer secondary to osteoradionecrosis, a fibula was implanted into a suprafascial pocket created in the anterolateral thigh. This was allowed to pick up a blood supply from this rich vascular bed and mature over a period of 3 weeks before being transferred with the anterolateral thigh tissues as a prelaminated osteocutaneous composite free flap. A bone scan performed both before and after transfer confirmed uptake of radionucleotide by the fibula suggesting neovascularization. The composite mandibular defect was successfully reconstructed using this technique, and we believe this could represent a new strategy in the setting of salvage head and neck surgery. PMID:26495210

  13. The combined free partial vastus lateralis with anterolateral thigh perforator flap reconstruction of extensive composite defects.

    PubMed

    Posch, N A S; Mureau, M A M; Flood, S J; Hofer, S O P

    2005-12-01

    Myocutaneous (MC) free flaps are useful for many reconstructive indications. Perforator flaps have become standard of care. The anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) donor site is popular. With the ALT flap varying sizes of vastus lateralis (VL) muscle can be harvested as a MC flap. The skin islands of these flaps have a great range of freedom when dissected on their perforator. It was hypothesised that the VL-ALT perforator flap would offer adequate tissue volume combining maximal freedom in planning with minimal donor site morbidity. From November 2001 to February 2003 a free partial VL with ALT perforator flap was used in 11 patients to reconstruct large defects. Indications for adding a muscular component were exposed bone, skull base, (artificial) dura, or osteosynthesis material, open sinuses, and lack of muscular bulk. Flaps were planned as standard ALT flaps, after which three types of dissection were performed: I. true MC flap; II. muscle flap with a skin island on one perforator, which could be rotated up to 180 degrees ; III. chimera skin perforator flap with muscle being harvested on a separate branch from the source vessel or on a side branch of the skin perforator. Mean skin size of the MC-ALT flaps was 131 cm2. Mean muscle part size of the MC-ALT flaps was 268 cm3. Muscular parts were custom designed for all defects. No total or partial flap failures were seen. Colour mismatch was seen in 6 of 8 patients, when skin was used in the facial area in this all white population. Excessive flap bulk was found in 8 of 11 patients at 6 weeks, however, only in 2 of 11 patients after 6 months. Patients were satisfied with the functional result (8 of 11 patients) as well as the cosmetic result of their reconstruction (7 of 11 patients). All less satisfied patients had received their flap for external facial skin reconstruction. Donor site morbidity was minimal. The combined free partial VL with ALT perforator flap proved valuable as a (chimera type) MC flap with maximal

  14. Functional assessment: Free thin anterolateral thigh flap versus free radial forearm reconstruction for hemiglossectomy defects

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Mingxing; Hu, Qingang; Tang, Enyi; Wang, Yujia

    2015-01-01

    Background To compare free thin anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap with free radial forearm (FRF) flap in the reconstruction of hemiglossectomy defects, and to introduce our methods and experience in the tongue reconstruction with free thin ALT flap. Material and Methods The clinicopathologic data of 46 tongue carcinoma cases hospitalized from December 2009 to April 2014 were obtained from Nangjing Stomatological Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University. All the subjects were evaluated for the articulation and the swallowing function 3 months after the surgery. Results Among these 46 patients, 12 patients underwent tongue reconstruction after hemiglossectomy with ALT flap; 34 patients underwent tongue reconstruction with FRF flap. The differences in the incidence of vascular crisis, the speech and the swallowing function between two groups were not significant (P>0.05). Conclusions Thin ALT flap could be one of the ideal flaps for hemiglossectomy defect reconstruction with its versatility in design, long pedicle with a suitable vessel diameter, and the neglectable donor site morbidity. Key words:Free thin anterolateral thigh flap, free radial forearm flap, hemiglossectomy, reconstruction, morbidity. PMID:26449437

  15. Use of the anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of the pediatric anophthalmic orbit.

    PubMed

    Hynes, Sally L; Forrest, Christopher R; Borschel, Gregory H

    2016-01-01

    Children with acquired anophthalmia pose unique reconstructive challenges. With implant-based reconstruction, the current standard of care, there is a tendency toward intraorbital and adnexal tissue contraction and an increasing volume discrepancy with orbital growth, resulting in enophthalmos and eyelid retraction, and also difficulty in retaining an ocular prosthesis. We describe a novel technique for secondary reconstruction of the pediatric anophthalmic orbit using a small free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. The technique involves release of retracted eyelids and restoration of orbital volume with an ALT flap based on the superficial temporal vessels. The purpose of this study is to detail the results of treatment of a series of four consecutive patients with unilateral acquired anophthalmia managed with ALT flaps. Improved symmetry, successful retention of an ocular prosthesis, and patient satisfaction were achieved in all cases.

  16. Reconstruction of lateral forefoot using reversed medial plantar flap with free anterolateral thigh flap.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Masaki; Hayashida, Kenji; Senju, Chikako

    2014-01-01

    Skin defects of the heel have frequently been reconstructed using the medial plantar flap; however, forefoot coverage has remained a challenge, because the alternatives for flap coverage have been very limited. We describe a case of malignant melanoma on the lateral forefoot that was radically removed and reconstructed successfully with a distally based medial plantar flap, together with a free anterolateral thigh flap. The advantages of this flap include that it does not reduce the vascular supply to the foot owing to reconstruction of the medial plantar vascular systems, reduces the risk of flap congestion, minimizes donor site morbidity, and enables the transport of structurally similar tissues to the plantar forefoot. We believe this technique is a reasonable reconstructive option for large lateral plantar forefoot defects.

  17. Achieving Direct Closure of the Anterolateral Thigh Flap Donor Site—An Algorithmic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pachón Suárez, Jaime Eduardo; Sadigh, Parviz Lionel; Shih, Hsiang-Shun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background: Minimizing donor-site morbidity after free flap harvest is of paramount importance. In this article, we share our experience with achieving primary closure of 58 anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap donor sites using a simple algorithm in cases where primary closure would otherwise have not been possible. Methods: Between 2004 and 2010, 58 patients who underwent free ALT flap reconstruction were included in the study. The inclusion criteria were those who had flap width requirements that were wider than 16% of the thigh circumference and had achieved direct primary closure of the donor site by the use of our technique. Results: Primary closure of the donor sites was facilitated in all cases by the use of 3 distinct techniques. This included the use of the V-Y advancement technique in 13 patients, split skin paddle technique in 7 patients, and the tubed skin paddle design in 38 patients. No episodes of postoperative wound dehiscence at the donor site were encountered; however, 2 cases were complicated by superficial wound infections that settled with a course of antibiotics. Conclusions: Direct primary closure of the ALT donor site can be facilitated by the use of our simple algorithm. Certain strategies need to be adopted at the design stage; however, the techniques used are simple and reliable, produce superior cosmetic results at the donor site, save time, and spare the patient the morbidity associated with the harvest of a skin graft. PMID:25426349

  18. Pedicled fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap for the reconstruction of a large postoncologic abdominal wall resection defect: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nthumba, Peter; Barasa, Jack; Cavadas, Pedro C; Landin, Luis

    2012-02-01

    The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap has been used to cover defects between the proximal third of the leg and lower abdomen, and with modification, may cover epigastric defects. We used the ALT flap to cover a full-thickness defect of over half the anterior abdominal wall. We conclude that abdominal wall defects of large sizes can be successfully reconstructed using an appropriately designed ALT flap; a simple, single-stage effective reconstruction.

  19. Sandwich Fascial Anterolateral Thigh Flap in Head and Neck Reconstruction: Evolution or Revolution?

    PubMed Central

    Berli, Jens; Turri-Zanoni, Mario; Battaglia, Paolo; Maggiulli, Francesca; Corno, Martina; Tamborini, Federico; Montrasio, Edoardo; Castelnuovo, Paolo; Valdatta, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The anterolateral thigh perforator flap (ALT) represents the workhorse for most reconstructive efforts in the head and neck regions. The main advantages of this flap are its versatility, the length of the pedicle, and the low morbidity of the donor site. The major drawback is the bulkiness of this flap with the frequent need for secondary revisions. To overcome this, we have developed a novel way to harvest and inset the ALT, called the sandwich fascial ALT flap (SALT). Methods: All patients undergoing head and neck reconstruction using the SALT flap from January 2013 to March 2016 were included in this retrospective analysis. The SALT flap was harvested as a composite flap including the superficial fascia, the subscarpal fat, and the deep fascia. At the recipient site, the flap was inset with the deep fascia facing out. A split thickness skin graft (± dermal substitute) was used to cover the deep fascia and the pedicle. Results: Eleven patients were included: 8 cases of orbital exenteration, 1 case of forehead reconstruction, and 2 cases of palatal reconstruction after radical maxillectomy. Flap survival was 100%. One patient required an early take back for venous thrombosis. The reconstruction was effective in all cases, allowing a prosthetic rehabilitation when required. Donor-site morbidity was minimal. Conclusions: The reconstruction of head and neck defects with a bulky fasciocutaneous ALT flap might not be the best option in every case. The SALT flap could represent a valid alternative for selected cases, with encouraging functional and cosmetic outcomes. PMID:28203499

  20. Reconstruction of Postburn Contracture of the Forefoot Using the Anterolateral Thigh Flap

    PubMed Central

    An, Sung Jin; Kim, Nu Ri; Kim, Um Ji; Kim, Jeung Il

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe forefoot deformities, particularly those involving the dorsum of the foot, cause inconvenience in daily activities of living including moderate pain on the dorsal aspect of the contracted foot while walking and difficulty in wearing nonsupportive shoes due to toe contractures. This paper presents clinical results of reconstruction of severe forefoot deformity using the anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap. Methods Severe forefoot deformities were reconstructed using ALT flaps in 7 patients (8 cases) between March 2012 and December 2015. The mean contracture duration was 28.6 years. Results All the flaps survived completely. The size of the flaps ranged from 8 cm × 5 cm to 19 cm × 8 cm. The mean follow-up period was 10 months (range, 7 to 15 months). There was no specific complication at both the recipient and donor sites. There was one case where the toe contracture could not be completely treated after surgery. All of the patients were able to wear shoes and walk without pain. Also, the patients were highly satisfied with cosmetic results. Conclusions The ALT flap may be considered ideal for the treatment of severe forefoot deformity. PMID:27904728

  1. Perforator-to-perforator musculocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap for reconstruction of a lumbosacral defect using the lumbar artery perforator as recipient vessel.

    PubMed

    Mureau, Marc A M; Hofer, Stefan O P

    2008-05-01

    Reconstruction of large-sized lumbosacral or sacral defects often is not possible using local or regional flaps, making the use of free flaps necessary. However, the difficulty of any microsurgical procedure in this region is complicated by the need to search for potential recipient vessels to revascularize the flap. In the present case, a free musculocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap to cover a large-sized and deep lumbosacral defect was used. Arterial anastomosis was performed, connecting the cutaneous anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator to the perforator of the second lumbar artery. In this fashion, the arterial circulation through the flap was flowing reversely through the muscle. The concomitant vein of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery was hooked up to the thoracodorsal vein using a long interposition vein graft because the perforator of the second lumbar vein was too small. Postoperative healing was uneventful. In conclusion, a successful reconstruction of a lumbar defect has shown that local perforators in the lumbar area may be accessible for easier perforator-to-perforator anastomoses and that the muscular part of the musculocutaneous ALT flap can survive on retrograde arterial perfusion from a perforator of the skin island.

  2. Dorsal foot resurfacing using free anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap in children.

    PubMed

    El-Gammal, Tarek A; El-Sayed, Amr; Kotb, Mohamed M; Saleh, Waleed Riad; Ragheb, Yasser Farouk; El-Refai, Omar; El Fahar, Mohammed Hassan Ali

    2013-05-01

    Very limited literature described the use of the free anterolateral thigh (ALT) among other flaps for pediatric lower limb reconstruction. The aim of this study is to present our experience using the free ALT flap for reconstruction of soft tissue defects over the dorsum of the foot and ankle in children. The study included 42 children aged 2.5-13 years with a mean of 6.18 years. Three children had crush injuries while the rest were victims of run over car accidents. All of the flaps were vascularized by at least two perforators; 88.23% were musculocutaneous and 11.77 were septocutaneous perforators. All flaps were raised in a subfascial plane. Initial thinning was performed in five flaps and 35% required subsequent debulking. Mean Flap surface area was 117.11 cm(2). The recipient arteries were the anterior tibial artery in 38 cases and posterior tibial artery in four cases. Venous anastomosis was performed to one vena commitant and in nine cases the long saphenous vein was additionally used. Mean ischemia time of the flap was 2 hours while total operative time averaged 6.3 hours. About 41% of donor sites were closed primarily while 59% required skin grafting. Primary flap survival rate was 92.8% (39/42 cases). Three flaps showed venous congestion. After venous reanastomosis, two flaps showed partial loss and one flap was lost completely. Post-operative hospital stay averaged 7.5 days. The free ALT flap could be as safe, reliable, and aesthetically appealing option for foot/ankle resurfacing in children after traumatic soft tissue loss.

  3. Muscle shape consistency and muscle volume prediction of thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    Mersmann, F; Bohm, S; Schroll, A; Boeth, H; Duda, G; Arampatzis, A

    2015-04-01

    The present study investigated the applicability of a muscle volume prediction method using only the muscle length (L(M)), the maximum anatomical cross-sectional area (ACSA(max)), and a muscle-specific shape factor (p) on the quadriceps vastii. L(M), ACSA(max), muscle volume, and p were obtained from magnetic resonance images of the vastus intermedius (VI), lateralis (VL), and medialis (VM) of female (n = 20) and male (n = 17) volleyball athletes. The average p was used to predict muscle volumes (V(p)) using the equation V(p)  = p × ACSA(max)  × L(M). Although there were significant differences in the muscle dimensions between male and female athletes, p was similar and on average 0.582, 0.658, 0.543 for the VI, VL, and VM, respectively. The position of ACSA(max) showed low variability and was at 57%, 60%, and 81% of the thigh length for VI, VL, and VM. Further, there were no significant differences between measured and predicted muscle volumes with root mean square differences of 5-8%. These results suggest that the muscle shape of the quadriceps vastii is independent of muscle dimensions or sex and that the prediction method could be sensitive enough to detect changes in muscle volume related to degeneration, atrophy, or hypertrophy.

  4. Reconstruction of the Lower Abdominal Region Using Bilateral Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flaps Combined With Poly-Surgical Mesh: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Zan; Chen, Ju-Ying; Peng, Xiao-Wei; Yang, Li-Chang; Lv, Chun-Liu

    2015-12-01

    The en-bloc resection of neoplasms on the abdominal wall often causes extensive defects that are difficult to manage. The anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is a widely used flap in reconstructive surgery of defects. In this article, we present a case using bilateral pedicle anterolateral thigh flaps combined with a surgical polymesh to repair a large defect (22 cm × 18 cm) caused by dissection of a recurrent fibromatosis with good functional and aesthetic effects. There were no obvious morbidities or complications during a 6-month follow-up period.We conclude that the bilateral pedicle anterolateral thigh flap is a good choice for reconstruction of large lower abdominal wall defects. It can afford sufficient soft tissue coverage without obvious donor site morbidity.

  5. Bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flap for simultaneous reconstruction of bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Chen; Changchien, Chih-Hsuan; Su, Yu-Min

    2016-01-01

    It is a challenge to simultaneously reconstruct bilateral buccal defects following oral cancer ablation or release of oral submucous fibrosis. In this study, we report two cases where bipaddled anterolateral thigh perforator flaps were used to resurface two separate buccal defects. PMID:27619322

  6. Reverse Anterolateral Thigh Flap to Revise a Below-knee Amputation Stump at the Mid-tibial Level

    PubMed Central

    Sadigh, Parviz Lionel; Wu, Cheng-Jung; Shih, Hsiang-Shun

    2013-01-01

    Summary: The reconstruction of defects around the knee often poses a challenge due to the limited availability of local soft tissues. Indeed, this same problem is encountered when attempting to revise a below-knee amputation stump. Moreover, due to a paucity of recipient vessels in those who have undergone previous amputation secondary to trauma, free-flap reconstruction is often challenging and not always successful. We report a case of a reverse anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap used to revise a long below-knee amputation stump. Previous reports in the literature attest to the versatility of the reverse ALT to cover defects around the knee and proximal tibia, but to our knowledge, this is the first report of a reverse ALT reaching to the mid-tibial level. PMID:25289282

  7. Abdominal wall reconstruction after resection of an enterocutaneous fistula with an island pedicled anterolateral thigh perforator flap. Case report.

    PubMed

    Ali, F; Safawi, E B; Zakaria, Z; Basiron, N

    2013-01-01

    Entero-cutaneous fistula resulting from a locally invasive large bowel carcinoma is a difficult surgical challenge. En-bloc resection of the involved organs and the entero-cutaneous fistula tract with a healthy tissue margin will result in a composite abdominal wall defect that requires closure. Reconstructive surgical options include primary closure, components separation and the use of local, regional or free flaps with or without prosthetic mesh. We report a case of an abdominal enterocutaneous fistula secondary to a locally invasive sigmoid carcinoma, which was reconstructed with a pedicled antero-lateral thigh perforator (ALT) flap. To our knowledge, this is the first case of a malignant entero-cutaneous fistula, which was reconstructed with an ALT flap.

  8. Combined Use of an Anterolateral Thigh Flap and Superficial Inferior Epigastric Artery Flap for Reconstruction of an Extensive Abdominal Wall Defect

    PubMed Central

    Kagaya, Yu; Arikawa, Masaki; Kobayashi, Eisuke

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Reconstruction of large abdominal wall defects is challenging. We herein report the successful reconstruction of an extensive abdominal wall defect using a novel combination of flaps after sarcoma resection. A 74-year-old man presented with a dedifferentiated liposarcoma on his abdominal wall. He underwent excision of the tumor, which resulted in an extensive abdominal wall defect. The defect was reconstructed with a pedicled anterolateral thigh flap with an iliotibial tract and a pedicled superficial inferior epigastric artery flap. No skin graft was necessary. The wounds healed successfully, and no herniation occurred. The combination of an anterolateral thigh flap and a superficial inferior epigastric artery flap is a versatile option for reconstruction of extensive abdominal wall defects. PMID:27975026

  9. Anterolateral papillary muscle rupture caused by myocardial infarction: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Suriya; Renteria, Anne S; Burzyantseva, Olga; Lokesh, Gowda; Thelusmond, Louis

    2008-01-01

    Background The rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle is less common than the posteromedial papillary muscle since the anterolateral muscle has dual blood supplies, while the posteromedial papillary muscle has a single blood supply. Case presentation We present a case report of a 42 year old male presenting with heart failure being diagnosed to have mitral regurgitation from the partial rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle due to coronary artery disease. The patient underwent a mitral valve replacement and concomitant coronary artery bypass grafting of the first and the second obtuse marginal arteries. Conclusion Acute mitral regurgitation can be precipitated by acute myocardial infarction due to rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle. PMID:18803861

  10. Treatment of Radial Nonunion with Corticocancellous Bone Graft and Fascia of Anterolateral Thigh Free Flap: The Wrap Technique

    PubMed Central

    Ronga, Mario; Sallam, Davide; Fagetti, Alessandro; Valdatta, Luigi; Cherubino, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The management of nonunion of the forearm bones is a challenging task. Multiple factors have been associated with the establishment of forearm nonunion, such as the fracture position and complexity, general condition of the patient, and the previously utilized surgical technique. The optimal surgical treatment of a bone gap remains a subject of discussion. Autogenous corticocancellous bone grafts and vascularized bone flaps have been used with differing results. The authors describe a technique for the treatment of posttraumatic nonunion of the radius with a 5-cm bone gap using the free anterolateral thigh fascial flap wrapped around a tricortical iliac bone graft. The fracture healed after 5 weeks. The use of a vascularized tissue wrapped around the bone graft resulted in a well-healed bone and no signs of resorption after 2 years of follow-up. A bone graft wrapped by a fascial flap could magnify the restorative effect on the bone defect because of its dual role of constructing vascularization and inducing tissue regeneration. PMID:28293506

  11. Reconstruction of extensive abdominal wall defect using an eccentric perforator-based pedicled anterolateral thigh flap: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jang, Joonchul; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Han, Seung-Kyu; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    Reconstruction of extensive abdominal wall defects is a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. In this report, a case of reconstruction of a large abdominal wall defect using an eccentric perforator-based pedicled anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap is presented. A 30-year-old man presented with recurrent desmoid-type fibromatosis in the abdominal wall. The recurrent tumor was radically excised, and the en bloc excision resulted in a full-thickness, large abdominal wall defect (25 cm × 20 cm). An eccentric perforator-based pedicled ALT flap, including wide fascial extension, was transferred to the abdominal defect; fascial portions were sutured to the remnant abdominal fascia. Plication of the fascia along the sutured portion was performed to relieve the skin tension between the flap and the marginal skin of the abdominal defect. Eight months after surgery, the reconstructed abdomen had an acceptable esthetic appearance without tumor recurrence or hernia. The use of an eccentric perforator-based pedicled ALT flap may be an alternative method for the reconstruction of extensive abdominal wall defects.

  12. Successful Pedicled Anterolateral Thigh Flap Reconstruction for a Recurrent Ischial Pressure Ulcer: A Case With Multiple Recurrences Over a 7-year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Yu; Shih, Yu-Jen; Chou, Chang-Yi; Chen, Tim-Mo; Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng

    2015-06-01

    Ischial pressure ulcers are difficult ulcers to treat and have a low treatment success rate compared to sacral and trochanteric ulcers; regional flap failure further complicates the treatment. Reported here is a case of a 65-year-old man who experienced a spinal injury with paraplegia due to trauma 20 years ago. The patient experienced a recurrent ischial ulcer since 2007, and underwent several types of flap reconstruction with poor outcomes over a 7-year period. Therefore, the chosen intervention was a pedicled anterolateral thigh (pALT) fasciocutaneous flap reconstruction for the ischial ulcer via a subcutaneous route. Over the 10-month follow-up, the recurrent ischial ulcer healed without wound dehiscence. Island pALT reconstruction appears to be an alternative technique for treating recurrent ischial pressure ulcers. Though reconstruction of ischial ulcers via the pALT technique has been described previously, this may be the first case report to describe pALT flap in a patient with recurrent ischial ulcers after failed reconstructions using a gluteus maximus flap, V-Y advancement flap, and hatchet flap.Ischial pressure ulcers are difficult to treat and have a low treatment success rate1 compared to sacral and trochanteric ulcers. In addition, there are many different techniques that can be used to treat ischial pressure ulcers, including primary wound closure, gluteus maximus flaps, V-Y advancement flaps, or inferior gluteal artery perforator flaps. However, several experts have recently described using the pedicled anterolateral thigh (pALT) flap for reconstruction of recurrent ischial pressure ulcers.1,2 In the presented case, the authors followed a single patient with paraplegia with a recurrent ischial ulcer who had undergone several types of wound treatment over a 7-year period. The indurated ulcer was ultimately resolved by pALT reconstruction.

  13. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women

    PubMed Central

    Machann, Juergen; Blatzonis, Konstantinos; Rapp, Kilian

    2016-01-01

    The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years) was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628), leg push power (r = 0.550), isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442), hand grip strength (r = 0.367), fast gait speed (r = 0.291), habitual gait speed (r = 0.256), body mass index (r = 0.411) and age (r = -0.392). Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power. PMID:27315060

  14. Complete rupture of the anterolateral papillary muscle caused by coronary spasm.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Masataka; Fukui, Toshihiro; Mahara, Keitaro; Takanashi, Shuichiro

    2015-12-01

    Papillary muscle rupture usually occurs as a catastrophic complication of acute myocardial infarction in patients with coronary artery stenosis; it is therefore less common in patients without coronary artery stenosis. We report the case of a 67-year old woman without coronary artery stenosis who suffered an acute anterolateral papillary muscle rupture and was successfully treated with mitral valve replacement. Evidence of coronary spasm was found on a coronary vasomotion test, suggesting that a high sensitivity to coronary spasm may explain a mechanism of isolated papillary muscle infarction.

  15. Aesthetic Multiple-Toe Reconstruction With Combined Iliac Bone Graft and Wraparound Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap-A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Soo-Ha; Lao, William; Yen, Cheng-I; Lin, Yu-Te; Wu, Katie Pei-Hsuan; Chang, Tommy Nai-Jen

    2017-03-01

    Compared with upper extremity injuries, toe amputations and their replantations are rare because of the difficulty of their relatively thinner soft tissue envelope. Consequently, fewer reconstructive options are available for toes and they are rarely reported in the literature. In this study, we reported a case of right third to fifth toe amputations and their subsequent reconstruction with iliac bone grafts and a free anterolateral thigh flap. After serial debulking and division procedures, 3 toes were divided successfully. Ten months after the initial operation, the patient regained pain-free functional ambulation despite some bone resorption noted on follow-up radiographs. The patient showed high satisfaction on her new toes in terms of aesthetical and functional outcomes. She was able to stand for over 30 minutes without pain. At the 2-year follow-up, the Foot Function Index was 18.3%. Although toe reconstruction is frequently considered unnecessary because of its relative high demand of surgical techniques and little gain on gait; nonetheless, in selected cases, toe reconstruction may still be beneficial if the metatarsophalangeal joints were intact and there is a strong individual desire for aesthetical restoration.

  16. A case series of flow-through free anterolateral thigh flap to augment the vascularity of ischaemic limbs with soft tissue defect

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Aditya; Singh, Hardeep; Mahendru, Sanjay; Brajesh, Vimalendu; Singh, Sukhdeep; Krishnan, Srinivasan; Khazanchi, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In a world of fast moving vehicles, heavy machinery and industries crush injury to limbs with vascular compromise and soft tissue defect is common. The traditional treatment is a 2 step one dealing with vascular repair and soft tissue cover separately, in the same operation. We report a series of single step vascular repair and soft tissue cover with flow through anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) flap for limb salvage. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with soft tissue defect and vascular injury were included in this study. A two team approach was used to minimise operative time, team one prepared the vessels and team 2 harvested the flap. Observations and Results: Of the ten patients operated (8 males), eight flaps were done for upper limb and two for lower limb salvage. Six anastomosis were done with ulnar vessels, two with radial and two with posterior tibial vessels. Nine extremities could be salvaged while one patient developed progressive thrombosis leading to amputation. Conclusion: The ALT flow-through flap is a versatile single step procedure that can be used to salvage an ischemic limb with soft tissue loss avoiding the need for interpositional vein graft. PMID:27274120

  17. Comparison between anterolateral thigh perforator free flaps and pectoralis major pedicled flap for reconstruction in oral cancer patients-A quality of life analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yan; Cai, Xiangping; Wang, Jing; Liu, Fei; Wang, Haibin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the differences between anterolateral thigh perforator free flaps (ALTFF) and pectoralis major myocutaneous flap (PMMF) for reconstruction in oral cancer patients. Method and Patients: who received free flap or PMMF reconstruction after ablation surgeries were eligible for the current study. The patients’ demographic data, medical history, and quality of life scores(Medical Outcomes Study-Short Form-36 (MOS SF-36) and the University of Washington Quality of Life (UW-QOL) questionnaires were collected. Results: 81 of 118 questionnaires were returned (68.64%). There was significant differences between two groups in the gender (P<0.005). Patients reconstructed with ALTFF had better appearance domains and better shoulders domains, in addition to better role emotion domains. Conclusions: Using either PMMF or ALTFF for reconstruction of oral defects after cancer resection significantly influences a patient’s quality of life. Data from this study provide useful information for physicians and patients during their discussion of reconstruction modalities for oral cancers. Key words:Quality of life, ALTFF,PMMF, oral cancer. PMID:24121914

  18. The effect of early detection of anterolateral thigh free flap crisis on the salvage success rate, based on 10 years of experience and 1072 flaps.

    PubMed

    Yang, Q; Ren, Z H; Chickooree, D; Wu, H J; Tan, H Y; Wang, K; He, Z J; Gong, C J; Ram, V; Zhang, S

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of early exploration of anterolateral thigh (ALT) free flap compromise in head and neck reconstruction and to correlate this with the salvage success rate. The perioperative data of 1051 patients with 1072 ALT flap reconstructions were reviewed retrospectively for the period January 2002 to December 2012. Outcome measures included ethnicity, defect type, incidence and timing of flap compromise, type of flap compromise, causes of vascular occlusion, and salvage rate. The success rate of free flap reconstruction was 97.3% (1043/1072). Of the 29 failures, 21 were complete and eight were partial failures (10-40% of the flap). Venous occlusions occurred in 39 flaps (83.0%) and arterial occlusions in five flaps (17.0%). Six cases were detected within 8h postoperatively, 13 at 8-16 h postoperatively, seven at 16-24h postoperatively, and 18 at 24-48 h postoperatively, with respective salvage rates of 66.7%, 61.5%, 28.6%, and 22.2%; three cases detected after 48 h failed. The salvage rate at ≤16 h (62.2%) was much higher than that at >16 h (21.4%, P=0.0039). Early detection, re-exploration, and effective handling of the flap crisis increases the rate of flap salvage tremendously.

  19. A comparison of free anterolateral thigh and latissimus dorsi flaps in soft tissue reconstruction of extensive defects in the head and neck region.

    PubMed

    Horn, Dominik; Jonas, Rene; Engel, Michael; Freier, Kolja; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Freudlsperger, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Tailoring the most suitable reconstructive approach to each patient remains challenging especially in the head and neck region. To compare the applicability of the latissimus dorsi (LD) and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap, we retrospectively analyzed patients who had reconstruction of extensive and/or bulky composite tissue defects in the head and neck area. We performed 85 free tissue transfers (44 LD and 41 ALT flaps). LD mean flap surface was 115.8 cm(2). ALT mean flap surface was 67.0 cm(2). Pedicle length ranged from 8 to 16 cm in LD and 11-16 cm in ALT flaps. The survival rate was 93% in ALT and 91% in LD flaps. Donor site morbidity occurred in 5% (ALT) and 7% (LD). A Two-team-approach was possible in 24% of the LD group, whereas all ALT flaps were raised in a Two-team-approach. Both flaps present excellent opportunities for the reconstruction of extensive and/or bulky defects. They largely meet the requirements of an ideal soft tissue flap in terms of versatility, skin texture and tissue stock. Both flaps can be raised with a double skin paddle. The advantages and disadvantages of each flap have to be weighed up against each other and both flaps should be in the repertoire of every microvascular surgeon.

  20. [Outcome of relaying anterolateral thigh perforator flap in resurfacing the donor site wound following free anteromedial thigh perforator flap transfer for reconstruction of defect after oral tumor radical resection].

    PubMed

    Song, D J; Li, Z; Zhou, X; Zhang, Y X; Peng, X W; Zhou, B; Lyu, C L; Yang, L C; Peng, W

    2017-02-20

    Objective: To observe the outcome of relaying anterolateral thigh (ALT) perforator flap in resurfacing the donor site wound following free anteromedial thigh (AMT) perforator flap transfer for reconstruction of defect after oral tumor radical resection. Methods: From January 2013 to January 2016, 28 patients with oral tumor underwent radical resection in our hospital, leaving defects with size ranged from 6.5 cm×3.5 cm to 11.0 cm×7.5 cm which were reconstructed by free AMT perforator flaps with size ranged from 7.0 cm×4.0 cm to 12.0 cm×8.0 cm. All the arteries of AMT perforators were anastomosed with superior thyroid arteries, while the venae comitants were anastomosed with superior thyroid venae or internal jugular venae. The donor site wounds of free AMT perforator flaps were reconstructed by relaying ALT perforator flaps with size ranged from 8.0 cm×3.5 cm to 14.0 cm×7.5 cm. The relaying ALT perforator flap and wound edge were closed directly with layer interrupted suture. Postoperatively, the patients stayed in bed and received diet through nasal feeding tube, and the ordinary diet and lower extremity exercise were carried out from one week after operation. Results: The AMT and ALT perforators existed consistently in all patients. In 16 patients the venae comitants of AMT perforator arteries were anastomosed with superior thyroid venae in end-to-end fashion, while in 12 patients with internal jugular venae in end-to-side fashion. All flaps survived uneventfully about 2 weeks after operation, and the wounds healed smoothly. All patients were followed up for 6 to 30 months after operation. The sites repaired with free AMT perforator flaps were not bulky in appearance, with two-point discrimination distances ranged from 8 to 15 mm. The movement of tongue was not obviously affected, and patients could speak and eat normally. The texture and color of the sites repaired with relaying ALT perforator flaps were close to those of the adjacent tissue, and the two

  1. Thigh muscle strength in senior athletes and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2009-12-01

    Exercise is commonly recommended to counteract aging-related muscle weakness. While numerous exercise intervention studies on the elderly have been performed, few have included elite senior athletes, such as those who participate in the National Senior Games. The extent to which participation in highly competitive exercise affects muscle strength is unknown, as well as the extent to which such participation mitigates any aging-related strength losses. The purpose of this study was to examine isometric thigh muscle strength in selected athletes of the National Senior Games and healthy noncompetitive controls of similar age, as well as to investigate strength changes with aging in both groups. In all, 95 athletes of the Games and 72 healthy controls participated. Of the senior athletes, 43 were runners, 12 cyclists, and 40 swimmers. Three trials of isometric knee flexion and extension strength were collected using a load cell affixed to a custom-designed chair. Strength data were normalized to dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-obtained lean mass of the leg. A 3-factor multivariate analysis of variance (group x gender x age group) was performed, which included both the extension and flexion variables (alpha = 0.05). Athletes exhibited 38% more extension strength and 66% more flexion strength than the controls (p < 0.001). Strength did not decrease with advancing age in either the athletes or the controls (p = 0.345). In conclusion, senior athletes who participate in highly competitive exercise have greater strength than healthy aged-matched individuals who do not. Neither group displayed the expected strength losses with aging. Our subject cohorts, however, were not typical of those over age 65 years because individuals with existing health conditions were excluded from the study.

  2. Versatility of the Free Anterolateral Thigh Flap in the Reconstruction of Large Defects of the Weight-Bearing Foot: A Single-Center Experience with 20 Consecutive Cases.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Marco; Jeng, Seng-Feng; Sadigh, Parviz L; Shih, Hsiang-Shun

    2016-09-01

    Background Reconstruction of the weight-bearing surface of the foot represents a challenging task. With very little scope to borrow glabrous tissue from adjacent areas means that achieving a "like for like" reconstruction is rarely possible. In this setting, alternative approaches need to be considered. In this article we present our experience with various differing designs of the anterolateral thigh flap (ALT) in the reconstruction of 20 large defects of the weight-bearing sole. Methods Twenty patients with complex soft tissue defects of the weight-bearing sole underwent reconstruction over a 5-year period. Five cases were complicated by osteomyelitis resulting in significant calcaneal defects. The follow-up period ranged from 8 to 48 months and outcomes were assessed by two-point discrimination and protective sensation, observation of gait, and the ability of the patient to return to wearing normal footwear. Results All flaps survived with the exception of two partial skin necrosis. Sensory nerve coaptation was performed in 12/20 cases. One patient underwent second-stage total calcaneal reconstruction with a fibula osteocutaneous flap. Five large defects were reconstructed with the split skin paddle technique to allow for direct donor-site closure. No evidence of postoperative ulceration was noted in any of the patients over the follow-up period and all were satisfied regarding the functional and aesthetic results achieved. Conclusion Complex defects of the weight-bearing sole can be successfully reconstructed using the free ALT flap resulting in very favorable functional outcomes. Even when calcaneal osteomyelitis has set in, excellent outcomes can be achieved.

  3. Outcomes of anterolateral thigh-free flaps and conversion from external to internal fixation with bone grafting in gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Chung, Duke Whan; Han, Chung Soo

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the utility and the clinical outcomes of anterolateral thigh (ALT)-free flaps and conversion from external to internal fixation with plating and bone grafting in Gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures. A total of 21 patients were analyzed retrospectively. The mean follow-up period was 18 months and the mean age was 46.7 years. There were 18 men and three women. The mean time from injury to flap coverage was 11.6 days. The mean size of flaps used was 15.3 × 8.2 cm. The mean size of bone defects was 2.26 cm. Segmental bone defects were observed in 5 five cases, for which bone transport or vascularized fibular graft were performed. When flaps were successful and the fracture sites did not have any evidence of infection, internal fixation with plates and bone grafting were performed. Flaps survived in 20 cases. In the 20 cases with successful flaps, two cases developed osteomyelitis, but the 20 cases achieved solid bone union at a mean of 8.6 months after the injury, salvaging the lower extremity in 100% of the cases. At the last follow-up, 9 nine cases were measured excellent or good; 6, fair; and 6, poor in the functional assessment based on the method developed by Puno et al. ALT- free flaps to cover soft tissue defects in Gustilo type IIIB open tibial fractures are considered as useful option for the treatment of composite defects. In addition, conversion to internal fixation and bone grafting can be an alternative method in order to reduce the risk of complications and inconvenience of external fixators.

  4. Estimation of the forces generated by the thigh muscles for transtibial amputee gait.

    PubMed

    Voinescu, M; Soares, D P; Natal Jorge, R M; Davidescu, A; Machado, L J

    2012-04-05

    The forces generated by the muscles with origin on the human femur play a major role in transtibial amputee gait, as they are the most effective of the means that the body can use for propulsion. By estimating the forces generated by the thigh muscles of transtibial amputees, and comparing them to the forces generated by the thigh muscles of normal subjects, it is possible to better estimate the energy output needed from prosthetic devices. The purpose of this paper is to obtain the forces generated by the thigh muscles of transtibial amputees and compare these with forces obtained from the same muscles in the case of normal subjects. Two transtibial amputees and four normal subjects similar in size to the amputees were investigated. Level ground walking was chosen as the movement to be studied, since it is a common activity that most amputees engage in. Inverse dynamics and a muscle recruitment algorithm (developed by AnyBody Technology(®)) were used for generating the muscle activation patterns and for computing the muscle forces. The muscle forces were estimated as two sums: one for all posterior muscles and one for the anterior muscles, based on the position of the muscles of the thigh relative to the frontal plane of the human body. The results showed that a significantly higher force is generated by the posterior muscles of the amputees during walking, leading to a general increase of the metabolic cost necessary for one step.

  5. Reverse-flow anterolateral thigh perforator: an ad hoc flap for severe post-burn knee contracture.

    PubMed

    Ismail, H A; El-Bassiony, L E

    2016-03-31

    We evaluate function outcomes of the reverse-flow ALT perforator flap to reconstruct severe post-burn knee contracture. Between October 2012 and December 2014, 10 patients with severe post-burn knee contracture were subjected to reconstruction with 10 ipsilateral reversed-flow ALT perforator flaps. All the patients were male. Ages ranged from 15 to 47 years (mean = 32 years). Time from burn injury to patient presentation ranged from 2-8 months. All patients demonstrated post-burn flexion contracture of the knee joint, ranging from 35 to 75 degrees. Flap sizes ranged from 8×16 to 12×26 cm. The flaps and skin grafts were carried out without major complications. Only minor complications occurred, such as transient, mild congestion immediately after inset in two flaps. Two flaps developed superficial necrosis at the distal edge. One case sustained partial skin graft loss due to haematoma. One case complained of skin hyperpigmentation and hypertrophic scars around the graft. Secondary debulking procedures were required in two cases. The entire donor sites were closed by partial thickness skin graft with acceptable appearance, except one case that was closed primarily. Eight out of ten patients (80%) demonstrated gradual improvement in range of knee motion after a specialized rehabilitation program. Two patients (20%) did not get back full range of motion. RALT perforator flap is the cornerstone for the reconstruction of soft-tissue defects around the knee with acceptable aesthetic and functional results provided that the following items are fulfilled: inclusion of muscle cuff around the pedicle, the pivot point, prevention of pedicle compression after transfer and early surgical intervention on the post-burn knee contracture.

  6. Isokinetic dynamometer evaluation of the effects of early thigh diameter difference on thigh muscle strength in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring tendon graft.

    PubMed

    Kılınç, Bekir Eray; Kara, Adnan; Camur, Savas; Oc, Yunus; Celik, Haluk

    2015-04-01

    After anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, which muscle groups are more affected from frequently developing thigh muscle atrophy is a matter of debate. We evaluate the effect of thigh circumference difference between patients' knees who were administered the ACL reconstruction with hamstring tendon autograft and intact knees, on torque between the hamstring and quadriceps muscles. Fifty-five patients at least 6 months follow-up period available were included in our study. Power measurements of quadriceps and hamstring muscle groups in patients' extremities were done by using isokinetic dynamometer. The maximum torque values at 60°/sec, 240°/sec in frequency, positions of flexion and extension were determined. In accordance with our findings it is still possible to encounter the thigh atrophy in average 28 months after ACL reconstruction surgery even under physical rehabilitation programs and appropriate follow-up. It is inevitable for the clinician to consider these changes in diagnosis and rehabilitation stages. It can't be ignored that muscle weakness mechanisms developing in the thigh circumference vary according to the thigh muscle group and knee flexors play an important role in thigh atrophy when determining an appropriate rehabilitation program after reconstruction application.

  7. Thigh fat and muscle each contribute to excess cardiometabolic risk in South Asians, independent of visceral adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Sophie V; Tillin, Therese; Wright, Andrew; Mayet, Jamil; Godsland, Ian; Forouhi, Nita G; Whincup, Peter; Hughes, Alun D; Chaturvedi, Nishi

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare fat distribution and associations between fat depots and cardiometabolic traits in South Asians and Europeans. Methods Five hundred and fourteen South Asians and 669 Europeans, aged 56-86. Questionnaires, record review, blood testing, and coronary artery calcification scores provided diabetes and clinical plus subclinical coronary heart disease (CHD) diagnoses. Abdominal visceral (VAT) and subcutaneous adipose tissue, thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue (TSAT), intermuscular and intramuscular thigh fat and thigh muscle were measured by CT. Results Accounting for body size, South Asians had greater VAT and TSAT than Europeans, but less thigh muscle. Associations between depots and disease were stronger in South Asians than Europeans. In multivariable analyses in South Asians, VAT was positively associated with diabetes and CHD, while TSAT and thigh muscle were protective for diabetes, and thigh muscle for CHD. Differences in VAT and thigh muscle only partially explained the excess diabetes and CHD in South Asians versus Europeans. Insulin resistance did not account for the effects of TSAT or thigh muscle. Conclusions Greater VAT and TSAT and lesser thigh muscle in South Asians contributed to ethnic differences in cardiometabolic disease. Effects of TSAT and thigh muscle were independent of insulin resistance. PMID:24862429

  8. Validity of an anthropometric estimate of thigh muscle cross-sectional area.

    PubMed

    Knapik, J J; Staab, J S; Harman, E A

    1996-12-01

    This study examined the validity of an anthropometric estimate of thigh muscle cross-sectional area using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The anthropometric model assumed that a cross section of the thigh could be represented as a circle with concentric circular layers of fat-plus-skin, muscle, and bone tissue. On 18 healthy, active men and women (mean +/- SD age = 23 +/- 5 yr), total thigh circumference (CT) was measured with a fiberglass tape, fat-plus-skin thickness was measured over the quadriceps (SQ) using calipers, and the distance across the medial and lateral femoral epicondyle (dE) was measured with calipers. Direct measurements of each tissue were obtained by planimetry of an MRI image taken at the same site as the circumference and skinfolds. Thigh muscle cross-sectional area (AM) was estimated as follows: [equation: see text] Mean +/- SD AM from MRI and anthropometry were 121.9 +/- 35.1 cm2 and 149.1 +/- 34.1 cm2 (r = 0.96, SEE = 10.1 cm2), respectively. Errors in the anthropometric approximations of AM were due to an overestimate of the total thigh cross-sectional area and an underestimate of fat-plus-skin compartment. Because of the close relationship between MRI and anthropometric estimates of AM, zero-intercept regression was used to produce the following final equation, applicable for use in populations studies of young, healthy, active men and women: [equation: see text

  9. Sarcomere length changes in muscles of the human thigh during walking.

    PubMed Central

    Cutts, A

    1989-01-01

    In a previous investigation (Cutts, 1988a) sarcomere lengths were determined for muscles of the thigh in the anatomical position, and a method devised for the prediction of sarcomere lengths at other positions. In the present investigation, this information was used to predict the sarcomere length changes in the muscles of the thigh during walking, in conjunction with ciné film and bone models of experimental subjects. When compared with the length tension curve for human muscle (Walker & Schrodt, 1973), the results indicate that during walking the muscles operate at sarcomere lengths near the plateau of the curve, where maximum tension can be realised. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:2621149

  10. Group I projections from intrinsic foot muscles to motoneurones of leg and thigh muscles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Marque, Philippe; Nicolas, Guillaume; Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique; Gautier, Julien; Simonetta-Moreau, Marion; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Emmanuel

    2001-01-01

    Group I projections from intrinsic plantar muscles to motoneurones (MNs) of human leg and thigh muscles were investigated. Changes in firing probability of single motor units (MUs) in the tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus brevis (Per brev), soleus (Sol), gastrocnemius medialis (GM), vastus lateralis (VL), semitendinosus (ST) and biceps (Bi) were studied after electrical stimuli applied to: (i) the tibial nerve (TN) at ankle level, (ii) the corresponding homonymous nerve, and (iii) the skin of the heel, to mimic the TN-induced cutaneous sensation.Homonymous facilitation, attributable to monosynaptic Ia excitation, was found in all the sampled units. Early heteronymous excitation elicited by TN stimulation was found in many MUs. Later effects (3–5 ms central delay) were bigger and more frequently observed: excitation in most TA and Per brev MUs, and inhibition in most Sol, GM and Bi MUs and in many ST and VL MUs. The low threshold (∼0.5–0.6 × motor threshold) and the inability of a pure cutaneous stimulation to reproduce these effects (except the late excitation in TA MUs) indicate that they were due to stimulation of group I muscle afferents.The early excitation was accepted to be monosynaptic when its central delay differed from that of the homonymous Ia excitation by less than 0.5 ms. Such a significant TN-induced monosynaptic Ia excitation was found in MUs belonging to all leg and thigh motor nuclei tested. Although its mean strength was relatively weak, it is argued that these monosynaptic connections might affect already depolarized MNs.The late excitation found in TA and Per brev MUs is argued to be mediated through interneurones located rostral to MNs.The late suppression, found in most Sol, GM and Bi MUs, and in many ST and VL MUs, was the dominant effect. It was accompanied by an inhibition of the Sol and quadriceps H reflexes at rest, and therefore reflects an inhibition directed to MNs. Its long latency is argued to reflect transmission by

  11. Bone Mineral Density and Fatty Degeneration of Thigh Muscles Measured by Computed Tomography in Hip Fracture Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Myung Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Recently, as an independent fracture factor from Bone mineral density (BMD), muscle weakness due to the fatty degeneration of thigh muscles have been attracting attentions as causes of hip fracture. The purpose of this study is to investigate the correlation between the body composition and BMD and fatty degeneration of thigh muscles of the female patients over 65 years old with osteoporotic hip fracture. Methods This study was conducted with 178 female osteoporotic hip fracture patients. Total hip BMD was measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Cross-sectional area (CSA), cross-sectional muscle area (CSmA), muscle attenuation coefficient (MAC), and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) of gluteus maximus, hip abductors, quadriceps and hamstring muscle were measured with computed tomography. Normalized IMAT (nIMAT) was calculated by dividing the fat area in the muscle into the size of each muscle. The correlation between each measurement is examined then the differences between the intertrochanteric fracture group and the femoral neck fracture group were analyzed. Results CSmA and MAC of quadriceps were the largest and nIMAT was the lowest. CSA and CSmA of the four muscles showed a statistically significant positive correlation with weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and BMD. MAC of 2 gluteal muscles was positively correlated with weight, BMI and BMD. nIMAT of all four muscles was positively correlation with weight and BMI but nIMAT of 2 mid-thigh muscles was positively correlation with BMD. Conclusions Muscle size and fatty degeneration in the thigh muscles were most positively correlated with the body weight. BMD was positively correlation with CSA and CSmA of all thigh muscles, and MAC of 2 gluteal muscles and fatty degeneration of 2 mid-thigh muscles. There was no statistically significant difference in the size of the femoral muscle and the degree of fatty degeneration between the two fracture groups. PMID:27965943

  12. Differentiation of fat, muscle, and edema in thigh MRIs using random forest classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, William; Liu, Chia-Ying; Summers, Ronald M.; Yao, Jianhua

    2016-03-01

    There are many diseases that affect the distribution of muscles, including Duchenne and fascioscapulohumeral dystrophy among other myopathies. In these disease cases, it is important to quantify both the muscle and fat volumes to track the disease progression. There has also been evidence that abnormal signal intensity on the MR images, which often is an indication of edema or inflammation can be a good predictor for muscle deterioration. We present a fully-automated method that examines magnetic resonance (MR) images of the thigh and identifies the fat, muscle, and edema using a random forest classifier. First the thigh regions are automatically segmented using the T1 sequence. Then, inhomogeneity artifacts were corrected using the N3 technique. The T1 and STIR (short tau inverse recovery) images are then aligned using landmark based registration with the bone marrow. The normalized T1 and STIR intensity values are used to train the random forest. Once trained, the random forest can accurately classify the aforementioned classes. This method was evaluated on MR images of 9 patients. The precision values are 0.91+/-0.06, 0.98+/-0.01 and 0.50+/-0.29 for muscle, fat, and edema, respectively. The recall values are 0.95+/-0.02, 0.96+/-0.03 and 0.43+/-0.09 for muscle, fat, and edema, respectively. This demonstrates the feasibility of utilizing information from multiple MR sequences for the accurate quantification of fat, muscle and edema.

  13. Discrepancies between Skinned Single Muscle Fibres and Whole Thigh Muscle Function Characteristics in Young and Elderly Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to analyse the mechanical properties of skinned single muscle fibres derived from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle in relation to those of the whole intact thigh muscle and to compare any difference between young and older adults. Sixteen young men (29.25 ± 4.65 years), 11 older men (71.45 ± 2.94 years), 11 young women (29.64 ± 4.88 years), and 7 older women (67.29 ± 1.70 years) were recruited. In vivo analyses were performed for mechanical properties such as isokinetic performance, isometric torque, and power. Specific force and maximum shortening velocity (Vo) were measured with single muscle fibres. Sex difference showed greater impact on the functional properties of both the whole muscle (p < 0.01) and single muscle fibres than aging (p < 0.05). Sex difference, rather than aging, yielded more remarkable differences in gross mechanical properties in the single muscle fibre study in which significant differences between young men and young women were found only in the cross-sectional area and Vo (p < 0.05). Age and sex differences reflect the mechanical properties of both single muscle fibres and whole thigh muscle, with the whole muscle yielding more prominent functional properties. PMID:28070513

  14. Progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, a muscle magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Li, Wenzhu; Zheng, Yiming; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Zhaoxia; Xiao, Jiangxi; Yuan, Yun

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the progression and variation of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients. Muscle magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure the degree of fatty infiltration of the thigh muscles of 171 boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (mean age, 6.09 ± 2.30 years). Fatty infiltration was assigned using a modified Mercuri's scale 0-5 (normal-severe). The gluteus maximus and adductor magnus were affected in patients less than two years old, followed by the biceps femoris. Quadriceps and semimembranosus were first affected at the age of five to six years; the sartorius, gracilis and adductor longus remained apparently unaffected until seven years of age. Fatty infiltration of all the thigh muscles developed rapidly after seven years of age. The standard deviation of the fatty infiltration scores ranged from 2.41 to 4.87 before five years old, and from 6.84 to 11.66 between six and ten years old. This study provides evidence of highly variable degrees of fatty infiltration in children of different ages with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and indicates that fatty infiltration progresses more quickly after seven years of age. These findings may be beneficial for the selection of therapeutic regimens and the analysis of future clinical trials.

  15. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed; Jensen, Bente R; Darvann, Tron; Jørgensen, Kurt; Bakke, Merete

    2006-01-01

    Background The echogenicity patterns of ultrasound scans contain information of tissue composition in muscles. The aim was: (1) to develop a quantitative ultrasound image analysis to characterize tissue composition in terms of intensity and structure of the ultrasound images, and (2) to use the method for characterization of ultrasound images of the supraspinatus muscle, and the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods Computerized texture analyses employing first-order and higher-order grey-scale statistics were developed to objectively characterize ultrasound images of m. supraspinatus and m. vastus lateralis from 9 healthy participants. Results The mean grey-scale intensity was higher in the vastus lateralis muscle (p < 0.05) than in the supraspinatus muscle (average value of middle measuring site 51.4 compared to 35.0). Furthermore, the number of spatially connected and homogeneous regions (blobs) was higher in the vastus lateralis (p < 0.05) than in the supraspinatus (average for m. vastus lateralis: 0.092 mm-2 and for m. supraspinatus: 0.016 mm-2). Conclusion The higher intensity and the higher number of blobs in the vastus lateralis muscle indicates that the thigh muscle contained more non-contractile components than the supraspinatus muscle, and that the muscle was coarser. The image analyses supplemented each other and gave a more complete description of the tissue composition in the muscle than the mean grey-scale value alone. PMID:16420695

  16. HIV Infection Is Associated with Increased Fatty Infiltration of the Thigh Muscle with Aging Independent of Fat Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Sellmeyer, Deborah E.; Haberlen, Sabina A.; Margolick, Joseph; Jacobson, Lisa P.; Palella, Frank J.; Koletar, Susan L.; Lake, Jordan E.; Post, Wendy S.; Brown, Todd T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Lower muscle density on computed tomography (CT) provides a measure of fatty infiltration of muscle, an aspect of muscle quality that has been associated with metabolic abnormalities, weakness, decreased mobility, and increased fracture risk in older adults. We assessed the cross-sectional relationship between HIV serostatus, age, thigh muscle attenuation, and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Methods Mean CT-quantified Hounsfield units (HU) of the thigh muscle bundle and CSA were evaluated in 368 HIV-infected and 145 HIV-uninfected men enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) Cardiovascular Substudy using multivariable linear regression. Models all were adjusted for HIV serostatus, age, race, and body mass index (BMI); each model was further adjusted for covariates that differed by HIV serostatus, including insulin resistance, hepatitis C, malignancy, smoking, alcohol use, and self-reported limitation in physical activity. Results HIV-infected men had greater thigh muscle CSA (p<0.001) but lower muscle density (p<0.001) compared to HIV-uninfected men. Muscle density remained lower in HIV-infected men (p = 0.001) when abdominal visceral adiposity, and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue area were substituted for BMI in a multivariable model. Muscle density decreased by 0.16 HU per year (p<0.001) of increasing age among the HIV-infected men, but not in the HIV-uninfected men (HIV x age interaction -0.20 HU; p = 0.002). Conclusion HIV-infected men had lower thigh muscle density compared to HIV-uninfected men, and a more pronounced decline with increasing age, indicative of greater fatty infiltration. These findings suggest that lower muscle quality among HIV-infected persons may be a risk factor for impairments in physical function with aging. PMID:28060856

  17. NMR imaging estimates of muscle volume and intramuscular fat infiltration in the thigh: variations with muscle, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Azzabou, Noura; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Voit, Thomas; Moraux, Amélie; Leroux, Gaëlle; Behin, Anthony; McPhee, Jamie S; Carlier, Pierre G

    2015-06-01

    Muscle mass is particularly relevant to follow during aging, owing to its link with physical performance and autonomy. The objectives of this work were to assess muscle volume (MV) and intramuscular fat (IMF) for all the muscles of the thigh in a large population of young and elderly healthy individuals using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to test the effect of gender and age on MV and IMF and to determine the best representative slice for the estimation of MV and IMF. The study enrolled 105 healthy young (range 20-30 years) and older (range 70-80 years) subjects. MRI scans were acquired along the femur length using a three-dimension three-point Dixon proton density-weighted gradient echo sequence. MV and IMF were estimated from all the slices. The effects of age and gender on MV and IMF were assessed. Predictive equations for MV and IMF were established using a single slice at various femur levels for each muscle in order to reduce the analysis process. MV was decreased with aging in both genders, particularly in the quadriceps femoris. IMF was largely increased with aging in men and, to a lesser extent, in women. Percentages of MV decrease and IMF increase with aging varied according to the muscle. Predictive equations to predict MV and IMF from single slices are provided and were validated. This study is the first one to provide muscle volume and intramuscular fat infiltration in all the muscles of the thigh in a large population of young and elderly healthy subjects.

  18. Thigh muscle size and vascular function after blood flow-restricted elastic band training in older women

    PubMed Central

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Fukumura, Kazuya; Tomaru, Takanobu; Nakajima, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of elastic band training with blood flow restriction (BFR) on thigh muscle size and vascular function in older women. Older women were divided into three groups: low-intensity elastic band BFR training (BFR-Tr, n = 10), middleto high-intensity elastic band training (MH-Tr, n = 10), and no training (Ctrl, n = 10) groups. BFR-Tr and MH-Tr groups performed squat and knee extension exercises using elastic band, 2 days/week for 12 weeks. During BFR-Tr exercise session, subjects wore pressure cuffs around the most proximal region of both thighs. The following measurements were taken before (pre) and 3-5 days after (post) the final training session: MRI-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) at mid-thigh, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of knee extension, central systolic blood pressure (c-SBP), central-augmentation index (c-AIx), cardio-ankle vascular index testing (CAVI), ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Quadriceps muscle CSA (6.9%) and knee extension MVIC (13.7%) were increased (p < 0.05) in the BFR-Tr group, but not in the MH-Tr and the Ctrl groups. Regarding c-SBP, c-AIx, CAVI and ABI, there were no changes between pre- and post- results among the three groups. Elastic band BFR training increases thigh muscle CSA as well as maximal muscle strength, but does not decrease vascular function in older women. PMID:27244884

  19. Adaptive control for backward quadrupedal walking V. Mutable activation of bifunctional thigh muscles.

    PubMed

    Pratt, C A; Buford, J A; Smith, J L

    1996-02-01

    1. In this, the fifth article in a series to assess changes in posture, hindlimb dynamics, and muscle synergies associated with backward (BWD) quadrupedal walking, we compared the recruitment of three biarticular muscles of the cat's anterior thigh (anterior sartorius, SAa; medial sartorius, SAm; rectus femoris, RF) for forward (FWD) and BWD treadmill walking. Electromyography (EMG) records from these muscles, along with those of two muscles (semitendinosus, ST; anterior biceps femoris, ABF) studied previously in this series, were synchronized with kinematic data digitized from high-speed ciné film for unperturbed steps and steps in which a stumbling corrective reaction was elicited during swing. 2. During swing, the relative timing of EMG activity for the unifunctional SAm (hip and knee flexor) was similar for unperturbed steps of FWD and BWD walking. The SAm was active before paw lift off and remained active during most of swing (75%) for both forms of walking, but there was a marked decrease in EMG amplitude after paw off during BWD and not FWD swing. In contrast, the relative timing of EMG activity for the SAa and RF, two bifunctional muscles (hip flexors, knee extensors), was different for FWD and BWD swing. During FWD swing, the SAa and the RF (to a lesser extent) were coactive with the SAm; however, during BWD swing, the SAa and RF were active just before paw lift off and then inactive for the rest of swing until just before paw contact (see 3). Thus the swing-phase activity of the SAa and RF was markedly shorter for BWD than FWD swing. 3. Activity in SAa and RF was also different during FWD and BWD stance. The RF was consistently active from mid-to-late stance of FWD walking, and the SAa was also active during this period in some FWD steps. During the stance phase of BWD walking, however, the onset of activity in both muscles consistently shifted to early stance as both muscles became active just before paw contact (the E1 phase). Activity in RF

  20. ¹³C MRS reveals a small diurnal variation in the glycogen content of human thigh muscle.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Kamei, Akiko; Osawa, Takuya; Kawahara, Takashi; Takizawa, Osamu; Maruyama, Katsuya

    2015-06-01

    There is marked diurnal variation in the glycogen content of skeletal muscles of animals, but few studies have addressed such variations in human muscles. (13)C MRS can be used to noninvasively measure the glycogen content of human skeletal muscle, but no study has explored the diurnal variations in this parameter. This study aimed to investigate whether a diurnal variation in glycogen content occurs in human muscles and, if so, to what extent it can be identified using (13)C MRS. Six male volunteers were instructed to maintain their normal diet and not to perform strenuous exercise for at least 3 days before and during the experiment. Muscle glycogen and blood glucose concentrations were measured six times in 24 h under normal conditions in these subjects. The glycogen content in the thigh muscle was determined noninvasively by natural abundance (13)C MRS using a clinical MR system at 3 T. Nutritional analysis revealed that the subjects' mean carbohydrate intake was 463 ± 137 g, being approximately 6.8 ± 2.4 g/kg body weight. The average sleeping time was 5.9 ± 1.0 h. The glycogen content in the thigh muscle at the starting point was 64.8 ± 20.6 mM. Although absolute and relative individual variations in muscle glycogen content were 7.0 ± 2.1 mM and 11.3 ± 4.6%, respectively, no significant difference in glycogen content was observed among the different time points. This study demonstrates that normal food intake (not fat and/or carbohydrate rich), sleep and other daily activities have a negligible influence on thigh muscle glycogen content, and that the diurnal variation of the glycogen content in human muscles is markedly smaller than that in animal muscles. Moreover, the present results also support the reproducibility and availability of (13)C MRS for the evaluation of the glycogen content in human muscles.

  1. Asymmetry in CT Scan Measures of Thigh Muscle 2 Months After Hip Fracture: The Baltimore Hip Studies

    PubMed Central

    Eastlack, Marty; Hicks, Gregory E.; Alley, Dawn E.; Shardell, Michelle D.; Orwig, Denise L.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Chomentowski, Peter J.; Hawkes, William G.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Magaziner, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Background. Hip fracture is an important problem for older adults with significant functional consequences. After hip fracture, reduced muscle loading can result in muscle atrophy. Methods. We compared thigh muscle characteristics in the fractured leg to those in the nonfractured leg in participants from the Baltimore Hip Studies 7th cohort using computed tomography scan imaging. Results. At 2 months postfracture, a single 10mm axial computed tomography scan was obtained at the midthigh level in 43 participants (23 men, 20 women) with a mean age of 79.9 years (range: 65–96 years), and thigh muscle cross-sectional area, cross-sectional area of intermuscular adipose tissue, and mean radiologic attenuation were measured. Total thigh muscle cross-sectional area was less on the side of the fracture by 9.46cm2 (95% CI: 5.97cm2, 12.95cm2) while the cross-sectional area of intermuscular adipose tissue was greater by 2.97cm2 (95% CI: 1.94cm2, 4.01cm2) on the fractured side. Mean muscle attenuation was lower on the side of the fracture by 3.66 Hounsfield Units (95% CI: 2.98 Hounsfield Units, 4.34 Hounsfield Units). Conclusions. The observed asymmetry is consistent with the effect of disuse and inflammation in the affected limb along with training effects in the unaffected limb due to the favoring of this leg with ambulation during the postfracture period. PMID:25969469

  2. Mechanisms producing coordinated function across the breadth of a large biarticular thigh muscle

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Jennifer A.; Ellerby, David J.; Rubenson, Jonas; Marsh, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY We examined the hypothesis that structural features of the iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis (ILPO) in guinea fowl allow this large muscle to maintain equivalent function along its anterior–posterior axis. The ILPO, the largest muscle in the hindlimb of the guinea fowl, is a hip and knee extensor. The fascicles of the ILPO originate across a broad region of the ilium and ischium posterior to the hip. Its long posterior fascicles span the length of the thigh and insert directly on the patellar tendon complex. However, its anterior fascicles are shorter and insert on a narrow aponeurosis that forms a tendinous band along the anterior edge of the muscle and is connected distally to the patellar tendon. The biarticular ILPO is actively lengthened and then actively shortened during stance. The moment arm of the fascicles at the hip increases along the anterior to posterior axis, whereas the moment arm at the knee is constant for all fascicles. Using electromyography and sonomicrometry, we examined the activity and strain of posterior and anterior fascicles of the ILPO. The activation was not significantly different in the anterior and posterior fascicles. Although we found significant differences in active lengthening and shortening strain between the anterior and posterior fascicles, the differences were small. The majority of shortening strain is caused by hip extension and the inverse relationship between hip moment arm and fascicle length along the anterior–posterior axis was found to have a major role in ensuring similar shortening strain. However, because the knee moment arm is the same for all fascicles, knee flexion in early stance was predicted to produce much larger lengthening strains in the short anterior fascicles than our measured values at this location. We propose that active lengthening of the anterior fascicles was lower than predicted because the aponeurotic tendon of insertion of the anterior fascicles was stretched and only a

  3. Multiple muscular variations including tenuissimus and tensor fasciae suralis muscles in the posterior thigh of a human case.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, Takamitsu; Kondo, Takahiro; Tsutsumi, Masahiro; Watanabe, Yuko; Terashima, Toshio; Miki, Akinori

    2017-03-07

    The posterior thigh muscles on the right side of an 81-year-old male cadaver had multiple variations, denoted muscles I-IV. Muscle I originated from the posteromedial surface of the greater trochanter and divided into two muscle bellies. These muscle bellies fused with the long head of the biceps femoris and were innervated by two branches from muscular branches of the semitendinosus and the long head of the biceps. Muscle II separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the proximal third and fused with the semitendinosus in the distal fourth. Muscle III was a biventer muscle. Its superior belly separated from the medial surface of the long head of the biceps in the distal third. The inferior belly of this muscle fused with the posterior surface of the crural fascia and was innervated by the tibial nerve. Muscle IV separated from the adductor magnus muscle, passed between the long and short heads of the biceps, fused with the inferior belly of muscle III, and was innervated by the muscular branch of the common fibular nerve to the short head of the biceps. Peeling off the epineurium of the muscular branches to the inferior belly of muscle III showed that this nerve fascicle divided from the common trunk with branches to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. The inferior bellies of muscle III and muscle IV were thought to be equivalent to the tensor fasciae suralis and tenuissimus muscles, respectively.

  4. ‘Serious thigh muscle strains’: beware the intramuscular tendon which plays an important role in difficult hamstring and quadriceps muscle strains

    PubMed Central

    Brukner, Peter; Connell, David

    2016-01-01

    Why do some hamstring and quadriceps strains take much longer to repair than others? Which injuries are more prone to recurrence? Intramuscular tendon injuries have received little attention as an element in ‘muscle strain’. In thigh muscles, such as rectus femoris and biceps femoris, the attached tendon extends for a significant distance within the muscle belly. While the pathology of most muscle injures occurs at a musculotendinous junction, at first glance the athlete appears to report pain within a muscle belly. In addition to the musculotendinous injury being a site of pathology, the intramuscular tendon itself is occasionally injured. These injuries have a variety of appearances on MRIs. There is some evidence that these injuries require a prolonged rehabilitation time and may have higher recurrence rates. Therefore, it is important to recognise the tendon component of a thighmuscle strain’. PMID:26519522

  5. Differential segmental strain during active lengthening in a large biarticular thigh muscle during running

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Jennifer A.; Ellerby, David J.; Marsh, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis (ILPO) is the largest muscle in the hindlimb of the guinea fowl and is thought to play an important role during the stance phase of running, both absorbing and producing work. Using sonomicrometry and electromyography, we examined whether the ILPO experiences differential strain between proximal, central and distal portions of the posterior fascicles. When the ILPO is being lengthened while active, the distal portion was found to lengthen significantly more than either the proximal or central portions of the muscle. Our data support the hypothesis that the distal segment lengthened farther and faster because it began activity at shorter sarcomere lengths on the ascending limb of the length–tension curve. Probably because of the self-stabilizing effects of operating on the ascending limb of the length–tension curve, all segments reached the end of lengthening and started shortening at the same sarcomere length. During shortening, this similarity in sarcomere length among the segments was maintained, as predicted from force–velocity effects, and shortening strain was similar in all segments. The differential active strain during active lengthening is thus ultimately determined by differences in strain during the passive portion of the cycle. The sarcomere lengths of all segments of the fascicles were similar at the end of active shortening, but after the passive portion of the cycle the distal segment was shorter. Differential strain in the segments during the passive portion of the cycle may be caused by differential joint excursions at the knee and hip acting on the ends of the muscle and being transmitted differentially by the passive visco-elastic properties of the muscle. Alternatively, the differential passive strain could be due to the action of active or passive muscles in the thigh that transmit force to the IPLO in shear. Based on basic sarcomere dynamics we predict that differential strain is

  6. Heterogeneous recruitment of quadriceps muscle portions and fibre types during moderate intensity knee-extensor exercise: effect of thigh occlusion.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, P; Söderlund, K; Relu, M U; Ferguson, R A; Bangsbo, J

    2009-08-01

    The involvement of quadriceps femoris muscle portions and fibre type recruitment was studied during submaximal knee-extensor exercise without and with thigh occlusion (OCC) and compared with responses during intense exercise. Six healthy male subjects performed 90-s of moderate exercise without (MOD; 29+/-4 W) and with thigh OCC, and moderate exercise followed by 90-s of intense exercise (HI; 65+/-8 W). Temperatures were continuously measured in m. vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis (VM) and rectus femoris (RF) and successive muscle biopsies were obtained from VL. During MOD, muscle temperature increase (DeltaT(m)) in RF was 0.52+/-0.09 degrees C, which was 57% and 73% higher (P<0.05) than in VL and VM, respectively. During OCC, DeltaT(m) in RF was 0.39+/-0.05 degrees C, which was not different from VM but 54% higher (P<0.05) than in VL. After MOD, muscle CP in slow twitch (ST) and fast twitch (FT) fibres was 81% and 91% of resting levels, respectively, with lower (P<0.05) values after OCC (15% and 22%) and HI (24% and 13%). After MOD, OCC and HI, a total of 48%, 93% and 96% of the ST fibres had CP levels below mean-1 SD, respectively, with corresponding values for FT fibres being 41%, 89% and 100%, respectively. In conclusion, a heterogeneous recruitment of the quadriceps muscle portions and muscle fibres was observed during submaximal knee-extensor exercise, whereas recruitment pattern was homogenous during intense exercise. Thigh OCC caused an altered recruitment of fibres and muscle portions, suggesting a significant afferent response affecting the activation of fibres in the contracting muscles.

  7. COMPETITIVE ATHLETIC PARTICIPATION, THIGH MUSCLE STRENGTH, AND BONE DENSITY IN ELITE SENIOR ATHLETES AND CONTROLS

    PubMed Central

    McCrory, Jean L.; Salacinski, Amanda J.; Hunt Sellhorst, Sarah E.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between participation in highly competitive exercise, thigh muscle strength, and regional and total body bone mineral density (BMD) in elite senior athletes and healthy elderly controls was investigated. One hundred and four elite senior athletes (72.6±6.4yrs, 168.7±8.6cm, 72.6±13.5kg, 57M:47F) and 79 healthy controls (75.4±5.6yrs, 170.8±25.5cm, 79.5± 11.7kg, 46M:33F) participated in this cross-sectional study. Vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed via a recall survey. Isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque was measured via a custom strength measurement device. Total body and regional BMD of the hip, radius, and spine were assessed with DXA. For each BMD site assessed, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed in four steps (α=0.10) to examine the contribution of (1) age, sex, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake (2) group (elite senior athlete, control), (3) knee extension peak torque and (4) knee flexion peak torque on BMD. Sex, age, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake explained a significant amount of variance in BMD in each site. Group was not significant. Knee extension peak torque explained an additional 3.8% of the variance in hip BMD (p=0.06). Knee flexion peak torque was not correlated to BMD at any of the sites assessed. In conclusion, participation in highly competitive athletics was not related to total body or regional BMD. Age, sex, bodyweight, and vitamin D and calcium intake were significantly related to BMD at all of the sites assessed. Quadriceps strength contributed slightly to hip BMD. Our results imply that participation in highly competitive senior athletics does not have a protective effect on BMD, perhaps because of a lower bodyweight or other confounding factors. PMID:23442279

  8. The contribution of visceral adiposity and mid-thigh fat-rich muscle to the metabolic profile in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Marie-Christine; Lemieux, Simone; Piché, Marie-Eve; Corneau, Louise; Bergeron, Jean; Riou, Marie-Eve; Weisnagel, Stanley J

    2011-05-01

    This study explored the relationship between muscle fat infiltration derived from mid-thigh computed tomography (CT) scan, central fat distribution and insulin sensitivity in postmenopausal women. Mid-thigh CT scans were used to measure low attenuation muscle surface (LAMS) (0-34 Hounsfield units (HU)), which represented a specific component of fat-rich muscle. Whole-body insulin sensitivity (M/I) was evaluated by an euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. A group of 103 women aged 57.0 ± 4.4 years was studied. Women with higher levels of LAMS presented higher metabolic risk features, particularly elevated fasting, 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG) concentrations and diminished M/I (P < 0.05). To further study the contribution of muscle fat infiltration and central adiposity on metabolic parameters, we divided the whole group based on the median of LAMS and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). As expected, the best metabolic profile was found in the Low-LAMS/Low-VAT group and the worst in the High-LAMS/High-VAT group. Women with Low-LAMS/High-VAT presented similar metabolic risks to those with High-LAMS/High-VAT. There was no difference between High-LAMS/Low-VAT and Low-LAMS/Low-VAT, which presents the most healthy metabolic and glycemic profiles as reflected by the lowest levels of cardiovascular disease risk variables. This suggests that High-LAMS/Low-VAT is also at low risk of metabolic deteriorations and that High-LAMS, only in the presence of High-VAT seems associated with deteriorated risks. Although increased mid-thigh fat-rich muscle was related to a deteriorated metabolic profile, VAT appears as a more important contributor to alterations in the metabolic profile in postmenopausal women.

  9. Competitive athletic participation, thigh muscle strength, and bone density in elite senior athletes and controls.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Jean L; Salacinski, Amanda J; Hunt Sellhorst, Sarah E; Greenspan, Susan L

    2013-11-01

    The relationship between participation in highly competitive exercise, thigh muscle strength, and regional and total body bone mineral density (BMD) in elite senior athletes and healthy elderly controls was investigated. One hundred and four elite senior athletes (age: 72.6 ± 6.4 years, height: 168.7 ± 8.6 cm, mass: 72.6 ± 13.5 kg, 57 male:47 female) and 79 healthy controls (age: 75.4 ± 5.6 years, height: 170.8 ± 25.5 cm, mass: 79.5 ± 11.7 kg, 46 male:33 female) participated in this cross-sectional study. Vitamin D and calcium intake were assessed via a recall survey. Isometric knee extension and flexion peak torque were measured via a custom strength measurement device. Total body and regional BMD of the hip, radius, and spine were assessed with a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometer. For each BMD site assessed, multivariate linear regression analysis was performed in 4 steps (α = 0.10) to examine the contribution of (a) age, sex, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake; (b) group (elite senior athlete, control); (c) knee extension peak torque; and (d) knee flexion peak torque on BMD. Sex, age, bodyweight, and calcium and vitamin D intake explained a significant amount of variance in BMD in each site. Group was not significant. Knee extension peak torque explained an additional 3.8% of the variance in hip BMD (p = 0.06). Knee flexion peak torque was not correlated to BMD at any of the sites assessed. In conclusion, participation in highly competitive athletics was not related to total body or regional BMD. Age, sex, bodyweight, and vitamin D and calcium intake were significantly related to BMD at all the sites assessed. Quadriceps strength contributed slightly to hip BMD. Our results imply that participation in highly competitive senior athletics does not have a protective effect on BMD, perhaps because of a lower bodyweight or other confounding factors.

  10. B1-insensitive T2 mapping of healthy thigh muscles using a T2-prepared 3D TSE sequence

    PubMed Central

    Klupp, Elisabeth; Weidlich, Dominik; Schlaeger, Sarah; Baum, Thomas; Cervantes, Barbara; Deschauer, Marcus; Kooijman, Hendrik; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Zimmer, Claus; Kirschke, Jan S.; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To propose a T2-prepared 3D turbo spin echo (T2prep 3D TSE) sequence for B1-insensitive skeletal muscle T2 mapping and compare its performance with 2D and 3D multi-echo spin echo (MESE) for T2 mapping in thigh muscles of healthy subjects. Methods The performance of 2D MESE, 3D MESE and the proposed T2prep 3D TSE in the presence of transmit B1 and B0 inhomogeneities was first simulated. The thigh muscles of ten young and healthy subjects were then scanned on a 3 T system and T2 mapping was performed using the three sequences. Transmit B1-maps and proton density fat fraction (PDFF) maps were also acquired. The subjects were scanned three times to assess reproducibility. T2 values were compared among sequences and their sensitivity to B1 inhomogeneities was compared to simulation results. Correlations were also determined between T2 values, PDFF and B1. Results The left rectus femoris muscle showed the largest B1 deviations from the nominal value (from 54.2% to 92.9%). Significant negative correlations between T2 values and B1 values were found in the left rectus femoris muscle for 3D MESE (r = -0.72, p<0.001) and 2D MESE (r = -0.71, p<0.001), but not for T2prep 3D TSE (r = -0.32, p = 0.09). Reproducibility of T2 expressed by root mean square coefficients of variation (RMSCVs) were equal to 3.5% in T2prep 3D TSE, 2.6% in 3D MESE and 2.4% in 2D MESE. Significant differences between T2 values of 3D sequences (T2prep 3D TSE and 3D MESE) and 2D MESE were found in all muscles with the highest values for 2D MESE (p<0.05). No significant correlations were found between PDFF and T2 values. Conclusion A strong influence of an inhomogeneous B1 field on the T2 values of 3D MESE and 2D MESE was shown, whereas the proposed T2prep 3D TSE gives B1-insensitive and reproducible thigh muscle T2 mapping. PMID:28196133

  11. Muscle-skeletal model of the thigh: a tool for understanding the biomechanics of gait in patients with cerebral palsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravera, Emiliano Pablo; Catalfamo Formento, Paola Andrea; José Crespo, Marcos; Andrés Braidot, Ariel

    2011-12-01

    Cerebral Palsy represents the most common cause of physical disability in modern world and within the pediatrics orthopedics units. The gait analysis provides great contributions to the understanding of gait disorders in CP. Giving a more comprehensive treatment plan, including or excluding surgical procedures that can potentially decrease the number of surgical interventions in the life of these patients. Recommendations for orthopedic surgery may be based on a quantitative description of how to alter the properties probably muscle force generation, and how this affects the action of the muscle to determine how these muscles, impaired by disease or surgery, contributing to the movement of the segments of the limb during crouch gait. So the causes and appropriate treatment of gait abnormalities are difficult to determine because the movements generated by the muscular forces of these patients are not clearly understood. A correct determination of the etiology of abnormal patterns of the knee is the key to select the appropriate therapy, presenting a major challenge at present since there is no theoretical basis to determine the biomechanical causes of abnormal gait of these patients. The potential and necessity of using correct biomechanical models that consistently study the abnormalities becomes clear. Reinforcing and correcting a simple gait analysis and eliminating the unknowns when selecting the appropriate treatment is crucial in clinical settings. In this paper a computer muscle-skeletal model is proposed. The model represents a person's thigh simulating the six most representative muscles and joints of the hip and knee. In this way you can have a better understanding of gait abnormalities present in these patients. So the quality of these estimates of individual muscle dynamics facilitate better understanding of the biomechanics of gait pathologies helping to reach better diagnosis prior to surgery and rehabilitation treatments.

  12. Donor-site Morbidity of Medial and Lateral Thigh-based Flaps: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Chad A.; Lewis, Kevin C.; Mioton, Lauren M.; Hanwright, Philip J.; Galiano, Robert D.; Dumanian, Gregory A.; Alghoul, Mohammed S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Free and pedicled medial and lateral thigh-based flaps are common reconstructive procedures. However, there have been no comparative studies of morbidity between medial and lateral donor sites. Methods: We conducted an Enterprise Data Warehouse-based review of all the senior authors’ (R.D.G., G.A.D., and M.S.A.) thigh-based free and pedicled flaps. Patient demographic data, donor-site complications, drain duration, and number of postoperative visits were collected and compared. Complications were also compared between fasciocutaneous flaps and muscle or myocutaneous flaps, and skin grafted donor sites. Results: We analyzed 352 flap donor sites, with 155 medial and 197 lateral. Two hundred seventeen (217) flaps were pedicled. Flap types included 127 gracilis, 27 rectus femoris, 134 anterolateral thigh, and 36 vastus lateralis-only flaps. There were no significant differences in complications between medial (17.4%) and lateral thigh (21.3%) donor sites, although lateral thigh flaps had a mean of 1 additional postoperative visit. Rates of wound dehiscence/healing issues were significantly higher in both gracilis myocutaneous flaps (25.9%) and flaps requiring a skin grafted donor site (31.2%). Postoperative therapeutic anticoagulation was the only significant risk factor for a donor-site complication. Flap complications resulted in increased drain duration and postoperative office visits. Conclusions: Donor-site morbidity is similar in both lateral and medial thigh-based flaps. The inclusion of muscle in the flap from either donor site does not seem to increase complications, but the inclusion of a skin paddle with gracilis muscle, or a skin grafted lateral thigh donor site, results in increased wound healing complications. PMID:27975004

  13. Increase in group II excitation from ankle muscles to thigh motoneurones during human standing

    PubMed Central

    Marchand-Pauvert, Véronique; Nicolas, Guillaume; Marque, Philippe; Iglesias, Caroline; Pierrot-Deseilligny, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    In standing subjects, we investigated the excitation of quadriceps (Q) motoneurones by muscle afferents from tibialis anterior (TA) and the excitation of semitendinosus (ST) motoneurones by muscle afferents from gastrocnemius medialis (GM). Standing with a backward lean stretches the anterior muscle pair (TA and Q) and they must be cocontracted to maintain balance. Equally, forward lean stretches the posterior muscle pair (GM and ST) and they must be cocontracted. We used these conditions of enhanced lean to increase the influence of γ static motoneurones on muscle spindle afferents, which enhances the background input from these afferents to extrafusal motoneurones. The effects of the conditioning volleys on motoneurone excitability was estimated using the modulation of the on-going rectified EMG and of the H reflex. Stimulation of afferents from TA in the deep peroneal nerve at 1.5–2 × MT (motor threshold) evoked early group I and late group II excitation of Q motoneurones. Stimulation of afferents in the GM nerve at 1.3–1.8 MT evoked only late group II excitation of ST motoneurones. The late excitation produced by the group II afferents was significantly greater when subjects were standing and leaning than when they voluntarily cocontracted the same muscle pairs at the same levels of activation. The early effect produced by the group I afferents was unchanged. We propose that this increase in excitation by group II afferents reflects a posture-related withdrawal of a tonic inhibition that is exerted by descending noradrenergic control and is specific to the synaptic actions of group II afferents. PMID:15860524

  14. A rapid approach for quantitative magnetization transfer imaging in thigh muscles using the pulsed saturation method.

    PubMed

    Li, Ke; Dortch, Richard D; Kroop, Susan F; Huston, Joseph W; Gochberg, Daniel F; Park, Jane H; Damon, Bruce M

    2015-07-01

    Quantitative magnetization transfer (qMT) imaging in skeletal muscle may be confounded by intramuscular adipose components, low signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), and voluntary and involuntary motion artifacts. Collectively, these issues could create bias and error in parameter fitting. In this study, technical considerations related to these factors were systematically investigated, and solutions were proposed. First, numerical simulations indicate that the presence of an additional fat component significantly underestimates the pool size ratio (F). Therefore, fat-signal suppression (or water-selective excitation) is recommended for qMT imaging of skeletal muscle. Second, to minimize the effect of motion and muscle contraction artifacts in datasets collected with a conventional 14-point sampling scheme, a rapid two-parameter model was adapted from previous studies in the brain and spinal cord. The consecutive pair of sampling points with highest accuracy and precision for estimating F was determined with numerical simulations. Its performance with respect to SNR and incorrect parameter assumptions was systematically evaluated. QMT data fitting was performed in healthy control subjects and polymyositis patients, using both the two- and five-parameter models. The experimental results were consistent with the predictions from the numerical simulations. These data support the use of the two-parameter modeling approach for qMT imaging of skeletal muscle as a means to reduce total imaging time and/or permit additional signal averaging.

  15. Kinesiology Tape or Compression Sleeve Applied to the Thigh Does Not Improve Balance or Muscle Activation Before or Following Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, M Tyler; Quigley, Patrick J; Hodgson, Daniel D; Reid, Jonathan C; Behm, David G

    2016-07-01

    Cavanaugh, MT, Quigley, PJ, Hodgson, DD, Reid, JC, and Behm, DG. Kinesiology tape or compression sleeve applied to the thigh does not improve balance or muscle activation before or following fatigue. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1992-2000, 2016-Compression sleeves (CS) and kinesiology tape (KT) are purported to enhance proprioception, however, there is substantial conflict in the literature. Because the beneficial effects of CS and KT are more evident in the literature with recovery, the objective of this study was to examine the effects of CS and KT on balance under acute nonfatigued and postfatigued conditions. Using a within-subject, repeated-measures design, 12 university participants (5 females and 7 males) performed in a random order CS, KT, and Control conditions. Two trials of each test were conducted before the application of CS or KT (pretest 1), immediately after the application (pretest 2), with posttests at 1 and 10 minutes after 4 sets of unilateral Bulgarian squats to failure (1 minute rest between sets). Tests included a Y balance test (measures: distance reached by nondominant foot in anterior, posterior lateral, and posterior medial directions) and drop jump landing balance test from a 50-cm platform (measures: ground reaction force, electromyography, and center of pressure). The fatigue protocol induced 25.3% decrease in unilateral squat repetitions from set 1 to set 4. There were no significant condition main effects or interactions for any balance measure or EMG before or after fatigue. In conclusion, independent of fatigue, there was no significant effect of CS or KT on balance outcomes immediately and up to 10 minutes following the fatiguing intervention. Thus, nonfatigued or muscles weakened by fatigue did not benefit from CS and KT application.

  16. Dorsiflexion, Plantar-Flexion, and Neutral Ankle Positions During Passive Resistance Assessments of the Posterior Hip and Thigh Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Ty B.; Akehi, Kazuma; Thiele, Ryan M.; Smith, Douglas B.; Warren, Aric J.; Thompson, Brennan J.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Passive straight-legged–raise (SLR) assessments have been performed with the ankle fixed in dorsiflexion (DF), plantar-flexion (PF), or neutral (NTRL) position. However, it is unclear whether ankle position contributes to differences in the passive resistance measured during an SLR assessment. Objective: To examine the influence of ankle position during an SLR on the passive torque, range of motion (ROM), and hamstrings electromyographic (EMG) responses to passive stretch of the posterior hip and thigh muscles. Design: Crossover study. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 13 healthy volunteers (5 men: age = 24 ± 3 years, height = 178 ± 6 cm, mass = 85 ± 10 kg; 8 women: age = 21 ± 1 years, height = 163 ± 8 cm, mass = 60 ± 6 kg). Intervention(s): Participants performed 6 randomly ordered passive SLR assessments involving 2 assessments at each condition, which included the ankle positioned in DF, PF, and NTRL. All SLRs were performed using an isokinetic dynamometer programmed in passive mode to move the limb toward the head at 5°/s. Main Outcome Measure(s): During each SLR, maximal ROM was determined as the point of discomfort but not pain, as indicated by the participant. Passive torque and EMG amplitude were determined at 4 common joint angles (θ) separated by 5° during the final common 15° of ROM for each participant. Results: Passive torque was greater for the DF condition than the NTRL (P = .008) and PF (P = .03) conditions at θ3 and greater for the DF than NTRL condition (P = .02) at θ4. Maximal ROM was lower for the DF condition than the NTRL (P = .003) and PF (P < .001) conditions. However, we found no differences among conditions for EMG amplitude (P = .86). Conclusions: These findings suggest that performing SLRs with the ankle positioned in DF may elicit greater passive torque and lower ROM than SLRs with the ankle positioned in PF or NTRL. The greater passive torque and lower ROM induced by the DF

  17. Longitudinal (4 year) change of thigh muscle and adipose tissue distribution in chronically painful vs. painless knees – data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Ruhdorfer, Anja; Wirth, Wolfgang; Dannhauer, Torben; Eckstein, Felix

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate 4-year longitudinal change in thigh muscle and adipose tissue content in chronically painful versus painless knees. Methods Knees from Osteoarthritis Initiative participants with non-acceptable symptom status (numerical rating scale ≥4) and frequent pain (≥6 months at baseline, year 2 and year 4 follow-up) were studied. These were matched with painless controls (bilateral NRS pain intensity≤1 and ≤infrequent pain at all 3 timepoints). 4-year longitudinal changes in thigh muscle anatomical cross-sectional areas (CSAs), isometric muscle strength, and in subcutaneous (SCF) and intermuscular fat (IMF) CSAs were obtained from magnetic resonance images (MRI) and were compared between groups (paired t-tests). Results 43 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria of chronic pain, had complete thigh muscle MRI acquisitions and strength measurements, and a matched control. Quadriceps CSAs, but not extensor strength, showed a significant longitudinal decrease in chronically painful knees (-3.9%; 95%confidence interval [95 CI] -6.3%,-1.5%) and in painless controls (-2.4%; 95% CI -4.1%, -0.7%); the difference in change was not statistically significant (p=0.33). There was a significant 4-year gain in SCF in painful knees (8.1%; 95% CI 3.1%, 13%) but not in controls (0.0%; 95%CI -4.4%, +4.4%) with the difference in change being significant (p=0.03). The gain in IMF (∼5.2%) was similar between painful and painless knees. Conclusion This is the first paper to show a significant impact of (chronic) knee pain on longitudinal change in local subcutaneous adipose tissue. The effect of pain on subcutaneous fat appeared stronger than that on intermuscular adipose tissue and on muscle status. PMID:25887367

  18. Effects of macronutrient intake on thigh muscle mass during home-based walking training in middle-aged and older women.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, K; Yazawa, D; Goto, M; Kamijo, Y-I; Furihata, M; Gen-no, H; Hamada, K; Nose, H

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether post-exercise macronutrient supplementation during a 5-month home-based interval walking training (IWT) accelerated exercise-induced increases in skeletal muscle mass and strength in healthy middle-aged and older women. Thirty-five women (41-78 years) were randomly divided into two groups: IWT alone (CNT, n = 18) or IWT plus post-exercise macronutrient (7.6 g protein, 32.5 g carbohydrate, and 4.4 g fat) supplementation (NUT, n = 17). For IWT, all subjects were instructed to repeat five or more sets of 3-min low-intensity walking at 40% peak aerobic capacity (Vo2 peak ), followed by a 3-min high-intensity walking above 70% Vo2 peak per day for 4 or more days per week. We determined Vo2 peak , thigh muscle tissue area by computer tomography, and thigh muscle strength in all subjects before and after IWT. We found that an increase in hamstring muscle tissue area was 2.8 ± 1.2% in NUT vs -1.0 ± 0.7% in CNT and that in isometric knee flexion force was 16.3 ± 3.7% in NUT vs 6.5 ± 3.0% in CNT; both were significantly higher in NUT than in CNT (both, P < 0.001). Thus, post-exercise macronutrient supplementation enhanced the increases in thigh muscle mass and strength, although partially, in home-based IWT in middle-aged and older women.

  19. “Target” and “Sandwich” Signs in Thigh Muscles have High Diagnostic Values for Collagen VI-related Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jun; Zheng, Yi-Ming; Jin, Su-Qin; Yi, Jun-Fei; Liu, Xiu-Juan; Lyn, He; Wang, Zhao-Xia; Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Jiang-Xi; Yuan, Yun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Collagen VI-related myopathies are autosomal dominant and recessive hereditary myopathies, mainly including Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM). Muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been widely used to diagnosis muscular disorders. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of thigh muscles MRI for collagen VI-related myopathies. Methods: Eleven patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies were enrolled in this study. MRI of the thigh muscles was performed in all patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies and in 361 patients with other neuromuscular disorders (disease controls). T1-weighted images were used to assess fatty infiltration of the muscles using a modified Mercuri's scale. We assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the MRI features of collagen VI-related myopathies. The relationship between fatty infiltration of muscles and specific collagen VI gene mutations was also investigated. Results: Eleven patients with collagen VI gene mutation-related myopathies included six UCMD patients and five BM patients. There was no significant difference between UCMD and BM patients in the fatty infiltration of each thigh muscle except sartorius (P = 0.033); therefore, we combined the UCMD and BM data. Mean fatty infiltration scores were 3.1 and 3.0 in adductor magnus and gluteus maximus, while the scores were 1.3, 1.3, and 1.5 in gracilis, adductor longus, and sartorius, respectively. A “target” sign in rectus femoris (RF) was present in seven cases, and a “sandwich” sign in vastus lateralis (VL) was present in ten cases. The “target” and “sandwich” signs had sensitivities of 63.6% and 90.9% and specificities of 97.3% and 96.9% for the diagnosis of collagen VI-related myopathies, respectively. Fatty infiltration scores were 2.0–3.0 in seven patients with mutations in the triple-helical domain, and 1.0–1.5 in three of four patients with

  20. One plus one: Two free flaps from same donor thigh for simultaneous coverage of two different defects

    PubMed Central

    Bandi, Susmitha; Koteswara Rao, Rayidi Venkata; Reddy, Damalacheruvu Mukunda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Primary microvascular reconstruction of multiple defects is challenging particularly if it has to be simultaneous. In trauma cases, harvesting two independent free flaps from different sites is very time-consuming and adds to morbidity. To eliminate these disadvantages, we sought to find out a reliable alternative method of harvesting two independent free flaps based on the descending branch of circumflex femoral artery, i.e., one anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap and one rectus femoris muscle flap. Aim: To study the feasibility of transferring two free flaps, i.e., ALT and rectus femoris muscle flap simultaneously from the same thigh for coverage of two different limb defects. Materials and Methods: From 2003 to 2012, five patients with two defects each were managed with a total of ten flaps harvested from five donor sites based on independent pedicles of descending branch of lateral circumflex femoral artery and used to cover severe injuries of extremities. Three cases had both lower limb defects and two cases had one upper limb and one lower limb defect. In each case, one ALT flap and one rectus femoris muscle flap were used for coverage. Results: All reconstructive procedures were completed without any major complications. All flaps survived well. There were no re-explorations and no complications related to donor sites. Conclusion: We conclude that our approach of simultaneous harvest of ALT and rectus femoris muscle from the same thigh offers two flaps for two different defects in terms of economy of donor site and operating time. PMID:27833281

  1. Development of a finite element model to study the effects of muscle forces on knee-thigh-hip injuries in frontal crashes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Rupp, Jonathan D; Kikuchi, Noboru; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2008-11-01

    A finite element (FE) model with knee-thigh-hip (KTH) and lower-extremity muscles has been developed to study the potential effects of muscle tension on KTH injuries due to knee bolster loadings in frontal crashes. This model was created by remeshing the MADYMO human lower-extremity FE model to account for regional differences in cortical bone thickness, trabecular bone, cortical bone with directionally dependent mechanical properties and Tsai-Wu failure criteria, and articular cartilage. The model includes 35 Hill-type muscles in each lower extremity with masses based on muscle volume. The skeletal response of the model was validated by simulating biomechanical tests without muscle tension, including cadaver skeletal segment impact tests documented in the literature as well as recent tests of seated whole cadavers that were impacted using knee-loading conditions similar to those produced in FMVSS 208 testing. Simulations of knee-to-knee-bolster impacts conducted with and without different levels of lower-extremity muscle activation reported in the literature for braking/bracing suggest that muscle tension has the potential to decrease the externally applied force required to cause KTH fracture, and the potential to increase the likelihood of femoral shaft fracture relative to hip fracture by increasing bending moments in the femoral shaft. However, more reliable and complete data on activation levels of muscles in the lower extremities during vehicle braking and bracing are needed before this effect of muscle tension can be confirmed and before the overall effects of muscle tension on KTH injury can be determined.

  2. Effects of Low-Intensity Cycle Training with Restricted Leg Blood Flow on Thigh Muscle Volume and VO2MAX in Young Men.

    PubMed

    Abe, Takashi; Fujita, Satoshi; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Sakamaki, Mikako; Ozaki, Hayao; Ogasawara, Riki; Sugaya, Masato; Kudo, Maiko; Kurano, Miwa; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Sato, Yoshiaki; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishii, Naokata

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent improvements in aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in response to a single mode of training have not been reported. We examined the effects of low-intensity cycle exercise training with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle size and maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max). A group of 19 young men (mean age ± SD: 23.0 ± 1.7 years) were allocated randomly into either a BFR-training group (n=9, BFR-training) or a non-BFR control training group (n=10, CON-training), both of which trained 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Training intensity and duration were 40% of VO2max and 15 min for the BFR-training group and 40% of VO2max and 45 min for the CON-training group. MRI-measured thigh and quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area and muscle volume increased by 3.4-5.1% (P < 0.01) and isometric knee extension strength tended to increase by 7.7% (p < 0.10) in the BFR-training group. There was no change in muscle size (~0.6%) and strength (~1.4%) in the CON-training group. Significant improvements in VO2max (6.4%) and exercise time until exhaustion (15.4%) were observed in the BFR-training group (p < 0.05) but not in the CON-training group (-0.1 and 3. 9%, respectively). The results suggest that low-intensity, short-duration cycling exercise combined with BFR improves both muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity concurrently in young men. Key pointsConcurrent improvements in aerobic capacity and muscle hypertrophy in response to a single mode of training have not been reported.In the present study, low-intensity (40% of VO2max) cycle training with BFR can elicit concurrent improvement in muscle hypertrophy and aerobic capacity.

  3. Arthroscopic Taloplasty for an Anterolateral Snapping Ankle.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-12-01

    Anterior ankle snapping syndrome is rare. Snapping of the extensor digitorum longus due to attenuated inferior extensor retinaculum and snapping due to hypertrophied or low-lying peroneal tertius muscle have been reported. We reported a new mechanism of anterolateral snapping due to a hypertrophied talar head. Anterolateral snapping ankle can be revealed by active dorsiflexion and plantarflexion of the ankle with the foot inverted. Foot inversion will tension the inferior extensor retinaculum and uncover the dorsolateral prominence of the talar head. The dorsolateral prominence of the talar head will snap over the proximal edge of the inferior extensor retinaculum. This technical note reports the technique of arthroscopic contouring of the talar head via extra-articular ankle arthroscopy. We named this technique arthroscopic taloplasty.

  4. Thigh muscle function in stroke patients revealed by velocity-encoded cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Wen, Hongmei; Dou, Zulin; Finni, Taija; Havu, Marko; Kang, Zhuang; Cheng, Shumei; Sipilä, Sarianna; Sinha, Shantanu; Usenius, Jussi-Pekka; Cheng, Sulin

    2008-06-01

    Current methods of clinical assessment of muscle coordination and function after stroke do not provide information on deep muscles. The objective of this study was to examine how stroke affects both superficial and deep muscles' coordination and whether muscle function improves after rehabilitation. Muscle function, coordination, and activity of quadriceps femoris (QF) and hamstrings were evaluated in 10 stroke patients with mild hemiparesis and in 6 controls using velocity-encoded cine phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (VE-PC MRI), surface electromyography (sEMG), and maximal voluntary isometric contraction torque (MVC). At baseline, the peak muscle velocity of the rectus femoris (RF) and the ratio between the peak velocities of the RF and vasti were lower in the affected limb (AL) of stroke patients than in controls. Co-contraction of agonists and antagonists was higher in the AL than in controls. Muscle activity measured by sEMG showed similar behavior. After rehabilitation, the activity ratio of hamstrings and adductors to QF decreased slightly toward normal so there were no significant differences between the AL and controls. Impaired biarticular RF muscle function in stroke patients is the limiting factor during knee extension-flexion movements. After rehabilitation, improved functional performance was partly explained by the fact that the activities of the RF and vasti became more synchronized. VE-PC MRI can provide quantitative in vivo measurements of both superficial and deep muscles, and the information acquired after stroke can be utilized to render therapy more efficient and individually tailored.

  5. Development of a phantom mimicking the functional and structural behaviors of the thigh muscles characterized with magnetic resonance elastography technique.

    PubMed

    Chakouch, Mashhour K; Charleux, Fabrice; Bensamoun, Sabine F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) is a non invasive technique based on the propagation of shear waves in soft tissues providing the quantification of the mechanical properties [1]. MRE was successfully applied to healthy and pathological muscles. However, the MRE muscle methods must be further improved to characterize the deep muscles. A way will be to develop phantom mimicking the muscle behavior in order to set up new MRE protocol. Thus, the purpose of this study is to create a phantom composed of a similar skeletal muscle architecture (fiber, aponorosis) and equivalent elastic properties as a function of the muscle state (passive or active). Two homogeneous phantoms were manufactured with different concentrations of plastisol to simulate the elastic properties in relaxed (50% of plastisol) and contracted (70% of plastisol) muscle conditions. Moreover, teflon tubing pipes (D = 0.9 mm) were thread in the upper part of the phantom (50%) to represent the muscle fibers and a plastic sheet (8 × 15 cm) was also included in the middle of the phantom to mimic the aponeurosis structure. Subsequently, MRE tests were performed with two different pneumatic drivers, tube and round, (f = 90Hz) to analyze the effect of the type of driver on the wave propagation. Then, the wavelength was measured from the phase images to obtain the elastic properties (shear modulus). Both phantoms revealed elastic properties which were in the same range as in vivo muscle in passive (μ(50%) = 2.40 ± 0.18 kPa ) and active (6.24 ± 0.21 kPa) states. The impact of the type of driver showed higher values (about 1.2kPa) with the tube. The analysis of the wave behavior revealed a sliding along the plastic sheet as it was observed for in vivo muscle study. The wave was also sensitive to the presence of the fibers where gaps were identified. The present study demonstrates the ability of the phantom to mimic the structural and functional properties of the muscle.

  6. Thigh Muscle Activity, Knee Motion, and Impact Force During Side-Step Pivoting in Agility-Trained Female Basketball Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilderman, Danielle R; Ross, Scott E; Padua, Darin A

    2009-01-01

    Context: Improving neuromuscular control of hamstrings muscles might have implications for decreasing anterior cruciate ligament injuries in females. Objective: To examine the effects of a 6-week agility training program on quadriceps and hamstrings muscle activation, knee flexion angles, and peak vertical ground reaction force. Design: Prospective, randomized clinical research trial. Setting: Sports medicine research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty female intramural basketball players with no history of knee injury (age  =  21.07 ± 2.82 years, height  =  171.27 ± 4.66 cm, mass  =  66.36 ± 7.41 kg). Intervention(s): Participants were assigned to an agility training group or a control group that did not participate in agility training. Participants in the agility training group trained 4 times per week for 6 weeks. Main Outcome Measure(s): We used surface electromyography to assess muscle activation for the rectus femoris, vastus medialis oblique, medial hamstrings, and lateral hamstrings for 50 milliseconds before initial ground contact and while the foot was in contact with the ground during a side-step pivot maneuver. Knee flexion angles (at initial ground contact, maximum knee flexion, knee flexion displacement) and peak vertical ground reaction force also were assessed during this maneuver. Results: Participants in the training group increased medial hamstrings activation during ground contact after the 6-week agility training program. Both groups decreased their vastus medialis oblique muscle activation during ground contact. Knee flexion angles and peak vertical ground reaction force did not change for either group. Conclusions: Agility training improved medial hamstrings activity in female intramural basketball players during a side-step pivot maneuver. Agility training that improves hamstrings activity might have implications for reducing anterior cruciate ligament sprain injury associated with side-step pivots. PMID

  7. Predicting the effects of muscle activation on knee, thigh, and hip injuries in frontal crashes using a finite-element model with muscle forces from subject testing and musculoskeletal modeling.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chia-Yuan; Rupp, Jonathan D; Reed, Matthew P; Hughes, Richard E; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2009-11-01

    In a previous study, the authors reported on the development of a finite-element model of the midsize male pelvis and lower extremities with lower-extremity musculature that was validated using PMHS knee-impact response data. Knee-impact simulations with this model were performed using forces from four muscles in the lower extremities associated with two-foot bracing reported in the literature to provide preliminary estimates of the effects of lower-extremity muscle activation on knee-thigh-hip injury potential in frontal impacts. The current study addresses a major limitation of these preliminary simulations by using the AnyBody three-dimensional musculoskeletal model to estimate muscle forces produced in 35 muscles in each lower extremity during emergency one-foot braking. To check the predictions of the AnyBody Model, activation levels of twelve major muscles in the hip and lower extremities were measured using surface EMG electrodes on 12 midsize-male subjects performing simulated maximum and 50% of maximum braking in a laboratory seating buck. Comparisons between test results and the predictions of the AnyBody Model when it was used to simulate these same braking tests suggest that the AnyBody model appropriately predicts agonistic muscle activations but under predicts antagonistic muscle activations. Simulations of knee-to-knee-bolster impacts were performed by impacting the knees of the lower-extremity finite element model with and without the muscle forces predicted by the validated AnyBody Model. Results of these simulations confirm previous findings that muscle tension increases knee-impact force by increasing the effective mass of the KTH complex due to tighter coupling of muscle mass to bone. They also indicate that muscle activation preferentially couples mass distal to the hip, thereby accentuating the decrease in femur force from the knee to the hip. However, the reduction in force transmitted from the knee to the hip is offset by the increased force

  8. Alterations in the rheological flow profile in conduit femoral artery during rhythmic thigh muscle contractions in humans.

    PubMed

    Osada, Takuya; Rådegran, Göran

    2005-02-01

    The present study examined the rheological blood velocity profile in the conduit femoral artery during rhythmic muscle contractions at different muscle forces. Eight healthy volunteers performed one-legged, dynamic knee-extensor exercise at work rates of 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 W at 60 contractions per minute. The time and space-averaged, amplitude-weighted mean (V(mean)) and maximum (V(max)) blood flow velocities in the common femoral artery were measured during the cardiosystolic phase (CSP) and cardiodiastolic phase (CDP) by the Doppler ultrasound technique. The V(max)/V(mean) ratio was used as a flow profile index, in which a ratio of approximately 1 indicates a "flat velocity flow profile" and a ratio significantly >1 indicates a "parabolic velocity flow profile." At rest, the V(max)/V(mean) ratio was approximately 1.3 and approximately 1.8 during the CSP and CDP, respectively. The V(max)/V(mean) ratio was higher (p < 0.01) during the CDP than during the CSP, both at rest and at all work rates. The V(max)/V(mean) ratio during the CSP was higher (p < 0.01) at 30 and 40 W compared to at rest. The V(max)/V(mean) ratio during the CDP was lower (p < 0.05) at 5 and 10 W compared to at rest. There was a positive linear correlation between blood flow and incremental work rates during both the CSP and CDP, respectively. Thus under resting conditions, the findings indicate a "steeper" parabolic velocity profile during the CDP than during the CSP. The velocity profile during the CDP furthermore shifts to being less "steep" during rhythmic muscle contractions at lower intensities, but to being reelevated and normalized as at rest during higher intensities. The "steepness" of the parabolic velocity profile observed during the CSP at rest increased during muscle contraction at higher intensities. In conclusion, the blood velocity in the common femoral artery is parabolic both at rest and during exercise for both the CSP and CDP, indicating the persistence of laminar flow. The

  9. Tissue reactivity and suture handling characteristics of “jimat” against silk and chromic gut in cat thigh muscle: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Bekele, Tilahun; Bhokre, A. P.; Tesfaye, Abreha

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the tissue reactivity and suture handling characteristics of chromic gut, silk, and ‘jimat’ suture materials in cat thigh muscle. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted from November, 2013 to April, 2014 in Kombolcha Animal Diseases Survey, Research and Diagnostic Laboratory, Kombolcha, Ethiopia. A total of 36 local breed male cats were randomly assigned into chromic gut, silk, and “jimat” groups of 12 cats each as A, B, and C, respectively. The hind leg muscle biceps femoris was incised and sutured with suture materials according to their groups. The muscle samples with its suture were collected at six different days interval i.e. 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 and processed histopathologically to assess the degree of leukocytic infiltration and fibrous and granulation tissue formation (GTF). In addition, all suture materials were evaluated intraoperatively about their handling characteristics, by rating the precision of knot tying, square knot positioning, and resistance to knot slippage. The statistical analysis was done with two-way ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Chi-square tests. Results: The histopathology showed that “jimat” thread (2.4±1.2) had produced least leukocytic infiltration than chromic gut (4.5±1.9) and silk (4.3±1.5) sutures during the study period. Higher GTF was seen at day 3 (6 [100%]), 7 (6 [100%]) and day 14 (4 [66.7%]) in all sutures, whereas “jimat” showed significantly (p<0.05) higher fibrous tissue formation (10 [83.3%]) than others. Moreover, “jimat” suture had equal suture handling characteristics (p>0.05) with both chromic gut and silk. Conclusion: The result indicated that a single strand “jimat” thread appears to be the most satisfactory suture material as regards to both tissue reaction and suture handling characteristics for skeletal muscle approximation in cats and provided that studies on its carcinogenic effects should be done. PMID

  10. Effects of perioperative factors and hip geometry on hip abductor muscle strength during the first 6 months after anterolateral total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Takashi; Jinno, Tetsuya; Aizawa, Junya; Masuda, Tadashi; Hirakawa, Kazuo; Ninomiya, Kazunari; Suzuki, Kouji; Morita, Sadao

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The importance and effect of hip joint geometry on hip abductor muscle strength are well known. In addition, other perioperative factors are also known to affect hip abductor muscle strength. This study examined the relative importance of factors affecting hip abductor muscle strength after total hip arthroplasty. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 97 females with osteoarthritis scheduled for primary unilateral THA. The following variables were assessed preoperatively and 2 and 6 months after surgery: isometric hip abductor strength, radiographic analysis (Crowe class, postoperative femoral offset (FO)), Frenchay Activities Index, compliance rate with home exercise, Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip-Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ), and demographic data. Factors related to isometric hip abductor muscle strength 2 and 6 months after surgery were examined. [Results] Significant factors related to isometric hip abductor muscle strength at 2 and 6 months after surgery were, in extraction order: 1. isometric hip abductor muscle strength in the preoperative period; 2. BMI; and 3. the JHEQ mental score at 2 and 6 months after surgery. [Conclusion] Preoperative factors and postoperative mental status were related to postoperative isometric hip abductor strength. FO was not extracted as a significant factor related to postoperative isomeric hip abductor strength. PMID:28265161

  11. Effects of perioperative factors and hip geometry on hip abductor muscle strength during the first 6 months after anterolateral total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takashi; Jinno, Tetsuya; Aizawa, Junya; Masuda, Tadashi; Hirakawa, Kazuo; Ninomiya, Kazunari; Suzuki, Kouji; Morita, Sadao

    2017-02-01

    [Purpose] The importance and effect of hip joint geometry on hip abductor muscle strength are well known. In addition, other perioperative factors are also known to affect hip abductor muscle strength. This study examined the relative importance of factors affecting hip abductor muscle strength after total hip arthroplasty. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 97 females with osteoarthritis scheduled for primary unilateral THA. The following variables were assessed preoperatively and 2 and 6 months after surgery: isometric hip abductor strength, radiographic analysis (Crowe class, postoperative femoral offset (FO)), Frenchay Activities Index, compliance rate with home exercise, Japanese Orthopaedic Association Hip-Disease Evaluation Questionnaire (JHEQ), and demographic data. Factors related to isometric hip abductor muscle strength 2 and 6 months after surgery were examined. [Results] Significant factors related to isometric hip abductor muscle strength at 2 and 6 months after surgery were, in extraction order: 1. isometric hip abductor muscle strength in the preoperative period; 2. BMI; and 3. the JHEQ mental score at 2 and 6 months after surgery. [Conclusion] Preoperative factors and postoperative mental status were related to postoperative isometric hip abductor strength. FO was not extracted as a significant factor related to postoperative isomeric hip abductor strength.

  12. Thigh Injuries in American Football.

    PubMed

    Lamplot, Joseph D; Matava, Matthew J

    Quadriceps and hamstring injuries occur frequently in football and are generally treated conservatively. While return to competition following hamstring strains is relatively quick, a high rate of injury recurrence highlights the importance of targeted rehabilitation and conditioning. This review describes the clinical manifestations of thigh-related soft-tissue injuries seen in football players. Two of these-muscle strains and contusions-are relatively common, while a third condition-the Morel-Lavallée lesion-is a rare, yet relevant injury.

  13. Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh after weight training.

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, J P; Gibbons, C E; Godsiff, S

    1996-01-01

    Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare but serious condition that is normally associated with closed trauma or compressive injury. A case of acute compartment syndrome of the thigh occurred in a 16 year old boy after intensive weight training. There was no evidence of muscle tear or focal haemorrhage during subsequent fasciotomy. PMID:8889126

  14. Anterolateral rotatory instability of the knee.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Daniel; Griffith, Chad; Lesniak, Bryson; Lopomo, Nicola; Grassi, Alberto; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Fu, Freddie H; Musahl, Volker

    2015-10-01

    Recent publications have generated renewed interest in the anatomy of the anterolateral capsule. Knowledge of the biomechanical function of the anterolateral components is lacking. Further research is required to evaluate the influence of the anterolateral capsule on rotatory laxity of the knee. The role of surgical procedures, such as an extra-articular tenodesis or lateral plasty, has to be defined based on quantification of the injury. This article seeks to summarize the current literature and discusses the role of the anterolateral capsule and reconstructive techniques in combined ligamentous knee trauma. Level of evidence V.

  15. A new anterolateral surgical approach for total hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    GRANO, GIOVANNI F.; PAVLIDOU, MARIA; TODESCO, ALBERTO; PALERMO, AUGUSTO; MOLFETTA, LUIGI

    2016-01-01

    Purpose the purpose of the present paper is to present the short-term results of a “detachment-free” (DF) anterolateral approach for primary total hip replacement (THR) performed in a large series of patients. Methods two hundred patients submitted to primary THR were retrospectively reviewed for the present study. In all cases, the surgery was performed using a minimally invasive DF anterolateral approach, which entails no disconnection of tendons and no muscle damage. The study population consisted of 96 men (48%) and 104 women (52%), with an average age of 69.4 years (range 38–75). Clinical and radiographic follow-up was performed after 12 months. Results the clinical results, evaluated using the Harris Hip Score, were excellent in 95% of the cases and good in 5%; no cases had fair or poor results. X-rays taken at 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery did not show heterotopic ossification, mobilization of the prosthetic components, or hip dislocation. No infections, deep vein thrombosis, or failure of the gluteal muscles were reported. Conclusions the DF anterolateral approach for THR proved safe and provided effective results at short-term follow-up. Level of evidence Level IV, therapeutic case series. PMID:27900306

  16. Lemaire extraarticular plasty in anterolateral knee instability

    PubMed Central

    Paús, Vicente; Graieb, Ariel; Torrengo, Federico

    2017-01-01

    Anterolateral instability of the knee results from injury to the lateral capsular complex and the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), and it should not be considered an isolated injury. Over the past years these structures have received renewed interest. The anterolateral ligament (ALL) recently described extends from the lateral side of the lateral femoral condyle to the antero-lateral edge of the tibia, and it is supposed to play a major role in anterolateral stability. ACL extra-articular tenodesis, initially developed as a single procedure, is now complementary to intra-articular plasty. Our indications are: pure rotational instability, symptomatic instability in non-athletes, and revision surgery. Lemaire-type plasty and post-opeartive care are described in detail. We suggest thorough patient history and clinical examination prior to surgical decision. Lemaire-type plasty effectively controls anterolateral instability.

  17. Overview of thigh injuries in dance.

    PubMed

    Deleget, Alison

    2010-01-01

    Thigh injuries include musculotendinous strains of the quadriceps, hamstrings, adductors, iliotibial band (ITB), and bony injuries to the shaft of the femur. There is scant information in the literature regarding thigh injuries in dance, which appear to range from 5% to 16% of total injury incidence. Hamstring strains and ITB syndrome are the most commonly reported thigh injuries. Hamstring injuries occur most frequently during slow stretching when the dancer's hip is flexed and knee extended. Uniquely in dancers, adductor injury occurs concurrently with hamstring injuries in approximately one-third of cases. Snapping of the ITB at the lateral hip and knee may result from imbalance of thigh muscle strength and flexibility. To date no quadriceps strain injuries or stress injuries to the shaft of the femur have been reported in the dance medicine literature. As dancers notoriously underestimate time needed to return to dance, it can be suggested that early return to work is a contributing factor to chronic injury. Further research is needed regarding the incidence and nature of injury to the thigh among dancers.

  18. Pelvic primary staphylococcal infection presenting as a thigh abscess.

    PubMed

    Abbas, T O

    2013-01-01

    Intra-abdominal disease can present as an extra-abdominal abscess and can follow several routes, including the greater sciatic foramen, obturator foramen, femoral canal, pelvic outlet, and inguinal canal. Nerves and vessels can also serve as a route out of the abdomen. The psoas muscle extends from the twelfth thoracic and fifth lower lumbar vertebrae to the lesser trochanter of the femur, which means that disease in this muscle group can migrate along the muscle, out of the abdomen, and present as a thigh abscess. We present a case of a primary pelvic staphylococcal infection presenting as a thigh abscess. The patient was a 60-year-old man who presented with left posterior thigh pain and fever. Physical examination revealed a diffusely swollen left thigh with overlying erythematous, shiny, and tense skin. X-rays revealed no significant soft tissue lesions, ultrasound was suggestive of an inflammatory process, and MRI showed inflammatory changes along the left hemipelvis and thigh involving the iliacus muscle group, left gluteal region, and obturator internus muscle. The abscess was drained passively via two incisions in the posterior left thigh, releasing large amounts of purulent discharge. Subsequent bacterial culture revealed profuse growth of Staphylococcus aureus. The patient recovered uneventfully except for a moderate fever on the third postoperative day.

  19. Thigh muscularity and strength in teenage soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hoshikawa, Y; Iida, T; Muramatsu, M; Ii, N; Nakajima, Y; Chumank, K; Kanehisa, H

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the thigh muscularity and strength capability in early adolescent soccer players. The cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of the thigh muscles and dynamic strength during knee extension and flexion at 1.05 rad/s were determined twice at an interval of 6 months in 24 male soccer players aged 12-13 years and 11 age- and body height-matched non-athletes. After 6 months, muscle CSA and dynamic strength increased without significant interaction of time and group. Thigh total muscle CSA was not significantly affected by group, but the value relative to either thigh CSA or body mass was higher in soccer players. While knee flexion strength was similar between the 2 groups, knee extension strength was greater in soccer players than in non-athletes, even in terms of strength relative to CSA. The current results indicate that, compared with age- and body height-matched non-athletes, early adolescent soccer players are characterized by higher relative distribution of muscle mass within the thigh and higher knee extension strength relative to the quadriceps CSA. During the growth stage in which body height begins to increase markedly, however, participation in competitive soccer training does not increase the rate of development in thigh muscularity and strength.

  20. MINIMALLY INVASIVE ANTEROLATERAL ACCESS ROUTE FOR TOTAL HIP ARTHROPLASTY

    PubMed Central

    Sawaia, Rogério Naim; Galvão, Antonio Felipe Martensen; Oliveira, Fernando Machado; Secunho, Guilherme Rondinelli; Filho, Geraldo Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to present a minimally invasive anterolateral access route and to ascertain whether this enables total hip replacement without compromising the quality of the implant positioning, while maintaining the integrity of the gluteus muscles. Method: A retrospective study was conducted on 260 patients (186 females and 74 males) with an average age of 62 years. There were 18 bilateral cases, totaling 278 hips. All the patients had osteoarthritis and had undergone non-cemented total hip arthroplasty (metal-metal or metal-polyethylene) between October 2004 and December 2007. A minimally invasive anterolateral access route was used, measuring 7 to 10 cm in length, according to body weight and the size of the femoral head. The patients were assessed clinically regarding age, sex and presence of the Trendelenburg sign, and radiologically regarding acetabular and femoral positioning. Results: The acetabular inclination was between 30° and 40° in 78 patients, between 41° and 50° in 189 patients, and 51° or over in 11 patients. On anteroposterior radiographs to study femoral positioning, the positioning was central in 209 cases, 41 presented valgus deviation and 28 presented varus deviation. On lateral views, 173 were central, 67 anterior and 38 posterior. The mean duration of the procedure was 63 minutes. Regarding complications, there were five cases of infection, three of deep vein thrombosis, two of hip dislocation, 80 of lengthening of the lower limbs and five of shortening of the operated limb. The Trendelenburg sign was present in four cases, of which one showed superior gluteal nerve injury. Conclusion: The minimally invasive anterolateral access route made it possible to perform total hip arthroplasty without compromising the positioning of the implants, thereby maintaining the integrity of the gluteus muscles. PMID:27027008

  1. Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A duplication with severe paresis of the proximal lower limb muscles: a long‐term follow‐up study

    PubMed Central

    Berciano, J; Gallardo, E; García, A; Infante, J; Mateo, I; Combarros, O

    2006-01-01

    Objective To describe a large pedigree with Charcot–Marie–Tooth disease type 1A (CMT1A) duplication in which severe pelvic and thigh musculature weakness occurred in two patients, detected by analysing the leg muscle atrophy pattern on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods The pedigree comprised 18 patients, aged between 15 and 85 (median 46) years, who were serially evaluated for up to three decades. All 18 patients and 13 non‐affected at‐risk people underwent electrophysiological examination. An MRI study of lower limb musculature was carried out in four patients. Three patients underwent sural‐nerve biopsy. Genetic testing was carried out in 17 patients and in all 13 at‐risk normal people. Results Fourteen patients were asymptomatic or slightly disabled. The two oldest patients, aged 84 and 80, showed a moderate phenotype. Two other patients, aged 70 and 53, showed late‐onset and gradually progressive peroneal paresis extending up to the thigh and pelvic musculature, resulting in waddling gait. MRI scans of all three patients with a mild phenotype showed subtle and subclinical fatty infiltration of calf anterolateral muscle compartments, with thigh muscle involvement in one patient, and extensive atrophy of intrinsic foot muscles. In the youngest patient with proximal leg weakness, the MRI scan showed massive fatty atrophy of all the calf muscles, posteromedial thigh muscle compartments, and internal and external hip rotator muscles. Sural‐nerve biopsy specimens showed hypertrophic neuropathy with no superimposed inflammation. Good correlation was seen between electrophysiological and genetic testing. Conclusions Late in the clinical course, a small proportion of patients with CMT1A develop severe proximal leg weakness, and long‐term follow‐up is essential for its detection. MRI scans may show subclinical involvement of the thigh musculature. PMID:16788010

  2. Inferiorly based thigh flap for reconstruction of defects around the knee joint

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Md. Sohaib; Khan, Arshad Hafeez; Khurram, Mohammed Fahud; Ahmad, Imran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Soft-tissue defects around the knees are common in injured limbs and in the same injury the leg is often involved and the thigh is spared. Furthermore due to pliable and relatively lax skin, we have used inferiorly based thigh flap to reconstruct defects around knee joint. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of inferiorly based thigh flap to cover soft-tissue defects over the proximal one-third of the leg, patellar region, knee, and lower thigh. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during the period between October 2011 and February 2013. Inferiorly based anteromedial thigh fasciocutaneous flap was performed on 12 patients and inferiorly based anterolateral thigh fasciocutaneous flap on four patients. The sites of the soft-tissue defects included patellar regions, infrapatellar region, upper one-third of leg, lower thigh, and over the knee joint. Results: Patients were evaluated post-operatively in terms of viability of flap, the matching of the flap with the recipient site, and donor site morbidity. All the flaps survived well except one which developed distal marginal flap loss, one in which wound dehiscence was noticed, and two in which mild venous congestion was observed. Venous congestion in two patients subsided on its own within 3 days. One patient with wound dehiscence achieved complete healing by secondary intention. Patient who developed distal flap loss required debridement and skin grafting. No appreciable donor site morbidity was encountered. Skin colour and texture of the flap matched well with the recipient site. Conclusions: The inferiorly based thigh flap is a reliable flap to cover the defect over proximal one-third of the leg, patellar region, knee, and lower thigh. PMID:25190918

  3. Hot-boning enhances cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate effects of postmortem deboning time on cook yield of boneless skinless chicken thighs. In Experiment 1 (3 replications), chicken thigh meat was separated from bones at 0.45 (hot-bone), 2, and 24 h and trimmed to obtain iliotibialis muscle. The iliotibiali...

  4. Necrotising fasciitis secondary to perforated rectal adenocarcinoma presenting as a thigh swelling

    PubMed Central

    Evans, William David George; Winters, Conchubhair; Amin, Eshan

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old man was admitted to the medical admissions ward with right thigh pain presumed to be a deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Subsequent duplex ultrasonography excluded a DVT but noted the presence of a significant amount of subcutaneous gas. A plain film radiograph was performed with the same finding raising the possibility of necrotising fasciitis (NF). Only at this point was digital rectal examination performed revealing a large rectal mass oozing pus and blood. CT imaging showed thickening of the rectum consistent with a tumour with gas and fluid in the perirectal space extending to the anterolateral right femur. Despite aggressive debridement and treatment, the patient deteriorated and died 6 weeks later. This case should serve as a reminder to consider digital rectal examination and the occurrence of a rectal perforation in all patients who present with suspicious thigh swellings. PMID:25824287

  5. Posterior thigh compartment syndrome as a result of a basketball injury.

    PubMed

    Mallo, Gregory C; Stanat, Scott J C; Al-Humadi, Mohaned; Divaris, Nicholas

    2009-12-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is a serious although rare occurrence that was sparsely documented in the orthopedic literature until Schwartz et al reported on a series of 21 cases. Although classically associated with high-energy femur fracture, thigh contusion, or the use of military anti-shock trousers, compartment syndrome of the thigh has recently been diagnosed in seemingly low-energy injuries. A complete hamstring avulsion from its ischial origin during routine ambulation and rupture of the quadriceps tendon after a low-energy fall have been shown to result in compartment syndrome. In light of the potential medicolegal ramifications surrounding the diagnosis of compartment syndrome, emergency room consultations to rule out compartment syndrome are on the rise. Specifically, the time to fasciotomy was found to be linearly related to indemnity payment, and a fasciotomy performed within 8 hours was uniformly associated with a successful defense. This article describes a case of a 29-year-old healthy man who developed posterior thigh compartment syndrome as a result of an intrasubstance tear of the biceps femoris muscle sustained while attempting a lay-up during a recreational basketball game. His posterior thigh compartment pressure measured 70 mm Hg and he required emergent posterior thigh compartment fasciotomy.

  6. Treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xin; Zhang, Kaiwei; Zhong, Gang; Cen, Shiqiang; Huang, Fuguo; Lv, Jingtong; Xiang, Zhou

    2012-04-01

    Compartment syndrome of the thigh is a rare emergency often treated operatively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of nonoperative treatment for compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Nonoperative treatment, which primarily involves continuous renal replacement therapy, was performed in 6 patients (3 men and 3 women) who presented with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure. The mean mangled extremity severity score (MESS) and laboratory data regarding renal function were analyzed before and after treatment, and the clinical outcome was evaluated at 17-month follow-up. Laboratory data regarding renal function showed improvements. All 6 patients survived with the affected lower limbs intact after nonoperative treatment. Follow-up revealed active knee range of motion and increased muscle strength, as well as a recovery of sensation. A positive linear correlation was found between MESS and the time required to achieve a reduction in swelling, as well as the time required for the recovery of sensation and knee range of motion (r>0.8; P<.05). Satisfactory clinical outcomes were obtained in patients with compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.Urine alkalization, electrolyte and water balance, and continuous renal replacement therapy have played an important role in saving lives and extremities. Nonoperative treatment should be considered in the treatment of compartment syndrome of the thigh associated with acute renal failure.

  7. Treatment of anterolateral impingements of the ankle joint by arthroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Al-Husseiny Moustafa

    2007-09-01

    Impingement syndromes of the ankle joint are among the most common intraarticular ankle lesions. Soft tissue impingement lesions of the ankle usually occur as a result of synovial, or capsular irritation secondary to traumatic injuries, usually ankle sprains, leading to chronic ankle pain. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate arthroscopic debridement of an anterolateral soft tissue impingement of the ankle. During the period between October 2000 and February 2004, 23 patients with residual complaints after an ankle sprain were diagnosed as anterolateral impingement of the ankle, and were treated by arthroscopic debridement. At a minimum of 6 months follow up, patients were asked to complete an American orthopaedic foot and ankle society (AOFAS) ankle and hind foot score. The average follow-up was 25 months (range 12-38). The average pre-operative patient assessed AOFAS score was 34 (range 4-57). At the end of follow-up the mean AOFAS score was 89 (range 60-100). In terms of patient satisfaction 22 patients said they would accept the same arthroscopic procedure again for the same complaints. At the end of follow-up, 7 patients had excellent results, and 14 patients had good results while two patients had fair results. We believe that arthroscopic debridement of the anterolateral impingement soft tissues are a good, and effective method of treatment.

  8. Thigh burn associated with laptop computer use.

    PubMed

    Paulius, Karina; Napoles, Phyllis; Maguina, Pirko

    2008-01-01

    Laptop computers are an uncommon source of burns to the thighs and perineum. Burns can result from the prolonged contact of hot surfaces at the base of the computer with the user's lap. The authors report a case of second-degree burns to the thigh of an otherwise healthy patient that resulted from prolonged use of the laptop. We measured the temperatures of the patient's computer and the temperatures of other popular laptop computers. Laptops can develop temperatures that can pose a risk for burns if the skin is exposed for prolonged periods of time. Patients with impaired lower extremity sensation, altered consciousness, or decreased mobility are at higher risk for laptop burns. To their knowledge, this is the first case report of such a burn injury in the American literature.

  9. Proximal Humerus Fracture Plating Through the Extended Anterolateral Approach.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Several approaches to the proximal humerus for fracture fixation are possible. The traditional utilitarian approach to the shoulder, the deltopectoral, has distinct disadvantages when performing fracture reduction and locked plating. The anterolateral acromial approach exploits the intermuscular plane between the anterior and middle heads of the deltoid. After identifying the position of the axillary nerve as it crosses this interval, fracture reduction and fixation is performed. Direct access to both the greater and the lesser tuberosities is facilitated. The cancellous surface of the humeral head fragment provides an excellent surface for direct manipulation without further endangering the extraosseous soft tissue attachments.

  10. Island Posterior Thigh Flap Revisited in Covering Extensive Sacral Wounds: Our Experience with Two Patients

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Deep sacral wounds are best covered by flaps. Posterior thigh flaps have routinely been used to cover such wounds. The flap can however be modified as an island flap. Two patients with extensive sacral wounds were managed with island posterior thigh flaps. Both patients were admitted secondary to road traffic accident with subsequent soft tissue loss of the sacral area. The sacral defects in both patients were approximately 17 cm by 23 cm in dimensions. Unilateral island posterior thigh flap was raised and used to cover the wounds. Postoperatively both patients did well; the donor site and recipient sites healed without any complications. Island posterior thigh flap is thus an option in covering extensive defects of the sacral area. The flap is reliable and easy to raise and has minimal donor site morbidity. By raising it as an island flap the dog ear defect is avoided and the flap is able to be tunneled under the gluteal muscle. This maneuver enables the flap to be advanced further allowing it to cover more distal and extensive defects. PMID:28321356

  11. The anterolateral approach for the transcranial resection of pituitary adenomas: technical note.

    PubMed

    Agazzi, Siviero; Youssef, Ashraf Sami; van Loveren, Harry R

    2010-05-01

    We sought to quantify the mean surface area of the exposed diaphragma sellae and the mean sellar volume in the subfrontal and anterolateral approaches to pituitary adenomas and to detail our expansion of the superficial and deep window in the anterolateral approach. We performed a retrospective data analysis and cadaveric study in a clinical and skull base laboratory. We studied eight patients who had anterolateral approach for transcranial resection of pituitary macroadenoma and seven cadaveric specimens. Main outcome measures were degree of tumor resection, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, cranial nerve outcome, and quantification of the exposed sella via the anterior (subfrontal) and anterolateral approach. We observed complete resection in one; visual outcome: stable in three, improved in four, worsened in one; CSF leakage in two; transient CN III palsy in three; mean surface area (mm(2)) of exposed diaphragma sellae,115.3 (subfrontal approach) versus 94.7 (anterolateral approach; p = 0.1); mean sellar volume (mm(3)) exposed, 224.8 (subfrontal approach) versus 569.3 (anterolateral approach; p < 0.0001). Our technical note supports the increased exposure of sellar volume via the anterolateral approach. Despite the relatively high complication rate, complex cranial surgeons should maintain the skills and knowledge of transcranial approaches. Indeed, the rapid expansion of transsphenoidal techniques will continue to decrease the number of cases but will also continue to increase the complexity of those adenomas that are referred for transcranial resection.

  12. Anterolateral and Posterolateral Approaches to the Foramen Magnum

    PubMed Central

    George, Bernard; Lot, Guillaume

    1995-01-01

    Over a 12-year period (1981-1993), 97 lesions located in the foramen magnum area were treated using either the posterolateral or the anterolateral approach. The former is a lateral extent of the midline posterior approach; the latter is the technique of exposure of the cervical vertebral artery applied at the C-1 to C-2 level. The choice between the two types of lateral approaches was made following three modes of localization: anteroposterior attachment, relation to the dura, and relation to the vertebral artery. Both techniques are described in detail, with special attention paid to the bone and dural openings, which vary according to the localization. The treated lesions include 91 tumors, 4 craniocervical junction malformations, 1 synovial cyst, and 1 abcess. A complete resection was realized in 95% of the tumoral cases, with a very limited morbidity and mortality (3%). ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 6p16-bFigure 7 PMID:17171152

  13. Correlation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging With Knee Anterolateral Ligament Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Helito, Paulo Victor Partezani; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Pécora, José Ricardo; Bordalo-Rodrigues, Marcelo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anatomic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have recently characterized the knee anterolateral ligament (ALL). So far, no study has focused on confirming whether the evaluated MRI parameters truly correspond with ALL anatomy. Purpose: To assess the validity of MRI in detecting the ALL using an anatomic evaluation as reference. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: A total of 13 cadaveric knees were subjected to MRI and then to anatomic dissection. Dissection was performed according to previous anatomic study methodology. MRIs were performed with a 0.6- to 1.5-mm slice thickness and prior saline injection. The following variables were analyzed: distance from the origin of the ALL to the origin of the lateral collateral ligament (LCL), distance from the origin of the ALL to its bifurcation point, maximum length of the ALL, distance from the tibial insertion of the ALL to the articular surface of the tibia, ALL thickness, and ALL width. The 2 sets of measurements were analyzed using the Spearman correlation coefficient (ρ) and Bland-Altman plots. Results: The ALL was clearly observed in all dissected knees and MRI scans. It originated anterior and distal to the LCL, close to the lateral epycondile center, and showed an anteroinferior path toward the tibia, inserting between the Gerdy tubercle and the fibular head, around 5 mm under the lateral plateau. The ρ values tended to increase together for all studied variables between the 2 methods, and all were statistically significant, except for thickness (P = .077). Bland-Altman plots showed a tendency toward a reduction of ALL thickness and width by MRI compared with anatomic dissection. Conclusion: MRI scanning as described can accurately assess the ALL and demonstrates characteristics similar to those seen under anatomic dissection. Clinical Relevance: MRI can accurately characterize the ALL in the anterolateral region of the knee, despite the presence of structures that might

  14. [Evaluation of 99mTc-HM-PAO thigh accumulation in patients with cerebro-vascular disease].

    PubMed

    Nishigaki, H; Adachi, I; Komori, T; Tatsu, Y; Hisada, Y; Sueyoshi, K; Narabayashi, I

    1993-06-01

    99mTc-HM-PAO cerebral SPECT and whole body scintigraphy (WBS) were performed in 5 patients without cerebro-vascular disease (CVD) (Group 1), 31 patients with CVD but not hemiparesis (Group 2) and 18 patients with CVD and hemiparesis (Group 3). Four ROIs were drawn manually around the whole body (WB), brain (Br), right and left thigh (Th). We calculated some ratios: the total counts in the brain over the total counts in the whole body (Br/WB), the total counts in the thigh over the total counts in the whole body (Th/WB) and the mean counts in the thigh over the mean counts in the brain (Th/Br). The Br/WB was 6.9 +/- 1.8%, rt-Th/WB was 4.9 +/- 2.1%, lt-Th/WB was 5.1 +/- 1.3% and Th/Br was 0.46 +/- 0.17 in group 1. Whole body scintigraphies in group 1 revealed clear and similar images between right and left thigh. The Br/WB was 6.7 +/- 1.4%, Th/WB of paretic side was 4.6 +/- 1.0%, Th/WB of non-paretic side was 5.8 +/- 1.2% and Th/Br was 0.47 +/- 0.18 in group 3. The Th/WB in non paretic side was significantly higher than that in paretic side (p < 0.01). The thigh images in group 3 revealed clearly different between paretic and non-paretic thigh. In conclusion we could acquire the clear thigh images with 99mTc-HM-PAO. It was possible that we evaluated not only cerebral perfusion but also muscle atrophy and/or perfusion in patients with CVD using 99mTC-HM-PAO.

  15. Scrotal reconstruction with modified pudendal thigh flaps.

    PubMed

    Mopuri, Nabil; O'Connor, Edmund Fitzgerald; Iwuagwu, Fortune C

    2016-02-01

    Scrotal skin loss can occur following trauma, Fournier's gangrene, post tumour excision, burns, etc. There are many techniques described in the literature including residual scrotal skin mobilization, skin grafts, pedicled and free flaps. The management is complex and challenging shown by the multiplicity of flaps and techniques described in the literature. We used a modified pudendal thigh flap to reconstruct scrotal defects in five patients. This study describes the vascularity of the flap, technique of elevation and the inset of the flap. The elevation and particularly the insetting make it different from other flaps raised on this vascular network for scrotal reconstruction. This pedicled flap is robust, reliable, resilient and produces a neo-scrotum that looks natural in appearance, offers good-quality skin cover and cushion to the testes as well as protective sensation.

  16. The Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee: What the Radiologist Needs to Know.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Pieter; De Smet, Eline; Lambrecht, Valérie; Heusdens, Christiaan H W; Van Glabbeek, Francis; Vanhoenacker, Filip M; Gielen, Jan L; Parizel, Paul M

    2016-02-01

    The anterolateral ligament (ALL) was recently identified as a distinct component of the anterolateral capsule of the human knee joint with consistent origin and insertion sites. Biomechanical studies revealed that the current association between the pivot shift and an injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) should be loosened and that the rotational component of the pivot shift is significantly affected by the ALL. This may change the clinical approach toward ACL-injured patients presenting with anterolateral rotatory instability (ALRI), the most common instability pattern after ACL rupture. Radiologists should be aware of the importance of the ALL to ACL injuries. They should not overlook pathology of the anterolateral knee structures, including the ALL, when reviewing MR images of the ACL-deficient knee. In this article, the current knowledge regarding the anatomy, biomechanical function, and imaging appearance of the ALL of the knee is discussed with emphasis on the clinical implications of these findings.

  17. Anterolateral Versus Medial Plating of Distal Extra-articular Tibia Fractures: A Biomechanical Model.

    PubMed

    Pirolo, Joseph M; Behn, Anthony W; Abrams, Geoffrey D; Bishop, Julius A

    2015-09-01

    Both medial and anterolateral plate applications have been described for the treatment of distal tibia fractures, each with distinct advantages and disadvantages. The objective of this study was to compare the biomechanical properties of medial and anterolateral plating constructs used to stabilize simulated varus and valgus fracture patterns of the distal tibia. In 16 synthetic tibia models, a 45° oblique cut was made to model an Orthopedic Trauma Association type 43-A1.2 distal tibia fracture in either a varus or valgus injury pattern. Each fracture was then reduced and plated with a precontoured medial or anterolateral distal tibia plate. The specimens were biomechanically tested in axial and torsional loading, cyclic axial loading, and load to failure. For the varus fracture pattern, medial plating showed less fracture site displacement and rotation and was stiffer in both axial and torsional loading (P<.05). For the valgus fracture pattern, there was no statistically significant difference between medial and anterolateral plating. There were no significant differences between the 2 constructs for either fracture pattern with respect to ultimate load, displacement, or energy absorption in load to failure testing. When used to stabilize varus fracture patterns, medial plates showed superior biomechanical performance compared with anterolateral plates. In this application, the medial plates functioned in anti-glide mode. For valgus fracture patterns, no biomechanical differences between anterolateral and medial plating were observed. In clinical practice, surgeons should take this biomechanical evidence into account when devising a treatment strategy for fixation of distal tibia fractures.

  18. Skeletal Muscle Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Lower Limbs in Late-onset Lipid Storage Myopathy with Electron Transfer Flavoprotein Dehydrogenase Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin-Yi; Jin, Ming; Wang, Zhi-Qiang; Wang, Dan-Ni; He, Jun-Jie; Lin, Min-Ting; Fu, Hong-Xia; Wang, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lipid storage myopathy (LSM) is a genetically heterogeneous group with variable clinical phenotypes. Late-onset multiple acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenation deficiency (MADD) is a rather common form of LSM in China. Diagnosis and clinical management of it remain challenging, especially without robust muscle biopsy result and genetic detection. As the noninvasion and convenience, muscle magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a helpful assistant, diagnostic tool for neuromuscular disorders. However, the disease-specific MRI patterns of muscle involved and its diagnostic value in late-onset MADD have not been systematic analyzed. Methods: We assessed the MRI pattern and fat infiltration degree of the lower limb muscles in 28 late-onset MADD patients, combined with detailed clinical features and gene spectrum. Fat infiltration degree of the thigh muscle was scored while that of gluteus was described as obvious or not. Associated muscular atrophy was defined as obvious muscle bulk reduction. Results: The mean scores were significantly different among the anterior, medial, and posterior thigh muscle groups. The mean of fat infiltration scores on posterior thigh muscle group was significantly higher than either anterior or medial thigh muscle group (P < 0.001). Moreover, the mean score on medial thigh muscle group was significantly higher than that of anterior thigh muscle group (P < 0.01). About half of the patients displayed fat infiltration and atrophy in gluteus muscles. Of 28 patients, 12 exhibited atrophy in medial and/or posterior thigh muscle groups, especially in posterior thigh muscle group. Muscle edema pattern was not found in all the patients. Conclusions: Late-onset MADD patients show a typical muscular imaging pattern of fat infiltration and atrophy on anterior, posterior, and medial thigh muscle groups, with major involvement of posterior thigh muscle group and gluteus muscles and a sparing involvement of anterior thigh compartment. Our findings also

  19. Influence of exercise training with thigh compression on heat-loss responses.

    PubMed

    Amano, T; Inoue, Y; Koga, S; Nishiyasu, T; Kondo, N

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the effect of thigh compression, which accelerates activation of central command and muscle metabo- and mechanoreceptors, on the adaptation of sweating and cutaneous vascular responses during exercise heat acclimation. Nine non-heat-acclimated male subjects were acclimated to heat (32 °C and 50% RH) while cycling [50% of maximum oxygen uptake ( V ˙ O 2 m a x )] 60 min/day for 7 days (control group). The experimental group (n = 9) conducted the same training while the proximal thighs were compressed by a cuff at 60 mmHg. V ˙ O 2 m a x , acetylcholine-induced forearm sweating rate (iontophoresis), and mean sweating and cutaneous vascular responses on the forehead, chest, and forearm (SRmean and CVCmean ) during passive heating were evaluated before and after training. Training significantly increased V ˙ O 2 m a x while did not affect acetylcholine-induced sweating rates in either group. Training significantly decreased Tb thresholds for SRmean and CVCmean during passive heating without the alternations of sensitivities in both groups. Although SRmean during passive heating at a given ΔTb was not improved in either group, CVCmean was significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated after exercise training only in experimental group. Our results indicate that thigh cuff compression during exercise heat acclimation does not influence adaptation of the sweating response but attenuate cutaneous vasodilation.

  20. The thigh and leg of Homo naledi.

    PubMed

    Marchi, Damiano; Walker, Christopher S; Wei, Pianpian; Holliday, Trenton W; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R; DeSilva, Jeremy M

    2017-03-01

    This paper describes the 108 femoral, patellar, tibial, and fibular elements of a new species of Homo (Homo naledi) discovered in the Dinaledi chamber of the Rising Star cave system in South Africa. Homo naledi possesses a mosaic of primitive, derived, and unique traits functionally indicative of a bipedal hominin adapted for long distance walking and possibly running. Traits shared with australopiths include an anteroposteriorly compressed femoral neck, a mediolaterally compressed tibia, and a relatively circular fibular neck. Traits shared with Homo include a well-marked linea aspera, anteroposteriorly thick patellae, relatively long tibiae, and gracile fibulae with laterally oriented lateral malleoli. Unique features include the presence of two pillars on the superior aspect of the femoral neck and a tubercular distal insertion of the pes anserinus on the tibia. The mosaic morphology of the H. naledi thigh and leg appears most consistent with a species intermediate between Australopithecus spp. and Homo erectus and, accordingly, may offer insight into the nature of the earliest members of genus Homo. These fossils also expand the morphological diversity of the Homo lower limb, perhaps indicative of locomotor diversity in our genus.

  1. [Laptop-thighs--laptop-induced erythema ab igne].

    PubMed

    Andersen, Flemming

    2010-02-22

    A 15-year-old boy presented with a livedo reticulares-like eruption on both thighs, but more pronounced on the left. The history revealed the diagnosis: ''Laptop-thighs'' i.e. laptop-induced erythema ab igne, the result of months of daily use of the laptop while placed on the thighs. Erythema ab igne is traditionally a disease of the elderly, caused by overuse of heat sources on tender backs etc. The recent popularity of laptop computers and other electronics emitting strong heat has made erythema ab igne a problem also in younger generations.

  2. Thigh oxygen uptake at the onset of intense exercise is not affected by a reduction in oxygen delivery caused by hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Peter M; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Nybo, Lars; Mortensen, Stefan P; Sander, Mikael; Secher, Niels H; Bangsbo, Jens

    2012-10-15

    In response to hypoxic breathing most studies report slower pulmonary oxygen uptake (Vo2) kinetics at the onset of exercise, but it is not known if this relates to an actual slowing of the Vo2 in the active muscles(.) The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether thigh Vo2 is slowed at the onset of intense exercise during acute exposure to hypoxia. Six healthy male subjects (25.8 ± 1.4 yr, 79.8 ± 4.0 kg, means ± SE) performed intense (100 ± 6 watts) two-legged knee-extensor exercise for 2 min in normoxia (NOR) and hypoxia [fractional inspired oxygen concentration (Fi(O2)) = 0.13; HYP]. Thigh Vo2 was measured by frequent arterial and venous blood sampling and blood flow measurements. In arterial blood, oxygen content was reduced (P < 0.05) from 191 ± 5 ml O2/l in NOR to 180 ± 5 ml O2/l in HYP, and oxygen pressure was reduced (P < 0.001) from 111 ± 4 mmHg in NOR to 63 ± 4 mmHg in HYP. Thigh blood flow was the same in NOR and HYP, and thigh oxygen delivery was consequently reduced (P < 0.05) in HYP, but femoral arterial-venous oxygen difference and thigh Vo(2) were similar in NOR and HYP. In addition, muscle lactate release was the same in NOR and HYP, and muscle lactate accumulation during the first 25 s of exercise determined from muscle biopsy sampling was also similar (0.35 ± 0.07 and 0.36 ± 0.07 mmol·kg dry wt(-1)·s(-1) in NOR and HYP). Thus the increase in thigh Vo2 was not attenuated at the onset of intense knee-extensor exercise despite a reduction in oxygen delivery and pressure.

  3. Cerebrovascular effects of the thigh cuff maneuver

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, N. P.; Robinson, T. G.

    2015-01-01

    Arterial hypotension can be induced by sudden release of inflated thigh cuffs (THC), but its effects on the cerebral circulation have not been fully described. In nine healthy subjects [aged 59 (9) yr], bilateral cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) was recorded in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), noninvasive arterial blood pressure (BP) in the finger, and end-tidal CO2 (ETCO2) with nasal capnography. Three THC maneuvers were performed in each subject with cuff inflation 20 mmHg above systolic BP for 3 min before release. Beat-to-beat values were extracted for mean CBFV, BP, ETCO2, critical closing pressure (CrCP), resistance-area product (RAP), and heart rate (HR). Time-varying estimates of the autoregulation index [ARI(t)] were also obtained using an autoregressive-moving average model. Coherent averages synchronized by the instant of cuff release showed significant drops in mean BP, CBFV, and RAP with rapid return of CBFV to baseline. HR, ETCO2, and ARI(t) were transiently increased, but CrCP remained relatively constant. Mean values of ARI(t) for the 30 s following cuff release were not significantly different from the classical ARI [right MCA 5.9 (1.1) vs. 5.1 (1.6); left MCA 5.5 (1.4) vs. 4.9 (1.7)]. HR was strongly correlated with the ARI(t) peak after THC release (in 17/22 and 21/24 recordings), and ETCO2 was correlated with the subsequent drop in ARI(t) (19/22 and 20/24 recordings). These results suggest a complex cerebral autoregulatory response to the THC maneuver, dominated by myogenic mechanisms and influenced by concurrent changes in ETCO2 and possible involvement of the autonomic nervous system and baroreflex. PMID:25659488

  4. Pelvic and thigh musculature in frogs (Anura) and origin of anuran jumping locomotion

    PubMed Central

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Aerts, Peter; Havelková, Pavla; Herrel, Anthony; Roček, Zbyněk

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the anuran pelvic and thigh musculoskeletal system revealed that the thigh extensors, responsible for the initial phase of jump, the propulsive stroke in swimming and, if used asynchronously, also for walking, are least affected by the transformations observed between anurans and their temnospondyl ancestors (as reflected in contemporary caudates). The iliac shaft and urostyle, two of the most important anuran apomorphies, represent skeletal support for muscles that are mostly protractors of the femur or are important in attaining a crouching position, a necessary prerequisite for rapid escape. All of these muscles originate or insert on the iliac shaft. As the orientation of the pubis, ischium and ilium is the same in anurans, caudates and by inference also in their temnospondyl ancestors, it is probable that the pelvis was shifted from the sacral vertebra posteriorly along the reduced and stiffened tail (urostyle) by the elongation of the illiac shaft. Thus, the original vertical orientation of the ilium was maintained (which is also demonstrated by stable origins of the glutaeus maximus, iliofemoralis and iliofibularis on the tuber superius) and the shaft itself is a new structure. A review of functional analysis of anuran locomotion suggests some clear differences from that in caudates, suggesting that terrestrial jumping may have been a primary locomotor activity, from which other types of anuran locomotion are derived. PMID:19166476

  5. Pelvic and thigh musculature in frogs (Anura) and origin of anuran jumping locomotion.

    PubMed

    Prikryl, Tomás; Aerts, Peter; Havelková, Pavla; Herrel, Anthony; Rocek, Zbynek

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the anuran pelvic and thigh musculoskeletal system revealed that the thigh extensors, responsible for the initial phase of jump, the propulsive stroke in swimming and, if used asynchronously, also for walking, are least affected by the transformations observed between anurans and their temnospondyl ancestors (as reflected in contemporary caudates). The iliac shaft and urostyle, two of the most important anuran apomorphies, represent skeletal support for muscles that are mostly protractors of the femur or are important in attaining a crouching position, a necessary prerequisite for rapid escape. All of these muscles originate or insert on the iliac shaft. As the orientation of the pubis, ischium and ilium is the same in anurans, caudates and by inference also in their temnospondyl ancestors, it is probable that the pelvis was shifted from the sacral vertebra posteriorly along the reduced and stiffened tail (urostyle) by the elongation of the illiac shaft. Thus, the original vertical orientation of the ilium was maintained (which is also demonstrated by stable origins of the glutaeus maximus, iliofemoralis and iliofibularis on the tuber superius) and the shaft itself is a new structure. A review of functional analysis of anuran locomotion suggests some clear differences from that in caudates, suggesting that terrestrial jumping may have been a primary locomotor activity, from which other types of anuran locomotion are derived.

  6. Effectiveness of thigh-to-thigh current path for the measurement of abdominal fat in bioelectrical impedance analysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Ki Hwan; Lim, Yong Gyu; Park, Kwang Suk

    2009-12-01

    We present a new method measuring body impedance using a thigh-to-thigh current path, which can reflect the abdominal fat portion more sensitively and can be conveniently applied during the daily use on a toilet seat. Two pairs of electrodes were installed on a toilet seat to provide current and to permit voltage measurement through a thigh-to-thigh current path. The effectiveness of the method was compared with conventional foot-to-foot and hand-to-foot current paths by simulation and by experiments referenced to computed tomography (CT) image analysis. Body impedance using three different current paths was measured, and abdominal CT images were acquired for eight subjects. Measured body impedances were compared with the visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio (VF/SF) calculated from the CT-determined abdominal fat volume. The thigh-to-thigh current path was about 75% more sensitive in abdominal fat measurement than the conventional current paths in simulation experiments and displayed a higher VF/SF correlation (r = 0.768) than the foot-to-foot (r = 0.425) and hand-to-foot (r = 0.497) current paths.

  7. Three-dimensional visualization of the human face using DICOM data and its application to facial contouring surgery using free anterolateral thigh flap transfer.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Fumiaki; Uehara, Miyuki; Oatari, Miwako; Kusatsu, Manami

    2016-01-01

    One of the main challenges faced by surgeons performing reconstructive surgery in cases of facial asymmetry due to hemifacial atrophy or tumor surgery is the restoration of the natural contour of the face. Soft-tissue augmentation using free-flap transfer is one of the most commonly used methods for facial reconstruction. The most important part of a successful reconstruction is the preoperative assessment of the volume, position, and shape of the flap to be transplanted. This study focuses on three cases of facial deformity due to hemifacial progressive atrophy or tumor excision. For the preoperative assessment, digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) data obtained from computed tomography was used and applied to a three-dimensional (3D) picture software program (ZedView, LEXI, Tokyo, Japan). Using computer simulation, a mirror image of the unaffected side of the face was applied to the affected side, and 3D visualization was performed. Using this procedure, a postoperative image of the face and precise shape, position, and amount of the flap that was going to be transferred was simulated preoperatively. In all cases, the postoperative shape of the face was acceptable, and a natural shape of the face could be obtained. Preoperative 3D visualization using computer simulation was helpful for estimating the reconstructive procedure and postoperative shape of the face. Using free-flap transfer, this procedure facilitates the natural shape after reconstruction of the face in facial contouring surgery.

  8. Anatomic Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction Improves Postoperative Clinical Outcomes Combined with Anatomic Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Man; Zhou, Aiguo; Zhang, Jian; Jiang, Dianming

    2016-01-01

    A significant cohort of patients is plagued by postoperative rotational instability after the anatomic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction surgery. Anatomic anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstruction was performed in this study with the aim to assess the clinical role of ALL in knee’s stability and joint functions. Sixty patients were recruited and divided into three groups to perform the operations of anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction, anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction, and anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + anterolateral ligament reconstruction, respectively. And then postoperative knee’s stability and joint functions were evaluated to compare the clinical outcomes among the three different kind of operations. The postoperative knee’s stability and joint functions of the anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction group and the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + ALL reconstruction group were better than the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction group. No significant difference was observed between the anatomic double-bundle ACL reconstruction group and the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + ALL reconstruction group. The anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction could improve the clinical outcomes after patients performed the anatomic single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. This indicates that the anterolateral ligament plays a crucial role in knee’s stability and joint function, especially the rotational stability. Key points Anatomic anterolateral ligament reconstruction combined with anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction was performed to treat the patients with ACL rupture. Compared to the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction group, the anatomic single-bundle ACL reconstruction + ALL reconstruction group achieve a better clinical outcomes. The results suggest that the anterolateral ligament plays a crucial role in knee’s stability and joint function

  9. Pancreatic Fistula Extending into the Thigh Caused by the Rupture of an Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Adenoma of the Pancreas

    PubMed Central

    Shimizu, Yuki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Miyazawa, Shiro; Iwai, Tomohisa; Takezawa, Miyoko; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Erina; Saegusa, Makoto; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2017-01-01

    We herein report the first case of a pancreatic fistula extending into the thigh caused by the rupture of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. An 80-year-old man was suspected to have necrotizing fasciitis because of right femoral pain. Computed tomography showed fluid retention from the pancreatic head to the right iliopsoas muscle and an IPMN at the pancreatic head. The findings of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography led to the suspicion of a minor leak and a pancreatic stent was placed. The patient died due to an uncontrollable infection. A pathological autopsy showed a pancreatic fistula extending into the thigh that had been caused by the rupture of the IPMN. PMID:28154275

  10. Pancreatic Fistula Extending into the Thigh Caused by the Rupture of an Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Adenoma of the Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Yuki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Yamauchi, Hiroshi; Okuwaki, Kosuke; Miyazawa, Shiro; Iwai, Tomohisa; Takezawa, Miyoko; Kida, Mitsuhiro; Suzuki, Erina; Saegusa, Makoto; Koizumi, Wasaburo

    2017-01-01

    We herein report the first case of a pancreatic fistula extending into the thigh caused by the rupture of an intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas. An 80-year-old man was suspected to have necrotizing fasciitis because of right femoral pain. Computed tomography showed fluid retention from the pancreatic head to the right iliopsoas muscle and an IPMN at the pancreatic head. The findings of endoscopic retrograde pancreatography led to the suspicion of a minor leak and a pancreatic stent was placed. The patient died due to an uncontrollable infection. A pathological autopsy showed a pancreatic fistula extending into the thigh that had been caused by the rupture of the IPMN.

  11. Pedicled posteromedial thigh (PMT) flap: A new alternative for groin defect reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Mario F; Enrique Carrillo Jimenez, Leonardo; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Chen, Yen-Chou

    2015-11-26

    The posterior medial thigh is mainly vascularized by the profunda femoris artery (PFA), which nourishes the adductor magnus muscle and overlying skin, to supply a number of perforators that can potentially be used as pedicles for local perforator flaps. Here we present two cases utilizing the pedicled posteromedial thigh flap (PMT) to reconstruct the groin defects. Two patients underwent resection for metastatic malignant melanoma resulting in large defects of the groin with exposure of major inguinal vessels; the dimensions of the skin defects were 15 cm × 5 cm and 16 cm × 6 cm, two ipsilateral pedicled PMT flaps were designed to cover the defects. The pedicled PMT flaps were based on perforators arising from the PFA and were transposed through a submuscular tunnel into the defect. The postoperative course was uneventful and the wounds were reconstructed successfully. The pedicled PMT flap may be an option for reconstruction of groin defects and could be incorporated into the armamentarium of the reconstructive microsurgeon. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery, 2015.

  12. Free medial thigh perforator-based flaps: new definition of the pedicle vessels and versatile application.

    PubMed

    Koshima, I; Hosoda, M; Inagawa, K; Moriguchi, T; Orita, Y

    1996-11-01

    The medial thigh flap is a perforator-based flap nourished with septocutaneous or muscle perforators originating from the femoral vessels. To date, 8 patients have been repaired with this flap and extended or connected flaps including this flap: 4 patients with lower leg defects and 4 patients with intraoral and neck defects. The advantages of this flap are (1) several pedicle perforators exist for this flap, which makes possible duplicated vascular anastomoses to establish reliable circulation of the transferred flap; (2) the flap can be extended or connected to other neighboring flaps in the anterior thigh, so that extensively wide defects can be closed in one stage; (3) the great saphenous vein can be simultaneously used as a vein graft or for venous drainage for the flap; (4) the anterior branch of the femoral nerve can be used for sensory potential; and (5) there is minimum morbidity of the donor defect and a large dominant vessel for the leg can be preserved. The suitable indications for this flap are defects after removal of skin cancer in the foot or lower leg and wide defects after resection of head and neck cancer, which can be reconstructed with the flap connected to neighboring skin flaps. The disadvantages of this flap are that it has a small, short vascular pedicle and the bulkiness of the flap's fatty tissue often requires thinning.

  13. Anthropometric prediction of skeletal muscle cross-sectional area in persons with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Wade, Rodney C; Gorgey, Ashraf S

    2017-03-02

    Finding an accurate and affordable method to quantify muscle size following spinal cord injury (SCI) could provide benefits clinically and in research settings. The purpose of this study was to validate the use of anthropometric measurements versus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to evaluate muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) and develop a field equation to predict muscle CSA specific to the SCI population. Twenty-two men with chronic (>1yr) motor complete SCI participated in the current study. Anthropometric measurements, including mid-thigh circumference and anterior skinfold thickness (SFT), were taken on the right thigh. The anthropometric muscle cross sectional area (Muscle CSAanthro) was predicted using the following equation: [π (r -SFT /2)(2); r = thigh circumference/2π]. MRI analysis yielded whole thigh CSA (Thigh CSAMRI), mid-thigh muscle CSA (Muscle CSAMRI), mid-thigh absolute muscle CSA after subtracting intramuscular fat and bone (Muscle CSA-IMFMRI), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SATT) measured at one site as well as at 4-sites and bone CSA. Anthropometric measurements were correlated to the thigh CSAMRI (r(2)=0.90, SEE=17.6cm(2), P<0.001). Muscle CSAanthro was correlated to muscle CSAMRI (r(2)=0.78, SEE=16.6cm(2), P<0.001) and muscle CSA-IMFMRI (r(2)=0.75, SEE=17.6cm(2) P<0.001). A single SFT was correlated to the polar 4-site SATT (r(2)=0.78, SEE=0.37cm, P<0.001). The average femur CSA and average IMF CSA derived from MRI led to the following field equation: Muscle CSApredicted = π[(Thighcircum/2π) - (SFT/2)](2) - 23.2. Anthropometric measurements of muscle CSA exhibited a good agreement with the gold standard MRI method and led to the development of a field equation for clinical use after accounting for bone and IMF.

  14. 78 FR 36304 - Proposed Information Collection (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire... Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. During the comment period, comments may be viewed.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: ] Title: Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire, VA Form...

  15. 78 FR 68906 - Agency Information Collection (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Hip and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire) Under... Disability Benefits Questionnaire)'' in any correspondence. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Crystal Rennie... and Thigh Conditions Disability Benefits Questionnaire''. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Hip...

  16. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  17. “Emergency” definitive reconstruction of a necrotising fasciitis thigh debridement defect with a pedicled TRAM flap

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tom; Yu, Jonathan T.S.; Wong, Kai Yuen; Malata, Charles M.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Necrotising fasciitis (NF) is a rare, severe, rapidly progressing and life-threatening synergistic infection primarily affecting the superficial fascia. A novel method of definitive and aesthetic reconstruction of NF thigh defects by using a pedicled transverse rectus abdominis myocutaneous (TRAM) flap without recourse to temporising skin grafts is presented. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 30-year-old parous woman presented in extremis with fulminant NF of her left anteromedial thigh. Following emergency radical debridement and intensive care stabilisation she was reconstructed 48 h later in a single stage with a pedicled TRAM flap islanded on the ipsilateral deep inferior epigastric vessels. There was excellent contour restoration of her thigh and coverage of the exposed femoral vessels. DISCUSSION Pedicled flaps based on the rectus abdominis muscle provide a large, readily available reconstructive option for correction of substantial regional defects as herein illustrated. They are robust when based on dominant inferior vascular pedicle with a long reach and wide arc of rotation when designed transversely (as a TRAM flap). CONCLUSION This case also illustrates that definitive flap reconstruction of NF can be successfully undertaken in the emergent setting, thereby negating the need for large areas of skin grafting which can lead to contractures with consequent functional impairment and suboptimal aesthetic results. PMID:23548707

  18. Open Reduction and Internal Fixation of the Tibial Plateau Through the Anterolateral Approach.

    PubMed

    Hake, Mark E; Goulet, James A

    2016-08-01

    Fractures of the tibial plateau are challenging injuries to treat. The lateral tibial plateau is fractured more commonly than the medial plateau and the workhorse approach for these fractures is the anterolateral approach. This approach allows visualization of the lateral joint, metaphysis, and can be extensile if there is shaft extension. We present our technique for performing the anterolateral approach while treating a Schatzker III tibial plateau fracture. Special attention is given to performing a submeniscal arthrotomy to view the joint surface and judge the reduction. A femoral distractor is placed to assist with elevation the joint surface and visualization of the lateral plateau. A cortical window is created using a triple reamer from the sliding hip screw set. The reduction is performed and supported with cancellous bone chips. Finally, a lateral locking plate with rafting screws is placed. Knowledge of this approach and the strategies needed to address lateral and some bicondlar tibial plateau fractures are crucial to good patient outcomes.

  19. Triple pelvic osteotomy in Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease using a single anterolateral incision.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Philip A; Mulhall, Kevin J; Kearns, Stephen R; Sheehan, Eoin; McCormack, Damien; Mullhall, Kevin J

    2003-11-01

    Pelvic osteotomy has a small role to play in the management of Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease. Residual acetabular dysplasia or incongruity can be corrected by rotational acetabuloplasty. In skeletally immature patients this can be performed by complete or incomplete innominate osteotomies. We present the case of a 12-year-old child with residual acetabular dysplasia, resulting from Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease, which was treated by a triple pelvic osteotomy performed by a small single anterolateral incision.

  20. Contributions of the anterolateral complex and the anterolateral ligament to rotatory knee stability in the setting of ACL Injury: a roundtable discussion.

    PubMed

    Musahl, Volker; Getgood, Alan; Neyret, Philippe; Claes, Steven; Burnham, Jeremy M; Batailler, Cecile; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Williams, Andy; Amis, Andrew; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Karlsson, Jón

    2017-03-12

    Persistent rotatory knee laxity is increasingly recognized as a common finding after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. While the reasons behind rotator knee laxity are multifactorial, the impact of the anterolateral knee structures is significant. As such, substantial focus has been directed toward better understanding these structures, including their anatomy, biomechanics, in vivo function, injury patterns, and the ideal procedures with which to address any rotatory knee laxity that results from damage to these structures. However, the complexity of lateral knee anatomy, varying dissection techniques, differing specimen preparation methods, inconsistent sectioning techniques in biomechanical studies, and confusing terminology have led to discrepancies in published studies on the topic. Furthermore, anatomical and functional descriptions have varied widely. As such, we have assembled a panel of expert surgeons and scientists to discuss the roles of the anterolateral structures in rotatory knee laxity, the healing potential of these structures, the most appropriate procedures to address rotatory knee laxity, and the indications for these procedures. In this round table discussion, KSSTA Editor-in-Chief Professor Jón Karlsson poses a variety of relevant and timely questions, and experts from around the world provide answers based on their personal experiences, scientific study, and interpretations of the literature. Level of evidence V.

  1. Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch isolated from a thigh lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Weitzman, I; Della-Latta, P; Housey, G; Rebatta, G

    1993-01-01

    Mucor ramosissimus Samutsevitsch is presented for the first time as an etiologic agent of cutaneous zygomycosis in a patient with aplastic anemia on immunosuppressive therapy. This report also represents the third case caused by this species reported in the literature. A biopsy taken from a lesion on the patient's thigh revealed broad, nonseptate, nonbranching hyphae compatible in morphology with a Zygomycete; M. ramosissimus was cultured twice from the thigh lesion. The patient was treated successfully with amphotericin B. Identifying features of M. ramosissimus include the following: numerous sporangia lacking columellae and resembling those of Mortierella spp., short, erect sporangiophores repeatedly branching sympodially; tough, persistent, and diffluent sporangial walls; numerous oidia in chains; extremely low colonies; and restricted growth at 36 degrees C. This paper describes the isolate and strives to alert the clinical microbiologist to this rarely reported pathogen. Images PMID:8408580

  2. Acute exercise-induced bilateral thigh compartment syndrome.

    PubMed

    Boland, Michael R; Heck, Chris

    2009-03-01

    Acute compartment syndrome of the thigh is rare due to the space's ability to accommodate large volumes of fluid and, with the exception of the lateral septum, its thin compliant linings. This article describes a case of bilateral exercise-induced severe compartment syndrome treated with anterior and posterior fasciotomies. A 29-year-old man was admitted to intensive care with myoglobinuria. His left thigh was evaluated 18 hours later for compartment syndrome. The patient reported that 14 hours prior to initial presentation, he had participated in a 1-hour session of vigorous basketball. He gradually developed bilateral moderately severe thigh pain and tea-colored urine. Physical examination revealed pain secondary to passive stretch of both knees at 20 degrees flexion, plus firm anterior and posterior compartments to palpation. A handheld pressure monitor revealed the following compartment pressures: left anterior 80 mm Hg; left posterior 75 mm Hg; right anterior 45 mm Hg; and right posterior 50 mm Hg. Bilateral emergent anterior and posterior compartment fasciotomies were performed. The patient developed a significant severe distal motor and sensory neurological deficit on the left side, which recovered to 3/5 motor strength and protective sensation. At 6-month follow-up, he ambulated with the assistance of a left ankle foot orthosis. Acute severe compartment syndrome can occur following vigorous exercise. We recommend fasciotomies after exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome rather than initial observation because of the severity of morbidity associated with undertreated compartment syndrome.

  3. Senile Cardiac Calcification Syndrome: A Rare Case of Extensive Calcification of Left Ventricular Papillary Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Jin; Song, Bong Gun; Sohn, Hyung Rae; Hong, Su-Min; Park, Dong Won; Heo, Seung Hye; Kim, Kye Yeon; Cho, Wook-Hyun; Choi, Suk-Koo

    2011-01-01

    Extensive papillary muscle calcification is uncommon and only scarce literature about causes and the clinical significance is available, whereas small calcific deposits are common findings in elderly people and are located most commonly at the apex. Papillary muscle calcification has been associated with coronary artery disease, dilated cardiomyopathy, mitral valve disease, hypercalcemia, and increased calcium phosphate product in end stage renal disease. We reported a rare case of extensive calcification of anterolateral papillary muscle diagnosed by echocardiography and multidetector computed tomography.

  4. [Hemangiopericytoma of the thigh. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Calvo Cascallo, J; Mundi Salvadó, N; Cardona Fontanet, M; Cañadell Mullerat, A M

    1993-01-01

    A case of Hemangiopericytoma at the thigh is reported. The Hemangiopericytoma is a rare tumour made with pericyties. This neoplasia is usually benign and it is located in the soft tissues. Tumour is profusely irrigated. The most common locations of the Hemangiopericytoma are the lower limbs and the abdominal cavity. The Hemangiopericytoma is difficult to be recognized by histological criteria. The high number of relapses and metastasis involve to an extent surgical ablation of the tumour and its borders. Present literature is reviewed and the different diagnostic and therapeutic options are discussed.

  5. Reconstruction of anterior cruciate ligament and anterolateral ligament using interlinked hamstrings - technical note.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Marcio de Castro; Zidan, Flavio Ferreira; Miduati, Francini Belluci; Fortuna, Caio Cesar; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Abdalla, Rene Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Recent anatomical and biomechanical studies on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee have shown that this structure has an important function in relation to joint stability, especially when associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, the criteria for its reconstruction have not yet been fully established and the surgical techniques that have been described present variations regarding anatomical points and fixation materials. This study presents a reproducible technique for ALL and ACL reconstruction using hamstring tendons, in which three interference screws are used for fixation.

  6. Acute thigh compartment syndrome post femoral vein catheterization: a case report.

    PubMed

    Asplund, Mark W

    2008-08-01

    This case report presents a previously unreported etiology of acute thigh compartment syndrome following ipsilateral femoral vein catheterization, including clinical results and a brief review of the literature.

  7. [Comparation of the antero-lateral and posterior approaches in primary total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Macedo, C A; Galia, C R; Rosito, R; Valin, M R; Kruel, A V; Muller, L; Rodríguez, F A

    1999-01-01

    Comparison between the antero-lateral and posterior approaches in primary total hip arthroplasty. In this retrospective study, 184 patients were enrolled, 95 submitted to the anterolateral (Watson jones) and 89 to the posterior approach (Moore) from June 1993 to June 1997. The outcomes assessed were perioperative data (operative time, hospital stay, time from surgery until hospital discharge, surgical bleeding and the need for blood transfusion), as well as late complications (deep venous thrombosis DVP, pulmonary embolism, periopheral nerve injury, prothesis instability and others). Both groups did not differ in terms of preoperative parameters. Those submitted to the posterior approach had shorter operative times (p < 0.001), as well as reduced bleeding (p < 0.05) and need for blood transfusion (p < 0.001) during surgery. The outcomes, such as late complications, had similar reduced frequency in both groups. The posterior approach has been successfully applied in our service and proves to be an excellent alternative surgical access to the total hip arthroplasty.

  8. The anterolateral incision for pilon fracture surgery: an anatomic study of cutaneous blood supply.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Brent E; Nathan, Senthil T; Acland, Robert D; Roberts, Craig S

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the blood supply to the adjacent skin and its vulnerability to anterolateral tibial plating performed with fibular plating through a single surgical incision. Ten lightly embalmed cadaver legs without a history of lower extremity trauma or surgery with a mean age of 71 years (range, 57 to 87 years) were used for this investigation. Each specimen was injected with a commercially available silicone compound through the popliteal artery. The left leg was plated through a modified extensile Böhler approach and the right leg served as the control. Each leg was anatomically dissected. All measurements were taken using a digital caliper by a single investigator. A mean of 93 (range, 4 to 17) perforating arteries were present and in the proximity of the fibula plate. Our findings suggest the potential for iatrogenic soft tissue breakdown along the posterior border of the anterolateral surgical incision in this procedure as a result of compromised blood supply to the skin.

  9. Positioning for Endovenous Laser Ablation: Comparative Study with Thigh Stripping

    PubMed Central

    Masaki, Hisao; Yunoki, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Yoshiko; Furukawa, Hiroshi; Yamasawa, Takahiko; Takiuchi, Hiroki; Honda, Takeshi; Kuwada, Noriaki; Kojima, Kenji; Tanemoto, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    We performed a comparative study of surgical outcomes and venous functions between endovenous laser ablation with a 980-nm diode laser (EV group) and thigh stripping (ST group). There were no severe complications and initial success rates were 100% in both groups. In the EV group, preoperative symptoms improved in 94.3% of cases, the venous occlusion rate was 98%, and endovenous heat induced thrombosis had occurred in 11.9% (Class 3: 0.7%) at 12 months after the operation. Although comparative study of postoperative venous function by air plethysmography showed significant improvement in both groups, there was less recovery of postoperative venous function in the EV than in the ST group. (This article is a translation of J Jpn Coll Angiol 2015; 55: 13–20.) PMID:27738455

  10. Anatomical variation in the anterolateral ligament of the knee and a new dissection technique for embalmed cadaveric specimens.

    PubMed

    Parker, Matthew; Smith, Heather F

    2016-12-18

    Claes et al. recently documented and described the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee, demonstrating its existence in 97% of their samples. Here, we further examined the anatomy of this ligament, documented its morphological variation, and assessed the feasibility of its dissection in preserved cadaveric specimens. To achieve this, we dissected 53 preserved cadaveric knees and documented their morphological variation in the anterolateral ligament. The originally described dissection technique for identifying and following the ALL requires flexion of the knee, a state which is often not possible in stiff, preserved cadavers. Here, we describe and confirm the feasibility of an alternate dissection technique in which the quadriceps femoris tendon is incised, for use on specimens in which flexion of the undissected knee is not possible. We also identify a novel technique for assessing whether the anterolateral ligament is absent from a specimen or has simply been obliterated or overlooked, using the lateral inferior genicular vasculature. These dissection techniques have great potential for the dissection of preserved cadavers used in gross anatomy laboratories, and we discuss the applications of such an approach in student-led dissections. Our dissections also uncovered noticeable variation in the anterolateral ligament course and position. Most notably, it often inserts significantly more laterally than the classical presentation (30.2%), or originates more proximally with superficial fibers extending superiorly and laterally over the distal femur (7.5%).

  11. Misdiagnosis of primary pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma of the right thigh in a young adult: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiaolong; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Bin; Liu, Hucheng; Guo, Runsheng; Dai, Min

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma (PRMS) is a rare type of soft tissue tumor accounting for <2% of all adult sarcomas. The present study describes a case of a 28-year-old male patient with primary PRMS of the right thigh. The patient was initially diagnosed with a schwannoma and underwent conservative therapy at a local hospital. At the 6-month follow-up, the patient reported a marked increase in the size of the mass. Finally, the patient underwent fine-needle aspiration and total tumor resection. The tumor measured 11×9×5 cm3 in size and was located in the vastus intermedius muscle. According to histological and immunohistochemical findings, a diagnosis of PRMS was confirmed by an expert pathology consultant. Postoperative follow-up at 3 months revealed no evidence of recurrent disease or residual side effects from therapy. However, it is imperative that such cases are closely monitored following surgery, in order to evaluate the long-term efficacy of the procedure, since misdiagnosis may increase the risk of recurrence and metastasis. The present case is noteworthy due to the misdiagnosis of PRMS, the large size of the mass and the young age of the patient. PMID:27588141

  12. Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Thigh Secondary to Radiation Colitis in a Rectal Cancer Patient

    PubMed Central

    Park, So Hyun; Choi, Jung Ran; Song, Ji Young; Kang, Kyu Keun; Yoo, Woong Sun; Han, Sung Wan

    2012-01-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis usually occurs after dermal injury or through hematogenous spread. To date, few cases have been reported as necrotizing fasciitis of the thigh secondary to rectal perforation in rectal cancer patients. A 66-year-old male complained of pelvic and thigh pain and subsequently developed necrotizing fasciitis in his right thigh. Four years earlier, he had undergone a low anterior resection and radiotherapy due to of rectal cancer. An ulcerative lesion had been observed around the anastomosis site during the colonoscopy that had been performed two months earlier. Pelvic computed tomography and sigmoidoscopy showed rectal perforation and presacral abscess extending to buttock and the right posterior thigh fascia. Thus, the necrotizing fasciitis was believed to have occurred because of ulcer perforation, one of the complications of chronic radiation colitis, at the anastomosis site. When a rectal-cancer patient complains of pelvic and thigh pain, the possibility of a rectal perforation should be considered. PMID:23346513

  13. Open antero-lateral dislocation of the elbow. A case report

    PubMed Central

    Alonso, Juan A; Roy, Bibas R; Shaw, David L

    2002-01-01

    Background Open dislocations are infrequent, often associated with damage to the neuro vascular structures. We present an unusual case of an open antero-lateral dislocation of the elbow, which was not associated with any vascular or neural injury. Case presentation A 34 year female dance instructor sustained an open dislocation of her elbow. Surgical exploration was undertaken. No major neurovascular injury was present. There was almost complete disruption of all the muscular and ligamentous attachments to the distal humerus and the proximal radius and ulna, which were not formally repaired during surgery. The elbow was found to be very unstable, and was placed in a back slab. The functional recovery was complete in about six months, the patient regaining full range of elbow movement. Elbow dislocations without associate fractures are adequately treated by manipulation and reduction, in spite of the almost complete disruption of the soft tissues around the joint. PMID:11806760

  14. Muscle temperature gradients in humans during cold water immersion hypothermia and rewarming

    SciTech Connect

    Bristow, G.K.; Giesbrecht, G.G. Univ. of Calgary, Alberta )

    1991-03-11

    Muscle temperature gradients have not been measured in hypothermic man. Thigh and calf muscle temperatures were measured by indwelling multisensor thermocouples (deep (D) 4.5 cm, and superficial (S) 1.5 cm beneath the skin) on five healthy male subjects immersed in 8C water for 70 minutes on two occasions. Measurements continued during 55 minutes of rewarming by two methods; either treadmill exercise (EX) or shivering (SH). Esophageal temperature (T{sub es}) was also measured. Prior to immersion, deep thigh and calf temperatures were 36.1 and 34.8C respectively and temperature gradients were similar in both thigh and calf. At the end of cooling deep thigh temperature fell 3.0C and the gradient increased to 8.1C. Corresponding values for the calf were 10.3 and 6.4C respectively. Both rewarming methods were terminated at a T{sub es} of 35.7C. EX and SH caused similar changes in thigh temperatures; deep temperature increased 2.1 and 1.9C and gradients decreased to 2.7 and 2.6C respectively. However, an increase in deep calf temperature during EX was absent during SH. During cooling, muscle blood flow would appear to be better maintained in the thigh than the calf. Thigh blood flow increases similarly during EX and SH. However, in calf, blood flow increases during EX but not SH.

  15. Evaluation of the anterolateral ligament of the knee by means of magnetic resonance examination☆

    PubMed Central

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; Demange, Marco Kawamura; Helito, Paulo Victor Partezani; Costa, Hugo Pereira; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Pecora, Jose Ricardo; Rodrigues, Marcelo Bordalo; Camanho, Gilberto Luis

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the presence of the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations. Methods Thirty-three MRI examinations on patients’ knees that were done because of indications unrelated to ligament instability or trauma were evaluated. T1-weighted images in the sagittal plane and T2-weighted images with fat saturation in the axial, sagittal and coronal planes were obtained. The images were evaluated by two radiologists with experience of musculoskeletal pathological conditions. In assessing ligament visibility, we divided the analysis into three portions of the ligament: from its origin in the femur to its point of bifurcation; from the bifurcation to the meniscal insertion; and from the bifurcation to the tibial insertion. The capacity to view the ligament in each of its portions and overall was taken to be a dichotomous categorical variable (yes or no). Results The ALL was viewed with signal characteristics similar to those of the other ligament structures of the knee, with T2 hyposignal with fat saturation. The main plane in which the ligament was viewed was the coronal plane. Some portion of the ligament was viewed clearly in 27 knees (81.8%). The meniscal portion was evident in 25 knees (75.7%), the femoral portion in 23 (69.6%) and the tibial portion in 13 (39.3%). The three portions were viewed together in 11 knees (33.3%). Conclusion The anterolateral ligament of the knee is best viewed in sequences in the coronal plane. The ligament was completely characterized in 33.3% of the cases. The meniscal portion was the part most easily identified and the tibial portion was the part least encountered. PMID:26229919

  16. Extensive retroperitoneal and right thigh abscess in a patient with ruptured retrocecal appendicitis: an extremely fulminant form of a common disease.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chi-Hsun; Wang, Yu-Chun; Yang, Horng-Ren; Chung, Ping-Kuei; Jeng, Long-Bin; Chen, Ray-Jade

    2006-01-21

    As a disease commonly encountered in daily practice, acute appendicitis is usually diagnosed and managed easily with a low mortality and morbidity rate. However, acute appendicitis may occasionally become extraordinarily complicated and life threatening. A 56-year-old man, healthy prior to this admission, was brought to the hospital due to spiking high fever, poor appetite, dysuria, progressive right flank and painful swelling of the thigh for 3 d. Significant inflammatory change of soft tissue was noted, involving the entire right trunk from the subcostal margin to the knee joint. Painful disability of the right lower extremity and apparent signs of peritonitis at the right lower abdomen were disclosed. Laboratory results revealed leukocytosis and an elevated C-reactive protein level. Abdominal CT revealed several communicated gas-containing abscesses at the right retroperitoneal region with mass effect, pushing the duodenum and the pancreatic head upward, compressing and encasing inferior vena cava, destroying psoas muscle and dissecting downward into the right thigh. Laparotomy and right thigh exploration were performed immediately and about 500 mL of frank pus was drained. A ruptured retrocecal appendix was the cause of the abscess. The patient fully recovered at the end of the third post-operation week. This case reminds us that acute appendicitis should be treated carefully on an emergency basis to avoid serious complications. CT scan is the diagnostic tool of choice, with rapid evaluation followed by adequate drainage as the key to the survival of the patient.

  17. Concurrent emphysematous pyelonephritis and thigh necrotizing fasciitis after intramuscular administration of diclofenac.

    PubMed

    Amiri, Fateme Shamekhi; Foroughi, Alireza

    2014-11-01

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a rapidly progressive, life-threatening soft tissue infection. NF may result from any injury to the skin or from hematogenous spread. However, con-current emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh has not been reported. We report a case of emphysematous pyelonephritis and necrotizing fasciitis of the left thigh after intramuscular administration of diclofenac that improved with aggressive management including broad-spectrum antibiotics, nephrectomy and surgical intervention.

  18. Thigh abscess caused by Eikenella corrodens and Streptococcus intermedius: a case report.

    PubMed

    Zhiyong, Zong; Xiufang, Lin; Jiajie, Lu

    2007-01-01

    A 35-year-old Chinese female has a large thigh abscess without a clear source. No underlying diseases were revealed in the patient. The combination of clindamycin and cefazolin or vancomycin was administered but without a clinical response. Eikenella corrodens and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from puncture drainage. Then, ceftriaxone was administered and a surgery of incision and further draining was carried. Eventually, the patient recovered. To our knowledge, this is the first case of thigh abscess in a previous healthy adult.

  19. Gunshot wounds to the thigh. Evaluation of vascular and subclinical vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Payne, W K; Gabriel, R A; Massoud, R P

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective review of 173 patient charts, angiograms, surgical reports, and plain radiographs were performed for all patients admitted with gunshot wounds to the thigh from May 1988 to January 1991 at Martin Luther King, Jr. Hospital. A zonal classification of gunshot wounds to the thigh was created and defined to determine if a zonal classification was predictive of a positive angiogram. Associations and relationships of patients with vascular injury are presented.

  20. Abdomen-thigh contact during forward reaching tasks in obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhupinder; Brown, Thomas D; Callaghan, John J; Yack, H John

    2013-10-01

    During seated forward reaching tasks in obese individuals, excessive abdominal tissue can come into contact with the anterior thigh. This soft tissue apposition acts as a mechanical restriction, altering functional biomechanics at the hip, and causing difficulty in certain daily activities such as bending down, or picking up objects from the floor. The purpose of the study was to investigate the contact forces and associated moments exerted by the abdomen on the thigh during seated forward-reaching tasks in adult obese individuals. Ten healthy subjects (age 58.1 ± 4.4) with elevated BMI (39.04 ± 5.02) participated in the study. Contact pressures between the abdomen and thigh were measured using a Tekscan Conformat pressure-mapping sensor during forward-reaching tasks. Kinematic and force plate data were obtained using an infrared motion capture system. The mean abdomen-thigh contact force was 10.17 ± 5.18% of body weight, ranging from 57.8 N to 200 N. Net extensor moment at the hip decreased by mean 16.5 ± 6.44% after accounting for the moment generated by abdomen-thigh tissue contact. In obese individuals, abdomen-thigh contact decreases the net moment at the hip joint during seated forward-reaching activities. This phenomenon should be taken into consideration for accurate biomechanical modeling in these individuals.

  1. Muscle strength and endurance following lowerlimb suspension in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tesch, Per A.; Berg, Hans E.; Haggmark, Tom; Ohlsen, Hans; Dudley, Gary A.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of lower-limb suspension on the muscle strength and muscle endurance was investigated in six men subjected to four weeks of unilateral unloading of a lower limb (using of a harness attached to a modified shoe), followed by seven weeks of weight-bearing recovery. Results showed a decrease in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle and in the average peak torque (APT) during three bouts of 30 concentric knee extensions. While the the thigh muscle CSA returned to normal after seven weeks of recovery, the APT recovery was still reduced by 11 percent, suggesting that muscle metabolic function was severely affected by unloading and was not restored by ambulation.

  2. Morphology of Anterolateral Ligament of the Knee: A Cadaveric Observation with Clinical Insight

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Abdel Halim; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan F.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The morphology and function of anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee are not clearly understood even today with all the sophisticated techniques available. There have been differing descriptions of the ALL of the knee in literature, and not all of them have been named or described clearly. Aim. The present study was undertaken to provide a clear structure/relationship description on ALL. Materials and Methods. We used 24 formalin-fixed cadaveric limbs. Knee regions of the all the limbs were neatly dissected and the ALL was exposed. Its proximal and distal attachments were traced carefully. Middle portion of ALL was removed and processed for histological analysis. Results. ALL was found in one right knee (4.16%). It extended distally from the lateral femoral condyle to the lateral tibial plateau margin. Its attachment on the tibial plateau was located between head of the fibula and Gerdy's tubercle. A strong connection was identified between the ALL and the periphery of the middle third of the lateral meniscus. Histological analysis of ALL confirmed the presence of true ligamentous structure in it with dense connective tissue and plenty of fibroblasts. Conclusion. The prevalence of ALL in different populations along with its clinical significance has been discussed in detail in this paper. PMID:27847860

  3. Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spinal Infections through Anterolateral Approaches Using Expandable Titanium Mesh Cage for Spine Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Roberto, Tarantino; Daniele, Marruzzo; Martina, Cappelletti; Tiziano, De Giacomo; Roberto, Delfini

    2012-01-01

    Pyogenic vertebral osteomyelitis (PVO) is still a rare pathology. However, its incidence is on the rise. This is due to an increasing population with predisposing factors. Also, the availability of more effective diagnostic tools has brought it increasingly to the surgeon's attention. In this study the patients were treated in the Neurosurgery Division of the Department of Neurological Sciences and Psychiatry of the Sapienza University of Rome, between 2001 and 2009. They had thoracolumbar pyogenic spondylitis. This study was undertaken in order to identify the correct diagnostic and therapeutic treatment needed in such cases. From the cases studied here, it is evident that spinal infections can be extremely insidious and that diagnosis tends to be reached late. Surgery, along with the antibiotic treatment, allows for eradication of the causes of the pathology by the reclamation of the affected region. Surgery is also fundamental in helping to recover vital functions and in restoring as much as possible the correct curvature of the rachises. The use of an anterolateral approach is dictated by the necessity of obtaining 360° stability as well as by the need to clear away extensive infections, which are not always reachable using a posterior approach. PMID:23193382

  4. Proprioception and Clinical Results of Anterolateral Single-Bundle Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction with Remnant Preservation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dung Chul; Kwack, Byung Hoon; Lee, Sung Jun

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the clinical and radiological results and proprioception following anterolateral single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction with remnant preservation for PCL injury. Materials and Methods Twenty patients with an isolated PCL injury (16 males and 4 females) were included in this study. The mean follow-up period was 61 months (≥24 months) and the mean age of the patients was 36 years. Knee joint instability was evaluated using posterior drawer stress radiography. Knee function, level of activities, and individual satisfaction were assessed using the Lysholm knee score, Tegner activity score, and 2000 International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) score. Knee proprioception was assessed using an isokinetic machine. Results The mean ligament laxity assessed using the posterior drawer stress radiography was improved from 10.8-3.2 mm. The mean Lysholm knee score was improved from 70.0-88.9 points, and the mean Tegner activity score was improved from 2.7-6.2 points. Individual satisfaction assessed using the IKDC score was improved from 62.7-85.4 points (p<0.05). Knee proprioception was not significantly different between the treated and the uninjured knees. Conclusions Single-bundle PCL reconstruction with remnant preservation for PCL injury exhibited satisfactory outcomes regarding functional outcome, joint stability, and proprioception. PMID:24032101

  5. MR imaging findings in diabetic muscle infarction.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Gitanjali; Nicholas, Richard; Pandey, Tarun; Montgomery, Corey; Jambhekar, Kedar; Ram, Roopa

    2014-10-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare, often unrecognized complication seen in patients with poorly controlled Diabetes Mellitus. The diagnosis is often missed and leads to unnecessary invasive investigations and inappropriate treatment. The patients usually present with unilateral thigh pain and swelling. MRI typically demonstrates diffuse swelling and increased T2 signal intensity within the affected muscles. The condition is self-limiting and is treated conservatively with bed rest and analgesics. Recurrences have been reported in the same or contralateral limb. We report a case of diabetic muscle infarction with spontaneous resolution of symptoms and imaging abnormality with recurrence on the contralateral side.

  6. A benign form of congenital anterolateral bowing of the tibia associated with ipsilateral polydactyly of the hallux: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Han, Jiuhui; Qu, Lei; Li, Yazhou; Luo, Junzhong; Cao, Jinchao; Zhao, Wanyu

    2012-07-01

    Congenital anterolateral bowing of the tibia is generally considered a precursor of congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia (CPT), which is usually associated with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a common autosomal dominant genetic disorder. In many cases, NF1 is initially suspected following the presentation of a child with anterolateral tibial bowing. The prognosis of CPT is poor, and amputation may be required. Congenital anterolateral bowing of the tibia combined with ipsilateral polydactyly of the hallux (CABTP) is a rare entity that resembles the anterolateral tibial bowing that occurs in association with CPT, and may be misdiagnosed as NF1. However, spontaneous correction of the tibial bowing with an almost normal fibula has been described in all previously reported cases. Here, we report three patients with CABTP and discuss the physical and imaging characteristics and follow-up results. We suggest that given the spontaneous resolution of bowing, the absence of neurocutaneous signs and the relatively favorable prognosis, CABTP is a distinct entity that merits its own place within the field of anterolateral bowing of the tibia and has no association with CPT or NF1. This should help avoid unnecessary investigations and interventions for NF1. This article shows for the first time tibial duplication in the area of bowing, with two medullary canals surrounded by well-defined cortex on CT.

  7. Digital Anatomical Measurement for Anterolateral Fixation of Middle and Lower Thoracic Vertebrae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohe; En, He; Zhang, Yunfeng; Gao, Shang; Li, Guimin; Guo, Yu; Wang, Xin; Wang, Haiyan; Cai, Yongqiang; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Zhijun; Li, Cunbao; Zhao, Feifei

    2016-01-01

    Background The key to its successful application is to determine the best entry point for the vertebral screw(s). This study aimed to provide a reference for clinical anterolateral fixation through digital measurement of computed tomography (CT) data to identify relevant anatomical positions in the middle and lower thoracic vertebrae (T4–T12) of 30 adults. Material/Methods We performed digital measurement of anatomical positions in the middle and lower thoracic vertebrae (T4–T12) of 30 adults. Abbreviations: Left height of vertebral body, LHV; Right height of vertebral body, RHV; Anterior height of vertebral body, AHV; Middle height of vertebral body, MHV; Posterior height of vertebral body, PHV; Superior sagittal diameter of vertebral body, SSDV; Superior transverse diameter of vertebral body, STDV; inferior sagittal diameter of vertebral body, ISDV; Inferior transverse diameter of vertebral body, ITDV; (1) Left (right) height of vertebral body, [L(R)HV]; Anterior (middle, posterior) height of vertebral body [A(M,P)HV]; Superior (inferior) sagittal diameter of vertebral body, [S(I)SDV]; Superior (inferior) transverse diameter of vertebral body, [S(I)TDV]. Results The transverse diameters of vertebral bodies were always larger than the sagittal diameter for 3~4 mm. The distance between 2 vertebrae (interval of 1 vertebra) range were (52–56) mm for T4–T7 and (44–48) mm for T8–T12, and the surgeons could collate these data to choose a suitable stick length. Conclusions Bone graft should prune into laterigrade cuboid, it can recover A-P and bilateral physiological functions load, and the height of the vertebral body increased from T4 to T12. PMID:27997524

  8. The Anterolateral Ligament: An Anatomic Study on Sex-Based Differences

    PubMed Central

    Daggett, Matt; Helito, Camilo; Cullen, Matthew; Ockuly, Andrew; Busch, Kyle; Granite, Joseph; Wright, Barth; Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand

    2017-01-01

    Background: The anterolateral ligament (ALL) has been shown to have an important role in rotatory stability of the knee. While there is abundant research on sex-based differences related to anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture, there is a paucity of literature related to such differences in the ALL. Purpose: To define any sex-based differences in the ALL with regard to length, width, and thickness. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: The ALL was initially evaluated in 165 unpaired knees (92 males and 65 females after exclusion criteria applied). The length, width, and thickness of the ALL were measured using a digital caliper. Width and thickness were measured at the joint line just superior to the lateral meniscus. The Mann-Whitney test and Student t tests were used to compare measurements between males and females. The Pearson product-moment correlation was subsequently used to determine the correlation between height and weight and the statistically different morphometric variables. Results: The mean (±SD) thickness of the ALL in males was 2.09 ± 0.56 mm, almost twice as thick as females (1.05 ± 0.49 mm; P = 8.8 × 10−20). There was also a statistically significant difference in ALL length (P = 3.8 × 10−7), but no significant difference was found for width. A moderate association was found between donor height and ALL thickness and length. Conclusion: The anatomic measurements of the ALL demonstrate a difference between sexes, and the ALL is significantly thicker in males than females. Clinical Relevance: As the role of the ALL in rotatory stability of the knee becomes better understood, the difference in the thickness of the ALL we have found between the sexes may be another factor why female athletes have an increased incidence of ACL rupture compared with males. This may also help explain why females have issues with knee laxity and rotatory instability. PMID:28321423

  9. Relationship between BMI and Postoperative Complications with Free Flap in Anterolateral Craniofacial Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Yagi, Shunjiro; Toriyama, Kazuhiro; Takanari, Keisuke; Fujimoto, Yasushi; Nishio, Naoki; Fujii, Masazumi; Saito, Kiyoshi; Takahashi, Masakatsu; Kamei, Yuzuru

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although we have seen tremendous advancement in microsurgery over the last 2 decades and free tissue transfer has become standard for head and neck reconstruction, surgeons still struggle to prevent postoperative complications. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and postoperative complications in patients undergoing rectus abdominis free flap transfer after anterolateral craniofacial resection. Methods: This was a retrospective review of reconstructive surgery using rectus abdominis musculocutaneous free flap in patients with locally advanced maxillary sinus carcinoma from 2003 to 2014 (n = 35, 27 men and 8 women; average age, 60.9 ± 7.8 years). All patients underwent craniofacial reconstruction after anterior and middle cranial fossa skull base resection and maxillectomy (class IV, subtype a) with palatal resection. Patients were categorized based on sex, BMI, and other parameters. Results: Recipient-site infection occurred in 11 patients (31.4%), cerebrospinal fluid leakage in 6 (17.1%), partial flap necrosis in 2 (5.7%), total flap necrosis in 1 (2.9%), and facial fistula in 4 (11.4%). Women showed partial flap necrosis significantly more frequently (P = 0.047), probably owing to poor vascular supply of the subcutaneous fat layer. Patients with low BMI (<20 kg/m2) showed recipient-site infection (P = 0.02) and facial fistula (P = 0.01) significantly more frequently owing to insufficient tissue volume and poor vascular supply. Conclusion: Postoperative recipient-site infection and facial fistula occurred mainly in low-BMI patients. Surgeons should take care to achieve sufficient donor tissue on low-BMI patients. Using a prosthetic obturator in low-BMI patients for craniofacial reconstruction can be a good alternative option to reduce postoperative complications due to insufficient donor tissue volume. PMID:27257566

  10. Anterolateral Radical Debridement and Interbody Bone Grafting Combined With Transpedicle Fixation in the Treatment of Thoracolumbar Spinal Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Zhaohui; Wang, Jian; Zheng, Qixin; Wu, Yongchao; Guo, Xiaodong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate the clinical outcomes of radical anterolateral debridement and autogenous ilium with rib or titanium cage interbody autografting with transpedicle fixation for the treatment of thoracolumbar tuberculosis. Spinal tuberculosis operation aims to remove the lesions and necrotic tissues, remove spinal cord compression, and reconstruct spinal stability. However, traditional operation methods cannot effectively correct cyrtosis or stabilize the spine. In addition, the patient needs to stay in bed for a long time and may have many complications. So far, the best surgical method and fixation method for spinal tuberculosis remain controversial. There were a total of 43 patients, 16 involving spinal cord injury, from January 2004 to January 2011. The patients were surgically treated for radical anterolateral debridement via posterolateral incision and autogenous ilium with rib or titanium cage interbody autografting and single-stage transpedicle fixation. All the patients were followed up to determine the stages of intervertebral bone fusion and the corrections of spinal kyphosis with the restoration of neurological deficit. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) of these patients decreased to normal levels for a mean of 2.8 months. The function of feeling, motion, and sphincter in 16 paraplegia cases gradually recovered after 1 week to 3 months postoperatively, and the American Spinal Injury Association scores significantly increased at the final follow-up. Intervertebral bone fusions were all achieved postoperatively. No internal fixation devices were loose, extracted, or broken. There was no correction degree loss during the follow-up. The method of radical anterolateral debridement and autogenous ilium with rib or titanium cage interbody autografting and single-stage transpedicle fixation was effective for the treatment of thoracolumbar tuberculosis, correcting kyphotic deformity, and reconstructing

  11. An unusual presentation of autonomic dysreflexia in a patient with cold abscess of cervical spine for anterolateral decompression

    PubMed Central

    Sarangi, Susmita; Taneja, Dipali; Saxena, Bhavna

    2016-01-01

    A young female having complaints of quadriparesis along with bladder and bowel involvement, diagnosed to have osseous destruction of C4, C6, C7, T2 vertebral bodies with pre- and para-vertebral abscess, was taken up for anterolateral decompression and fusion of cervical spine. She presented with anxiety, agitation, sweating and headache and was in hypertensive crisis which was refractory to antihypertensives, anxiolytics and analgesics but showed a reasonable response to intravenous dexmedetomidine and finally responded dramatically to rectal evacuation. Autonomic dysreflexia was suspected with stimulus arising from distended rectum as all other causes of hypertension were ruled out. PMID:28003699

  12. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Muscles KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Muscles A A A ... and skeletal (say: SKEL-uh-tul) muscle. Smooth Muscles Smooth muscles — sometimes also called involuntary muscles — are ...

  13. Effect of postmortem deboning time on sensory descriptive flavor and texture profiles of cooked boneless skinless chicken thighs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three replicate trials were conducted to investigate the effect of deboning time on sensory descriptive profiles of cooked boneless skinless thigh meat (iliotibialis, iliofibularis and the femoritibialis). Carcasses (42-d old birds) were obtained from a commercial processing plant. Thighs were hot-b...

  14. Diabetic Muscle Infarction (Myonecrosis): Underdiagnosed or Underreported?

    PubMed

    Madhuvan, H S; Krishnamurthy, Ajoy; Prakash, P; Shariff, Shameem

    2015-04-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction is a rare complication of diabetes. It is seen more in Type 1 DM than Type 2 DM, but in both it is associated with longer duration of diabetes, poor glycemic control with or without microvascular complications. We present a case report of a 47 year diabetic male, who presented with sudden onset of painful swelling of the left thigh muscles (vastus group). The patient had microvascular complications of diabetes. Apart for mild elevation of CPK and LDH other investigations were normal. MRI findings of left thigh showed T2 hyperintensities in the involved muscles which established the diagnosis. Muscle biopsy revealed necrosis of the muscle fibres, presence of inflammatory cell infiltrates and hyalinization of the blood vessels with luminal narrowing which is characteristic of diabetic muscle infarction. The patient was treated with immobilization, analgesics and adequate blood sugar control. This case highlights the rarity of finding vascular changes as well as the poor prognosis and the occurrence of fatal complications in near future.

  15. The relationships of waist and mid-thigh circumference with performance of college golfers.

    PubMed

    Son, Seungbum; Han, Kunho; So, Wi-Young

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] Our aim was to evaluate the relationships between waist and mid-thigh circumference, used as proxy measures of trunk and lower limb strengths, respectively, and selected parameters of driver and putting performance in Korean college golfers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 103 college golfers (81 male, 20 to 27 years old). Measurements of body composition, waist and mid-thigh circumference, and grip strength, as well as assessment of golf performance, including driver distance, driver swing speed, putting accuracy, and putting consistency, were performed at the golf performance laboratory at Konkuk University in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea. Average round score was obtained from 10 rounds of golf completed during the study period. The relationships between strength measures and golf performance were evaluated by partial correlation analysis, with adjustment for age, golf experience, and body mass index. [Results] Waist circumference did not correlate with any of the performance variables in both males and females. Mid-thigh circumference correlated with putting consistency (r = 0.364) in males and with putting consistency (r = 0.490) and accuracy (r = 0.547) in females. No other significant correlations between waist and mid-thigh circumference and golf performance were identified. [Conclusion] Lower limb strength may be an important component of putting performance. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the contributions of trunk strength to performance.

  16. The appearance of angiolipomatosis after using laptop computer on the thighs: a relationship?

    PubMed

    Caucanas, Marie; Müller, Gebhard; Vanhooteghem, Olivier

    2011-08-03

    A 56-year-old patient developed angiolipomatosis of the anterior part of the thighs after repeated laptop contact localisation. Histological findings exhibit an unusual inflammatory infiltrate. We postulate that the computer could favour lipoma development by a physiopathological mechanism that remains to be clarified.

  17. The relationships of waist and mid-thigh circumference with performance of college golfers

    PubMed Central

    Son, Seungbum; Han, Kunho; So, Wi-Young

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Our aim was to evaluate the relationships between waist and mid-thigh circumference, used as proxy measures of trunk and lower limb strengths, respectively, and selected parameters of driver and putting performance in Korean college golfers. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 103 college golfers (81 male, 20 to 27 years old). Measurements of body composition, waist and mid-thigh circumference, and grip strength, as well as assessment of golf performance, including driver distance, driver swing speed, putting accuracy, and putting consistency, were performed at the golf performance laboratory at Konkuk University in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea. Average round score was obtained from 10 rounds of golf completed during the study period. The relationships between strength measures and golf performance were evaluated by partial correlation analysis, with adjustment for age, golf experience, and body mass index. [Results] Waist circumference did not correlate with any of the performance variables in both males and females. Mid-thigh circumference correlated with putting consistency (r = 0.364) in males and with putting consistency (r = 0.490) and accuracy (r = 0.547) in females. No other significant correlations between waist and mid-thigh circumference and golf performance were identified. [Conclusion] Lower limb strength may be an important component of putting performance. Further studies are needed to fully characterize the contributions of trunk strength to performance. PMID:27134346

  18. [A 35-year-old woman with fever, dyspnea, and pain in the left thigh].

    PubMed

    Picardi, A; Navajas, F; De Iorio, F; Amicarelli, M; Spoto, S; De Galasso, L; Vespaciani Gentilucci, U; Scarlata, S; Zardi, E; Di Cuonzo, G

    2001-01-01

    A thirty-five years old woman during her twelfth pregnancy presented fever and pain at the left thigh. After cesarean delivery dyspnea added to the first two symptoms and pulmonary embolism was suspected. A clinical history revaluation suggested a diagnosis of infectious endocarditis and femoural osteomielitis due to a septic embolus.

  19. Validity and repeatability of a depth camera-based surface imaging system for thigh volume measurement.

    PubMed

    Bullas, Alice M; Choppin, Simon; Heller, Ben; Wheat, Jon

    2016-10-01

    Complex anthropometrics such as area and volume, can identify changes in body size and shape that are not detectable with traditional anthropometrics of lengths, breadths, skinfolds and girths. However, taking these complex with manual techniques (tape measurement and water displacement) is often unsuitable. Three-dimensional (3D) surface imaging systems are quick and accurate alternatives to manual techniques but their use is restricted by cost, complexity and limited access. We have developed a novel low-cost, accessible and portable 3D surface imaging system based on consumer depth cameras. The aim of this study was to determine the validity and repeatability of the system in the measurement of thigh volume. The thigh volumes of 36 participants were measured with the depth camera system and a high precision commercially available 3D surface imaging system (3dMD). The depth camera system used within this study is highly repeatable (technical error of measurement (TEM) of <1.0% intra-calibration and ~2.0% inter-calibration) but systematically overestimates (~6%) thigh volume when compared to the 3dMD system. This suggests poor agreement yet a close relationship, which once corrected can yield a usable thigh volume measurement.

  20. Correlation between waist and mid-thigh circumference and cardiovascular fitness in Korean college students: a case study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sung-Sik; Chung, Jae-Soon; So, Wi-Young

    2015-09-01

    [Purpose] We investigated whether waist and mid-thigh circumference correlated with cardiovascular fitness (VO2max) in a selected sample of Korean college students. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 41 college students (25 males, 16 females; age, > 19 years) who visited the sports medicine laboratory at the Korea National University of Transportation in Chungju-si, Republic of Korea, to undergo measurements of body composition, cardiovascular fitness, and waist and mid-thigh circumference. [Results] VO2max did not correlate with waist circumference or mid-thigh circumference in males, whereas VO2max was negatively correlated with mid-thigh circumference, but not waist circumference, in females. [Conclusion] Mid-thigh circumference was not associated with cardiovascular fitness or waist in male college students. However, it was associated with cardiovascular fitness in female college students. Well-designed studies are needed to investigate this further.

  1. Chronic exercise preserves lean muscle mass in masters athletes.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Andrew P; Amati, Francesca; Smiley, Mark A; Goodpaster, Bret; Wright, Vonda

    2011-09-01

    Aging is commonly associated with a loss of muscle mass and strength, resulting in falls, functional decline, and the subjective feeling of weakness. Exercise modulates the morbidities of muscle aging. Most studies, however, have examined muscle-loss changes in sedentary aging adults. This leaves the question of whether the changes that are commonly associated with muscle aging reflect the true physiology of muscle aging or whether they reflect disuse atrophy. This study evaluated whether high levels of chronic exercise prevents the loss of lean muscle mass and strength experienced in sedentary aging adults. A cross-section of 40 high-level recreational athletes ("masters athletes") who were aged 40 to 81 years and trained 4 to 5 times per week underwent tests of health/activity, body composition, quadriceps peak torque (PT), and magnetic resonance imaging of bilateral quadriceps. Mid-thigh muscle area, quadriceps area (QA), subcutaneous adipose tissue, and intramuscular adipose tissue were quantified in magnetic resonance imaging using medical image processing, analysis, and visualization software. One-way analysis of variance was used to examine age group differences. Relationships were evaluated using Spearman correlations. Mid-thigh muscle area (P = 0.31) and lean mass (P = 0.15) did not increase with age and were significantly related to retention of mid-thigh muscle area (P < 0.0001). This occurred despite an increase in total body fat percentage (P = 0.003) with age. Mid-thigh muscle area (P = 0.12), QA (P = 0.17), and quadriceps PT did not decline with age. Specific strength (strength per QA) did not decline significantly with age (P = 0.06). As muscle area increased, PT increased significantly (P = 0.008). There was not a significant relationship between intramuscular adipose tissue (P = 0.71) or lean mass (P = 0.4) and PT. This study contradicts the common observation that muscle mass and strength decline as a function of aging alone. Instead, these

  2. Can hip and knee kinematics be improved by eliminating thigh markers?

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Brian W.; Kimmel, Wendy L.

    2017-01-01

    Background Marker sets developed for gait analysis are often applied to more dynamic tasks with little or no validation, despite known complications of soft tissue artifact. Methods This study presents a comparison of hip and knee kinematics as calculated by five concurrently-worn tracking marker sets during eight different tasks. The first three marker sets were based on Helen Hayes but used 1) proximal thigh wands, 2) distal thigh wands, and 3) patellar markers instead of thigh wands. The remaining two marker sets used rigid clusters on the 4) thighs and shanks and 5) only shanks. Pelvis and foot segments were shared by all marker sets. The first three tasks were maximal femoral rotations using different knee and hip positions to quantify the ability of each marker set to capture this motion. The remaining five tasks were walking, walking a 1m radius circle, running, jumping, and lunging. Findings In general, few and small differences in knee and hip flexion-extension were observed between marker sets, while many and large differences in adduction-abduction and external-internal rotations were observed. The shank-only tracking marker set was capable of detecting the greatest hip external-internal rotation, yet only did so during dynamic tasks where greater hip axial motions would be expected. All data are available as supplementary material. Interpretation Marker set selection is critical to non-sagittal hip and knee motions. The shank-only tracking marker set presented here is a viable alternative that may improve knee and hip kinematics by eliminating errors from thigh soft tissue artifact. PMID:20493599

  3. Associations of Upper Arm and Thigh Circumferences with Dementia and Depression in Korean Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong-Seong; Kim, Sang-Dae; Kang, Hee-Ju; Kim, Sung-Wan; Shin, Il-Seon; Yoon, Jin-Sang

    2017-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have reported an association between weight loss and cognitive impairment. Changes in anthropometric measurements, such as arm and thigh circumferences, are associated with body mass changes and physical activity. Our aim was to investigate the association of upper arm and thigh circumferences with dementia and depression in the community-dwelling elderly population. Methods In total, 2,498 community residents aged 65 years or over were clinically assessed for dementia using the Korean version of the Community Screening Interview for Dementia. Depression was also assessed using the Korean version of the Geriatric Mental State Schedule B3. Arm and thigh circumferences were measured. Complex sample logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations of changes in anthropometric measurements with dementia/depression after controlling for other covariates. Results In the adjusted analyses, there was an independent association between dementia and arm circumference (OR=1.12; 95% CI=1.06–1.19). This association was significant in the females (OR=1.12; 95% CI=1.05–1.19) but not in males (OR=1.07; 95% CI=0.93–1.28). The association between dementia and thigh circumference was not significant in the adjusted analysis (OR=1.03; 95% CI=0.99–1.07). No significant association was found between either upper arm or thigh circumference and depression. Conclusion In the older female Korean population, decreased upper arm circumference was associated with dementia and may represent a biological marker for this condition. This association may be explained by nutritional deficits or decreased physical activity. PMID:28326112

  4. Ankle and Thigh Skin Surface Temperature Changes With Repeated Ice Pack Application

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Janice E.; Knight, Kenneth L.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: Most of the research on cold applications has been performed on nonexercising supine subjects during a single cold pack application. Most athletic injuries occur during exercise, which increases skin temperature. Exercise before ice application will also increase ankle skin temperature during the rewarming phase. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of activity on subsequent ice pack applications and rewarming using standard immediate care procedures. Design and Setting: Three experimental conditions (20-, 30-, and 40-minute ice pack applications) were applied to 12 subjects in a repeated measures design. Subjects rode a bicycle ergometer for 15 minutes before ice application to the ankle and opposite thigh, and were active (walking with crutches, simulated showering and dressing) for 20 minutes following application. Subjects rested with the limb elevated for an additional 40 minutes. Ice packs were then reapplied for the appropriate time (20, 30, or 40 minutes) followed by 60 minutes of rest with the limb elevated. Subjects: Twelve (8 males, 4 females) college-aged volunteers. Only subjects with good-to-high fitness levels were accepted for this study. Measurements: Ankle skin, thigh skin, and atmospheric temperatures were measured every minute using an Isothermex (Columbus Instruments, Columbus, OH). Results: Thigh temperature changes during the first ice application were greater during the 30- and 40-minute conditions than the 20-minute condition. Ankle and thigh temperature changes during the first ice application and rewarming, and for the entire trial were greater during the 40-minute condition than the 20-or 30-minute conditions. Throughout the first ice application and rewarming, and the entire trial, thigh temperature changes were greater during the 30-minute condition than the 20-minute condition. Conclusions: During immediate care procedures following injury, ice packs should be reapplied immediately following showering

  5. [Paragliding-associated bilateral partial rupture of the rectus femoris muscle].

    PubMed

    Schulze Bertelsbeck, D; Veelken, D

    2004-12-01

    Pain in the thigh or groin due to a rupture of the rectus femoris muscle is rather uncommon. We report on a patient with a bilateral rupture of the rectus femoris muscle that occurred due to a landing maneuver while para-gliding. The diagnosis was confirmed by ultrasound and MRI. Additionally, an old unilateral anterior cruciate ligament rupture was present. As a functional deficit of the quadriceps muscle could not be observed, a primarily conservative treatment seems to be appropriate.

  6. Traumatic Avulsion of the Serratus Anterior Muscle in a Collegiate Rower: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Carr, James B; John, Quincy E; Rajadhyaksha, Evan; Carson, Eric W; Turney, Kelly L

    2016-09-21

    A 19-year-old female collegiate rower presented with a new, painful mass along her right anterolateral chest wall after competition. The patient was diagnosed with a rupture of the serratus anterior muscle from its costal attachments, as confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. The patient fully recovered after a period of rest followed by a graduated 2-month physical therapy regimen consisting of stretching and scapulothoracic and core strengthening. A traumatic rupture of the serratus anterior muscle should be suspected in athletes who present with a painful chest wall mass after exertion of large forces through the scapulothoracic region. Athletes can return to play after nonoperative management.

  7. Positional relationships between the masticatory muscles and their innervating nerves with special reference to the lateral pterygoid and the midmedial and discotemporal muscle bundles of temporalis

    PubMed Central

    AKITA, KEIICHI; SHIMOKAWA, TAKASHI; SATO, TATSUO

    2000-01-01

    For an accurate assessment of jaw movement, it is crucial to understand the comprehensive formation of the masticatory muscles with special reference to the relationship to the disc of the temporomandibular joint. Detailed dissection was performed on 26 head halves of 14 Japanese cadavers in order to obtain precise anatomical information of the positional relationships between the masticatory muscles and the branches of the mandibular nerve. After complete removal of the bony elements, the midmedial muscle bundle in all specimens and the discotemporal muscle bundle in 6 specimens, derivatives of the temporalis, which insert into the disc were observed. On the anterior area of the articular capsule and the disc of the temporomandibular joint, the upper head of the lateral pterygoid, the midmedial muscle bundle of temporalis and the discotemporal bundle of temporalis were attached mediolaterally, and in 3 specimens the posterosuperior margin of the zygomaticomandibularis was attached to the anterolateral area of the disc. It is suggested that these muscles and muscle bundles contribute to various mandibular movements. Although various patterns of the positional relationships between the muscles and muscle bundles and the their innervating nerves are observed in the present study, relative positional relationships of the muscles and muscle bundles and of nerves of the mandibular nerve are consistent. A possible scheme of the developmental formation of the masticatory muscles based on the findings of the positional relationships between the muscles and the nerves is presented. PMID:11005720

  8. Automatic quantification of muscle volumes in magnetic resonance imaging scans of the lower extremities.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Gerd; Nambi, Vijay; Yang, Eric; Kumar, Anirudh; Virani, Salim S; Kougias, Panagiotis; Shah, Dipan; Lumsden, Alan; Ballantyne, Christie M; Morrisett, Joel D

    2011-10-01

    Muscle volume measurements are essential for an array of diseases ranging from peripheral arterial disease, muscular dystrophies, neurological conditions to sport injuries and aging. In the clinical setting, muscle volume is not routinely measured due to the lack of standardized ways for its repeatable quantification. In this paper, we present magnetic resonance muscle quantification (MRMQ), a method for the automatic quantification of thigh muscle volume in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. MRMQ integrates a thigh segmentation and nonuniform image gradient correction step, followed by feature extraction and classification. The classification step leverages prior probabilities, introducing prior knowledge to a maximum a posteriori classifier. MRMQ was validated on 344 slices taken from 60 MRI scans. Experiments for the fully automatic detection of muscle volume in MRI scans demonstrated an averaged accuracy, sensitivity and specificity for leave-one-out cross-validation of 88.3%, 93.6% and 87.2%, respectively.

  9. A new approach to determine ligament strain using polydimethylsiloxane strain gauges: exemplary measurements of the anterolateral ligament.

    PubMed

    Zens, Martin; Ruhhammer, Johannes; Goldschmidtboeing, Frank; Woias, Peter; Feucht, Matthias J; Mayr, Herrmann O; Niemeyer, Philipp

    2014-12-01

    A thorough understanding of ligament strains and behavior is necessary to create biomechanical models, comprehend trauma mechanisms, and surgically reconstruct those ligaments in a manner that restores a physiological performance. Measurement techniques and sensors are needed to conduct this data with high accuracy in an in vitro environment. In this work, we present a novel sensor device that is capable of continuously recording ligament strains with high resolution. The sensor principle of this biocompatible strain gauge may be used for in vitro measurements and can easily be applied to any ligament in the human body. The recently rediscovered anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee joint was chosen to display the capability of this novel sensor system. Three cadaver knees were tested to successfully demonstrate the concept of the sensor device and display first results regarding the elongation of the ALL during flexion/extension of the knee.

  10. Assessment of reproducibility of thigh marker ranking during walking and landing tasks.

    PubMed

    Monnet, Tony; Thouzé, Arsène; Pain, Matt T G; Begon, Mickaël

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the repeatability of marker deformation and marker ranking across subjects and motor tasks. A method based on the solidification of the thigh with optimized rototranslation was applied which used 26 markers placed on the left thigh. During five trials of landing and five trials of walking for eight participants, the deformation between the actual positions of the 26 markers and the recalled positions from solidification were calculated. Markers were then sorted and ranked from the most deformed to the least deformed. Like previous studies, marker deformation found in this paper is subject and movement-dependant. The reproducibility of the marker rankings was assessed using Kendall's coefficient of concordance. Results highlighted that the marker ranking was similar between the trials of landing and between the trials of walking. Moreover, for walking and landing the rankings were consistent across the eight subjects.

  11. Skeletal muscle injury induced by a pneumatic tourniquet: an enzyme- and immunohistochemical study in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Pedowitz, R A; Fridén, J; Thornell, L E

    1992-03-01

    The pathophysiology of skeletal muscle injury induced by compression beneath pneumatic tourniquets is poorly understood. Tourniquet hemostasis was induced in rabbit hindlimbs for 2 hr with a cuff inflation pressure of either 125 mm Hg (n = 5) or 350 mm Hg (n = 5). Skeletal muscle biopsies, taken 2 days later from tissue beneath and distal to the tourniquet, were frozen and analyzed using enzyme- and immunohistochemical techniques. In the 350 mm Hg tourniquet group, four of 10 thigh muscle samples demonstrated significant regional necrosis (mean 37.3% of the total cross-sectional area). Regional necrosis was not observed in thigh muscles of the 125 mm Hg tourniquet group or in any of the ischemic leg muscles. A topographic pattern of necrosis consistent with the arterial distribution of skeletal muscle suggested pathogenic events during the reperfusion period, such as granulocyte-mediated superoxide radical formation. Extremely large and rounded fibers (histochemically identified as Type IIB fibers) were observed in compressed thigh muscles, indicating differential fiber sensitivity to tourniquet compression and ischemia. The present study demonstrated significant skeletal muscle necrosis after a 2 hr tourniquet applied at a clinically relevant cuff inflation pressure. Recent studies of systemic changes associated with limb "ischemia" should be reassessed in consideration of the confounding effects of tissue compression induced beneath pneumatic tourniquets.

  12. Assessment of Intraocular and Systemic Vasculature Pressure Parameters in Simulated Microgravity with Thigh Cuff Countermeasure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Alex S.; Balasubramanian, Siva; Tepelus, Tudor; Sadda, Jaya; Sadda, Srinivas; Stenger, Michael B.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Laurie, Steve S.; Liu, John; Macias, Brandon R.

    2017-01-01

    Changes in vision have been well documented among astronauts during and after long-duration space flight. One hypothesis is that the space flight induced headward fluid alters posterior ocular pressure and volume and may contribute to visual acuity decrements. Therefore, we evaluated venoconstrictive thigh cuffs as a potential countermeasure to the headward fluid shift-induced effects on intraocular pressure (IOP) and cephalic vascular pressure and volumes.

  13. The superomedial thigh flap in scrotal reconstruction: Technical steps to improve cosmetic results

    PubMed Central

    Oufkir, Ayat Allah; Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; El Alami, Mohammed Noureddine El Amine

    2013-01-01

    The superomedial thigh flap is a reliable and easy method for scrotal reconstruction described in 1980 and infrequently reported in the literature since its description. We used it for four patients presenting scrotal defects after Fournier's gangrene with some technical modifications to improve the esthetic results and to facilitate the closure of the donor area. We describe the technical steps and the results. PMID:24235804

  14. The Internal Pudendal Artery Perforator Thigh Flap: A New Freestyle Pedicle Flap for the Ischial Region

    PubMed Central

    Goishi, Keiichi; Abe, Yoshiro; Takaku, Mitsuru; Seike, Takuya; Harada, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Background: Recurrence and complication rates of pressure sores are highest in the ischial region, and other donor sites are needed for recurrent pressure sores. The potential of a new freestyle pedicle flap for ischial lesions, an internal pudendal artery perforator (iPap) thigh flap, was examined through anatomical and theoretical analyses and a case series using computed tomography angiography. Methods: The skin flap was designed in the thigh region based on an iPap. The skin perforators were marked with a Doppler probe. One patient underwent computed tomography angiography with fistulography to identify the damage to or effects on the pedicle vessels of the flap. Debridement of ischial lesions and flap elevation were performed in the jackknife position. Results: The iPap thigh flaps were performed in 5 patients, 4 with ischial pressure sores and 1 with calcinosis cutis of the ischial region. The width and length of the flaps ranged from 5 to 8 cm (mean, 6.6 cm) and 10 to 17 cm (mean, 12.6 cm), respectively. Three patients underwent partial osteotomy of the ischial bone. No complications, including flap necrosis or wound dehiscence of the donor and reconstructed sites, were observed. Conclusions: The perforator vessels of the internal pudendal artery are very close to the ischial tuberosity. Blood flow to the flap is reliable when careful debridement of the pressure sore is performed. The iPap thigh flap is a new option for soft-tissue defects in the ischial region, including ischial pressure sores. PMID:25289335

  15. KNEE-JOINT LOADING IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS: INFLUENCE OF ABDOMINAL AND THIGH FAT

    PubMed Central

    Messier, Stephen P.; Beavers, Daniel P.; Loeser, Richard F.; Carr, J. Jeffery; Khajanchi, Shubham; Legault, Claudine; Nicklas, Barbara J.; Hunter, David J.; DeVita, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Using three separate models that included total body mass, total lean and total fat mass, and abdominal and thigh fat as independent measures, we determined their association with knee-joint loads in older overweight and obese adults with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods Fat depots were quantified using computed tomography and total lean and fat mass determined with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry in 176 adults (age = 66.3 yr., BMI = 33.5 kg·m−2) with radiographic knee OA. Knee moments and joint bone-on-bone forces were calculated using gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. Results Higher total body mass was significantly associated (p ≤ 0.0001) with greater knee compressive and shear forces, compressive and shear impulses (p < 0.0001), patellofemoral forces (p< 0.006), and knee extensor moments (p = 0.003). Regression analysis with total lean and total fat mass as independent variables revealed significant positive associations of total fat mass with knee compressive (p = 0.0001), shear (p < 0.001), and patellofemoral forces (p = 0.01) and knee extension moment (p = 0.008). Gastrocnemius and quadriceps forces were positively associated with total fat mass. Total lean mass was associated with knee compressive force (p = 0.002). A regression model that included total thigh and total abdominal fat found both were significantly associated with knee compressive and shear forces (p ≤ 0.04). Thigh fat was associated with the knee abduction (p = 0.03) and knee extension moment (p = 0.02). Conclusions Thigh fat, consisting predominately of subcutaneous fat, had similar significant associations with knee joint forces as abdominal fat despite its much smaller volume and could be an important therapeutic target for people with knee OA. PMID:25133996

  16. Chicken muscle mitochondrial content appears co-ordinately regulated and is associated with performance phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Reverter, Antonio; Okimoto, Ron; Sapp, Robyn; Bottje, Walter G.; Hawken, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mitochondrial content is a fundamental cellular bioenergetic phenotype. Previous work has hypothesised possible links between variation in muscle mitochondrial content and animal performance. However, no population screens have been performed in any production species. Here, we have designed a high throughput molecular approach to estimate mitochondrial content in commercial broilers. Technical validity was established using several approaches, including its performance in monoclonal DF-1 cells, cross-tissue comparisons in tissues with differing metabolic demands (white fatmusclemusclemuscle) and, as a negative control, a near absence of mtDNA amplification from whole blood. We screened breast muscle and thigh muscle in 80 birds individually phenotyped for 11 growth and development traits. Substantial individual variation (fivefold) was discovered in both breast and thigh muscle mitochondrial content. Interestingly, across birds we detected a very strong positive relationship between breast and thigh content (correlation coefficient 0.61; P<0.0001), consistent with coordinate regulatory control across the musculature. Further, breast muscle mitochondrial content is negatively correlated with breast muscle yield (−0.27; P=0.037), abdominal fat content (−0.31; P=0.017) and carcass yield (−0.26; P=0.045). Therefore, low breast muscle mitochondrial content is associated with more muscular birds possessing higher abdominal fat, the latter being in line with biomedical models of obesity. Finally, thigh mitochondrial content is negatively correlated with the bow out leg defect (−0.30; P=0.011). Overall, our data point to mitochondrial content as a promising consideration in predictive modelling of production traits. PMID:27934661

  17. Impact of burden on granulocyte clearance of bacteria in a mouse thigh infection model.

    PubMed

    Drusano, G L; Fregeau, Christine; Liu, Weiguo; Brown, D L; Louie, Arnold

    2010-10-01

    We wished to delineate granulocytes' impact on the clearance of different bacterial burdens of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus in a granulocyte-replete mouse thigh infection model. A mouse thigh model was employed. Bacterial challenges from 10(5) to 3 × 10(7) CFU (S. aureus) and from 3 × 10(4) to 3 × 10(8) CFU (P. aeruginosa) were injected into murine posterior thighs. Organism quantitation was at baseline, 2 h (Pseudomonas only), and 24 h. A Michaelis-Menten population model was fit to the data for each organism. Breakpoints for microbial containment by granulocytes were identified. Bacterial burdens exceeding that breakpoint value resulted in organism multiplication. The Michaelis-Menten model fit the data well. For P. aeruginosa, the observed-predicted plot had a regression equation that explained over 98% of the variance (P ≪ 0.001). For S. aureus, this relationship explained greater than 94% of the variance (P ≪ 0.001). Maximal growth rate constants, maximal population burdens, and the bacterial loads at which granulocytes killed if half-saturated were not different. The kill rate constant for P. aeruginosa was almost 10 times that of S. aureus. Bacterial kill by granulocytes is saturable. No difference between saturation points of different isolates was seen. A higher bacterial burden means an increasing reliance on chemotherapy to drive bacterial clearance.

  18. Multifocal diabetic muscle infarction: a rare complication of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Chebbi, Wafa; Jerbi, Saida; Klii, Rym; Alaya, Wafa; Mestiri, Sarra; Zantour, Baha; Sfar, Mohamed Habib

    2014-01-01

    Diabetic muscle infarction (DMI) is a rare complication of long-standing poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. We herein describe the case of a 56-year-old man with a 10-year history of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus with multiple microvascular and macrovascular complications who presented with the sudden onset of left thigh pain and swelling. MRI suggested muscle infarction. A muscle biopsy demonstrated coagulation necrosis in the skeletal muscle with inflammation and infarction in the walls of small blood vessels. Physicians should consider DMI in the differential diagnosis of patients with diabetes who present with painful, swollen muscles without systemic signs of infection.

  19. Spinning Out of Control: A 19-Year-Old Female with Spinning-Related Exertional Thigh Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Daniel J; Han, Sukgu; Wong, Alex K

    2016-01-01

    Thigh compartment syndrome (TCS) is a rare condition caused by high pressures within the fascial compartments of the thigh, impeding capillary flow and leading to decreased perfusion, tissue hypoxia, and necrosis. TCS is most frequently associated with trauma and anticoagulation but has also rarely been associated with exercise-related injury. We present the case of a 19-year-old female who reported painful swelling in her thighs and darkening of her urine after participating in a spinning class. On physical examination, the patient was found to have tight, painful thigh compartments with extreme tenderness on passive motion. Labs revealed a marked elevation of creatine kinase and leukocytosis. The patient was diagnosed with TCS and underwent emergent decompression fasciotomy and aggressive IV fluids for protection against myoglobinuria. Due to high clinical suspicion, prompt diagnosis, and early surgery, the patient experienced excellent recovery without functional deficits.  PMID:28123920

  20. An improved dual approach to post bariatric contouring — Staged liposuction and modified medial thigh lift: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Jandali, Zaher; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Müller, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Following massive weight loss (MWL) medial contouring of the thigh is frequently requested to improve appearance and function. Thigh lifting can be associated with significant complications. We present a case series of post bariatric patients undergoing thigh lift using staged the liposuction, a modified T incision and a buried de-epithelialised dermal flap. Materials and Methods: From January to December 2012, 21 consecutive patients underwent a modified medial thigh lift. A retrospective review of the case notes was performed to assess complications that occurred. Results: There were no major post-operative complications in terms of reoperation, hematoma, thromboembolism and no seromas. Seven patients, all of which were smokers had minor superficial wound healing complications. Aesthetic outcomes were satisfactory for all patients at a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Conclusions: The modified ‘T’ incision with staged liposuction is described. We have found the technique to be useful for a variety of different thighs. It is a reproducible method for contouring the medial thigh in MWL patients. In this series, our overall complications were low, and no seromas occurred. PMID:25190920

  1. Muscle Cramps

    MedlinePlus

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after exercise or at night, ... to several minutes. It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves ...

  2. Muscle Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    Your muscles help you move and help your body work. Different types of muscles have different jobs. There are many problems that can affect muscles. Muscle disorders can cause weakness, pain or even ...

  3. Your Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the heart because it controls the heartbeat. Skeletal Muscle Now, let's talk about the kind of muscle ... soccer ball into the goal. These are your skeletal muscles — sometimes called striated (say: STRY-ay-tud) muscle ...

  4. Selenium regulates gene expression of selenoprotein W in chicken skeletal muscle system.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Hongfeng; Zhang, Ziwei; Wu, Qiong; Yao, Haidong; Li, Jinlong; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-01-01

    Selenoprotein W (SelW) is abundantly expressed in skeletal muscles of mammals and necessary for the metabolism of skeletal muscles. However, its expression pattern in skeletal muscle system of birds is still uncovered. Herein, to investigate the distribution of SelW mRNA in chicken skeletal muscle system and its response to different selenium (Se) status, 1-day-old chickens were exposed to various concentrations of Se as sodium selenite in the feed for 35 days. In addition, myoblasts were treated with different concentrations of Se in the medium for 72 h. Then the levels of SelW mRNA in skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, thigh muscle) and myoblasts were determined on days 1, 15, 25, and 35 and at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. The results showed that SelW was detected in all these muscle components and it increased both along with the growth of organism and the differentiation process of myoblasts. The thigh muscle is more responsive to Se intake than the other two skeletal muscle tissues while the optimal Se supplementation for SelW mRNA expression in chicken myoblasts was 10(-7) M. In summary, Se plays important roles in the development of chicken skeletal muscles. To effect optimal SelW gene expression, Se must be provided in the diet and the media in adequate amounts and neither at excessive nor deficient levels.

  5. Role of fascia in maintenance of muscle tension and pressure.

    PubMed

    Garfin, S R; Tipton, C M; Mubarak, S J; Woo, S L; Hargens, A R; Akeson, W H

    1981-08-01

    The effect of fasciotomy on muscle tension (measured by a force transducer attached to the tendon) and interstitial fluid pressure (measured by Wick catheters in the muscle belly) was studied in the anterolateral compartments of 13 dog hindlimbs. Muscle tension and pressure were monitored in the tibialis cranialis muscle after low- and high-frequency stimulation of the peroneal nerve to produce twitch- and tetanic-type contractions. Fasciotomy decreased muscle force during the low-frequency stimulation by 16% (35.3 +/- 4.9 to 28.4 +/- 3.9 N) and during the high-frequency stimulation by 10% (60.8 %/- 4.9 to 54.8 +/- 3.9 N). Muscle pressure decreased 50% after fasciotomy under both conditions, 15 +/- 2 to 6 +/- 1 mmHg and 84 +/- 17 to 41 +/- 8 mmHg), respectively. Repeated functional evaluations during the testing procedure indicated that muscle fatigue was not a major factor in these results. It was concluded that fascia is important in the development of muscle tension and changes in interstitial pressure. Furthermore, the results raised questions concerning the merits of performing a fasciotomy for athletes with a compartment syndrome.

  6. Chemical composition and amino acid profiles of goose muscles from native Polish breeds.

    PubMed

    Okruszek, A; Woloszyn, J; Haraf, G; Orkusz, A; Werenska, M

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the chemical and amino acid composition of breast (pectoralis major) and thigh (biceps femoris) muscles in 17-wk-old geese from 2 Polish conservative flocks: Rypińska (Ry, n = 20) and Garbonosa (Ga, n = 20). The geese were fed ad libitum during the experimental period on the same complete feed. Genotypes affected the moisture and fat content of breast and thigh meat. The Ga geese were characterized by higher moisture as well as lower fat lipid content compared with the Ry breast and thigh muscles. The amino acid proportions of meat proteins depended on the goose flock and type of muscles, where significant differences were found. The proteins of Ga breast muscles contained more glutamic acid, glycine, lysine, tryptophan, histidine, and methionine, and less aspartic acid, proline, serine, leucine, valine, phenyloalanine, tyrosine, and threonine than the Ry geese (P ≤ 0.05). The proteins of Ry thigh muscles were characterized by higher content of proline, serine, and essential amino acids (without lysine and methionine) and lower glutamic and asparagine acid, alanine, and glycine compared with the Ga flock. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (1991) standard, tryptophan was the amino acid limiting the nutritional value of meat proteins of Ry breast muscles (amino acid score for tryptophan = 90%). Except for tryptophan, the meat proteins of the investigated raw materials contained more essential amino acids than the standard. The total content of essential amino acids for all investigated muscles was also higher (52.51 to 55.54%) than the standard (33.90%). It is evident that muscle protein from both flocks of geese have been characterized by high nutritional value. The values of the essential amino acid index of breast muscle proteins were similar in both flocks.

  7. Glucose Infusion into Exercising Dogs after Confinement: Rectal and Active Muscle Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Kruk, B.; Nazar, K.; Falecka-Wieczorek, I.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.

    1995-01-01

    Intravenous glucose infusion into ambulatory dogs results in attenuation of exercise-induced increase of both rectal and thigh muscle temperatures. That glucose (Glu) infusion attenuates excessive increase in body temperature from restricted activity during confinement deconditioning. Intravenous glucose infusion attenuates the rise in exercise core temperature in deconditioned dogs by a yet undefined mechanism.

  8. Muscle MRI Findings in Childhood/Adult Onset Pompe Disease Correlate with Muscle Function

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa-Bonaparte, Sebastián; Segovia, Sonia; Llauger, Jaume; Belmonte, Izaskun; Pedrosa, Irene; Alejaldre, Aída; Mayos, Mercè; Suárez-Cuartín, Guillermo; Gallardo, Eduard; Illa, Isabel; Díaz-Manera, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Enzyme replacement therapy has shown to be effective for childhood/adult onset Pompe disease (AOPD). The discovery of biomarkers useful for monitoring disease progression is one of the priority research topics in Pompe disease. Muscle MRI could be one possible test but the correlation between muscle MRI and muscle strength and function has been only partially addressed so far. Methods We studied 34 AOPD patients using functional scales (Manual Research Council scale, hand held myometry, 6 minutes walking test, timed to up and go test, time to climb up and down 4 steps, time to walk 10 meters and Motor Function Measure 20 Scale), respiratory tests (Forced Vital Capacity seated and lying, Maximun Inspiratory Pressure and Maximum Expiratory Pressure), daily live activities scales (Activlim) and quality of life scales (Short Form-36 and Individualized Neuromuscular Quality of Life questionnaire). We performed a whole body muscle MRI using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging centered on thighs and lower trunk region. Results T1w whole body muscle MRI showed a homogeneous pattern of muscle involvement that could also be found in pre-symptomatic individuals. We found a strong correlation between muscle strength, muscle functional scales and the degree of muscle fatty replacement in muscle MRI analyzed using T1w and 3-point Dixon imaging studies. Moreover, muscle MRI detected mild degree of fatty replacement in paraspinal muscles in pre-symptomatic patients. Conclusion Based on our findings, we consider that muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful for diagnosis and follow-up in pre-symptomatic and symptomatic patients under treatment. Take home message Muscle MRI correlates with muscle function in patients with AOPD and could be useful to follow-up patients in daily clinic. PMID:27711114

  9. Evaluation of muscle injury using magnetic resonance imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A. D.; Jaweed, M.; Evans, H.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate spin echo T2 relaxation time changes in thigh muscles after intense eccentric exercise in healthy men. Spin echo and calculated T2 relaxation time images of the thighs were obtained on several occasions after exercise of one limb; the contralateral limb served as control. Muscle damage was verified by elevated levels of serum creatine kinase (CK). Thirty percent of the time no exercise effect was discernible on the magnetic resonance (MR) images. In all positive MR images (70%) the semitendinosus muscle was positive, while the biceps femoris, short head, and gracilis muscles were also positive in 50% and 25% of the total cases, respectively. The peak T2 relaxation time and serum CK were correlated (r = 0.94, p<0.01); temporal changes in muscle T2 relaxation time and serum CK were similar, although T2 relaxation time remained positive after serum CK returned to background levels. We conclude that magnetic resonance imaging can serve as a useful tool in the evaluation of eccentric exercise muscle damage by providing a quantitative indicator of damage and its resolution as well as the specific areas and muscles.

  10. Why Do Authors Differ With Regard to the Femoral and Meniscal Anatomic Parameters of the Knee Anterolateral Ligament?

    PubMed Central

    Helito, Camilo Partezani; do Amaral, Carlos; Nakamichi, Yuri da Cunha; Gobbi, Riccardo Gomes; Bonadio, Marcelo Batista; Natalino, Renato José Mendonça; Pécora, José Ricardo; Cardoso, Tulio Pereira; Camanho, Gilberto Luis; Demange, Marco Kawamura

    2016-01-01

    Background: No consensus exists regarding the anatomic characteristics of the knee anterolateral ligament (ALL). A critical analysis of the dissections described in previous studies allows the division of the ALL into 2 groups with similar characteristics. The presence of considerable variability suggests that the authors may not be referring to the same structure. Purpose/Hypothesis: To perform a lateral anatomic dissection, by layers, seeking to characterize the 2 variants described for the ALL on the same knee. We hypothesized that we would identify the 2 variants described for the ALL and that these variants would have distinct characteristics. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Thirteen unpaired cadaveric knees were used in this study. The dissection protocol followed the parameters described in previous studies. Immediately below the iliotibial tract, we isolated a structure designated as the superficial ALL, whereas between this structure and the articular capsule, we isolated a structure designated as the deep ALL. The 2 structures were measured for length at full extension and at 90° of flexion and for distance from the tibial insertion relative to the Gerdy tubercle. Potential contact with the lateral meniscus was also evaluated. After measurements were obtained, the 2 dissected structures underwent histologic analysis. Results: The superficial ALL presented a posterior and proximal origin to the center of the lateral epicondyle, its length increased on knee extension, and it exhibited no contact with the lateral meniscus. The deep ALL was located in the center of the lateral epicondyle, its length increased on knee flexion, and it presented a meniscal insertion. Both structures had a similar tibial insertion site; however, the insertion site of the deep ALL was located more posteriorly. The analysis of the histological sections for both structures indicated the presence of dense and well-organized collagen fibers. Conclusion: This

  11. The anterolateral ligament (ALL) and its role in rotational extra-articular stability of the knee joint: a review of anatomy and surgical concepts.

    PubMed

    Roessler, Philip P; Schüttler, Karl F; Heyse, Thomas J; Wirtz, Dieter C; Efe, Turgay

    2016-03-01

    The anterolateral ligament of the knee (ALL) has caused a lot of rumors in orthopaedics these days. The structure that was first described by Segond back in 1879 has experienced a long history of anatomic descriptions and speculations until its rediscovery by Claes in 2013. Its biomechanical properties and function have been examined recently, but are not yet fully understood. While the structure seems to act as a limiter of internal rotation and lateral meniscal extrusion its possible proprioceptive effect remains questionable. Its contribution to the pivot shift phenomenon has been uncovered in parts, therefore it has been recognized that a concomitant anterolateral stabilization together with ACL reconstruction may aid in prevention of postoperative instability after severe ligamentous knee damages. However, there are a lot of different methods to perform this procedure and the clinical outcome has yet to be examined. This concise review will give an overview on the present literature to outline the long history of the ALL under its different names, its anatomic variances and topography as well as on histologic examinations, imaging modalities, arthroscopic aspects and methods for a possible anterolateral stabilization of the knee joint.

  12. Inhibition of lung metastasis of osteosarcoma cell line POS-1 transplanted into mice by thigh ligation.

    PubMed

    Kamijo, Akira; Koshino, Tomihisa; Uesugi, Masaaki; Nitto, Hironori; Saito, Tomoyuki

    2002-12-15

    Using a model with external ligation of the thigh, the effect of ischemia-reperfusion injury on tumor growth and the activity of lung metastasis was investigated in mice inoculated a spontaneous murine osteosarcoma cell line (POS-1) in vivo. POS-1 cell suspension was inoculated into the right hind footpad of 70 mice. Four weeks after inoculation, the ipsilateral thigh was ligated for 3 h in 15 mice and the contralateral thigh in 15 mice. Another ten mice were inoculated with POS-1 without ligating the thigh. The number of metastatic foci on the lung surface 6 weeks after inoculation was 2.29+/-0.98 (mean+/-SE) foci/lungs in mice with ipsilateral ligation and 6.25+/-2.41 in mice with contralateral ligation, which were significantly lower than control (13.40+/-1.42 in mice no ligation) (P<0.01). The number of metastatic foci on the lung surface in mice with intraperitoneal injection of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase was 3.25+/-0.65 (mean+/-SE) foci/lungs in mice with ligation which was significantly greater than that in mice without SOD and catalase injection 1.29+/-0.97 (P=0.04). Cell viability was 9.12+/-4.07% with 100 microM H(2)O(2) in 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. It revealed that at concentrations of 100 microM H(2)O(2) or higher was cytotoxic to POS-1. In cell invasion assay, the number of invading cells with 10 microM H(2)O(2) was 2.80+/-0.53 cells/field, which was significantly lower than control (5.93+/-0.18) (mean+/-SE), indicating that low-dose H(2)O(2) suppressed invasion of POS-1. These results suggested that reperfusion injury had selective cytotoxicity to POS-1 through producing reactive oxygen species. Activated oxygen was considered to inhibit the regional growth and the ability of lung metastasis of POS-1 cells.

  13. Imaging diagnosis--seminoma causing liver compression in a spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca).

    PubMed

    Pees, Michael; Ludewig, Eberhard; Plenz, Bastian; Schmidt, Volker

    2015-01-01

    A 13-year-old male spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) was presented with anorexia, apathy, and prolapse of penile tissue. Ultrasonography revealed a large heterogeneous mass in the coelomic cavity, and fine-needle aspiration demonstrated sperm. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a sharply defined mass originating from the left testis. Appearance and signal intensities were similar to those reported in testicular neoplasms in humans, in particular sharing similarities with seminomas. Necropsy results and histopathological findings were consistent with a seminoma. To the authors' knowledge this is the first report of the diagnosis of testicular neoplasia in a reptile using imaging techniques.

  14. [The use of hydroxyapatite substance for the ostheosynthesis after comminuted thigh fractures].

    PubMed

    Protsenko, A I; Gazhev, A Kh; Gordeev, G G; Zheltikov, D I

    2012-01-01

    The surgical tactics was analyzed in 102 patients operated on the comminuted thigh fractures. 95 patients were administered in a state of shock; 48 patients had multiple and combined injuries. All patients were operated on with the use of modern metal constructions. Bone fragments' fixation was performed with the use of splint (n=75) or adaptive ostheosynthesis (n=27), in aggreagation with the "KollapAn" fixation substance. Excellent results were acquired in 64 patients, good - in 25 patients and satisfactory - in 12 patients. The long-term results after the year were obtained in 82 patients. The results of the follow-up coincided with those, achieved in postoperative rehabilitation period.

  15. Compartment syndrome of the thigh complicating surgical treatment of ipsilateral femur and ankle fractures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, M. R.; Garfin, S. R.; Hargens, A. R.

    1987-01-01

    A 26-year-old man presented with ipsilateral femur and ankle fractures. The patient was treated with interlocking nail of his femur fracture, followed by open reduction and internal fixation of his ankle fracture under tourniquet control. Postoperatively, the patient developed compartment syndrome of his thigh with elevated pressures, requiring decompressive fasciotomies. This case illustrates the possible complication of treating a femur fracture with intramedullary nailing and then immediately applying a tourniquet to treat an ipsilateral extremity fracture. Because of the complication with this patient, we feel the procedure should be staged, or a tourniquet should be avoided if possible.

  16. Multiple congenital malformations in a dicephalic spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca ibera).

    PubMed

    Palmieri, C; Selleri, P; Di Girolamo, N; Montani, A; Della Salda, L

    2013-01-01

    A 22-day-old dicephalic spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca ibera) died following a history of lethargy, anorexia and absence of defecation. The two heads were anatomically similar with independent reaction to external stimuli. The carapace showed doubled first and extra second vertebral scutes. Radiography and transplastronal ultrasonography, performed when the animal was alive, revealed two symmetrical stomachs and two asynchronous hearts. These findings were confirmed by necropsy examination. Oesophagus, liver, gallbladder and trachea were also duplicated. Other malformations included pyloric valve atresia of the left stomach, focal stenosis of the transverse colon and liver hypoplasia. Dicephalism rarely occurs in Testudinidae and its pathogenesis, still unclear, is discussed.

  17. Accessory Anterolateral Talar Facet as an Etiology of Painful Talocalcaneal Impingement in the Rigid Flatfoot: A New Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Martus, Jeffrey E.; Femino, John E.; Caird, Michelle S.; Kuhns, Lawrence R.; Craig, Clifford L.; Farley, Frances A.

    2008-01-01

    A retrospective review identified six patients with seven painful rigid flatfeet. In each case, pain was localized laterally to an accessory facet of the anterolateral talus. cross-sectional imaging demonstrated no evidence of tarsal coalition. In five of the six, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was obtained and in each case demonstrated focal abutting bone marrow edema consistent with impingement between the accessory facet and the anterior calcaneus. Seven feet in six patients underwent resection of the accessory facet with additional subtalar joint-sparing reconstructive procedures. At an average follow-up of 11 months, clinical results were graded as four good and two fair. An association between this accessory facet and pain in the rigid flatfoot has not been previously reported. Obesity was universal and may represent a risk factor for facet impingement. At early follow-up, facet resection with subtalar joint-sparing flatfoot reconstruction provided good results with symptomatic and functional improvement in the majority of patients. PMID:19223941

  18. Effect of Dietary Supplementation of the Combination of Gallic and Linoleic Acid in Thigh Meat of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung Haeng; Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Kim, Il Suk; Lee, Jun Heon; Jo, Cheorun

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the combined effect of dietary supplementation of gallic and linoleic acid (GL) on the antioxidative effect and quality of thigh meat from broilers. Broilers received 3 dietary treatments: i) commercial finisher diet (control), ii) 0.5% GL (gallic:linoleic acid = 1 M:1 M), and iii) 1.0% GL during the 22 to 36 d. The pH value of broiler thigh meat was increased by GL supplementation. Water holding capacity of the thigh meat was enhanced by the 1.0% dietary GL supplementation. Antioxidative effect (total phenolic content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS+ reducing activity, reducing power, and TBARS value) in the thigh from the broilers improved significantly with 1.0% GL. Linoleic acid and docosahexaenoic acids were higher in the broilers fed both levels of dietary GL. However, volatile basic nitrogen content and microbiological quality was not shown to be different between control and treated group. Results indicate that 1.0% dietary supplementation of GL can improve the antioxidant activity of broiler thigh meat and may enhance the meat quality. PMID:25049528

  19. Effect of thawing and cold storage on frozen chicken thigh meat quality by high-voltage electrostatic field.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-Wei; Lai, Cheng-Hung; Ho, Wai-Jane; Huang, Su-Chen; Ko, Wen-Ching

    2010-05-01

    One of the most popular issues in electrostatic biology is the effects of a high-voltage electrostatic field (HVEF) on the thawing of chicken thigh meat. In this study, chicken thigh meat was treated with HVEF (E-group), and compared to samples stored in a common refrigerator (R-group), to investigate how HVEF affects chicken thigh meat quality after thawing at low temperature storage (-3 and 4 degrees C). The results showed that there were no significant differences in biochemical and microorganism indices at -3 degrees C. However, the HVEF can significantly shorten thawing time for frozen chicken thigh meat at -3 degrees C. After thawing chicken thigh meat and storing at 4 degrees C, the total viable counts reached the Intl. Commission on Microbiological Specification for Foods limit of 10(7) CFU/g on the 6 and 8 d for the R- and E-group, respectively. On the 8th d, the volatile basic nitrogen had increased from 11.24 mg/100 g to 21.9 mg/100 g for the E-group and 39.9 mg/100 g for the R-group, respectively. The biochemical and microorganism indices also indicated that the E-group treatment yielded better results on thawing than the R-group treatment. The application of this model has the potential to keep products fresh.

  20. Giant pseudocyst of the rectus femoris muscle--repetitive strain injury in recreational soccer player.

    PubMed

    Cicvarić, Tedi; Lucin, Ksenija; Roth, Sandor; Ivancić, Aldo; Marinović, Marin; Santić, Veljko

    2010-04-01

    We report a case of a traumatic pseudocyst, in a recreational soccer player, after rupture of rectus femoris muscle. 37-year-old male, with history of repetitive painful accidents, was examined because of a double fist-sized mass in the anterior thigh. Ultrasound examination revealed a cystic mass in the rectus femoris muscle. Surgical removal of the mass and proximal remnant of muscle was done. Primary healing and functional recovery was achieved. Histological analysis revealed pseudocyst filled with degenerating clot and surrounded with thick fibrous capsule. The repetitive strain muscle injury, with prolonged period of healing, can occur like pseudocyst.

  1. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  2. Infestation of the spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) by Hyalomma aegyptium in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Gharbi, Mohamed; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Rouatbi, Mariem; Mabrouk, Moez; Mhadhbi, Moez; Amairia, Safa; Amdouni, Yosra; Boussaadoun, Mohamed Anis

    2015-04-01

    We examined 210 spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) for the presence of ticks in Tunisia during May 2014. A total number of 602 adult ticks were collected and identified leading to the estimation of parasitological indicators. All the ticks belonged to a single species: Hyalomma aegyptium. The mean infestation prevalence was 66.2%, mean overall infestation intensity and abundance were 4.33 and 2.86 ticks/tortoise respectively. Our survey showed that tortoises were significantly more infested by male ticks than females (p<0.001). The ticks were mainly present in the posterior limbs compared to other body regions (p<0.05). There was no significance variation of length and weight of tortoises according to sex (p<0.05). There was a significant correlation between the tortoises' size (length and weight) and tick infestation. This study showed high tick burdens of spur-thighed tortoises in Tunisia; further investigations are needed to determine exactly the role of this tick species in the transmission of different zoonotic pathogens.

  3. Determination of optimal placements of markers on the thigh during walking and landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouzé, A.; Monnet, T.; Begon, M.; Pain, M. T. G.

    2010-06-01

    Kinematics of skin markers are affected by skin tissue artefact with respect to the bone during sports activities or locomotion. The purpose of this study is to determine the less disturbed marker’s location for walking and landing. Twenty-six markers were put on the thigh of nine male subjects. Each subject performed a static trial, a setup movement for determining a functional hip joint centre and five walking and landing trials. The marker displacements were obtained by comparing recorded marker positions and solidified marker positions based on the geometry of the static acquisition. The markers were subsequently ranked from the worst to the least deformed. The ranking of each trial for each subject was analyzed with the concordance coefficient of Kendall and descriptive statistics were used to determine the most and the least disturbed markers. The results show reproducibility between trials for each subject for the two movements. Statistical analysis shows that the most deformed markers during walking were located close to the hip and knee joints whereas the least disturbed were on the mid-thigh. The landing analysis does not permit to determine the best markers from the worst.

  4. Steady state and transient temperature distributions in the human thigh covered with a cooling pad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leo, R. J.; Shitzer, A.; Chato, J. C.; Hertig, B. A.

    1971-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study was done on the performance of cooling pads attached to a human thigh. Each cooling pad consisted of a long, water cooled tube formed into a serpentine shape with uniform spacing between the parallel sections. The analytical work developed a cylindrical model for the human thigh. The transient times predicted by this model ranged from 25 to 80 minutes, which is reasonably close to the experimental results. Calculated and measured steady state temperature profiles were in fair agreement. The transient times associated with a change from a high metabolic rate of 1800 Btu/hr (528 w) to a low level of 300 Btu/hr (88 w), were found to be about 120 minutes. A change from 300 Btu/hr (264 w) to 300 Btu/hr (88 w) resulted in 90 to 100 minute transients. However, the transient times for a change in metabolic rate in the opposite direction from 300 Btu/hr (88 w) to 1800 Btu/hr (528 w) were 40 to 60 minutes.

  5. Posteromedial thigh (PMT) propeller flap for perineoscrotal reconstruction: A case report.

    PubMed

    Scaglioni, Mario F; Chen, Yen-Chou; Yang, Johnson Chia-Shen

    2015-10-01

    Fournier's gangrene can lead to extensive defects of the perineoscrotal area with exposure of the testes. Such defect poses challenging tasks for both functional and cosmetic reconstruction. Due to its proximity, medial thigh skin appeared to be the most versatile donor site for perineoscrotal reconstruction. In this report, we present a case of reconstruction of a large perineoscrotal defect because of Fournier's gangrene using a posteromedial thigh (PMT) perforator propeller flap. A 58 year-old male who suffered from Fournier's gangrene resulted in a scrotal defect of 10 × 12 cm(2) with a large dead space. A pedicled PMT propeller flap measuring 9 × 23 cm(2) with two perforators that originated from the profunda femoris artery (PFA) was harvested for scrotal defect reconstruction and dead space obliteration. The flap survived completely, with no recipient or donor site morbidity. The length of followup was 3 months and was uneventful. The pedicled PMT propeller flap may be considered as a valid option for perineoscrotal reconstruction.

  6. Skeletal muscle adiposity is associated with physical activity, exercise capacity and fibre shift in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Maddocks, Matthew; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Vitoriano, Simone; Natanek, Samantha A.; Tanner, Rebecca J.; Hart, Nicholas; Kemp, Paul R.; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle phenotype varies widely between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cannot be determined without muscle biopsy. We hypothesised that measures of skeletal muscle adiposity could provide noninvasive biomarkers of muscle quality in this population. In 101 patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were calculated using computed tomography images and standard tissue attenuation ranges: fat -190– -30 HU; skeletal muscle -29–150 HU. Mean±sd percentage intramuscular fat was higher in the patient group (6.7±3.5% versus 4.3±1.2%, p = 0.03). Both percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were associated with physical activity level, exercise capacity and type I fibre proportion, independent of age, mid-thigh cross-sectional area and quadriceps strength. Combined with transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide, these variables could identify >80% of patients with fibre type shift with >65% specificity (area under the curve 0.83, 95% CI 0.72–0.95). Skeletal muscle adiposity assessed by computed tomography reflects multiple aspects of COPD related muscle dysfunction and may help to identify patients for trials of interventions targeted at specific muscle phenotypes. PMID:24993908

  7. Skeletal muscle adiposity is associated with physical activity, exercise capacity and fibre shift in COPD.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Matthew; Shrikrishna, Dinesh; Vitoriano, Simone; Natanek, Samantha A; Tanner, Rebecca J; Hart, Nicholas; Kemp, Paul R; Moxham, John; Polkey, Michael I; Hopkinson, Nicholas S

    2014-11-01

    Quadriceps muscle phenotype varies widely between patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cannot be determined without muscle biopsy. We hypothesised that measures of skeletal muscle adiposity could provide noninvasive biomarkers of muscle quality in this population. In 101 patients and 10 age-matched healthy controls, mid-thigh cross-sectional area, percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were calculated using computed tomography images and standard tissue attenuation ranges: fat -190- -30 HU; skeletal muscle -29-150 HU. Mean±sd percentage intramuscular fat was higher in the patient group (6.7±3.5% versus 4.3±1.2%, p = 0.03). Both percentage intramuscular fat and skeletal muscle attenuation were associated with physical activity level, exercise capacity and type I fibre proportion, independent of age, mid-thigh cross-sectional area and quadriceps strength. Combined with transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide, these variables could identify >80% of patients with fibre type shift with >65% specificity (area under the curve 0.83, 95% CI 0.72-0.95). Skeletal muscle adiposity assessed by computed tomography reflects multiple aspects of COPD related muscle dysfunction and may help to identify patients for trials of interventions targeted at specific muscle phenotypes.

  8. Muscle biopsies show that FES of denervated muscles reverses human muscle degeneration from permanent spinal motoneuron lesion.

    PubMed

    Kern, Helmut; Rossini, Katia; Carraro, Ugo; Mayr, Winfried; Vogelauer, Michael; Hoellwarth, Ursula; Hofer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents biopsy analyses in support of the clinical evidence of muscle recovery induced by a new system of life-long functional-electrical-stimulation (FES) training in permanent spinal-motoneuron-denervated human muscle. Not earlier than 1 year after subjects experienced complete conus cauda lesion, their thigh muscles were electrically stimulated at home for several years with large skin surface electrodes and an expressly designed stimulator that delivered much longer impulses than those presently available for clinical use. The poor excitability of long-term denervated muscles was first improved by several months of twitch-contraction training. Then, the muscles were tetanically stimulated against progressively increased loads. Needle biopsies of vastus lateralis from long-term denervated subjects showed severe myofiber atrophy or lipodystrophy beginning 2 years after spinal cord injury (SCI). Muscle biopsies from a group of 3.6- to 13.5-year denervated subjects, who underwent 2.4 to 9.3 years of FES, show that this progressive training almost reverted long-term muscle atrophy/degeneration.

  9. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  10. Muscle disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Myopathic changes; Myopathy; Muscle problem ... Blood tests sometimes show abnormally high muscle enzymes. If a muscle disorder might also affect other family members, genetic testing may be done. When someone has symptoms and signs ...

  11. Muscle aches

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cause of muscle aches and pain is fibromyalgia , a condition that causes tenderness in your muscles ... imbalance, such as too little potassium or calcium Fibromyalgia Infections, including the flu, Lyme disease , malaria , muscle ...

  12. Dietary inclusion level and time effects of taurine on broiler performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content.

    PubMed

    Huang, C X; Wang, B; Min, Z; Yuan, J

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of taurine on growth performance, meat quality, oxidative status and muscle taurine content in broilers. In Experiment 1, 50 one-day-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 0, 0.125, 0.50, 2.00 or 8.00 g/kg taurine from 1 to 42 d of age. In Experiment 2, 80 22-d-old male Cobb chicks were given a diet supplemented with 4.00 g/kg taurine for 0, 1, 2 or 3 weeks. Taurine contents of thigh and breast muscle increased linearly with increasing dietary taurine. Taurine supplementation for 1, 2 and 3 weeks significantly increased the taurine content of breast muscle. The taurine contents of liver and thigh meat were significantly increased by taurine supplementation for 3 weeks. The taurine contents of thigh and breast meat from broilers given a diet supplemented with 4 g/kg taurine for 3 weeks increased to 1.89 times the concentrations of the control group. There were no detrimental effects on growth performance, breast or thigh muscle yield, pH value or drip-water loss, and taurine supplementation did not affect the serum carbonyl content. Serum malondialdehyde concentration was significantly decreased by taurine supplementation for 1, 2 or 3 weeks.

  13. Seasonal occurrence of migrant whimbrels and bristle-thighed curlews on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Handel, Colleen M.; Dau, Christian P.

    1988-01-01

    Migrant Whimbrels (Numenius phaeopus) and Bristle-thighed Curlews (N. tahitiensis) were recorded during five summers along coastal tundra of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. From June to September, 1975-1979, 358 flocks totalling 1,265 curlews were observed; an additional 54 flocks were identified by vocalization alone. Among the 359 flocks identified to species, 52% were of Whimbrels, 47% were of Bristle-thighed Curlews, and 1% were of both species. Flocks as large as 48 Whimbrels and 33 Bristle-thighed Curlews were recorded, but 87% of the flocks contained five or fewer birds. During 2 years with early springs a few Whimbrels and Bristle-thighed Curlews were recorded on the delta in early June; these may have been late spring migrants, oversummering nonbreeders, or very early failed breeders. Whimbrel numbers peaked twice each summer, first in middle to late July and again in late August. These peaks probably consisted mainly of late failed breeders and of successful breeders with juveniles, respectively. The patterns of occurrence of Bristle-thighed Curlews were more complex, with up to three peaks in abundance each season, probably consisting of the following populational subclasses: (1) early failed breeders from late June to mid-July, (2) late failed breeders in late July, and (3) successful breeders and juveniles in early August. Most Bristle-thighed Curlews were gone by mid-August and Whimbrels, by early September. For both species the earliest juveniles were seen in late July in flocks with adults. The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta is conservatively estimated to support several thousands of both Whimbrels and Bristle-thighed Curlews. This area is considered to be particularly important for Bristle-thighed Curlews because it is the primary of only two known areas used during migration between their nesting grounds in Alaska and the first known stop on their wintering grounds in the Hawaiian Island chain, a transoceanic distance of 3,800 km. Whimbrels are more

  14. Brood amalgamation in the Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius tahitiensis: process and function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lanctot, Richard B.; Gill, R.E.; Tibbitts, T.L.; Handel, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    Alloparental care in birds generally involves nonbreeding adults that help at nests or breeding adults that help raise young in communal nests. A less often reported form involves the amalgamation of broods, where one or more adults care for young that are not their own. We observed this phenomenon among Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius tahitiensis broods in western Alaska during 1990–1992. Amalgamation of broods generally involved the formation of temporary and extended associations. Temporary associations were formed by the incidental convergence of broods soon after they left their nests. During this period, parents defended distinct brood-rearing areas, were antagonistic to conspecifics and remained together for less than 3 days. Extended associations formed when chicks were 1–2 weeks old. Here, parents and their broods occupied distinct, but adjacent, brood-rearing areas and moved around as a unit. Whether a brood participated in either temporary or extended associations or remained solitary appeared to depend on brood density in the immediate area and on hatching date. When chicks were 3–4 weeks old, aggregations of up to ten broods formed wherein young mixed and parents defended a common brood-rearing area. All broods (n = 48) that survived to fledging joined such aggregations. Alloparental care involved only antipredator defence and was not associated with activities such as feeding and brooding. Most female parents abandoned their broods shortly after the young could fly and when aggregations were forming. The female parent of a pair always deserted its young before or on the same day as the male parent and, in every aggregation, one or two males continued to tend young for about 5 days longer than other male parents. In most cases, adults deserted the young 2–6 days before the young departed the area when about 38 days old. Bristle-thighed Curlews also formed temporary associations with American and Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica and

  15. NORMATIVE STANDARDS AND PATTERNING OF FAT AND MUSCLE IN WHITE AND BLACK NEWBORN INFANTS

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Jon M.; Allen, G. Andrew; Butler, Merlin G.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the lack of normative data in newborns, we report fat and muscle patterning, and standards for the sums of fat and muscle areas and muscle circumferences for arm, forearm, thigh, and calf in white and black newborn infants that may have clinical application in the assessment of body composition in newborns. Significant differences were found between white males and white females in fatness patterning: white female newborns were larger for all 21 variables except height. Statistically significant differences (t test; p < 0.05) existed for five skinfold measurements (forearm, subscapular, suprailiac, thigh, medial calf), three limb fat areas (forearm, thigh, calf), and the sums of the skinfolds and fat areas despite similar limb circumferences. Black female newborns were larger than black males for five of the eight skinfolds (with a significant difference observed in medial calf skinfold), for all of the limb fat areas, and for the sums of the skinfolds and fat areas. Despite their larger skinfolds and fat areas, black females had smaller circumferences. No sex-related trends or significantly different variables were observed in the muscle patterning of white infants. Differences in muscle patterning were observed between black males and black females, with males having larger values for all 14 variables. Statistically significant differences were found between white and black infants, with white newborns having greater height, medial calf skinfold, and calf fat area. PMID:25505363

  16. Fate of the psoas muscle after open reduction for developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH).

    PubMed

    Bassett, G S; Engsberg, J R; McAlister, W H; Gordon, J E; Schoenecker, P L

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the anatomic and functional consequences of psoas lengthening during operative intervention for developmental dislocation of the hip (DDH). Possible anatomic changes were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and functional assessment included strength determination by an isokinetic dynamometer and gait analysis. Six girls and one boy, ranging in age from 15 to 20 months, had operative reduction of a unilateral DDH. One closed and six open reductions (three anteromedial and three anterolateral approaches) were performed. Follow-up ranged from 4 years 0 months to 9 years 2 months. The cross-sectional area determined by MRI of the lengthened psoas muscles was markedly reduced for all of the six open-reduction patients (three moderate and three severe). Atrophy of the iliacus muscle also was apparent by MRI in five of the six open-reduction patients. Maximum flexion torque, as determined by the isokinetic dynamometer, was diminished on the DDH side for the three patients whose hips were reduced open through the anteromedial approach. Average hip-flexion torque over the entire range of motion was decreased for both anteromedial and anterolateral groups on the operated-on side. Lengthening of the psoas tendon during open reduction of a DDH is associated with considerable atrophy of the psoas muscle.

  17. Monosynaptic excitatory inputs to spinal lamina I anterolateral-tract-projecting neurons from neighbouring lamina I neurons.

    PubMed

    Luz, Liliana L; Szucs, Peter; Pinho, Raquel; Safronov, Boris V

    2010-11-15

    Spinal lamina I receives nociceptive primary afferent input to project through diverse ascending pathways, including the anterolateral tract (ALT). Large projection neurons (PNs) form only a few per cent of the cell population in this layer, and little is known about their local input from other lamina I neurons. We combined single-cell imaging in the isolated spinal cord, paired recordings, 3-D reconstructions of biocytin-labelled neurons and computer simulations to study the monosynaptic input to large ALT-PNs from neighbouring (somata separated by less than 80 μm) large lamina I neurons. All 11 connections identified were excitatory. We have found that an axon of a presynaptic neuron forms multiple synapses on an ALT-PN, and both Ca(2+)-permeable and Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPA receptors are involved in transmission. The monosynaptic EPSC latencies (1-12 ms) are determined by both post- and presynaptic factors. The postsynaptic delay, resulting from the electrotonic EPSC propagation in the dendrites of an ALT-PN, could be 4 ms at most. The presynaptic delay, caused by the spike propagation in a narrow highly branched axon of a local-circuit neuron, can be about 10 ms for neighbouring ALT-PNs and longer for more distant neurons. In many cases, the EPSPs evoked by release from a lamina I neuron were sufficient to elicit a spike in an ALT-PN. Our data show that ALT-PNs can receive input from both lamina I local-circuit neurons and other ALT-PNs. We suggest that lamina I is a functionally interconnected layer. The intralaminar network described here can amplify the overall output from the principal spinal nociceptive projection area.

  18. [Mirror therapy for the treatment of phantom limb pain after bilateral thigh amputation. A case report].

    PubMed

    Wosnitzka, M; Papenhoff, M; Reinersmann, A; Maier, C

    2014-12-01

    This case study is the first to report successful treatment of bilateral phantom limb pain (PLP) in a patient with bilateral thigh amputation and inefficacious medical treatment using a protocol of graded interventions including mirror therapy (MT). MT is a common treatment for PLP but requires the induction of a visual illusion of an intact limb in the mirror, usually achieved by mirroring the healthy extremity. Here, we illustrate how application of a unilateral prosthesis sufficed to induce the necessary illusion. After sequential imagery, then lateralization training, which alleviated pain attacks, the patient received a further 3-week treatment of mirror treatment. Pain intensity was reduced by more than 85 %; the number of attacks were decreased by more than 90% per day. The analgesic efficacy lasted until the unexpected death of the patient several months later. This case illustrates the mechanisms of MT through overcoming the sensory incongruences underlying the distorted body schema and its efficacy in patients with bilateral amputation.

  19. Giant Sporadic Low Grade Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath (MPNST) of Left Thigh.

    PubMed

    Nikumbh, Dhiraj B; Suryawanshi, K H; Dravid, N V; Patil, T B; Rokade, C M

    2013-06-01

    Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours (MPNST) are rare spindle- cell sarcomas which are derived from the schwann cells or the pleuripotent cells of the neural crest. MPNSTs are usually located in the peripheral nerve trunk roots, extremities and in the head and neck region. These tumours may arise as sporadic variants or in patients with neurofibromatosis1 (NF1). The estimated incidence of MPNSTs in the patients with NF1is 2-5% as compared to a 0.001% incidence in the general population. Herein, we are reporting a case of a giant sporadic (NF1 independent) low grade MPNST of the left thigh in 65 year female patient, which had a good prognosis.

  20. Skeletal muscle responses to lower limb suspension in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hather, Bruce M.; Adams, Gregory R.; Tesch, Per A.; Dudley, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The morphological responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting were assessed by analyzing multiple transaxial magnetic resonance (MR) images of both lower limbs and skeletal muscle biopsies of the unweighted lower limb before and after six weeks of unilaterial (left) lower limb suspension (ULLS). Results indicated that, as a results of 6 weeks of unweighting (by the subjects walking on crutches using only one limb), the cross sectional area (CSA) of the thigh muscle of the unweighted left limb decreased 12 percent, while the CSA of the right thigh muscle did not change. The decrease was due to a twofold greater response of the knee extensors than the knee flexors. The pre- and post-ULLS biopsies of the left vastus lateralis showed a 14 percent decrease in average fiber CSA due to unweighting. The number of capillaries surrounding the different fiber types was unchanged after ULLS. Results showed that the adaptive responses of human skeletal muscle to unweighting are qualitatively, but not quantitatively, similar to those of lower mammals and not necessarily dependent on the fiber-type composition.

  1. Three-dimensional Superficial Liposculpture of the Hips, Flank, and Thighs

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Davide; Grassetti, Luca; Silvestri, Alessandro; Trisliana Perdanasari, Aurelia; Han, Sheng; Torresetti, Matteo; di Benedetto, Giovanni; Castello, Manuel Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the last 3 decades, liposuction has become a mainstay of the plastic surgeon’s armamentarium, and the technique has evolved considerably. We retrospectively review all of the liposuction procedures that we performed over the past 20 years. Methods: The principles of superficial 3-dimensional liposuction with respect to preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative management of patients scheduled to undergo liposuction of the hips, flanks, and thighs were described. Results: A total of 4000 patient charts were reviewed. The results indicated that 50 patients experienced a postsurgical seroma that was resolved after syringe aspirations. One patient developed a major mycobacterial infection that was resolved after antibiotic therapy. Twenty patients complained of minor asymmetries that were corrected 6 months later under local anesthesia; 18 patients suffered from minor skin irregularities, which improved after lipofilling. In 6 cases, transient hyperpigmentation (6–12 months) of the skin before the use of suction drainages in the removal of large adiposities in patients with light skin was experienced, and in 2 cases, transient paresthesia (8 and 10 months) was experienced. No skin necrosis, deep vein thrombosis, or death occurred. Conclusions: If performed correctly, 3-dimensional superficial liposuction of the trunk, hips, and thighs can yield very satisfying outcomes because of the excellent contour and the enhanced skin retraction provided by the thin cutaneous adipose flap. Three-dimensional liposuction is a reliable method with proven results. A careful application of the technique combined with accurate surgical planning, a thorough preoperative explanation of real expectations, and postoperative care is crucial. PMID:25674372

  2. Is a single anterolateral screw-plate fixation sufficient for the treatment of spinal fractures in the thoracolumbar junction? A biomechanical in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Ulrich; Bence, Tibor; Grupp, Thomas; Steinhauser, Erwin; Mückley, Thomas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Beisse, Rudolf

    2005-03-01

    Controversy exists about the indications, advantages and disadvantages of various surgical techniques used for anterior interbody fusion of spinal fractures in the thoracolumbar junction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stabilizing effect of an anterolateral and thoracoscopically implantable screw-plate system. Six human bisegmental spinal units (T12-L2) were used for the biomechanical in vitro testing procedure. Each specimen was tested in three different scenarios: (1) intact spinal segments vs (2) monosegmental (T12/L1) anterolateral fixation (macsTL, Aesculap, Germany) with an interbody bone strut graft from the iliac crest after both partial corpectomy (L1) and discectomy (T12/L1) vs (3) bisegmental anterolateral instrumentation after extended partial corpectomy (L1), and bisegmental discectomy (T12/L1 and L1/L2). Specimens were loaded with an alternating, nondestructive maximum bending moment of +/-7.5 Nm in six directions: flexion/extension, right and left lateral bending, and right and left axial rotation. Motion analysis was performed by a contact-less three-dimensional optical measuring system. Segmental stiffness of the three different scenarios was evaluated by the relative alteration of the intervertebral angles in the three main anatomical planes. With each stabilization technique, the specimens were more rigid, compared with the intact spine, for flexion/extension (sagittal plane) as well as in left and right lateral bending (frontal plane). In these planes the bisegmental instrumentation compared to the monosegmental case had an even larger stiffening effect on the specimens. In contrast to these findings, axial rotation showed a modest increase of motion after bisegmental instrumentation. To conclude, the immobilization of monosegmental fractures in the thoracolumbar junction can be secured by means of bone grafting and the implant used in this study for all three anatomical planes. After bisegmental anterolateral stabilization a

  3. Thigh-length versus knee-length compression stockings for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis in the inpatient setting.

    PubMed

    Loomba, Rohit S; Arora, Rohit R; Chandrasekar, Suraj; Shah, Parinda H

    2012-03-01

    Deep vein thrombosis may be a complication of extended length hospital stays. Immobilized patients, such as patients in the postoperative period, are at particularly high risk of developing a deep vein thrombosis, which can be associated with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Due to this, prevention of deep vein thrombosis is of great importance in the inpatient setting. Compression stockings have proven to play an important role in prophylaxis and may be used in their knee-length or thigh-length variety. Although randomized trials have studied the efficacy of both varieties in prevention of deep vein thrombosis, selection is often made without regard to evidence. This meta-analysis pools the findings of current studies comparing knee-length and thigh-length compression stockings for deep vein thrombosis prophylaxis. A fixed effects model was used for this study with a two-sided α-error less than 0.05 considered to be statistically significant. When both varieties of compression stockings are compared, thigh-length stockings offer a risk reduction in deep vein thrombosis development when compared with knee-length (odds ratio 1.197, confidence interval 0.983-1.458). This, however, is an insignificant finding. This analysis concludes that current data does not favor either thigh-length or knee-length compression stockings when it comes to prophylaxis of deep vein thrombosis.

  4. Comparison of Activity Type Classification Accuracy from Accelerometers Worn on the Hip, Wrists, and Thigh in Young, Apparently Healthy Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoye, Alexander H. K.; Pivarnik, James M.; Mudd, Lanay M.; Biswas, Subir; Pfeiffer, Karin A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compare accuracy of activity type prediction models for accelerometers worn on the hip, wrists, and thigh. Forty-four adults performed sedentary, ambulatory, lifestyle, and exercise activities (14 total, 10 categories) for 3-10 minutes each in a 90-minute semi-structured laboratory protocol. Artificial neural…

  5. The effect of load and sex on kinematic and kinetic variables during the mid-thigh clean pull.

    PubMed

    Comfort, Paul; Jones, Paul A; Udall, Rebecca

    2015-06-01

    Power is a fundamental component for many sporting activities; while the load that elicits peak power during different exercises and differences between sexes remains unclear. This study aims to determine the effect of sex and load on kinematic and kinetic variables during the mid-thigh clean pull. Men (n = 10) and women (n = 10) performed the mid-thigh clean pull at intensities of 40%, 60%, 80%, 100%, 120%, and 140% of one repetition maximum (1RM) power clean in a randomised and counter-balanced order, while assessing bar velocity, bar displacement, power, force, and impulse. Two-way analysis of variance revealed that men demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.05) values for all variables across loads, excluding bar velocity. Men demonstrated significantly greater (p < 0.05) bar velocities with 40-80% 1RM; in contrast, women demonstrated significantly (p < 0.05) higher velocities with 120-140% 1RM. Irrespective of sex significantly greater (p < 0.05), system peak power, bar velocity, and displacement occurred with 40% 1RM. In contrast, peak force and impulse were significantly (p < 0.05) greater with 140% 1RM. When performing the mid-thigh clean pull, to maximise system power or bar velocity, lower loads (40-60% 1RM) are recommended. When training force production or impulse, higher loads (120-140% 1RM) are recommended, when using the mid-thigh clean pull.

  6. Systematic Review of Thigh Symptoms after Lateral Transpsoas Interbody Fusion for Adult Patients with Degenerative Lumbar Spine Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gammal, Isaac D.; Bendo, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Lateral transpsoas interbody fusion (LTIF) is a minimally invasive technique for achieving lumbar spinal fusion. While it has many advantages over open techniques it carries with it a distinct set of risks, most commonly post-operative ipsilateral thigh pain, weakness and sensory disturbances. It is vital for both the surgeon and patient to understand the risks for and outcomes of injury associated with this procedure. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to evaluate the incidence, risks, and long-term clinical outcomes of post-operative thigh symptoms in patients treated with LTIF. Methods We conducted a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science and the Cochrane Collaboration Library, using keywords and MeSH terms, for English-language literature published through September 2014, as well as reference lists from key articles. Studies were then manually filtered to retrieve articles that met inclusion criteria. We were interested in studies that reported postoperative lower extremity symptoms after LTIF, such as pain, weakness and changes in sensation. The strength of evidence was determined based on precepts outlined by the Grades of Recommendation Assessment, Development and Evaluation Working Group (GRADE). Results A total of 392 articles were initially retrieved, with 24 ultimately meeting criteria for inclusion. The incidence of any post-operative thigh symptom varied, ranging as high as 60.7%, with 9.3% of patients experiencing a motor deficit related to direct nerve injury. Several studies reported cases of persistent symptoms at 6 months follow up. Additionally, inclusion of the L4-5 disc space and a longer duration of surgery were both identified as risks for developing postoperative thigh symptoms. Conclusion The risk of postoperative thigh symptoms after LTIF is high. Thigh pain, paresthesias and weakness were the most commonly reported symptoms. While most patients’ symptoms resolved by 6 months follow up

  7. Regional changes in muscle mass following 17 weeks of bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Evans, Harlan J.; Pientok, Colette; Rowe, Roger; Spector, Elisabeth

    1992-01-01

    This work reports on the muscle loss and recovery after 17 wk of continuous bed rest and 8 wk of reambulation in eight normal male volunteers. Muscle changes were assessed by urinary levels of 3-methylhistidine (3-MeH), nitrogen balance, dual-photon absorptiometry (DPA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and isokinetic muscle performance. The total body lean tissue loss during bed rest calculated from nitrogen balance was 3.9 +/- 2.1 kg. Although the total loss is minimal, DPA scans showed that nearly all of the lean tissue loss occurred in the lower limbs. Similarly, MRI muscle volume measurements showed greater percent loss in the limbs relative to the back muscles. MRI, DPA, and nitrogen balance suggest that muscle atrophy continued throughout bed rest with rapid recovery after reambulaton. Isokinetic muscle strength decreased significantly in the thigh and calf with no loss in the arms and with rapid recovery during reambulation.

  8. Muscle Quality and Myosteatosis: Novel Associations With Mortality Risk

    PubMed Central

    Reinders, Ilse; Murphy, Rachel A.; Brouwer, Ingeborg A.; Visser, Marjolein; Launer, Lenore; Siggeirsdottir, Kristin; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Jonsson, Palmi V.; Lang, Thomas F.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2016-01-01

    Muscle composition may affect mortality risk, but prior studies have been limited to specific samples or less precise determination of muscle composition. We evaluated associations of thigh muscle composition, determined using computed tomography imaging, and knee extension strength with mortality risk among 4,824 participants aged 76.4 (standard deviation (SD), 5.5) years from the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study (2002–2006). Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios. After 8.8 years of follow-up, there were 1,942 deaths. For men, each SD-increment increase in muscle lean area, muscle quality, and strength was associated with lower mortality risk, with decreases ranging between 11% and 22%. Each SD-increment increase in intermuscular adipose tissue and intramuscular adipose tissue was associated with higher mortality risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.13 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06, 1.22) and HR = 1.23 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.30), respectively). For women, each SD-increment increase in muscle lean area, muscle quality, and strength was associated with lower mortality risk, with decreases ranging between 12% and 19%. Greater intramuscular adipose tissue was associated with an 8% higher mortality risk (HR = 1.08, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.16). This study shows that muscle composition is associated with mortality risk. These results also show the importance of improving muscle strength and area and lowering muscle adipose tissue infiltration. PMID:26643983

  9. Deficits in muscle strength, mass, quality, and mobility in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Roig, M; Eng, JJ; MacIntyre, DL; Road, JD; Reid, WD.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Mid-thigh intramuscular fat (IF), a feature of reduced muscle quality, is an important predictor of self-reported mobility loss in the elderly. This study compared measures of muscle strength, mass, IF, and mobility in people with COPD and healthy subjects. Associations between measures of muscle strength, mass, IF and mobility were explored. Methods Knee extensors muscle strength was assessed with an isokinetic dynamometer. Cross-sectional area (CSA) and IF of the thigh muscles were measured with computerized tomography. Mobility was assessed with the Repetitive Sit-To-Stand (RSTS), Self-Selected Gait Speed (SSGS) and Six-Minute Walk Distance (6MWT) tests. Results Twenty-one people of mean ± SD age 71.3 ± 8.1 years with COPD and a percentage predicted force expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 47.2 ± 12.9 and 21 healthy subjects matched for age (67.4 ± 8.6), gender and body mass participated in the study. People with COPD showed reduced average knee extensors strength (29%;p=0.016) CSA of the thigh muscles (17%;p=0.007) and mobility measures (~23%;p≤0.001). Knee extensors and flexors IF was twofold greater in people with COPD (p≤0.005). Measures of knee extensors muscle strength, mass and IF were not associated with mobility measures. Conclusions Compared with healthy controls, people with moderate to severe COPD show marked deficits in muscle strength, mass, quality as well as mobility. More studies with larger sample size are required to elucidate whether any of these muscle deficits can explain mobility impairments in COPD. PMID:21037481

  10. Acute Effects of Lateral Thigh Foam Rolling on Arterial Tissue Perfusion Determined by Spectral Doppler and Power Doppler Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Hotfiel, Thilo; Swoboda, Bernd; Krinner, Sebastian; Grim, Casper; Engelhardt, Martin; Uder, Michael; Heiss, Rafael U

    2017-04-01

    Hotfiel, T, Swoboda, B, Krinner, S, Grim, C, Engelhardt, M, Uder, M, and Heiss, R. Acute effects of lateral thigh foam rolling on arterial tissue perfusion determined by spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound. J Strength Cond Res 31(4): 893-900, 2017-Foam rolling has been developed as a popular intervention in training and rehabilitation. However, evidence on its effects on the cellular and physiological level is lacking. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of foam rolling on arterial blood flow of the lateral thigh. Twenty-one healthy participants (age, 25 ± 2 years; height, 177 ± 9 cm; body weight, 74 ± 9 kg) were recruited from the medical and sports faculty. Arterial tissue perfusion was determined by spectral Doppler and power Doppler ultrasound, represented as peak flow (Vmax), time average velocity maximum (TAMx), time average velocity mean (TAMn), and resistive index (RI), and with semiquantitative grading that was assessed by 4 blindfolded investigators. Measurement values were assessed under resting conditions and twice after foam rolling exercises of the lateral thigh (0 and 30 minutes after intervention). The trochanteric region, mid portion, and distal tibial insertion of the lateral thigh were representative for data analysis. Arterial blood flow of the lateral thigh increased significantly after foam rolling exercises compared with baseline (p ≤ 0.05). We detected a relative increase in Vmax of 73.6% (0 minutes) and 52.7% (30 minutes) (p < 0.001), in TAMx of 53.2% (p < 0.001) and 38.3% (p = 0.002), and in TAMn of 84.4% (p < 0.001) and 68.2% (p < 0.001). Semiquantitative power Doppler scores at all portions revealed increased average grading of 1.96 after intervention and 2.04 after 30 minutes compared with 0.75 at baseline. Our results may contribute to the understanding of local physiological reactions to self-myofascial release.

  11. Muscle Quantitative MR Imaging and Clustering Analysis in Patients with Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Lareau-Trudel, Emilie; Le Troter, Arnaud; Ghattas, Badih; Pouget, Jean; Attarian, Shahram; Bendahan, David; Salort-Campana, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy type 1 (FSHD1) is the third most common inherited muscular dystrophy. Considering the highly variable clinical expression and the slow disease progression, sensitive outcome measures would be of interest. Methods and Findings Using muscle MRI, we assessed muscular fatty infiltration in the lower limbs of 35 FSHD1 patients and 22 healthy volunteers by two methods: a quantitative imaging (qMRI) combined with a dedicated automated segmentation method performed on both thighs and a standard T1-weighted four-point visual scale (visual score) on thighs and legs. Each patient had a clinical evaluation including manual muscular testing, Clinical Severity Score (CSS) scale and MFM scale. The intramuscular fat fraction measured using qMRI in the thighs was significantly higher in patients (21.9 ± 20.4%) than in volunteers (3.6 ± 2.8%) (p<0.001). In patients, the intramuscular fat fraction was significantly correlated with the muscular fatty infiltration in the thighs evaluated by the mean visual score (p<0.001). However, we observed a ceiling effect of the visual score for patients with a severe fatty infiltration clearly indicating the larger accuracy of the qMRI approach. Mean intramuscular fat fraction was significantly correlated with CSS scale (p≤0.01) and was inversely correlated with MMT score, MFM subscore D1 (p≤0.01) further illustrating the sensitivity of the qMRI approach. Overall, a clustering analysis disclosed three different imaging patterns of muscle involvement for the thighs and the legs which could be related to different stages of the disease and put forth muscles which could be of interest for a subtle investigation of the disease progression and/or the efficiency of any therapeutic strategy. Conclusion The qMRI provides a sensitive measurement of fat fraction which should also be of high interest to assess disease progression and any therapeutic strategy in FSHD1 patients. PMID:26181385

  12. Possible correlation of selenoprotein W with inflammation factors in chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qiong; Yao, Hai-Dong; Tan, Si-Ran; Zhang, Zi-Wei; Zhu, Yao-Hong; Xu, Shiwen

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible correlation of selenoprotein W (SelW) with inflammatory injury induced by dietary selenium (Se) deficiency in chicken. One-day-old male chickens were fed either a commercial diet or a Se-deficient diet for 55 days. Then, the expression levels of SelW messenger RNA (mRNA) and inflammation-related genes (NF-κB, TNF-α, iNOS, COX-2, and PTGES) in chicken skeletal muscles (wing muscle, pectoral muscle, and thigh muscle) were determined at 15, 25, 35, 45, and 55 days old, respectively. In addition, the correlation between SelW mRNA expression and inflammation-related genes were assessed. The results showed that dietary Se deficiency reduced the mRNA expression of SelW in chicken wing, pectorals, and thigh muscles. In contrast, Se deficiency increased the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes in chicken skeletal muscle tissues at different time points. The Pearson's correlation coefficients showed that the mRNA expression levels of inflammation-related genes were significantly negative related to SelW (p < 0.05). These data showed that Se deficiency induced the inflammatory response in chicken skeletal muscle. As one important selenoprotein gene in skeletal muscles, SelW may play a role in the regulation of inflammation reaction in Se-deficiency myopathy.

  13. Housing system influences abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, H D; Li, D Y; Zhang, L; Yang, M Y; Zhao, X L; Wang, Y; Liu, Y P; Zhu, Q

    2014-06-01

    Paired box (Pax) proteins 3 and 7 are associated with activation of muscle satellite cells and play a major role in hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of housing system on abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles. At 42 d, 1,200 chickens with similar BW were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range group. The mRNA abundance was measured in pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d 56, 70, and 84, and the protein expression was quantified at d 84. Increases in mRNA abundance of PAX3 and PAX7 with age were less pronounced in caged system chickens than in pen and free-range chickens from d 56 to 84, and free-range chickens showed a more pronounced increase in gene expression with age compared with penned chickens. At d 84, quantities of PAX3 and PAX7 mRNA and protein were highest in both pectoralis major and thigh muscle of chickens raised in the free-range group, lowest in penned chickens, and intermediate in caged chickens (P < 0.05). These data indicate that housing system may influence muscle fiber muscle accretion by coordinating the expression of Pax3 and Pax7 in adult chicken skeletal muscles.

  14. Aortic valve replacement via right anterolateral thoracotomy in the case of a patient with extreme mediastinal right-shift following pneumonectomy.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmi, Mathias; Rodt, Thomas; Ismail, Issam; Haverich, Axel

    2013-01-25

    We report on the case of a 68-year-old male patient with the history of right pneumonectomy due to bronchial carcinoma, who was referred for aortic valve replacement due to severe calcified aortic stenosis. Pre-operative chest X-ray and computed tomography (CT) revealed an unusually pronounced mediastinal shift to the right. Despite this unusual anatomy, we decided to perform surgery using the right anterolateral thoracotomy following thorough pre-operative planning using 3D-volume rendering of the CT data-set. This approach yielded excellent exposure of the aortic root and the ascending aorta, respectively. Following an uneventful operative and post-operative course the patient could be discharged on post-OP day 6.Although only occasionally described for aortic valve replacement a right anterolateral thoracotomy may represent a valuable surgical approach, particular in patients with unusual anatomy, e.g. a mediastinal right-shift. However, thorough pre-operative planning, i.e. using visualization and planning techniques such as 3D-volume rendering should be mandatory as it provides information crucial to facilitate surgical steps and thus, may help avoid severe surgical complications.

  15. Squeezing the muscle: compression clothing and muscle metabolism during recovery from high intensity exercise.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Born, Dennis-Peter; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Laaksonen, Marko S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose uptake in m. biceps (BF) and m. quadriceps femoris (QF) 1) during recovery from high intensity cycle exercise, and 2) while wearing a compression short applying ~37 mmHg to the thigh muscles. Blood flow and glucose uptake were measured in the compressed and non-compressed leg of 6 healthy men by using positron emission tomography. At baseline blood flow in QF (P = 0.79) and BF (P = 0.90) did not differ between the compressed and the non-compressed leg. During recovery muscle blood flow was higher compared to baseline in both compressed (P<0.01) and non-compressed QF (P<0.001) but not in compressed (P = 0.41) and non-compressed BF (P = 0.05; effect size = 2.74). During recovery blood flow was lower in compressed QF (P<0.01) but not in BF (P = 0.26) compared to the non-compressed muscles. During baseline and recovery no differences in blood flow were detected between the superficial and deep parts of QF in both, compressed (baseline P = 0.79; recovery P = 0.68) and non-compressed leg (baseline P = 0.64; recovery P = 0.06). During recovery glucose uptake was higher in QF compared to BF in both conditions (P<0.01) with no difference between the compressed and non-compressed thigh. Glucose uptake was higher in the deep compared to the superficial parts of QF (compression leg P = 0.02). These results demonstrate that wearing compression shorts with ~37 mmHg of external pressure reduces blood flow both in the deep and superficial regions of muscle tissue during recovery from high intensity exercise but does not affect glucose uptake in BF and QF.

  16. Muscle biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Inflammatory diseases of muscle (such as polymyositis or dermatomyositis ) Diseases of the connective tissue and blood vessels ( ... disease that involves inflammation and a skin rash ( dermatomyositis ) Inherited muscle disorder ( Duchenne muscular dystrophy ) Inflammation of ...

  17. The scaling of postcranial muscles in cats (Felidae) II: hindlimb and lumbosacral muscles.

    PubMed

    Cuff, Andrew R; Sparkes, Emily L; Randau, Marcela; Pierce, Stephanie E; Kitchener, Andrew C; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R

    2016-07-01

    In quadrupeds the musculature of the hindlimbs is expected to be responsible for generating most of the propulsive locomotory forces, as well as contributing to body support by generating vertical forces. In supporting the body, postural changes from crouched to upright limbs are often associated with an increase of body mass in terrestrial tetrapods. However, felids do not change their crouched limb posture despite undergoing a 300-fold size increase between the smallest and largest extant species. Here, we test how changes in the muscle architecture (masses and lengths of components of the muscle-tendon units) of the hindlimbs and lumbosacral region are related to body mass, to assess whether there are muscular compensations for the maintenance of a crouched limb posture at larger body sizes. We use regression and principal component analyses to detect allometries in muscle architecture, with and without phylogenetic correction. Of the muscle lengths that scale allometrically, all scale with negative allometry (i.e. relative shortening with increasing body mass), whereas all tendon lengths scale isometrically. Only two muscles' belly masses and two tendons' masses scale with positive allometry (i.e. relatively more massive with increasing body mass). Of the muscles that scale allometrically for physiological cross-sectional area, all scale positively (i.e. relatively greater area with increasing body mass). These muscles are mostly linked to control of hip and thigh movements. When the architecture data are phylogenetically corrected, there are few significant results, and only the strongest signals remain. None of the vertebral muscles scaled significantly differently from isometry. Principal component analysis and manovas showed that neither body size nor locomotor mode separate the felid species in morphospace. Our results support the inference that, despite some positively allometric trends in muscle areas related to thigh movement, larger cats have

  18. Effect of temperature on skeletal muscle energy turnover during dynamic knee-extensor exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, R A; Krustrup, P; Kjaer, M; Mohr, M; Ball, D; Bangsbo, J

    2006-07-01

    The present study examined the effect of elevated temperature on muscle energy turnover during dynamic exercise. Nine male subjects performed 10 min of dynamic knee-extensor exercise at an intensity of 43 W (SD 10) and a frequency of 60 contractions per minute. Exercise was performed under normal (C) and elevated muscle temperature (HT) through passive heating. Thigh oxygen uptake (V(O2)) was determined from measurements of thigh blood flow and femoral arterial-venous differences for oxygen content. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated from measurements of lactate release as well as muscle lactate accumulation and phosphocreatine utilization based on analysis of muscle biopsies obtained before and after each exercise. At the start of exercise, muscle temperature was 34.5 degrees C (SD 1.7) in C compared with 37.2 degrees C (SD 0.5) during HT (P < 0.05). Thigh V(O2) after 3 min was 0.52 l/min (SD 0.11) in C and 0.63 l/min (SD 0.13) in HT, and at the end of exercise it was 0.60 l/min (SD 0.14) and 0.61 l/min (SD 0.10) in C and HT, respectively (not significant). Total lactate release was the same between the two temperature conditions, as was muscle lactate accumulation and PCr utilization. Total ATP production (aerobic + anaerobic) was the same between each temperature condition [505.0 mmol/kg (SD 107.2) vs. 527.1 mmol/kg (SD 117.6); C and HT, respectively]. In conclusion, within the range of temperatures studied, passively increasing muscle temperature before exercise has no effect on muscle energy turnover during dynamic exercise.

  19. Sciatica caused by pyomyositis of the piriformis muscle in a pediatric patient.

    PubMed

    Toda, Taihei; Koda, Masao; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Hitoshi; Nakajima, Arata; Yamada, Toshiyuki; Murakami, Ken-ichi; Nakajima, Hideyuki; Murakami, Masazumi

    2013-02-01

    Because the sciatic nerve leaves the pelvis through the greater sciatic notch underneath the piriformis muscle, any pathology of the piriformis muscle could result in entrapment of the sciatic nerve; this is widely known as piriformis muscle syndrome. Pyomyositis of the piriformis muscle may be a cause of piriformis muscle syndrome. Piriformis muscle syndrome caused by pyomyositis of the piriformis muscle in pediatric patients is rare. This article describes a case of sciatica caused by pyomyositis of the piriformis muscle in a pediatric patient. A 6-year-old boy presented with right buttock and thigh pain following a mild fever and sore throat. The pain worsened, and he became unable to walk. On admission, his temperature was 38.4°C. He reported severe right-sided buttock and lateral thigh pain. Positive Freiberg sign was observed. Laboratory examination revealed elevated white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level. T2-weighted magnetic resonance images of the pelvis revealed high-intensity changes of the piriformis muscle and iliosacral joint. Thus, piriformis syndrome caused by pyomyositis of the piriformis muscle was diagnosed. Oral antibiotics (10 mg/kg per day of cefdinir) were administered. Pain gradually decreased, and the patient was able to walk. Final follow-up examination at 6 months after symptom onset revealed no sciatic pain. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging revealed normalized intensities of the piriformis muscle. The endopelvic fascia provides a route for infection from the pelvis to the piriformis. The pyomyositis of the piriformis muscle in the current case may have occurred secondary to the pyoarthritis of the sacroiliac joint. Endopelvic infections involving the piriformis muscle may mimic hip diseases in pediatric patients.

  20. Efficacy of thigh volume ratios assessed via stereovision body imaging as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jane J; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H; Pepper, M Reese; Yu, Wurong; Xu, Bugao

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The research examined the efficacy of regional volumes of thigh ratios assessed by stereovision body imaging (SBI) as a predictor of visceral adipose tissue measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Body measurements obtained via SBI also were utilized to explore disparities of body size and shape in men and women. Method 121 participants were measured for total/regional body volumes and ratios via SBI and abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue areas by MRI. Results Thigh to torso and thigh to abdomen-hip volume ratios were the most reliable parameters to predict the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue depots compared to other body measurements. Thigh volume in relation to torso [odds ratios (OR) 0.44] and abdomen-hip (OR 0.41) volumes were negatively associated with increased risks of greater visceral adipose tissue depots, even after controlling for age, gender, and body mass index (BMI). Irrespective of BMI classification, men exhibited greater total body (80.95L vs. 72.41L), torso (39.26L vs. 34.13L), and abdomen-hip (29.01L vs. 25.85L) volumes than women. Women had higher thigh volumes (4.93L vs. 3.99L) and lower-body volume ratios [thigh to total body (0.07 vs. 0.05), thigh to torso (0.15 vs. 0.11), and thigh to abdomen-hip (0.20 vs. 0.15); p<0.05]. Conclusions The unique parameters of the volumes of thigh in relation to torso and abdomen-hip, by SBI were highly effective in predicting visceral adipose tissue deposition. The SBI provided an efficient method for determining body size and shape in men and women via total and regional body volumes and ratios. PMID:25645428

  1. Modeling Muscles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwyn, Lauren; Salm, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Teaching the anatomy of the muscle system to high school students can be challenging. Students often learn about muscle anatomy by memorizing information from textbooks or by observing plastic, inflexible models. Although these mediums help students learn about muscle placement, the mediums do not facilitate understanding regarding integration of…

  2. Anterolateral Ligament Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Zordan, J.; Etcheto, H. Rivarola; Blanchod, C. Collazo; Palanconi, M.; Salinas, E. Álvarez; Autorino, CM; Escobar, G.

    2017-01-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure in daily practice with 75 to 97% excellent long-term results. But in certain cases, some patients perceive rotational instability, for this reason the revision rate can be 10 to 15%. Objectives: evaluate functional outcome in revisions of ACL reconstruction associated with ALL. Methods: Between July 2015 and February 2016 (11 knees) Eleven Revision ACL reconstruction were performed with ALL with double incision technique performed by the same surgical team. Inclusion criteria were: ACL reconstruction failures with a grade 2 or 3 Lachman test, a grade 3 pivot-shift without other ligamentary injury lesions associated and complete range of motion. Results: The concept of rotational instability associated with ACL injury has been described more than a decade ago. However, there is no consensus on how to quantify rotational instability in ACL injuries; so when associating an extracapsular technique. Currently there is a lack of high-level evidence comparing isolated ACL repair and associated with the modified reconstruction of ALL that allows us to define therapeutic approaches. The ALL reconstruction associate an ACL reconstruction remains a matter of study. Conclusion: We obtain excellent results in antero – posterior and rotational stability after performing the procedure.

  3. Determination of Therapeutic Equivalence of Generic Products of Gentamicin in the Neutropenic Mouse Thigh Infection Model

    PubMed Central

    Zuluaga, Andres F.; Agudelo, Maria; Cardeño, John J.; Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Vesga, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Background Drug regulatory agencies (DRA) support prescription of generic products of intravenous antibiotics assuming therapeutic equivalence from pharmaceutical equivalence. Recent reports of deaths associated with generic heparin and metoprolol have raised concerns about the efficacy and safety of DRA-approved drugs. Methodology/Principal Findings To challenge the assumption that pharmaceutical equivalence predicts therapeutic equivalence, we determined in vitro and in vivo the efficacy of the innovator product and 20 pharmaceutically equivalent generics of gentamicin. The data showed that, while only 1 generic product failed in vitro (MIC = 45.3 vs. 0.7 mg/L, P<0.05), 10 products (including gentamicin reference powder) failed in vivo against E. coli due to significantly inferior efficacy (Emax = 4.81 to 5.32 vs. 5.99 log10 CFU/g, P≤0.043). Although the design lacked power to detect differences in survival after thigh infection with P. aeruginosa, dissemination to vital organs was significantly higher in animals treated with generic gentamicin despite 4 days of maximally effective treatment. Conclusion Pharmaceutical equivalence does not predict therapeutic equivalence of generic gentamicin. Stricter criteria based on solid experimental evidence should be required before approval for human use. PMID:20505762

  4. Aquacel Surgical Dressing after Thigh Lift: A Case–Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bocchiotti, Maria A.; Baglioni, Elisabetta A.; Spaziante, Luca; Frenello, Ambra

    2016-01-01

    Background: The postoperative dressing in patients undergoing thigh lift is often difficult, not very resistant to movement, and uncomfortable for the patient, and often exposes surgical site to infection, maceration, or delay in wound healing. Methods: We included 40 patients in a case–control crossover study with no period effects, who were treated both by Aquacel Surgical and a traditional wound dressing. Surveys with a 10-point scale evaluation were used to assess nontraumatic removal level, ease of application, adhesion, and strength of the 2 treatments. We reported the number of days necessary for wound healing, the number of infection cases, and wound-related complications. Costs of the 2 medications were also considered. Ten days after surgery, patients answered a questionnaire with 6 multiple-choice questions to assess comfort, pain at dressing change, pruritus, strength, and number of dressing changes. Results: Compared with controls, surveys revealed Aquacel Surgical to be less traumatic to remove, easier to apply, and to be more adherent and stronger. Significant acceleration of the wound healing was also evident with Aquacel Surgical compared with the traditional dressing. Nonsignificant differences were reported about the risk of infection and wound-related complications between the 2 treatments. A statistical analysis of costs revealed that Aquacel Surgical is significantly more expensive than the traditional medication. Conclusion: We recommend the use of Aquacel Surgical in all the surgery procedures where the risk of wound dehiscence and maceration is high. PMID:27757328

  5. Comparative analysis of skin surface lipids of the labia majora, inner thigh, and forearm.

    PubMed

    Warren, R; Wertz, P W; Kirkbride, T; Brunner, M; Gross, M C

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a procedure for the collection of skin surface corneocyte lipids from the semioccluded and intimate regions of the labia majora and inner thigh of women, to evaluate the polar and nonpolar composition, and to compare the distribution of the lipid classes relative to a collection of lipids from the forearm. The solvent system of ethanol-cyclohexane was well tolerated across all sites. While the yield of polar lipids was similar across all 3 sites, there were only marginal differences in the relative abundance of ceramides, a class of lipids closely associated with skin barrier activity. The yield of neutral lipids was significantly less for the labia majora and was associated with a reduced yield of wax esters, triglycerides and free fatty acids, likely associated with reduced sebaceous gland activity. Factors that may contribute to an inferior skin barrier activity for the labia majora are discussed and suggest a possible deficiency of ω-6 fatty acid linked to the sphingosine base of ceramide EOS.

  6. Determination of thigh volume in youth with anthropometry and DXA: agreement between estimates.

    PubMed

    Coelho-E-Silva, Manuel J; Malina, Robert M; Simões, Filipe; Valente-Dos-Santos, João; Martins, Raul A; Vaz Ronque, Enio R; Petroski, Edio L; Minderico, Claudia; Silva, Analiza M; Baptista, Fátima; Sardinha, Luís B

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the agreement between estimates of thigh volume (TV) with anthropometry and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in healthy school children. Participants (n=168, 83 boys and 85 girls) were school children 10.0-13.9 years of age. In addition to body mass, height and sitting height, anthropometric dimensions included those needed to estimate TV using the equation of Jones & Pearson. Total TV was also estimated with DXA. Agreement between protocols was examined using linear least products regression (Deming regressions). Stepwise regression of log-transformed variables identified variables that best predicted TV estimated by DXA. The regression models were then internally validated using the predicted residual sum of squares method. Correlation between estimates of TV was 0.846 (95%CI: 0.796-0.884, Sy·x=0.152 L). It was possible to obtain an anthropometry-based model to improve the prediction of TVs in youth. The total volume by DXA was best predicted by adding body mass and sum of skinfolds to volume estimated with the equation of Jones & Pearson (R=0.972; 95%CI: 0.962-0.979; R (2)=0.945).

  7. Lower limb gigantism, lymphedema, and painful varicosities following a thigh vascular access graft.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Michael; Mathuram Thiyagarajan, Umasankar; Akoh, Jacob A

    2014-07-01

    Prosthetic arteriovenous grafts (AVGs) are associated with greater morbidity than autogenous arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs), but their use is indicated when AVF formation is not possible. This report adds to the literature a case of lower limb gigantism, painful varicosities, and lymphedema following long-term use of AVG in the upper thigh. The patient's past medical history included renal transplantation on the same side well before the AVG was inserted and right leg deep vein thrombosis. Suspicion of AVG thrombosis was excluded by Doppler ultrasound, which demonstrated an access flow of 1700 mL/min. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis did not identify the cause of her symptoms. Whereas functional incompetence of the iliac vein valve might be responsible for the varicosities, the extent of hypertrophy in this case raises the suspicion of lymphatic blockage possibly secondary to groin dissection undertaken at the time of graft insertion, in addition to the previous dissection at the time of transplantation. This case highlights the need for minimal groin dissection during AVG insertion, particularly in patients with a history of previous abdominopelvic surgery.

  8. An Optimized Mouse Thigh Infection Model for Enterococci and Its Impact on Antimicrobial Pharmacodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Agudelo, Maria; Gonzalez, Javier M.; Vesga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Negligible in vivo growth of enterococci and high-level dispersion of data have led to inaccurate estimations of antibiotic pharmacodynamics (PD). Here we improved an in vivo model apt for PD studies by optimizing the in vitro culture conditions for enterococci. The PD of vancomycin (VAN), ampicillin-sulbactam (SAM), and piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) against enterococci were determined in vivo, comparing the following different conditions of inoculum preparation: aerobiosis, aerobiosis plus mucin, and anaerobiosis plus mucin. Drug exposure was expressed as the ratio of the area under the concentration-time curve for the free, unbound fraction of the drug to the MIC (fAUC/MIC) (VAN) or the time in a 24-h period that the drug concentration for the free, unbound fraction exceeded the MIC under steady-state pharmacokinetic conditions (fT>MIC) (SAM and TZP) and linked to the change in log10 CFU/thigh. Only anaerobiosis plus mucin enhanced the in vivo growth, yielding significant PD parameters with all antibiotics. In conclusion, robust in vivo growth of enterococci was crucial for better determining the PD of tested antibacterial agents, and this was achieved by optimizing the procedure for preparing the inoculum. PMID:25348523

  9. Are muscle activation patterns altered during shod and barefoot running with a forefoot footfall pattern?

    PubMed

    Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Mochizuki, Luis; Figueira, Aylton; Hamill, Joseph

    2016-09-14

    This study aimed to investigate the activation of lower limb muscles during barefoot and shod running with forefoot or rearfoot footfall patterns. Nine habitually shod runners were asked to run straight for 20 m at self-selected speed. Ground reaction forces and thigh and shank muscle surface electromyographic (EMG) were recorded. EMG outcomes (EMG intensity [iEMG], latency between muscle activation and ground reaction force, latency between muscle pairs and co-activation index between muscle pairs) were compared across condition (shod and barefoot), running cycle epochs (pre-strike, strike, propulsion) and footfall (rearfoot and forefoot) by ANOVA. Condition affected iEMG at pre-strike epoch. Forefoot and rearfoot strike patterns induced different EMG activation time patterns affecting co-activation index for pairs of thigh and shank muscles. All these timing changes suggest that wearing shoes or not is less important for muscle activation than the way runners strike the foot on the ground. In conclusion, the guidance for changing external forces applied on lower limbs should be pointed to the question of rearfoot or forefoot footfall patterns.

  10. In vitro binding of dantrolene to sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Dehpour, A R; Mofakham, S; Mahmoudian, M

    1982-03-15

    Dantrolene upon binding to microsomes containing sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit thigh muscle exhibits a fluorescence with emission at 490 nm, which shows a blue shift of 35 nm compared with its fluorescence in ethylacetate. Using fluorescence techniques, dantrolene binding to microsomes isolated from rabbit thigh muscle was investigated. From Scatchard plots of binding studies, the association constant (Kass) and the number of binding sites of dantrolene to sarcoplasmic reticulum were calculated, which was found to be 9.6 X 10(4) M-1 and 1.71 mumole/g of membrane proteins, respectively. In the presence of verapamil (1.25 X 10(-4) M), another calcium antagonist, the binding of dantrolene to microsomes was enhanced. However, at a high concentration of verapamil (3.75 X 10(-4) M), the Scatchard plot of dantrolene binding was found to be biphasic.

  11. Activity of imipenem against VIM-1 metallo-beta-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in the murine thigh infection model.

    PubMed

    Daikos, G L; Panagiotakopoulou, A; Tzelepi, E; Loli, A; Tzouvelekis, L S; Miriagou, V

    2007-02-01

    The in-vivo activity of imipenem against VIM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (VPKP) was assessed in a thigh infection model in neutropenic mice. Animals were infected with three VPKP isolates (imipenem MICs 2, 4 and 32 mg/L, respectively) and a susceptible clinical isolate (MIC 0.125 mg/L) that did not produce any beta-lactamase with broad-spectrum activity. Bacterial density at the site of infection was determined after imipenem treatment (30 and 60 mg/kg every 2 h for 24 h). The log(10) reduction in CFU/thigh was greatest for the wild-type isolate, intermediate for the two imipenem-susceptible VPKP isolates, and lowest for the imipenem-resistant VPKP isolate. Whilst in-vivo imipenem activity appeared reduced against in-vitro susceptible VIM-1 producers compared with a VIM-1-negative control, an increased drug dosage could moderate this reduction.

  12. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of sulbactam against Acinetobacter baumannii in in vitro and murine thigh and lung infection models.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Ikawa, Kazuro; Watanabe, Erika; Shigemi, Akari; Umezaki, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Koyo; Ueno, Keiichiro; Morikawa, Norifumi; Takeda, Yasuo

    2014-06-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is a pathogen that has become globally associated with nosocomial infections. Sulbactam, a potent inhibitor of β-lactamases, was previously shown to be active against A. baumannii strains in vitro and effective against A. baumannii infections. However, a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) analysis of sulbactam against A. baumannii infections has not yet been performed. This is necessary because optimisation of dosing regimens should be based on PK/PD analysis. Therefore, in vitro and in vivo PK/PD analyses of sulbactam were performed using murine thigh and lung infection models of A. baumannii to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of sulbactam. Sulbactam showed time-dependent bactericidal activity in vitro against A. baumannii. The PK/PD index that best correlated with its in vivo effects was the time that the free drug concentration remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration (fT>MIC) both in the thigh (R(2)=0.95) and lung (R(2)=0.96) infection models. Values of fT>MIC for a static effect and 1, 2 and 3log10 kill, respectively, were 21.0%, 32.9%, 43.6% and 57.3% in the thigh infection model and 20.4%, 24.5%, 29.3% and 37.3% in the lung infection model. Here we report the in vitro and in vivo time-dependent activities of sulbactam against A. baumannii infection and demonstrate that sulbactam was sufficiently bactericidal when an fT>MIC of >60% against A. baumannii thigh infection and >40% against A. baumannii lung infection was achieved.

  13. The Effect of Thigh Marker Placement on Knee Valgus Angles in Vertical Drop Jumps and Sidestep Cutting.

    PubMed

    Mok, Kam-Ming; Kristianslund, Eirik; Krosshaug, Tron

    2015-08-01

    Knee valgus angles measured in sidestep cutting and vertical drop jumps are key variables in research on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causation. These variables are also used to quantify knee neuromuscular control and ACL injury risk. The aims of the current study were to (1) quantify the differences in the calculated knee valgus angles between 6 different thigh marker clusters, (2) investigate the trial ranking based on their knee valgus angles, and (3) investigate the influence of marker clusters on the cross-talk effect. Elite female handball and football players (n = 41) performed sidestep cutting and vertical drop jumping motions. We found systematic differences up to almost 15° of peak valgus between the marker sets in the drop jump test. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient varied from .505 to .974 among the 6 marker sets. In addition, the cross-talk effect varied considerably between the marker clusters. The results of the current study indicate that the choice of thigh marker cluster can have a substantial impact on the magnitude of knee valgus angle, as well as the trial ranking. A standardized thigh marker cluster, including nonanatomical landmark, is needed to minimize the variation of the measurement.

  14. Effect of the thigh-cuffs on the carotid artery diameter jugular vein section and facial skin edema: HDT study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roumy, Jerome; Diridillou, Stephane; Herault, Stephane; Fomina, Galina; Alferova, Irina; Arbeille, Philippe

    2001-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate the distal arterial, venous and skin changes in a group using thigh cuffs during daytime and in a control group. Method: Cardiac, arterial, venous parameters were measured by echography and Doppler. Skin thickness was measured by high frequency echography. Results & discussion: Head down position induced plasma volume reduction, increased cerebral resistance, reduced lower limb resistance. The jugular vein increased whereas the femoral and popliteal veins decreased. All these changes were already observed in previous HDT. Common carotid diameter decreased, Front head skin thickness increased and Tibial skin thickness decreased. Eight hours with thigh cuffs increased the cardiac and carotid sizes which is in agreement with the plasma volume increase. Conversely they reduced the cerebral vascular resistance, jugular section and front head edema which may explain the sensation of comfort reported by the subjects. At the lower limb level the thigh cuffs restored the skin thickness to pre-HDT level but enlarged markedly the femoral and popliteal veins. HR, BP, CO, TPR did not change.

  15. The physicochemical properties and antioxidative potential of raw thigh meat from broilers fed a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture

    PubMed Central

    Shirzadegan, K.; Falahpour, P.

    2014-01-01

    A 6-wk feeding study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidative potential, indices such as quality of the thigh meat and liver of broiler chickens fed with a dietary medicinal herb extract mixture (HEM, consisting: Iranian green tea, cinnamon, garlic and chicory at a ratio of 25:15:45:15). A total of 320, one-d-old Ross (male) broiler chickens were used to investigate the effects of 0.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 7.5 g/kg HEM in the diet, on aforementioned factors. The HEM supplementation did not influence the composition of raw thigh meat except for the total phenols and crude ash (P<0.05). Furthermore, pH, water-holding capacity (WHC) and acceptability of thigh meat were affecting by administration of HEM in diets (P<0.05). Meat flavor increased in the supplemented groups (P<0.05). According to our data, HEM supplementation decreased the amount of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) in various times of storage and improved the liver lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities at week 6 (P<0.05), but did not influence the catalase activity. Our results reveal that the addition of 7.5 g/kg or higher HEM in diet could be sufficient to increase the antioxidative activity and 2.5 g/kg for meat taste of broilers in maximum levels. PMID:26623342

  16. Hemipelvectomy for Buttock Tumors Utilizing an Anterior Myocutaneous Flap of Quadriceps Femoris Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Sugarbaker, Paul H.; Chretien, Paul A.

    1983-01-01

    Hemipelvectomy utilizing an anterior myocutaneous flap is indicated for aggressive tumors of the buttock and proximal portion of the posterior thigh. A large operative defect created posteriorly by amputation of the lower extremity, hemipelvis, and buttock is covered by a myocutaneous flap of quadriceps femoris muscle and overlying skin and subcutaneous tissue. The superficial femoral artery is preserved to sustain the myocutaneous flap. ImagesFig. 2A,B,C.Fig. 2A,B,C. PMID:6848048

  17. Single muscle fiber adaptations to resistance training in old (>80 yr) men: evidence for limited skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Slivka, Dustin; Raue, Ulrika; Hollon, Chris; Minchev, Kiril; Trappe, Scott

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whole muscle and single muscle fiber adaptations in very old men in response to progressive resistance training (PRT). Six healthy independently living old men (82 +/- 1 yr; range 80-86 yr, 74 +/- 4 kg) resistance-trained the knee extensors (3 sets, 10 repetitions) at approximately 70% one repetition maximum 3 days/wk for 12 wk. Whole thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) was assessed before and after PRT using computed tomography (CT). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and after the PRT program. Isolated myosin heavy chain (MHC) I and IIa single muscle fibers (n = 267; 142 pre; 125 post) were studied for diameter, peak tension, shortening velocity, and power. An additional set of isolated single muscle fibers (n = 2,215; 1,202 pre; 1,013 post) was used to identify MHC distribution. One repetition maximum knee extensor strength increased (P < 0.05) 23 +/- 4 kg (56 +/- 4 to 79 +/- 7 kg; 41%). Muscle CSA increased (P < 0.05) 3 +/- 1 cm2 (120 +/- 7 to 123 +/- 7 cm2; 2.5%). Single muscle fiber contractile function and MHC distribution were unaltered with PRT. These data indicate limited muscle plasticity at the single-muscle fiber level with a resistance-training program among the very old. The minor increases in whole muscle CSA coupled with the static nature of the myocellular profile indicate that the strength gains were primarily neurological. These data contrast typical muscle responses to resistance training in young ( approximately 20 yr) and old ( approximately 70 yr) humans and indicate that the physiological regulation of muscle remodeling is adversely modified in the oldest old.

  18. Injury risk curves for the skeletal knee-thigh-hip complex for knee-impact loading.

    PubMed

    Rupp, Jonathan D; Flannagan, Carol A C; Kuppa, Shashi M

    2010-01-01

    Injury risk curves for the skeletal knee-thigh-hip (KTH) relate peak force applied to the anterior aspect of the flexed knee, the primary source of KTH injury in frontal motor-vehicle crashes, to the probability of skeletal KTH injury. Previous KTH injury risk curves have been developed from analyses of peak knee-impact force data from studies where knees of whole cadavers were impacted. However, these risk curves either neglect the effects of occupant gender, stature, and mass on KTH fracture force, or account for them using scaling factors derived from dimensional analysis without empirical support. A large amount of experimental data on the knee-impact forces associated with KTH fracture are now available, making it possible to estimate the effects of subject characteristics on skeletal KTH injury risk by statistically analyzing empirical data. Eleven studies were identified in the biomechanical literature in which the flexed knees of whole cadavers were impacted. From these, peak knee-impact force data and the associated subject characteristics were reanalyzed using survival analysis with a lognormal distribution. Results of this analysis indicate that the relationship between peak knee-impact force and the probability of KTH fracture is a function of age, total body mass, and whether the surface that loads the knee is rigid. Comparisons between injury risk curves for the midsize adult male and small adult female crash test dummies defined in previous studies and new risk curves for these sizes of occupants developed in this study suggest that previous injury risk curves generally overestimate the likelihood of KTH fracture at a given peak knee-impact force. Future work should focus on defining the relationships between impact force at the human knee and peak axial compressive forces measured by load cells in the crash test dummy KTH complex so that these new risk curves can be used with ATDs.

  19. Giant pseudoaneurysm on left ventricular posterolateral wall with an orifice between papillary muscles.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomohiro; Solowjowa, Natalia; Hetzer, Roland; Knosalla, Christoph

    2014-11-01

    A left ventricular pseudoaneurysm develops when myocardial rupture is contained by the pericardium. Although left ventricular pseudoaneurysm has been a topic of discussion since the pioneering days of open heart surgery, it still remains a technical challenge in reconstructive cardiac surgery. Reoperation following pseudoaneurysm repair is also frequent. We report surgical treatment in two patients with a pseudoaneurysm on the left ventricular posterolateral wall. The pseudoaneurysm and left ventricular cavity communicated at a point just between the anterolateral and posteromedial papillary muscle attachments. Such a manifestation is highly infrequent but potentially lethal. During aneurysmectomy, special attention was paid to avoid the development of mitral regurgitation because the papillary muscle geometry changes after removal of the pseudoaneurysm. In both cases, surgical decision-making was facilitated by preoperative assessment using electrocardiographic-gated multislice computed tomography.

  20. Why adductor magnus muscle is large: the function based on muscle morphology in cadavers.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, M; Suzuki, D; Ito, H; Fujimiya, M; Uchiyama, E

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine anatomical properties of the adductor magnus through a detailed classification, and to hypothesize its function and size to gather enough information about morphology. Ten cadaveric specimens of the adductor magnus were used. The muscle was separated into four portios (AM1-AM4) based on the courses of the corresponding perforating arteries, and its volume, muscle length, muscle fiber length and physiological cross-sectional area were assessed. The architectural characteristics of these four portions of the adductor magnus were then classified with the aid of principal component analysis. The results led us into demarcating the most proximal part of the adductor magnus (AM1) from the remaining parts (AM2, AM3, and AM4). Classification of the adductor magnus in terms of architectural characteristics differed from the more traditional anatomical distinction. The AM2, AM3, and AM4, having longer muscle fiber lengths than the AM1, appear to be designed as displacers for moving the thigh through a large range of motion. The AM1 appears instead to be oriented principally toward stabilizing the hip joint. The large mass of the adductor magnus should thus be regarded as a complex of functionally differentiable muscle portions.

  1. Bioluminescence and 19F magnetic resonance imaging visualize the efficacy of lysostaphin alone and in combination with oxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus in murine thigh and catheter-associated infection models.

    PubMed

    Hertlein, Tobias; Sturm, Volker; Lorenz, Udo; Sumathy, K; Jakob, Peter; Ohlsen, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococci are the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide. Increasingly, they resist antibiotic treatment owing to the development of multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms in most strains. Therefore, the activity and efficacy of recombinant lysostaphin as a drug against this pathogen have been evaluated. Lysostaphin exerts high levels of activity against antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The therapeutic value of lysostaphin has been analyzed in two different clinically relevant in vivo models, a catheter-associated infection model and a thigh infection model. We infected mice with luciferase-expressing S. aureus Xen 29, and the efficacies of lysostaphin, vancomycin, oxacillin, and combined lysostaphin-oxacillin were investigated by determining numbers of CFU, detecting bioluminescent signals, and measuring the accumulation of perfluorocarbon emulsion at the site of infection by (19)F magnetic resonance imaging. Lysostaphin treatment significantly reduced the bacterial burden in infected thigh muscles and, after systemic spreading from the catheter, in inner organs. The efficiency of lysostaphin treatment was even more pronounced in combinatorial therapy with oxacillin. These results suggest that recombinant lysostaphin may have potential as an anti-S. aureus drug worthy of further clinical development. In addition, both imaging technologies demonstrated efficacy patterns similar to that of CFU determination, although they proved to be less sensitive. Nonetheless, they served as powerful tools to provide additional information about the course and gravity of infection in a noninvasive manner, possibly allowing a reduction in the number of animals needed for research evaluation of new antibiotics in future studies.

  2. Bioluminescence and 19F Magnetic Resonance Imaging Visualize the Efficacy of Lysostaphin Alone and in Combination with Oxacillin against Staphylococcus aureus in Murine Thigh and Catheter-Associated Infection Models

    PubMed Central

    Hertlein, Tobias; Sturm, Volker; Lorenz, Udo; Sumathy, K.; Jakob, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococci are the leading cause of hospital-acquired infections worldwide. Increasingly, they resist antibiotic treatment owing to the development of multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms in most strains. Therefore, the activity and efficacy of recombinant lysostaphin as a drug against this pathogen have been evaluated. Lysostaphin exerts high levels of activity against antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The therapeutic value of lysostaphin has been analyzed in two different clinically relevant in vivo models, a catheter-associated infection model and a thigh infection model. We infected mice with luciferase-expressing S. aureus Xen 29, and the efficacies of lysostaphin, vancomycin, oxacillin, and combined lysostaphin-oxacillin were investigated by determining numbers of CFU, detecting bioluminescent signals, and measuring the accumulation of perfluorocarbon emulsion at the site of infection by 19F magnetic resonance imaging. Lysostaphin treatment significantly reduced the bacterial burden in infected thigh muscles and, after systemic spreading from the catheter, in inner organs. The efficiency of lysostaphin treatment was even more pronounced in combinatorial therapy with oxacillin. These results suggest that recombinant lysostaphin may have potential as an anti-S. aureus drug worthy of further clinical development. In addition, both imaging technologies demonstrated efficacy patterns similar to that of CFU determination, although they proved to be less sensitive. Nonetheless, they served as powerful tools to provide additional information about the course and gravity of infection in a noninvasive manner, possibly allowing a reduction in the number of animals needed for research evaluation of new antibiotics in future studies. PMID:24366730

  3. Increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in both leg and arm muscles after sprint interval and moderate intensity training in subjects with Type 2 Diabetes or Prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Sjöros, Tanja J; Heiskanen, Marja A; Motiani, Kumail K; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Savisto, Nina J; Solin, Olof; Hannukainen, Jarna C; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2017-03-13

    We investigated the effects of sprint interval (SIT) and moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on glucose uptake (GU) during hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp and fatty acid uptake (FAU) at fasting state in thigh and arm muscles in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D) or prediabetes. Twenty-six patients (age 49, SD 4; 10 women) were randomly assigned into two groups: SIT (n=13), and MICT (n=13). The exercise in the SIT group consisted of 4-6 x 30 s of all-out cycling with 4 min recovery and in the MICT group 40-60 min cycling at 60% of VO2peak . Both groups completed six training sessions within two weeks. GU and FAU were measured before and after the intervention with positron emission tomography in thigh (quadriceps femoris, QF; and hamstrings) and upper arm (biceps and triceps brachii) muscles. Whole-body insulin-stimulated GU increased significantly by 25% in both groups and this was accompanied with significantly increased insulin-stimulated GU in all thigh and upper arm muscles and significantly increased FAU in QF. Within QF, insulin-stimulated GU improved more by SIT than MICT in rectus femoris (p=0.01), but not differently between the training modes in the other QF muscles. In individuals with T2D or prediabetes, both SIT and MICT training rapidly improve insulin-stimulated GU in whole body and in the thigh and arm muscles as well as FAU in the main working muscle QF. These findings highlight the underused potential of exercise in rapidly restoring the impaired skeletal muscle metabolism in subjects with impaired glucose metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of thigh and shank segment angular velocity during jump landing tasks commonly used to evaluate risk for ACL injury.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Ariel V; Favre, Julien; Andriacchi, Thomas P

    2012-09-01

    The dynamic movements associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury during jump landing suggest that limb segment angular velocity can provide important information for understanding the conditions that lead to an injury. Angular velocity measures could provide a quick and simple method of assessing injury risk without the constraints of a laboratory. The objective of this study was to assess the inter-subject variations and the sensitivity of the thigh and shank segment angular velocity in order to determine if these measures could be used to characterize jump landing mechanisms. Additionally, this study tested the correlation between angular velocity and the knee abduction moment. Thirty-six healthy participants (18 male) performed drop jumps with bilateral and unilateral landing. Thigh and shank angular velocities were measured by a wearable inertial-based system, and external knee moments were measured using a marker-based system. Discrete parameters were extracted from the data and compared between systems. For both jumping tasks, the angular velocity curves were well defined movement patterns with high inter-subject similarity in the sagittal plane and moderate to good similarity in the coronal and transverse planes. The angular velocity parameters were also able to detect differences between the two jumping tasks that were consistent across subjects. Furthermore, the coronal angular velocities were significantly correlated with the knee abduction moment (R of 0.28-0.51), which is a strong indicator of ACL injury risk. This study suggested that the thigh and shank angular velocities, which describe the angular dynamics of the movement, should be considered in future studies about ACL injury mechanisms.

  5. Thigh length versus knee length antiembolism stockings for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis in postoperative surgical patients; a systematic review and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Ros; Paton, Fiona; Rice, Stephen; Stansby, Gerard; Millner, Peter; Flavell, Hayley; Fox, Dave; Woolacott, Nerys

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess the clinical effectiveness of thigh length versus knee length antiembolism stockings for the prevention of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in surgical patients. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis using direct methods and network meta-analysis. Methods Previous systematic reviews and electronic databases were searched to February 2014 for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of thigh length or knee length antiembolism stockings in surgical patients. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool. The primary outcome was incidence of DVT. Analysis of the DVT data was performed using ORs along with 95% CIs. The I2 statistic was used to quantify statistical heterogeneity. Results 23 RCTs were included; there was substantial variation between the trials and many were poorly reported with an unclear risk of bias. Five RCTs directly comparing thigh length versus knee length stockings were pooled and the summary estimate of effect favouring thigh length stockings was not statistically significant (OR 1.48, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.73). 13 RCTs were included in the network meta-analysis; thigh length stockings with pharmacological prophylaxis were more effective than knee length stockings with pharmacological prophylaxis, but again results were not statistically significant (OR 1.76, 95% credible intervals 0.82 to 3.53). Conclusions Thigh length stockings may be more effective than knee length stockings, but results did not reach statistical significance and the evidence base is weak. Further research to confirm this finding is unlikely to be worthwhile. While thigh length stockings appear to have superior efficacy, practical issues such as patient acceptability may prevent their wide use in clinical practice. Systematic review registration number CRD42014007202. PMID:26883236

  6. Giant malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of thigh in an adolescent with neurofibromatosis type 1: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Tosun, Hacı Bayram; Serbest, Sancar; Turk, Bilge Aydın; Gumustas, Seyit Ali; Uludag, Abuzer

    2015-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are rare sarcomas of children and adolescents, and they are aggressive tumors with a high rate of local recurrence. We present a 15-year-old boy with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), who had a giant MPNST on the right thigh taking into account the available literature. Diagnosis of MPNST may be delayed in NF1 patients due to confusion with a neurofibroma and/or a plexiform neurofibroma. Malignancy should be considered, especially in cases with big masses, with heterogeneous involvement, or in the presence of cysts or necrotic nodules. The aim of surgical treatment is complete surgical excision. PMID:26604833

  7. Characterizing in vivo pharmacodynamics of carbapenems against Acinetobacter baumannii in a murine thigh infection model to support breakpoint determinations.

    PubMed

    Macvane, Shawn H; Crandon, Jared L; Nicolau, David P

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacodynamic profiling data of carbapenems for Acinetobacter spp. are sparse. This study aimed to determine the pharmacodynamic targets of carbapenems for Acinetobacter baumannii based on a range of percentages of the dosing interval in which free drug concentrations remained above the MIC (fT>MIC) in the neutropenic murine thigh infection model. fT>MIC values of 23.7%, 32.8%, and 47.5% resulted in stasis, 1-log reductions, and 2-log reductions in bacterial density after 24 h, respectively. The pharmacodynamic targets of carbapenems for A. baumannii demonstrated in vivo are similar to those of other Gram-negative bacteria.

  8. Muscle activity and inactivity periods during normal daily life.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Olli; Haakana, Piia; Pesola, Arto J; Häkkinen, Keijo; Rantalainen, Timo; Havu, Marko; Pullinen, Teemu; Finni, Taija

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that not only the lack of physical activity, but also prolonged times of sedentary behaviour where major locomotor muscles are inactive, significantly increase the risk of chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to provide details of quadriceps and hamstring muscle inactivity and activity during normal daily life of ordinary people. Eighty-four volunteers (44 females, 40 males, 44.1±17.3 years, 172.3±6.1 cm, 70.1±10.2 kg) were measured during normal daily life using shorts measuring muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity (recording time 11.3±2.0 hours). EMG was normalized to isometric MVC (EMG(MVC)) during knee flexion and extension, and inactivity threshold of each muscle group was defined as 90% of EMG activity during standing (2.5±1.7% of EMG(MVC)). During normal daily life the average EMG amplitude was 4.0±2.6% and average activity burst amplitude was 5.8±3.4% of EMG(MVC) (mean duration of 1.4±1.4 s) which is below the EMG level required for walking (5 km/h corresponding to EMG level of about 10% of EMG(MVC)). Using the proposed individual inactivity threshold, thigh muscles were inactive 67.5±11.9% of the total recording time and the longest inactivity periods lasted for 13.9±7.3 min (2.5-38.3 min). Women had more activity bursts and spent more time at intensities above 40% EMG(MVC) than men (p<0.05). In conclusion, during normal daily life the locomotor muscles are inactive about 7.5 hours, and only a small fraction of muscle's maximal voluntary activation capacity is used averaging only 4% of the maximal recruitment of the thigh muscles. Some daily non-exercise activities such as stair climbing produce much higher muscle activity levels than brisk walking, and replacing sitting by standing can considerably increase cumulative daily muscle activity.

  9. Measurement of the quadriceps femoris muscle using magnetic resonance and ultrasound imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Walton, J M; Roberts, N; Whitehouse, G H

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To define a method for measurement of the cross sectional area and volume of the quadriceps femoris muscle using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in conjunction with stereology, and to compare the results of measurements obtained by the MRI method with those obtained by the conventional method of static B-mode ultrasound in order to evaluate whether MRI is a reliable alternative to ultrasound. METHODS: A preliminary MRI study was undertaken on a single female volunteer in order to optimise the scanning technique and sampling design for estimating the muscle volume using the Cavalieri method. Ten healthy volunteers participated in the method comparison study. Each volunteer underwent static B-mode ultrasonography, immediately followed by MRI. The cross sectional area of the quadriceps femoris was estimated at the junction of the proximal one third and distal two thirds of the thigh, and seven systematic sections of the thigh were obtained in order to estimate muscle volume by both modalities. RESULTS: Seven sections through the muscle are required to achieve a coefficient of error of 4-5%. There was no significant difference in the cross sectional area estimates or volume estimates when ultrasound and MRI were compared. CONCLUSION: Muscle cross sectional area and volume can be measured without bias by MRI in conjunction with stereological methods and the method is a reliable alternative to static B-mode ultrasound for this purpose. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9132215

  10. Thigh-length versus below-knee compression elastic stockings for prevention of the postthrombotic syndrome in patients with proximal-venous thrombosis: a randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Prandoni, Paolo; Noventa, Franco; Quintavalla, Roberto; Bova, Carlo; Cosmi, Benilde; Siragusa, Sergio; Bucherini, Eugenio; Astorri, Francesco; Cuppini, Stefano; Dalla Valle, Fabio; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Prins, Martin H; Villalta, Sabina

    2012-02-09

    Although below-knee compression elastic stockings (CES) are effective for the prevention of the postthrombotic syndrome (PTS), a substantial number of patients with deep venous thrombosis still develop PTS. In the present open-label, randomized clinical trial, we compared thigh-length with below-knee CES for the prevention of PTS. A total of 267 patients with the first episode of proximal deep venous thrombosis were randomized to wear either thigh-length or below-knee CES for 2 years. After 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, they were assessed for PTS manifestations according to the Villalta scale. PTS developed in 44 (32.6%) of the 135 patients randomized to thigh-length CES and in 47 (35.6%) of the 132 allocated to below-knee CES, for an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.62-1.41). Severe PTS developed in 3 patients in each group. CES-related side effects developed in 55 (40.7%) of the 135 patients allocated to thigh-length CES and in 36 (27.3%) of those randomized to the below-knee group (P = .017), and led to premature discontinuation of their use in 29 (21.5%) and 18 (13.6%) patients, respectively. We conclude that thigh-length CES do not offer a better protection against PTS than below-knee CES and are less well tolerated.

  11. Muscle atrophy

    MedlinePlus

    ... damage caused by injury, diabetes, toxins, or alcohol Polio ( poliomyelitis ) Spinal cord injury Although people can adapt to ... Guillain-Barré syndrome Hypotonia Muscle cramps Muscular dystrophy Polio Review Date 1/5/2016 Updated by: Joseph ...

  12. Getting Muscles

    MedlinePlus

    ... muscular as a superhero or your favorite professional athlete? Well, the big muscles you're thinking about ... Superheroes, of course, aren't real, and professional athletes are grownups, whose bodies are different from kids' ...

  13. Muscle twitching

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient with neurologic disease. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Selcen D. Muscle diseases. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  14. Cardiac and Vascular Responses to Thigh Cuffs and Respiratory Maneuvers on Crewmembers of the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Garcia, Kathleen; Ebert, Douglas; Whitson, Peggy A.; Feiveson, Alan; Alferova, Irina V.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Matveev, Vladimir P.; Bogomolov, Valery V.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    The transition to microgravity eliminates the hydrostatic gradients in the vascular system. The resulting fluid redistribution commonly manifests as facial edema, engorgement of the external neck veins, and a decrease in leg diameter. This experiment examined the responses to modified Valsalva and Mueller maneuvers measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound (ECHO) in a baseline steady state and during preload reduction introduced with thigh occlusion cuffs used as a counter-measure device (Braslet cuffs) measured by cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations. Methods: Nine International Space Station crewmember subjects (Expeditions 16 - 20) were examined in 15 experiment sessions 101 +/- 46.days after launch (mean +/- SD; 33 - 185). Twenty Seven cardiac and vascular parameters were obtained with/without respiratory maneuvers before and after tightening of the Braslet cuffs. Results: Non-physicians performed diagnostic-quality cardiac and vascular ultrasound examinations using remote guidance. Three of 27 combinations of maneuvers and Braslet or Braslet alone were identified as being significant changed when compared to baseline. Eleven of 81 differences between combinations of Mueller, Valsalva or baseline were significant and related to cardiac preload reduction or increase in lower extremity venous volume. Conclusions: Acute application of Braslet occlusion cuffs causes lower extremity fluid sequestration and exerts commensurate measurable effects on cardiac performance in microgravity. Ultrasound techniques to measure the hemodynamic effects of thigh cuffs in combination with respiratory maneuvers may serve as an invaluable tool in determining the volume status of the cardiac patient at the 'microgravity bedside'.

  15. Giacomini vein: thigh extension of the small saphenous vein - report of two cases and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Natsis, K; Paraskevas, G; Lazaridis, N; Sofidis, G; Piagkou, M

    2015-01-01

    Background Varicose vein surgery is very commonly performed. Also, it is very frequently employed for recurrent disease. The recognition of the normal or variant veins, inducing incompetency, is a prerequisite for effective treatment. The thigh extension of the small saphenous vein, the so-called Giacomini vein, was extensively described in 1873 by Carlo Giacomini in an incidence of 72%. However, such a vein is usually underestimated in classic surgical textbooks. Description of cases We present two cases of Giacomini vein found in two cadavers, dissected for academic purposes in the Department of Anatomy, where the small saphenous vein displayed a thigh extension without terminating into the popliteal vein. In one case Giacomini vein drained into the large saphenous vein, while in the other case the vein divided into two branches, separately draining into the large saphenous vein and the subcutaneous tissue of the gluteal region. Conclusion Due to the fact that Giacomini vein could be incompetent, associated with or without varicose saphenous vein trunks, the vascular surgeon should keep in mind that anatomical entity, to include it in preoperative ultrasound scanning control. Moreover, this vein could be utilized as an autologous graft, when the large saphenous is not available. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (3): 263-265. PMID:27418788

  16. [Primary thinning and de-epithelialization of microsurgical transplants from the lateral thigh].

    PubMed

    Wolff, K D; Plath, T; Frege, J; Hoffmeister, B

    2000-03-01

    To expand the indicational spectrum of the myocutaneous vastus lateralis flap, which is often too voluminous for intraoral application, we performed extreme, primary thinning of the fat and muscle component of this microsurgical transplant in 14 patients. After subfascial localization of the 0.5- to 1.0-mm-thick perforating vessel, it is exposed through the fascia and muscles up to its exit from the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery. After isolating the perforating vessel, it is no longer necessary to include parts of the vastus lateralis muscle in the flap. The fatty tissue of the remaining epifascial fat component is completely removed except for a ca. 1- to 2-cm-wide cuff of fatty tissue and fascia around the perforating vessel. When performing this primary radical removal of the subcutaneous fatty tissue, care should be taken not to injure the deep subdermal vascular plexus. In addition to the thinning procedure, de-epithelialization of the skin was performed using scalpel blade dissection (five patients) or carbon dioxide laser (6 W, five patients). This thinning technique was used for covering ten intraoral and four extraoral defects and enabled the raising of skin flaps with a thickness of 3-5 mm even in obese patients. The vessel pedicle length of thinned flaps was between 12 and 16 cm; flap size varied between 4 x 5 and 9 x 15 cm, and the donor sites were directly closed. In one case, there was a partial necrosis (20%), but the remaining flaps healed without complications. On the intraoral flaps, a thin, smooth and pliable surface developed after re-epithelialization within 3-6 weeks. The described method expands the application possibilities of the myocutaneous vastus lateralis flap for a large number of intraoral and flat defects with minimal donor-site morbidity.

  17. [Arterial vascularization of the triceps sural muscle].

    PubMed

    Mairesse, J L; Mestdagh, H; Procyk, S; Depreux, R

    1984-01-01

    The triceps surae muscle, the dorsal and medial leg skin constitute a very important reserve of muscular and myocutaneous flaps. The material on which the study was carried out consisted of 20 legs from standard cadavers. The superficialis femoral artery was injected with terebenthene and minimum mixture. The medial head of gastrocnemius is 23.3 em long, 6.9 cm wide, 1.25 mm thick at distal third. Its dominant blood supply is carried by the medialis gastrocnemius artery. It rises from popliteal artery 1.2 cm above the femoral tibial articulation with 1.9 mm diameter. It runs 3 cm down before entering muscle where it provides 2 or 3 mean branches. These branches give musculocutaneous arteries to the skin of the dorsal leg. The same study was performed for the lateral head of gastrocnemius and soleus. We studied also arteries of dorsomedial leg skin. The characteristics of long saphenous and short saphenous arteries were described. These muscles and dorsomedial leg skin can be used as muscular or myocutaneous flap for covering defects between the lower leg and the lower thigh.

  18. Partial neuromuscular blockade in humans enhances muscle blood flow during exercise independently of muscle oxygen uptake and acetylcholine receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Hellsten, Ylva; Krustrup, Peter; Iaia, F Marcello; Secher, Niels H; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the role of acetylcholine for skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise by use of the competitive neuromuscular blocking agent cisatracurium in combination with the acetylcholine receptor blocker glycopyrrone. Nine healthy male subjects performed a 10-min bout of one-legged knee-extensor exercise (18 W) during control conditions and with cisatracurium blockade, as well as with cisatracurium blockade with prior glycopyrrone infusion. Thigh blood flow and vascular conductance in control and with cisatracurium infusion were similar at rest and during passive movement of the leg, but higher (P < 0.05) during exercise with cisatracurium than in control (3.83 +/- 0.42 vs. 2.78 +/- 0.21 l/min and 26.9 +/- 3.4 vs. 21.8 +/- 2.0 ml.min(-1).mmHg(-1) at the end of exercise). Thigh oxygen uptake was similar in control and with cisatracurium infusion both at rest and during exercise, being 354 +/- 33 and 406 +/- 34 ml/min, at the end of exercise. Combined infusion of cisatracurium and glycopyrrone caused a similar increase in blood flow as cisatracurium infusion alone. The current results demonstrate that neuromuscular blockade leads to enhanced thigh blood flow and vascular conductance during exercise, events that are not associated with either acetylcholine or an increased oxygen demand. The results do not support an essential role for acetylcholine, released form the neuromuscular junction, in exercise hyperemia or for the enhanced blood flow during neuromuscular blockade. The enhanced exercise hyperemia during partial neuromuscular blockade may be related to a greater recruitment of fast-twitch muscle fibers.

  19. Myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression is affected by exercise in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huadong; Li, Diyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Yiping; Yang, Zhiqin; Zhu, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 proteins belong to the family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) and play important roles in skeletal muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We hypothesized that exercise would affect MRF mRNA and protein abundance in postnatal chicken skeletal muscle driving molecular changes that could ultimately lead to increased muscle fiber diameter. At day (d) 43, twelve hundred chickens with similar body weight were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range groups. The MRF mRNA abundance was measured in the pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d56, d70, and d84, and the protein levels of MRFs were determined from the thigh muscle at d84. The results showed no significant difference in mRNA of the MRFs among the three groups at d56 (P>0.05). At d84, chicken in the pen and free-range group showed higher MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 mRNA abundance compared to the caged chickens (P<0.05). Free-range chickens had higher Mrf4 and MyoG expression than those in penned ones (P<0.05). Protein abundances of all four factors were lowest in the caged group, and Mrf4 and MyoG protein quantities were greatest in free-range chickens (P<0.05), but Myf5 and MyoD1 protein abundance did not differ between penned and caged groups. The results suggested that exercise up-regulated MRF expression in the postnatal skeletal muscles, which led to an increase in muscle fiber diameter, and eventually affected the meat quality of the skeletal muscles in adult chickens.

  20. Anterolateral Ligament Expert Group consensus paper on the management of internal rotation and instability of the anterior cruciate ligament - deficient knee.

    PubMed

    Sonnery-Cottet, Bertrand; Daggett, Matthew; Fayard, Jean-Marie; Ferretti, Andrea; Helito, Camilo Partezani; Lind, Martin; Monaco, Edoardo; de Pádua, Vitor Barion Castro; Thaunat, Mathieu; Wilson, Adrian; Zaffagnini, Stefano; Zijl, Jacco; Claes, Steven

    2017-02-20

    Purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the latest research on the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and present the consensus of the ALL Expert Group on the anatomy, radiographic landmarks, biomechanics, clinical and radiographic diagnosis, lesion classification, surgical technique and clinical outcomes. A consensus on controversial subjects surrounding the ALL and anterolateral knee instability has been established based on the opinion of experts, the latest publications on the subject and an exchange of experiences during the ALL Experts Meeting (November 2015, Lyon, France). The ALL is found deep to the iliotibial band. The femoral origin is just posterior and proximal to the lateral epicondyle; the tibial attachment is 21.6 mm posterior to Gerdy's tubercle and 4-10 mm below the tibial joint line. On a lateral radiographic view the femoral origin is located in the postero-inferior quadrant and the tibial attachment is close to the centre of the proximal tibial plateau. Favourable isometry of an ALL reconstruction is seen when the femoral position is proximal and posterior to the lateral epicondyle, with the ALL being tight upon extension and lax upon flexion. The ALL can be visualised on ultrasound, or on T2-weighted coronal MRI scans with proton density fat-suppressed evaluation. The ALL injury is associated with a Segond fracture, and often occurs in conjunction with acute anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. Recognition and repair of the ALL lesions should be considered to improve the control of rotational stability provided by ACL reconstruction. For high-risk patients, a combined ACL and ALL reconstruction improves rotational control and reduces the rate of re-rupture, without increased postoperative complication rates compared to ACL-only reconstruction. In conclusion this paper provides a contemporary consensus on all studied features of the ALL. The findings warrant future research in order to further test these early observations, with the

  1. Fetal muscle gene therapy/gene delivery in large animals.

    PubMed

    Abi-Nader, Khalil N; David, Anna L

    2011-01-01

    Gene delivery to the fetal muscles is a potential strategy for the early treatment of muscular dystrophies. In utero muscle gene therapy can also be used to treat other genetic disorders such as hemophilia, where the missing clotting proteins may be secreted from the treated muscle. In the past few years, studies in small animal models have raised the hopes that a phenotypic cure can be obtained after fetal application of gene therapy. Studies of efficacy and safety in large animals are, however, essential before clinical application can be considered in the human fetus. For this reason, the development of clinically applicable strategies for the delivery of gene therapy to the fetal muscles is of prime importance. In this chapter, we describe the protocols for in utero ultrasound-guided gene delivery to the ovine fetal muscle in early gestation. In particular, procedures to inject skeletal muscle groups such as the thigh and thoracic musculature and targeting the diaphragm in the fetus are described in detail.

  2. Responsiveness of muscle size and strength to physical training in very elderly people: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stewart, V H; Saunders, D H; Greig, C A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review was to determine whether very elderly muscle (>75 years) hypertrophies in response to physical training. The databases MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL Plus and SPORTDiscus were systematically literature searched with reference lists of all included studies and relevant reviews. Controlled trials (inactive elderly control group) involving healthy elderly participants over 75 years participating in an intervention complying with an established definition of physical training were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed using the PEDro scale. Data analysis was performed on muscle size and strength using RevMan (software version 5.1). Four studies were included of which four of four measured changes in gross muscle size. Training induced increases in muscle size from 1.5%-15.6% were reported in three of four studies, and one of four studies reported a decrease in muscle size (3%). The greatest gain in muscle mass was observed in a study of whole body vibration training. Meta-analysis of three studies found an increase of thigh muscle cross-sectional area (mean difference 2.31 cm(2) or 0.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.62 to 4.00; P = 0.008) and muscle strength (standardized mean difference 1.04, 95% CI: 0.65 to 1.43; P < 0.001). Physical training when delivered as resistance training has the ability to elicit hypertrophy and increase muscle strength in very elderly muscle.

  3. Long-term measurement of muscle function in the dog hindlimb using a new apparatus.

    PubMed

    Hargens, A R; Mortensen, W W; Gershuni, D H; Crenshaw, A G; Lieber, R L; Akeson, W H

    1984-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an apparatus for reliable, reproducible, and minimally invasive measurements of long-term, myoneural function. Twenty conditioned dogs were anesthetized and placed supine with one hindlimb secured in a boot apparatus. The hindpaw was attached to a force transducer that was connected to a recorder for continuous monitoring of torque. Muscles within the anterolateral compartment were stimulated by percutaneous electrodes over the peroneal nerve near the fibular head. This elicited isometric dorsiflexion of the hindpaw. Twitch and tetanic torques correlated positively with dog weight whereas other skeletal-muscle function parameters (time to peak tension, one-half relaxation time, and endurance) were independent of dog weight. Muscle function results were consistent with an overall compartmental composition of 30% Type I and 70% Type II fibers. Repetitive testing of twitch and tetanic torques in the dog legs yielded coefficients of variance of 3-4% (intraday) and 7% (interday). Thus, about one-half of the interday variability may be accounted for by diet, exercise, and other physiological conditions that change daily. The apparatus was also used to detect myoneural degeneration following tourniquet ischemia. The results indicate that this procedure for evaluating muscle function yields reliable and quantitative results noninvasively, and thus allows long-term testing of muscle function in normal and diseased hindlimbs of dogs.

  4. Obturator internus muscle abscess in children: report of seven cases and review.

    PubMed

    Viani, R M; Bromberg, K; Bradley, J S

    1999-01-01

    Obturator internus muscle (OIM) abscess is an uncommon entity often mistaken for septic arthritis of the hip. We describe seven children with OIM abscess and review seven previously reported cases. The most common presenting symptoms were hip or thigh pain (14 patients), fever (13), and limp (13). The hip was flexed, abducted, and externally rotated in 11 patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography (CT) were diagnostic for OIM abscess in the 14 patients. Associated abscesses were located in the obturator externus muscle (5 patients), psoas muscle (2), and iliac muscle (1). The etiologic agents were Staphylococcus aureus (8 patients), Streptococcus pyogenes (2), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (2), and Enterococcus faecalis (1). Three patients underwent CT-guided percutaneous drainage, and three had surgical drainage. Three patients had ischial osteomyelitis in addition to OIM abscess. The 11 children with uncomplicated OIM abscess were treated for a median of 28 days. All patients had an uneventful recovery.

  5. Differential effect of denervation on free radical scavenging enzymes in slow and fast muscle of rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asayama, K.; Dettbarn, W. D.; Burr, I. M.

    1985-01-01

    To determine the effect of denervation on the free radical scavenging systems in relation to the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the slow twitch soleus and fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles, the sciatic nerve of the rat was crushed in the mid-thigh region and the muscle tissue levels of 5 enzymes were studied 2 and 5 weeks following crush. Radioimmunoassays were utilized for the selective measurement of cuprozinc (cytosolic) and mangano (mitochondrial) superoxide dismutases. These data represent the first systematic report of free radical scavening systems in slow and fast muscles in response to denervation. Selective modification of cuprozinc and manganosuperoxide dismutases and differential regulation of GSH-peroxidase was demonstrated in slow and fast muscle.

  6. Leg and trunk muscle coordination and postural sway during increasingly difficult standing balance tasks in young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Donath, Lars; Kurz, Eduard; Roth, Ralf; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Ageing impairs body balance and increases older adults' fall risk. Balance training can improve intrinsic fall risk factors. However, age comparisons of muscle activity responses during balance tasks are lacking. This study investigated relative muscle activity, muscle coordination and postural sway during various recommended static balance training tasks. Muscle activity (%MVC), amplitude ratios (AR) and co-activity (CAI) were determined during standing tasks for 30s (1: double limb stance on a foam surface, eyes open; 2: double limb stance on firm ground, eyes closed; 3: double limb stance, feet in step position on a foam surface, eyes open; 4: double limb stance, feet in step position on firm ground, eyes closed; 5: single limb stance on firm ground, eyes open) in 20 healthy young adults (24±2 y) and 20 older adults (73±6 y). Surface electromyography (SEMG) was applied (SENIAM guidelines) to ankle (tibialis anterior, soleus, medial gastrocnemius, peroneus longus) and thigh (vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, semitendinosus) muscles (non-dominant leg). Electrodes over trunk (multifidus and internal oblique) muscles were applied bilaterally. Two- to six-fold higher levels of relative muscle activity were found in older adults for ankle (0.0002thigh (0.0008muscles. Co-activation was elevated in young adults for the trunk (0.001muscle coordination patterns during all stance conditions at the ankle (0.06<ηp(2)<0.28) and the trunk (0.14<ηp(2)<0.23). Older adults had higher electrophysiological costs for all stance conditions. Muscle coordination showed inverse activity patterns at the ankle and trunk. Optimal balance and strength training programs should take into account age-specific alterations in muscle activity.

  7. Differential Glucose Uptake in Quadriceps and Other Leg Muscles During One-Legged Dynamic Submaximal Knee-Extension Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Boushel, Robert; Langberg, Henning; Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Ryberg, Ann Kathrine; Døssing, Simon; Kjær, Andreas; Kjær, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One-legged dynamic knee-extension exercise (DKE) is a widely used model to study the local cardiovascular and metabolic responses to exercise of the quadriceps muscles. In this study, we explored the extent to which different muscles of the quadriceps are activated during exercise using positron emission tomography (PET) determined uptake of [18F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (GU) during DKE. Five healthy male subjects performed DKE at 25 W for 35 min and both the contracting and contralateral resting leg were scanned with PET from mid-thigh and distally. On average, exercise GU was the highest in the vastus intermedius (VI) and lowest in the vastus lateralis (VL; VI vs VL, p < 0.05), whereas the coefficient of variation was highest in VL (VL vs VI, p < 0.05). Coefficient of variation between the mean values of the four quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles in the exercising leg was 35 ± 9%. Compared to mean GU in QF (=100%), GU was on average 73% in VL, 84% in rectus femoris, 115% in vastus medialis, and 142% in VI. Variable activation of hamstring muscles and muscles of the lower leg was also observed. These results show that GU of different muscles of quadriceps muscle group as well as between individuals vary greatly during DKE, and suggests that muscle activity is not equal between quadriceps muscles in this exercise model. Furthermore, posterior thigh muscles and lower leg muscles are more active than hitherto thought even during this moderate exercise intensity. PMID:22046164

  8. Carbon fibre reinforced plastic knee-ankle-foot orthosis with a partially flexible thigh cuff: a modification for comfort while sitting on a toilet seat.

    PubMed

    Hachisuka, K; Arai, K; Arai, M

    2007-06-01

    At the request of a polio survivor, a partially flexible thigh cuff made of leather and canvas for a carbon KAFO was devised to allow the wearer to feel more comfortable while sitting on a toilet seat. The original, acrylic resin, thigh cuff was partially excised to make an opening (15x10 cm), which was stuffed with rubber sponge, and was sealed with leather and canvas. The opening's surround was vertically and horizontally reinforced with carbon fibres. This modification provided relief to the polio survivor from the discomfort previously experienced while sitting on a toilet seat, and satisfied her needs in daily life.

  9. Atlas of the muscle motor points for the lower limb: implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning.

    PubMed

    Botter, Alberto; Oprandi, Gianmosè; Lanfranco, Fabio; Allasia, Stefano; Maffiuletti, Nicola A; Minetto, Marco Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the uniformity of the muscle motor point location for lower limb muscles in healthy subjects. Fifty-three subjects of both genders (age range: 18-50 years) were recruited. The muscle motor points were identified for the following ten muscles of the lower limb (dominant side): vastus medialis, rectus femoris, and vastus lateralis of the quadriceps femoris, biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus of the hamstring muscles, tibialis anterior, peroneus longus, lateral and medial gastrocnemius. The muscle motor point was identified by scanning the skin surface with a stimulation pen electrode and corresponded to the location of the skin area above the muscle in which an electrical pulse evoked a muscle twitch with the least injected current. For each investigated muscle, 0.15 ms square pulses were delivered through the pen electrode at low current amplitude (<10 mA) and frequency (2 Hz). 16 motor points were identified in the 10 investigated muscles of almost all subjects: 3 motor points for the vastus lateralis, 2 motor points for rectus femoris, vastus medialis, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior, 1 motor point for the remaining muscles. An important inter-individual variability was observed for the position of the following 4 out of 16 motor points: vastus lateralis (proximal), biceps femoris (short head), semimembranosus, and medial gastrocnemius. Possible implications for electrical stimulation procedures and electrode positioning different from those commonly applied for thigh and leg muscles are discussed.

  10. Squeezing the Muscle: Compression Clothing and Muscle Metabolism during Recovery from High Intensity Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sperlich, Billy; Born, Dennis-Peter; Kaskinoro, Kimmo; Kalliokoski, Kari K.; Laaksonen, Marko S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to investigate skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose uptake in m. biceps (BF) and m. quadriceps femoris (QF) 1) during recovery from high intensity cycle exercise, and 2) while wearing a compression short applying ∼37 mmHg to the thigh muscles. Blood flow and glucose uptake were measured in the compressed and non-compressed leg of 6 healthy men by using positron emission tomography. At baseline blood flow in QF (P = 0.79) and BF (P = 0.90) did not differ between the compressed and the non-compressed leg. During recovery muscle blood flow was higher compared to baseline in both compressed (P<0.01) and non-compressed QF (P<0.001) but not in compressed (P = 0.41) and non-compressed BF (P = 0.05; effect size = 2.74). During recovery blood flow was lower in compressed QF (P<0.01) but not in BF (P = 0.26) compared to the non-compressed muscles. During baseline and recovery no differences in blood flow were detected between the superficial and deep parts of QF in both, compressed (baseline P = 0.79; recovery P = 0.68) and non-compressed leg (baseline P = 0.64; recovery P = 0.06). During recovery glucose uptake was higher in QF compared to BF in both conditions (P<0.01) with no difference between the compressed and non-compressed thigh. Glucose uptake was higher in the deep compared to the superficial parts of QF (compression leg P = 0.02). These results demonstrate that wearing compression shorts with ∼37 mmHg of external pressure reduces blood flow both in the deep and superficial regions of muscle tissue during recovery from high intensity exercise but does not affect glucose uptake in BF and QF. PMID:23613756

  11. The role of muscle mass in exercise-induced hyperemia.

    PubMed

    Garten, Ryan S; Groot, H Jonathan; Rossman, Matthew J; Gifford, Jayson R; Richardson, Russell S

    2014-05-01

    Exercise-induced hyperemia is often normalized for muscle mass, and this value is sometimes evaluated at relative exercise intensities to take muscle recruitment into account. Therefore, this study sought to better understand the impact of muscle mass on leg blood flow (LBF) during exercise. LBF was assessed by Doppler ultrasound in 27 young healthy male subjects performing knee-extensor (KE) exercise at three absolute (5, 15, and 25 W) and three relative [20, 40, and 60% of maximum KE (KEmax)] workloads. Thigh muscle mass (5.2-8.1 kg) and LBF were significantly correlated at rest (r = 0.54; P = 0.004). Exercise-induced hyperemia was linearly related to absolute workload, but revealed substantial between-subject variability, documented by the coefficient of variation (5 W: 17%; 15 W: 16%; 25 W: 16%). Quadriceps muscle mass (1.5-2.7 kg) and LBF were not correlated at 5, 15, or 25 W (r = 0.09-0.01; P = 0.7-0.9). Normalizing blood flow for quadriceps muscle mass did not improve the coefficient of variation at each absolute workload (5 W: 21%; 15 W: 21%; 25 W: 22%), while the additional evaluation at relative exercise intensities resulted in even greater variance (20% KEmax: 29%; 40% KEmax: 29%; 60% KEmax: 27%). Similar findings were documented when subjects were parsed into high and low aerobic capacity. Thus, in contrast to rest, blood flow during exercise is unrelated to muscle mass, and simply normalizing for muscle mass or comparing normalized blood flow at a given relative exercise intensity has no effect on the inherent blood flow variability. Therefore, during exercise, muscle mass does not appear to be a determinant of the hyperemic response.

  12. Longitudinal decline of lower extremity muscle power in healthy and mobility-limited older adults: influence of muscle mass, strength, composition, neuromuscular activation and single fiber contractile properties

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Kieran F.; Pasha, Evan; Doros, Gheorghe; Clark, David J.; Patten, Carolynn; Phillips, Edward M.; Frontera, Walter R.; Fielding, Roger A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This longitudinal study examined the major physiological mechanisms that determine the age-related loss of lower extremity muscle power in two distinct groups of older humans. We hypothesized that after ~ 3 years of follow-up, mobility-limited older adults (mean age: 77.2 ± 4, n = 22, 12 females) would have significantly greater reductions in leg extensor muscle power compared to healthy older adults (74.1 ± 4, n = 26, 12 females). Methods Mid-thigh muscle size and composition were assessed using computed tomography. Neuromuscular activation was quantified using surface electromyography and vastus lateralis single muscle fibers were studied to evaluate intrinsic muscle contractile properties. Results At follow-up, the overall magnitude of muscle power loss was similar between groups: mobility-limited: −8.5% vs. healthy older: −8.8%, P > 0.8. Mobility-limited elders had significant reductions in muscle size (−3.8%, P< 0.01) and strength (−5.9%, P< 0.02), however, these parameters were preserved in healthy older (P ≥ 0.7). Neuromuscular activation declined significantly within healthy older but not in mobility-limited participants. Within both groups, the cross sectional areas of type I and type IIA muscle fibers were preserved while substantial increases in single fiber peak force ( > 30%), peak power (> 200%) and unloaded shortening velocity (>50%) were elicited at follow-up. Conclusion Different physiological mechanisms contribute to the loss of lower extremity muscle power in healthy older and mobility-limited older adults. Neuromuscular changes may be the critical early determinant of muscle power deficits with aging. In response to major whole muscle decrements, major compensatory mechanisms occur within the contractile properties of surviving single muscle fibers in an attempt to restore overall muscle power and function with advancing age. PMID:24122149

  13. Do muscle mass, muscle density, strength and physical function similarly influence risk of hospitalization in older adults?

    PubMed Central

    Cawthon, Peggy Mannen; Fox, Kathleen M.; Gandra, Shravanthi. R.; Delmonico, Matthew J.; Chiou, Chiun-Fang; Anthony, Mary S.; Sewall, Ase; Goodpaster, Bret; Satterfield, Suzanne; Cummings, Steven R.; Harris, Tamara B.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between strength, function, lean mass, muscle density and risk of hospitalization. Design Prospective cohort stud Setting Two U.S. clinical centers Participants Adults aged 70 – 80 years (N=3,011) from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Measurements Measures included grip strength; knee extension strength; lean mass; walking speed; chair stand pace. Thigh computed tomography scans assessed muscle area and density (a proxy for muscle fat infiltration). Hospitalizations were confirmed by local review of medical records. Negative binomial regression models estimated incident rate ratios (IRRs) of hospitalization for race/sex specific quartiles of each muscle/function parameter separately. Multivariate models adjusted for age, body mass index, health status and coexisting medical conditions. Results During an average 4.7 years of follow-up, 1,678 (55.7%) participants experienced ≥1 hospitalization. Participants in the lowest quartile of muscle density were more likely to be subsequently hospitalized (multivariate IRR: 1.47, 95% CI: 1.24, 1.73) compared to the highest quartile. Similarly, participants with the weakest grip strength were at increased risk of hospitalization (MIRR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.30, 1.78, Q1 vs. Q4). Comparable results were seen for knee strength, walking pace and chair stands pace. Lean mass and muscle area were not associated with risk of hospitalization. Conclusion Weak strength, poor function and low muscle density, but not muscle size or lean mass, were associated with an increased risk of hospitalization. Interventions to reduce the disease burden associated with sarcopenia should focus on increasing muscle strength and improving physical function rather than simply increasing lean mass. PMID:19682143

  14. Effect of commercial rosemary oleoresin preparations on ground chicken thigh meat quality packaged in a high-oxygen atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Keokamnerd, T; Acton, J C; Han, I Y; Dawson, P L

    2008-01-01

    Four commercial rosemary oleoresin preparations were added to ground chicken thigh meat at the recommended levels of the manufacturer then packaged in 80% O(2)-20% CO(2) modified atmosphere trays. The rosemary preparations differed in oil and water solubility, dispersion properties, or both. Addition of rosemary to ground chicken had an overall positive effect on raw meat appearance during storage and cooked meat flavor. No effect on bacterial growth was observed due to rosemary addition. However, oxidation was slowed in meat with added rosemary as indicated by lower TBA values, lower hexanal concentrations, and sensory scores. Color (redness) was more stable in meat with added rosemary compared with meat without rosemary, as reflected in redness (a*) values, hue angles, and visual scores. Of the 4 rosemary preparations tested, the oil-soluble, most concentrated preparation (HT-O) was most effective in maintaining meat quality compared with the other 3 types tested.

  15. Muscle strain (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle strain is the stretching or tearing of muscle fibers. A muscle strain can be caused by sports, exercise, a ... something that is too heavy. Symptoms of a muscle strain include pain, tightness, swelling, tenderness, and the ...

  16. Differences in Physicochemical and Nutritional Properties of Breast and Thigh Meat from Crossbred Chickens, Commercial Broilers, and Spent Hens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulian; Qiao, Yan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the physicochemical and nutritional properties of breast and thigh meat from commercial Chinese crossbred chickens (817 Crossbred chicken, 817C), imported commercial broilers (Arbor Acres broiler, AAB), and commercial spent hens (Hyline Brown, HLB). The crossbred chickens, commercial broilers and spent hens were slaughtered at their typical market ages of 45 d, 40 d, and 560 d, respectively. The results revealed that several different characteristic features for the three breeds. The meat of the 817C was darker than that of the other two genotypes. The 817C were also characterized by higher protein, lower intramuscular fat, and better texture attributes (cooking loss, pressing loss and Warner-Bratzler shear force [WBSF]) compared with AAB and HLB. The meat of the spent hens (i.e. HLB) was higher in WBSF and total collagen content than meat of the crossbred chickens and imported broilers. Furthermore, correlation analysis and principal component analysis revealed that there was a clear relationship among physicochemical properties of chicken meats. With regard to nutritional properties, it was found that 817C and HLB exhibited higher contents of essential amino acids and essential/non-essential amino acid ratios. In addition, 817C were noted to have highest content of microelements whereas AAB have highest content of potassium. Besides, 817C birds had particularly higher proportions of desirable fatty acids, essential fatty acids, polyunsaturated/saturated and (18:0+18:1)/16:0 ratios. The present study also revealed that there were significant differences on breast meat and thigh meat for the physicochemical and nutritional properties, regardless of chicken breeds. In conclusion, meat of crossbred chickens has some unique features and exhibited more advantages over commercial broilers and spent hens. Therefore, the current investigation would provide valuable information for the chicken meat product processing, and

  17. The Impact of Chocolate Goat's and Cow's Milk on Postresistance Exercise Endocrine Responses and Isometric Mid-Thigh Pull Performance.

    PubMed

    Bellar, David; LeBlanc, Nina R; Murphy, Kellie; Moody, Kaitlyn M; Buquet, Gina

    2016-01-01

    The present investigation examined the effects of chocolate cow's and goat's milk on endocrine responses and isometric mid-thigh pull performance post back squat exercise. Twelve college-aged males volunteered to participate and reported to the lab on four occasions. The first visit included anthropometric measurement, one-repetition back squat (1RM), and familiarization with the isometric mid-thigh pull assessment (IMTP). During the subsequent three visits, five sets of eight repetitions of the back squat exercise at 80% of 1RM were performed. For these trials, the participants performed an IMTP and gave a saliva sample prior to, immediately after, 1 hr and 2 hr post exercise. After exercise, a treatment of low-fat chocolate goat's milk (355 ml, 225 kcal), low-fat chocolate cow's milk (355 ml, 225 kcal), or control (water 355 ml, 0 kcal) was given in a counterbalanced order. Saliva samples were analyzed for testosterone, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Cortisol and DHEA hormone were unaffected by exercise; however, testosterone values did increase significantly post exercise. For IMTP, there was a significant main effect for time (F = 8.41, p = .007) but no treatment or interactions effects. N changes were noted post supplementation for cortisol or DHEA, but testosterone was found to be significantly reduced in both diary treatments compared to control (F = 4.27, p = .022). Based upon these data, it appears that a single treatment of chocolate goat's or cow's milk results in similar endocrine alterations but both fail to enhance postexercise isometric strength following resistance exercise.

  18. Surface Electromyographic Analysis of Core Trunk and Hip Muscles During Selected Rehabilitation Exercises in the Side-Bridge to Neutral Spine Position

    PubMed Central

    Youdas, James W.; Boor, Mallory M.P.; Darfler, Arynn L.; Koenig, Margaret K.; Mills, Katherine M.; Hollman, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Strengthening of core hip, trunk, and abdominal muscles has been utilized with injury prevention and low back pain and has the potential to improve athletic performance. Hypothesis: During a side-bridge, trunk and thigh muscles on the ipsilateral weightbearing side would produce greater activation than their counterparts on the contralateral nonweightbearing side. Study Design: Descriptive laboratory study. Methods: Twelve females and 13 males participated. Electromyography (EMG) signals were gathered for 5 right-sided muscles (rectus abdominis [RA], external oblique [EO], longissimus thoracis [LT], lumbar multifidus [LM], and gluteus medius [GM]) during 3 repetitions of 4 side-bridging exercises (trunk-elevated side support [TESS], foot-elevated side support [FESS], clamshell, and rotational side-bridge [RSB]) performed bilaterally in random order using surface electrodes. EMG signals were normalized to peak activity in maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) trials and expressed as a percentage. Descriptive EMG data were calculated for EMG recruitment (% MVIC) and compared between right side up and right side down conditions and between exercises with 2-way repeated-measures analyses of variance at α = 0.05. Results: RSB created the most muscle activation in 3 of 4 recorded trunk muscles (RA, 43.9% MVIC; EO, 62.8 % MVIC; and LT, 41.3% MVIC). Activation of the GM exceeded 69% MVIC for TESS, FESS, and RSB. With the exception of the RA in RSB and LT in TESS, recruitment within muscles of the ipsilateral weightbearing trunk and thigh (% MVIC) was significantly greater than their counterparts on the nonweightbearing trunk and thigh for all muscles during the side-bridge exercise conditions. Conclusion: Muscle recruitment was greater within muscles of the ipsilateral weightbearing trunk and thigh for all examined muscles except RA during RSB and LT during TESS. Activation at or above 50% MVIC is needed for strengthening. Activation of the GM and EO

  19. Quickly progressive amyotrophy of the thigh: An unusual cause of rapid chondrolysis of the knee.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Maeva; Louati, Karine; Miquel, Anne; Behin, Anthony; Benveniste, Olivier; Sellam, Jérémie

    2015-05-01

    While rapidly destructive OA is more recognized in hip, we report the case of a 50-year-old woman who presented a rapid chondrolysis in the patellofemoral joint in a context of rapid loss of muscular strength. She had arthralgia, myalgia and proximal muscular deficit of the limbs. Creatine phospho kinase level was elevated and electromyogram exam showed a myogenic syndrome. Neither immune nor visceral disease was highlighted. As we suspected a polymyositis, we started corticosteroids and physiotherapy, then methotrexate and intravenous immunoglobulin. Concomitantly to the worsening of the muscular deficit and atrophy of hamstrings, she developed a persistent and disabling knee pain. Initial radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed only a patellofemoral dysplasia and tiny cartilage damages. Because of aggravation of myalgia, we treated by mycophenolate mofetyl then rituximab. One year later, the knee remained painful and swollen. MRI showed signs of advanced osteoarthritis including an important loss of cartilage with an atrophy of hamstrings. Several articular corticosteroids injections were done. In the same time, the evolution of the muscular disease was unusual. Another histological analysis of muscle has highlighted a genetic myopathy due to mutation of calpain. Immunosuppressive treatments were stopped and a total joint replacement was performed. We show for the first time a case of rapid chondrolysis of patellofemoral joint related to a severe genetic myopathy.

  20. A Unique Case of Increased 18F-FDG Metabolic Activity in the Soft Tissues of the Bilateral Upper Thighs Due to Immunizations in a Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    Galloway, Terrel L.; Johnston, Mickaila J.; Starsiak, Michael D.; Silverman, Eugene D.

    2017-01-01

    A case of a 7-month-old white female who was referred for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) initial evaluation of a lytic skull lesion with presumed diagnosis of Langerhans cell histiocytosis is described. Incidentally, she was found to have hypermetabolic nodules in the soft tissues of her anterior thighs. PMID:28217022

  1. The use of the greater trochanter marker in the thigh segment model: implications for hip and knee frontal and transverse plane motion

    PubMed Central

    Graci, Valentina; Salsich, Gretchen

    2015-01-01

    Background The greater trochanter marker is commonly used in 3-dimensional models; however, its influence on hip and knee kinematics during gait is unclear. Understanding the influence of the greater trochanter marker is important when quantifying frontal and transverse plane hip and knee kinematics, parameters which are particularly relevant to investigate in individuals with conditions such as patellofemoral pain, knee osteoarthritis, ACL injury and hip pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of including the greater trochanter in the construction of the thigh segment on hip and knee kinematics during gait. Methods Three-dimensional kinematics were collected in 19 healthy subjects during walking using a surface marker system. Hip and knee angles were compared across two thigh segment definitions (with and without greater trochanter) at two time points during stance: peak knee flexion (PKF) and minimum knee flexion (MinKF). Results Hip and knee angles differed in magnitude and direction in the transverse plane at both time points. In the thigh model with the greater trochanter the hip was more externally rotated than in the thigh model without the greater trochanter, (PKF −9.34°±5.21° vs 1.40°±5.22°, MinKF −5.68°±4.24° vs 5.01°±4.86°, p<0.001). In the thigh model with the greater trochanter, the knee angle was more internally rotated compared to the knee angle calculated using the thigh definition without the greater trochanter (PKF 14.67°±6.78° vs 4.33°±4.18°, MinKF 10.54°±6.71° vs −0.01°±2.69°, p<.001). Small but significant differences were detected in the sagittal and frontal plane angles at both time points (p<.001). Conclusion Hip and knee kinematics differed across different segment definitions including or excluding the greater trochanter marker, especially in the transverse plane. Therefore when considering whether to include the greater trochanter in the thigh segment model when using a surface markers to

  2. Changes in volume, muscle compartment, and compliance of the lower extremities in man following 30 days of exposure to simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.; Doerr, Donald F.; Buchanan, Paul; Mathes, Karen L.; Stein, Steward L.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between leg compliance and a reduction in the size of the leg muscle compartment due to long-duration exposure to microgravity, eight men were exposed for 30 d of continuous 6-deg headdown tilt, and changes in vascular compliance (vol pct/mm Hg x 100) of the calf and serial circumferences of the thigh and the calf were measured before, during, and after the tilt. It was found that the tilt exposure led to calculated leg volume decreases of 9.9 percent in the calf and of 4.5 in the thigh. Leg compliance was found to increase from 3.9 to about 4.9. Calf compliance measured before and after bedrest was found to be inversely related to calf-muscle compartment cross-sectional area (CSA).

  3. Degeneration in ACL Injured Knees with and without Reconstruction in Relation to Muscle Size and Fat Content—Data from the Osteoarthritis Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Thomas; Nevitt, Michael C.; Nardo, Lorenzo; Gersing, Alexandra S.; Lane, Nancy E.; McCulloch, Charles E.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Link, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anterior cruciate ligaments (ACL) injuries represent a major risk factor for early osteoarthritis (OA). Purpose To evaluate the prevalence and 4-year progression of knee OA measured with 3T MR-imaging in individuals with ruptured, reconstructed or normal ACL and to assess the impact of thigh muscle characteristics. Methods A total of 54 knees (23/54 male, 31/54 female) were recruited from the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). At baseline, 15/54 subjects had prevalent ACL ruptures and 15/54 subjects had prevalent ACL reconstruction (24/54 normal ACL). Western Ontario and McMasters Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores, Physical Activity Scores of the Elderly (PASE) and thigh muscle characteristics including strength, fat infiltration (Goutallier score) and thigh muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) MR measurements were obtained at baseline. Whole-organ MR-imaging Scores (WORMS) were obtained at baseline and at a 4-year follow-up time-point. Multivariate regression models, adjusting for covariates (age, gender, body mass index), were used for statistical analysis. Results At baseline, subjects with prevalent ACL ruptures had worse WORMS total scores (mean±SEM, 44.1±3.5) than subjects with ACL reconstruction (30.8±4.0; P = 0.015) and worse than subjects with normal ACL (21.3±3.0; P<0.001). Cartilage scores were worse in both femorotibial compartments in ACL injured knees than in knees with normal ACL (P<0.05). Knees with ACL reconstruction showed an increased degeneration of the medial meniscus (P = 0.036), cartilage degeneration at the medial femoral condyle (P = 0.011). In a multivariate regression model, including both ACL groups and total muscle characteristics as influence parameters, high thigh muscle CSA, high muscle/ fat ratio and low Goutallier scores were associated with less degenerative changes at the knee, independent of ACL status. Knees with ACL reconstruction showed an increased progression of cartilage degeneration at the medial tibia

  4. Modified metaphyseal-loading anterolaterally flared anatomic femoral stem: five- to nine-year prospective follow-up evaluation and results of three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Kokubo, Yasuo; Uchida, Kenzo; Oki, Hisashi; Negoro, Kohei; Nagamune, Kouki; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Takeno, Kenichi; Yayama, Takafumi; Nakajima, Hideaki; Sugita, Daisuke; Yoshida, Ai; Baba, Hisatoshi

    2013-02-01

    We have designed a proximal-fitting, anterolaterally flared, arc-deposit hydroxyapatite-coated anatomical femoral stem (FMS-anatomic stem; KYOCERA Medical, Osaka, Japan) for cementless total hip arthroplasty (THA) for Japanese patients with dysplastic hip osteoarthritis, using a nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis simulating loading conditions. The Anatomic Fit stem was modified in the region of the arc-sprayed surface, to allow more proximal appearance of spot welds. The aim of the present study was to analyze the clinical and radiographic outcomes of patients who underwent THA using this stem. We reviewed 73 consecutive patients (79 hips; 13 men 16 hips; 60 women 63 hips; age at surgery, 57.6 years, range, 35-78) who underwent cementless THA using the Anatomic Fit stem, at a follow-up period of 7.1 years (range, 5.1-9.4). Harris Hip score improved from 40.7 ± 17.1 before surgery to 91.0 ± 5.2 points at follow-up. The 7.1-year stem survival rate was 100%. Radiographs at follow-up confirmed the stability of the femoral stems within the femoral canal in all cases, with sufficient bone ingrowth. None of the patients had subsidence of the stem exceeding 2.0 mm within the femoral canal or changes in varus or valgus position of more than 2.0°. The Anatomic Fit stem provided excellent results. The nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis demonstrated that the stem-bone relative motion was 10 µm at the proximal end of the stem and proximal load transfer. Our analysis confirmed reduced radiolucency around the stem, minimal subsidence, appropriate stress shielding, and promising medium-term stability within the femoral canal.

  5. Muscle MRI in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: Evidence of a distinctive pattern.

    PubMed

    Polavarapu, Kiran; Manjunath, Mahadevappa; Preethish-Kumar, Veeramani; Sekar, Deepha; Vengalil, Seena; Thomas, PriyaTreesa; Sathyaprabha, Talakad N; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Nalini, Atchayaram

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the pattern of muscle involvement using MRI findings and correlate with functional as well as muscle strength measurements. Fifty genetically confirmed DMD children with a mean age of 7.6 ± 2.8 (4-15 years) underwent muscle MRI and qualitative assessment was done for muscle changes using Mercuri staging for fibro-fatty replacement on T1 sequence and Borsato score for myoedema on STIR sequence. Detailed phenotypic characterisation was done with Manual muscle testing (modified MRC grading) and Muscular Dystrophy Functional Rating Scale (MDFRS). Mercuri scoring showed severe fibro-fatty changes in Gluteus medius, minimus and Adductor magnus followed by moderate to severe changes in Gluteus maximus and Quadriceps muscles. Total sparing of Gracilis, Sartorius and Semimembranosus muscles was observed. Superficial posterior and lateral leg muscles were preferentially involved with sparing of deep posterior and anterior leg muscles. Myoedema showed significant inverse correlation with fatty infiltration in thigh muscles. Similarly, significant inverse correlation was observed between Mercuri scores and MRC grading as well as MDFRS scores. A direct linear correlation was observed between duration of illness and fibro-fatty changes in piriformis, quadriceps and superficial posterior leg muscles. There was no correlation between MRI findings and genotypic characteristics. However, this specific pattern of muscle involvement in MRI could aid in proceeding for genetic testing when clinical suspicion is high, thus reducing the need for muscle biopsy. Fibro fatty infiltration as measured by Mercuri scoring can be a useful marker for assessing the disease severity and progression.

  6. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  7. The effects of knee injury on skeletal muscle function, Na+, K+-ATPase content, and isoform abundance

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Ben D; Levinger, Pazit; Morris, Hayden G; Petersen, Aaron C; Garnham, Andrew P; Levinger, Itamar; McKenna, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    While training upregulates skeletal muscle Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA), the effects of knee injury and associated disuse on muscle NKA remain unknown. This was therefore investigated in six healthy young adults with a torn anterior cruciate ligament, (KI; four females, two males; age 25.0 ± 4.9 years; injury duration 15 ± 17 weeks; mean ± SD) and seven age- and BMI-matched asymptomatic controls (CON; five females, two males). Each participant underwent a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy, on both legs in KI and one leg in CON. Muscle was analyzed for muscle fiber type and cross-sectional area (CSA), NKA content ([3H]ouabain binding), and α1–3 and β1–2 isoform abundance. Participants also completed physical activity and knee function questionnaires (KI only); and underwent quadriceps peak isometric strength, thigh CSA and postural sway assessments in both injured and noninjured legs. NKA content was 20.1% lower in the knee-injured leg than the noninjured leg and 22.5% lower than CON. NKA α2 abundance was 63.0% lower in the knee-injured leg than the noninjured leg, with no differences in other NKA isoforms. Isometric strength and thigh CSA were 21.7% and 7.1% lower in the injured leg than the noninjured leg, respectively. In KI, postural sway did not differ between legs, but for two-legged standing was 43% higher than CON. Hence, muscle NKA content and α2 abundance were reduced in severe knee injury, which may contribute to impaired muscle function. Restoration of muscle NKA may be important in rehabilitation of muscle function after knee and other lower limb injury. PMID:25677549

  8. [L5 sciatica caused by the compression of the lumbo-sacral trunk of osseous origin at the sacro-iliac level. Treatment by an antero-lateral subperitoneal approach].

    PubMed

    Chataigner, H; Onimus, M

    1998-07-01

    A 42 years old patient presented with a 4 years history of a left L5 sciatica unresponsive to a previous L4-L5 surgical decompression. CT scan showed a solid tumor developed on the anterior aspect of the sacro-iliac joint, in contact with the lumbo-sacral trunk. An antero-lateral extraperitoneal approach was performed, with progressive subperitoneal dissection along the inner aspect of the iliac wing to the sacro-iliac joint and sacral ala. The exostosis was removed with "en block" excision, Postoperatively pain completely disappeared. Considerations are made on the mechanism of the compression as well as on the surgical approach performed.

  9. Muscle injury induced beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet: A quantitative animal study of effects of tourniquet pressure and duration

    SciTech Connect

    Pedowitz, R.A.; Gershuni, D.H.; Schmidt, A.H.; Friden, J.; Rydevik, B.L.; Hargens, A.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Previous recommendations regarding the safe period of tourniquet hemostasis were based largely on studies of ischemia distal to the tourniquet. This study quantitatively analyzed skeletal muscle injury induced beneath and distal to a pneumatic tourniquet applied to the hindlimbs of rabbits for 1, 2, or 4 hours with a cuff inflation pressure of 125, 200, or 350 mm Hg. Technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate incorporation after systemic injection (Tc 99 uptake) and correlative histology were used to evaluate tissue damage 2 days after tourniquet application. Compared with the contralateral control limbs, compression and ischemia induced statistically significant increases in Tc 99 uptake in the thigh and leg regions of all groups. Pyrophosphate incorporation was significantly greater in the thigh region than in the leg region after 2 hours of compression in the 200 and 350 mm Hg pressure groups and following 4 hours of compression in all pressure groups. Focal and regional fiber necrosis and degeneration were observed in thigh muscles after 2 hours of tourniquet compression. Two hours of continuous tourniquet application at clinically relevant cuff inflation pressures induced significant skeletal muscle necrosis beneath the tourniquet. Use of the lowest possible inflation pressure for a limited duration should minimize the degree of tissue injury caused by tourniquet application.

  10. Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition (NIMI) Differentially Suppresses Head and Thigh Movements during Screenic Engagement: Dependence on Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Witchel, Harry J.; Santos, Carlos P.; Ackah, James K.; Westling, Carina E. I.; Chockalingam, Nachiappan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Estimating engagement levels from postural micromovements has been summarized by some researchers as: increased proximity to the screen is a marker for engagement, while increased postural movement is a signal for disengagement or negative affect. However, these findings are inconclusive: the movement hypothesis challenges other findings of dyadic interaction in humans, and experiments on the positional hypothesis diverge from it. Hypotheses: (1) Under controlled conditions, adding a relevant visual stimulus to an auditory stimulus will preferentially result in Non-Instrumental Movement Inhibition (NIMI) of the head. (2) When instrumental movements are eliminated and computer-interaction rate is held constant, for two identically-structured stimuli, cognitive engagement (i.e., interest) will result in measurable NIMI of the body generally. Methods: Twenty-seven healthy participants were seated in front of a computer monitor and speakers. Discrete 3-min stimuli were presented with interactions mediated via a handheld trackball without any keyboard, to minimize instrumental movements of the participant's body. Music videos and audio-only music were used to test hypothesis (1). Time-sensitive, highly interactive stimuli were used to test hypothesis (2). Subjective responses were assessed via visual analog scales. The computer users' movements were quantified using video motion tracking from the lateral aspect. Repeated measures ANOVAs with Tukey post hoc comparisons were performed. Results: For two equivalently-engaging music videos, eliminating the visual content elicited significantly increased non-instrumental movements of the head (while also decreasing subjective engagement); a highly engaging user-selected piece of favorite music led to further increased non-instrumental movement. For two comparable reading tasks, the more engaging reading significantly inhibited (42%) movement of the head and thigh; however, when a highly engaging video game was

  11. Acute iliopsoas and adductor brevis abscesses presenting with proximal leg muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Devetag Chalaupka, F

    2006-06-01

    Pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of skeletal muscle. We describe the clinical case of a 77-year-old woman affected by gait disturbance, repetitive falls, low back pain and left thigh and groin pain, but without symptoms of systemic infection. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis showed abscesses in the left psoas and adductor brevis muscles. Investigations of urogenital tract and gastrointestinal system were normal. Systemic antibiotic treatment alone was not efficient, while surgical drainage improved the clinical picture. The aetiological organism, isolated from the abscess, was Staphylococcus aureus. We suggest that this patient had a primary pyomyositis rather than a secondary form. This is the first report of concomitant abscesses of psoas and adductor brevis muscles with early neurological involvement.

  12. Central Projection of Pain Arising from Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness (DOMS) in Human Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zimmermann, Katharina; Leidl, Caroline; Kaschka, Miriam; Carr, Richard W.; Terekhin, Pavel; Handwerker, Hermann O.; Forster, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) is a subacute pain state arising 24–48 hours after a bout of unaccustomed eccentric muscle contractions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the patterns of cortical activation arising during DOMS-related pain in the quadriceps muscle of healthy volunteers evoked by either voluntary contraction or physical stimulation. The painful movement or physical stimulation of the DOMS-affected thigh disclosed widespread activation in the primary somatosensory and motor (S1, M1) cortices, stretching far beyond the corresponding areas somatotopically related to contraction or physical stimulation of the thigh; activation also included a large area within the cingulate cortex encompassing posteroanterior regions and the cingulate motor area. Pain-related activations were also found in premotor (M2) areas, bilateral in the insular cortex and the thalamic nuclei. In contrast, movement of a DOMS-affected limb led also to activation in the ipsilateral anterior cerebellum, while DOMS-related pain evoked by physical stimulation devoid of limb movement did not. PMID:23056613

  13. Characterizing rapid-onset vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the human leg

    PubMed Central

    Credeur, Daniel P.; Holwerda, Seth W.; Restaino, Robert M.; King, Phillip M.; Crutcher, Kiera L.; Laughlin, M. Harold; Padilla, Jaume

    2014-01-01

    Rapid-onset vasodilation (ROV) following single muscle contractions has been examined in the forearm of humans, but has not yet been characterized in the leg. Given known vascular differences between the arm and leg, we sought to characterize ROV following single muscle contractions in the leg. Sixteen healthy men performed random ordered single contractions at 5, 10, 20, 40, and 60% of their maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) using isometric knee extension made with the leg above and below heart level, and these were compared with single isometric contractions of the forearm (handgrip). Single thigh cuff compressions (300 mmHg) were utilized to estimate the mechanical contribution to leg ROV. Continuous blood flow was determined by duplex-Doppler ultrasound and blood pressure via finger photoplethysmography (Finometer). Single isometric knee extensor contractions produced intensity-dependent increases in peak leg vascular conductance that were significantly greater than the forearm in both the above- and below-heart level positions (e.g., above heart level: leg 20% MVC, +138 ± 28% vs. arm 20% MVC, +89 ± 17%; P < 0.05). Thigh cuff compressions also produced a significant hyperemic response, but these were brief and smaller in magnitude compared with single isometric contractions in the leg. Collectively, these data demonstrate the presence of a rapid and robust vasodilation to single muscle contractions in the leg that is largely independent of mechanical factors, thus establishing the leg as a viable model to study ROV in humans. PMID:25539935

  14. Centronuclear myopathy related to dynamin 2 mutations: Clinical, morphological, muscle imaging and genetic features of an Italian cohort

    PubMed Central

    Catteruccia, Michela; Fattori, Fabiana; Codemo, Valentina; Ruggiero, Lucia; Maggi, Lorenzo; Tasca, Giorgio; Fiorillo, Chiara; Pane, Marika; Berardinelli, Angela; Verardo, Margherita; Bragato, Cinzia; Mora, Marina; Morandi, Lucia; Bruno, Claudio; Santoro, Lucio; Pegoraro, Elena; Mercuri, Eugenio; Bertini, Enrico; D’Amico, Adele

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in dynamin 2 (DNM2) gene cause autosomal dominant centronuclear myopathy and occur in around 50% of patients with centronuclear myopathy. We report clinical, morphological, muscle imaging and genetic data of 10 unrelated Italian patients with centronuclear myopathy related to DNM2 mutations. Our results confirm the clinical heterogeneity of this disease, underlining some peculiar clinical features, such as severe pulmonary impairment and jaw contracture that should be considered in the clinical follow-up of these patients. Muscle MRI showed a distinct pattern of involvement, with predominant involvement of soleus and tibialis anterior in the lower leg muscles, followed by hamstring muscles and adductor magnus at thigh level and gluteus maximus. The detection of three novel DNM2 mutations and the first case of somatic mosaicism further expand the genetic spectrum of the disease. PMID:23394783

  15. Effects of Fish Oil Supplementation on Postresistance Exercise Muscle Soreness.

    PubMed

    Tinsley, Grant M; Gann, Joshua J; Huber, Stefan R; Andre, Thomas L; La Bounty, Paul M; Bowden, Rodney G; Gordon, Paul M; Grandjean, Peter W

    2016-07-21

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of fish oil supplementation on the magnitude and time-course of postresistance exercise muscle soreness. This study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Nonresistance trained females were randomized into one of two groups: fish oil supplementation (6 g/day; 5:1 eicosapentaenoic acid to docosahexaenoic acid (EPA:DHA)) or placebo (6 g/day corn/soy oil). After consuming the supplements for one week, participants underwent a single bout of resistance exercise consisting of 10 sets to failure of elbow flexion and leg extension machines. Muscle soreness was measured daily over the next week via grounded visual analog scale while participants continued to consume their assigned supplement. At 48 hours and one week postexercise, soreness during functional movements and limb circumferences were measured. The fish oil group perceived less static and functional muscle soreness than placebo, although the differences were not statistically significant. Effect sizes for resistance exercise-induced static and functional soreness responses were 33 to 42% lower in fish oil versus placebo without changes in upper arm and thigh circumferences. Supplementing the diet with 6 g per day of fish oil may alleviate muscle soreness experienced after resistance training in young untrained females.

  16. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    SciTech Connect

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  17. Use of anteromedial thigh perforator flap and immunological implications of Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: a case study.

    PubMed

    Scalise, A; Calamita, R; Tartaglione, C; Bolletta, E; Di Benedetto, G; Pierangeli, M

    2016-12-02

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is mainly characterised by the development of numerous multicentric and relapsing cutaneous basal cell carcinomas (BCCs). A major problem for patients with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome is the large amount of BCCs that can invade the deep underlying structures, especially the face. Here, we describe the case of a 23-year-old male affected by Gorlin-Goltz syndrome. He had recurrent BCCs on a hairless scalp and dorsum since he was 17 years old and underwent four surgical procedures to excise BCCs, including a reconstruction with anteromedial thigh perforator flap. For each of the surgical procedures, a phenotypic study on peripheral blood mononuclear cells using flow cytometry was performed on the same day of surgery, and on days 7, 14 and 21 after surgery. The role of the tumour-specific cytolytic immune response as a potential future treatment of syndromic BCCs and its trend in relation to surgical ablation of large portions of tumour tissue was examined, and the cosmetic and therapeutic results are shown.

  18. Fulminant Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Thigh, Following an Infection of the Sacro-iliac Joint in an Immunosuppressed, Young Woman.

    PubMed

    Gothner, Martin; Dudda, Marcel; Kruppa, Christiane; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Swol, Justyna

    2015-09-28

    Necrotizing soft tissue infection of an extremity is a rare but life-threatening disease. The disease is an infection that involves the soft tissue layer and is characterized by rapidly spreading inflammation (especially of the fascial planes and the surrounding tissues) with a high mortality. Early diagnosis is essential for the outcome of the patients. Radical surgical debridement is the treatment of choice. The predisposing factors are immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus and drug abuse. This report presents a case of necrotizing fasciitis in the thigh, following an abscess of the sacro-iliac joint, as a rare complication in a young, immunosuppressed woman. The patient's history revealed intravenous drug abuse and hepatitis C. After immediate diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging, radical surgical debridement was required and performed. Prior to soft tissue coverage with a split skin graft, five additional sequential debridements were necessary. During her hospital stay, the patient experienced further cerebral and pulmonary septic embolisms and an infection of the elbow. Six months after admission, the patient was discharged in good condition to a rehabilitation center. Necrotizing fasciitis is a life-threatening complication following an abscess of the sacro-iliac joint. Physicians must be vigilant to inflammatory signs and pain in immunosuppressed patients. An abscess of the sacro-iliac joint is rare, but complications of an untreated abscess can be fatal in these patients.

  19. Simulating Non-Specific Influences of Body Posture and Temperature on Thigh-Bioimpedance Spectroscopy during Continuous Monitoring Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, A. H.; Leonhardt, S.

    2013-04-01

    Application of bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) for continuous monitoring of body fluid volumes is gaining considerable importance in personal health care. Unless laboratory conditions are applied, both whole-body or segmental BIS configurations are subject to nonspecific influences (e.g. temperature and change in body position) reducing the method's accuracy and reproducibility. In this work, a two-compartment mathematical model, which describes the thigh segment, has been adapted to simulate fluid and solute kinetics during change in body position or variation in skin temperature. The model is an improved version of our previous one offering a good tradeoff between accuracy and simplicity. It represents the kinetics of fluid redistribution, sodium-, potassium-, and protein-concentrations based on simple equations to predict the time course of BIS variations. Validity of the model was verified in five subjects (following a sequence of 7 min supine, 20 min standing, and 40 min supine). The output of the model may reduce possible influences on BIS by up to 80%.

  20. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.'s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf)—the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity—from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm) was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length) were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only. PMID:28133549

  1. A Maximum Muscle Strength Prediction Formula Using Theoretical Grade 3 Muscle Strength Value in Daniels et al.'s Manual Muscle Test, in Consideration of Age: An Investigation of Hip and Knee Joint Flexion and Extension.

    PubMed

    Usa, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Masashi; Ichikawa, Kazuna; Takei, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    This study attempted to develop a formula for predicting maximum muscle strength value for young, middle-aged, and elderly adults using theoretical Grade 3 muscle strength value (moment fair: Mf )-the static muscular moment to support a limb segment against gravity-from the manual muscle test by Daniels et al. A total of 130 healthy Japanese individuals divided by age group performed isometric muscle contractions at maximum effort for various movements of hip joint flexion and extension and knee joint flexion and extension, and the accompanying resisting force was measured and maximum muscle strength value (moment max, Mm ) was calculated. Body weight and limb segment length (thigh and lower leg length) were measured, and Mf was calculated using anthropometric measures and theoretical calculation. There was a linear correlation between Mf and Mm in each of the four movement types in all groups, excepting knee flexion in elderly. However, the formula for predicting maximum muscle strength was not sufficiently compatible in middle-aged and elderly adults, suggesting that the formula obtained in this study is applicable in young adults only.

  2. Longitudinal bone, muscle and adipose tissue changes in physically active subjects – sex differences during adolescence and maturity

    PubMed Central

    Culvenor, A.G.; Boeth, H.; Diederichs, G.; Wirth, W.; Duda, G.; Eckstein, F.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To explore changes in bone, muscle and adipose tissue composition in athletes with high physical activity levels at different stages of life. Methods: Thigh MRIs were acquired at baseline and 2-year follow-up for 20 young (16±1 years) and 20 mature (46±5 years) athletes (10 males, 10 females, respectively). Longitudinal changes in cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of femoral bone, quadriceps muscle, and thigh subcutaneous (SCF) and intermuscular (IMF) adipose tissue were evaluated. Results: Adolescent males displayed significant muscle (+5.0%, 95%CI: 0.8, 9.2) and bone growth (+2.9%, 95%CI: 1.3, 4.5), whereas adolescent females did not (muscle: +0.8%, 95%CI: -2.2, 3.8; bone: +1.9%, 95%CI: -2.1, 5.6). Adolescent and mature females showed significant SCF increases (+11.0%, 95%CI: 0.9, 21.1 and +6.0%, 95%CI: 0.6, 11.4, respectively), whereas adolescent and mature males did not (+7.2%, 95%CI: -8.0, 22.5 and +1.5%, 95%CI: -9.7, 11.8, respectively). Muscle and bone changes were highly correlated in adolescent males (r=0.66), mature males (r=0.75) and mature females (r=0.68) but not in adolescent females (r=-0.11). Conclusions: The results suggest sex-specific patterns of age-related change in bone, muscle and adipose tissue, and tight coupling of bone and muscle growth. Sex-specific bone-muscle-adipose tissue relationships may have implications for understanding sex differences in fracture risk. PMID:27609038

  3. Muscle strain treatment

    MedlinePlus

    Treatment - muscle strain ... Question: How do you treat a muscle strain ? Answer: Rest the strained muscle and apply ice for the first few days after the injury. Anti-inflammatory medicines or acetaminophen ( ...

  4. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  5. Sciatic nerve entrapment in the upper thigh caused by an injury sustained during World War II at the battle of Anzio. Case report.

    PubMed

    Oldershaw, John B; Salem, Ayman; Storrs, Bruce B; Milner, Brenton; Omer, George E

    2004-03-01

    The authors present an unusual case of sciatic nerve entrapment due to a World War II shrapnel injury to the left thigh suffered during the battle of Anzio in 1943. The patient presented for evaluation of left lower-extremity pain in the sciatic nerve distribution. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbosacral spine revealed a disc bulge at L5-S1 that would not explain severe sciatica. A positive Tinel sign was present in the posterior aspect of the upper thigh at the site of a scar resulting from a World War II shrapnel injury. The patient underwent exploratory external neurolysis of the area, and the sciatic nerve was released from fibrous adhesive entrapment. The patient improved dramatically following surgery. During a 3-year follow-up period, no recurrence of symptoms was noted.

  6. Lower Extremity Muscle Thickness During 30-Day 6 degrees Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, S.; Kirby, L. C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1993-01-01

    Muscle thickness was measured in 19 Bed-Rested (BR) men (32-42 year) subjected to IsoTonic (ITE, cycle orgometer) and IsoKi- netic (IKE, torque orgometer) lower extremity exercise training, and NO Exercise (NOE) training. Thickness was measured with ultrasonography in anterior thigh-Rectus Femoris (RF) and Vastus Intermadius (VI), and combined posterior log-soleus, flexor ballucis longus, and tibialis posterior (S + FHL +TP) - muscles. Compared with ambulatory control values, thickness of the (S + FHL + TP) decreased by 90%-12% (p less than 0.05) In all three test groups. The (RF) thickness was unchanged in the two exercise groups, but decreased by 10% (p less than 0.05) in the NOE. The (VI) thickness was unchanged In the ITE group, but decreased by 12%-l6% (p less than 0.05) in the IKE and NOE groups. Thus, intensive, alternating, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise training is as effective as intensive, intermittent, isokinetic exercise training for maintaining thicknesses of rectus femoris and vastus lntermedius anterior thigh muscles, but not posterior log muscles, during prolonged BR deconditioning.

  7. Spatial genetic structure of bristle-thighed curlews (Numenius tahitiensis): breeding area differentiation not reflected on the non-breeding grounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Tibbitts, T. Lee; Gill, Robert E.; Williams, Ian S.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2015-01-01

    Migratory birds occupy geographically and ecologically disparate areas during their annual cycle with conditions on breeding and non-breeding grounds playing separate and important roles in population dynamics. We used data from nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA control region loci to assess the breeding and non-breeding spatial genetic structure of a transoceanic migrant shorebird, the bristle-thighed curlew. We found spatial variance in the distribution of allelic and haplotypic frequencies between the curlew's two breeding areas in Alaska but did not observe this spatial structure throughout its non-breeding range on low-lying tropical and subtropical islands in the Central Pacific (Oceania). This suggests that the two breeding populations do not spatially segregate during the non-breeding season. Lack of migratory connectivity is likely attributable to the species' behavior, as bristle-thighed curlews exhibit differential timing of migration and some individuals move among islands during non-breeding months. Given the detrimental impact of many past and current human activities on island ecosystems, admixture of breeding populations in Oceania may render the bristle-thighed curlew less vulnerable to perturbations there, as neither breeding population will be disproportionally affected by local habitat losses or by stochastic events. Furthermore, lack of migratory connectivity may enable bristle-thighed curlews to respond to changing island ecosystems by altering their non-breeding distribution. However, availability of suitable non-breeding habitat for curlews in Oceania is increasingly limited on both low-lying and high islands by habitat loss, sea level rise, and invasive mammalian predators that pose a threat to flightless and flight-compromised curlews during the molting period.

  8. Impact response and biomechanical analysis of the knee-thigh-hip complex in frontal impacts with a full human body finite element model.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Jesse S; El-Jawahri, Raed; Barbat, Saeed; Rouhana, Stephen W; Prasad, Priya

    2008-11-01

    Changes in vehicle safety design technology and the increasing use of seat-belts and airbag restraint systems have gradually changed the relative proportion of lower extremity injuries. These changes in real world injuries have renewed interest and the need of further investigation into occupant injury mechanisms and biomechanical impact responses of the knee-thigh-hip complex during frontal impacts. This study uses a detailed finite element model of the human body to simulate occupant knee impacts experienced in frontal crashes. The human body model includes detailed anatomical features of the head, neck, shoulder, chest, thoracic and lumbar spine, abdomen, pelvis, and lower and upper extremities. The material properties used in the model for each anatomic part of the human body were obtained from test data reported in the literature. The human body model used in the current study has been previously validated in frontal and side impacts. It was further validated with cadaver knee-thigh-hip impact tests in the current study. The effects of impactor configuration and flexion angle of the knee on biomechanical impact responses of the knee-thigh-hip complex were studied using the validated human body finite element model. This study showed that the knee flexion angle and the impact direction and shape of the impactors affected the injury outcomes of the knee-thigh-hip complex significantly. The 60 degrees flexed knee impact showed the least impact force, knee pressure, femoral von Mises stress, and pelvic von Mises stress but largest relative displacements of the Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) and Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL). The 90 degrees flexed knee impact resulted in a higher impact force, knee pressure, femoral von Mises stress, and pelvic von Mises stress; but smaller PCL and ACL displacements. Stress distributions of the patella, femur, and pelvis were also given for all the simulated conditions.

  9. One session of partial-body cryotherapy (-110 °C) improves muscle damage recovery.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Junior, J B; Bottaro, M; Vieira, A; Siqueira, A F; Vieira, C A; Durigan, J L Q; Cadore, E L; Coelho, L G M; Simões, H G; Bemben, M G

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effects of a single session of partial-body cryotherapy (PBC) on muscle recovery, 26 young men performed a muscle-damaging protocol that consisted of five sets of 20 drop jumps with 2-min rest intervals between sets. After the exercise, the PBC group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min of PBC at -110 °C, and the control group (n = 13) was exposed to 3 min at 21 °C. Anterior thigh muscle thickness, isometric peak torque, and muscle soreness of knee extensors were measured pre, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h following exercise. Peak torque did not return to baseline in control group (P < 0.05), whereas the PBC group recovered peak torques 96 h post exercise (P > 0.05). Peak torque was also higher after PBC at 72 and 96 h compared with control group (P < 0.05). Muscle thickness increased after 24 h in the control group (P < 0.05) and was significantly higher compared with the PBC group at 24 and 96 h (P < 0.05). Muscle soreness returned to baseline for the PBC group at 72 h compared with 96 h for controls. These results indicate that PBC after strenuous exercise may enhance recovery from muscle damage.

  10. Functional imaging of muscle oxygenation using a 200-channel cw NIRS system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Katsuyuki; Niwayama, Masatsugu; Kohata, Daisuke; Kudo, Nobuki; Hamaoka, Takatumi; Kime, Ryotaro; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2001-06-01

    Functional imaging of muscle oxygenation using NIRS is a promising technique for evaluation of the heterogeneity of muscle function and diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease or muscle injury. We have developed a 200-channel imaging system that can measure the changes in oxygenation and blood volume of muscles and that covers wider area than previously reported systems. Our system consisted of 40 probes, a multiplexer for switching signals to and from the probes, and a personal computer for obtaining images. In each probe, one two-wavelength LED (770 and 830 nm) and five photodiodes were mounted on a flexible substrate. In order to eliminate the influence of a subcutaneous fat layer, a correction method, which we previously developed, was also used in imaging. Thus, quantitative changes in concentrations of oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin were obtained. Temporal resolution was 1.5 s and spatial resolution was about 20 mm, depending on probe separations. Exercise tests (isometric contraction of 50% MVC) on the thigh with and without arterial occlusion were conducted, and changes in muscle oxygenation were imaged using the developed system. Results showed that the heterogeneity of deoxygenation and reoxygenation during exercise and recovery periods, respectively, were clearly observed. These results suggest that optical imaging of dynamic change in muscle oxygenation using NIRS would be useful not only for basic physiological studies but also for clinical applications with respect to muscle functions.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of caffeine in the microcirculation and edema on thighs and buttocks using the orthogonal polarization spectral imaging and clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Omar; Semenovitch, Ivan Jorge; Treu, Curt; Bottino, Daniel; Bouskela, Eliete

    2007-06-01

    Gynoid lipodystrophy, also known as cellulite, is a common multifactorial entity that affects millions of women around the world. There have been few scientific articles dealing with its physiology and treatment in the past few years, and vascular changes seem to play an important role in its pathophysiology. Skin microvascular alterations can be observed noninvasively with a new method called orthogonal polarization spectral imaging, which was used to evaluate the effectiveness of an anticellulite drug composed mainly of a 7% caffeine solution. Microcirculatory parameters evaluated were functional capillary density (FCD; number of flowing capillaries per unit area), diameter of the dermic papilla (DPD), and capillary diameter (CD). The clinical parameters analyzed were centimetrical measurements of thighs and hips and the influence of tobacco, alcohol, and physical activities on the efficacy of the treatment. After 1 month of treatment, statistical application of chi-squared and Z approximation tests showed, in treated patients, statistically significant reduction of thigh circumferences in more than 80% of the cases and reduction of hip circumference in 67.7%. FCD, DPD, and CD did not change significantly after treatment. Smoking as well as alcohol consumption and regular physical activity were not significantly related to the centimetrical reduction observed in treated thighs and hips.

  12. Immunogenicity and reactogenicity of HbOC vaccine administered simultaneously with acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) into either arms or thighs of infants.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, H J; Wirsing von König, C H; Zepp, F; Huff, J; Jahn, K; Schmidtke, P; Meyer, C; Habermehl, P; Uhlenbusch, R; Angersbach, P

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the reactogenicity and immunogenicity of a Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccine (HbOC) and of a tricomponent acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP) when injected simultaneously into either contralateral arms or into contralateral thighs, 110 infants were enrolled to receive three doses of DTaP at 3, 4, and 5 months and two HbOC doses at 3 and 5 months of age. Administration of either of the two vaccines into arms was associated with significantly more local side effects than administration into thighs. There was no difference in geometric mean concentration (GMC) values for any of the four vaccine antigens between subjects who had been vaccinated into arms or thighs. After immunization, all children had protective antibody titers to diphtheria toxin. While post vaccination the mean anti-tetanus toxoid GMC was > or = 1.25 IU/ml, there was no significant rise as compared to the GMC before vaccination. GMCs of antibodies against the various pertussis antigens were similar to those observed before with the same DTaP vaccine. The simultaneous administration of DTaP and HbOC was safe and immunogenic irrespective of the site of vaccine administration, but significantly more local reactions occurred when vaccines were injected into arms.

  13. Relation between muscle fiber conduction velocity and exerted dynamic characteristics of muscular tension in patients with hemiplegia caused by stroke

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, Kenichi; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Makoto; Sato, Yoichiro; Sakurai, Kentaro; Abe, Chie

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships among muscle fiber conduction velocity, time-force characteristics of muscle force production, and voluntary movement in patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in the present study were 13 patients with hemiplegia. Muscle fiber conduction velocity, deep temperature of muscles and muscle thickness were measured for the tibialis anterior, and a time force curve was obtained from dorsiflexion of the ankle and lower thigh girth (maximum, minimum) for both sides. The maximum torque rate of change and maximum torque were calculated from the force-time curve. In addition, Brunnstrom Recovery Stage was used to evaluate the function of the hemiplegic side. [Results] In all the measurement items, significant differences were observed between the hemiplegic side and the healthy side. The maximum torque rate of change and Brunnstrom Recovery Stage showed a high degree of correlation. The muscle fiber conduction velocity and maximum torque rate of change or maximum torque showed a medium degree of correlation. However, muscle fiber conduction velocity was not significantly correlated with Brunnstrom Recovery Stage. [Conclusion] Brunnstrom Recovery Stage was good as a determination factor for the maximum torque rate of change. In addition, in patients with hemiplegia, it became clear that relationship is between muscle fiber conduction velocity and time-force characteristics of muscle force production as in healthy persons. PMID:27821946

  14. Musculotendon variability influences tissue strains experienced by the biceps femoris long head muscle during high-speed running.

    PubMed

    Fiorentino, Niccolo M; Blemker, Silvia S

    2014-10-17

    The hamstring muscles frequently suffer injury during high-speed running, though the factors that make an individual more susceptible to injury remain poorly understood. The goals of this study were to measure the musculotendon dimensions of the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) muscle, the hamstring muscle injured most often, and to use computational models to assess the influence of variability in the BFlh's dimensions on internal tissue strains during high-speed running. High-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images were acquired over the thigh in 12 collegiate athletes, and musculotendon dimensions were measured in the proximal free tendon/aponeurosis, muscle and distal free tendon/aponeurosis. Finite element meshes were generated based on the average, standard deviation and range of BFlh dimensions. Simulation boundary conditions were defined to match muscle activation and musculotendon length change in the BFlh during high-speed running. Muscle and connective tissue dimensions were found to vary between subjects, with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 17±6% across all dimensions. For all simulations peak local strain was highest along the proximal myotendinous junction, which is where injury typically occurs. Model variations showed that peak local tissue strain increased as the proximal aponeurosis width narrowed and the muscle width widened. The aponeurosis width and muscle width variation models showed that the relative dimensions of these structures influence internal muscle tissue strains. The results of this study indicate that a musculotendon unit's architecture influences its strain injury susceptibility during high-speed running.

  15. Relation between muscle fiber conduction velocity and exerted dynamic characteristics of muscular tension in patients with hemiplegia caused by stroke.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kenichi; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Makoto; Sato, Yoichiro; Sakurai, Kentaro; Abe, Chie

    2016-10-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships among muscle fiber conduction velocity, time-force characteristics of muscle force production, and voluntary movement in patients with hemiplegia. [Subjects and Methods] The participants in the present study were 13 patients with hemiplegia. Muscle fiber conduction velocity, deep temperature of muscles and muscle thickness were measured for the tibialis anterior, and a time force curve was obtained from dorsiflexion of the ankle and lower thigh girth (maximum, minimum) for both sides. The maximum torque rate of change and maximum torque were calculated from the force-time curve. In addition, Brunnstrom Recovery Stage was used to evaluate the function of the hemiplegic side. [Results] In all the measurement items, significant differences were observed between the hemiplegic side and the healthy side. The maximum torque rate of change and Brunnstrom Recovery Stage showed a high degree of correlation. The muscle fiber conduction velocity and maximum torque rate of change or maximum torque showed a medium degree of correlation. However, muscle fiber conduction velocity was not significantly correlated with Brunnstrom Recovery Stage. [Conclusion] Brunnstrom Recovery Stage was good as a determination factor for the maximum torque rate of change. In addition, in patients with hemiplegia, it became clear that relationship is between muscle fiber conduction velocity and time-force characteristics of muscle force production as in healthy persons.

  16. A case of diabetic amyotrophy with severe atrophy and weakness of shoulder girdle muscles showing good response to intravenous immune globulin.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yuko; Yanagihara, Chie; Nishimura, Yo; Oka, Nobuyuki

    2007-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with insulin-dependent diabetic mellitus developed progressive asymmetrical weakness and atrophy of both shoulder girdle muscles within 1 year. In the last month, he also developed slight weakness of both thighs. Neuropathology of the sural nerve showed an axonal degeneration and perivascular inflammation and electromyography revealed neurogenic changes. Because of a diagnosis of suspected diabetic amyotrophy, intravenous immunoglobulin was administered. This treatment produced marked improvement. Physicians should take into account the possibility of diabetic amyotrophy in patients with diabetic mellitus showing primary involvement of shoulder girdle muscles marked by weakness and atrophy.

  17. Whole-Body Vibration While Squatting and Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness in Women

    PubMed Central

    Dabbs, Nicole C.; Black, Christopher D.; Garner, John

    2015-01-01

    Context  Research into alleviating muscle pain and symptoms in individuals after delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) has been inconsistent and unsuccessful in demonstrating a useful recovery modality. Objective  To investigate the effects of short-term whole-body vibration (WBV) on DOMS over a 72-hour period after a high-intensity exercise protocol. Design  Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting  University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants  Thirty women volunteered to participate in 4 testing sessions and were assigned randomly to a WBV group (n = 16; age = 21.0 ± 1.9 years, height = 164.86 ± 6.73 cm, mass = 58.58 ± 9.32 kg) or a control group (n = 14; age = 22.00 ± 1.97 years, height = 166.65 ± 8.04 cm, mass = 58.69 ± 12.92 kg). Intervention(s)  Participants performed 4 sets to failure of single-legged split squats with 40% of their body weight to induce muscle soreness in the quadriceps. The WBV or control treatment was administered each day after DOMS. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Unilateral pressure-pain threshold (PPT), range of motion (ROM), thigh circumference, and muscle-pain ratings of the quadriceps were collected before and for 3 days after high-intensity exercise. Each day, we collected 3 sets of measures, consisting of 1 measure before the WBV or control treatment protocol (pretreatment) and 2 sets of posttreatment measures. Results  We observed no interactions for PPT, thigh circumference, and muscle pain (P > .05). An interaction was found for active ROM (P = .01), with the baseline pretreatment measure greater than the measures at baseline posttreatment 1 through 48 hours posttreatment 2 in the WBV group. For PPT, a main effect for time was revealed (P < .05), with the measure at baseline pretreatment greater than at 24 hours pretreatment and all other time points for the vastus medialis, greater than 24 hours pretreatment through 48 hours posttreatment 2 for the vastus lateralis, and greater than 24 hours

  18. Differentiation of Deboned Fresh Chicken Thigh Meat from the Frozen-Thawed One Processed with Different Deboning Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Young Sik; Lee, Jae Cheong; Jung, Samooel; Jeon, Seung Yeop; Park, Do Hee; Lee, Soo-Kee

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the quality characteristics of three deboned categories of chicken thigh meat: one which was slaughtered and deboned in the same plant (fresh); one which was slaughtered, deboned, frozen, and thawed in the same plant (frozen-thawed); and the last which was slaughtered in a plant, deboned in a different plant, but then transferred to the original plant (fresh-outside). Surface color, drip loss, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, sensory evaluation, and total aerobic bacterial counts of the chicken samples were determined. Moreover, the torrymeter was used to measure the differences in freshness of the chicken meat. The surface color and the TBARS values did not show significant differences among the three categories. However, the total aerobic bacterial counts of fresh-outside and frozen-thawed chicken meat were significantly higher than the fresh chicken meat on the first storage day, and the drip loss of frozen-thawed chicken meat was significantly higher than the fresh-outside and fresh chicken meat. In addition, the sensory evaluation of frozen-thawed chicken meat was significantly lower than the fresh-outside and fresh chicken meat. Torrymeter values were higher in fresh chicken meat than fresh-outside and frozen-thawed chicken meat during the storage period. These results indicate that the quality of frozen-thawed chicken meat is comparatively lower than the fresh chicken meat, and the torrymeter values can accurately differentiate the fresh-outside and frozen-thawed chicken meat from the fresh ones. PMID:26760748

  19. Confounding factors in the use of the zero-heat-flow method for non-invasive muscle temperature measurement.

    PubMed

    Brajkovic, Dragan; Ducharme, Michel B

    2005-07-01

    This study evaluated a zero-heat-flow (ZHF), non-invasive temperature probe for in- vivo measurement of resting muscle temperature for up to 2 cm below the skin surface. The ZHF probe works by preventing heat loss from the tissue below the probe by actively heating the tissue until no temperature gradient exists across the probe. The skin temperature under the probe is then used as an indicator of the muscle temperature below. Eight subjects sat for 130 min during exposure to 28 degrees C air. Vastus lateralis (lateral thigh) muscle temperature was measured non-invasively using a ZHF probe which covered an invasive multicouple probe (which measured tissue temperature 0.5 cm, 1 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2 cm below the skin) located 15 cm superior to the patella (T (covered)). T (covered) was evaluated against an uncovered control multicouple probe located 20 cm superior to the patella (T (uncovered)). Rectal temperature and lateral thigh skin temperature were also measured. Mean T (uncovered) (based on average temperatures at the 0.5 cm, 1 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2 cm depths) and Mean T (covered) were similar from time 0 min to 60 min. However, when the ZHF was turned on at 70 min, Mean T (covered) increased by 2.11 +/- 0.20 degrees C by 130 min, while T (uncovered) remained stable. The ZHF probe temperature was similar to T (covered) at 1 cm and after time 85 min, significantly higher than T (covered) at the 0.5 cm, 1.5 cm, and 2 cm depths; however from a physiological standpoint, the temperatures between the different depths and the ZHF probe could be considered uniform (< or =0.2 degrees C separation). Rectal and thigh skin temperatures were stable at 36.99 +/- 0.08 degrees C and 32.82 +/- 0.23 degrees C, respectively. In conclusion, the non-invasive ZHF probe temperature was similar to the T (covered) temperatures directly measured up to 2 cm beneath the surface of the thigh, but all T (covered) temperatures were not representative of the true muscle temperature up to 2 cm below

  20. A predictive model for estimating regional skeletal muscle size by two-point dixon magnetic resonance imaging in healthy Koreans.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheol-Min; Lee, Chang-Hyung; Choi, Young A; Kim, Byoung-Chul; Jung, Duk-Young; Shin, Myung-Jun

    This study was undertaken to develop and cross-validate reference and individual predictive models for estimating functional thigh muscle cross-sectional area (TCSA) by 2-point Dixon magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). TCSAs of dominant sides at the mid-thigh level were measured by 2-point Dixon MRI ((MRI)TCSA). Functional (MRI)TCSA were compared with the predictive models in a sample of 92 younger (20-40 years; 28.55±4.87; n=50) and older (>65years; 71.22±4.82; n=42) Koreans. Lean body masses were measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry ((DXA)LBM), and thigh isokinetic muscle strengths, extension peak torque at 60°/sec, were measured using a Biodex(®) dynamometer ((Biodex)EPT). Multiple regression analysis generated the reference model (R(2)=0.75 and SEE=1472.63mm(2) (8%)) as follows: The reference model: functional TCSA(mm(2))=-1230.49+62.81*height+3061.78*gender -2692.57*age+58.91*weight. The individual model (R(2)=0.80, SEE=1158.34mm(2) (7%)) was as follows: The individual model: functional TCSA(mm(2))=1631.62+1.76* (DXA)LBM+9.51*(Biodex)EPT where height is in centimeters; weight is in kilograms; for gender, female=0 and male=1; and for age, age under 40=1 and age over 65=2. PRESS statistics of R(2) and SEE were 0.78 and 1382.98mm(2) for the reference model, and 0.88 and 979.02mm(2) for the individual model. The 2-point Dixon MRI appears to be valid for measuring functional muscle size. Our results suggest that the reference and individual models provide acceptable estimates of functional thigh muscle CSA in healthy Korean adults. Therefore, the models developed in the study could be useful as a research tool to establish indexes for functional muscle composition in healthy Koreans.

  1. Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy increases muscle mass and function in healthy older adults1

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon I; Julliand, Sophie; Reeds, Dominic N; Sinacore, David R; Klein, Samuel; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Age-associated declines in muscle mass and function are major risk factors for an impaired ability to carry out activities of daily living, falls, prolonged recovery time after hospitalization, and mortality in older adults. New strategies that can slow the age-related loss of muscle mass and function are needed to help older adults maintain adequate performance status to reduce these risks and maintain independence. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of fish oil–derived n–3 (ω-3) PUFA therapy to slow the age-associated loss of muscle mass and function. Design: Sixty healthy 60–85-y-old men and women were randomly assigned to receive n–3 PUFA (n = 40) or corn oil (n = 20) therapy for 6 mo. Thigh muscle volume, handgrip strength, one-repetition maximum (1-RM) lower- and upper-body strength, and average power during isokinetic leg exercises were evaluated before and after treatment. Results: Forty-four subjects completed the study [29 subjects (73%) in the n–3 PUFA group; 15 subjects (75%) in the control group]. Compared with the control group, 6 mo of n–3 PUFA therapy increased thigh muscle volume (3.6%; 95% CI: 0.2%, 7.0%), handgrip strength (2.3 kg; 95% CI: 0.8, 3.7 kg), and 1-RM muscle strength (4.0%; 95% CI: 0.8%, 7.3%) (all P < 0.05) and tended to increase average isokinetic power (5.6%; 95% CI: −0.6%, 11.7%; P = 0.075). Conclusion: Fish oil–derived n–3 PUFA therapy slows the normal decline in muscle mass and function in older adults and should be considered a therapeutic approach for preventing sarcopenia and maintaining physical independence in older adults. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01308957. PMID:25994567

  2. Influence of Gender and Muscle Architecture Asymmetry on Jump and Sprint Performance

    PubMed Central

    Mangine, Gerald T.; Fukuda, David H.; LaMonica, Michael B.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Wells, Adam J.; Townsend, Jeremy R.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Fragala, Maren S.; Stout, Jeffrey R.; Hoffman, Jay R.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle architecture is a determinant for sprinting speed and jumping power, which may be related to anaerobic sports performance. In the present investigation, the relationships between peak (PVJP) and mean (MVJP) vertical jump power, 30m maximal sprinting speed (30M), and muscle architecture were examined in 28 college-aged, recreationally-active men (n = 14; 24.3 ± 2.2y; 89.1 ± 9.3kg; 1.80 ± 0.07 m) and women (n = 14; 21.5 ± 1.7y; 65.2 ± 12.4kg; 1.63 ± 0.08 m). Ultrasound measures of muscle thickness (MT), pennation angle (PNG), cross-sectional area (CSA), and echo intensity (ECHO) were collected from the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) of both legs; fascicle length (FL) was estimated from MT and PNG. Men possessed lower ECHO, greater muscle size (MT & CSA), were faster, and were more powerful (PVJP & MVJP) than women. Stepwise regression indicated that muscle size and quality influenced speed and power in men. In women, vastus lateralis asymmetry negatively affected PVJP (MT: r = –0.73; FL: r = –0.60) and MVJP (MT: r = –0.76; FL: r = –0.64), while asymmetrical ECHO (VL) and FL (RF) positively influenced MVJP (r = 0.55) and 30M (r = 0.57), respectively. Thigh muscle architecture appears to influence jumping power and sprinting speed, though the effect may vary by gender in recreationally-active adults. Appropriate assessment of these ultrasound variables in men and women prior to training may provide a more specific exercise prescription. Key points The manner in which thigh muscle architecture affects jumping power and sprinting speed varies by gender. In men, performance is influenced by the magnitude of muscle size and architecture. In women, asymmetrical muscle size and architectural asymmetry significantly influence performance. To develop effective and precise exercise prescription for the improvement of jumping power and/or sprinting speed, muscle architecture assessment prior to the onset of a training program is advised. PMID

  3. Muscle Weakness

    PubMed Central

    Al Kaissi, Ali; Ryabykh, Sergey; Ochirova, Polina; Kenis, Vladimir; Hofstätter, Jochen G.; Grill, Franz; Ganger, Rudolf; Kircher, Susanne Gerit

    2017-01-01

    Marked ligamentous hyperlaxity and muscle weakness/wasting associated with awkward gait are the main deficits confused with the diagnosis of myopathy. Seven children (6 boys and 1 girl with an average age of 8 years) were referred to our department because of diverse forms of skeletal abnormalities. No definitive diagnosis was made, and all underwent a series of sophisticated investigations in other institutes in favor of myopathy. We applied our methodology through the clinical and radiographic phenotypes followed by targeted genotypic confirmation. Three children (2 boys and 1 girl) were compatible with the diagnosis of progressive pseudorheumatoid chondrodysplasia. The genetic mutation was correlated with the WISP 3 gene actively expressed by articular chondrocytes and located on chromosome 6. Klinefelter syndrome was the diagnosis in 2 boys. Karyotyping confirmed 47,XXY (aneuploidy of Klinefelter syndrome). And 2 boys were finally diagnosed with Morquio syndrome (MPS type IV A) as both showed missense mutations in the N-acetylgalactosamine-sulfate sulfatase gene. Misdiagnosis can lead to the initiation of a long list of sophisticated investigations. PMID:28210640

  4. Reconditioning aging muscles.

    PubMed

    Kraus, H

    1978-06-01

    Weakness or stiffness of key posture muscles can cause much of the disability seen in elderly patients. Too much tension and too little exercise greatly increase the natural loss of muscular fitness with age. A systematic program of exercise, stressing relaxation and stretching of tight muscles and strenghthening of weak muscles, can improve physical fitness. The program must be tailored to the patient, starting with relaxation and gentle limbering exercises and proceeding ultimately to vigorous muscle-stretching exercises. Muscle aches and pain from tension and muscle imbalance are to be expected. Relaxation relieves tension pain, and strengthening weak muscles and stretching tight muscles will correct muscle imbalance. To prevent acute muscle spasm, the patient should avoid excessive exertion and increase exercise intensity gradually.

  5. Relationships between organochlorine concentrations in liver and muscle of otters

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, C.F. )

    1989-10-01

    The European otter (Lutra lutra) is now threatened or endangered over much of its European range. The decline, which has taken place mainly during the past three decades, has been attributed to the toxic effects of organochlorine residues, with emphasis being placed on dieldrin or PCBs. Few otters were analyzed for organochlorines during the main period of decline but there is not considerable interest in the species. Experiments with ranch mink (Mustela vison) have shown that reproductive failure occurs when PCB concentrations in thigh muscle approach 50 mg kg{sup {minus}1} lipid. Because otters are closely related and have similar habits this value is becoming widely used to interpret the potential significance of PCB concentrations determined in otters. Furthermore, although the mink data refer to concentrations in muscle, interpretations of concentrations in otters have frequently been based on analyses of livers. Because of the diverse sources of material in Europe, only limited tissues may be made available for analysis, while costs may also prohibit the analysis of several tissues from a single carcass. The relationship between concentrations of organochlorines in muscle and liver tissues in otters has not been determined. This is the purpose of the present communication.

  6. Lower limb manual muscle testing in the early stages of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A.

    PubMed

    Vinci, Paolo; Serrao, Mariano; Pierelli, Francesco; Sandrini, Giorgio; Santilli, Valter

    2006-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous disorder that affects approximately one in 2,500 individuals. CMT 1A, which is due to a duplication in the area containing the PMP-22 gene on chromosome 17, is the most frequent CMT subtype. To date, there is no consensus among authors about which muscles are weakened in the early stages of CMT, even though this knowledge would be crucial for deciding the most appropriate interventions to restore balance between muscles and prevent the development of deformities. The aim of this study was to evaluate the strength of several lower limb muscles in the early stages of CMT 1A. In a series of 45 patients (age 10-72 years; 21 males, 24 females) affected by CMT 1A, we evaluated 83 non-operated lower limbs that corresponded to the two milder stages of a five-level functional classification. The strength of two foot muscles, seven leg muscles, two thigh muscles, and three pelvic girdle muscles was graded using the manual muscle testing techniques of Daniels and Worthingham; the power of the triceps surae was graded, in the prone position, using a 4-level scale of ability to raise the heel from the floor. Muscle strength was determined on the basis of interobserver agreement estimated by kappa statistics between two observers. The flexor hallucis brevis and lumbricals were very weak in all the limbs; the leg muscles were strong in more than 90% of limbs, except the peronei (strong in 83.13%); all the triceps surae were strong in the prone test, but 16.87% were weak in the standing test; all the proximal muscles were strong. In the large majority of patients in the early stages of CMT 1A, the intrinsic foot muscles are very weak and the leg and proximal muscles are strong.

  7. Impact of physical training on the ultrastructure of midthigh muscle in normal subjects and in patients treated with glucocorticoids.

    PubMed Central

    Horber, F F; Hoopeler, H; Scheidegger, J R; Grünig, B E; Howald, H; Frey, F J

    1987-01-01

    Exercise-training might be a logical method to reverse muscle atrophy and weakness in patients treated with glucocorticoids. The purpose of the present investigation was to establish whether a treatment with low dose prednisone (10 +/- 2.9 mg/d) modulates the effect of a moderate strength type isokinetic training during 7 wk (21 sessions of 20 min) on "muscle efficiency" (power output/muscle mass) and on concomitant changes in ultrastructure of the thigh muscle measured by quantitative electron-microscopic morphometry. Training caused a similar increase in "muscle efficiency" in patients on prednisone (n = 9) as in normal volunteers (n = 9). In normal subjects the increase in muscle efficiency was associated with an increase in sarcoplasm, whereas in patients on prednisone the functional improvement was associated with an increase in sarcoplasm, capillaries, and mitochondria content. Thus, a therapy with low dose prednisone does not abrogate training-induced improvement of muscle efficiency but modulates the ultrastructural response of the muscle to the training. Images PMID:3558821

  8. [Iliopsoas muscle syndrome. Functional disorders: shortening, spasm and weakness of a structurally unchanged muscle].

    PubMed

    Grgić, Vjekoslav

    2009-01-01

    Functional (non-organic) disorders of the iliopsoas muscle (IPM), i.e. the shortening, spasm and weakness of the structurally unchanged IPM, can be manifested as abdominal and/or pelvic pain, pain in areas of the thoracolumbar (ThL) and lumbosacral (LS) spine, sacroiliac (SI) joint, hip, groin and anterior thigh on the side of the affected muscle as well as gait disturbances (iliopsoas muscle syndrome). By clinical examination of the IPM, including the transabdominal palpation, stretch and strength tests, pathological masses, shortening, painful spasm, weakness and tendon tenderness of that muscle can be diagnosed. The IPM is, like other postural muscles, inclined to shortening. The weakness of the IPM can be a consequence of the lesion of the lumbar plexus or femoral nerve that innervate the IPM, as well as a consequence of certain organic diseases of the IPM. Painful stimuli coming from somatic and visceral structures that are innervated from Th12-L4 nerve roots, from which the IPM segmental innervation also originates, can cause a reflex spasm of the IPM. A painful spasm of the IPM caused by disorders of the ThL and LS spine, SI and hip joint, can mimic diseases of the abdominal and pelvic organs. In the differential diagnosis of the IPM painful spasm, organic diseases of that muscle should be considered foremost (abscess, hematoma, tumor, metastase), as they can result in spasm, and the diseases of the abdominal and pelvic organs that can cause an IPM reflex spasm. The IPM functional disorders, which are not rare, are often overlooked during a clinical examination of a patient. Reasons for overlooking these disorders are: 1) a nonspecific and variable clinical picture presenting the IPM functional disorders, 2) the IPM functional disorders are a neglected source of pain, 3) the inaccessibility of the IPM for inspection, 4) the lack of knowledge of the IPM examination techniques and 5) the IPM functional disorders cannot be discovered by radiological

  9. Using broadband spatially resolved NIRS to assess muscle oxygenation during altered running protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koukourakis, Georg; Vafiadou, Maria; Steimers, André; Geraskin, Dmitri; Neary, Patrick; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    We used spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SRS-NIRS) to assess calf and thigh muscle oxygenation during running on a motor-driven treadmill. Two protocols were used: An incremental speed protocol (velocity = 6 - 12 km/h, ▵v = 2 km/h) was performed in 3 minute stages, while a pacing paradigm modulated step frequency alternatively (2.3 Hz [SLow]; 3.3 Hz [SHigh]) during a constant velocity for 2 minutes each. A SRS-NIRS broadband system (600 - 1000 nm) was used to measure total haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation (SO2). An accelerometer was placed on the hip joints to measure limb acceleration through the experiment. The data showed that the calf (SO2 58 to 42%) desaturated to a significantly lower level than the thigh (61 to 54%). During the pacing protocol, SO2 was significantly different between the SLow vs. SHigh trials. Additionally, physiological data as measured by spirometry were different between the SLow vs. SHigh pacing trials (VO2 (2563+/- 586 vs. 2503 +/- 605 mL/min). Significant differences in VO2 at the same workload (speed) indicate alterations in mechanical efficiency. These data suggest that SRS broadband NIRS can be used to discern small changes in muscle oxygenation, making this device useful for metabolic exercise studies in addition to spirometry and movement monitoring by accelerometers.

  10. In vivo observation of quadrupolar splitting in (39)K magnetic resonance spectroscopy of human muscle tissue.

    PubMed

    Rösler, M B; Nagel, A M; Umathum, R; Bachert, P; Benkhedah, N

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore the origin of oscillations of the T(*)2 decay curve of (39)K observed in studies of (39)K magnetic resonance imaging of the human thigh. In addition to their magnetic dipole moment, spin-3/2 nuclei possess an electric quadrupole moment. Its interaction with non-vanishing electrical field gradients leads to oscillations in the free induction decay and to splitting of the resonance. All measurements were performed on a 7T whole-body MRI scanner (MAGNETOM 7T, Siemens AG, Erlangen, Germany) with customer-built coils. According to the theory of quadrupolar splitting, a model with three Lorentzian-shaped peaks is appropriate for (39)K NMR spectra of the thigh and calf. The frequency shifts of the satellites depend on the angle between the calf and the static magnetic field. When the leg is oriented parallel to the static magnetic field, the satellites are shifted by about 200 Hz. In the thigh, rank-2 double quantum coherences arising from anisotropic quadrupolar interaction are observed by double-quantum filtration with magic-angle excitation. In addition to the spectra, an image of the thigh with a nominal resolution of (16 × 16 × 32) mm(3) was acquired with this filtering technique in 1:17 h. From the line width of the resonances, (39)K transverse relaxation time constants T(*)2, fast  = (0.51 ± 0.01) ms and T(*)2, slow  = (6.21 ± 0.05) ms for the head were determined. In the thigh, the left and right satellite, both corresponding to the short component of the transverse relaxation time constant, take the following values: T(*)2, fast  = (1.56 ± 0.03) ms and T(*)2, fast  = (1.42 ± 0.03) ms. The centre line, which corresponds to the slow component, is T(*)2, slow  = (9.67 ± 0.04) ms. The acquisition time of the spectra was approximately 10 min. Our results agree well with a non-vanishing electrical field gradient interacting with (39)K nuclei in the intracellular space of

  11. Three-layered architecture of the popliteal fascia that acts as a kinetic retinaculum for the hamstring muscles.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Masahiro; Yoshino, Hiroyuki; Fujimura, Akira; Hitomi, Jiro; Isogai, Sumio

    2016-09-01

    When patients report pain in the popliteal fossa upon knee extension, the pain is usually localized in the lower region of the popliteal fossa. However, some patients complain of pain in the upper region of the popliteal fossa as the knee is flexed, which motivated us to examine the role of the popliteal fascia as the retinaculum of the hamstring muscles. Thirty-four thighs from 19 Japanese cadavers were dissected. The popliteal fascia was defined as the single aponeurotic sheet covering the popliteal fossa. We found that the fascia acted as a three-layered retinaculum for the flexor muscles of the thigh and provided a secure route for neurovascular structures to the lower leg in any kinetic position of the knee joint. The superficial layer of the popliteal fascia covering the thigh was strongly interwoven with the epimysium of biceps femoris along its lateral aspect and with that of the semimembranosus along its medial aspect, ensuring that the flexor muscles remained in their correct positions. The intermediate layer arose from the medial side of biceps femoris and merged medially with the superficial layer. The profound layer stretched transversely between the biceps femoris and the semimembranosus. Moreover, we investigated the nerve distribution in the popliteal fascia using Sihler's staining and whole-mount immunostaining for neurofilaments. The three-layered fascia was constantly innervated by branches from the posterior femoral cutaneous or saphenous nerve. The nerves were closely related and distributed to densely packed collagen fibers in the superficial layer as free or encapsulated nerve endings, suggesting that the fascia is involved in pain in the upper region of the popliteal fossa.

  12. Increased muscle size and strength from slow-movement, low-intensity resistance exercise and tonic force generation.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuya; Tanimoto, Michiya; Ohgane, Akane; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of low-intensity resistance training on muscle size and strength in older men and women. Thirty-five participants (age 59-76 yr) were randomly assigned to 2 groups and performed low-intensity (50% of 1-repetition maximum) knee-extension and -flexion exercises with either slow movement and tonic force generation (LST; 3-s eccentric, 3-s concentric, and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between repetitions) or normal speed (LN; 1-s concentric and 1-s eccentric actions with 1-s rests between repetitions) twice a week for 12 wk (2-wk preparation and 10-wk intervention). The LST significantly increased thigh-muscle thickness, as well as isometric knee-extension and -flexion strength. The LN significantly improved strength, but its hypertrophic effect was limited. These results indicate that even for older individuals, the LST can be an effective method for gaining muscle mass and strength.

  13. Residues of sulfadiazine and doxycycline in broiler liver and muscle tissue due to cross-contamination of feed.

    PubMed

    Vandenberge, V; Delezie, E; Huyghebaert, G; Delahaut, P; Daeseleire, E; Croubels, S

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary drugs, such as antimicrobial compounds, are widely used in poultry and may lead to the presence of residues in matrices of animal origin, such as muscle and liver tissue. In this study, broilers received an experimental feed containing sulfadiazine or doxycycline at cross-contamination levels of 2.5, 5 and 10% of the therapeutic dose in feed. Breast and thigh muscle and liver samples were collected during treatment and depletion period and analysed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Concentrations reached a plateau phase 3-5 days after the start of experimental feeding. A rapid depletion of residues was noted after withdrawal of the experimental feed. No significant differences in measured concentrations were observed between the various muscle types. Residue concentrations for some experimental groups; the 10% group of sulfadiazine and the 5 and 10% group of doxycycline, however, exceeded their corresponding maximum residue limits (MRLs).

  14. Coupling between "hand" primary sensorimotor cortex and lower limb muscles after ulnar nerve surgical transfer in paraplegia.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, C; Vecchio, F; Babiloni, F; Brunelli, G A; Carducci, F; Cincotti, F; Pizzella, V; Romani, G L; Tecchio, F T; Rossini, P M

    2004-02-01

    Previous neuroimaging evidence revealed an "invasion" of "hand" over "lower limb" primary sensorimotor cortex in paraplegic subjects, with the exception of a rare patient who received a surgical motor reinnervation of hip-thigh muscles by the ulnar nerve. Here, the authors show that a functional reorganization of cortico-muscular and cortico-cortical oscillatory coupling was related to the recovery of the rare patient, as a paradigmatic case of long-term plasticity in human sensorimotor cortex after motor reinnervation of paraplegic muscles. This conclusion was based on electroencephalographic and electromyographic data collected while the patient and normal control subjects performed isometric muscle contraction of the left hand or lower limb. Cortico-muscular and cortico-cortical coupling was estimated by electroencephalographic-electromyographic coherence and directed transfer function of a multivariate autoregressive model.

  15. Unique formation of sciatic nerve below the piriformis muscle - a case report.

    PubMed

    Patil, Jyothsna; Swamy, Ravindra S; Rao, Mohandas K G; Kumar, Naveen; Somayaji, S N

    2014-01-01

    Dorsal and ventral divisions of ventral rami of lower lumbar and sacral spinal nerve were found to pass ventral and dorsal to the piriformis muscle respectively. These divisions joined each other below the piriformis muscle to form sciatic nerve. This low formation of sciatic nerve was observed in distal part of left gluteal region of a 50-year-old male cadaver. The sciatic nerve thus formed passed caudally into back of thigh and divided into tibial and common peroneal nerves in the upper part of popliteal fossa. In addition, a communicating nerve from the sciatic nerve was found to join the common peroneal nerve in the popliteal fossa. Such variations may lead to piriformis syndrome or non-discogenic sciatica.

  16. [An Adult Case of Transperineal Repair of Congenital Rectourethral Fistula Using Gracilis Muscle Flap Interposition].

    PubMed

    Yo, Toeki; Kanematsu, Akihiro; Hanasaki, Takeshi; Nakanishi, Yukako; Togo, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Toru; Higuchi, Yoshihide; Nojima, Michio; Yamamoto, Shingo; Okuyama, Hiroomi

    2015-07-01

    A man in his 50s was referred to our hospital after recurrent severe urinary tract infection. He had undergone anoplasty for anorectal malformation during early infancy. He noticed urinary leakage from the anus for a long time. Under diagnosis of congenital rectourethral fistula, we performed fistula closure. The fistula was transsected via transperineal incision and each stump was closed. A gracilis muscle flap approximately 30 cm long was harvested from the left thigh, brought into the deepest part between the separated rectum and urethra through a subcutaneous tunnel and fixed there. The urinary leakage from the anus disappeared, and the infection resolved. Application of gracilis muscle flap for congenital diseases is rare, but was useful in the present case.

  17. Fulminating gas-forming psoas muscle abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae following a deep neck infection.

    PubMed

    Jang, T N; Juang, G D; Fung, C P

    1997-02-01

    Psoas muscle abscess due to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection is rare. We report a 55-year-old diabetic man who presented with progressive back pain of 1 month's duration. The patient had undergone surgical drainage for a deep neck infection with K. pneumoniae 43 days previously. On the present admission, physical examination revealed tenderness over the anterior upper aspect of both thighs, and computed tomography showed pneumoretroperitoneum dissecting the bilateral iliopsoas muscles. Parenteral administration of antibiotics was started immediately. Due to the patient's poor health status, we opted for repeated computed tomographic and sonographic-guided percutaneous drainage rather than surgical drainage. Blood and pus cultures revealed only K. pneumoniae. The patient recovered without significant sequelae. This report stresses the risk of metastatic infections caused by K. pneumoniae, especially in diabetic patients. Our experience suggests that repeated percutaneous drainage is feasible in cases of severe iliopsoas abscess, especially when risks associated with surgery are high.

  18. Reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei muscle cysts in a roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in Denmark after 60+ years.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Chriél, Mariann; Holm, Elisabeth; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Ståhl, Marie; Enemark, Heidi Larsen

    2013-09-01

    The present report describes the reappearance of Taenia ovis krabbei in a roe deer from Denmark after more than 60 years. The cysticerci were isolated from the thigh muscle of the deer, and the diagnosis was based on histostological analysis, morphology of the rostellar-hooks as well as molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene. The exact definitive host was not revealed in this report, but domestic dogs may play a role of the definitive host in the area. This finding is of concern to hunters and deer meat producers, since the infected meat is usually condemned due to esthetic reasons.

  19. In Vivo Pharmacodynamics of Cefquinome in a Neutropenic Mouse Thigh Model of Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 at Varied Initial Inoculum Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Chunna; Liao, Xiaoping; Wang, Mingru; Wang, Feng; Yan, Chaoqun; Xiao, Xia; Sun, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and causes severe disease in both pigs and human beings. Cefquinome (CEQ), a fourth-generation cephalosporin, exhibits broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as S. suis. This study evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antimicrobial activities of CEQ against four strains of S. suis serotype 2 in a murine neutropenic thigh infection model. We investigated the effect of varied inoculum sizes (106 to 108 CFU/thigh) on the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) indices and magnitudes of a particular PK/PD index or dose required for efficacy. Dose fractionation studies included total CEQ doses ranging from 0.625 to 640 mg/kg/24 h. Data were analyzed via a maximum effect (Emax) model using nonlinear regression. The PK/PD studies demonstrated that the percentage of time that serum drug levels were above the MIC of free drug (%ƒT>MIC) in a 24-h dosing interval was the primary index driving the efficacy of both inoculum sizes (R2 = 91% and R2 = 63%). CEQ doses of 2.5 and 40 mg/kg body weight produced prolonged postantibiotic effects (PAEs) of 2.45 to 8.55 h. Inoculum sizes had a significant influence on CEQ efficacy. Compared to the CEQ exposure and dosages in tests using standard inocula, a 4-fold dose (P = 0.006) and a 2-fold exposure time (P = 0.01) were required for a 1-log kill using large inocula of 108 CFU/thigh. PMID:26666923

  20. Skeletal muscle composition and its relation to exercise intolerance in older patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Haykowsky, Mark J; Kouba, Erik J; Brubaker, Peter H; Nicklas, Barbara J; Eggebeen, Joel; Kitzman, Dalane W

    2014-04-01

    Exercise intolerance is the primary chronic symptom in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), the most common form of heart failure in older patients; however its pathophysiology is not well understood. Recent data suggest that peripheral factors such as skeletal muscle (SM) dysfunction may be important contributors. Therefore, 38 participants, 23 patients with HFpEF (69±7 years) and 15 age-matched healthy controls (HCs), underwent magnetic resonance imaging and cardiopulmonary exercise testing to assess for SM, intermuscular fat (IMF), subcutaneous fat, total thigh, and thigh compartment (TC) areas and peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2). There were no significant intergroup differences in total thigh area, TC, subcutaneous fat, or SM. However, in the HFpEF versus HC group, IMF area (35.6±11.5 vs 22.3±7.6 cm2, p=0.01), percent IMF/TC (26±5 vs 20±5%, p=0.005), and the ratio of IMF/SM (0.38±0.10 vs 0.28±0.09, p=0.007) were significantly increased, whereas percent SM/TC was significantly reduced (70±5 vs 75±5, p=0.009). In multivariate analyses, IMF area (partial r=-0.51, p=0.002) and IMF/SM ratio (partial r=-0.45, p=0.006) were independent predictors of peak VO2 whereas SM area was not (partial r = -0.14, p=0.43). Thus, older patients with HFpEF have greater thigh IMF and IMF/SM ratio compared with HCs, and these are significantly related to their severely reduced peak VO2. These data suggest that abnormalities in SM composition may contribute to the severely reduced exercise capacity in older patients with HFpEF. This implicates potential targets for novel therapeutic strategies in this common debilitating disorder of older persons.

  1. Recruitment of fibre types and quadriceps muscle portions during repeated, intense knee-extensor exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Krustrup, Peter; Söderlund, Karin; Mohr, Magni; González-Alonso, José; Bangsbo, Jens

    2004-10-01

    To investigate recruitment of slow-twitch (ST) and fast-twitch (FT) muscle fibres, as well as the involvement of the various quadriceps femoris muscle portions during repeated, intense, one-legged knee-extensor exercise, 12 healthy male subjects performed two 3-min exercise bouts at approximately 110% maximum thigh O2 consumption (EX1 and EX2) separated by 6 min rest. Single-fibre metabolites were determined in successive muscle biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle (n = 6) and intra-muscular temperatures were continuously measured at six quadriceps muscle sites (n = 6). Creatine phosphate (CP) had decreased (P < 0.05) by 27, 73 and 88% in ST fibres and 25, 71 and 89% in FT fibres after 15 and 180 s of EX1 and after 180 s of EX2, respectively. CP was below resting mean-1 SD in 15, 46, 84 and 100% of the ST fibres and 9, 48, 85 and 100% of the FT fibres at rest, after 15 and 180 s of EX1 and after 180 s of EX2, respectively. A significant muscle temperature increase (deltaTm) occurred within 2-4 s at all quadriceps muscle sites. DeltaTm varied less than 10% between sites during EX1, but was 23% higher (P < 0.05) in the vastus lateralis than in the rectus femoris muscle during EX2. DeltaTm in the vastus lateralis was 101 and 109% of the mean quadriceps value during EX1 and EX2, respectively. We conclude that both fibre types and all quadriceps muscle portions are recruited at the onset of intense knee-extensor exercise, that essentially all quadriceps muscle fibres are activated during repeated intense exercise and that metabolic measurements in the vastus lateralis muscle provide a good indication of the whole-quadriceps muscle metabolism during repeated, intense, one-legged knee-extensor exercise.

  2. Effectiveness of thigh-length graduated compression stockings to reduce the risk of deep vein thrombosis after stroke (CLOTS trial 1): a multicentre, randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism are common after stroke. In small trials of patients undergoing surgery, graduated compression stockings (GCS) reduce the risk of DVT. National stroke guidelines extrapolating from these trials recommend their use in patients with stroke despite insufficient evidence. We assessed the effectiveness of thigh-length GCS to reduce DVT after stroke. Methods In this outcome-blinded, randomised controlled trial, 2518 patients who were admitted to hospital within 1 week of an acute stroke and who were immobile were enrolled from 64 centres in the UK, Italy, and Australia. Patients were allocated via a central randomisation system to routine care plus thigh-length GCS (n=1256) or to routine care plus avoidance of GCS (n=1262). A technician who was blinded to treatment allocation undertook compression Doppler ultrasound of both legs at about 7–10 days and, when practical, again at 25–30 days after enrolment. The primary outcome was the occurrence of symptomatic or asymptomatic DVT in the popliteal or femoral veins. Analyses were by intention to treat. This study is registered, number ISRCTN28163533. Findings All patients were included in the analyses. The primary outcome occurred in 126 (10·0%) patients allocated to thigh-length GCS and in 133 (10·5%) allocated to avoid GCS, resulting in a non-significant absolute reduction in risk of 0·5% (95% CI −1·9% to 2·9%). Skin breaks, ulcers, blisters, and skin necrosis were significantly more common in patients allocated to GCS than in those allocated to avoid their use (64 [5%] vs 16 [1%]; odds ratio 4·18, 95% CI 2·40–7·27). Interpretation These data do not lend support to the use of thigh-length GCS in patients admitted to hospital with acute stroke. National guidelines for stroke might need to be revised on the basis of these results. Funding Medical Research Council (UK), Chief Scientist Office of Scottish Government, Chest Heart and Stroke

  3. Branched-chain amino acids increase arterial blood ammonia in spite of enhanced intrinsic muscle ammonia metabolism in patients with cirrhosis and healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole Lajord; Ott, Peter; Buhl, Mads; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle Sønderby; Schousboe, Arne; Møller, Niels; Sørensen, Michael

    2011-08-01

    Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are used in attempts to reduce blood ammonia in patients with cirrhosis and intermittent hepatic encephalopathy based on the hypothesis that BCAA stimulate muscle ammonia detoxification. We studied the effects of an oral dose of BCAA on the skeletal muscle metabolism of ammonia and amino acids in 14 patients with cirrhosis and in 7 healthy subjects by combining [(13)N]ammonia positron emission tomography (PET) of the thigh muscle with measurements of blood flow and arteriovenous (A-V) concentrations of ammonia and amino acids. PET was used to measure the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia and the A-V measurements were used to measure the total ammonia metabolism across the thigh muscle. After intake of BCAA, blood ammonia increased more than 30% in both groups of subjects (both P < 0.05). Muscle clearance of blood-supplied ammonia (PET) was unaffected (P = 0.75), but the metabolic removal rate (PET) increased significantly because of increased blood ammonia in both groups (all P < 0.05). The total ammonia clearance across the leg muscle (A-V) increased by more than 50% in both groups, and the flux (A-V) of ammonia increased by more than 45% (all P < 0.05). BCAA intake led to a massive glutamine release from the muscle (cirrhotic patients, P < 0.05; healthy subjects, P = 0.12). In conclusion, BCAA enhanced the intrinsic muscle metabolism of ammonia but not the metabolism of blood-supplied ammonia in both the patients with cirrhosis and in the healthy subjects.

  4. Human Muscle Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The stimulus of gravity affects RNA production, which helps maintain the strength of human muscles on Earth (top), as seen in this section of muscle fiber taken from an astronaut before spaceflight. Astronauts in orbit and patients on Earth fighting muscle-wasting diseases need countermeasures to prevent muscle atrophy, indicated here with white lipid droplets (bottom) in the muscle sample taken from the same astronaut after spaceflight. Kerneth Baldwin of the University of California, Irvine, is conducting research on how reducing the stimulus of gravity affects production of the RNA that the body uses as a blueprint for making muscle proteins. Muscle proteins are what give muscles their strength, so when the RNA blueprints aren't available for producing new proteins to replace old ones -- a situation that occurs in microgravity -- the muscles atrophy. When the skeletal muscle system is exposed to microgravity during spaceflight, the muscles undergo a reduced mass that translates to a reduction in strength. When this happens, muscle endurance decreases and the muscles are more prone to injury, so individuals could have problems in performing extravehicular activity [space walks] or emergency egress because their bodies are functionally compromised.

  5. Muscle strain injuries.

    PubMed

    Garrett, W E

    1996-01-01

    One of the most common injuries seen in the office of the practicing physician is the muscle strain. Until recently, little data were available on the basic science and clinical application of this basic science for the treatment and prevention of muscle strains. Studies in the last 10 years represent action taken on the direction of investigation into muscle strain injuries from the laboratory and clinical fronts. Findings from the laboratory indicate that certain muscles are susceptible to strain injury (muscles that cross multiple joints or have complex architecture). These muscles have a strain threshold for both passive and active injury. Strain injury is not the result of muscle contraction alone, rather, strains are the result of excessive stretch or stretch while the muscle is being activated. When the muscle tears, the damage is localized very near the muscle-tendon junction. After injury, the muscle is weaker and at risk for further injury. The force output of the muscle returns over the following days as the muscle undertakes a predictable progression toward tissue healing. Current imaging studies have been used clinically to document the site of injury to the muscle-tendon junction. The commonly injured muscles have been described and include the hamstring, the rectus femoris, gastrocnemius, and adductor longus muscles. Injuries inconsistent with involvement of a single muscle-tendon junction proved to be at tendinous origins rather than within the muscle belly. Important information has also been provided regarding injuries with poor prognosis, which are potentially repairable surgically, including injuries to the rectus femoris muscle, the hamstring origin, and the abdominal wall. Data important to the management of common muscle injuries have been published. The risks of reinjury have been documented. The early efficacy and potential for long-term risks of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents have been shown. New data can also be applied to the field

  6. Choice of Flap Affects Fistula Rate after Salvage Laryngopharyngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Kao, Huang-Kai; Abdelrahman, Mohamed; Chang, Kai-Ping; Wu, Chao-Min; Hung, Shao-Yu; Shyu, Victor Bong-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Due to the significant morbidity and mortality associated with pharyngocutaneous fistula in pharyngoesophageal reconstruction following cancer resection, the purpose of this retrospective study is to examine the selection of tubed skin flaps that impact anastomotic integrity. The flaps evaluated included radial forearm flap versus anterolateral thigh flap, and fasciocutaneous anterolateral thigh flap versus chimeric anterolateral thigh flap. The outcome of interest is the incidence of pharyngocutaneous fistula. The radial forearm group had a significantly higher rate of fistula than the anterolateral thigh group (56.6% vs. 30.2%, p = 0.03). No significant difference in the incidence of fistula was demonstrated between fasciocutaneous and chimeric anterolateral thigh flap (36.8% vs. 25%, p = 0.51). The anastomotic integrity in pharyngoesopharyngeal reconstruction is affected by choice of skin flaps. Anterolateral thigh flap appears to be a viable option for pharyngoesophageal reconstruction. The more technical demand of the anterolateral thigh flap must be weighed against an easily harvested radial forearm flap. PMID:25776941

  7. Healthy Muscles Matter

    MedlinePlus

    ... keep my muscles more healthy? Definitions What can go wrong? Injuries Almost everyone has had sore muscles ... If you have been inactive, “start low and go slow” by gradually increasing how often and how ...

  8. Respiratory muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Rowley, Katharine L; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2005-07-28

    Plasticity of respiratory muscles must be considered in the context of their unique physiological demands. The continuous rhythmic activation of respiratory muscles makes them among the most active in the body. Respiratory muscles, especially the diaphragm, are non-weight-bearing, and thus, in contrast to limb muscles, are not exposed to gravitational effects. Perturbations in normal activation and load known to induce plasticity in limb muscles may not cause similar adaptations in respiratory muscles. In this review, we explore the structural and functional properties of the diaphragm muscle and their response to alterations in load and activity. Overall, relatively modest changes in diaphragm structural and functional properties occur in response to perturbations in load or activity. However, disruptions in the normal influence of phrenic innervation by frank denervation, tetrodotoxin nerve block and spinal hemisection, induce profound changes in the diaphragm, indicating the substantial trophic influence of phrenic motoneurons on diaphragm muscle.

  9. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  10. Muscle heat production and anaerobic energy turnover during repeated intense dynamic exercise in humans

    PubMed Central

    Krustrup, Peter; González-Alonso, José; Quistorff, Bjørn; Bangsbo, Jens

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine muscle heat production, oxygen uptake and anaerobic energy turnover throughout repeated intense exercise to test the hypotheses that (i) energy turnover is reduced when intense exercise is repeated and (ii) anaerobic energy production is diminished throughout repeated intense exercise. Five subjects performed three 3 min intense one-legged knee-extensor exercise bouts (EX1, EX2 and EX3) at a power output of 65 ± 5 W (mean ±s.e.m.), separated by 6 min rest periods. Muscle, femoral arterial and venous temperatures were measured continuously during exercise for the determination of muscle heat production. In addition, thigh blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood were sampled frequently during exercise for the determination of muscle oxygen uptake. Anaerobic energy turnover was estimated as the difference between total energy turnover and aerobic energy turnover. Prior to exercise, the temperature of the quadriceps muscle was passively elevated to 37.02 ± 0.12 °C and it increased 0.97 ± 0.08 °C during EX1, which was higher (P < 0.05) than during EX2 (0.79 ± 0.05 °C) and EX3 (0.77 ± 0.06 °C). In EX1 the rate of muscle heat accumulation was higher (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s compared to EX2 and EX3, whereas the rate of heat release to the blood was greater (P < 0.05) throughout EX2 and EX3 compared to EX1. The rate of heat production, determined as the sum of heat accumulation and release, was the same in EX1, EX2 and EX3, and it increased (P < 0.05) from 86 ± 8 during the first 15 s to 157 ± 7 J s−1 during the last 15 s of EX1. Oxygen extraction was higher during the first 60 s of EX2 and EX3 than in EX 1 and thigh oxygen uptake was elevated (P < 0.05) during the first 120 s of EX2 and throughout EX3 compared to EX1. The anaerobic energy production during the first 105 s of EX2 and 150 s of EX3 was lower (P < 0.05) than in EX1. The present study demonstrates that when intense exercise

  11. PubMed Central

    Pellini, R.; Mercante, G.; Pichi, B.; Manciocco, V.; Marchesi, P.; Ferreli, F.; Spriano, G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY In the last decade, the antero-lateral thigh free flap (ALT) has become the most popular free flap for tongue reconstruction because of less donor site morbidity and better cosmetic outcomes. However, fascio-cutaneous ALT may be insufficient to reconstruct major tongue defects, while its muscular-cutaneous variant (using the vastus lateralis muscle) may be too bulky. The present study describes our preliminary experience of tongue reconstruction with vastus lateralis myofascial flap, which could potentially offer unique advantages in head and neck reconstruction including adequate bulk when needed, optimal functional results and obliteration of dead space thus preventing fistulas and infections with minimal morbidity. PMID:27734986

  12. Muscle Session Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth; Feeback, Daniel

    1999-01-01

    Presentations from the assembled group of investigators involved in specific research projeects related to skeletal muscle in space flight can categorized in thematic subtopics: regulation of contractile protein phenotypes, muscle growth and atrophy, muscle structure: injury, recovery,and regeneration, metabolism and fatigue, and motor control and loading factors.

  13. Chronic effects of low-frequency low-intensity electrical stimulation of stretched human muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenkman, Boris S.; Lyubaeva, Ekaterina V.; Popov, Daniil V.; Netreba, Aleksey I.; Bravy, Yan R.; Tarakin, Pavel P.; Lemesheva, Yulia S.; Vinogradova, Olga L.

    2007-02-01

    Effects of low-frequency electrical stimulation, which is currently considered to be a possible countermeasure for long-duration spaceflights, with and without stretch were evaluated. Twelve young male volunteers were randomly distributed into two groups. In one group anterior thigh muscles—knee extensors of both legs were stimulated with frequency of 15 Hz for 4.5 wks, six times a week; each session was 6-h long. In the other group, electrical stimulation with the same parameters was applied to stretched knee extensors. Following stimulation the subjects exhibited an increase in fatigue resistance, and in the succinate dehydrogenase activity and a 10% gain in the percentage of muscle fibers with slow myosin heavy chain isoforms. In a stimulated group the peak voluntary strength went down significantly, the CSA of fast muscle fibers in m. quadriceps femoris became slightly less in size (10%). Electrical stimulation of the stretched muscles induced an insignificant decline in their strength and an increase of cross-sectional area of muscle fibers of both types. Thus chronic low-frequency electrical stimulation may be proposed as a candidate countermeasure against muscle strength and mass loss if it is combined with stretch.

  14. Functional Capacity, Muscle Fat Infiltration, Power Output, and Cognitive Impairment in Institutionalized Frail Oldest Old

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Herrero, Alvaro; Cadore, Eduardo L.; Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabricio; Idoate, Fernando; Millor, Nora; Martínez-Ramirez, Alicia; Gómez, Marisol; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Marcellán, Teresa; de Gordoa, Ana Ruiz; Marques, Mário C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study examined the neuromuscular and functional performance differences between frail oldest old with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In addition, the associations between functional capacities, muscle mass, strength, and power output of the leg muscles were also examined. Forty-three elderly men and women (91.9±4.1 years) were classified into three groups—the frail group, the frail with MCI group (frail+MCI), and the non-frail group. Strength tests were performed for upper and lower limbs. Functional tests included 5-meter habitual gait, timed up-and-go (TUG), dual task performance, balance, and rise from a chair ability. Incidence of falls was assessed using questionnaires. The thigh muscle mass and attenuation were assessed using computed tomography. There were no differences between the frail and frail+MCI groups for all the functional variables analyzed, except in the cognitive score of the TUG with verbal task, which frail showed greater performance than the frail+MCI group. Significant associations were observed between the functional performance, incidence of falls, muscle mass, strength, and power in the frail and frail+MCI groups (r=−0.73 to r=0.83, p<0.01 to p<0.05). These results suggest that the frail oldest old with and without MCI have similar functional and neuromuscular outcomes. Furthermore, the functional outcomes and incidences of falls are associated with muscle mass, strength, and power in the frail elderly population. PMID:23822577

  15. Intramuscular pressure varies with depth. The tibialis anterior muscle studied in 12 volunteers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakhostine, M.; Styf, J. R.; van Leuven, S.; Hargens, A. R.; Gershuni, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    Pressures in the tibialis anterior muscle were recorded at rest and during exercise with transducer-tipped catheters in 12 volunteers while they were supine or standing. The recordings were repeated with venous stasis created by an inflated tourniquet cuff on the thigh. Catheters were placed at 3 different sites in the muscle: catheter I adjacent to the deep surface of the fascia over the anterior compartment; catheter II between the fascia and the central tendon; and catheter III deep in the muscle close to the interosseous membrane. In both the supine and standing positions the intramuscular pressure at rest and the muscle relaxation pressure during exercise, obtained by catheter II, were greater than the corresponding pressures measured by the superficially located catheter I in the normal as well as in the volume loaded limb. The same conditions for pressure measurement consistently revealed lower pressures recorded by catheter III compared to II, but the difference was not significant. Our results indicate that intramuscular pressure increases centripetally, as the centrally lying tendon is approached. We conclude that pressure measurements for diagnosis of acute and chronic compartment syndromes and in ergonomic studies should be based on recordings from a standard location of the catheter within the muscle and a standard posture of the subject.

  16. Visualization of Abscess Formation in a Murine Thigh Infection Model of Staphylococcus aureus by 19F-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

    PubMed Central

    Kircher, Stefan; Basse-Lüsebrink, Thomas; Haddad, Daniel; Ohlsen, Knut; Jakob, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last years, 19F-MRI and perfluorocarbon nanoemulsion (PFC) emerged as a powerful contrast agent based MRI methodology to track cells and to visualize inflammation. We applied this new modality to visualize deep tissue abscesses during acute and chronic phase of inflammation caused by Staphylococcus aureus infection. Methodology and Principal Findings In this study, a murine thigh infection model was used to induce abscess formation and PFC or CLIO (cross linked ironoxides) was administered during acute or chronic phase of inflammation. 24 h after inoculation, the contrast agent accumulation was imaged at the site of infection by MRI. Measurements revealed a strong accumulation of PFC at the abscess rim at acute and chronic phase of infection. The pattern was similar to CLIO accumulation at chronic phase and formed a hollow sphere around the edema area. Histology revealed strong influx of neutrophils at the site of infection and to a smaller extend macrophages during acute phase and strong influx of macrophages at chronic phase of inflammation. Conclusion and Significance We introduce 19F-MRI in combination with PFC nanoemulsions as a new platform to visualize abscess formation in a murine thigh infection model of S. aureus. The possibility to track immune cells in vivo by this modality offers new opportunities to investigate host immune response, the efficacy of antibacterial therapies and the influence of virulence factors for pathogenesis. PMID:21455319

  17. Blood delta-ALAD, lead and cadmium concentrations in spur-thighed tortoises (Testudo graeca) from Southeastern Spain and Northern Africa.

    PubMed

    Martínez-López, E; Sousa, A R; María-Mojica, P; Gómez-Ramírez, P; Guilhermino, L; García-Fernández, A J

    2010-04-01

    Mediterranean spur-thighed tortoise (Testudo graeca) is actually included in the IUCN as vulnerable species. Its main European population is located in southeastern Spain. Although a great deal of information has been acquired on the internal medicine and survey and even parasitological fauna on these animals, there are no references about contaminants levels in this species. The objectives of this study were to compare the levels of two metals (cadmium and lead) in the blood of spur-thighed tortoises from two different populations, one from Southeastern of Spain (n = 22) and the other from North of Africa (n = 39), kept in captivity at the Santa Faz Recuperation Centre (Alicante, Spain) and to investigate the relationship between their blood levels of lead and their blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (delta-ALAD) activity. Blood lead and cadmium concentrations were higher in tortoises from African than in those from Spain. Moreover, a negative and significant correlation (P < 0.05) was found between delta-ALAD activity and blood lead levels, indicating the suitability of this enzyme as biomarker for lead in this species.

  18. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and efficacy of novel FabI inhibitor AFN-1252 against MSSA and MRSA in the murine thigh infection model

    PubMed Central

    Banevicius, Mary A; Kaplan, Nachum; Hafkin, Barry; Nicolau, David P

    2013-01-01

    AFN-1252, a new antimicrobial agent, specifically and potently inhibits fatty acid synthesis in Staphylococcus aureus. We characterized in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles of AFN-1252 administered orally to neutropenic mice inoculated in thighs (∼106 CFU) with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) ATCC 29213. Efficacy was also assessed in mice inoculated with MSSA, hospital-acquired Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (HA-MRSA) or community-acquired (CA)-MRSA, and administered AFN-1252 or linezolid orally. Bacterial density was determined after 24 hours and efficacy defined as the change in CFU/thigh versus untreated controls at time 0. With MSSA, antibacterial reductions of ≧1 log were observed at ≧20 mg/kg doses, with ƒAUC/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) best describing the pharmacodynamic profile of AFN-1252. The 80, 50 and 5% maximum effects were observed with ƒAUC/MIC values of 22·3, 17·0, and 9·6, respectively. Similar values were obtained for CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA. AFN-1252 was 4–40 fold more effective than linezolid against CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA. These data demonstrate the excellent in vivo potency of AFN-1252 against phenotypically diverse S. aureus. PMID:23433441

  19. Musculotopic organization of the motor neurons supplying the mouse hindlimb muscles: a quantitative study using Fluoro-Gold retrograde tracing.

    PubMed

    Bácskai, Tímea; Rusznák, Zoltán; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We have mapped the motor neurons (MNs) supplying the major hindlimb muscles of transgenic (C57/BL6J-ChAT-EGFP) and wild-type (C57/BL6J) mice. The fluorescent retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold was injected into 19 hindlimb muscles. Consecutive transverse spinal cord sections were harvested, the MNs counted, and the MN columns reconstructed in 3D. Three longitudinal MN columns were identified. The dorsolateral column extends from L4 to L6 and consists of MNs innervating the crural muscles and the foot. The ventrolateral column extends from L1 to L6 and accommodates MNs supplying the iliopsoas, gluteal, and quadriceps femoris muscles. The middle part of the ventral horn hosts the central MN column, which extends between L2 and L6 and consists of MNs for the thigh adductor, hamstring, and quadratus femoris muscles. Within these longitudinal columns, the arrangement of the different MN groups reflects their somatotopic organization. MNs innervating muscles developing from the dorsal (e.g., quadriceps) and ventral muscle mass (e.g., hamstring) are situated in the lateral and medial part of the ventral gray, respectively. MN pools belonging to proximal muscles (e.g., quadratus femoris and iliopsoas) are situated ventral to those supplying more distal ones (e.g., plantar muscles). Finally, MNs innervating flexors (e.g., posterior crural muscles) are more medial than those belonging to extensors of the same joint (e.g., anterior crural muscles). These data extend and modify the MN maps in the recently published atlas of the mouse spinal cord and may help when assessing neuronal loss associated with MN diseases.

  20. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  1. ATP and heat production in human skeletal muscle during dynamic exercise: higher efficiency of anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Krustrup, Peter; Ferguson, Richard A; Kjær, Michael; Bangsbo, Jens

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to simultaneously examine skeletal muscle heat production and ATP turnover in humans during dynamic exercise with marked differences in aerobic metabolism. This was done to test the hypothesis that efficiency is higher in anaerobic than aerobic ATP resynthesis. Six healthy male subjects performed 90 s of low intensity knee-extensor exercise with (OCC) and without thigh occlusion (CON-LI) as well as 90 s of high intensity exercise (CON-HI) that continued from the CON-LI bout. Muscle heat production was determined by continuous measurements of muscle heat accumulation and heat release to the blood. Muscle ATP production was quantified by repeated measurements of thigh oxygen uptake as well as blood and muscle metabolite changes. All temperatures of the thigh were equalized to ≈37 °C prior to exercise by a water-perfused heating cuff. Oxygen uptake accounted for 80 ± 2 and 59 ± 4 %, respectively, of the total ATP resynthesis in CON-LI and CON-HI, whereas it was negligible in OCC. The rise in muscle temperature was lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (0.32 ± 0.04 vs. 0.37 ± 0.03 °C). The mean rate of heat production was also lower (P < 0.05) in OCC than CON-LI (36 ± 4 vs. 57 ± 4 J s−1). Mechanical efficiency was 52 ± 4 % after 15 s of OCC and remained constant, whereas it decreased (P < 0.05) from 56 ± 5 to 32 ± 3 % during CON-LI. During CON-HI, mechanical efficiency transiently increased (P < 0.05) to 47 ± 4 %, after which it decreased (P < 0.05) to 36 ± 3 % at the end of CON-HI. Assuming a fully coupled mitochondrial respiration, the ATP turnover per unit of work was calculated to be unaltered during OCC (≈20 mmol ATP kJ−1), whereas it increased (P < 0.05) from 21 ± 4 to 29 ± 3 mmol ATP kJ−1 during CON-LI and further (P < 0.05) to 37 ± 3 mmol ATP kJ−1 during CON-HI. The present data confirm the hypothesis that heat loss is lower in anaerobic ATP resynthesis than in oxidative phosphorylation and can in part

  2. Alteration of Muscle Function After Electrical Stimulation Bout of Knee Extensors and Flexors

    PubMed Central

    Vanderthommen, Marc; Triffaux, Mylène; Demoulin, Christophe; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Croisier, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose was to study the effects on muscle function of an electrical stimulation bout applied unilaterally on thigh muscles in healthy male volunteers. One group (ES group, n = 10) received consecutively 100 isometric contractions of quadriceps and 100 isometric contractions of hamstrings (on-off ratio 6-6 s) induced by neuromuscular electrical stimulations (NMES). Changes in muscle torque, muscle soreness (0-10 VAS), muscle stiffness and serum creatine kinase (CK) activity were assessed before the NMES exercise (pre-ex) as well as 24h (d+1), 48h (d+2) and 120h (d+5) after the bout. A second group (control group, n = 10) were submitted to the same test battery than the ES group and with the same time-frame. The between-group comparison indicated a significant increase in VAS scores and in serum levels of CK only in the ES group. In the ES group, changes were more pronounced in hamstrings than in quadriceps and peaked at d+2 (quadriceps VAS scores = 2.20 ± 1.55 a.u. (0 at pre-ex); hamstrings VAS scores = 3.15 ± 2.14 a.u. (0 at pre-ex); hip flexion angle = 62 ± 5° (75 ± 6° at pre-ex); CK activity = 3021 ± 2693 IU·l-1 (136 ± 50 IU·l-1 at pre-ex)). The results of the present study suggested the occurrence of muscle damage that could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress. The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appeared higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles. Key points A stimulation bout of quadriceps and hamstrings that reflects usual application of NMES, increases indirect markers of muscle damage (muscle soreness, muscle weakness and stiffness and serum CK activity). The occurrence of muscle damage could have been induced by the peculiar muscle recruitment in NMES and the resulting overrated mechanical stress. The sensitivity to the damaging effects of NMES appears higher in the hamstrings than in quadriceps muscles. PMID:24150067

  3. Oxidative Metabolism in Muscle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrari, M.; Binzoni, T.; Quaresima, V.

    1997-06-01

    Oxidative metabolism is the dominant source of energy for skeletal muscle. Near-infrared spectroscopy allows the non-invasive measurement of local oxygenation, blood flow and oxygen consumption. Although several muscle studies have been made using various near-infrared optical techniques, it is still difficult to interpret the local muscle metabolism properly. The main findings of near-infrared spectroscopy muscle studies in human physiology and clinical medicine are summarized. The advantages and problems of near-infrared spectroscopy measurements, in resting and exercising skeletal muscles studies, are discussed through some representative examples.

  4. Noninvasive Sensor for Measuring Muscle Metabolism During Exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, B. R.; Yang, Y.; Lee, S. M. C.; Soyemi, O. O.; Wilson, C.; Hagan, R. D.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of oxygen uptake (VO2) and lactate threshold (LT) are utilized to assess changes in aerobic capacity and the efficacy of exercise countermeasures in astronauts. During extravehicular activity (EVA), real-time knowledge of VO2 and relative work intensity can be used to monitor crew activity levels and organize tasks to reduce the cumulative effects of fatigue. Currently VO2 and LT are determined with complicated measurement techniques that require sampling of expired ventilatory gases, which may not be accurate in enclosed, oxygen-rich environments such as the EVA suit. The UMMS team has developed a novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) system which noninvasively, simultaneously and continuously measures muscle oxygen tension, oxygen saturation, pH (pHm), and hematocrit from a small sensor placed on the leg. This system is unique in that it allows accurate, absolute measurement of these parameters in the thigh muscle by correcting spectra for the interference from skin pigment and fat. These parameters can be used to estimate VO2 and LT. A preliminary evaluation of the system s capabilities was performed in the NASA JSC Exercise Physiology Lab.

  5. Effect of caponization and exogenous androgen implantation on muscle characteristics of male chickens.

    PubMed

    Chen, T T; Huang, C C; Lee, T Y; Lin, K J; Chang, C C; Chen, K L

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the effects of caponization and different exogenous androgen implantations on the growth performance and muscle characteristics of caponized male chickens. Male Single Comb White Leghorn chickens were caponized at 12 wk of age and selected at 16 wk of age for a 10-wk feeding period. Sixteen intact males and caponized (capon) chickens each were assigned for trial 1. Sixteen sham-operated male chickens (sham) and 64 capons were selected for trial 2, in which capons were randomly divided into cholesterol (CHOL), testosterone (TES), 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (5alpha-DHT), or 19-nortestosterone (19-NorT) implantation at 16, 20, and 24 wk of age, with feeding to 26 wk of age. The result from trial 1 showed that caponization improved BW gain and feed conversion rate (P < 0.05) and decreased the comb length, height, and weight (P < 0.05). Breast muscle weight and gastrointestinal tract weight were higher in capons compared with intact males (P < 0.05). In trial 2, CHOL implantation decreased relative thigh muscle weight compared with the sham (P < 0.05), and only 19-NorT implantation increased relative thigh muscle weight to the compatible level with the sham (P > 0.05). 19-Nortestosterone and 5alpha-DHT implantations showed lower crude fat in the pectoral major muscle than CHOL (P < 0.05) and reached a compatible level with the sham (P > 0.05). All androgen implantation groups showed higher myofibrillar ATPase activity than CHOL (P < 0.05), and 19-NorT and 5alpha-DHT had the highest level (P < 0.05). Only 19-NorT implantation demonstrated higher shear value than CHOL (P < 0.05) to the compatible level with the sham (P > 0.05). Androgen implantation increased emulsifying capacity compared with CHOL (P < 0.05) and reached a compatible level with the sham (P > 0.05). Caponization decreased the blood TES concentration in male chickens, leading to changes in growth performance and muscle characteristics. After different androgen implantations in capons, 19

  6. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups.

    PubMed

    Randolph, Matthew E; Pavlath, Grace K

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease.

  7. A muscle stem cell for every muscle: variability of satellite cell biology among different muscle groups

    PubMed Central

    Randolph, Matthew E.; Pavlath, Grace K.

    2015-01-01

    The human body contains approximately 640 individual skeletal muscles. Despite the fact that all of these muscles are composed of striated muscle tissue, the biology of these muscles and their associated muscle stem cell populations are quite diverse. Skeletal muscles are affected differentially by various muscular dystrophies (MDs), such that certain genetic mutations specifically alter muscle function in only a subset of muscles. Additionally, defective muscle stem cells have been implicated in the pathology of some MDs. The biology of muscle stem cells varies depending on the muscles with which they are associated. Here we review the biology of skeletal muscle stem cell populations of eight different muscle groups. Understanding the biological variation of skeletal muscles and their resident stem cells could provide valuable insight into mechanisms underlying the susceptibility of certain muscles to myopathic disease. PMID:26500547

  8. Accurate, in vivo NIR measurement of skeletal muscle oxygenation through fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chunguang; Zou, Fengmei; Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Scott, Peter; Peshlov, Boyan; Soller, Babs R.

    2010-02-01

    Noninvasive near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic measurement of muscle oxygenation requires the penetration of light through overlying skin and fat layers. We have previously demonstrated a dual-light source design and orthogonalization algorithm that corrects for inference from skin absorption and fat scattering. To achieve accurate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) measurement, one must select the appropriate source-detector distance (SD) to completely penetrate the fat layer. Methods: Six healthy subjects were supine for 15min to normalize tissue oxygenation across the body. NIR spectra were collected from the calf, shoulder, lower and upper thigh muscles with long SD distances of 30mm, 35mm, 40mm and 45mm. Spectral preprocessing with the short SD (3mm) spectrum preceded SmO2 calculation with a Taylor series expansion method. Three-way ANOVA was used to compare SmO2 values over varying fat thickness, subjects and SD distances. Results: Overlying fat layers varied in thickness from 4.9mm to 19.6mm across all subjects. SmO2 measured at the four locations were comparable for each subject (p=0.133), regardless of fat thickness and SD distance. SmO2 (mean+/-std dev) measured at calf, shoulder, low and high thigh were 62+/-3%, 59+/-8%, 61+/-2%, 61+/-4% respectively for SD distance of 30mm. In these subjects no significant influence of SD was observed (p=0.948). Conclusions: The results indicate that for our sensor design a 30mm SD is sufficient to penetrate through a 19mm fat layer and that orthogonalization with short SD effectively removed spectral interference from fat to result in a reproducible determination of SmO2.

  9. Muscle injuries: optimising recovery.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Tero A H; Järvinen, Teppo L N; Kääriäinen, Minna; Aärimaa, Ville; Vaittinen, Samuli; Kalimo, Hannu; Järvinen, Markku

    2007-04-01

    Muscle injuries are one of the most common traumas occurring in sports. Despite their clinical importance, there are only a few clinical studies on the treatment of muscle injuries. Lack of clinical studies is most probably attributable to the fact that there is not only a high heterogeneity in the severity of injuries, but also the injuries take place in different muscles, making it very demanding to carry out clinical trials. Accordingly, the current treatment principles of muscle injuries have either been derived from experimental studies or been tested empirically only. Clinically, first aid for muscle injuries follows the RICE (Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation) principle. The objective of RICE is to stop the injury-induced bleeding into the muscle tissue and thereby minimise the extent of the injury. Clinical examination should be carried out immediately after the injury and 5-7 days after the initial trauma, at which point the severity of the injury can be assessed more reliably. At that time, a more detailed characterisation of the injury can be made using imaging diagnostic modalities (ultrasound or MRI) if desired. The treatment of injured skeletal muscle should be carried out by immediate immobilisation of the injured muscle (clinically, relative immobility/avoidance of muscle contractions). However, the duration of immobilisation should be limited to a period sufficient to produce a scar of sufficient strength to bear the forces induced by remobilisation without re-rupture and the return to activity (mobilisation) should then be started gradually within the limits of pain. Early return to activity is needed to optimise the regeneration of healing muscle and recovery of the flexibility and strength of the injured skeletal muscle to pre-injury levels. The rehabilitation programme should be built around progressive agility and trunk stabilisation exercises, as these exercises seem to yield better outcome for injured skeletal muscle than programmes based

  10. Whey protein with potassium bicarbonate supplement attenuates the reduction in muscle oxidative capacity during 19 days of bed rest.

    PubMed

    Bosutti, Alessandra; Salanova, Michele; Blottner, Dieter; Buehlmeier, Judith; Mulder, Edwin; Rittweger, Jörn; Yap, Moi Hoon; Ganse, Bergita; Degens, Hans

    2016-10-01

    The effectiveness of whey protein plus potassium bicarbonate-enriched diet (WP+KHCO3) in mitigating disuse-induced changes in muscle fiber oxidative capacity and capillarization was investigated in a 21-day crossover design bed rest study. Ten healthy men (31 ± 6 yr) once received WP+KHCO3 and once received a standardized isocaloric diet. Muscle biopsies were taken 2 days before and during the 19th day of bed rest (BR) from the soleus (SOL) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscle. Whole-body aerobic power (V̇o2 max), muscle fatigue, and isometric strength of knee extensor and plantar flexor muscles were monitored. Muscle fiber types and capillaries were identified by immunohistochemistry. Fiber oxidative capacity was determined as the optical density (OD) at 660 nm of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-stained sections. The product of fiber cross-sectional area and SDH-OD (integrated SDH) indicated the maximal oxygen consumption of that fiber. The maximal oxygen consumption supported by a capillary was calculated as the integrated SDH in its supply area. BR reduced isometric strength of knee extensor muscles (P < 0.05), and the fiber oxidative capacity (P < 0.001) and V̇o2 max (P = 0.042), but had no significant impact on muscle capillarization or fatigue resistance of thigh muscles. The maximal oxygen consumption supported by a capillary was reduced by 24% in SOL and 16% in VL (P < 0.001). WP+KHCO3 attenuated the disuse-induced reduction in fiber oxidative capacity in both muscles (P < 0.01). In conclusion, following 19 days of bed rest, the decrement in fiber oxidative capacity is proportionally larger than the loss of capillaries. WP+KHCO3 appears to attenuate disuse-induced reductions in fiber oxidative capacity.

  11. Exercise-induced muscle damage is not attenuated by beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid supplementation.

    PubMed

    Nunan, David; Howatson, Glyn; van Someren, Ken A

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of combined oral beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) and alpha-ketoisocaproic acid (KIC) supplementation on indices of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) after an acute bout of eccentric-biased exercise. Fourteen male subjects were allocated to 2 groups: a placebo group (3 g.d corn flour, N = 7) or an HMB + KIC group (3 g.d HMB and 0.3 g.d KIC, N = 7). Supplementation commenced 11 days before a 40-minute bout of downhill running and continued for 3 days post-exercise. Delayed-onset muscle soreness, mid-thigh girth, knee extensor range of motion, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, and isometric and concentric torque were assessed pre-exercise and at 24, 48, and 72 hours post-exercise. Delayed-onset muscle soreness, CK activity, and isometric and concentric torque all changed over the 72-hour period (p < 0.05); however, HMB + KIC had no significant effect on any of the indices of muscle damage. Although 14 days HMB and KIC supplementation did not attenuate indices of EIMD after an acute bout of unaccustomed eccentric-biased exercise, there was a trend for a more rapid rate of recovery in isometric and isokinetic muscle function. beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate and KIC may therefore provide limited benefit in the recovery of muscle function after EIMD in untrained subjects or after unaccustomed exercise.

  12. A novel late-onset axial myopathy associated with mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene.

    PubMed

    Løseth, Sissel; Voermans, Nicol C; Torbergsen, Torberg; Lillis, Sue; Jonsrud, Christoffer; Lindal, Sigurd; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Lammens, Martin; Broman, Marcus; Dekomien, Gabriele; Maddison, Paul; Muntoni, Francesco; Sewry, Caroline; Radunovic, Aleksandar; de Visser, Marianne; Straub, Volker; van Engelen, Baziel; Jungbluth, Heinz

    2013-06-01

    Mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor (RYR1) gene are a common cause of inherited neuromuscular disorders and have been associated with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from various congenital myopathies to the malignant hyperthermia susceptibility (MHS) trait without any associated weakness. RYR1-related myopathies are usually of early-childhood onset. Here we present 11 patients from 8 families with a late-onset axial myopathy associated with RYR1 variants. Patients presented between the third and seventh decade of life to neuromuscular centres in Norway, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom with predominant axial muscle involvement, comprising variable degrees of lumbar hyperlordosis, scapular winging and/or camptocormia. Marked myalgia was commonly associated. Serum creatine kinase levels were normal or moderately elevated. Muscle imaging showed consistent involvement of the lower paravertebral muscles and the posterior thigh. Muscle biopsy findings were often discrete, featuring variability in fibre size, increased internal nuclei and unevenness of oxidative enzyme staining, but only rarely overt cores. RYR1 sequencing revealed heterozygous missense variants, either previously associated with the MHS trait or localizing to known MHS mutational hotspots. These findings indicate that MHS-related RYR1 mutations may present later in life with prominent axial weakness but not always typical histopathological features. We propose a combined effect of RyR1 dysfunction, aging and particular vulnerability of axial muscle groups as a possible pathogenic mechanism. RYR1 is a candidate for cases with "idiopathic" camptocormia or bent spine syndrome (BSS).

  13. Muscle development and obesity

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The formation of skeletal muscle from the epithelial somites involves a series of events triggered by temporally and spatially discrete signals resulting in the generation of muscle fibers which vary in their contractile and metabolic nature. The fiber type composition of muscles varies between individuals and it has now been found that there are differences in fiber type proportions between lean and obese animals and humans. Amongst the possible causes of obesity, it has been suggested that inappropriate prenatal environments may ‘program’ the fetus and may lead to increased risks for disease in adult life. The characteristics of muscle are both heritable and plastic, giving the tissue some ability to adapt to signals and stimuli both pre and postnatally. Given that muscle is a site of fatty acid oxidation and carbohydrate metabolism and that its development can be changed by prenatal events, it is interesting to examine the possible relationship between muscle development and the risk of obesity. PMID:19279728

  14. Muscle Changes in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Siparsky, Patrick N.; Kirkendall, Donald T.; Garrett, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle physiology in the aging athlete is complex. Sarcopenia, the age-related decrease in lean muscle mass, can alter activity level and affect quality of life. This review addresses the microscopic and macroscopic changes in muscle with age, recognizes contributing factors including nutrition and changes in hormone levels, and identifies potential pharmacologic agents in clinical trial that may aid in the battle of this complex, costly, and disabling problem. Level of Evidence: Level 5. PMID:24427440

  15. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test.

    PubMed

    Vigotsky, Andrew D; Lehman, Gregory J; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson's r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = -1.39° (-5.53, +2.75); t(22) = -0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen's d = - 0.15 (-0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = -0.005 (-0.013, +0.003); t(22) = -1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen's d = - 0.27 (-0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol.

  16. Effect of grape seed extract on physicochemical properties of ground, salted, chicken thigh meat during refrigerated storage at different relative humidity levels.

    PubMed

    Brannan, R G

    2008-01-01

    The effect of grape seed extract (GSE, 0.1%) +/- NaCl (1%) in ground chicken thigh meat during refrigerated storage at 59%, 76%, 88%, and 99% relative humidity (RH) was examined. Compared to the untreated control, GSE (0.1%) delayed the reduction of water activity (a(w)) that occurred during refrigerated storage at different relative humidity levels but had no effect on moisture content or pH compared to the untreated control. GSE inhibited the formation of a secondary marker of lipid oxidation (TBARS) compared to the untreated control and altered the effect of NaCl on TBARS formation. The formation of TBARS was affected by RH level across all treatment groups in the order of 99% > 88% > 76% > 59%. Further analysis revealed that this effect likely is due to the presence of NaCl, which suggests that RH storage does not affect the formation of TBARS except in salted patties, the effect of which is mitigated by the addition of GSE. NaCl, but not GSE, increased both sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein solubility after 12 d of refrigerated storage, suggesting increased protein denaturation. This study shows that GSE is an effective antioxidant in ground chicken thigh meat that does not affect moisture content or pH during storage, inhibits TBARS formation, helps to mitigate the prooxidative effects of NaCl, and may alter the effect of NaCl on protein solubility in salted chicken patties. Future work is needed to determine how the physicochemical interactions of GSE affect important cooked meat quality attributes.

  17. Ultrasound-Derived Abdominal Muscle Thickness Better Detects Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Obese Patients than Skeletal Muscle Index Measured by Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry

    PubMed Central

    Ido, Ayumi; Nakayama, Yuki; Ishii, Kojiro; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sato, Koji; Fujimoto, Masahiro; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Satoh-Asahara, Noriko; Sanada, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Sarcopenia has never been diagnosed based on site-specific muscle loss, and little is known about the relationship between site-specific muscle loss and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. To this end, this cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the relationship between site-specific muscle size and MetS risk factors. Subjects were 38 obese men and women aged 40–82 years. Total body fat and lean body mass were assessed by whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scan. Muscle thickness (MTH) was measured using B-mode ultrasound scanning in six body regions. Subjects were classified into general obesity (GO) and sarcopenic obesity (SO) groups using the threshold values of one standard deviation below the sex-specific means of either MTH or skeletal muscle index (SMI) measured by DXA. MetS risk score was acquired by standardizing and summing the following continuously distributed variables: visceral fat area, mean blood pressure, HbA1c, and serum triglyceride / high density lipoprotein cholesterol, to obtain the Z-score. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the MetS risk score was independently associated with abdominal MTH in all subjects, but not with MTH in other muscle regions, including the thigh. Although HbA1c and the number of MetS risk factors in the SO group were significantly higher than those in the GO group, there were no significant differences between GO and SO groups as defined by SMI. Ultrasound-derived abdominal MTH would allow a better assessment of sarcopenia in obese patients and can be used as an alternative to the conventionally-used SMI measured by DXA. PMID:26700167

  18. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2015-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best “treatment”. PMID:27027021

  19. MUSCLE INJURIES IN ATHLETES.

    PubMed

    Barroso, Guilherme Campos; Thiele, Edilson Schwansee

    2011-01-01

    This article had the aim of demonstrating the physiology, diagnosis and treatment of muscle injuries, focusing on athletes and their demands and expectations. Muscle injuries are among the most common complaints in orthopedic practice, occurring both among athletes and among non-athletes. These injuries present a challenge for specialists, due to the slow recovery, during which time athletes are unable to take part in training and competitions, and due to frequent sequelae and recurrences of the injuries. Most muscle injuries (between 10% and 55% of all injuries) occur during sports activities. The muscles most commonly affected are the ischiotibial, quadriceps and gastrocnemius. These muscles go across two joints and are more subject to acceleration and deceleration forces. The treatment for muscle injuries varies from conservative treatment to surgery. New procedures are being used, like the hyperbaric chamber and the use of growth factors. However, there is still a high rate of injury recurrence. Muscle injury continues to be a topic of much controversy. New treatments are being researched and developed, but prevention through muscle strengthening, stretching exercises and muscle balance continues to be the best "treatment".

  20. Longer Interset Rest Periods Enhance Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Pope, Zachary K; Benik, Franklin M; Hester, Garrett M; Sellers, John; Nooner, Josh L; Schnaiter, Jessica A; Bond-Williams, Katherine E; Carter, Adrian S; Ross, Corbin L; Just, Brandon L; Henselmans, Menno; Krieger, James W

    2016-07-01

    Schoenfeld, BJ, Pope, ZK, Benik, FM, Hester, GM, Sellers, J, Nooner, JL, Schnaiter, JA, Bond-Williams, KE, Carter, AS, Ross, CL, Just, BL, Henselmans, M, and Krieger, JW. Longer interset rest periods enhance muscle strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1805-1812, 2016-The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short rest intervals normally associated with hypertrophy-type training versus long rest intervals traditionally used in strength-type training on muscular adaptations in a cohort of young, experienced lifters. Twenty-one young resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a group that performed a resistance training (RT) program with 1-minute rest intervals (SHORT) or a group that employed 3-minute rest intervals (LONG). All other RT variables were held constant. The study period lasted 8 weeks with subjects performing 3 total body workouts a week comprised 3 sets of 8-12 repetition maximum (RM) of 7 different exercises per session. Testing was performed prestudy and poststudy for muscle strength (1RM bench press and back squat), muscle endurance (50% 1RM bench press to failure), and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, triceps brachii, and quadriceps femoris by ultrasound imaging. Maximal strength was significantly greater for both 1RM squat and bench press for LONG compared to SHORT. Muscle thickness was significantly greater for LONG compared to SHORT in the anterior thigh, and a trend for greater increases was noted in the triceps brachii (p = 0.06) as well. Both groups saw significant increases in local upper body muscle endurance with no significant differences noted between groups. This study provides evidence that longer rest periods promote greater increases in muscle strength and hypertrophy in young resistance-trained men.

  1. Ultrastructural alterations in skeletal muscle of pigs with acute monensin myotoxicosis.

    PubMed Central

    Van Vleet, J. F.; Ferrans, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    Large doses of monensin, a Na+-selective carboxylic ionophore, produce polyfocal, monophasic necrosis of skeletal muscle, with Type I fiber selectivity, in swine. For a study of the sequential ultrastructural alterations in affected skeletal muscles, 14 weanling pigs were given 40 mg monensin/kg body weight and were euthanatized 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16 days later. Myotoxicosis and myoglobinuria were apparent clinically. At necropsy, white, dry areas of necrosis were present in the muscle masses of the anterior and posterior thigh, shoulder, and loin. Two patterns of skeletal muscle necrosis were observed on Day 1, especially in Type I fibers. In fibers exhibiting the first of these patterns, the contractile material was disrupted, forming dense amorphous and filamentous clumps scattered within the persistent sheaths of external lamina (sarcolemmal tubes); the mitochondria were swollen and contained flocculent matrix densities, and the nuclei were pyknotic. Fibers showing the second pattern were uniformly dense, but their sarcoplasm was not disrupted. Sublethally injured fibers were also observed and showed focal myofibrillar lysis. On Days 2 and 4, the necrotic muscle had marked infiltration of macrophages in the interstitium and within sarcolemmal tubes. Rapid resolution of the fiber necrosis occurred by phagocytosis of the sarcoplasmic debris. Regeneration of affected muscles developed early following injury and progressed rapidly to complete restoration of the necrotic muscles without residual fibrosis. Regeneration was initiated on Day 1 by activation of satellite cells to form presumptive myoblasts; on Days 4 and 8 these cells showed evidence of fusion, forming myotubes to restore the necrotic fibers. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:6696050

  2. Acute effect of oral steroids on muscle function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Hopkinson, N S; Man, W D C; Dayer, M J; Ross, E T; Nickol, A H; Hart, N; Moxham, J; Polkey, M I

    2004-07-01

    Prospective data to support the hypothesis that corticosteroids are a significant cause of muscle weakness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are lacking. The authors studied respiratory and quadriceps muscle function, using both volitional techniques and magnetic nerve stimulation, as well as measuring metabolic parameters during incremental cycle ergometry, in 25 stable COPD patients. The forced expiratory volume in one second was 37.6 +/- 21.4% predicted, before and after a 2-week course of o.d. prednisolone 30 mg. Quadriceps strength was also assessed in 15 control patients on two occasions. Only two patients met the British Thoracic Society definition of steroid responsiveness. There was no change either in sniff transdiaphragmatic pressure (pre: 96.8 +/- 19.7 cmH2O; post: 98.6 +/- 22.4 cmH2O) or in twitch transdiaphragmatic pressure elicited by bilateral anterolateral magnetic phrenic-nerve stimulation (pre: 16.8 +/- 9.1 cmH2O; post: 17.9 +/- 10 cmH2O). Quadriceps twitch force did not change significantly either in the steroid group (pre: 9.5 +/- 3.1 kg; post: 8.9 +/- 3.7 kg) or in the control patients (pre: 8.1 +/- 2.7 kg; post: 7.9 +/- 2.2 kg). There were no changes in either peak or isotime ventilatory and metabolic parameters during exercise. In conclusion, in stable patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, a 2-week course of 30 mg prednisolone daily does not cause significant skeletal muscle dysfunction or alter metabolic parameters during exercise.

  3. Symmetric corticospinal excitability and representation of vastus lateralis muscle in right-handed healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Al Sawah, Mohomad; Rimawi, Mohammad; Concerto, Carmen; Amer, Bahaa; Cao, Yisheng; D'Antoni, Anthony V; Chusid, Eileen; Battaglia, Fortunato

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the size and location of the representations of the anterior thigh muscles on the human motor cortex in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from the right and left vastus lateralis (rVL, lVL) muscles. A total of ten right-handed healthy volunteers participated in the study. In a single session experiment, we investigated VL muscle corticospinal excitability (motor threshold, MEP size, short interval intracortical inhibition, intracortical facilitation) and cortical representation (map area, volume, and location) in the dominant and non-dominant hemispheres. The motor threshold, MEPs, and intracortical excitability did not differ significantly between the hemispheres (P > 0.05). Furthermore, no difference between sides was found in the location of VL motor representation (mediolateral and anteroposterior axis) or in map area and volume (P > 0.05). Vastus lateralis muscle corticospinal excitability and cortical map were symmetrical in right-handed subjects. Future studies on patients with unilateral lower extremity injuries could examine side-to-side plastic reorganization in corticomotor output and map location in both hemispheres.

  4. Comparative analysis of fiber-type composition in the iliofibularis muscle of phrynosomatid lizards (Squamata).

    PubMed

    Bonine, K E; Gleeson, T T; Garland, T

    2001-12-01

    varies among species, but does not vary among subclades. Conversely, the total thigh muscle cross-sectional area does not vary among species, but does vary among subclades; horned lizards have slimmer thighs. Muscle fiber-type composition appears to form part of a coadapted suite of traits, along with relative limb and muscle sizes, that affect the locomotor abilities of phrynosomatid lizards.

  5. Quantifying fat and lean muscle in the lower legs of women with knee osteoarthritis using two different MRI systems.

    PubMed

    Beattie, Karen; Davison, Michael J; Noseworthy, Michael; Adachi, Jonathan D; Maly, Monica R

    2016-06-01

    Decreased muscle mass and increased fat mass are commonly seen in the thighs of individuals with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Despite the role of calf muscles in activities of daily living and knee mechanics, little work has investigated calf changes in knee OA. Unlike the thigh, muscle and fat in the lower leg can be imaged using a peripheral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. We aimed to assess agreement between subcutaneous fat, intermuscular fat (IMF), intramuscular fat (intraMF), and lean muscle volumes acquired using a peripheral 1.0T as compared to a reference whole-body 3.0T MRI scanner. A calf MRI scan from each scanner was acquired from twenty women >55 years with knee OA. The different tissues were segmented on each of ten axial slices for every participant using SliceOmatic 5.0 (Tomovision, Magog, QC). Tissue volumes were determined for each outcome. Agreement between tissue volumes from the two scanners was assessed using intraclass correlation (ICC(2,1)) coefficients, standard error, and Bland-Altman plots. Agreement between tissue volumes was strong to very strong, with ICCs ranging from 0.842 to 0.991 for all outcomes. However, wide confidence intervals for IMF and intraMF suggest there is less confidence in agreement with segmentation of images from the 1.0T scanner generally underestimating fat volume relative to the 3.0T scanner. The 3.0T's superior between-tissue contrast likely resulted in more accurate segmentation of IMF and intraMF compared to the 1.0T scanner. Comparisons of tissue volume between studies using different scanners/sequences should be interpreted cautiously.

  6. Ischemia causes muscle fatigue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D. M.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether ischemia, which reduces oxygenation in the extensor carpi radialis (ECR) muscle, causes a reduction in muscle force production. In eight subjects, muscle oxygenation (TO2) of the right ECR was measured noninvasively and continuously using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while muscle twitch force was elicited by transcutaneous electrical stimulation (1 Hz, 0.1 ms). Baseline measurements of blood volume, muscle oxygenation and twitch force were recorded continuously, then a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to one of five different pressure levels: 20, 40, 60 mm Hg (randomized order) and diastolic (69 +/- 9.8 mm Hg) and systolic (106 +/- 12.8 mm Hg) blood pressures. Each pressure level was maintained for 3-5 min, and was followed by a recovery period sufficient to allow measurements to return to baseline. For each respective tourniquet pressure level, mean TO2 decreased from resting baseline (100% TO2) to 99 +/- 1.2% (SEM), 96 +/- 1.9%, 93 +/- 2.8%, 90 +/- 2.5%, and 86 +/- 2.7%, and mean twitch force decreased from resting baseline (100% force) to 99 +/- 0.7% (SEM), 96 +/- 2.7%, 93 +/- 3.1%, 88 +/- 3.2%, and 86 +/- 2.6%. Muscle oxygenation and twitch force at 60 mm Hg tourniquet compression and above were significantly lower (P < 0.05) than baseline value. Reduced twitch force was correlated in a dose-dependent manner with reduced muscle oxygenation (r = 0.78, P < 0.001). Although the correlation does not prove causation, the results indicate that ischemia leading to a 7% or greater reduction in muscle oxygenation causes decreased muscle force production in the forearm extensor muscle. Thus, ischemia associated with a modest decline in TO2 causes muscle fatigue.

  7. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J.; Talbot, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A trophy of skeletal muscle; muscle a trophy associated with manned space flight; the nature, causes, and mechanisms of muscle atrophy associated with space flight, selected physiological factors, biochemical aspects, and countermeasures are addressed.

  8. Respiratory muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Gransee, Heather M; Mantilla, Carlos B; Sieck, Gary C

    2012-04-01

    Muscle plasticity is defined as the ability of a given muscle to alter its structural and functional properties in accordance with the environmental conditions imposed on it. As such, respiratory muscle is in a constant state of remodeling, and the basis of muscle's plasticity is its ability to change protein expression and resultant protein balance in response to varying environmental conditions. Here, we will describe the changes of respiratory muscle imposed by extrinsic changes in mechanical load, activity, and innervation. Although there is a large body of literature on the structural and functional plasticity of respiratory muscles, we are only beginning to understand the molecular-scale protein changes that contribute to protein balance. We will give an overview of key mechanisms regulating protein synthesis and protein degradation, as well as the complex interactions between them. We suggest future application of a systems biology approach that would develop a mathematical model of protein balance and greatly improve treatments in a variety of clinical settings related to maintaining both muscle mass and optimal contractile function of respiratory muscles.

  9. Arthroscopic Marginal Resection of a Lipoma of the Supraspinatus Muscle in the Subacromial Space

    PubMed Central

    Pagán Conesa, Alejandro; Aznar, Carlos Verdú; Herrera, Manuel Ruiz; Lopez-Prats, Fernando Anacleto

    2015-01-01

    Subacromial impingement syndrome is a common cause of shoulder pain in young adults and seniors at present. The etiology of this syndrome is associated with several shoulder disorders, most related to aging, overhead activities, and overuse. The subacromial space is well circumscribed and limited in size, and soft-tissue growing lesions, such as tumors, can endanger the normal function of the shoulder girdle. We present a case of shoulder impingement syndrome caused by an intramuscular lipoma of the supraspinatus muscle in the subacromial space in a 50-year-old male bank manager. Radiographs, magnetic resonance imaging, and a computed tomography scan showed a well-circumscribed soft-tissue tumor at the supraspinatus-musculotendinous junction. It was arthroscopically inspected and dissected and complete marginal excision was performed through a conventional augmented anterolateral portal, avoiding the need to open the trapezius fascia or perform an acromial osteotomy. Microscopic study showed a benign lipoma, and the shoulder function of the patient was fully recovered after a rehabilitation period of 4 months. This less invasive technique shows similar results to conventional open surgery. PMID:26759779

  10. Onion artificial muscles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Chun; Shih, Wen-Pin; Chang, Pei-Zen; Lai, Hsi-Mei; Chang, Shing-Yun; Huang, Pin-Chun; Jeng, Huai-An

    2015-05-01

    Artificial muscles are soft actuators with the capability of either bending or contraction/elongation subjected to external stimulation. However, there are currently no artificial muscles that can accomplish these actions simultaneously. We found that the single layered, latticed microstructure of onion epidermal cells after acid treatment became elastic and could simultaneously stretch and bend when an electric field was applied. By modulating the magnitude of the voltage, the artificial muscle made of onion epidermal cells would deflect in opposing directions while either contracting or elongating. At voltages of 0-50 V, the artificial muscle elongated and had a maximum deflection of -30 μm; at voltages of 50-1000 V, the artificial muscle contracted and deflected 1.0 mm. The maximum force response is 20 μN at 1000 V.

  11. MRI evaluation of topical heat and static stretching as therapeutic modalities for the treatment of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, R C; Reid, R W; Foley, J M; Prior, B M; Dudley, G A; Weingand, K W; Meyer, R A

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the effects of topical heat and/or static stretch treatments on the recovery of muscle damage by eccentric exercise. For this purpose, 32 untrained male subjects performed intense eccentric knee extension exercise, followed by 2 weeks of treatment (heat, stretch, heat plus stretch) or no treatment (control, n=8/group). Isometric strength testing, pain ratings, and multi-echo magnetic resonance imaging of the thigh were performed before and at 2, 3, 4, 8, and 15 days following the exercise. Increased T2 relaxation time, muscle swelling, pain ratings, and strength loss confirmed significant muscle damage during the post-exercise period. Pain ratings and muscle volume recovered to baseline by 15 days, although muscle strength remained lower [77 (4) vs. 95 (3) kg pre-exercise, mean (SE)] and T2 values higher [32.2 (0.8) vs. 28.6 (0.2) ms pre-exercise]. Our results indicate that heat and/or static stretching does not consistently reduce soreness, swelling or muscle damage. The practical implication of our findings is that clinicians should be aware that prescribing heat and/or static stretching following intense eccentric or unaccustomed exercise will not enhance the recovery of damaged muscles.

  12. Relationship Between Sprint Performance of Front Crawl Swimming and Muscle Fascicle Length in Young Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Nasirzade, Alireza; Ehsanbakhsh, Alireza; Ilbeygi, Saeed; Sobhkhiz, Azadeh; Argavani, Hamed; Aliakbari, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25-m sprint front crawl swimming performance and muscle fascicle length in young male swimmers. 23 swimmers were selected and divided into two groups according to their best records of 25-m sprint performance: 14.6-15.7 sec (S1, n = 11) and 15.8-17 sec (S2, n = 12). Muscle thickness and pennation angle of Biceps Brachii (BB; only muscle thickness), Triceps Brachii (TB), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) and Lateralis (GL) muscles were measured by B-mode ultrasonography, and fascicle length was estimated. Although, there was no significant differences between groups in anthropometrical parameter as standing height, body mass, arm length, thigh length and leg length (p < 0.001), however, S1 significantly had a greater muscle thickness in VL, GL, and TB muscles (p < 0.05). Pennation angle only in TB was significantly smaller in S1 (p < 0.05). S1 in VL, GL, and TB muscles significantly had greater absolute fascicle length and in VL and TB muscles had relatively (relative to limb length) greater fascicle length (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant relationship between sprint swimming time and absolute and relative fascicle length in VL (absolute: r = -0.49 and relative: r = -0.43, both p < 0.05) and GL (absolute: r = -0.47 and relative: r = -0.42, both p < 0.05). Potentially, it seems that fascicle geometry developed in muscles of faster young swimmers to help them to perform their high speed movement. Key Points This study investigated the relationship between muscle fascicle length and sprint front crawl performance in young male swimmers. It seems that young swimmers with faster front crawl sprint swimming performance trend to have smaller pennation angle and greater absolute and relative fascicle length (relative to limb length) in their locomotor muscles. Potentially, fascicle geometry developed in faster swimmers to help them to perform higher speed movement via higher

  13. Relationship between sprint performance of front crawl swimming and muscle fascicle length in young swimmers.

    PubMed

    Nasirzade, Alireza; Ehsanbakhsh, Alireza; Ilbeygi, Saeed; Sobhkhiz, Azadeh; Argavani, Hamed; Aliakbari, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between 25-m sprint front crawl swimming performance and muscle fascicle length in young male swimmers. 23 swimmers were selected and divided into two groups according to their best records of 25-m sprint performance: 14.6-15.7 sec (S1, n = 11) and 15.8-17 sec (S2, n = 12). Muscle thickness and pennation angle of Biceps Brachii (BB; only muscle thickness), Triceps Brachii (TB), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Gastrocnemius Medialis (GM) and Lateralis (GL) muscles were measured by B-mode ultrasonography, and fascicle length was estimated. Although, there was no significant differences between groups in anthropometrical parameter as standing height, body mass, arm length, thigh length and leg length (p < 0.001), however, S1 significantly had a greater muscle thickness in VL, GL, and TB muscles (p < 0.05). Pennation angle only in TB was significantly smaller in S1 (p < 0.05). S1 in VL, GL, and TB muscles significantly had greater absolute fascicle length and in VL and TB muscles had relatively (relative to limb length) greater fascicle length (p < 0.05). Moreover, there was a significant relationship between sprint swimming time and absolute and relative fascicle length in VL (absolute: r = -0.49 and relative: r = -0.43, both p < 0.05) and GL (absolute: r = -0.47 and relative: r = -0.42, both p < 0.05). Potentially, it seems that fascicle geometry developed in muscles of faster young swimmers to help them to perform their high speed movement. Key PointsThis study investigated the relationship between muscle fascicle length and sprint front crawl performance in young male swimmers.It seems that young swimmers with faster front crawl sprint swimming performance trend to have smaller pennation angle and greater absolute and relative fascicle length (relative to limb length) in their locomotor muscles.Potentially, fascicle geometry developed in faster swimmers to help them to perform higher speed movement via higher

  14. Effect of dry needling of gluteal muscles on straight leg raise: a randomised, placebo controlled, double blind trial

    PubMed Central

    Huguenin, L; Brukner, P; McCrory, P; Smith, P; Wajswelner, H; Bennell, K

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To use a randomised, double blind, placebo controlled trial to establish the effect on straight leg raise, hip internal rotation, and muscle pain of dry needling treatment to the gluteal muscles in athletes with posterior thigh pain referred from gluteal trigger points. Results: Magnetic resonance imaging scans revealed normal hamstring musculature in most subjects. Straight leg raise and hip internal rotation remained unchanged in both groups at all times. Visual analogue scale assessment of hamstring pain and tightness and gluteal tightness after running showed improvements immediately after the intervention in both groups (p = 0.001), which were maintained at 24 and 72 hours. The magnitude of this improvement was the same for therapeutic and placebo interventions. Resting muscle pain and tightness were unaffected. Conclusions: Neither dry needling nor placebo needling of the gluteal muscles resulted in any change in straight leg raise or hip internal rotation. Both interventions resulted in subjective improvement in activity related muscle pain and tightness. Despite being commonly used clinical tests in this situation, straight leg raise and hip internal rotation are not likely to help the therapist assess response to treatment. Patient reports of response to such treatment are better indicators of its success. The mechanisms by which these responses occur and the reasons for the success of the placebo needling treatment are areas for further investigation. PMID:15665203

  15. Effect of muscle metaboreflex activation on spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity during exercise in humans.

    PubMed

    Hartwich, Doreen; Dear, William E; Waterfall, Jessica L; Fisher, James P

    2011-12-15

    We sought to determine whether the activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) is a potential mechanism for the decrease in spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (cBRS) during exercise in humans. In protocol 1, 15 male subjects (22 ± 1 years) performed steady-state leg cycling at low (26 ± 4 W) and moderate workloads (105 ± 7 W), under free-flow conditions and with partial flow restriction (bilateral thigh cuff inflation at 100 mmHg) to evoke muscle metaboreflex activation during exercise. In protocol 2, rhythmic handgrip exercise at 35% maximum voluntary contraction was performed with progressive upper arm cuff inflation (0, 80, 100 and 120 mmHg) to elicit graded metaboreflex activation. Both protocols were followed by post-exercise ischaemia (PEI) to isolate the muscle metaboreflex. Leg cycling-induced increases in HR and mean BP were augmented by partial flow restriction (P < 0.05 vs. free flow), while HR and mean BP both remained elevated during PEI (P < 0.05 vs. rest). Leg cycling evoked an intensity-dependent decrease in cBRS (16 ± 2, 7 ± 1 and 2 ± 0.2 ms mmHg(-1) at rest, low and moderate workloads, respectively; P < 0.05), which was further reduced with partial flow restriction (by -2.6 ± 0.8 and -0.4 ± 0.1 ms mmHg(-1) at low and moderate workloads). cBRS remained suppressed during PEI following leg cycling with partial flow restriction (4 ± 1 ms mmHg(-1); P < 0.05 vs. rest). cBRS was unchanged during handgrip under free-flow conditions, handgrip with partial flow restriction and PEI following handgrip (P > 0.05 vs. rest). These data indicate that the activation of metabolically sensitive skeletal muscle afferents (muscle metaboreflex) decreases cardiac baroreflex responsiveness during leg cycling exercise in humans.

  16. Human soleus and vastus lateralis muscle protein metabolism with an amino acid infusion.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Chad C; Fluckey, James D; Williams, Rick H; Sullivan, Dennis H; Trappe, Todd A

    2005-03-01

    The calf muscles, compared with the thigh, are less responsive to resistance exercise in ambulatory and bed-rested individuals, apparently due to muscle-specific differences in protein metabolism. We chose to evaluate the efficacy of using amino acids to elevate protein synthesis in the soleus, because amino acids have been shown to have a potent anabolic effect in the vastus lateralis. Mixed muscle protein synthesis in the soleus and vastus lateralis was measured before and after infusion of mixed amino acids in 10 individuals (28 +/- 1 yr). Phosphorylation of ribosomal protein p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K; Thr389) and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1; Thr37/46) was also evaluated at rest and after 3 h of amino acid infusion. Basal protein synthesis was similar (P = 0.126), and amino acids stimulated protein synthesis to a similar extent (P = 0.004) in the vastus lateralis (0.043 +/- 0.011%/h) and soleus (0.032 +/- 0.017%/h). Phosphorylation of p70S6K (P = 0.443) and 4E-BP1 (P = 0.192) was not increased in either muscle; however, the soleus contained more total (P = 0.002) and phosphorylated (P = 0.013) 4E-BP1 than the vastus lateralis. These data support the need for further study of amino acid supplementation as a means to compensate for the reduced effectiveness of calf resistance exercise in ambulatory individuals and those exposed to extended periods of unloading. The greater 4E-BP1 in the soleus suggests that there is a muscle-specific distribution of general translational initiation machinery in human skeletal muscle.

  17. Tribute to Dr Jacques Rogge: muscle activity and fatigue during hiking in Olympic dinghy sailing.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, Jan G; Dumortier, Jasmien; Callewaert, Margot; Celie, Bert; Capelli, Carlo; Sjøgaard, Gisela; De Clercq, Dirk; Boone, Jan

    2017-03-19

    'A tribute to Dr J. Rogge' aims to systematically review muscle activity and muscle fatigue during sustained submaximal quasi-isometric knee extension exercise (hiking) related to Olympic dinghy sailing as a tribute to Dr Rogge's merits in the world of sports. Dr Jacques Rogge is not only the former President of the International Olympic Committee, he was also an orthopaedic surgeon and a keen sailor, competing at three Olympic Games. In 1972, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Sports Medicine, he was the first who studied a sailors' muscle activity by means of invasive needle electromyography (EMG) during a specific sailing technique (hiking) on a self-constructed sailing ergometer. Hiking is a bilateral and multi-joint submaximal quasi-isometric movement which dinghy sailors use to optimize boat speed and to prevent the boat from capsizing. Large stresses are generated in the anterior muscles that cross the knee and hip joint, mainly employing the quadriceps at an intensity of 30-40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), sometimes exceeding 100% MVC. Better sailing level is partially determined by a lower rate of neuromuscular fatigue during hiking and for ≈60% predicted by a higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength. Although useful in exercise testing, prediction of hiking endurance capacity based on the changes in surface EMG in thigh and trunk muscles during a hiking maintenance task is not reliable. This could probably be explained by the varying exercise intensity and joint angles, and the great number of muscles and joints involved in hiking.

  18. Whole-Body Vibration and the Prevention and Treatment of Delayed-Onset Muscle Soreness

    PubMed Central

    Aminian-Far, Atefeh; Hadian, Mohammad-Reza; Olyaei, Gholamreza; Talebian, Saeed; Bakhtiary, Amir Hoshang

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Context: Numerous recovery strategies have been used in an attempt to minimize the symptoms of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Whole-body vibration (WBV) has been suggested as a viable warm-up for athletes. However, scientific evidence to support the protective effects of WBV training (WBVT) on muscle damage is lacking. Objective: To investigate the acute effect of WBVT applied before eccentric exercise in the prevention of DOMS. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 32 healthy, untrained volunteers were randomly assigned to either the WBVT (n  =  15) or control (n  =  17) group. Intervention(s): Volunteers performed 6 sets of 10 maximal isokinetic (60°/s) eccentric contractions of the dominant-limb knee extensors on a dynamometer. In the WBVT group, the training was applied using a vibratory platform (35 Hz, 5 mm peak to peak) with 100° of knee flexion for 60 seconds before eccentric exercise. No vibration was applied in the control group. Main Outcome Measure(s): Muscle soreness, thigh circumference, and pressure pain threshold were recorded at baseline and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 14 days postexercise. Maximal voluntary isometric and isokinetic knee extensor strength were assessed at baseline, immediately after exercise, and at 1, 2, 7, and 14 days postexercise. Serum creatine kinase was measured at baseline and at 1, 2, and 7 days postexercise. Results: The WBVT group showed a reduction in DOMS symptoms in the form of less maximal isometric and isokinetic voluntary strength loss, lower creatine kinase levels, and less pressure pain threshold and muscle soreness (P < .05) compared with the control group. However, no effect on thigh circumference was evident (P < .05). Conclusions: Administered before eccentric exercise, WBVT may reduce DOMS via muscle function improvement. Further investigation should be undertaken to ascertain the effectiveness of WBVT in

  19. Variable gearing in pennate muscles.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Emanuel; Brainerd, Elizabeth L; Roberts, Thomas J

    2008-02-05

    Muscle fiber architecture, i.e., the physical arrangement of fibers within a muscle, is an important determinant of a muscle's mechanical function. In pennate muscles, fibers are oriented at an angle to the muscle's line of action and rotate as they shorten, becoming more oblique such that the fraction of force directed along the muscle's line of action decreases throughout a contraction. Fiber rotation decreases a muscle's output force but increases output velocity by allowing the muscle to function at a higher gear ratio (muscle velocity/fiber velocity). The magnitude of fiber rotation, and therefore gear ratio, depends on how the muscle changes shape in the dimensions orthogonal to the muscle's line of action. Here, we show that gear ratio is not fixed for a given muscle but decreases significantly with the force of contraction (P < 0.0001). We find that dynamic muscle-shape changes promote fiber rotation at low forces and resist fiber rotation at high forces. As a result, gearing varies automatically with the load, to favor velocity output during low-load contractions and force output for contractions against high loads. Therefore, muscle-shape changes act as an automatic transmission system allowing a pennate muscle to shift from a high gear during rapid contractions to low gear during forceful contractions. These results suggest that variable gearing in pennate muscles provides a mechanism to modulate muscle performance during mechanically diverse functions.

  20. Painful unilateral temporalis muscle enlargement: reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Katsetos, Christos D; Bianchi, Michael A; Jaffery, Fizza; Koutzaki, Sirma; Zarella, Mark; Slater, Robert

    2014-06-01

    An instance of isolated unilateral temporalis muscle hypertrophy (reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy with fiber type 1 predominance) confirmed by muscle biopsy with histochemical fiber typing and image analysis in a 62 year-old man is reported. The patient presented with bruxism and a painful swelling of the temple. Absence of asymmetry or other abnormalities of the craniofacial skeleton was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging and cephalometric analyses. The patient achieved symptomatic improvement only after undergoing botulinum toxin injections. Muscle biopsy is key in the diagnosis of reactive masticatory muscle hypertrophy and its distinction from masticatory muscle myopathy (hypertrophic branchial myopathy) and other non-reactive causes of painful asymmetric temporalis muscle enlargement.

  1. Individual variation and intraclass correlation in arachidonic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid in chicken muscle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Chicken meat with reduced concentration of arachidonic acid (AA) and reduced ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids has potential health benefits because a reduction in AA intake dampens prostanoid signaling, and the proportion between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids is too high in our diet. Analyses for fatty acid determination are expensive, and finding the optimal number of analyses to give reliable results is a challenge. The objective of the present study was i) to analyse the intraclass correlation of different fatty acids in five meat samples, of one gram each, within the same chicken thigh, and ii) to study individual variations in the concentrations of a range of fatty acids and the ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acid concentrations among fifteen chickens. Fifteen newly hatched broilers were fed a wheat-based diet containing 4% rapeseed oil and 1% linseed oil for three weeks. Five muscle samples from the mid location of the thigh of each chicken were analysed for fatty acid composition. The intraclass correlation (sample correlation within the same animal) was 0.85-0.98 for the ratios of total omega-6 to total omega-3 fatty acids and of AA to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This indicates that when studying these fatty acid ratios, one sample of one gram per animal is sufficient. However, due to the high individual variation between chicken for these ratios, a relatively high number of animals (minimum 15) are required to obtain a sufficiently high power to reveal significant effects of experimental factors (e.g. feeding regimes). The present experiment resulted in meat with a favorable concentration ratio between omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. The AA concentration varied from 1.5 to 2.8 g/100 g total fatty acids in thigh muscle in the fifteen broilers, and the ratio between AA and EPA concentrations ranged from 2.3 to 3.9. These differences among the birds may be due to genetic variance that can be exploited by breeding for lower AA

  2. Effect of cold water immersion performed on successive days on physical performance, muscle damage, and inflammatory, hormonal, and oxidative stress markers in volleyball players.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Victor H; Ramos, Solange P; Bara-Filho, Maurício G; Freitas, Daniel G S; Coimbra, Danilo R; Cecchini, Rubens; Guarnier, Flávia A; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2017-03-08

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of daily cold water immersion (CWI) on physical performance, muscle damage, and inflammatory, hormonal, and oxidative stress markers in volleyball. Six players were submitted to CWI and six players to a placebo, during 5 training days. Thigh circumference, squat jump, and agility were measured on the 1, 3 and 6 days. On the 1 and 6 days, blood and saliva were collected for analysis of oxidative stress, muscle damage, and inflammatory and hormonal levels. Muscle soreness and countermovement jump were quantified daily. The physical performance comparisons did not present differences and the only between group comparison with a large effect size (ES = -1.39) was in Δ% between day 1 and day 2 for CMJ. DOMS and creatine kinase increased in both groups and the ES of between group comparisons of Δ% between moments were not more than moderate. Thigh circumference increased only in the placebo group (P = 0.04) and the ES of the between group comparisons of Δ% between moments was large (1.53). No differences were found in oxidative stress, or inflammatory markers. Cortisol decreased only in the CWI-group (P < 0.05) and the ES of the between group comparisons of Δ% between moments of the testosterone/cortisol ratio (- 1.94) and IGF-1 (- 1.34) were large. Despite the positive effects of daily CWI on muscle edema and hormonal status, the limited effects of CWI on performance, muscle damage, inflammation markers, and ROS mediators signal the unimportance of the daily practice of this recovery method in volleyball players.

  3. Acute effects of anterior thigh foam rolling on hip angle, knee angle, and rectus femoris length in the modified Thomas test

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Gregory J.; Contreras, Bret; Beardsley, Chris; Chung, Bryan; Feser, Erin H.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Foam rolling has been shown to acutely increase range of motion (ROM) during knee flexion and hip flexion with the experimenter applying an external force, yet no study to date has measured hip extensibility as a result of foam rolling with controlled knee flexion and hip extension moments. The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effects of foam rolling on hip extension, knee flexion, and rectus femoris length during the modified Thomas test. Methods. Twenty-three healthy participants (male = 7; female = 16; age = 22 ± 3.3 years; height = 170 ± 9.18 cm; mass = 67.7 ± 14.9 kg) performed two, one-minute bouts of foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh. Hip extension and knee flexion were measured via motion capture before and after the foam rolling intervention, from which rectus femoris length was calculated. Results. Although the increase in hip extension (change = +1.86° (+0.11, +3.61); z(22) = 2.08; p = 0.0372; Pearson’s r = 0.43 (0.02, 0.72)) was not due to chance alone, it cannot be said that the observed changes in knee flexion (change = −1.39° (−5.53, +2.75); t(22) = −0.70; p = 0.4933; Cohen’s d = − 0.15 (−0.58, 0.29)) or rectus femoris length (change = −0.005 (−0.013, +0.003); t(22) = −1.30; p = 0.2070; Cohen’s d = − 0.27 (−0.70, 0.16)) were not due to chance alone. Conclusions. Although a small change in hip extension was observed, no changes in knee flexion or rectus femoris length were observed. From these data, it appears unlikely that foam rolling applied to the anterior thigh will improve passive hip extension and knee flexion ROM, especially if performed in combination with a dynamic stretching protocol. PMID:26421244

  4. Pharmacodynamics of TD-1792, a novel glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer antibiotic used against Gram-positive bacteria, in a neutropenic murine thigh model.

    PubMed

    Hegde, Sharath S; Okusanya, Olanrewaju O; Skinner, Robert; Shaw, Jeng-Pyng; Obedencio, Glenmar; Ambrose, Paul G; Blais, Johanne; Bhavnani, Sujata M

    2012-03-01

    TD-1792 is a novel glycopeptide-cephalosporin heterodimer investigational antibiotic that displays potent bactericidal effects against clinically relevant Gram-positive organisms in vitro. The present studies evaluated the in vivo pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of TD-1792 in the neutropenic murine thigh infection animal model. TD-1792, dosed subcutaneously (SC), produced dose-dependent reduction in the thigh bacterial burden of several organisms, including methicillin-susceptible and -resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MSSA, MRSA, MSSE, MRSE, respectively), penicillin-susceptible strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP), Streptococcus pyogenes, and vancomycin-intermediate-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (VISA). In single-dose efficacy studies, the 1-log(10) CFU kill effective dose (ED(1-log kill)) estimates for TD-1792 ranged from 0.049 to 2.55 mg/kg of body weight administered SC, and the bacterial burden was reduced by up to 3 log(10) CFU/g from pretreatment values. Against S. aureus ATCC 33591 (MRSA), the total 24-h log(10) stasis dose (ED(stasis)) and ED(1-logkill) doses for TD-1792 were 0.53 and 1.11 mg/kg/24 h, respectively, compared to 23.4 and 54.6 mg/kg/24 h for vancomycin, indicating that TD-1762 is 44- to 49-fold more potent than vancomycin. PK-PD analysis of data from single-dose and dose-fractionation studies for MRSA (ATCC 33591) demonstrated that the total-drug 24-h area under the concentration-time curve-to-MIC ratio (AUC/MIC ratio) was the best predictor of efficacy (r(2) = 0.826) compared to total-drug maximum plasma concentration of drug-to-MIC ratio (Cmax/MIC ratio; r(2) = 0.715) and percent time that the total-drug plasma drug concentration remains above the MIC (%Time>MIC; r(2) = 0.749). The magnitudes of the total-drug AUC/MIC ratios associated with net bacterial stasis, a 1-log(10) CFU reduction from baseline and near maximal effect, were 21.1, 37.2, and 51.8, respectively. PK

  5. Differences in helminth infections between captive and wild spur-thighed tortoises Testudo graeca in southern Spain: a potential risk of reintroductions of this species.

    PubMed

    Chávarri, Malva; Berriatua, Eduardo; Giménez, Andrés; Gracia, Eva; Martínez-Carrasco, Carlos; Ortiz, Juana M; de Ybáñez, Rocío Ruiz

    2012-07-06

    Although the spur-thighed tortoise, Testudo graeca, is one of the most widely distributed species of tortoises, its natural populations are threatened through its whole range. Particularly at south-eastern Spain, the species is mainly threatened by habitat destruction and over-collection, given that this chelonian has been traditionally considered an appreciate pet. As south-eastern Spanish wildlife recovery centers shelter hundreds of captive animals mainly coming from illegal trade or captive-bred, there is a strong debate about what to do with these animals: maintaining them in captivity all along their lives or reintroducing them to wildlife. It is well known that the reintroduction of captive animals supposes a risk for the wild population due to the uncertainty of their genetic origin and to the possible spread of infectious diseases. However, despite the increasing evidence that infectious agents are a potential health hazard for wildlife, little is known about the risk that introduced parasites could suppose for the wild populations of spur-thighed tortoise. The present study investigates for the first time the presence of helminth eggs and worms in faeces from 107 wild and captive individuals collected from mid-March to mid-June 2010, and relates the findings to different environmental and host variables. Sixteen oxyurid species and the ascarid Angusticaecum holopterum were identified. This last nematode and the oxyurid species Tachygonetria palearticus and T. seurati had not been reported in Spanish wild T. graeca previously. The prevalence of oxyurid eggs and worms were 94% and 70%, respectively; while, ascarid eggs and worms were found in 26% and 5% of tortoises, respectively. Ascarid infections affected mostly captive animals and were associated to caparace deformities and symptoms of upper respiratory tract disease (p<0.05). Oxyurid infections were not associated to negative health traits and prevalence increased with age. In free-living tortoises

  6. Effect of very low-intensity resistance training with slow movement on muscle size and strength in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yuya; Madarame, Haruhiko; Ogasawara, Riki; Nakazato, Koichi; Ishii, Naokata

    2014-11-01

    We previously reported that low-intensity [50% of one repetition maximum (1RM)] resistance training with slow movement and tonic force generation (LST) causes muscle hypertrophy and strength gain in older participants. The aim of this study was to determine whether resistance training with slow movement and much more reduced intensity (30%1RM) increases muscle size and strength in older adults. Eighteen participants (60-77 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. One group performed very low-intensity (30% 1RM) knee extension exercise with continuous muscle contraction (LST: 3-s eccentric, 3-s concentric, and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between each repetition) twice a week for 12 weeks. The other group underwent intermitted muscle contraction (CON: 1-s concentric and 1-s eccentric actions with 1-s rest between each repetition) for the same time period. The 1RM, isometric and isokinetic strengths, and cross-sectional image of the mid-thigh obtained by magnetic resonance imaging were examined before and after the intervention. LST significantly increased the cross-sectional area of the quadriceps muscle (5.0%, P<0.001) and isometric and isokinetic knee extension strengths (P<0.05). CON failed to increase muscle size (1.1%, P = 0.12), but significantly improved its strength (P<0.05). These results indicate that even if the intensity is as low as 30% 1RM, LST can increase muscle size and strength in healthy older adults. The large total contraction time may be related to muscle hypertrophy and strength gain. LST would be useful for preventing sarcopenia in older individuals.

  7. Skeletal muscle-smooth muscle interaction: an unusual myoelastic system.

    PubMed

    Hikida, R S; Peterson, W J

    1983-09-01

    The serratus superficialis metapatagialis (SSM) of pigeons is a skeletal muscle with unusual properties. It lies between the ribs and the trailing edge of the wing, where it is attached to the skin by a system of smooth muscles having elastic tendons. Wing movements during flight induce marked changes in this muscle's length. The SSM inserts onto the deep fascia, and at its termination the skeletal muscle contains large numbers of microtubules. Many myofibrils attach to leptomeric organelles, which then attach to the terminal end of the skeletal muscle fiber. The deep fascia next connects to the dermis of the skin by bundles of smooth muscles that have elastic tendons at both ends. This system allows large movements of the muscle while preventing its fibers from overstretching. The movements and presumed forces acting at this muscle make the presence of sensory receptors such as muscle spindles unlikely. Spindles are absent in this muscle.

  8. Muscle Fiber Types and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Jason R.

    2001-01-01

    The specific types of fibers that make up individual muscles greatly influence how people will adapt to their training programs. This paper explains the complexities of skeletal muscles, focusing on types of muscle fibers (slow-twitch and fast-twitch), recruitment of muscle fibers to perform a motor task, and determining fiber type. Implications…

  9. Research opportunities in muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbison, G. J. (Editor); Talbot, J. M. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    Muscle atrophy in a weightless environment is studied. Topics of investigation include physiological factors of muscle atrophy in space flight, biochemistry, countermeasures, modelling of atrophied muscle tissue, and various methods of measurement of muscle strength and endurance. A review of the current literature and suggestions for future research are included.

  10. Muscle function loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Paralytic shellfish poisoning Periodic paralysis Focal nerve injury Polio Spinal cord injury Stroke Home Care Sudden loss ... Barré syndrome Muscle cramps Poisoning - fish and shellfish Polio Stroke Review Date 2/27/2016 Updated by: ...

  11. Muscle biopsy (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A muscle biopsy involves removal of a plug of tissue usually by a needle to be later used for examination. Sometimes ... there is a patchy condition expected an open biopsy may be used. Open biopsy involves a small ...

  12. Neurogenic muscle cramps.

    PubMed

    Katzberg, Hans D

    2015-08-01

    Muscle cramps are sustained, painful contractions of muscle and are prevalent in patients with and without medical conditions. The objective of this review is to present updates on the mechanism, investigation and treatment of neurogenic muscle cramps. PubMed and Embase databases were queried between January 1980 and July 2014 for English-language human studies. The American Academy of Neurology classification of studies (classes I-IV) was used to assess levels of evidence. Mechanical disruption, ephaptic transmission, disruption of sensory afferents and persistent inward currents have been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurogenic cramps. Investigations are directed toward identifying physiological triggers or medical conditions predisposing to cramps. Although cramps can be self-limiting, disabling or sustained muscle cramps should prompt investigation for underlying medical conditions. Lifestyle modifications, treatment of underlying conditions, stretching, B-complex vitamins, diltiezam, mexiletine, carbamazepine, tetrahydrocannabinoid, leveteracitam and quinine sulfate have shown evidence for treatment.

  13. Metabolic Diseases of Muscle

    MedlinePlus

    ... levels of fats, which are the major muscle energy fuels for those with the disorder. A partial deficiency ... genetic defect ( ) interferes with the processing of specific fuels, energy shortages can occur and toxic byproducts may build ...

  14. Buccinator muscle repositioning

    PubMed Central

    Baghele, Om N.

    2012-01-01

    Anatomical aberrations and abnormalities are frequently associated with functional, psychosocial, and emotional problems. One such aberration is crestal attachment of frenum or muscle on the alveolar processes of the jaws. Crestal attachment of buccinator muscle is a rare phenomenon, which may pose various problems in routine oral exercises/functions or restoring the edentulous area. A case of abnormal buccinator muscle attachment is presented here, which was relocated apically by surgical means using an acrylic stent. The healing was uneventful and significant apical repositioning was observed. A fixed bridge was fabricated and the long-term results of the restorative therapy were assured because the patient could maintain the oral hygiene well after the muscle repositioning operation. PMID:23162347

  15. Motor units in a skeletal muscle of neonatal rat: mechanical properties and weak neuromuscular transmission.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, S P; Ridge, R M

    1987-01-01

    1. Isometric twitch and tetanic tensions were recorded from whole muscles and single motor units in isolated fourth deep lumbrical muscles from neonatal rats (most at 3-5 days old) and from older rats of various ages. 2. Whole-muscle time to peak contraction reduced from about 120 ms at birth to about 20-25 ms at 20 days and older. 3. The number of motor units in the muscle was constant with age (eleven on average) and there was no significant branching of motor axons below the common peroneal nerve branching point in the thigh. 4. In the 3-5 days age range, mean twitch:tetanus ratio for whole muscles was 0.299 and for single units was 0.177. As a consequence, mean motor unit size (as a percentage of whole-muscle tension) was greater for tetani (29.7%) than for twitches (19.9%). This was not the case in muscles from animals 22 days or older. Evidence is given that the cause of this is low junctional efficacy in some neuromuscular junctions in neonatal muscle. Intracellular recordings supported this view. 5. The relationships of motor-unit size to the contraction time, to the ratio of contraction time:half-relaxation time, and to fatigue index are given. There was no indication of clear segregation of motor units into more than one population, but it is concluded that small motor units are more likely to contain a higher proportion of slowly contracting, fatigue-resistant fibres than large units. 6. The level of overlap by axons in the lateral plantar nerve onto muscle fibres in a single sural nerve motor unit was greater in tetani than in twitches. The results indicate that the distribution of weak and strong inputs was not random, but that there was a tendency for one strong input to accompany a number of weak inputs (on average about two) on each muscle fibre. 7. Intracellular recording indicates that about 12% of fibres at 3-5 days may be electrically coupled. PMID:2824760

  16. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components. PMID:26443857

  17. An invertebrate smooth muscle with striated muscle myosin filaments.

    PubMed

    Sulbarán, Guidenn; Alamo, Lorenzo; Pinto, Antonio; Márquez, Gustavo; Méndez, Franklin; Padrón, Raúl; Craig, Roger

    2015-10-20

    Muscle tissues are classically divided into two major types, depending on the presence or absence of striations. In striated muscles, the actin filaments are anchored at Z-lines and the myosin and actin filaments are in register, whereas in smooth muscles, the actin filaments are attached to dense bodies and the myosin and actin filaments are out of register. The structure of the filaments in smooth muscles is also different from that in striated muscles. Here we have studied the structure of myosin filaments from the smooth muscles of the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni. We find, surprisingly, that they are indistinguishable from those in an arthropod striated muscle. This structural similarity is supported by sequence comparison between the schistosome myosin II heavy chain and known striated muscle myosins. In contrast, the actin filaments of schistosomes are similar to those of smooth muscles, lacking troponin-dependent regulation. We conclude that schistosome muscles are hybrids, containing striated muscle-like myosin filaments and smooth muscle-like actin filaments in a smooth muscle architecture. This surprising finding has broad significance for understanding how muscles are built and how they evolved, and challenges the paradigm that smooth and striated muscles always have distinctly different components.

  18. Muscle as a secretory organ.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Bente K

    2013-07-01

    Skeletal muscle is the largest organ in the body. Skeletal muscles are primarily characterized by their mechanical activity required for posture, movement, and breathing, which depends on muscle fiber contractions. However, skeletal muscle is not just a component in our locomotor system. Recent evidence has identified skeletal muscle as a secretory organ. We have suggested that cytokines and other peptides that are produced, expressed, and released by muscle fibers and exert either autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine effects should be classified as "myokines." The muscle secretome consists of several hundred secreted peptides. This finding provides a conceptual basis and a whole new paradigm for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, bones, and brain. In addition, several myokines exert their effects within the muscle itself. Many proteins produced by skeletal muscle are dependent upon contraction. Therefore, it is likely that myokines may contribute in the mediation of the health benefits of exercise.

  19. The effects of a pelvic belt on trunk and lower extremity muscles in the bridge position

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Hyun-Gyu; Wu, Yan-Ting; Kim, Myoung-Kwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a pelvic belt on the activities of trunk and lower extremity muscles in normal adults. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 20 normal individuals without a history of orthopedic problems. The pelvic compression belt (The Com-Pressor, OPTP, Minneapolis, MN, USA) was an adjustable body belt with four elastic compression bands that provide stabilizing pressure and was designed to adjust the amount of force applied and to alter sites of compression. The body belt was placed below the anterior superior iliac spine, and stabilizing pressure was applied to the belt using the elastic compression bands in the bridge position after confirming the site of compression. [Results] The subjects showed a significant decrease in muscle activation in the erector spinae, oblique internus abdominis, rectus femoris, and biceps femoris while wearing the pelvic belt. [Conclusion] The use of a pelvic compression belt with external pelvic compression might improve pelvic joint stability and alter neuromotor control of the lumbopelvic and thigh muscles. PMID:28174437

  20. Preliminary traction and the use of under-thigh pillows to prevent avascular necrosis of the femoral head in Pavlik harness treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Seto, Y; Futami, T; Kashiwagi, N

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-one hips of 145 patients were treated with the Pavlik harness for developmental dysplasia of the hip. The patients were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 65 patients (70 hips) who were treated between 1980 and 1987. The harness was applied immediately after the diagnosis. Group B consisted of 80 patients (91 hips) who were treated between 1988 and 1992. These patients received preliminary traction, and small pillows supported the lower extremities from just above the knee to the foot to prevent extreme abduction when the harness was applied. When the distance from the middle point of the proximal metaphyseal border of the femur to the Y-line (distance "a") was 8 mm or more on the initial X-ray picture, the rate of avascular necrosis in group A was 11% and that in group B was 0%; the difference was significant. However, when distance "a" was less than 8 mm, the rate of avascular necrosis in group A was 13% and that in group B was 12%, and there was no significant difference. Thus, we suggest that the Pavlik harness is indicated for developmental dysplasia of the hip in which distance "a" is 8 mm or more. Traction should precede application of the harness, and pillows placed under the thigh must be used during application.

  1. Mullerian-Type Ciliated Cyst of the Thigh with PAX-8 and WT1 Positivity: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fabien-Dupuis, Corinthia; Cooper, Brian; Upperman, Jeffrey; Zhou, Shengmei

    2016-01-01

    Mullerian-type ciliated cysts are uncommon lesions usually found in the lower extremities and perineal region of young females. They have however been reported in males and in other anatomic sites. The cyst lining is typically positive for estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), PAX-8, and WT1 immunohistochemical stains. This staining pattern has led to the notion that these cysts are of Müllerian origin. The vast majority of cases are located in the dermis where the preferred nomenclature is cutaneous ciliated cyst (CCC). We report a case of Müllerian-type ciliated cyst in the thigh of a 16-year-old girl. Unlike most of the cases reported in the English literature, this cyst was not centered in the dermis. Only a few other cases of Müllerian-type ciliated cysts with no cutaneous connection have been reported. We propose the term ectopic Müllerian cyst for this rare subset of lesions that are not skin based as is the current case. PMID:28070193

  2. Changes in T2-weighted MRI of supinator muscle, pronator teres muscle, and extensor indicis muscle with manual muscle testing

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kazuya; Akiyama, Sumikazu; Takamori, Masayoshi; Otsuka, D. Eng, Hiroshi; Seo, Yoshiteru

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] In order to detect muscle activity with manual muscle testing, T2-weighted magnetic resonance (T2w-MR) images were detected by a 0.2 T compact MRI system. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 3 adult males. Transverse T2-weighted multi-slice spin-echo images of the left forearm were measured by a 39 ms echo-time with a 2,000 ms repetition time, a 9.5 mm slice thickness, 1 accumulation and a total image acquisition time of 4 min 16 s. First, T2w-MR images in the resting condition were measured. Then, manipulative isometric contraction exercise (5 sec duration) to the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle or the extensor indicis muscle was performed using Borg’s rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale of 15–17. The T2w-MR images were measured immediately after the exercise. [Results] T2w-MR image intensities increased significantly in the supinator muscle, the pronator teres muscle and the extensor indicis muscle after the exercise. However, the image intensities in the rest of the muscle did not change. [Conclusion] Using T2w-MR images, we could detect muscle activity in a deep muscle, the supinator muscle, and a small muscle, the extensor indicis muscle. These results also support the reliability of the manual muscle testing method. PMID:28356621

  3. Muscle hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle after repetitive muscle activation: comparison to the biceps brachii muscle.

    PubMed

    Kashima, Koji; Higashinaka, Shuichi; Watanabe, Naoshi; Maeda, Sho; Shiba, Ryosuke

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle to those of the biceps brachii muscle during repetitive muscle movements. Seventeen asymptomatic female subjects participated in this study. Each subject, on separate days, undertook a 5-minute unilateral chewing gum task on the right side and a 5-minute flexion-extension exercise on the right hand with a 2kg dumbbell. Using a handheld hardness meter, muscle hardness was measured in the right masseter and in the biceps brachii muscle at eight time points (before the task, immediately after the task, and at 1, 3, 5, 10, 30, and 60 minutes after the task), and the data obtained before and after the task on each muscle were compared. Comparisons of the normalized data were also performed between the two muscles at each time point. As a result, a significant increase in muscle hardness was seen at 1 minute after the task in the biceps brachii muscle (p=0.0093). In contrast, the masseter muscle showed a tendency to lower hardness, with the lowest point of hardness occurring at 10 minutes after the task (p = 0.0160). Between the two muscles, there was a difference in the normalized data immediately after the task, and at 1, 5, and 10 minutes after the task (0.01 muscle hardness characteristics of the masseter muscle completely differed from those of the biceps brachii muscle after repetitive muscle activation.

  4. Comparison between near-infrared oximetry and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in the resting peripheral muscle under normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Marco; Ansjon, Ralf; Lind, Folke; Jonsson, Cathrine; Uusijarvi, Johan; Sumen, Gamze; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.

    1997-12-01

    We have used three different oximeters to study finger capillary SatO2, transcutaneous oxygen tension and vastus lateralis hemoglobin saturation and hemoglobin concentration in 6 volunteers under normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia. Simultaneously, the 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in the thigh muscles was assessed by planar scintigraphy. We found a highly selective uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO in the muscles of all subjects thighs. 99mTc-HMPAO uptake was significantly higher in hypoxia as compared to normoxia (p < 0.001). By comparing scintigraphy and tissue spectrophotometry (OMNIA), we observed a strong correlation between 99mTc-HMPAO uptake and hemoglobin saturation (R equals 0.96, p < 0.001) and a good correlation between 99mTc-HMPAO uptake and hemoglobin concentration (R equals 0.77, p < 0.05). These correlations indicate the occurrence of a protective vasodilatory response during hypobaric hypoxia. During hypoxia, none of the three methods used to measure oxygen saturation correlated with the actual arterial SatO2. This results suggest that different body districts react to hypoxia in a non-uniform manner. The role of the used NIRS instrumentation in assessing quantitative values needs further investigations.

  5. Comparison between near-infrared oximetry and 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in the resting peripheral muscle under normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagani, Marco; Ansjon, Ralf; Lind, Folke; Jonsson, Cathrine; Uusijarvi, Johan; Sumen, Gamze; Jacobsson, Hans; Larsson, Stig A.

    1998-01-01

    We have used three different oximeters to study finger capillary SatO2, transcutaneous oxygen tension and vastus lateralis hemoglobin saturation and hemoglobin concentration in 6 volunteers under normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia. Simultaneously, the 99mTc-HMPAO uptake in the thigh muscles was assessed by planar scintigraphy. We found a highly selective uptake of 99mTc-HMPAO in the muscles of all subjects thighs. 99mTc-HMPAO uptake was significantly higher in hypoxia as compared to normoxia (p < 0.001). By comparing scintigraphy and tissue spectrophotometry (OMNIA), we observed a strong correlation between 99mTc-HMPAO uptake and hemoglobin saturation (R equals 0.96, p < 0.001) and a good correlation between 99mTc-HMPAO uptake and hemoglobin concentration (R equals 0.77, p < 0.05). These correlations indicate the occurrence of a protective vasodilatory response during hypobaric hypoxia. During hypo