A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed.
Abstract A review of the ground beetles of the Ukrainian fauna is given. Almost 750 species from 117 genera of Carabidae are known to occur in the Ukraine. Approximately 450 species of ground beetles are registered in the Carpathian region. No less than 300 species of ground beetles are found in the forest zone. Approximately 400 species of Carabidae present in the forest-steppe zone are relatively similar in species composition to those in the forest territories. Some 450 species of Carabidae are inhabitants of the steppe zone. Representatives of many other regions of heterogeneous biotopes such as forest, semi desert, intrazonal, etc. can be found in the steppe areas. The fauna of Carabidae (ca. 100 species) of the lowlands of southern Ukraine (sandy biotopes), situated mostly in the Kherson region, is very peculiar. The fauna of the Crimean mountains contains about 300 species. Conservation measures for the Carabidae are discussed. PMID:21738430
Population size estimates of arthropod predators and parasitoids may paradoxically increase following insecticide applications. Previous research with ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) suggests such unusual results reflect increased arthropod movement and capture in traps rather than real chang...
Adult ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) abundance and diversity were documented on Conservation Research Program (CRP) agricultural lands in Delta Junction, Alaska (64ºN, 145º W). Twenty species were documented based on a total sample of 6,116 specimens collected during 2006 and 2007. Two speci...
With the registration and wide-spread use of insect growth regulators (e.g. tebufenozide and novaluron) for control of sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (F.) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in Louisiana, larvae of the ground beetle, Leptotrachelus dorsalis (F.) (Coleoptera: Carabidae) have become appar...
Ulyshen, Michael D., James L. Hanula, and Scott Horn
Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.
Ulyshen, Michael D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott
Pitfall traps provide an easy and inexpensive way to sample ground-dwelling arthropods (Spence and Niemela 1994; Spence et al. 1997; Abildsnes and Tommeras 2000) and have been used exclusively in many studies of the abundance and diversity of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae). Despite the popularity of this trapping technique, pitfall traps have many disadvantages. For example, they often fail to collect both small (Spence and Niemela 1994) and trap-shy species (Benest 1989), eventually deplete the local carabid population (Digweed et al. 1995), require a species to be ground-dwelling in order to be captured (Liebherr and Mahar 1979), and produce different results depending on trap diameter and material, type of preservative used, and trap placement (Greenslade 1964; Luff 1975; Work et al. 2002). Further complications arise from seasonal patterns of movement among the beetles themselves (Maelfait and Desender 1990), as well as numerous climatic factors, differences in plant cover, and variable surface conditions (Adis 1979). Because of these limitations, pitfall trap data give an incomplete picture of the carabid community and should be interpreted carefully. Additional methods, such as use of Berlese funnels and litter washing (Spence and Niemela 1994), collection from lights (Usis and MacLean 1998), and deployment of flight intercept devices (Liebherr and Mahar 1979; Paarmann and Stork 1987), should be incorporated in surveys to better ascertain the species composition and relative numbers of ground beetles. Flight intercept devices, like pitfall traps, have the advantage of being easy to use and replicate, but their value to carabid surveys is largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the effectiveness of Malaise traps for sampling ground beetles in a bottomland hardwood forest.
Background The Alpine region harbours one of the most diverse subterranean faunas in the world, with many species showing extreme morphological modifications. The ground beetles of tribe Trechini (Coleoptera, Carabidae) are among the best studied and widespread groups with abundance of troglobionts, but their origin and evolution is largely unknown. Results We sequenced 3.4 Kb of mitochondrial (cox1, rrnL, trnL, nad1) and nuclear (SSU, LSU) genes of 207 specimens of 173 mostly Alpine species, including examples of all subterranean genera but two plus a representation of epigean taxa. We applied Bayesian methods and maximum likelihood to reconstruct the topology and to estimate divergence times using a priori rates obtained for a related ground beetle genus. We found three main clades of late Eocene-early Oligocene origin: (1) the genus Doderotrechus and relatives; (2) the genus Trechus sensu lato, with most anisotopic subterranean genera, including the Pyrenean lineage and taxa from the Dinaric Alps; and (3) the genus Duvalius sensu lato, diversifying during the late Miocene and including all subterranean isotopic taxa. Most of the subterranean genera had an independent origin and were related to epigean taxa of the same geographical area, but there were three large monophyletic clades of exclusively subterranean species: the Pyrenean lineage, a lineage including subterranean taxa from the eastern Alps and the Dinarides, and the genus Anophthalmus from the northeastern Alps. Many lineages have developed similar phenotypes independently, showing extensive morphological convergence or parallelism. Conclusions The Alpine Trechini do not form a homogeneous fauna, in contrast with the Pyrenees, and show a complex scenario of multiple colonisations of the subterranean environment at different geological periods and through different processes. Examples go from populations of an epigean widespread species going underground with little morphological modifications to
Jaskuła, Radomir; Soszyńska-Maj, Agnieszka
Abstract This paper summarizes the current knowledge on winter active Carabidae in Central and Northern Europe. In total 73 winter active species are listed, based on literature and own observations. Ground beetles are among the three most numerous Coleoptera families active during the autumn to spring period. The winter community of Carabidae is composed both of larvae (mainly autumn breeding species) and adults, as well as of epigeic species and those inhabiting tree trunks. Supranivean fauna is characterized by lower species diversity than the subnivean fauna. The activity of ground beetles decreases in late autumn, is lowest during mid-winter and increases in early spring. Carabidae are noted as an important food source in the diet of insectivorous mammals. They are also predators, hunting small winter active invertebrates. PMID:21738431
Roza, André S; Mermudes, José R M
The tiger beetles (Carabidae: Cicindelinae) include about 2,822 species and 120 genera around the world. They are one of the most widely studied families of Coleoptera. However, the knowledge about their immature stages is incipient and usually restricted to the larval stages. Pupal characteristics have been among the most ignored aspects of tiger beetle biology. Here we compile and update the current knowledge of tiger beetle pupae.
Skvarla, Michael J.; Dowling, Ashley P. G.
Beetles (Coleoptera) are a charismatic group of insects targeted by collectors and often used in biodiversity surveys. As part of a larger project, we surveyed a small (4 hectare) plot in the Boston Mountains of Arkansas using 70 traps of 12 trap types and Berlese–Tullgren extraction of leaf litter and identified all Buprestidae, Carabidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionoidea (Anthribidae, Attelabidae, Brachyceridae, Brentidae, and Curculionidae excluding Scolytinae) to species. This resulted in the collection of 7,973 specimens representing 242 species arranged in 8 families. In a previous publication, we reported new state records and the number of specimens collected per species. In this publication, we used these data to determine the most effective collection method for four beetle groups: Carabidae, Cerambycidae, Curculionoidea (excluding Scolytinae), and Buprestidae. We found that the combination of pitfall and Malaise traps was most effective for Carabidae, Cerambycidae, and Curculionoidea, but that the combination of Malaise and green Lindgren funnel traps was most effective at collecting Buprestidae. Species accumulation curves did not become asymptotic and extrapolated rarefaction curves did not become asymptotic until 350–1,000 samples, suggesting that much more effort is required to completely inventory even a small site. Additionally, seasonal activity is presented for each species and the similarity and overlap between collecting dates and seasons is discussed for each family. PMID:28042105
Trach, Viacheslav A; Seeman, Owen D
A new genus and species of Schizogyniidae (Acari: Mesostigmata: Celaenopsoidea), Euroschizogynium calvum gen. nov. and sp. nov., associated with Scarites terricola Bonelli, 1813 (Coleoptera: Carabidae) is described from Ukraine, representing the first record of the family from the Palaearctic. Fusura civica Valle & Fox, 1966 is moved out of the Schizogyniidae and placed into the Megacelaenopsidae. A new diagnosis for the family Schizogyniidae and a key to genera are provided.
A morphological association between genitalia and ejaculates could provide insight into the function and evolution of genitalia. In this study, the morphologies of the ejaculates and male genitalia of 15 species of Pterostichini and two species of Platynini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described. All the species examined formed a spermatophore, the morphology of which could be classified into three types based on its relative volume in the female vaginal cavity and the presence or absence of a pluglike conformation. Male genital morphology could be divided into two types by the direction of the endophallus and gonopore. Species with a strongly bent endophallus invariably formed a pluglike spermatophore. The results suggest that the peculiar shape of endophallus found in some species of Pterostichini may function in forming the pluglike structure of the spermatophore.
Grzymala, Traci L.; Will, Kipling W.
Abstract A diagnosis of the South and Central American genus Cratocerus Dejean (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and a key to all species is provided. Eight species are recognized including six species that are newly described: Cratocerus sinesetosus sp. n. from French Guiana and Peru; Cratocerus multisetosus sp. n. from Costa Rica and Panama; Cratocerus tanyae sp. n. from Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Mexico; Cratocerus indupalmensis sp. n. a species widely distributed throughout Central and South America; Cratocerus kavanaughi sp. n. from French Guiana and Peru; and Cratocerus culpepperi sp. n. from Peru. A lectotype for Cratocerus sulcatus Chaudoir is designated. Habitus images are provided along with illustrations and images of male genitalia, female genitalia, and diagnostic morphological characters. PMID:25061348
Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A
An annotated catalogue of the species and subspecies of tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae, Cicindelinae) hitherto known from Angola is given. A total of 89 forms (74 species and 15 subspecies) is recorded from this southwestern country of Africa. Within this assemblage there are 31 endemic forms (33.3%). Some species are represented by only the holotype specimen (some without locality) or the type series. Others were recorded based on a single specimen. Records for six species previously unknow from Angola are given: Foveodromica sp. n. 1, Foveodromica sp. n. 2, Ophryodera rufomarginata bradshawi Péringuey, 1888, Elliptica muata parallelestriata (W. Horn, 1923), Lophyra differens (W. Horn, 1892) and Myriochila jucunda (Péringuey, 1892). A historical review, as well as some considerations on the distribution and conservation status of these beetles in Angola are also presented.
McCravy, K.W.; Willand, J.E.
Effects of six pitfall trap preservatives (5% acetic acid solution, distilled water, 70% ethanol, 50% ethylene glycol solution, 50% propylene glycol solution, and 10% saline solution) on collections of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied in a west-central Illinois deciduous forest from May to October 2005. A total of 819 carabids, representing 33 species and 19 genera, were collected. Saline produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid, ethanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, while distilled water produced significantly fewer captures than did acetic acid. Significant associations between numbers of captures and treatment were seen in four species: Amphasia interstitialis (Say), Calathus opaculus LeConte, Chlaenius nemoralis Say, and Cyclotrachelus sodalis (LeConte). Results of this study suggest that type of preservative used can have substantial effects on abundance and species composition of carabids collected in pitfall traps.
Yu, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang; Yang, Jian
This paper studied the occurrence of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) in the forest edge, the adjacent forest interior, and the surrounding grassland in southwestern China. Beetles were collected with pitfall traps along five replicated transects. Forest species rarely penetrated into the grassland from the forest interior, and the grassland specialists were not found in the forest interior. The forest edge hosted additional species from the adjacent grassland that increased its overall species richness. Nearly all forest species (23 of 24 species) and grassland species (13 of 15 species) can be found in the forest edge. Carabids of the forest edge were more similar to those of the forest interior than to those of the grassland by ordination and cluster analysis. Based on the specificity and fidelity, carabids can be distinguished into five species groups: habitat generalists, grassland-associated species, forest generalists, forest specialists, and edge-associated species. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that canopy cover and/or shrub cover were the most important factors in determining the richness, abundance, and diversity of carabids. The forest edge may serve as a transition zone for dispersal and re-colonization of carabid beetles from adjacent habitats and therefore is important for natural conservation.
Goosey, H B; McKenzie, S C; Rolston, M G; O'Neill, K M; Menalled, F D
Growing concerns about the environmental consequences of chemically based pest control strategies have precipitated a call for the development of integrated, ecologically based pest management programs. Carabid or ground beetles (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are an important group of natural enemies of common agricultural pests such as aphids, slugs, and other beetles. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is one of the most common forage crop species in the semi-arid western United States. In 2011, Montana alone produced 4.0 × 10(6 )Mg of alfalfa on 8.1 × 10(5 )ha for gross revenue in excess of US$4.3 × 10(8), making it the third largest crop by revenue. We conducted our study over the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons. Each year, our study consisted of three sites each with adjacent systems of monoculture alfalfa, alfalfa nurse cropped with hay barley, and an uncultivated refuge consisting of a variety of forbs and grasses. Carabid community structure differed and strong temporal shifts were detected during both 2012 and 2013. Multivariate fuzzy set ordination suggests that variation in canopy height among the three vegetation systems was primarily responsible for the differences observed in carabid community structure. Land managers may be able to enhance carabid species richness and total abundance by creating a heterogeneous vegetation structure, and nurse cropping in particular may be effective strategy to achieve this goal.
Hristovski, Slavčo; Guéorguiev, Borislav
The catalogue of the ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) of the Republic of Macedonia is the result of our permanent investigation during 15 years. It is based on the critical review of the data in 255 scientific publications and the revision of the collections deposited in the museums in Macedonia (Skopje and Struga), other European countries (Berlin, Budapest, Vienna, Sofia) and the first author's private collection. For all of the species and subspecies we have presented the known literature references, precise data for the studied material and overall distribution in the Republic of Macedonia. The study of the material resulted in new country records of 10 genera, 101 species and 25 subspecies. First detailed records are provided for another 47 species and subspecies, and additional material was studied of 482 species and subspecies. Type material of 18 species and subspecies was also examined. Thirteen species and one subspecies were rejected from the list of Macedonian ground beetles. Six more species are treated as questionable and were not included in the present list. As a result, the presence of 571 species and 234 subspecies (626 taxa in total) in Macedonia is confirmed. These taxa are arranged in 104 genera, 31 subtribes, 35 tribes and 13 subfamilies. The most numerous in term of the species are the genera Bembidion (60), Harpalus (48) and Amara (46), as well as Pterostichus (26), Ophonus (19), Carabus (16), Trechus (16), Brachinus (16) and Dyschirius (15).
Kulkarni, Sharavari S; Dosdall, Lloyd M; Spence, John R; Willenborg, Christian J
Olfactory ability is an element of fitness in many animals, guiding choices among alternatives such as mating partners or food. Ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae), exhibit preferences for prey, and some species are well-known weed seed predators. We used olfactometer-based bioassays to determine if olfactory stimuli are associated with detection of Brassica napus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Thlaspi arvense L. seeds by ground beetles characteristic of agroecosystems, and whether behavioural responses to seed odors depended on seed physiological state (imbibed or unimbibed). Imbibed B.napus seeds were preferred over other weed species by two of the three carabid species tested. Only A. littoralis responded significantly to unimbibed seeds of B. napus. Sensitivity to olfactory cues appeared to be highly specific as all carabid species discriminated between the olfactory cues of imbibed brassicaceous weed seeds, but did not discriminate between weed seeds that were unimbibed. Overall, our data suggest that depending on seed physiological state, odours can play an important role in the ability of carabids to find and recognize seeds of particular weed species.
Yu, Xiao-Dong; Luo, Tian-Hong; Zhou, Hong-Zhang
Edge effects resulting from logging on the distribution of carabid beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were studied across ecotones between regenerating and mature forests established after harvesting of old-growth forests 20 yr prior to this study in southwestern China. Using pitfall traps, beetles were collected along five ecotone transects using nine samples with a distance interval of 25 m each. Although no significant differences were found in species richness and abundance of carabids among all three habitats, i.e., mature forest, young regenerating stand, and edge habitat, rarefaction estimates of species richness indicated that traps in young regenerating stands accumulated species faster than those on mature forest interiors and forest edges. Carabid species composition of the forest edges was more similar to those of the mature forest interiors than to those of the young regenerating stands. Variability in species composition was significantly reduced in young stands, suggesting that the carabid community from young stands is more homogeneous than the one from mature forests. Although most species occurred in all habitats, some species were significantly more abundant in mature forests and/or edges than in young stands. Results indicated that edge effects on forest carabids may persist for at least 20 yr after disturbance.
Looney, Chris; Zack, Richard S.; LaBonte, James R.
Abstract In this paper we report on ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) collected from the Hanford Nuclear Reservation and Hanford National Monument (together the Hanford Site), which is located in south-central Washington State. The Site is a relatively undisturbed relict of the shrub-steppe habitat present throughout much of the western Columbia Basin before the westward expansion of the United States. Species, localities, months of capture, and capture method are reported for field work conducted between 1994 and 2002. Most species were collected using pitfall traps, although other capture methods were employed. Trapping results indicate the Hanford Site supports a diverse ground beetle community, with over 90% of the 92 species captured native to North America. Four species collected during the study period are newly recorded for Washington State: Bembidion diligens Casey, Calosoma obsoletum Say, Pseudaptinus rufulus (LeConte), and Stenolophus lineola (Fabricius). Based on these data, the Site maintains a diverse ground beetle fauna and, due to its size and diversity of habitats, is an important repository of shrub-steppe biodiversity. PMID:24715791
Olfactory ability is an element of fitness in many animals, guiding choices among alternatives such as mating partners or food. Ground beetles (Coleoptera; Carabidae), exhibit preferences for prey, and some species are well-known weed seed predators. We used olfactometer-based bioassays to determine if olfactory stimuli are associated with detection of Brassica napus L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Thlaspi arvense L. seeds by ground beetles characteristic of agroecosystems, and whether behavioural responses to seed odors depended on seed physiological state (imbibed or unimbibed). Imbibed B.napus seeds were preferred over other weed species by two of the three carabid species tested. Only A. littoralis responded significantly to unimbibed seeds of B. napus. Sensitivity to olfactory cues appeared to be highly specific as all carabid species discriminated between the olfactory cues of imbibed brassicaceous weed seeds, but did not discriminate between weed seeds that were unimbibed. Overall, our data suggest that depending on seed physiological state, odours can play an important role in the ability of carabids to find and recognize seeds of particular weed species. PMID:28107464
O'Rourke, Megan E; Liebman, Matt; Rice, Marlin E
Ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are important in agro-ecosystems as generalist predators of invertebrate pests and weed seeds and as prey for larger animals. However, it is not well understood how cropping systems affect ground beetles. Over a 2-yr period, carabids were monitored two times per month using pitfall traps in a conventional chemical input, 2-yr, corn/soybean rotation system and a low input, 4-yr, corn/soybean/triticale-alfalfa/alfalfa rotation system. Carabid assemblages were largely dominated by a few species across all cropping treatments with Poecilus chalcites Say comprising >70% of pitfall catches in both years of study. Overall carabid activity density and species richness were higher in the low input, 4-yr rotation compared with the conventionally managed, 2-yr rotation. There were greater differences in the temporal activity density and species richness of carabids among crops than within corn and soybean treatments managed with different agrichemical inputs and soil disturbance regimes. Detrended correspondence analysis showed strong yearly variation in carabid assemblages in all cropping treatments. The increase in carabid activity density and species richness observed in the 4-yr crop rotation highlights the potential benefits of diverse crop habitats for carabids and the possibility for managing natural enemies by manipulating crop rotations.
The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle's coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.
The morphological characteristics of sperm and reproductive organs may offer clues as to how reproductive systems have evolved. In this paper, the morphologies of the sperm and male reproductive organs of carabid beetles in the tribe Pterostichini (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are described, and the morphological associations among characters are examined. All species form sperm bundles in which the head of the sperm was embedded in a rod-shaped structure, i.e., spermatodesm. The spermatodesm shape (left-handed spiral, right-handed spiral, or without conspicuous spiral structure) and the condition of the sperm on the spermatodesm surface (with the tail free-moving or forming a thin, sheetlike structure) vary among species. In all species, the spiral directions of the convoluted seminal vesicles and vasa deferentia are the same on both sides of the body; that is, they show an asymmetric structure. The species in which the sperm bundle and the seminal vesicles both have a spiral structure could be classified into two types, with significant differences in sperm-bundle length between the two types. The species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle spiral of almost the same diameter have longer sperm bundles than the species with a sperm-bundle spiral and seminal-vesicle tube of almost the same diameter. In the former type, the spiral directions of the sperm bundles and seminal vesicles are inevitably the same, whereas they differ in some species with the later type. Therefore, increased sperm bundle length appears to have been facilitated by the concordance of the sperm bundle’s coiling direction with the coiling direction of the seminal vesicle.
Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, James L.; Mawdsley, Alice S.
Abstract A key is presented for the identification of the four species of Anthia Weber (Coleoptera: Carabidae) recorded from the Republic of South Africa: Anthia cinctipennis Lequien, Anthia circumscripta Klug, Anthia maxillosa (Fabricius), and Anthia thoracica (Thunberg). For each of these species, illustrations are provided of adult beetles of both sexes as well as illustrations of male reproductive structures, morphological redescriptions, discussions of morphological variation, annual activity histograms, and maps of occurrence localities in the Republic of South Africa. Maps of occurrence localities for these species are compared against ecoregional and vegetation maps of southern Africa; each species of Anthia shows a different pattern of occupancy across the suite of ecoregions and vegetation types in the Republic of South Africa. Information about predatory and foraging behaviors, Müllerian mimicry, and small-scale vegetation community associations is presented for Anthia thoracica based on field and laboratory studies in Kruger National Park, South Africa. PMID:22144866
Willand, J.E.; McCravy, K.W.
Diel activities of carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae) associated with a coal mine remnant and surrounding soybean field were studied in west-central Illinois from June through October 2002. A total of 1,402 carabids, representing 29 species and 17 genera, were collected using pitfall traps. Poecilus chalcites (Say) demonstrated roughly equal diurnal and nocturnal activity in June, but greater diurnal activity thereafter. Pterostichus permundus (Say), Cyclotrachelus seximpressus (LeConte), Amara obesa (Say), and Scarites quadriceps Chaudoir showed significant nocturnal activity. Associations between habitat and diel activity were found for three species: P. chalcites associated with the remnant and edge habitats showed greater diurnal activity than those associated with the soybean field; C. seximpressus was most active diurnally in the remnant, and Harpalus pensylvanicus (DeGeer) showed the greatest nocturnal activity in the remnant and edge habitats. We found significant temporal and habitat-related variation in diel activity among carabid species inhabiting agricultural areas in west-central Illinois.
Mawdsley, Jonathan R.; Erwin, Terry L.; Sithole, Hendrik; Mawdsley, Alice S.
Abstract Nearly one third of the described species of Cypholoba Chaudoir (Coleoptera: Carabidae) are known to inhabit the Republic of South Africa. A key and diagnostic notes are provided for their identification, as well as notes about way of life for some of the species based on observations in the Kruger National Park. Fifteen species and subspecies of the genus are recorded from the Republic of South Africa; adult specimens of each species and subspecies are illustrated and information about the distribution of each species in the Republic of South Africa is summarized and mapped: Cypholoba alstoni (Péringuey), Cypholoba alveolata (Brême), Cypholoba amatonga Péringuey, Cypholoba fritschi (Chaudoir), Cypholoba gracilis gracilis (Dejean), Cypholoba gracilis scrobiculata (Bertoloni), Cypholoba gracilis zuluana Basilewsky, Cypholoba graphipteroides graphipteroides (Guérin-Méneville), Cypholoba leucospilota semilaevis (Chaudoir), Cypholoba macilenta (Olivier), Cypholoba notata (Perroud), Cypholoba oberthueri seruana Strohmeyer, Cypholoba opulenta (Boheman), Cypholoba rutata (Péringuey), and Cypholoba tenuicollis aenigma (Dohrn). PMID:22539909
Webster, Reginald P; Demerchant, Ian
Dineutus assimilis Kirby and Dineutus discolor Aubé of the Family Gyrinidae are newly reported from New Brunswick, Canada. Four species of Carabidae, Agonum (Agonum) piceolum (LeConte), Bembidion (Pseudoperyphus) rufotinctum Chaudoir, Harpalus (Harpalus) opacipennis (Haldeman), and Pterostichus (Melanius) castor Goulet & Bousquet are newly reported from New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces, and one species of Dytiscidae, Liodessus noviaffinis Miller, is newly recorded for the province. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for each species.
Ernst, Crystal M; Hanelt, Ben; Buddle, Christopher M
The host-parasite associations between ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) and hairworms (Nematomorpha: Gordiida) collected from the Arctic (an understudied and ecologically important region) is described. Carabids and their parasites were collected from 12 sites spanning the 3 northernmost ecoclimatic zones of Canada (north boreal, subarctic, and high Arctic) using standardized methods. The beetles and hairworms were identified using traditional morphological approaches. Seven beetle species are recorded as hosts: Amara alpina, Pterostichus caribou, Pterostichus brevicornis, Pterostichus tareumiut, Pterostichus haematopus, Patrobus septentrionis, and Notiophilus borealis. All represent new host records (increasing the known North American host list from 14 to 21), and this is the first record of hairworm infection in the genus Notiophilus. Beetles from Banks Island, Northwest Territory, were infected in high numbers (11-19% per sampling period) and were used as an ecological case study. There was no significant relationship between infection status and host species, body size, or sex. Beetles collected in yellow pan traps and in wet habitats were more likely to be infected, likely due to water-seeking behavior induced by the parasites. Morphological examinations indicate that the hairworms collected from all locations represent a single, new species of Gordionus, making it only the sixth hairworm species and the third species of that genus found in Canada. Hosts are unknown for all other Canadian (and 1 Alaskan) Gordionus species.
Fielding, Dennis J; DeFoliart, Linda S; Hagerty, Aaron M
Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on nontarget organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species and their consumption of weed seeds have not been previously studied in agricultural settings in Alaska. This study examined the effect of grasshopper bran bait on carabid activity-density, as measured by pitfall trap catches, and subsequent predation by invertebrates of seeds of three species of weed. Data were collected in fallow fields in agricultural landscape in the interior of Alaska, near Delta Junction, in 2008 and 2010. Bait applications reduced ground beetle activity-density by over half in each of 2 yr of bait applications. Seed predation was generally low overall (1-10%/wk) and not strongly affected by the bait application, but predation of lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) seed was lower on treated plots in 1 yr (340 seeds recovered versus 317 seeds, on treated versus untreated plots, respectively). Predation of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale G. H. Weber ex Wiggers) seeds was correlated with ground beetle activity-density in 1 yr, and predation of dragonhead mint (Dracocephalum parvifolium Nutt.) seed in the other year. We conclude that applications of carbaryl-bran bait for control of grasshoppers will have only a small, temporary effect on weed seed populations in high-latitude agricultural ecosystems.
Abstract Taxonomic changes are made for several problematic Australian Carabidae in the tribes Harpalini, Abacetini, Pterostichini, and Oodini. Examination of types resulted in the synonymy of Veradia Castelnau, 1867 with Leconomerus Chaudoir, 1850; Nelidus Chaudoir, 1878, Feronista Moore, 1965, and Australomasoreus Baehr, 2007 with Cerabilia Castelnau, 1867; and newly combining Fouquetius variabilis Straneo, 1960 in the genus Pediomorphus Chaudoir, 1878; Australomasoreus monteithi Baehr, 2007 in the genus Cerabilia Castelnau, 1867; and Anatrichis lilliputana W.J. Macleay, 1888 in the genus Nanodiodes Bousquet, 1996. Cuneipectus Sloane, 1907 is placed in Pterostichini Bonelli, 1810, which is a senior synonym of Cuneipectini Sloane, 1907. PMID:26798299
Abdullah, Fauziah; Sina, Ibnu; Fauzee, Fatmahjihan
An assemblage of beetle specimens from family Carabidae (ground beetles) was carried out at Kenyir water catchment as an indicator to measure disturbance. The samplings were conducted from 30th July to 1st August 2007 at limestone forest of Teluk Bewah and the dipterocarp forest of Sungai Cicir. 28 individuals from 13 species were collected from Teluk Bewah whereas 54 individuals from ten species was sampled from Sungai Cicir. The carabids were more specious (Simpson Diversity index: 0.97) and more abundant (Margalef index: 5.35) at Teluk Bewah compared to Sungai Cicir (Simpson Diversity index, 0.72: Margalefindex, 2.22). Light trapping was most efficient assembling 97.56% of ground beetles compared to Malaise trap, pitfall and net sweeping. This is the first record of beetle assemblage at Kenyir water catchment, Malaysia. New records for Kenyir, Terengganu, Malaysia are Abacetus sp. 1, Abacetus sp. 2, Acupalpus rectifrotis, Aephnidius adelioides, Dischissus notulatus, Dolichoctis sp., Dolichoctis sp. 2, Dolichoctis straitus, Ophinoea bimaculata, Perigona sp., Pheropsophus piciccollis, Pheropsophus occipitalis, Stenolophus quinquepustulatus, Stenolophus smaragdulus, Stenolophus sp., Tachys coracinus, Casnoidea sp., Orthogonius sp. Seven species coded as Cara C, Cara J, Cara M, Cara N, Cara O, Cara R and Cara S were unidentified and are probably new species to be described in another report. There is moderately high diversity (Simpson Diversity index: 0.846) of Carabidae indicating that ecotourism does not affect diversity of ground beetle at Kenyir Lake.
Ulyshen, Michael, D.; Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Kilgo, John, C.; Moorman, Christopher, E.
We compared the response of ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) to the creation of canopy gaps of different size (0.13, 0.26, and 0.50 ha) and age (1 and 7 years) in a bottomland hardwood forest (South Carolina, USA). Samples were collected four times in 2001 by malaise and pitfall traps placed at the center and edge of each gap, and 50 m into the surrounding forest. Species richness was higher at the center of young gaps than in old gaps or in the forest, but there was no statistical difference in species richness between old gaps and the forests surrounding them. Carabid abundance followed the same trend, but only with the exclusion of Semiardistomis viridis (Say), a very abundant species that differed in its response to gap age compared to most other species. The carabid assemblage at the gap edge was very similar to that of the forest, and there appeared to be no distinct edge community. Species known to occur in open or disturbed habitats were more abundant at the center of young gaps than at any other location. Generalist species were relatively unaffected by the disturbance, but one species (Dicaelus dilatatus Say) was significantly less abundant at the centers of young gaps. Forest inhabiting species were less abundant at the centers of old gaps than in the forest, but not in the centers of young gaps. Comparison of community similarity at various trapping locations showed that communities at the centers of old and young gaps had the lowest similarity (46.5%). The community similarity between young gap centers and nearby forest (49.1%) and old gap centers and nearby forest (50.0%) was similarly low. These results show that while the abundance and richness of carabids in old gaps was similar to that of the surrounding forest, the species composition between the two sites differed greatly.
Schwerk, Axel; Szyszko, Jan
Abstract Degraded areas constitute challenging tasks with respect to sustainable management of natural resources. Maintaining or even establishing certain successional stages seems to be particularly important. This paper presents a model of the succession in five different types of degraded areas in Poland based on changes in the carabid fauna. Mean Individual Biomass of Carabidae (MIB) was used as a numerical measure for the stage of succession. The run of succession differed clearly among the different types of degraded areas. Initial conditions (origin of soil and origin of vegetation) and landscape related aspects seem to be important with respect to these differences. As characteristic phases, a ‘delay phase’, an ‘increase phase’ and a ‘stagnation phase’ were identified. In general, the runs of succession could be described by four different parameters: (1) ‘Initial degradation level’, (2) ‘delay’, (3) ‘increase rate’ and (4) ‘recovery level’. Applying the analytic solution of the logistic equation, characteristic values for the parameters were identified for each of the five area types. The model is of practical use, because it provides a possibility to compare the values of the parameters elaborated in different areas, to give hints for intervention and to provide prognoses about future succession in the areas. Furthermore, it is possible to transfer the model to other indicators of succession. PMID:21738419
Schwerk, Axel; Szyszko, Jan
Degraded areas constitute challenging tasks with respect to sustainable management of natural resources. Maintaining or even establishing certain successional stages seems to be particularly important. This paper presents a model of the succession in five different types of degraded areas in Poland based on changes in the carabid fauna. Mean Individual Biomass of Carabidae (MIB) was used as a numerical measure for the stage of succession. The run of succession differed clearly among the different types of degraded areas. Initial conditions (origin of soil and origin of vegetation) and landscape related aspects seem to be important with respect to these differences. As characteristic phases, a 'delay phase', an 'increase phase' and a 'stagnation phase' were identified. In general, the runs of succession could be described by four different parameters: (1) 'Initial degradation level', (2) 'delay', (3) 'increase rate' and (4) 'recovery level'. Applying the analytic solution of the logistic equation, characteristic values for the parameters were identified for each of the five area types. The model is of practical use, because it provides a possibility to compare the values of the parameters elaborated in different areas, to give hints for intervention and to provide prognoses about future succession in the areas. Furthermore, it is possible to transfer the model to other indicators of succession.
Abstract Pitfall traps were used to sample Carabidae in agricultural land of the Spercheios valley, Fthiotida, Central Greece. Four pairs of cultivated fields were sampled. One field of each pair was located in a heterogeneous area and the other in a more homogeneous area. Heterogeneous areas were composed of small fields. They had high percentages of non-cropped habitats and a high diversity of land use types. Homogeneous areas were composed of larger fields. They had lower percentages of non-cropped habitats and a lower diversity of land use types. One pair of fields had been planted with cotton, one with maize, one with olives and one with wheat. Altogether 28 carabid species were recorded. This paper describes the study areas, the sampling methods used and presents the data collected during the study. Neither heterogeneous nor homogeneous areas had consistently higher abundance levels, activity density levels, species richness levels or diversity levels. However, significant differences were seen in some of the comparisons between heterogeneous and homogeneous areas. PMID:24891833
Abstract An entomological investigation was carried out in an agricultural area, mainly rice fields, of the Po river plain, located in the municipalities of Lacchiarella (MI) and Giussago (PV) (Lombardy, Italy). In 2009 and 2010, ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) were sampled along rice field banks and in restored habitats, by means of pitfall traps. The area appeared as species-rich, compared to other anthropogenic habitats in the Po river pain. Most of the collected Carabids were species with a wide distribution in the Paleartic region, eurytopic and common in European agroecosystems. The assemblages were dominated by small-medium, macropterous species, with summer larvae. No endemic species were found. Species with southern distribution, rarely found north of the Po river, were also sampled. Amara littorea is recorded for the first time in Italy. PMID:24723767
Liebherr, James K
The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai'i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax major sp. n
Liebherr, James K.
Abstract The Mecyclothorax carabid beetle fauna of Haleakalā volcano, Maui Island, Hawai‘i is taxonomically revised, with 116 species precinctive to Haleakalā recognized, 74 newly described. Species are classified into 14 species groups, with the newly described species arrayed as follows: 1, Mecyclothorax constrictus group with Mecyclothorax perseveratus sp. n.; 2, Mecyclothorax obscuricornis group with Mecyclothorax notobscuricornis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordax sp. n., Mecyclothorax mordicus sp. n., Mecyclothorax manducus sp. n., Mecyclothorax ambulatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax montanus sp. n., Mecyclothorax waikamoi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poouli sp. n., and Mecyclothorax ahulili sp. n.; 3, Mecyclothorax robustus group with Mecyclothorax affinis sp. n., Mecyclothorax anchisteus sp. n., Mecyclothorax consanguineus sp. n., Mecyclothorax antaeus sp. n., Mecyclothorax cymindulus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax haydeni sp. n.; 4, Mecyclothorax interruptus group with Mecyclothorax bradycelloides sp. n., Mecyclothorax anthracinus sp. n., Mecyclothorax arthuri sp. n., Mecyclothorax medeirosi sp. n., Mecyclothorax inconscriptus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax foveolatus sp. n.; 5, Mecyclothorax sobrinus group with Mecyclothorax foveopunctatus sp. n.; 6, Mecyclothorax ovipennis group with Mecyclothorax subtilis Britton & Liebherr, sp. n., Mecyclothorax patulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax patagiatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax strigosus sp. n., Mecyclothorax takumiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax parapicalis sp. n., Mecyclothorax mauiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax subternus sp. n., Mecyclothorax flaviventris sp. n., Mecyclothorax cordaticollaris sp. n., and Mecyclothorax krushelnyckyi sp. n.; 7, Mecyclothorax argutor group with Mecyclothorax ommatoplax sp. n., Mecyclothorax semistriatus sp. n., Mecyclothorax refulgens sp. n., Mecyclothorax argutulus sp. n., Mecyclothorax planipennis sp. n., Mecyclothorax planatus sp. n., and Mecyclothorax argutuloides sp. n.; 8, Mecyclothorax microps group with Mecyclothorax
Gandhi, Kamal J.K.; Epstein, Marc E.; Koehle, Jessica J.; Purrington, Foster F.
Abstract We studied the long-term (23–24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2–3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4–1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our
Gandhi, Kamal J K; Epstein, Marc E; Koehle, Jessica J; Purrington, Foster F
We studied the long-term (23-24 years) species turnover and succession of epigaeic beetle assemblages (Coleoptera: Carabidae, incl. Cicindelinae) in three remnant habitats [cottonwood (Populus spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) stands, and old fields] that are embedded within highly urbanized areas in central Minnesota. A total of 9,710 beetle individuals belonging to 98 species were caught in three sampling years: 1980, 1981 and 2005 in pitfall traps in identical locations within each habitat. Results indicate that there were 2-3 times greater trap catches in 2005 than in 1980 (cottonwood and oak stands, and old fields) and 1.4-1.7 times greater species diversity of beetles in 2005 than in the 1980-1981 suggesting increased habitat association by beetles over time. Although there were no significant differences in catches between 2005 and 1981 (only cottonwood stands and old fields), there was a trend where more beetles were caught in 2005. At the species-level, 10 times more of an open-habitat carabid species, Cyclotrachelus sodalis sodalis LeConte, was caught in 2005 than in 1980. However, trap catches of five other abundant carabid species [Pterostichus novus Straneo, Platynus decentis (Say), Platynus mutus (Say), Calathus gregarius (Say), and Poecilus lucublandus lucublandus (Say)] did not change indicating population stability of some beetle species. These remnant habitats were increasingly colonized by exotic carabid species as Carabus granulatus granulatus Linneaus, Clivina fossor (Linneaus) and Platynus melanarius (Illiger), that were trapped for the first time in 2005. Species composition of epigaeic beetles was quite distinct in 2005 from 1980 with 39 species reported for the first time in 2005, indicating a high turnover of assemblages. At the habitat-level, greatest species diversity was in cottonwood stands and lowest was in old fields, and all habitat types in 2005 diverged from those in 1980s, but not cottonwood stands in 1981. As our sampled areas are
Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital
Amphibians often feed on beetle larvae, including those of ground beetles (Carabidae). Preliminary reports have detailed an unusual trophic interaction in which, in contrast, larvae of the ground beetle Epomis prey upon juvenile and adult amphibians. While it is known that these larvae feed exclusively on amphibians, how the predator-prey encounter occurs to the advantage of the beetle larvae had been unknown to date. Using laboratory observations and controlled experiments, we recorded the feeding behavior of Epomis larvae, as well as the behavior of their amphibian prey. Here we reveal that larvae of two species of Epomis (E. circumscriptus and E. dejeani) lure their potential predator, taking advantage of the amphibian's predation behavior. The Epomis larva combines a sit-and-wait strategy with unique movements of its antennae and mandibles to draw the attention of the amphibian to the presence of a potential prey. The intensity of this enticement increases with decreasing distance between the larva and the amphibian. When the amphibian attacks, the larva almost always manages to avoid the predator's protracted tongue, exploiting the opportunity to attach itself to the amphibian's body and initiate feeding. Our findings suggest that the trophic interaction between Epomis larvae and amphibians is one of the only natural cases of obligatory predator-prey role reversal. Moreover, this interaction involves a small insect larva that successfully lures and preys on a larger vertebrate. Such role reversal is exceptional in the animal world, extending our perspective of co-evolution in the arms race between predator and prey, and suggesting that counterattack defense behavior has evolved into predator-prey role reversal. PMID:21957480
Blubaugh, Carmen K; Caceres, Victoria A; Kaplan, Ian; Larson, Jonathan; Sadof, Clifford S; Richmond, Douglas S
Despite being fragmented and highly disturbed habitats, urban turfgrass ecosystems harbor a surprising diversity of arthropods. The suitability of turf as arthropod habitat, however, likely depends on the extent and types of pesticides and fertilizers used. For example, moderate levels of weed cover in low-input lawns may provide alternative food resources. We conducted a 2-yr field study to: 1) characterize the ground beetle (Carabidae) species assemblage in turfgrass, and 2) assess the direct and indirect effects of lawn management on carabid communities. Weed cover and beetle activity were compared among four lawn management programs: 1) consumer/garden center, 2) integrated pest management (IPM), 3) natural organic, and 4) no-input control. Nearly 5,000 carabid beetles across 17 species were collected with the predator Cyclotrachelus sodalis LeConte numerically dominating the trap catch (87% and 45% of individuals in 2005 and 2006, respectively). Populations of C. sodalis underwent a distinct peak in activity during the third week of June, whereas omnivorous and granivorous species tended to occur at far lower levels and were less variable over the season. We found no evidence for direct effects of lawn management on carabid species diversity; however, we detected an indirect effect mediated by variation in weed cover. Seed-feeding species were positively correlated with turf weeds early in 2006, whereas strictly predaceous species were not. Thus, turf management programs that lead to changes in plant species composition (i.e., herbicide regimes) may indirectly shape epigeal arthropod communities more strongly than the direct effects of insecticide use.
Abstract Background The knowledge of the ground-beetle fauna of Strandzha is currently incomplete, and is largely based on data from the Bulgarian part of the region and on records resulting from casual collecting. This study represents a critical revision of the available literature, museum collections and a three years field study of the carabid beetles of the Bulgarian and Turkish parts of Strandzha Mountain and the adjacent Black Sea Coast territories. New information A total of 328 species and subspecies of Carabidae, belonging to 327 species from the region of Strandzha Mountain and adjacent seacoast area, have been listed. Of these, 77 taxa represent new records for the Bulgarian part of the region, and 110 taxa new records for Turkish part of the studied region. Two taxa, one subgenus (Haptotapinus Reitter, 1886) and one species (Pterostichus crassiusculus), are new to the fauna of Bulgaria. Based on a misidentification, the species Apotomus testaceus is excluded from the list of the Bulgarian fauna. Seven species (Carabus violaceus azurescens, Apotomus rufus, Platynus proximus, Molops alpestris kalofericus, M. dilatatus angulicollis, Pterostichus merklii, and Calathus metallicus) are treated as doubtful for the regional fauna, and one (Apotomus rufus) also for the Bulgarian fauna. Altogether, 43 taxa collected in the Turkish part of the region are new for European Turkey. New taxa for Turkey are the genera Myas and Oxypselaphus, the subgenus Feronidius, and nine species and subspecies (Carabus granulatus granulatus, Dyschirius tristis, Bembidion normannum apfelbecki, B. subcostatum vau, Acupalpus exiguus, Myas chalybaeus, Oxypselaphus obscurus, Pterostichus leonisi, Pt. melas). In addition, there are a further seven species that are here confirmed for Turkey. PMID:27099564
Maddison, D. R.; Moore, W.; Baker, M. D.; Ellis, T.M.; Ober, K.A.; Cannone, J.J.; Gutell, R.R.
The beetle suborder Adephaga is traditionally divided into two sections on the basis of habitat, terrestrial Geadephaga and aquatic Hydradephaga. Monophyly of both groups is uncertain, and the relationship of the two groups has implications for inferring habitat transitions within Adephaga. Here we examine phylogenetic relationships of these groups using evidence provided by DNA sequences from all four suborders of beetles, including 60 species of Adephaga, four Archostemata, three Myxophaga, and ten Polyphaga. We studied 18S ribosomal DNA and 28S ribosomal DNA, aligned with consideration of secondary structure, as well as the nuclear protein-coding gene wingless. Independent and combined Bayesian, likelihood, and parsimony analyses of all three genes supported placement of Trachypachidae in a monophyletic Geadephaga, although for analyses of 28S rDNA and some parsimony analyses only if Coleoptera is constrained to be monophyletic. Most analyses showed limited support for the monophyly of Hydradephaga. Outside of Adephaga, there is support from the ribosomal genes for a sister group relationship between Adephaga and Polyphaga. Within the small number of sampled Polyphaga, analyses of 18S rDNA, wingless, and the combined matrix supports monophyly of Polyphaga exclusive of Scirtoidea. Unconstrained analyses of the evolution of habitat suggest that Adephaga was ancestrally aquatic with one transition to terrestrial. However, in analyses constrained to disallow changes from aquatic to terrestrial habitat, the phylogenies imply two origins of aquatic habit within Adephaga. PMID:19789725
Renkema, J M; Lynch, D H; Cutler, G C; Mackenzie, K; Walde, S J
Biological control of insects by predators may be indirectly influenced by management practices that change the invertebrate community in agroecosystems. In this study we examined effects that mulching and weeding have on predatory beetles (Carabidae and Staphylinidae) and their potential prey in a highbush blueberry field. We compared beetle communities in unweeded control plots to those that were weeded and/or received a single application of compost or pine needle mulch. Compost mulch and weeding significantly affected the carabid community while the staphylinid community responded to compost and pine needle mulches. Effects because of mulch tended to intensify in the year after mulch application for both families. Estimates of species richness and diversity for Carabidae and Staphylinidae were similar in all plot types, but rarefaction curves suggested higher Carabidae richness in unmulched plots despite fewer individuals captured. Carnivorous Carabidae, dominated by Pterostichus melanarius, were most frequently captured in compost plots both years, and omnivores were most frequently captured in unweeded compost. Density of millipedes, the most abundant potential prey, was generally greater in mulched plots, whereas seasonal abundance of small earthworms varied among mulch types. Our results have potential implications for biological control in mulched highbush blueberries depending on beetle consumption rates for key pests and how rates are affected by alternative prey.
Kavanaugh, David H; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi
A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau.
Bergeron, J. A. Colin; Spence, John R.; Volney, W. Jan A.
Abstract Spatial associations between species of trees and ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) involve many indirect ecological processes, likely reflecting the function of numerous forest ecosystem components. Describing and quantifying these associations at the landscape scale is basic to the development of a surrogate-based framework for biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this study, we used a systematic sampling grid covering 84 km2 of boreal mixedwood forest to characterize the ground-beetle assemblage associated with each tree species occurring on this landscape. Projecting the distribution of relative basal area of each tree species on the beetle ordination diagram suggests that the carabid community is structured by the same environmental factors that affects the distribution of trees, or perhaps even by trees per se. Interestingly beetle species are associated with tree species of the same rank order of abundance on this landscape, suggesting that conservation of less abundant trees will concomitantly foster conservation of less abundant beetle species. Landscape patterns of association described here are based on characteristics that can be directly linked to provincial forest inventories, providing a basis that is already available for use of tree species as biodiversity surrogates in boreal forest land management. PMID:22371676
Bergeron, J A Colin; Spence, John R; Volney, W Jan A
Spatial associations between species of trees and ground-beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) involve many indirect ecological processes, likely reflecting the function of numerous forest ecosystem components. Describing and quantifying these associations at the landscape scale is basic to the development of a surrogate-based framework for biodiversity monitoring and conservation. In this study, we used a systematic sampling grid covering 84 km(2) of boreal mixedwood forest to characterize the ground-beetle assemblage associated with each tree species occurring on this landscape. Projecting the distribution of relative basal area of each tree species on the beetle ordination diagram suggests that the carabid community is structured by the same environmental factors that affects the distribution of trees, or perhaps even by trees per se. Interestingly beetle species are associated with tree species of the same rank order of abundance on this landscape, suggesting that conservation of less abundant trees will concomitantly foster conservation of less abundant beetle species. Landscape patterns of association described here are based on characteristics that can be directly linked to provincial forest inventories, providing a basis that is already available for use of tree species as biodiversity surrogates in boreal forest land management.
Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Ground Beetle Worldwide
Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae); currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky), was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3–4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C). The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23–42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment) and have somewhat “coiled” apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide. PMID:27415755
Notes on the Reproductive Ecology and Description of the Preimaginal Morphology of Elaphrus sugai Nakane, the Most Endangered Species of Elaphrus Fabricius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Ground Beetle Worldwide.
Elucidating the basic life-history of endangered species is the first important step in the conservation of such species. This study examined the reproductive ecology and the preimaginal morphology of the endangered ground beetle Elaphrus sugai Nakane (Coleoptera: Carabidae); currently, the Watarase wetland of the central Kanto Plain, Japan is the only confirmed locality of this beetle species. Laboratory rearing of reproductive adults collected in early April revealed that females can lay more than 131 eggs. Eggs were laid in mud, without an egg chamber. Larvae reached adulthood when fed a diet of mealworms, indicating that E. sugai larvae are insect larvae feeders. An earthworm diet, the optimal diet for larvae of a congeneric species (E. punctatus Motschulsky), was lethal to E. sugai larvae. The egg stage was 3-4 days in duration under a 16L8D cycle (22°C). The duration from hatching to adult eclosion was 23-42 days at various temperatures simulating those of the reproductive period. Larval morphology was similar to that of consubgeneric species described previously. The pupa is unusual, in that the setae on the abdominal tergites are long (twice as long as those of the abdominal segment) and have somewhat "coiled" apices. Finally, the current endangered status of E. sugai was compared to that of E. viridis Horn, which has been regarded as the most endangered species of the genus worldwide.
The Influence of Vegetation and Landscape Structural Connectivity on Butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), Carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), Syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and Sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta) in Northern Italy Farmland.
Burgio, Giovanni; Sommaggio, Daniele; Marini, Mario; Puppi, Giovanna; Chiarucci, Alessandro; Landi, Sara; Fabbri, Roberto; Pesarini, Fausto; Genghini, Marco; Ferrari, Roberto; Muzzi, Enrico; van Lenteren, Joop C; Masetti, Antonio
Landscape structure as well as local vegetation influence biodiversity in agroecosystems. A study was performed to evaluate the effect of floristic diversity, vegetation patterns, and landscape structural connectivity on butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea and Hesperiidae), carabids (Coleoptera: Carabidae), syrphids (Diptera: Syrphidae), and sawflies (Hymenoptera: Symphyta). Vegetation analysis and insect samplings were carried out in nine sites within an intensively farmed landscape in northern Italy. Plant species richness and the percentage of tree, shrub, and herb cover were determined by means of the phytosociological method of Braun-Blanquet. Landscape structural connectivity was measured as the total length of hedgerow network (LHN) in a radius of 500 m around the center of each sampling transect. Butterflies species richness and abundance were positively associated both to herb cover and to plant species richness, but responded negatively to tree and shrub cover. Shrub cover was strictly correlated to both species richness and activity density of carabids. The species richness of syrphids was positively influenced by herb cover and plant richness, whereas their abundance was dependent on ligneous vegetation and LHN. Rarefaction analysis revealed that sawfly sampling was not robust and no relationship could be drawn with either vegetation parameters or structural connectivity. The specific responses of each insect group to the environmental factors should be considered in order to refine and optimize landscape management interventions targeting specific conservation endpoints.
Kavanaugh, David H.; Hieke, Fritz; Liang, Hongbin; Dong, Dazhi
Abstract A ten-year multidisciplinary, multi-national and multi-institutional biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region of western Yunnan Province, China generated more than 35,000 specimens of the beetle (Coleoptera) family Carabidae. In this report, first of a planned series, we focus on diversity in tribe Zabrini. Our study of just over 1300 specimens of zabrine carabids from the project, all in genus Amara Bonelli, found a total of 13 species, all previously described, to occur in the study area, with none of them strictly endemic. We present a key for identification of adults of these species, as well as nomenclatural data, diagnoses, illustrations of dorsal habitus and male genitalia, and information about geographical, altitudinal and habitat distributions within the study area and overall geographical distribution for each species. Distributions of the species within the study area are compared, and broader geographical range patterns are characterized. We also discuss a possible role of the Gaoligong Shan region as one source area for the present-day fauna of the Himalaya and southern edge of the Qinghai-Xizang (Tibetan) Plateau. PMID:24899831
Hunting, Wesley M.
Abstract The Cymindis (Pinacodera) limbata species group (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Lebiini) is a precinctive New World taxon with ranges extended from portions of temperate southeastern Canada and the U.S.A. through the montane regions of Mexico, south to the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The group is distinguishable from all other members of the subgenus Pinacodera by males possessing a distinctive sclerite (endophallic plate) at the apex of the endophallus. In the past, a lack of material and misunderstandings of range of variation within species have contributed to confusion about how many species there really are. This revision of the limbata species group includes a classification, a key to groups within the subgenus Pinacodera and species within the limbata group, descriptions of species, re-rankings and new synonymies. In total 10 taxa are treated, with 6 new synonyms proposed, 1 new combination introduced and 1 new species described: Cymindis (Pinacodera) rufostigma (type locality: Archbold Biological Station, Highlands County, Florida, U.S.A.). Each taxon is characterized in terms of structural features of adults, habitat, geographical distribution, and chorological affinities. Available ecological information and treatments of variation are included. PMID:23653501
Lebia species number over 450 and the genus is cosmopolitan, with 47 in North America. Adults typically seek prey in plant canopies, and all known larvae are ectoparasitoids of chrysomelid beetle pupae, yet only 2 species’ hosts have been documented in North America. Lebia grandis is a predator an...
Background Rates of molecular evolution are known to vary across taxa and among genes, and this requires rate calibration for each specific dataset based on external information. Calibration is sensitive to evolutionary model parameters, partitioning schemes and clock model. However, the way in which these and other analytical aspects affect both the rates and the resulting clade ages from calibrated phylogenies are not yet well understood. To investigate these aspects we have conducted calibration analyses for the genus Carabus (Coleoptera, Carabidae) on five mitochondrial and four nuclear DNA fragments with 7888 nt total length, testing different clock models and partitioning schemes to select the most suitable using Bayes Factors comparisons. Results We used these data to investigate the effect of ambiguous character and outgroup inclusion on both the rates of molecular evolution and the TMRCA of Carabus. We found considerable variation in rates of molecular evolution depending on the fragment studied (ranging from 5.02% in cob to 0.26% divergence/My in LSU-A), but also on analytical conditions. Alternative choices of clock model, partitioning scheme, treatment of ambiguous characters, and outgroup inclusion resulted in rate increments ranging from 28% (HUWE1) to 1000% (LSU-B and ITS2) and increments in the TMRCA of Carabus ranging from 8.4% (cox1-A) to 540% (ITS2). Results support an origin of the genus Carabus during the Oligocene in the Eurasian continent followed by a Miocene differentiation that originated all main extant lineages. Conclusions The combination of several genes is proposed as the best strategy to minimise both the idiosyncratic behaviors of individual markers and the effect of analytical aspects in rate and age estimations. Our results highlight the importance of estimating rates of molecular evolution for each specific dataset, selecting for optimal clock and partitioning models as well as other methodological issues potentially affecting
Merivee, Enno; Tooming, Ene; Must, Anne; Sibul, Ivar; Williams, Ingrid H
Sub-lethal effects of pesticides on behavioural endpoints are poorly investigated in non-targeted beneficial carabids. Conspicuous changes in locomotor activity of carabids exposed to sub-lethal doses of neurotoxic insecticides suggest that many other behaviours of these insects might be severely injured as well. We hypothesize that behavioural thermoregulation of carabids may be affected by low doses of neurotoxic pyrethroid insecticide alpha-cypermethrin which may have direct deleterious consequences for the fitness and populations of the beetles in the field. Automated video tracking of the carabid beetle Platynus assimilis Paykull (Coleoptera: Carabidae) on an experimental thermal mosaic arena using EthoVision XT Version 9 software (Noldus Information Technology, Wageningen, The Netherlands) showed that brief exposure to alpha-cypermethrin at sub-lethal concentrations (0.1-10mgL(-1)) drastically reduces the ability of the beetles for behavioural thermoregulation. At noxious high temperature, a considerable number of the beetles died due to thermo-shock. Other intoxicated beetles that survived exposure to high temperature displayed behavioural abnormalities. During heating of the arena from 25 to 45°C, insecticide treated beetles showed a significant fall in tendency to hide in a cool shelter (20°C) and prolonged exposure to noxious high temperatures, accompanied by changes in locomotor activity. Next day after insecticide treatment the beetles recovered from behavioural abnormalities to a large extent but they still were considerably longer exposed to noxious high temperatures compared to the negative control beetles. Our results demonstrated that behavioural thermoregulation is a sensitive and important etho-toxicological biomarker in ground-dwelling carabids. Prolonged exposure to unfavourably high temperatures has an array of negative effects decreasing fitness and survival of these insects at elevated thermal conditions with deep temperature gradients
Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph
A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and α-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle α-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid α-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems.
Zou, Yi; Sang, Weiguo; Bai, Fan; Axmacher, Jan Christoph
A positive relationship between plant diversity and both abundance and diversity of predatory arthropods is postulated by the Enemies Hypothesis, a central ecological top-down control hypothesis. It has been supported by experimental studies and investigations of agricultural and grassland ecosystems, while evidence from more complex mature forest ecosystems is limited. Our study was conducted on Changbai Mountain in one of the last remaining large pristine temperate forest environments in China. We used predatory ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) as target taxon to establish the relationship between phytodiversity and their activity abundance and diversity. Results showed that elevation was the only variable included in both models predicting carabid activity abundance and α-diversity. Shrub diversity was negatively and herb diversity positively correlated with beetle abundance, while shrub diversity was positively correlated with beetle α-diversity. Within the different forest types, a negative relationship between plant diversity and carabid activity abundance was observed, which stands in direct contrast to the Enemies Hypothesis. Furthermore, plant species density did not predict carabid α-diversity. In addition, the density of herbs, which is commonly believed to influence carabid movement, had little impact on the beetle activity abundance recorded on Changbai Mountain. Our study indicates that in a relatively large and heterogeneous mature forest area, relationships between plant and carabid diversity are driven by variations in environmental factors linked with altitudinal change. In addition, traditional top-down control theories that are suitable in explaining diversity patterns in ecosystems of low diversity appear to play a much less pronounced role in highly complex forest ecosystems. PMID:24376582
Pérez-González, Sergio; Zaballos, Juan P
The antennal morphology and chaetotaxy were studied in 52 species of the endogean carabid genus Typhlocharis, using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy. The antennae are composed of 11 antennomeres (scape, pedicel, and nine flagellomeres). We found considerable variation between species in the third antennomere, with short-stem and long-stem forms, and flagellomere morphology, distinguishing two morphs: rounded (subovoid, subspheric and subquadrate, morph 1) and reniform shapes (morph 2). Antennal sensilla are grouped in six types of sensilla trichodea, three types of sensilla basiconica, one type of sensilla coeloconica, and one type of sensilla campaniformia. The distribution of sensilla along the antennomeres is described. The "rings" of trichoid sensilla in the antennomere body are affected by its shape and there is interspecific variation in the pattern of sensilla coeloconica in antennomere 11°, a novelty for the genus. The types of sensilla found in Typhlocharis are compared to those described in other Carabidae and the potential functionality and taxonomic interest of those variable antennal features are discussed. A correlation between the flagellomere morphology and the presence/absence of a stridulatory organ is suggested. The study also allowed comparing the observation of antennal features by SEM and light microscopy.
Fisher, Danielle M.; Schnepp, Kyle E.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.
Abstract Background The Ozark Mountains are a region with high endemism and biodiversity, yet few invertebrate inventories have been made and few sites extensively studied. We surveyed a site near Steel Creek Campground, along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas, using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and Berlese-Tullgren extraction for eight and half months. New information We provide collection records of beetle species belonging to eight families collected at the site. Thirty one species represent new state records: (Buprestidae) Actenodes acornis, Agrilus cephalicus, Agrilus ohioensis, Agrilus paracelti, Taphrocerus nicolayi; (Carabidae) Agonum punctiforme, Synuchus impunctatus; (Curculionidae) Acalles clavatus, Acalles minutissimus, Acoptus suturalis, Anthonomus juniperinus, Anametis granulata, Idiostethus subcalvus, Eudociminus mannerheimii, Madarellus undulatus, Magdalis armicollis, Magdalis barbita, Mecinus pascuorum, Myrmex chevrolatii, Myrmex myrmex, Nicentrus lecontei, Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus, Piazorhinus pictus, Phyllotrox ferrugineus, Plocamus hispidulus, Pseudobaris nigrina, Pseudopentarthrum simplex, Rhinoncus pericarpius, Sitona lineatus, Stenoscelis brevis, Tomolips quericola. Additionally, three endemic carabids, two of which are known only from the type series, were collected. PMID:26752967
Raupach, Michael J.; Hannig, Karsten; Morinière, Jérome; Hendrich, Lars
Abstract As molecular identification method, DNA barcoding based on partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) sequences has been proven to be a useful tool for species determination in many insect taxa including ground beetles. In this study we tested the effectiveness of DNA barcodes to discriminate species of the ground beetle genus Bembidion and some closely related taxa of Germany. DNA barcodes were obtained from 819 individuals and 78 species, including sequences from previous studies as well as more than 300 new generated DNA barcodes. We found a 1:1 correspondence between BIN and traditionally recognized species for 69 species (89%). Low interspecific distances with maximum pairwise K2P values below 2.2% were found for three species pairs, including two species pairs with haplotype sharing (Bembidion atrocaeruleum/Bembidion varicolor and Bembidion guttula/Bembidion mannerheimii). In contrast to this, deep intraspecific sequence divergences with distinct lineages were revealed for two species (Bembidion geniculatum/Ocys harpaloides). Our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of the analyzed ground beetles species and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for the Carabidae in Germany and Central Europe as well. PMID:27408547
Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Carabini)
Häckel, Martin; Farkač, Jan; Sehnal, Rostislav
Abstract Calosoma aethiops (Jeannel, 1940) as a new synonym of Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, a new status of Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927, and a revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Carabini). Conducted is a taxonomic revision of the Calosoma senegalense group sensu Häckel, 2012. Placed in the group sensu stricto are four species: Calosoma planicolle Chaudoir, 1869, Calosoma scabrosum Chaudoir, 1843, Calosoma senegalense Dejean, 1831, and Ctenosta strandi Breuning, 1934. Calosoma aethiops Jeannel, 1940 is synonymized with Calosoma imbricatum hottentotum Chaudoir, 1852, and Calosoma roeschkei Breuning, 1927 is newly regarded as a subspecies of Calosoma scabrosum. The taxonomic conclusions are based on morphometry of the holotypes and 10 male and 10 female specimens of each taxon, and on morphology of the aedeagus including inflated endophalus. PMID:27563269
Abstract A comparative chromosome banding analysis of Chironomus solitus Linevich & Erbaeva, 1971 and Chironomus anthracinus Zetterstedt, 1860 from East Siberia (Lakes Baikal, Gusinoe, Arakhley and Irkutsk Reservoir) showed close similarity of banding sequences. Chironomus solitus differs from Chironomus anthracinus in one species-specific sequence of arm B. Arms C (43%) and D (30%) had inversion banding sequences previously reported in Chironomus anthracinus The similarity of karyotypic features of Chironomus solitus and Chironomus anthracinus in combination with morphological features of larvae provide evidence in favour of including Chironomus solitus in the Chironomus anthracinus group of sibling species long with Chironomus reservatus Shobanov, 1997. PMID:26140165
A complete list of Carabidae species historically collected in Hong Kong combined with more recent records and notes on their biology is given. Notes on the historic boundaries of Hong Kong through the colonial period are given, as this is an important element relating to our understanding of the origins of historic zoological collections made in the region. Likewise a list of collectors in Hong Kong up to the outbreak of hostilities in the Second World War is given. A full bibliography of Hong Kong Carabidae is included.
Wiley, J.W.; Garrido, O.H.
We reevaluate the taxonomic status of the Cuban population of the Common Black-Hawk (Buteogallus anthracinus) based on our examination of additional specimens, nests, eggs, and voice data. Buteogallus a. gundlachii is smaller than mainland populations of anthracinus and differs from mainland birds in plumage coloration and pattern. The common (alarm) call of gundlachii is a series of three or four notes, differing from that of mainland anthracinus, whose call consists of 9-24 notes. In the Isla de Pinos, Cuba, we observed gundlachii eating two species of land crabs (71.4%), centipedes (7.1%), lizards (10.7%), mammals (7.1%), and a bird (3.6%). We consider Buteogallus gundlachii Cabanis 1854 (1855), the Cuban Black-Hawk, to be a full species, endemic to Cuba, Isla de Pinos, and many of the cays of the Cuban Archipelago. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.
Work, Timothy T.; Klimaszewski, Jan; Thiffault, Evelyne; Bourdon, Caroline; Paré, David; Bousquet, Yves; Venier, Lisa; Titus, Brian
Abstract Increased interest in biomass harvesting for bioenergetic applications has raised questions regarding the potential ecological consequences on forest biodiversity. Here we evaluate the initial changes in the abundance, species richness and community composition of rove (Staphylinidae) and ground beetles (Carabidae), immediately following 1) stem-only harvesting (SOH), in which logging debris (i.e., tree tops and branches) are retained on site, and 2) whole-tree harvesting (WTH), in which stems, tops and branches are removed in mature balsam fir stands in Quebec, Canada. Beetles were collected throughout the summer of 2011, one year following harvesting, using pitfall traps. Overall catch rates were greater in uncut forest (Control) than either stem-only or whole-tree harvested sites. Catch rates in WTH were greater than SOH sites. Uncut stands were characterized primarily by five species: Atheta capsularis, Atheta klagesi, Atheta strigosula, Tachinus fumipennis/frigidus complex (Staphylinidae) and to a lesser extent to Pterostichus punctatissimus (Carabidae). Increased catch rates in WTH sites, where post-harvest biomass was less, were attributable to increased catches of rove beetles Pseudopsis subulata, Quedius labradorensis and to a lesser extent Gabrius brevipennis. We were able to characterize differences in beetle assemblages between harvested and non-harvested plots as well as differences between whole tree (WTH) and stem only (SOH) harvested sites where logging residues had been removed or left following harvest. However, the overall assemblage response was largely a recapitulation of the responses of several abundant species. PMID:23653498
Kobayashi, Yukimasa; Niikura, Kazuhiro; Oosawa, Yuuki; Takami, Yasuoki
The egg morphology and successive changes in the developing embryos of the carabid ground beetle Carabus insulicola (Carabidae) are described based on light and scanning electron microscopy observations. Newly laid eggs of this species are ellipsoid and measure approximately 6.1 × 2.9 mm, before increasing to 6.6 × 3.4 mm at hatching. The egg period is about 11 days at 23°C. The egg shell is characterized by a thin fragile chorion covering a hard serosal cuticle. The embryo forms on the ventral egg surface, where it develops for the duration of the egg period. During the process of thoracic leg formation, two subcoxal rings, subcoxae-1 and 2, are clearly discernible at the basalmost region of the leg rudiments, and these subcoxae participate in the formation of the larval pleura and sterna. The result thus provides tangible evidence for the subcoxal theory, that is, that thoracic pleura and sterna are derived from subcoxal regions. Despite the complete absence of abdominal appendages in the larvae of this species, two pairs of appendage-like swellings, the medial and lateral ones, temporarily arise in the first eight abdominal segments during the middle of embryonic development. The medial swellings are assumed to be serially homologous with the coxal part of the thoracic leg, and they later flatten out and participate in the formation of the larval pleura (hypopleurites). In the light of the serially homologous relationships among gnathal appendages, thoracic legs, and abdominal appendage-like swellings, we identified the subcoxal regions in both the gnathal and abdominal segments. Although, the lateral swellings soon degenerate and disappear, it is considered that the swellings originate in the abdominal subcoxae-2 and may be homologous to the tracheal gills of larvae of Gyrinidae. Based on the embryological results, new interpretations for the constituent of gnathal appendages are proposed.
Granivory is a specialized food habit in the predominantly carnivorous beetle family Carabidae. Most studies of carabid granivory have been conducted under laboratory conditions; thus, our knowledge of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the field is insufficient. I conducted field observations of climbing behavior and seed predation by adult carabids in a lowland area of eastern Japan, from early October to late November in 2008. This is the first systematic field observation of the feeding ecology of granivorous carabids in the temperate zone. In total, 176 carabid individuals of 11 species were observed, with 108 individuals feeding on plant seeds/flowers. Each carabid species was primarily observed feeding on a particular plant species. Frequently observed combinations were: Amara gigantea Motschulsky on Humulus scandens (Loureiro) Merrill (Moraceae) seed, Amara lucens Baliani on Artemisia indica Willdenow (Asteraceae) flower, and Amara macronota (Solsky) and Harpalus (Pseudoophonus) spp. on Digitaria ciliaris (Retzius) Koeler (Poaceae) seed. In all but one species, the sex ratio of individuals observed feeding was female-biased. In Am. gigantea and Am. macronota, a larger proportion of females than males ate seeds. In the three Amara species, copulations on plants, with the female feeding on its seeds/flowers, were often observed. These observations may indicate that, whereas females climb onto plants to feed on seeds, males climb to seek females for copulation rather than forage. Because granivorous carabids play important roles as weed-control agents in temperate agro-ecosystems, the present results would provide valuable basic information for future studies on this subject.
Lopatina, E B; Kipiatkov, V E; Balashov, C V; Kucherov, D A
Amara communis larvae are found to develop significantly faster and have higher growth rate at short-day (12 h) as compared to long-day (22 h) photoperiods under all temperatures (16, 18, 20 and 22 degrees C) used. The coefficient of linear regression of larval development rate on temperature was significantly higher at short days than at long days. At that thermal developmental thresholds appeared similar at both photoperiods. Body weight of young beetles reared under different photoperiods was just the same. Thus, the photoperiodic effect does not simply accelerate or retard insect development, but modifies their thermal reaction norm. Under short days larval development becomes faster and more temperature dependent, which ensures the timely completion of the development at the end of summer. The analysis of data from literature allowed us to find photoperiodic modification of thermal requirements for development in 5 insect orders--Orthoptera, Heteroptera, Coleoptera, Lepidoptera, Diptera. Modification may result in significant changes in the slope of the regression line and hence in the sum of degree-days and thermal developmental threshold. Consequently, during summer under the influence of changing day-length the thermal requirements for development in many insects gradually vary, which may have adaptive significance. Thus, the photoperiodic modification of thermal reaction norm acts as a specific form of seasonal control of insect development.
This article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moth...
The article reviews some general and applied aspects of the feeding ecology of carabid beetles. General aspects included feeding preferences, prey searching, prey capture, and digestion. Applied aspects included evidence of impact, such as predation of aphids, leafhoppers, flies, beetles and moths...
Muñoz-López, N Z; Andrés-Hernández, A R; Carrillo-Ruiz, H; Rivas-Arancibia, S P
Coleoptera is the largest and diverse group of organisms, but few studies are dedicated to determine the diversity and feeding guilds of saproxylic Coleoptera. We demonstrate the diversity, abundance, feeding guilds, and succession process of Coleoptera associated with decaying wood in a tropical deciduous forest in the Mixteca Poblana, Mexico. Decaying wood was sampled and classified into four stages of decay, and the associated Coleoptera. The wood was identified according to their anatomy. Diversity was estimated using the Simpson index, while abundance was estimated using a Kruskal-Wallis test; the association of Coleoptera with wood species and decay was assessed using canonical correspondence analysis. Decay wood stage I is the most abundant (51%), followed by stage III (21%). We collected 93 Coleoptera belonging to 14 families, 41 genera, and 44 species. The family Cerambycidae was the most abundant, with 29% of individuals, followed by Tenebrionidae with 27% and Carabidae with 13%. We recognized six feeding guilds. The greatest diversity of Coleoptera was recorded in decaying Acacia farnesiana and Bursera linanoe. Kruskal-Wallis analysis indicated that the abundance of Coleoptera varied according to the species and stage of decay of the wood. The canonical analysis showed that the species and stage of decay of wood determined the composition and community structure of Coleoptera.
Faisal, Mohammad; Singh, Sudhir
Members of family Carabidae (Insecta: Coleoptera) are a dominant group of terrestrial predators. National Forest Insect Collection (NFIC) of Forest Research Institute, Dehradun (India) has a good collection of carabids rich in type material. Here we report the details of the type specimens of 139 species included in 49 genera, 24 tribes and 14 subfamilies. Colour automontaged photographs of each type along with its original labels are also included.
In Louisiana, beneficial arthropods provide a significant proportion of the season long control of the sugarcane borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Frabricius). However, most of that control comes from predation by the red imported fire ant, Solinopsis invicta Buren. The balance of bio-control comes from ...
Liebherr, James K.
Abstract The 101 species of Mecyclothorax Sharp known to inhabit Tahiti Island, French Polynesia are taxonomically revised, including 28 species that are newly described: Mecyclothorax claridgeiae sp. n., Mecyclothorax jeanyvesi sp. n., Mecyclothorax poria sp. n., Mecyclothorax aano sp. n., Mecyclothorax papau sp. n., Mecyclothorax manina sp. n., Mecyclothorax everardi sp. n., Mecyclothorax ramagei sp. n., Mecyclothorax pitohitiensis sp. n., Mecyclothorax curtisi sp. n., Mecyclothorax hoeahiti sp. n., Mecyclothorax ninamu sp. n., Mecyclothorax kokone sp. n., Mecyclothorax paahonu sp. n., Mecyclothorax kayballae sp. n., Mecyclothorax ehu sp. n., Mecyclothorax papuhiti sp. n., Mecyclothorax tuea sp. n., Mecyclothorax taatitore sp. n., Mecyclothorax konemata sp. n., Mecyclothorax arboricola sp. n., Mecyclothorax rahimata sp. n., M. oaoa sp. n., Mecyclothorax maninapopoti sp. n., Mecyclothorax hunapopoti sp. n., Mecyclothorax fefemata sp. n., Mecyclothorax maninamata sp. n., and Mecyclothorax niho sp. n. Mecyclothorax muriauxioides Perrault, 1984 is newly synonymized with Mecyclothorax muriauxi Perrault, 1978. Lectotypes are designated for: Thriscothorax altiusculus Britton, 1938; Thriscothorax bryobius Britton, 1938; Mecyclothorax globosus Britton, 1948: and Mecyclothorax sabulicola Britton, 1948. Dichotomous identification keys augmented by dorsal habitus and male aedeagal photographs are provided to the various species-groups and all included species. The spermatophore of Mecyclothorax papau sp. n. is described, with the ampulla and collar found to correspond dimensionally to the length of the internal sac flagellar plate. Variation among characters of the female reproductive tract is presented for all newly described plus other representative species comprising the radiation. Taxa are assigned to species groups, modified from the classification of G.G. Perrault, based on derived character states polarized using the Australian outgroup taxon Mecyclothorax punctipennis (MacLeay). Much of the species-level diversity on this small Pacific island is partitioned allopatrically over very small distributional ranges. No species is shared between Tahiti Nui and Tahiti Iti, and nearly all species in Tahiti Nui are geographically restricted to one ridgelike massif of that volcano. Cladistically similar species are often distributed on different massifs suggesting that vicariance associated with erosional valley formation has facilitated speciation, however several instances in which sister species occupy sympatric distributions on the same ridge system demonstrate that speciation may also occur across extremely localized landscapes. Such localized differentiation is facilitated by the low vagility of these small-bodied, flightless predators whose fragmented populations can persist and diverge within spatially limited habitat patches. The intense philopatry of Tahitian Mecyclothorax spp. coupled with the highly dissected landscape has produced the geographically densest adaptive radiation on Earth. This radiation has occurred very rapidly, with species durations averaging 300,000 yr; a speciation rate similar to that observed in Hawaiian Oliarus planthoppers and Laupala crickets, and East African Rift lake cichlid fishes. PMID:24003312
Sandoval-Gómez, Vivian Eliana; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano; Lawrence, John F.
Abstract We designate lectotypes and propose nomenclatural changes in Xylographus Mellié (Coleoptera, Ciidae) based on type specimens deposited in the Museum of Comparative Zoology (USA), Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Germany), the Natural History Museum (UK), Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle de la Ville de Genève (Switzerland), Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (France), Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (Sweden) and Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (Austria). We designate lectotypes for the following species: Cis fultoni Broun, 1886, Xylographus anthracinus Mellié, 1849, X. bicolor Pic, 1916, X. brasiliensis Pic, 1916, X. ceylonicus Ancey, 1876, X. contractus Mellié, 1849, X. corpulentus Mellié, 1849, X. dentatus Pic, 1922, X. gibbus Mellié, 1849, X. hypocritus Mellié, 1849, X. javanus Pic, 1937, X. lemoulti Pic, 1916, X. longicollis Pic, 1922, X. madagascariensis Mellié, 1849, X. nitidissimus Pic, 1916, X. perforatus Gerstaecker, 1871, X. porcus Gorham, 1886, X. punctatus Mellié, 1849, X. ritsemai Pic, 1921, X. rufescens Pic, 1921, X. rufipennis Pic, 1934, X. rufipes Pic, 1930, X. seychellensis Scott, 1926, X. subopacus Pic, 1929, X. subsinuatus Pic, 1916, X. suillus Gorham, 1886, X. testaceitarsis Pic, 1916 and X. tomicoides Reitter, 1902. We propose the following syn. n. (senior synonym listed first): X. anthracinus = X. testaceitarsis, X. brasiliensis = X. lucasi Lopes-Andrade & Zacaro, X. corpulentus = X. lemoulti and X. richardi Mellié, X. madagascariensis = X. eichelbaumi Reitter, X. rufipennis, X. seychellensis Scott and X. tarsalis Fåhraeus, X. nitidissimus = X. longicollis, X. subsinuatus = X. rufescens. We exclude three species from Xylographus: Cis renominatus, nom. n. (for X. dentatus Pic, 1922, not C. dentatus Mellié, 1849), Paratrichapus fultoni (Broun, 1886), comb. n. and P. javanus (Pic, 1937), comb. n. PMID:24493963
Bouchard, Patrice; Bousquet, Yves; Davies, Anthony E.; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Lawrence, John F.; Lyal, Chris H. C.; Newton, Alfred F.; Reid, Chris A. M.; Schmitt, Michael; Ślipiński, S. Adam; Smith, Andrew B. T.
Abstract We synthesize data on all known extant and fossil Coleoptera family-group names for the first time. A catalogue of 4887 family-group names (124 fossil, 4763 extant) based on 4707 distinct genera in Coleoptera is given. A total of 4492 names are available, 183 of which are permanently invalid because they are based on a preoccupied or a suppressed type genus. Names are listed in a classification framework. We recognize as valid 24 superfamilies, 211 families, 541 subfamilies, 1663 tribes and 740 subtribes. For each name, the original spelling, author, year of publication, page number, correct stem and type genus are included. The original spelling and availability of each name were checked from primary literature. A list of necessary changes due to Priority and Homonymy problems, and actions taken, is given. Current usage of names was conserved, whenever possible, to promote stability of the classification. New synonymies (family-group names followed by genus-group names): Agronomina Gistel, 1848 syn. nov. of Amarina Zimmermann, 1832 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalioini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Melandryini Leach, 1815 (Melandryidae), Polycystophoridae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Malachiinae Fleming, 1821 (Melyridae), Sclerasteinae Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Ptilininae Shuckard, 1839 (Ptinidae), Phloeonomini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Omaliini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Sepedophilini Ádám, 2001 syn. nov. of Tachyporini MacLeay, 1825 (Staphylinidae), Phibalini Gistel, 1856 syn. nov. of Cteniopodini Solier, 1835 (Tenebrionidae); Agronoma Gistel 1848 (type species Carabus familiaris Duftschmid, 1812, designated herein) syn. nov. of Amara Bonelli, 1810 (Carabidae), Hylepnigalio Gistel, 1856 (type species Chrysomela caraboides Linnaeus, 1760, by monotypy) syn. nov. of Melandrya Fabricius, 1801 (Melandryidae), Polycystophorus Gistel, 1856 (type species Cantharis aeneus Linnaeus, 1758, designated herein) syn. nov. of Malachius Fabricius, 1775 (Melyridae), Sclerastes
Smith, Aaron D.; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D.
Abstract Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae. PMID:25009429
Smith, Aaron D; Dornburg, Rebecca; Wheeler, Quentin D
Darkling beetle larvae (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) are collectively referred to as false wireworms. Larvae from several species in the genus Eleodes are considered to be agricultural pests, though relatively little work has been done to associate larvae with adults of the same species and only a handful of species have been characterized in their larval state. Morphological characters from late instar larvae were examined and coded to produce a matrix in the server-based content management system mx. The resulting morphology matrix was used to produce larval species descriptions, reconstruct a phylogeny, and build a key to the species included in the matrix. Larvae are described for the first time for the following 12 species: Eleodes anthracinus Blaisdell, Eleodes carbonarius (Say), Eleodes caudiferus LeConte, Eleodes extricatus (Say), Eleodes goryi Solier, Eleodes hispilabris (Say), Eleodes nigropilosus LeConte, Eleodes pilosus Horn, Eleodes subnitens LeConte, Eleodes tenuipes Casey, Eleodes tribulus Thomas, and Eleodes wheeleri Aalbu, Smith & Triplehorn. The larval stage of Eleodes armatus LeConte is redescribed with additional characters to differentiate it from the newly described congeneric larvae.
Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi
Abstract Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China. PMID:27833429
Ghittino, Claudio; Busato, Enrico; Casale, Achille
Abstract Carabus (Cathoplius) aliai was described as a separate species by Escalera in 1944 but since the 1950–60s it has been considered as a subspecies of Carabus (Cathoplius) stenocephalus Lucas, 1866. This downgrading was adopted after examining only a few specimens, due to their rarity in collections. In recent years, an important population of this taxon was rediscovered in the Tan-Tan area in southern Morocco. By combining field observations with laboratory breeding experiments including hybridization trials, and through the morphological examination of a representative number of individuals, it is confirmed that Carabus aliai is indeed a valid species. Despite close geographic distribution, the morphological and biological characteristics of Carabus aliai and Carabus stenocephalus ifniensis Zarco, 1941, its northern substitutive taxon, are very different. Carabus aliai adults are characterized by a smaller size, a slender silhouette, a more brilliant aspect, a narrower pronotum, a coarser elytral sculpture, longer legs, and a wider and a little more curved apex of the median lobe of the aedeagus. Carabus aliai larvae are also characterized by a much smaller size and the Carabus aliai pupa has a narrower thoracic area and a different chaetotaxy compared to that of Carabus stenocephalus ifniensis. Contrary to this, Carabus aliai has a life cycle belonging to the annual univoltine winter semelparous type. Moreover, the duration of its development cycle is shorter. Carabus aliai is a sabulicolous steppe-wandering species with an intensive running activity, while Carabus stenocephalus ifniensis is a more sedentary taxon. Crossbreeding experiments showed a marked reproductive isolation between Carabus aliai and Carabus stenocephalus ifniensis. When F1 hybrids were crossed with one another, a very high mortality rate during embryonic, larval and pupal development was evident and no vital F2 neo-adults were obtained. Morphological and biological differences, together with the reproductive failure in Carabus aliai × Carabus stenocephalus ifniensis hybrids, clearly indicate that Carabus aliai is a separate Cathoplius species that is distributed in an area south of the Anti-Atlas chain, from Plage Blanche (Guelmim) to Lemsid and Bou Kra (south of Laâyoune). Carabus aliai is therefore both a Saharan desert endemic and an Atlantic resident. Moreover, it is the southernmost Carabus species of the western Palaearctic region. PMID:25941447
LaBonte, James R.
Abstract Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius) is one of the most frequently encountered and widely distributed carabid beetles in Europe. Until recently, the only North American records were based on two single specimens, both from the 1930’s in southeastern Canada. In 2008, this species was found at thirteen different sites in five counties in northwestern Oregon. As of the end of 2010, it has been found in thirty-four different sites in ten Oregon counties, with a north-south range of ~150 km and an east-west range of ~90 km. It was also detected in 2010 in southwestern Washington (Vancouver), just north of Portland and the Columbia River. The ecological amplitude of Nebria brevicollis in Oregon rivals that of the most eurytopic native carabid species, e.g., Pterostichus algidus LeConte and Scaphinotus marginatus (Fischer von Waldheim). It has been found in highly degraded heavy industrial sites, agricultural fields, city parks, gardens, second growth woodlands, mature conifer forests, montane rock gardens, and otherwise pristine stands of old growth noble fir, with elevations ranging from essentially sea level to 1,249 meters. Climates at these locales vary from that of the Mediterranean Willamette Valley floor, where snow rarely occurs and summers are hot and dry, to the summit of the Oregon Coast Range, where deep snow may be present from November through April and summers are cool. The carabid communities in which Nebria brevicollis has been found range from those predominantly of fellow exotic species, e.g., at heavily perturbed sites, to those where it is the only exotic species, such as at the Coast Range summit. Nebria brevicollis is clearly an invasive species in that it is not restricted to anthropogenic habitats, is rapidly expanding its North American range, and can be abundant in essentially pristine settings. What is not yet clear is whether it is or will become a damaging species. Although it is already the most abundant carabid species in some settings, based upon pitfall catches, it is unknown whether this represents competitive superiority, trap vulnerability, or utilization of previously untapped or non-limiting resources. Deleterious ecological effects could include not only competition with other predators (including other carabid species) in agricultural and natural settings but also predation upon non-adult stages of threatened and endangered species of butterflies. PMID:22371674
Davidson, Robert L; Rykken, Jessica; Farrell, Brian
As part of an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in Boston Harbor Islands national park area, an inventory of carabid beetles on 13 islands was conducted. Intensive sampling on ten of the islands, using an assortment of passive traps and limited hand collecting, resulted in the capture of 6,194 specimens, comprising 128 species. Among these species were seven new state records for Massachusetts (Acupalpus nanellus,Amara aulica,Amara bifrons, Apenes lucidulus, Bradycellus tantillus, Harpalus rubripes and Laemostenus terricola terricola-the last also a new country record; in passing we report also new state records for Harpalus rubripes from New York and Pennsylvania, Amara ovata from Pennsylvania, and the first mainland New York records for Asaphidion curtum). For most islands, there was a clear relationship between species richness and island area. Two islands, however, Calf and Grape, had far more species than their relatively small size would predict. Freshwater marshes on these islands, along with a suite of hygrophilous species, suggested that habitat diversity plays an important role in island species richness. Introduced species (18) comprised 14.0% of the total observed species richness, compared to 5.5% (17 out of 306 species) documented for Rhode Island. We surmise that the higher proportion of introduced species on the islands is, in part, due to a higher proportion of disturbed and open habitats as well as high rates of human traffic. We predict that more active sampling in specialized habitats would bring the total carabid fauna of the Boston Harbor Islands closer to that of Rhode Island or eastern Massachusetts in richness and composition; however, isolation, human disturbance and traffic, and limited habitat diversity all contribute to reducing the species pool on the islands relative to that on the mainland.
Maddison, David R; Ober, Karen A
The phylogeny of ground beetles of supertribe Trechitae is inferred using DNA sequences of genes that code for 28S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, and wingless. Within the outgroups, austral psydrines are inferred to be monophyletic, and separate from the three genera of true Psydrina (Psydrus, Nomius, Laccocenus); the austral psydrines are formally removed from Psydrini and are treated herein as their own tribe, Moriomorphini Sloane. All three genes place Gehringia with Psydrina. Trechitae is inferred to be monophyletic, and sister to Patrobini.Within trechites, evidence is presented that Tasmanitachoides is not a tachyine, but is instead a member of Trechini. Perileptus is a member of subtribe Trechodina. Against Erwin's hypothesis of anillines as a polyphyletic lineage derived from the tachyine genus Paratachys, the anillines sampled are monophyletic, and not related to Paratachys. Zolini, Pogonini, Tachyina, and Xystosomina are all monophyletic, with the latter two being sister groups. The relationships of the subtribe Bembidiina were studied in greater detail. Phrypeus is only distantly related to Bembidion, and there is no evidence from sequence data that it belongs within Bembidiina. Three groups that have been recently considered to be outside of the large genus Bembidion are shown to be derived members of Bembidion, related to subgroups: Cillenus is related to the Ocydromus complex of Bembidion, Zecillenus is related to the New Zealand subgenus Zeplataphus, and Hydrium is close to subgenus Metallina. The relationships among major lineages of Trechitae are not, however, resolved with these data.
Up to date we do not have much information about predation on seeds by larvae of ground beetles. One of the reasons why such knowledge is important is that granivorous larvae contribute to predation of weed seeds. In this study, the food requirements of larvae of autumn breeding carabid species Amara eurynota (Panzer) were investigated in the laboratory and a hypothesis, that they are granivorous was tested. Insect diet (Tenebrio molitor larvae), three seed diets (seeds of Artemisia vulgaris, Tripleurospermum inodorum or Urtica dioica or a mixed diet (T. molitor + A. uulgaris) were used as food. For larvae of A. eurynota, seeds are essential for successful completion of development, because all those fed pure insect diet died before pupation. However, differences in suitability were observed between pure seed diets. Larvae fed seeds of A. vulgaris had the lowest mortality and fastest development of the seed diets. Those fed seeds of T. inodorum had also low mortality, but the development was prolonged in the third instar. In contrast, development of larvae reared on seeds of U. dioica was slowest of the tested diets and could not be completed, as all individuals died before pupation. When insects were included to seed diet of A. vulgaris (mixed diet), the duration of development shortened, but mortality remained the same when compared to seed diet of A. vulgaris. According to the results it was concluded that larvae of A. eurynota are granivorous. A mixed diet and seed diets of A. uulgaris and T. inodorum were suitable and insect diet and seeds of U. dioica were unsuitable diets in this experiment.
Kotze, D Johan; O'Hara, Robert B
We investigated some of the causes of ground beetle decline using atlas data from Belgium, Denmark and the Netherlands, countries in which natural environments have all but disappeared. We used ordinal regression to identify characteristics that are significantly correlated with the decline of carabid beetle species over the last 50-100 years, using a stepwise selection procedure to select the optimal model according to the Akaike Information Criterion. The results showed that large-bodied carabid populations have declined more than smaller ones, possibly because of their lower reproductive output and lower powers of dispersal. Habitat specialist populations (i.e. species with small niche breadths) have also decreased more than habitat generalist populations. Species with both long- and short-winged individuals have been less prone to decline than those that are exclusively either short-winged or long-winged. Dimorphic species may survive better in highly altered environments because long-winged individuals are good at dispersing between suitable habitats and short-winged individuals are good at surviving and reproducing in these newly colonised habitats. Finally, populations of large carabids associated with coastal, woodland or riparian habitat types were less prone to decline than populations of large carabids associated with various, open or grassland habitat types. The pattern is reversed for carabid species smaller than 8 mm in size. These results are explained in the context of habitat restoration and destruction in these highly modified western European countries.
Carrillo, R; Alarcón, R; Neira, M
The role of carabid beetles in reducing populations of phytophagous insects has been an elusive subject. A field experiment was established on a commercial wheat crop (cv. Otto) with an area of 4.5 ha in Valdivia, Chile, during the spring and summer of 1996-1997. The field had been under a prairie system for two years, before wheat sowing (fertilization and a pesticide had been applied during crop development). Samples were taken at approximately monthly intervals. Carabid beetles were sampled with a grid of pitfall traps and other insects were sampled with a vacuum insect net and soil cores. The genera of the carabids found are of neotropical origin. Exclusion by polythene barriers, together with removal of carabid beetles using traps, was an effective technique for controlling carabid populations in a commercial wheat crop. A reduction in the number of carabid beetles was associated with an increase in the number of springtails and arachnids, and a decrease of agromyzid adults. Phytophagous insects, such as homopterans and lepidopterous larvae, were not affected by carabid exclusion and removal. The action of carabid beetles on the arthropod fauna can be extremely complex, due to its predatory activity at multitrophic levels.
Carabid beetles comprise a diverse and ubiquitous family of insects. Carabids are important in conservation biology and often have close associations with particular habitat types, making them useful biomonitoring organisms. Many carabids are also important biological control agents due to their pre...
Work, Timothy T.; Onge, Benoit St.; Jacobs, J.M.
Abstract Biodiversity monitoring is increasingly being bolstered with high resolution data derived from remote sensing such as LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). We derived a series of topographical variables, including slope, azimuth, ground curvature and flow accumulation from LIDAR images and compared these to captures of female carabids in pitfall traps in Eastern boreal mixedwood forests. We developed a series of species-specific logistic models predicting the proportion of females for eight dominant species, including Agonum retractum, Calathus ingratus, Platynus decentis, Pterostichus adstrictus, Pterostichus coracinus, Pterostichus pensylvanicus, Sphaeroderus nitidicollis and Synuchus impunctatus. We used these models to test three hypotheses related to how the modest topography in boreal forests could influence the availability of microhabitats and possibly potential sites for oviposition and larval development. In general, topographic features such as north facing slopes and high flow accumulation were important predictors of the proportion of females. Models derived from larger scale topography, such as hillsides or small watersheds on the order of ¼-1 ha were better predictors of the proportion of females than were models derived from finer scale topography such as hummocks and small depressions. We conclude that topography likely influences the distribution of carabids based on hydrological mechanisms rather than factors related to temperature. We further suggest based on the scale of responses that these hydrological mechanisms may be linked to the attenuation of past disturbances by wildfire and the propensity of unburned forest patches and fire skips. PMID:22371678
Matalin, Andrey V.; Chikatunov, Vladimir I.
Abstract Based on field studies, museums collections and literature sources, the current knowledge of the tiger beetle fauna of Israel and adjacent lands is presented. In Israel eight species occur, one of them with two subspecies, while in the Sinai Peninsula nine species of tiger beetles are now known. In the combined regions seven genera from two tribes were found. The Rift Valley with six cicindelids species is the most specious region of Israel. Cylindera contorta valdenbergi and Cicindela javeti azari have localized distributions and should be considered regional endemics. A similarity analysis of the tiger beetles faunas of different regions of Israel and the Sinai Peninsula reveal two clusters of species. The first includes the Great Rift Valley and most parts of the Sinai Peninsula, and the second incorporates most regions of Israel together with Central Sinai Foothills. Five distinct adult phenological groups of tiger beetles can be distinguished in these two clusters: active all-year (three species), spring-fall (five species), summer (two species), spring-summer (one species) and spring (one species). The likely origins of the tiger beetle fauna of this area are presented. An annotated list and illustrated identification key of the Cicindelinae of Israel and adjacent lands are provided. PMID:27110198
Fang, Jie; Li, Wenbo; Tian, Mingyi
Two new species of anophthalmic ground beetles belonging to the subfamily Trechinae are described: Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus Tian & Li, sp. n. and Wanoblemus wui Tian & Fang, gen. n., sp. n. Both were discovered in the limestone caves of Anhui Province in eastern China. Cimmeritodes (Zhecimmerites) parvus was found in caves Ziwei Dong, Xianren Dong and Qingtai Dong, whereas Wanoblemus wui was discovered in cave Baiyun Dong. This is the first record of cavernicolous ground beetles in Anhui Province, eastern China.
Maddison, David R
The phylogeny of the large genus Bembidion and related genera is inferred from four nuclear protein-coding genes (CAD, wingless, arginine kinase, and topoisomerase I), ribosomal DNA (28S and 18S), and the mitochondrial gene cytochrome oxidase I (COI). 230 of the more than 1200 species of Bembidion are sampled, as well as 26 species of five related genera, and 14 outgroups. Nuclear copies (numts) of COI were found sparsely scattered through sampled species. The resulting phylogeny, based upon individual gene analyses and combined analyses using maximum likelihood and parsimony, is very well supported at most nodes. Additional analyses explored the evidence, and corroborate the phylogeny. Seven analyses, each with one of the seven genes removed from the combined matrix, were also conducted, and yielded maximum likelihood bootstrap trees sharing over 92% of their nodes with the original, well-resolved bootstrap trees based on the complete set of seven genes. All key nodes were present in all seven analyses missing a single gene, indicating that support for these nodes comes from at least two genes. In addition, the inferred maximum likelihood tree based on the combined matrix is well-behaved and self-predicting, in that simulated evolution of sequences on the inferred tree under the inferred model of evolution yields a matrix from which all but one of the model tree's clades are recovered with bootstrap value >50, suggesting that internal branches in the tree may be of a length to yield sequences sufficient to allow their inference. All likelihood analyses were conducted under both a proportion-invariable plus gamma site-to-site rate variation model, as well as a simpler gamma model. The choice of model did not have a major effect on inferred phylogenies or their bootstrap values. The inferred phylogeny shows that Bembidarenas is not closely related to Bembidiina, and Phrypeus is likely distant as well; the remaining genera of Bembidiina form a monophyletic group. Lionepha, formerly considered a subgenus of Bembidion, is shown to be outside of the clade of Asaphidion+Bembidion, and is separated as its own genus. B. (Phyla) obtusum is quite isolated within Bembidion, and there is some evidence that the remaining Bembidion form a clade. Within Bembidion, there are three large clades that are well-supported, the Bembidion, Odontium, and Ocydromus Series. The Bembidion Series contains Bembidion (s. str.), Notaphus, Furcacampa, Emphanes, Trepanedoris, Diplocampa, and related Holarctic species; all species from South America, Australia, New Zealand; and most species from southern Africa and Madagascar. All species in South America, except for members of Notaphus and Nothocys, form a clade, the Antiperyphanes Complex, which has independently radiated into body forms and niches occupied by multiple, independent Northern-Hemisphere forms. All species from New Zealand, including Zecillenus, and Australian species formerly placed in Ananotaphus together form a clade. Bembidion (s. str.) and Cyclolopha are in a clade with the Old World, Southern Hemisphere lineages Notaphocampa, Sloanephila, and Omotaphus. The large subgenus Notaphus appears to have originated in South America, with all Northern Hemisphere Notaphus arising from within a south-temperate grade. All major variation in frontal furrows on the head is contained within the Bembidion Series. The Odontium Series contains subgenera Hirmoplataphus and Hydriomicrus, which together are the sister clade of Odontium, Bracteon, Ochthedromus, Pseudoperyphus, and Microserrullula. The very large Ocydromus Series, dominant in the Holarctic region, includes the Ocydromus Complex, with many subgenera, including Hypsipezum and Leuchydrium; the phylogeny within this group is notably at odds with the current classification. Also included in the Ocydromus Series are Nepha and Bembidionetolitzkya, as well as the Princidium Complex, in which the intertidal B. (Cillenus) laterale falls. Outside these three series are a number of smaller groups, including the Plataphus Complex (containing Blepharoplataphus, Plataphus, the latter including Plataphodes); the Hydrium Complex (Metallina, Chlorodium, and Hydrium, which contains Eurytrachelus), whose sister group might be subgenus Andrewesa; Trechonepha and Liocosmius, which might be sisters; and B. (Melomalus) planatum, which is not close to Plataphus. There is some evidence that these groups plus the Ocydromus and Odontium Series form a clade. A few enigmatic groups were harder to place. The sister group of the pair Philochthus plus Philochthemphanes might be B. wickhami; Eupetedromus is well outside the three major series and not related to Notaphus; the high-elevation Asian group Hoquedela is a very isolated lineage. Notaphiellus is removed from synonymy with Nothocys, and placed in synonymy with Notaphus; Plataphodes is synonymized with Plataphus, as Plataphus is paraphyletic otherwise; Eurytrachelus is synonymized with Hydrium. A new subgenus, Lindrochthus, is described to house the distinctive B. wickhami. The implications of the inferred phylogeny for some morphological characters used in Bembidiina systematics are explored, and some of the most widely used (e.g., location of discal seta ed3 on the elytron, and shape of the shoulder) are shown to be notably homoplastic. For example, the location of elytral seta ed3 has undergone at least nine transitions between two states.
Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko
The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens--eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var. cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.
Weng, Yi-Ming; Yang, Man-Miao; Yeh, Wen-Bin
Taiwan, an island with three major mountain ranges, provides an ideal topography to study mountain-island effect on organisms that would be diversified in the isolation areas. Glaciations, however, might drive these organisms to lower elevations, causing gene flow among previously isolated populations. Two hypotheses have been proposed to depict the possible refugia for alpine organisms during glaciations. Nunatak hypothesis suggests that alpine species might have stayed in situ in high mountain areas during glaciations. Massif de refuge, on the other hand, proposes that alpine species might have migrated to lower ice-free areas. By sampling five sympatric carabid species of Nebria and Leistus, and using two mitochondrial genes and two nuclear genes, we evaluated the mountain-island effect on alpine carabids and tested the two proposed hypotheses with comparative phylogeographic method. Results from the phylogenetic relationships, network analysis, lineage calibration, and genetic structure indicate that the deep divergence among populations in all L. smetanai, N. formosana, and N. niitakana was subjected to long-term isolation, a phenomenon in agreement with the nunatak hypothesis. However, genetic admixture among populations of N. uenoiana and some populations of L. nokoensis complex suggests that gene flow occurred during glaciations, as a massif de refuge depicts. The speciation event in N. niitakana is estimated to have occurred before 1.89 million years ago (Mya), while differentiation among isolated populations in N. niitakana, N. formosana, L. smetanai, and L. nokoensis complex might have taken place during 0.65-1.65 Mya. While each of the alpine carabids arriving in Taiwan during different glaciation events acquired its evolutionary history, all of them had confronted the existing mountain ranges.
Harpalus pensylvanicus is a beneficial beetle contributing to insect control and seed predation in North American cropland. The bacterial endosymbiont Enterococcus faecalis is found in the intestinal tract of H. pensylvanicus and is thought to contribute to the digestion of the insect's seed diet. W...
Higgins, R. C.
The carabid beetle (Notiophilus) preys readily on an easily-cultured collembolan in simple experimental conditions. Some features of this predator-prey system are outlined to emphasize its use in biology instruction. Experiments with another potential collembolan are described in the context of developing the method for more advanced studies.…
Koivula, Matti J.
Abstract Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse, taxonomically and ecologically well-known, efficiently reflect biotic and abiotic conditions, are relevant at multiple spatial scales, and are easy to collect in sufficiently large numbers to allow statistical analyses. The assumption that carabid responses would reflect rare environmental conditions or the responses of rare and threatened species ‒ crucial information for conservationists and managers ‒ has not yet been critically evaluated. Even if it holds, the usefulness will be context dependent: species and their populations vary, conditions vary, questions put forward vary, and assessment goals vary. PMID:21738418
Montes de Oca, E; Ball, G E; Spence, J R
This paper documents the existence of carabid assemblages associated with bromeliads on the Cofre de Perote, Veracruz, Mexico. Based on bromeliads sampled over three altitudinal ranges, the assemblages included at least 26 species with an arboreal lifestyle and another 11 species that are not strictly arboreal. Seven species are new to science, urging us to pay attention to the arboreal fauna in forest conservation studies. Composition of carabid assemblages associated with bromeliads changes with altitude. In lowlands, it is comprised almost entirely of species of Lebiini, with the Platynini dominating assemblages found in bromeliads >1,000 m above sea level. Our data suggest that carabids use bromeliads to reduce stresses associated with drought periods, the exact timing of which depends on altitude. The unexpected low diversity of the carabid fauna associated with bromeliads at middle altitude is explained in terms of anthropogenic conversion of the original forest to pastureland. Given the importance of arboreal elements, further fragmentation of subtropical and tropical mountain forest significantly threatens overall carabid diversity.
Duran, Daniel P.; Roman, Stephen J.
Abstract A new tiger beetle species, Cicindelidia melissa Duran & Roman, sp. n., of the tribe Cicindelini, is described from high elevation montane forests of southeastern Arizona and Mexico. It appears to be most closely related to Cicindelidia nebuligera (Bates) but is distinguished on the basis of multiple morphological characters and geographic range. The new species is also superficially similar to the widespread Cicindelidia sedecimpunctata (Klug), but distinguished on the basis of multiple morphological characters and habitat. Habitus, male and female reproductive structures, and known distribution map are presented. PMID:25589868
Pellegrini, Thais Giovannini; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes
Coarazuphium caatinga sp. n. occurs in limestone caves located in Campo Formoso municipality, in the Brazilian Caatinga (Bahia, Brazil). The new species is close to C. formoso although they are morphologically distinct by the elytra sinuosity, which is more pronounced in C. caatinga; the aedeagus is more tapered at the tip in this last species. Important traits found in C. caatinga are the variable size presented by the eyes, and the remarkable variability of body pigmentation among specimens; both traits do not seem to be correlated. Coarazuphium Gnaspini, P., Vanin, S.A. & Godoy, N.M., 1998, species exhibit advanced troglomorphic characters in comparison to other Brazilian cave beetles, as are increased extra-optic sensory structures, presence of particular sensilla, and sensory and gustatory receptors. These characters are not detected under routine microscopy and thus require ultrastructural methods for their study.
Giglio, Anita; Brandmayr, Pietro; Dalpozzo, Renato; Sindona, Giovanni; Tagarelli, Antonio; Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto; Ferrero, Enrico A
This study documents the defensive function of flavored humor secreted by the abdominal glands of Carabus lefebvrei pupae. The morphology and the ultrastructure of these glands were described and the volatile compounds of glands secretion were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The ultrastructure analysis shows an acinose complex formed by about 50 clusters. Each cluster has 20 glandular units and the unit-composed of one secretory and one canal cell lying along a duct-belongs to the class 3 cell type of Quennedey (1998). In the cytoplasm, the secretory cell contains abundant rough endoplasmatic reticula, glycogen granules, numerous mitochondria, and many well-developed Golgi complexes producing electron-dense secretory granules. Mitochondria are large, elongated, and often adjoining electronlucent vesicles. The kind and the origin of secretory granules varying in size and density were discussed. The chemical analysis of the gland secretion revealed the presence of a mixture of low molecular weight terpenes, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and carboxylic acids. Monoterpenes, especially linalool, were the major products. We supposed that ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, and carboxylic acids have a deterrent function against the predators and monoterpenes provide a prophylaxis function against pathogens.
Labonte, James R
Nebria brevicollis (Fabricius) is one of the most frequently encountered and widely distributed carabid beetles in Europe. Until recently, the only North American records were based on two single specimens, both from the 1930's in southeastern Canada. In 2008, this species was found at thirteen different sites in five counties in northwestern Oregon. As of the end of 2010, it has been found in thirty-four different sites in ten Oregon counties, with a north-south range of ~150 km and an east-west range of ~90 km. It was also detected in 2010 in southwestern Washington (Vancouver), just north of Portland and the Columbia River.The ecological amplitude of Nebria brevicollis in Oregon rivals that of the most eurytopic native carabid species, e.g., Pterostichus algidus LeConte and Scaphinotus marginatus (Fischer von Waldheim). It has been found in highly degraded heavy industrial sites, agricultural fields, city parks, gardens, second growth woodlands, mature conifer forests, montane rock gardens, and otherwise pristine stands of old growth noble fir, with elevations ranging from essentially sea level to 1,249 meters. Climates at these locales vary from that of the Mediterranean Willamette Valley floor, where snow rarely occurs and summers are hot and dry, to the summit of the Oregon Coast Range, where deep snow may be present from November through April and summers are cool. The carabid communities in which Nebria brevicollis has been found range from those predominantly of fellow exotic species, e.g., at heavily perturbed sites, to those where it is the only exotic species, such as at the Coast Range summit.Nebria brevicollis is clearly an invasive species in that it is not restricted to anthropogenic habitats, is rapidly expanding its North American range, and can be abundant in essentially pristine settings. What is not yet clear is whether it is or will become a damaging species. Although it is already the most abundant carabid species in some settings, based upon pitfall catches, it is unknown whether this represents competitive superiority, trap vulnerability, or utilization of previously untapped or non-limiting resources. Deleterious ecological effects could include not only competition with other predators (including other carabid species) in agricultural and natural settings but also predation upon non-adult stages of threatened and endangered species of butterflies.
Bravi, Raffaella; Benítez, Hugo A.
Bilateral symmetry is widespread in animal kingdom, however most animal can deviate from expected symmetry and manifest some kind of asymmetries. Fluctuating asymmetry is considered as a tool for valuating developmental instability, whereas directional asymmetry is inherited and could be used for evaluating evolutionary development. We use the method of geometric morphometrics to analyze left/right asymmetries in the whole body, in two sites and totally six populations of Ceroglossus chilensis with the aim to infer and explain morphological disparities between populations and sexes in this species. In all individuals analyzed we found both fluctuating asymmetry and directional asymmetry for size and shape variation components, and a high sexual dimorphism. Moreover a high morphological variability between the two sites emerged as well. Differences in diet could influence the expression of morphological variation and simultaneously affect body sides, and therefore contribute to the symmetric component of variation. Moreover differences emerged between two sites could be a consequence of isolation and fragmentation, rather than a response to local environmental differences between sampling sites.
Andújar, C; Arribas, P; Ruiz, C; Serrano, J; Gómez-Zurita, J
In species differentiation, characters may not diverge synchronously, and there are also processes that shuffle character states in lineages descendant from a common ancestor. Species are thus expected to show some degree of incongruence among characters; therefore, taxonomic delimitation can benefit from integrative approaches and objective strategies that account for character conflict. We illustrate the potential of exploiting conflict for species delimitation in a study case of ground beetles of the subgenus Carabus (Mesocarabus), where traditional taxonomy does not accurately delimit species. The molecular phylogenies of four mitochondrial and three nuclear genes, cladistic analysis of the aedeagus, ecological niche divergence and morphometry of pronotal shape in more than 500 specimens of Mesocarabus show that these characters are not fully congruent. For these data, a three-step operational strategy is proposed for species delimitation by (i) delineating candidate species based on the integration of incongruence among conclusive lines of evidence, (ii) corroborating candidate species with inconclusive lines of evidence and (iii) refining a final species proposal based on an integrated characterization of candidate species based on the evolutionary analysis of incongruence. This procedure provided a general understanding of the reticulate process of hybridization and introgression acting on Mesocarabus and generated the hypothesis of seven Mesocarabus species, including two putative hybrid lineages. Our work emphasizes the importance of incorporating critical analyses of character and phylogenetic conflict to infer both the evolutionary history and species boundaries through an integrative taxonomic approach.
Davidson, Robert L.; Rykken, Jessica; Farrell, Brian
Abstract As part of an All Taxa Biodiversity Inventory in Boston Harbor Islands national park area, an inventory of carabid beetles on 13 islands was conducted. Intensive sampling on ten of the islands, using an assortment of passive traps and limited hand collecting, resulted in the capture of 6,194 specimens, comprising 128 species. Among these species were seven new state records for Massachusetts (Acupalpus nanellus, Amara aulica, Amara bifrons, Apenes lucidulus, Bradycellus tantillus, Harpalus rubripes and Laemostenus terricola terricola—the last also a new country record; in passing we report also new state records for Harpalus rubripes from New York and Pennsylvania, Amara ovata from Pennsylvania, and the first mainland New York records for Asaphidion curtum). For most islands, there was a clear relationship between species richness and island area. Two islands, however, Calf and Grape, had far more species than their relatively small size would predict. Freshwater marshes on these islands, along with a suite of hygrophilous species, suggested that habitat diversity plays an important role in island species richness. Introduced species (18) comprised 14.0% of the total observed species richness, compared to 5.5% (17 out of 306 species) documented for Rhode Island. We surmise that the higher proportion of introduced species on the islands is, in part, due to a higher proportion of disturbed and open habitats as well as high rates of human traffic. We predict that more active sampling in specialized habitats would bring the total carabid fauna of the Boston Harbor Islands closer to that of Rhode Island or eastern Massachusetts in richness and composition; however, isolation, human disturbance and traffic, and limited habitat diversity all contribute to reducing the species pool on the islands relative to that on the mainland. PMID:22371673
Acciavatti, Robert E.
Abstract The Brasiella tiger beetle fauna on Hispaniola, the second largest island of the Greater Antilles, has more species diversity than currently recognized as all populations previously have been assigned to the insular endemic Brasiella dominicana (Mandl). A comparative study of adult morphology, particularly male genitalic and female abdominal characters, for available Brasiella specimens from populations on Hispaniola, proposes eight additional new species also endemic to this island. Except for three sympatric species in the Sierra de Baoruco in southern Dominican Republic occurring in different habitats, all the Brasiella on Hispaniola appear to be allopatric. Most species occur in the major mountainous regions of Hispaniola. Two species, however, are known only from river floodplains in the southern coastal plain of the Dominican Republic. Brasiella dominicana (Mandl) and Brasiella ocoa, new species, occur along river floodplains emanating from the eastern end of the Cordillera Central in the Dominican Republic. Two new Brasiella species, Brasiella bellorum, and Brasiella philipi, occur in the Cordillera Central, Dominican Republic, the former species from central portions, and the latter species from north slopes of this mountain range, respectively. Three new Brasiella species, Brasiella rawlinsi, Brasiella iviei, and Brasiella youngi, are isolated in the Sierra de Baoruco, Dominican Republic, where each occupies a different habitat along an altitudinal gradient. The two new Brasiella species in Haiti are Brasiella darlingtoniana, in the Massif de la Selle, and Brasiella davidsoni, in the Massif de la Hotte. All nine Brasiella species on Hispaniola, along with Brasiella viridicollis (Dejean) and its two subspecies on Cuba, belong to the viridicollis species group of the genus Brasiella based on criteria presented in earlier published phylogenetic studies of Brazilian and West Indian tiger beetles. The subspecies Brasiella viridicollis fernandozayasi (Kippenhan, Ivie and Hopp) may represent a distinct species within this species group, whereas removal of Brasiella wickhami (W. Horn) from this species group seems warranted based on evidence presented. A general overview of species relationships for the Brasiella on Hispaniola are discussed, along with the current and ancestral geographic distributions of the Brasiella viridicollis species group in the West Indies. PMID:22371664
Gerisch, Michael; Schanowski, Arno; Figura, Wolfgang; Gerken, Bernd; Dziock, Frank; Henle, Klaus
The relationship of carabid beetle species occurrence patterns and environmental variables characterising the hydrological regime has been studied at the River Elbe in Central Germany. Both flood duration and groundwater depth had major influence on species assemblages as the ordination of study plots mainly followed a gradient along these two variables. The simultaneous ordination of the plots according to species occurrence and environmental parameters showed a highly significant joint structure with the first two axes of a co-inertia analysis, explaining >98% of the variance. A total of 27 species out of 129 caught fulfilled criteria of fidelity and specificity to the plots of the five clusters revealed by their abiotic conditions and were sufficiently abundant to be suitable indicators for one or a combination of clusters of plots.
Häckel, Martin; Azadbakhsh, Saeed
Two new species of the genus Microcosmodes Strand, M. arabicus from Oman and M. persicus from Iran, are described, compared with related taxa, and their affinities are discussed. The species are very similar and belong to the same species group.
Shearin, A F; Reberg-Horton, S C; Gallandt, E R
Ground beetles are well known as beneficial organisms in agroecosystems, contributing to the predation of a wide range of animal pests and weed seeds. Tillage has generally been shown to have a negative effect on ground beetles, but it is not known whether this is because of direct mortality or the result of indirect losses resulting from dispersal caused by habitat deterioration. In 2005, field experiments measured direct, tillage-induced mortality, of four carabid weed seed predators, Harpalus rufipes DeGeer, Agonum muelleri Herbst, Anisodactylus merula Germar, and Amara cupreolata Putzeys, and one arthropod predator, Pterostichus melanarius Illiger, common to agroecosystems in the northeastern United States. Three tillage treatments (moldboard plow, chisel plow, and rotary tillage) were compared with undisturbed controls at two sites (Stillwater and Presque Isle) and at two dates (July and August) in Maine. Carabid activity density after disturbance was measured using fenced pitfall traps installed immediately after tillage to remove any effects of dispersal. Rotary tillage and moldboard plowing reduced weed seed predator activity density 52 and 54%, respectively. Carabid activity density after chisel plowing was similar to the undisturbed control. This trend was true for each of the weed seed predator species studied. However, activity density of the arthropod predator P. melanarius was reduced by all tillage types, indicating a greater sensitivity to tillage than the four weed seed predator species. These results confirm the need to consider both direct and indirect effects of management in studies of invertebrate seed predators.
Nenadić, Marija; Soković, Marina; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; Perić-Mataruga, Vesna; Ilijin, Larisa; Tešević, Vele; Vujisić, Ljubodrag; Todosijević, Marina; Vesović, Nikola; Ćurčić, Srećko
The antimicrobial properties of the pygidial gland secretions released by the adults of the three ground beetle species, Carabus ullrichii, C. coriaceus, and Abax parallelepipedus, have been tested. Microdilution method was applied for detection of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and minimal fungicidal concentrations (MFCs). Additionally, morpho-histology of the pygidial glands is investigated. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens—eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples of C. ullrichii have showed the strongest antimicrobial effect against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Staphylococcus aureus, Lysteria monocytogenes, and Salmonella typhimurium proved to be the most sensitive bacterial strains. Penicillium funiculosum proved to be the most sensitive micromycete, while P. ochrochloron and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium the most resistant micromycetes. The pygidial secretion of C. coriaceus has showed antibacterial potential solely against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, and P. ochrochloron. Antibacterial properties of pygidial gland secretion of A. parallelepipedus were achieved against P. aeruginosa, while antifungal activity was detected against five of the eight tested micromycetes (A. fumigatus, A. versicolor, A. ochraceus, Trichoderma viride, and P. verrucosum var . cyclopium). Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and mycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as the positive controls, showed higher antibacterial/antifungal properties for all bacterial and fungal strains. The results of this observation might have a significant impact on the environmental aspects and possible medical purpose in the future.
Work, Timothy T; Onge, Benoit St; Jacobs, J M
Biodiversity monitoring is increasingly being bolstered with high resolution data derived from remote sensing such as LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging). We derived a series of topographical variables, including slope, azimuth, ground curvature and flow accumulation from LIDAR images and compared these to captures of female carabids in pitfall traps in Eastern boreal mixedwood forests. We developed a series of species-specific logistic models predicting the proportion of females for eight dominant species, including Agonum retractum, Calathus ingratus, Platynus decentis, Pterostichus adstrictus, Pterostichus coracinus, Pterostichus pensylvanicus, Sphaeroderus nitidicollis and Synuchus impunctatus. We used these models to test three hypotheses related to how the modest topography in boreal forests could influence the availability of microhabitats and possibly potential sites for oviposition and larval development. In general, topographic features such as north facing slopes and high flow accumulation were important predictors of the proportion of females. Models derived from larger scale topography, such as hillsides or small watersheds on the order of ¼-1 ha were better predictors of the proportion of females than were models derived from finer scale topography such as hummocks and small depressions. We conclude that topography likely influences the distribution of carabids based on hydrological mechanisms rather than factors related to temperature. We further suggest based on the scale of responses that these hydrological mechanisms may be linked to the attenuation of past disturbances by wildfire and the propensity of unburned forest patches and fire skips.
Guéorguiev, Borislav V.
Abstract Beronaphaenops gen. n. paphlagonicus sp. n., a new remarkable, eyeless species of Trechini is described from Asian Turkey (type locality: cave Eşek Çukuru Mağarası 2, Milli Park Küre Dağlari, Pinarbasi District, Kastamonu Province). This specialized, troglobite species is characterized by a very peculiar combination of features, including several autapotypic features: mentum tooth large, long and porrect, at distal position reaching or slightly exceeding the level of epilobes, rather slanting ventrally, deeply bifid at the tip; short and fragile paraglossae, hardly surpassing the anterior margin of ligula; absence of posterolateral setae of the pronotum; absence of posterior discal pore in elytral stria 3; apical stylomere shortened, with basal part unusually broadened. The systematic position of the genus amongst the trechine beetles from the peri-Pontic area is discussed. A key to the Anatolian genera of the tribe is prepared. PMID:23459597
Abstract Species of the genus Singilis Rambur, 1837 (Phloeozeteus Peyron, 1856, syn. n., Agatus Motschulsky, 1845, syn. n.), occurring in the Middle East and Central Asia are reviewed, with 24 species now recognized in the region, including ten species described as new: Singilis makarovi sp. n. (Tajikistan), Singilis jedlickai sp. n. (Afghanistan), Singilis kolesnichenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis kabakovi sp. n. (Afghanistan, Iran), Singilis timuri sp. n. (Uzbekistan), Singilis klimenkoi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis saeedi sp. n. (Iran), Singilis felixi sp. n. (UAE), Singilis kryzhanovskii sp. n. (Iran, Turkmenistan), and Singilis timidus sp. n. (Iran); Singilis libani (Sahlberg, 1913) is recognized as a valid species; and Singilis solskyi nom. n. is proposed as a replacement name for Agatus bicolor (Solsky, 1874, not Rambur 1837), now placed in Singilis as junior homonym. New synonymies include: Singilis cingulatus (Gebler, 1843) = Singilis jakeschi Jedlička, 1967, syn. n.; Singilis mesopotamicus Pic, 1901 = Singilis apicalis Jedlička, 1956, syn. n. A key to species is provided. Habitus and aedeagal illustrations are provided for all species. Distributional data include many new country records. PMID:22291510
Maddison, David R.; Ober, Karen A.
Abstract The phylogeny of ground beetles of supertribe Trechitae is inferred using DNA sequences of genes that code for 28S ribosomal RNA, 18S ribosomal RNA, and wingless. Within the outgroups, austral psydrines are inferred to be monophyletic, and separate from the three genera of true Psydrina (Psydrus, Nomius, Laccocenus); the austral psydrines are formally removed from Psydrini and are treated herein as their own tribe, Moriomorphini Sloane. All three genes place Gehringia with Psydrina. Trechitae is inferred to be monophyletic, and sister to Patrobini. Within trechites, evidence is presented that Tasmanitachoides is not a tachyine, but is instead a member of Trechini. Perileptus is a member of subtribe Trechodina. Against Erwin’s hypothesis of anillines as a polyphyletic lineage derived from the tachyine genus Paratachys, the anillines sampled are monophyletic, and not related to Paratachys. Zolini, Pogonini, Tachyina, and Xystosomina are all monophyletic, with the latter two being sister groups. The relationships of the subtribe Bembidiina were studied in greater detail. Phrypeus is only distantly related to Bembidion, and there is no evidence from sequence data that it belongs within Bembidiina. Three groups that have been recently considered to be outside of the large genus Bembidion are shown to be derived members of Bembidion, related to subgroups: Cillenus is related to the Ocydromus complex of Bembidion, Zecillenus is related to the New Zealand subgenus Zeplataphus, and Hydrium is close to subgenus Metallina. The relationships among major lineages of Trechitae are not, however, resolved with these data. PMID:22379388
Talarico, Federica; Brandmayr, Pietro; Giglio, Anita; Massolo, Alessandro; Brandmayr, Tullia Zetto
Abstract In carabid beetles, physiological and behavioural characteristics reflect specific habitat demands and there is a strong correlation between body form and habit in species with different life style. In this study, we compared the morphometry and compound eye characteristics of three species of the genus Siagona: Siagona jenissoni, Siagona dejeani and Siagona europaea. These carabids have a stenotopic lifestyle in Mediterranean clayey soils, inhabiting the ground fissure system formed during the dry season. All species have a Mediterranean distribution and are nocturnal olfactory hunters, and are strict ant predators. For morphometric measurements, we considered body length (mm), wing length (mm), antenna length (mm), head width (mm), trochanter length (mm), number of ommatidia, eye surface area (mm2), ommatidia density (number of ommatidia/mm2 of eye surface area), head height (mm), thorax height (mm) and abdomen height (mm). The data revealed intersexual and interspecific differences. The three species differ in relative length of the antennae, density and number of ommatidia and relative trochanter length. Significant differences occurred in wing sizes, which are well developed in Siagona europaea, the only species capable of flight. When eye size is compared with other ground beetles of various lifestyles, Siagona shows pronounced “microphthalmy” an adaptation to subterranean life in clayey crevices of tropical and subtropical climates with a marked dry season. PMID:21738413
Orsetti, Artur; Lopes-Andrade, Cristiano
Pelecium Kirby is the most diverse Peleciini genus, with 33 species shared between two subgenera: Pelecidium Straneo & Ball, which comprises three species, and Pelecium, with the remaining 30 species (Straneo & Ball 1989). They occur from Panama to middle Argentina, and adults are nocturnal and prey upon millipedes (Martinez 2005). Larvae have parasitoids habits and millipedes are their main preys. There are also records of Pelecium larvae devouring immature beetles (Salt 1928). Our aim in this study is to describe Pelecium igneus sp. nov.. Aedeagus of this species is the first described for Pelecium.
Maddison, David R.
Abstract Phylogenetic relationships of the Antiperyphanes Complex of the genus Bembidion are inferred using DNA sequences from seven genes (two nuclear ribosomal, four nuclear protein coding, and one mitochondrial protein coding). Redefined subgenera within the complex are each well-supported as monophyletic. Most striking was the discovery that a small set of morphologically and ecologically heterogeneous species formed a clade, here called subgenus Nothonepha. This unexpected result was corroborated by the discovery of deep pits in the lateral body wall (in the mesepisternum) of all Nothonepha, a trait unique within Bembidion. These pits are filled with a waxy substance in ethanol-preserved specimens. In one newly discovered species (Bembidion tetrapholeon sp. n., described here), these pits are so deep that their projections into the body cavity from the two sides touch each other internally. These structures in Bembidion (Nothonepha) are compared to very similar mesepisternal pits which have convergently evolved in two other groups of carabid beetles. The function of these thoracic pits is unknown. Most members of subgenus Nothonepha have in addition similar but smaller pits in the abdomen. A revised classification is proposed for the Antiperyphanes Complex. PMID:25061349
Su, Zhi-Hui; Imura, Yûki; Okamoto, Munehiro; Kim, Choong-Gon; Zhou, Hong-Zhang; Paik, Jong-Cheol; Osawa, Syozo
Genealogical trees have been constructed using mitochondrial ND5 gene sequences of 87 specimens consisting of 32 species which have been believed to belong to the division Digitulati (one of the lineages of the subtribe Carabina) of the world. There have been recognized six lineages, which are well separated from each other. Each lineage contains the following genus: (1) the lineage A: Ohomopterus from Japan; (2) the lineage B: Isiocarabus from eastern Eurasian Continent; (3) the lineage C: Carabus from China which are further subdivided into three sublineages; (4) the lineage D: Carabus from USA; (5) the lineage E: Carabus from the Eurasian Continent, Japan and North America; and (6) the lineage F: Eucarabus from the Eurasian Continent. Additionally, the genus Acrocarabus which had been treated as a constituent of the division Archicarabomorphi has been recognized to be the 7th lineage of the division Digitulati from the ND5 genealogical analysis as well as morphology. These lineages are assumed to have radiated within a short period and are largely linked to their geographic distribution.
Background Coleoptera is the most diverse order of insects (>300,000 described species), but its richness diminishes at increasing latitudes (e.g., ca. 7400 species recorded in Canada), particularly of phytophagous and detritivorous species. However, incomplete sampling of northern habitats and a lack of taxonomic study of some families limits our understanding of biodiversity patterns in the Coleoptera. We conducted an intensive biodiversity survey from 2006–2010 at Churchill, Manitoba, Canada in order to quantify beetle species diversity in this model region, and to prepare a barcode library of beetles for sub-arctic biodiversity and ecological research. We employed DNA barcoding to provide estimates of provisional species diversity, including for families currently lacking taxonomic expertise, and to examine the guild structure, habitat distribution, and biogeography of beetles in the Churchill region. Results We obtained DNA barcodes from 3203 specimens representing 302 species or provisional species (the latter quantitatively defined on the basis of Molecular Operational Taxonomic Units, MOTUs) in 31 families of Coleoptera. Of the 184 taxa identified to the level of a Linnaean species name, 170 (92.4%) corresponded to a single MOTU, four (2.2%) represented closely related sibling species pairs within a single MOTU, and ten (5.4%) were divided into two or more MOTUs suggestive of cryptic species. The most diverse families were the Dytiscidae (63 spp.), Staphylinidae (54 spp.), and Carabidae (52 spp.), although the accumulation curve for Staphylinidae suggests that considerable additional diversity remains to be sampled in this family. Most of the species present are predatory, with phytophagous, mycophagous, and saprophagous guilds being represented by fewer species. Most named species of Carabidae and Dytiscidae showed a significant bias toward open habitats (wet or dry). Forest habitats, particularly dry boreal forest, although limited in extent in the
Jad'ud'ová, Jana; Kanianska, Radoslava; Kizeková, Miriam; Makovníková, Jarmila
Biodiversity has an important role in creating and regulating ecosystem processes, functions, and services. Carabidae are considered to be suitable bio-indicators of environment. The aim of the study is to analyse the relationships between Carabidae and the ability of study sites to fulfil habitat provision. The research was conducted on permanent grasslands (PG) with different management at 2 study sites (Tajov - TA, Liptovska Teplicka - LT) located in different climatic and natural conditions of Slovakia. At each study site, seven plastic traps were placed in spring 2015 for one month in line with 3 m distance. The habitat provision was identified by Biotope Valuation Method (BVM). The calculated values of both study sites were same (BVM = 41.67). One of the reasons can be the same type of habitat. According to the Catalogue of habitats in Slovakia, both study sites belong to mesophilic pastures and grazed grassland. Biodiversity was evaluated by Shannon-Weaver index. The calculated values were similar (H'= 1.42 in TA, H'= 1.25 in LT). In Tajov, a total of 220 individuals of soil arthropods were captured and 169 in Liptovska Teplicka. In Tajov, three eurytopic species of Carabidae and one adaptable species (Abax Parallelepipedus) were captured. One order belongs to eudominant species: Poecilus cupreus (50%). In Liptovska Teplicka, four eurytopic species of Carabidae and two adaptable species (Carabus cancellatus, Carabus violaceus) were captured. Two species belong to eudominat species: Carabus cancellatus (40.54%) and Carabus vialaceus (13.51%). The relationship between Carabidae diversity and the ability of study site to fulfil habitat provision was not confirmed. Carabidae are not closely linked to structure of the vegetation cover, but their occurrence is influenced by habitat microclimate conditions.
Webster, Reginald P.; Webster, Vincent L.; Alderson, Chantelle A.; Hughes, Cory C.; Sweeney, Jon D.
Abstract This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick. PMID:27110171
Webster, Reginald P; Webster, Vincent L; Alderson, Chantelle A; Hughes, Cory C; Sweeney, Jon D
This paper treats 134 new records of Coleoptera for the province of New Brunswick, Canada from the following 41 families: Gyrinidae, Carabidae, Dytiscidae, Histeridae, Leiodidae, Scarabaeidae, Scirtidae, Buprestidae, Elmidae, Limnichidae, Heteroceridae, Ptilodactylidae, Eucnemidae, Throscidae, Elateridae, Lampyridae, Cantharidae, Dermestidae, Bostrichidae, Ptinidae, Cleridae, Melyridae, Monotomidae, Cryptophagidae, Silvanidae, Laemophloeidae, Nitidulidae, Endomychidae, Coccinellidae, Corylophidae, Latridiidae, Tetratomidae, Melandryidae, Mordellidae, Tenebrionidae, Mycteridae, Pyrochroidae, Aderidae, Scraptiidae, Megalopodidae, and Chrysomelidae. Among these, the following four species are newly recorded from Canada: Dirrhagofarsus ernae Otto, Muona & McClarin (Eucnemidae), Athous equestris (LeConte) (Elateridae), Ernobius opicus Fall (Ptinidae), and Stelidota coenosa Erichson (Nitidulidae). The Family Limnichidae is newly reported for New Brunswick, and one species is added to the fauna of Nova Scotia. Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer (Latridiidae), Tetratoma (Abstrulia) variegata Casey (Tetratomidae), and Chauliognathus marginatus (Fabricius) (Cantharidae) are removed from the faunal list of New Brunswick, and additional records of Lacconotus punctatus LeConte (Mycteridae) are presented and discussed. Lindgren funnel traps provided specimens for 104 (78%) of the species and were the sole source of specimens for 89 (66%) of the species reported here, suggesting they are a very useful tool for sampling Coleoptera fauna in the forests of New Brunswick.
Abdel-Dayem, Mahmoud S.; Fad, Hassan H.; El-Torkey, Ashraf M.; Elgharbawy, Ali A.; Aldryhim, Yousif N.; Kondratieff, Boris C.; Ansi, Amin N. Al; Aldhafer, Hathal M.
Abstract This study was conducted as a part of a comprehensive baseline survey of insect biodiversity of Rawdhat Khorim National Park (RKNP), Central Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). During this study a total of 262 Coleoptera species belong to 182 genera in 35 families were identified, of which 247 are named at a species level. Fifteen species (6.0%) are apparently endemic to KSA. Thirty-eight species are new to the known beetle fauna of KSA, including 25 species reported from the Arabian Peninsula for the first time. The families Tenebrionidae (45 species), Scarabaeidae (34 species), and Carabidae (27 species) were the most species rich families. About 37% of the beetle abundance was represented by species of Scarabaeidae, especially Aphodius ictericus ghardimaouensis Balthasar. Karumia inaequalis Pic (Dascillidae) was also an abundant species. Approximately 43.5% of beetle species collected during this study are considered very rare taxa in RKNP. The RKNP beetle fauna shows more affinity to Sahro-Arabian (36.4%), Afrotropical-Sahro-Arabian (17.4%) and Palaearctic-Sahro-Arabian (10.5%). Twenty-three species (9.3%) are considered cosmopolitan or subcosmopolitan. The data on month of collection, method of collection, and abundance status within RKNP, together with the distribution within KSA and the general distribution (zoogeography) of each species are presented. PMID:28331393
Southcott, R V
The effects of Coleoptera (beetles) on humans in the Australian region are surveyed. Ill-effects range from the immediate trauma of a bite, possibly with minor effects from the beetle's salivary secretions, to the effects of the vesicating beetles of the families Meloidae, Oedemeridae and Staphylinidae, and also the acute corneal erosion that is attributed to the small beetle Orthoperus sp. (family Corylophidae) in southeastern Australia. Reference also is made to other effects that are known as a result of beetle metabolites or structures, such as "carpet beetle dermatitis" from the irritating hairs of Anthrenus larvae (family Dermestidae), and inhalational asthma from beetles, notably the grain weevil Sitophilus, the causative agent of certain cases of grain-worker's asthma. Beetles as human intestinal inhabitants, and their role as intermediary hosts of metazoal diseases are discussed.
Abstract A new species of the genus Platynus Bonelli, Platynus daviesi, is described from specimens collected in the Appalachian Mountains. The species is structurally most similar to Platynus parmarginatus Hamilton but differs in having the coloration of the body dorsally darker on average, the elytra proportionally longer and wider, the vertex and disc of pronotum with well impressed microsculpture, the elytral interval 3 with four or five discal setae in most specimens, and the median lobe of aedeagus less curved overall. DNA barcoding was performed on several species of eastern North American Platynus species and Platynus daviesi was found to be genetically distinct from Platynus parmarginatus. A key to the 12 species of Platynus found east of the Mississippi River is provided. PMID:22303130
Abstract The tiger beetle fauna of the Maghreb region is one of the richest in the Palaearctic, including 22 species and 5 subspecies and 19% of all Palaearctic species of Cicindelinae. Assembled to their chorotypes, the Maghreb tiger beetles fall into eight different groups that include Maghreb endemics (26% of fauna), Mediterranean (7%), West Mediterranean (40%), North African (4%), Mediterranean-Westturanian (4%), West Palaearctic (4%), Afrotropico-Indo-Mediterranean (4%), and Saharian (11%) species. The Mediterranean Sclerophyl and Atlas Steppe are the Maghreb biogeographical provinces with the highest species richness, while the Sahara Desert has the lowest Cicindelinae diversity. Twenty-five cicindelid species and subspecies (93% of Maghreb fauna) are restricted to only one or two habitat types in lowland areas. Only Calomera littoralis littoralis and Lophyra flexuosa flexuosa are recognized as eurytopic species and occur in three types of habitat. The highest tiger beetle diversity characterizes salt marshes and river banks (in both cases 11 species and subspecies or 41% of Maghreb fauna). Approximately 85% of all Maghreb tiger beetle species and subspecies are found in habitats potentially endangered by human activity. PMID:25709529
Looney, Chris; Hanelt, Ben; Zack, Richard S
From 1998 to 2003, beetles and crickets infected with hairworms were collected from 4 localities within the Hanford Nuclear Site and the Hanford Reach National Monument, located in a shrub-steppe region of Washington State along the Columbia River. Infected hosts comprised 6 species of carabid beetles within 5 genera and 2 camel crickets within 1 genus; all are newly documented insect-nematomorph associations. A large proportion of the infected hosts (48%) were collected from a single site during a single collecting period. Of the 38 infected hosts, 32 contained a single worm, 4 hosts contained 2 worms, and 2 hosts contained 3 worms. Five of the hosts with multiple infections contained at least 1 male and 1 female worm. Camel crickets were infected with Neochordodes occidentalis while carabids were infected with an undescribed species of Gordionus . As the majority of hairworms are collected in the post-parasitic adult phase, host data and hairworm-arthropod associations remain poorly documented and our work adds new data to this area of nematomorph biology.
Schuldt, Andreas; Assmann, Thorsten
Broad-scale patterns of subterranean diversity are a fascinating but neglected part of biodiversity research. Carabid beetles adapted to belowground habitats form a particularly species-rich part of the subterranean fauna. We studied large-scale diversity patterns of these belowground carabids across the western Palaearctic and evaluated potential impacts of historical and contemporary environmental conditions on the distribution of these taxa, using available species richness and environmental data at country level. Regression modelling and variation partitioning showed a strong relationship between species richness and range in elevation. Potential effects of climatic variables, mainly those related to ambient energy input, were much weaker. We discuss the implications of this combination of effects, which suggests, concordant with the absence of subterranean carabids in northern and highest richness in southern Europe, a strong prevailing influence of historical processes on current richness distributions of these taxa. Previous studies did not provide clear indications for such an influence. In contrast to more mobile and widespread carabid beetles, dispersal limitation due to high adaptation of belowground carabids to subterranean habitats has probably hindered their re-colonization of former permafrost and glaciated regions. Hotspots of highest belowground diversity are located in regions with an assumed long-term stability of environmental conditions, correlating with patterns of other dispersal-limited taxa such as many endemic plants. Our study provides important new information in the discussion of potential determinants of the distinct geographic patterns of belowground diversity. Moreover, it contributes to a better understanding of range size related differences previously found in the distribution of diversity and environmental dependencies of widespread and range-restricted species within the highly diverse carabid beetles.
Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry
Abstract The sarawakensis species group of the termitophilous carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 is defined and reviewed. Members of this species group are distributed in Southeast Asia and represented by four species, including two new species: Orthogonius sabahicus sp. n. (Sabah, northern Borneo, Malaysia) and Orthogonius morvanianus sp. n. (southern Thailand). A key to all species of the species group is also provided. PMID:27408560
This work was done in plots that had been subjected to three successive years of an agronomic experiment that evaluated the effects of a wheat cover crop or no cover crop on weed and water management. After the third growing season, pitfall traps were installed and arthropods were collected and iden...
Seeman, Owen D; Baker, Michelle R
Berzercon ferdinandi gen. nov., sp. nov. (Acari: Mesostigmata: Discozerconidae) is described from carabid beetles in New Zealand. As in all Discozerconidae, Berzercon has large ventrally-directed opisthogastric suckers. However it is distinctive in its long marginal setae, tripartite gnathotectum, fused palp tibia and tarsus, the female's large dome-shaped genital shield and the male's highly modified hypostomal seta h1. This new species also represents the first Heterozerconina from an insect host.
Guillemain, Matthieu; Loreau, Michel; Daufresne, Tanguy
We studied regional variation in abundance of carabid beetles in relation to both abiotic factors and prey availability in 19 forest sites, with a focus on the relationship between the distributions of the carabid beetle Abax ater Villers and its prey, earthworms. No significant correlation was found between the abundance of Abax ater and any of the abiotic factors considered. On the other had, litter thickness was strongly associated with the composition and structure of the whole carabid community: an increase in litter thickness was accompanied by a decrease in both total carabid abundance and carabid species richnes, and by an increase in the proportion of forest species. The relationship between the regional distributions of abundance of carabid beetles and their potential prev was very different for soil-dwelling and litter-dwelling prey. There was a significant pattern of association between low soil prey abundance and low carabid abundance, which suggests that carabid abundance is partly controlled by prey numbers in the soil. On the other hand, there was a significant pattern of association between high prey density per volume of litter and low Abax ater abundance, thus showing a negative relationship between the abundance of this species and prey density in the litter. We propose two complementary hypotheses to explain this pattern: prey depletion by predation in the litter, and biased sampling of carabids due to differential mobility. The prey depletion hypothesis considers that soil acts as a refuge from predation, so that prey numbers in the soil control carabid abundance, while dominant carabids in turn deplete prey and control their abundance in the litter. This hypothesis suggests a complex relationship between the abundances of carabids and their prey.
Geiselhardt, Stefanie F.; Peschke, Klaus; Nagel, Peter
Myrmecophily provides various examples of how social structures can be overcome to exploit vast and well-protected resources. Ant nest beetles (Paussinae) are particularly well suited for ecological and evolutionary considerations in the context of association with ants because life habits within the subfamily range from free-living and predatory in basal taxa to obligatory myrmecophily in derived Paussini. Adult Paussini are accepted in the ant society, although parasitising the colony by preying on ant brood. Host species mainly belong to the ant families Myrmicinae and Formicinae, but at least several paussine genera are not host-specific. Morphological adaptations, such as special glands and associated tufts of hair (trichomes), characterise Paussini as typical myrmecophiles and lead to two different strategical types of body shape: while certain Paussini rely on the protective type with less exposed extremities, other genera access ant colonies using glandular secretions and trichomes (symphile type). We compare these adaptations with other taxonomic groups of insects by joining contemporary research and early sources and discuss the possibility of an attracting or appeasing effect of the secretion. Species that are ignored by their host ants might use chemical mimicry instead. Furthermore, vibrational signals may contribute to ant-beetle communication, and chemical signals have proven to play a role in host finding. The powerful defense chemistry of paussines as “bombardier beetles” is not used in contact with host ants. We attempt to trace the evolution of myrmecophily in paussines by reviewing important aspects of the association between paussine beetles and ants, i.e. morphological and potential chemical adaptations, life cycle, host specificity, alimentation, parasitism and sound production.
Abstract Comparisons of structural features (principally mouthparts, elytral-abdominal locking mechanism, and female genitalia) of the ardistomine genera (Aspidoglossa Putzeys, Ardistomis Putzeys, and Semiardistomis Kult) with those features of members of the subtribe Clivinina (Clivina Latreille, Oxydrepanus Putzeys, Schizogenius Putzeys,Ancus Putzeys, Nyctosyles Putzeys, and Obadius Burmeister) confirm the taxonomic validity of the subtribe Ardistomina. Based on morphological features, the ardistomine genera are postulated to be related as follows: [Aspidoglossa [Ardistomis + Semiardistomis
Liebherr, James K.
Abstract Seven species of Mecyclothorax Sharp precinctive to Mont Mauru, Tahiti, Society Islands are newly described: Mecyclothorax tutei sp. n., Mecyclothorax tihotii sp. n., Mecyclothorax putaputa sp. n., Mecyclothorax toretore sp. n., Mecyclothorax anaana sp. n., Mecyclothorax pirihao sp. n., and Mecyclothorax poro sp. n. These seven constitute the first representative Mecyclothorax species recorded from Mauru, and their geographic restriction to this isolated massif defines it as a distinct area of endemism along the highly dissected eastern versant of the Tahiti Nui volcano. Each of the new species has a closest relative on another massif of Tahiti Nui, supporting speciation associated with vicariance caused by extensive erosional valley formation, especially the development of Papenoo Valley. Comparison of the known elevational distributions of the new discoveries on Mont Mauru to the elevational diversity profile of the comparatively well-sampled Mont Marau, northwest Tahiti Nui, suggests that numerous Mecyclothorax species remain to be discovered in higher-elevation habitats of Mont Mauru. PMID:23166465
Nenadić, M; Soković, M; Glamočlija, J; Ćirić, A; Perić-Mataruga, V; Tešević, V; Vujisić, L; Todosijević, M; Vesović, N; Ćurčić, S
The antimicrobial activity of the pygidial gland secretion released by adult individuals of the troglophilic ground beetle Laemostenus (Pristonychus) punctatus (Dejean, 1828), applying microdilution method with the aim to detect minimal inhibitory concentration, minimal bactericidal concentration and minimal fungicidal concentration, has been investigated. In addition, morphology of the pygidial glands is observed. We have tested 16 laboratory and clinical strains of human pathogens - eight bacterial both gram-positive and gram-negative species and eight fungal species. The pygidial secretion samples have showed antimicrobial properties against all strains of treated bacteria and fungi. Micrococcus flavus proved to be more resistant compared with other bacterial strains. More significant antimicrobial properties of the secretion are observed against Escherichia coli, which proved to be the most sensitive bacteria. Aspergillus fumigatus proved to be the most resistant, while Penicillium ochrochloron and Penicillium verrucosum var. cyclopium the most sensitive micromycetes. Commercial antibiotics Streptomycin and Ampicillin and antimycotics Ketoconazole and Bifonazole, applied as positive controls, showed higher antibacterial properties for all bacterial and fungal strains, except for P. ochrochloron, which proved to be more resistant on Ketoconazole compared with the pygidial gland secretion of L. (P.) punctatus. Apart from the role in ecological aspects, the antimicrobial properties of the tested secretion possibly might have medical significance in the future.
Serrano, Artur R M; Capela, Rúben A; Oesterle, Andreas
Three new species of tiger beetles, two of the genus Trichotaenia Rivalier, 1957 and one of the genus Cylindera Westwood, 1831, subgenus Ifasina Jeannel, 1946 are described from Angola. An annotated list of species of Cicindelina sampled in this country is provided also. Records for three species previously unknow from Angola are given: Ophryodera smrzi Werner, 2005, Lophyra clatharta (Dejean, 1825) and Lophyra sumlini Cassola, 1976. Some considerations on the distribution and general ecology of these beetles in Angola are also presented. Further, two dichotomic keys are made available for the identification of Trichotaenia species with marked shoulders and Cylindera (Ifasina) species of western and southwestern Africa, respectively.
Santos, Guilherme Ide Marques Dos
A late instar of the Tetragonoderus (Crossonychus) variegatus Dejean, 1829 larva is described for the first time, and is compared with its first instar, with the larva of another Tetragonoderus species, and with the larva of one Cyclicus species. Habitus and important structures of the larva are illustrated, as well the adult's membranous wings. Some aspects of the natural history of the larva and adult are also noted.
Ćurčić, Srećko; Sciaky, Riccardo; Antić, Dragan; Vesović, Nikola
Abstract Two new ground beetle subspecies, Omphreus (Omphreus) morio sandeli ssp. n. (from Mts. Zelengora and Maglić, eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina) and Omphreus (Omphreus) morio durmitorensis ssp. n. (from Mt. Durmitor, northwestern Montenegro) are here described and diagnosed. The male and female genitalia and other taxonomically important characters are illustrated. The new taxa are distinctly different from the nearest relatives and represent both endemics and relicts inhabiting limited high-altitude Dinaric areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina and Montenegro. A key to Omphreus taxa from Montenegro and a key to subspecies of Omphreus (Omphreus) morio Dejean, 1828 are presented. PMID:26175606
Makarov, Kirill V.; Sundukov, Yuri N.
Abstract A new species, Bembidion (?Nipponobembidion) ruruy sp. n., is described from the foot of Ruruy Volcano, Kunashir Island, Kuril Archipelago, Russia. It is only the second consubgener, being characterized by the reduced wings, the rounded elytral shoulders, and the backward position of the posterior supra-orbital pore. In this connection, the subgenus Nipponobembidion Habu & Baba, 1968 is rediagnosed and both of its species are keyed. It might have originated from Plataphodes Ganglbauer, 1891, possibly in relation to volcanic activities in the region. PMID:25589863
Cueva-Dabkoski, M.; Kavanaugh, D.
Between 1998 and 2007, the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) was the lead institution in a multi-national, multi-disciplinary biodiversity inventory project in the Gaoligong Shan region (GLGS) in the Yunnan province of China. The project surveyed the species diversity of both higher plants and bryophytes, fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals and selected groups of arachnids and insects. The GLGS of China is one of the most biodiverse areas in all of Asia, yet it is also very poorly sampled and in great threat from increasing human activities in the region. CAS's biodiversity inventory project there has increased the number of carabid species known from just 50 to more than 550 species, an eleven-fold increase. The task that remains is to identify all of those 500 additional species and describe any that are new to science. This project is part of that larger biodiversity survey. Our objective was to identify and/or describe carabid beetles of the tribe Cyclosomini represented by nearly a hundred specimens collected in the GLSG. Among those specimens, six morphospecies were identified - one belonging to the genus Cyclosomus Latreille 1829, and the other five belonging to the genus Tetragonoderus Dejean 1829. Following this initial identification process, a list of known distributions of taxa in both genera was assembled to determine which described species to consider for comparative work. Original descriptions were then located for candidate species with known distributions in or near the GLGS; and these are being used now in morphological comparison of specimens. Type specimens for each of the candidate species have been requested from various academic institutions, and morphological comparisons with these types are underway. Morphological characteristics being examined include body proportions and overall shape, color of appendages, color and shape of pronotum, elytral color patterns, and shape and internal structure of male genitalia.
Liebherr, James K.
Abstract Seven species of Mecyclothorax Sharp from Moorea, Society Islands are newly described; Mecyclothorax perraulti sp. n., Mecyclothorax pahere sp. n., Mecyclothorax menemene sp. n., Mecyclothorax mahatahi sp. n., Mecyclothorax popotioaoa sp. n., Mecyclothorax mapo sp. n., and Mecyclothorax fatata sp. n. These constitute the first Mecyclothorax species described from Moorea, and the first carabid beetle species shown to be geographically restricted to that island. Each of the newly described species is most similar to a different species on the island of Tahiti, suggesting that none of the seven Moorean taxa are evolutionary end-products of autochthonous speciation within Moorea. The occurrence of precinctive Mecyclothorax species on both Moorea and Tahiti demonstrates that radiation of Mecyclothorax in the Society Islands has been facilitated by speciation events implicating both islands. Whether this speciation has been preceded by vicariance or dispersal is discussed, with the generality of a dispersal hypothesis tested using information from Society Island Nabidae (Hemiptera). Salient morphological characters for taxa in the Society and Hawaiian Islands are compared to those representing a broad survey of southwest Pacific Mecyclothorax spp. This comparison supports the independent founding of each radiation in the Societies and Hawaii from an Australian ancestral propagule, likely drawn from the ecologically general, geographically widespread Mecyclothorax punctipennis (Macleay). PMID:23129989
Clarke, T E; Levin, D B; Kavanaugh, D H; Reimchen, T E
Morphological differentiation in the ground beetles of the Nebria gregaria group, found on the Queen Charlotte Islands, has been used as support for the glacial refugium proposed for the northwest coast of North America. Two members of this species group, N. charlottae and N. louiseae, are restricted to cobble beaches in this archipelago. A third, N. haida, is found only in alpine regions of the archipelago and the adjacent mainland. The remaining two species of the gregaria group, N. lituyae and N. gregaria, show highly restricted distributions in the mountains of the Alaska panhandle and on the beaches of the Aleutian Islands, respectively. To determine the relationships of the five species, we conducted phylogenetic analyses on nucleotide sequence data obtained from five regions of the mitochondrial DNA. In total, 1835 bp were analyzed. The results suggest that one species, N. lituyae, does not belong in the gregaria group, and that only seven mutations separated the two most divergent of the four remaining species. We also conducted random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprinting analyses on genomic DNA extracted from the five species. Analyses of genetic diversity revealed a lack of molecular differentiation among the Queen Charlotte species, suggesting that these populations may be postglacial in origin and that together N. gregaria, N. charlottae, N. louiseae, and N. haida might represent local variations of a single species. These results are consistent with conclusions derived for the morphological and genetical differentiation among Gasterosteus populations in the archipelago.
Gañán, Israel; Baselga, Andrés; Novoa, Francisco
We assessed the relationships between diversity patterns of Iberian Calathus and current environmental gradients or broad-scale spatial constraints, using 50-km grid cells as sampling units. We assessed the completeness of the inventories using nonparametric estimators to avoid spurious results based on sampling biases. We modeled species richness and beta diversity, using spatial position, and 23 topographical, climatic, and geological variables as predictors in regression and constrained analysis of principal coordinates modeling. Geographical situation does not seem to affect Calathus species richness, because no spatial pattern was detected. The environmental variables only explained 23% of the variation in richness. Spatial and environmental predictors explained a large part of the variation in species composition (58%). The fraction shared by both groups of variables was relatively large, but the pure effect of each model was still important. Our results show that it is necessary to assess the completeness of inventories to avoid drawing false conclusions. Also, Iberian Calathus represent a clear example of the need for combined analyses of species richness and beta diversity patterns, because the lack of patterns in the former does not imply the invariance of biotic communities.
Van Belleghem, Steven M.; Roelofs, Dick; Van Houdt, Jeroen; Hendrickx, Frederik
Background The salt marsh beetle Pogonus chalceus represents a unique opportunity to understand and study the origin and evolution of dispersal polymorphisms as remarkable inter-population divergence in dispersal related traits (e.g. wing development, body size and metabolism) has been shown to persist in face of strong homogenizing gene flow. Sequencing and assembling the transcriptome of P. chalceus is a first step in developing large scale genetic information that will allow us to further study the recurrent phenotypic evolution in dispersal traits in these natural populations. Methodology/Results We used the Illumina HiSeq2000 to sequence 37 Gbases of the transcriptome and performed de novo transcriptome assembly with the Trinity short read assembler. This resulted in 65,766 contigs, clustering into 39,393 unique transcripts (unigenes). A subset of 12,987 show similarity (BLAST) to known proteins in the NCBI database and 7,589 are assigned Gene Ontology (GO). Using homology searches we identified all reported genes involved in wing development, juvenile- and ecdysteroid hormone pathways in Tribolium castaneum. About half (56.7%) of the unique assembled genes are shared among three life stages (third-instar larva, pupa, and imago). We identified 38,141 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in these unigenes. Of these SNPs, 26,823 (70.3%) were found in a predicted open reading frame (ORF) and 6,998 (18.3%) were nonsynonymous. Conclusions The assembled transcriptome and SNP data are essential genomic resources for further study of the developmental pathways, genetic mechanisms and metabolic consequences of adaptive divergence in dispersal power in natural populations. PMID:22870338
Ball, George E.; Shpeley, Danny
Abstract Based on small samples (exemplars) analyzed with morphological methods, including detailed descriptions and illustrations, this study treats primarily the Zuphium genus-group in the Western Hemisphere, which comprises two precinctive genera: Coarazuphium Gnaspini, Vanin & Godoy, 1998 (type species Parazuphium tessai Godoy & Vanin, 1990) and Zuphioides gen. n. (type species Zuphium mexicanum Chaudoir, 1863). The genus Coarazuphium includes six troglobitic species from Brazilian caves, and one probably hypogaeic (troglophilic) species from the mountains of Oaxaca, in Mexico (Coarazuphium whiteheadi, sp. n., type locality, ridge top, in western Oaxaca, Mexico, at 2164 m, 35 km north of San Pedro Juchatengo, 16.462N, 97.010W). The epigaeic genus Zuphioides includes 23 species, with its geographical range extended from Neotropical temperate Argentina in southern South America, northward through the tropics to north temperate southeastern Canada, in the Nearctic Region. Keys are provided to the species of Coarazuphium and to thegenera of Western Hemisphere Zuphiini. PMID:23878508
Bonacci, Teresa; Brandmayr, Pietro; Zetto, Tullia; Perrotta, Ida Daniela; Guarino, Salvatore; Peri, Ezio; Colazza, Stefano
Abstract Volatile compounds produced by adults of Anchomenus dorsalis under undisturbed and disturbed conditions were investigated with an all-glass aeration apparatus. GC-MS analysis of the crude extracts from undisturbed and disturbed adults highlighted four major volatile compounds, undecane, heneicosane, Z-9 tricosene and tricosane, of which significantly more undecane was released by disturbed adults compared to undisturbed beetles. The pygidial glands of adults of Anchomenus dorsalis were investigated using light and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Each gland showed dense aggregates of secretory cells organized into visually distinct lobes; a long collecting canal that drains the secretion towards the reservoir, a bean-shaped double lobed muscular reservoir in which secretion is stored and a short duct (efferent duct) through which the secretion is discharged. The function of the pygidial glands and the possible role played by undecane as a defensive allomone and/or chemical signalling molecule are discussed. PMID:21594158
Abstract A remarkable aphaenopsian beetle, a sympatric species of Qianotrechus tenuicollis Uéno, 2000, was newly discovered in Cave Mahuang Dong of Shuanghe Dong cave system, the longest cave system of China in Suiyang County, northern Guizhou Province. To categorize this striking but still unknown species, a new genus and species are proposed: Shuangheaphaenops elegans gen. n., sp. n. Relationships of Shuangheaphaenops and other highly modified aphaenopsian genera from southern China Karsts are discussed. PMID:28144179
Weng, Yi-Ming; Yeh, Wen-Bin; Yang, Man-Miao
Abstract There are three isolated mountain ranges in Taiwan including Hsueshan Range, Central Mountain Range, and Yushan Range. The rise of these mountains has resulted in the isolation of some species and caused allopatric distribution resulting in divergence and speciation events of high mountain carabids, especially the flightless carabids such as Epaphiopsis, Apenetretus, and partial Nebria. Genus Apenetretus Kurnakov (1960) is typically distributed in high mountain areas of Taiwan. Three of the currently known Apenetretus species have been described from different mountain ranges. These species include Apenetretus yushanensis Habu, Apenetretus nanhutanus Habu, and Apenetretus smetanai Zamotajlov and Sciaky. In this study, a new species is described from Hsueshan, a mountain separated from the ranges of the previous known species, Apenetretus hsueshanensis sp. n. A key to the Taiwanese Apenetretus is included. A reconstructed phylogeny of the Taiwanese Apenetretus is introduced with the use of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene. Molecular data and geographical distribution of Apenetretus support the morphological characteristics observed among those mountain-isolated species and confirms the new species as being distinctly different. Moreover, lineage calibration suggests that the southern Apenetretus yushanensis is the most distant one compared to the other three northern Apenetretus at ca. 1.81 million years ago (mya), while the divergence time of Apenetretus hsueshanensis to its sister group was dated to 0.94 mya. PMID:27199599
Giglio, Anita; Giulianini, Piero Giulio
In ecological immunology is of great importance the study of the immune defense plasticity as response to a variable environment. In holometabolous insects the fitness of each developmental stage depends on the capacity to mount a response (i.e. physiological, behavioral) under environmental pressure. The immune response is a highly dynamic trait closely related to the ecology of organism and the variation in the expression of an immune system component may affect another fitness relevant trait of organism (i.e. growth, reproduction). The present research quantified immune function (total and differential number of hemocytes, phagocytosis in vivo and activity of phenoloxidase) in the pupal stage of Carabus (Chaetocarabus) lefebvrei. Moreover, the cellular and humoral immune function was compared across the larval, pupal and adult stages to evaluate the changes in immunocompetence across the developmental stages. Four types of circulating hemocytes were characterized via transmission electron microscopy in the pupal stage: prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes and oenocytoids. The artificial non-self-challenge treatments performed in vivo have shown that plasmatocytes and granulocytes are responsible for phagocytosis. The level of active phenoloxidase increases with the degree of pigmentation of the cuticle in each stage. In C. lefebvrei, there are different strategies in term of immune response to enhance the fitness of each life stage. The results have shown that the variation in speed and specificity of immune function across the developmental stages is correlated with differences in infection risk, life expectancy and biological function of the life cycle.
The tiger beetle fauna of the Maghreb region is one of the richest in the Palaearctic, including 22 species and 5 subspecies and 19% of all Palaearctic species of Cicindelinae. Assembled to their chorotypes, the Maghreb tiger beetles fall into eight different groups that include Maghreb endemics (26% of fauna), Mediterranean (7%), West Mediterranean (40%), North African (4%), Mediterranean-Westturanian (4%), West Palaearctic (4%), Afrotropico-Indo-Mediterranean (4%), and Saharian (11%) species. The Mediterranean Sclerophyl and Atlas Steppe are the Maghreb biogeographical provinces with the highest species richness, while the Sahara Desert has the lowest Cicindelinae diversity. Twenty-five cicindelid species and subspecies (93% of Maghreb fauna) are restricted to only one or two habitat types in lowland areas. Only Calomeralittoralislittoralis and Lophyraflexuosaflexuosa are recognized as eurytopic species and occur in three types of habitat. The highest tiger beetle diversity characterizes salt marshes and river banks (in both cases 11 species and subspecies or 41% of Maghreb fauna). Approximately 85% of all Maghreb tiger beetle species and subspecies are found in habitats potentially endangered by human activity.
Solodovnikov, Igor A.; Zamotajlov, Alexandr S.; Fominykh, Dmitriy D.; Titarenko, Andrey Y.
Abstract This study is based on a comparative analysis of extensive material of Carabus (Archiplectes) satyrus Kurnakov, 1962, its various forms and related taxa recently collected by the authors and some other collectors in Abkhazia. The status or specific affiliations of several subspecies are changed and a subspecies is described. Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus Kurnakov, 1972, stat. n. is treated as a separate species housing six hitherto established subspecies in addition to the nominal type: Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus mtsaranus Kurnakov, 1972, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus duripshensis Kurnakov, 1972, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus napraensis Belousov & Zamotajlov, 1993, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus dsychvensis Kurnakov, 1972, Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus adzinbai Retezár, 2013, and Carabus (Archiplectes) besleticus resheviensis subsp. n. Carabus (Archiplectes) satyrus is treated as monotypical while the specific status of Carabus (Archiplectes) pseudopshuensis Zamotajlov, 1991, earlier proposed by Fominykh and Zamotajlov (2012), is confirmed based on the morphological and morphometric data. PMID:25589861
Shi, Hongliang; Zhou, Hongzhang; Liang, Hongbin
Abstract Ten genera of Physoderina from the Oriental Region are diagnosed and described, and twenty six species representing eight genera (Paraphaea Bates, Anchista Nietner, Metallanchista gen. n., Diamella nom. n., Allocota Motschulsky, Orionella Jedlička, Endynomena Chaudoir and Dasiosoma Britton (Oriental species only)) are revised. Keys to genera and species are provided, along with distribution maps, habitus images, photographs of the name-bearing types, and illustrations of male and female genitalia of available species. The female internal reproductive system is illustrated for fourteen species. Two genera, Anchista and Taicona, previously placed in Calleidina, are moved into Physoderina. One new genus is described: Metallanchista, gen. n. (type species Metallanchista laticollis, sp. n.). Two new generic synonyms are proposed: Taicona Bates, 1873, junior synonym of Allocota Motschulsky, 1859; Teradaia Habu, 1979a, junior synonym of Dasiosoma Britton, 1937. A new generic replacement name is proposed: Diamella, nom. n. for Diamella Jedlička, 1952 (junior homonym of Diamella Gude, 1913). The status of Paraphaea Bates, 1873 is resurrected from synonym of Anchista Nietner, 1856. Five new species are described: Paraphaea minor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Hoa-Binh, Tonkin, Vietnam), Anchista pilosa Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Chikkangalur, Bangalore, India), Metallanchista laticollis Shi & Liang, sp. n. (PhaTo env., Chumphon prov., Thailand), Allocota bicolor Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Dengga to Mafengshan, Ruili, Yunnan, China), Dasiosoma quadraticolle Shi & Liang, sp. n. (Menglun Botanical Garden, Yunnan, China). Fourteen new combinations are proposed: Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea formosana (Jedlička, 1946), comb. n. from Anchista; Paraphaea philippinensis (Jedlička, 1935b), comb. n. from Allocota; Metallanchista perlaeta (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Allocota; Physodera andrewesi (Jedlička, 1934), comb. n. from Allocota; Diamella cupreomicans (Oberthür, 1883), comb. n. from Physodera; Diamella arrowi (Jedlička, 1935a), comb. n. from Allocota; Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Taicona; Dasiosoma bellum (Habu, 1979a), comb. n. from Teradaia; Dasiosoma indicum (Kirschenhofer, 2011), comb. n. from Diamella; Dasiosoma maindroni (Tian & Deuve, 2001), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1873), comb. n. from Lachnoderma; Orionella discoidalis (Bates, 1892), comb. n. from Anchista; Orionella kathmanduensis (Kirschenhofer, 1994), comb. n. from Lachnoderma. Five names are newly placed as junior synonyms: Paraphaea eurydera (Chaudoir, 1877), junior synonym of Paraphaea binotata (Dejean, 1825); Anchista glabra Chaudoir, 1877, and Anchista nepalensis Kirschenhofer, 1994, junior synonyms of Anchista fenestrata (Schmidt-Göbel, 1846); Allocota caerulea Andrewes, 1933, junior synonym of Allocota viridipennis Motschulsky, 1859; Allocota perroti (Jedlička, 1963), junior synonym of Allocota aurata (Bates, 1873). One new replacement name is proposed: Dasiosoma basilewskyi, nom. n. for Dasiosoma hirsutum Basilewsky, 1949 (secondary junior homonym of Dasiosoma hirsutum (Bates, 1892)). One species is downgraded to subspecies rank: Anchista fenestrata subpubescens Chaudoir, 1877, new rank. PMID:23794843
Bell, Aaron J; Phillips, Iain D; Floate, Kevin D; Hoemsen, Brittney M; Phillips, Colin E
Captures of insects in pitfall traps are affected by features of trap design that may confound the interpretation of data. One such feature is a lid suspended over the opening of the trap to exclude debris and rainwater. In this study, we tested whether use of these lids affected captures of carabid beetles by altering the light conditions at the opening to the trap. In one experiment, we examined the effects of lid transparency (opaque, semitransparent, or transparent) on catch rates. In a second experiment, we manipulated the heights (high, medium, or low) of vegetation adjacent to the traps to test for lid transparency and vegetation height interactions. We found that significantly more carabids were captured with use of transparent lids compared with other lid transparencies. Fewest Agonum cupreum Dejean, 1831, were captured with use of opaque lids. No other effects were detected. Given these results, we advocate the use of transparent lids, which provide the benefits of traditional opaque lids while minimizing the effects of lid use on light conditions at the opening to the trap.
Tian, Mingyi; Yin, Haomin; Huang, Sunbin
Recent cave biodiversity surveys carried out in Du'an County and its adjacent areas of northwestern Guangxi, China, have revealed some exciting scientific findings. In a very limited area seven new species of the cavernicolous trechine genus Dongodytes Deuve, 1993 were found and are described: Dongodytes(s. str.)elongatussp. n., Dongodytes(s. str.)troglodytessp. n., Dongodytes(s. str.)lanisp. n., Dongodytes (Dongodytodes) brevipenissp. n., Dongodytes (Dongodytodes) jinzhuensissp. n., Dongodytes (Dongodytodes) inexpectatussp. n. and Dongodytes (Dongodytodes) yaophilussp. n. Diagnoses and notes on the genus, subgenera, and two known species in Du'an Karst, Dongodytes(s. str.)baxian Tian, 2011 and Dongodytes (Dongodytodes) deharvengi Tian, 2011, are also given. A key to subgenera and all species of Dongodytes is provided. To date, Dongodytes becomes one of the richest in species genera of subterranean carabid trechines in China with 12 species which are arranged into two subgenera. Dongodytes (s. str.) Deuve is composed of seven species, four of which from Du'an County, each of other three from Bama, Fengshan and Tian'e Counties, respectively. All species of the subgenus Dongodytodes Tian, 2011 are recorded from Du'an Karst. By having 10 species (nine Dongodytes and one Libotrechus Uéno, 1998), Du'an Karst holds the richest specific diversity of cavernicolous Trechinae in China. Dongodytes species are distributed in a very limited area of the river Hongshui He drainages in northwestern Guangxi, and the river acts as a natural barrier of Dongodytes dispersal at only a specific level. However, all members of Dongodytodes are recorded from the eastern or northern bank of Hongshui He.
Filippov, B Iu; Zezin, I S
Species composition and ecological structure of ground beetle population was studied in northern taiga meadows of the Arkhangelsk Region. Meadows in the northern forest zone proved to harbor 91 ground beetle species. Carabid complexes formed in the intrazonal biocenoses of the northern forest zone can be as rich as the topical groups of the family in the southern forest zone by the number of species and ecological diversity. Ecological properties of the fauna and ground beetle population proved similar in different parts of the forest zone. The proportion of stenobiotic meadow species proved to decrease while that of ecologically plastic ones increased from south to north. The proportion of the genus Harpalus decreased in the ground beetle population while the number of Amara species remained unaltered and their abundance increased. The changes in the species composition caused no transformation of the ecological structure of ground beetle population since they are limited to a single life form or guild.
Khobrakova, L Ts; Sharova, I Kh
Seasonal dynamics and demographic structure was studied in 15 dominant ground beetle species in the mountain taiga and mountain forest-steppe belts of the Eastern Sayan (Okinskoe Plateau). Life cycles of the dominant ground beetle species were classified by developmental time, seasonal dynamics, and intrapopulation groups with different reproduction timing. The strategies of carabid life cycles adapted to severe mountain conditions of the Eastern Sayan were revealed.
Tian, Mingyi; Deuve, Thierry
Abstract The jianfengling species group of the termitophilous carabid genus Orthogonius MacLeay, 1825 is defined and reviewed. This species group ranges from southern China, crossing Indochina and Myanmar to eastern India. To date, the jianfengling species group is composed of ten species, including six new species which are hereinafter described and illustrated: Orthogonius wrasei sp. n. (Myanmar), Orthogonius bellus sp. n. and Orthogonius limbourgi sp. n. (Vietnam), Orthogonius politior sp. n., Orthogonius aberlenci sp. n. (Laos) and Orthogonius meghalayaensis sp. n. (India). Habitus, elytral apices and male genitalia of all species are illustrated. A key to species and a distribution map of jianfengling species group are provided. PMID:27667943
Hlaváč, Peter; Lakota, Ján; Čeplík, Dávid
The genus Speluncarius Reitter, 1886 (Harpalinae, Pterostichini) is made up by anophthalmous or almost blind species. The genus is related to Tapinopterus Schaum, 1858, which contains numerous species from the Balkan-Anatolian region and have more or less developed eyes. Speluncarius is distributed in the Western Palaearctic region; 26 species and one subspecies are known from Italy, the Balkan Peninsula and Turkey. The genus is classified in five subgenera, Elasmopterus Kraatz, 1886 (6 spp.); Hypogearius Jeannel, 1953 (3 spp.); Hypogium Tschitscherine, 1900 (1 sp.); Pontotapinus Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008 (1 sp.) and Speluncarius (s.str.) Reitter, 1886 (15 spp.) (Sciaky, 1982; Bousquet, 2003; Guéorguiev & Lohaj, 2008; Casale et al., 2013).
Leslie, T W; Biddinger, D J; Rohr, J R; Hulting, A G; Mortensen, D A; Fleischer, S J
Northeastern U.S. farms are often situated adjacent to forestland due to the heterogeneous nature of the landscape. We investigated how forested areas influence Carabidae diversity within nearby crop fields by establishing transects of pitfall traps. Trapping extended across a forest-agriculture ecotone consisting of maize, an intermediate mowed grass margin, and a forest edge. Carabidae diversity was compared among the three habitats, and community and population dynamics were assessed along the transect. We used a principal response curve to examine and visualize community change across a spatial gradient. The highest levels of richness and evenness were observed in the forest community, and carabid assemblages shifted significantly across the ecotone, especially at the forest-grass interface. Despite strong ecotone effects, population distributions showed that some species were found in all three habitats and seemed to thrive at the ecotone. Based on similarity indices, carabid assemblages collected in maize adjacent to forest differed from carabid assemblages in maize not adjacent to forest. We conclude that forest carabid assemblages exhibit high degrees of dissimilarity with those found in agricultural fields and forested areas should thus be retained in agricultural landscapes to increase biodiversity at the landscape scale. However, ecotone species found at forest edges can still noticeably influence carabid community composition within neighboring agricultural fields. Further studies should determine how these shifts in carabid assemblages influence agroecosystem services in relation to ecosystem services observed in fields embedded in an agricultural matrix.
Roig-Juñent, Sergio; Rouaux, Julia
The Migadopini are a small tribe of Carabidae with 47 species that occur in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, in the sub-Antarctic areas. In South America, most of the genera inhabit areas related to sub-Antartic Nothofagus forest except two monogeneric genera, the Ecuadorian genus Aquilex Moret and the Pampean genus Rhytidognathus Chaudoir. These two genera are geographically isolated from the remaining five South American genera. New material of Rhytidognathus from the northeast of Buenos Aires province and from Entre Ríos province permits establishing that the previous records of Rhytidognathus ovalis (Dejean) for Argentina were erroneous and that it belongs to a new species. Based on external morphological characters and from male and female genitalia we describe Rhytidognathus platensis as a new species. In this contribution we provide illustrations, keys, habitat characteristics and some biogeographic considerations on the distribution of Rhytidognathus.
Roig-Juñent, Sergio; Rouaux, Julia
Abstract The Migadopini are a small tribe of Carabidae with 47 species that occur in South America, Australia, and New Zealand, in the sub-Antarctic areas. In South America, most of the genera inhabit areas related to sub-Antartic Nothofagus forest except two monogeneric genera, the Ecuadorian genus Aquilex Moret and the Pampean genus Rhytidognathus Chaudoir. These two genera are geographically isolated from the remaining five South American genera. New material of Rhytidognathus from the northeast of Buenos Aires province and from Entre Ríos province permits establishing that the previous records of Rhytidognathus ovalis (Dejean) for Argentina were erroneous and that it belongs to a new species. Based on external morphological characters and from male and female genitalia we describe Rhytidognathus platensis as a new species. In this contribution we provide illustrations, keys, habitat characteristics and some biogeographic considerations on the distribution of Rhytidognathus. PMID:23275755
The alpine flea beetle genus Benedictus Scherer (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae) is revised. Twenty new species, namely B. chilalla, B. dochula, B. ha, B. nobding, B. thumsila and B. yatongla from Bhutan, B. belousovi, B. cangshanicus, B. kabaki, B. kurbatovi, B. nigrinus, B. sichuanensis a...
The Nearctic-Caribbean species Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius, 1801): Larval descriptions with a diagnosis of immature Ctenodactylini and natural history notes on the genus and tribe (Coleoptera: Carabidae)
Adults and larvae of Leptotrachelus dorsalis (Fabricius), live in association with grasses, the larvae in the appressed leaf axils. Both adult and larval L. dorsalis eat larvae of the Sugarcane Borer, Diatraea saccharalis (Fabricius), and perhaps other insects living in the confines of the leaf shea...
McKemey, A R; Symondson, W O C; Glen, D M
The impact of predation by the generalist carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius (Illiger) on populations of the field slug Deroceras reticulatum (Müller), and the effects of prey size on the predator-prey interaction, were measured under semi-field conditions. It was hypothesized that environmental heterogeneity would lead to very different patterns of comparative mortality than might be deduced from size choice experiments conducted in the laboratory. Results from outdoor mini-plots, emulating conditions in a field of wheat, demonstrated that P. melanarius significantly reduced numbers of slugs from all size classes, with no apparent preferences. This was in marked contrast to results from earlier laboratory studies, where this beetle fed preferentially on the smallest slugs. The slugs in the mini-plots ranged in size from 2-100 mg and the numbers in the mini-plot reflected the size frequency distribution in the field. Beetles in mini-plots containing high densities of slugs increased significantly in weight, in contrast to beetles in mini-plots with low slug density or no added slugs, which did not. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), using anti-slug monoclonal antibodies, showed that where there was a higher density of slugs there was more slug protein in the guts of the beetles. It was concluded that environmental heterogeneity probably provided a greater number and diversity of refugia for smaller than for larger slugs, counteracting laboratory-measured size preferences measured in arenas without refugia. These results have implications for a range of ecological studies involving inter- and intra-specific prey size choice, and emphasize the dangers of extrapolating from the laboratory to the field.
Kavanaugh, David H.; Archambeault, Sophie L.; Roopnarine, Peter D.; Ledford, Joel
Abstract This study gathered evidence from principal component analysis (PCA) of morphometric data and molecular analyses of nucleotide sequence data for four nuclear genes (28S, TpI, CAD1, and Wg) and two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S), using parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian methods. This evidence was combined with morphological and chorological data to re-evaluate the taxonomic status of Nebria lacustris Casey sensu lato. PCA demonstrated that both body size and one conspicuous aspect of pronotal shape vary simultaneously with elevation, latitude, and longitude and served to distinguish populations from the southern Appalachian highlands, south of the French Broad, from all other populations. Molecular analyses revealed surprisingly low overall genetic diversity within Nebria lacustris sensu lato, with only 0.39% of 4605 bp varied in the concatenated dataset. Evaluation of patterns observed in morphological and genetic variation and distribution led to the following taxonomic conclusions: (1) Nebria lacustris Casey and Nebria bellorum Kavanaugh should be considered distinct species, which is a NEW STATUS for Nebria bellorum. (2) No other distinct taxonomic subunits could be distinguished with the evidence at hand, but samples from northeastern Iowa, in part of the region known as the “Driftless Zone”, have unique genetic markers for two genes that hint at descent from a local population surviving at least the last glacial advance. (3) No morphometric or molecular evidence supports taxonomic distinction between lowland populations on the shores of Lake Champlain and upland populations in the adjacent Green Mountains of Vermont, despite evident size and pronotal shape differences between many of their members. PMID:22379387
Bourassa, Stephane; Spence, John R.; Hartley, Dustin J.; Lee, Seung-Il
Abstract A study spanning ten years revealed changes in wing-morph ratios corroborating the hypothesis that the wing-dimorphic introduced carabid, Pterostichus melanarius Ill.,is spreading through flight, from the city of Edmonton, Canada and establishing populations in natural aspen forest of more rural areas 45-50 km to the East. Comparison of wing-morph ratios between Pterostichus melanarius and the native wing dimorphic species Agonum retractum LeConte suggests that the spatial variation in ratios for Pterostichus melanarius does not reflect underlying environmental variation, but instead the action of selective forces on this wing-dimorphic species. About ten years after its earliest detection in some rural sites the frequency of macropterous individuals in Pterostichus melanarius has decreased c. five-fold, but it is still above the level seen in European populations in which the two wing-morphs are thought to exist in equilibrium. Pterostichus melanarius is expanding its range in native aspen forest much faster than three other introduced species Clivina fossor L.), Carabus granulatus O.F. Müllerand Clivina fossor L also encountered in this study. The two Carabus species are flightless, but Carabus fossor can be dimorphic. Although these four non-native ground beetle species comprise >85% of the carabids collected at sites in urban Edmonton, activity-density of native carabids was similar across the urban-rural gradient, suggesting little direct impact of introduced species on the local abundance of native species. In a second study conducted at a smaller scale near George Lake, Alberta, macropterous individuals of Pterostichus melanarius have penetrated furthest and most rapidly into native aspen forest. Furthermore, the percentage of micropterous individuals has increased markedly in areas first colonized a decade previously. Overall, these studies support the idea that macropterous beetles in wing-d dimorphic species are important vanguards for early colonization of unexploited territory, but that flightless individuals replace the flying morph relatively rapidly once populations are established. PMID:22379390
Boyd, Olivia F.; Erwin, Terry L.
Abstract The classification of the carabid subtribe Tachyina (Trechitae: Bembidiini) is reviewed in light of newly discovered diversity from Central and South America. Described herein are three new genera (Tachyxysta gen. n., Stigmatachys gen. n., Nothoderis gen. n.), two new subgenera of Meotachys (Scolistichus subgen. n., Hylotachys subgen. n.), and two new subgenera of Elaphropus (Ammotachys subgen. n., Idiotachys subgen. n.). Two names previously synonymized under Polyderis (Polyderidius Jeannel, 1962) and Elaphropus (Nototachys Alluaud, 1930) are elevated to generic and subgeneric status, respectively. Eight new species are recognized: Tachyxysta howdenorum (type locality: México: Chiapas: El Aguacero, 680m); Elaphropus marchantarius (type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Solimões, Ilha de Marchantaria), Elaphropus acutifrons (type locality: Brazil: Pará, Santarém) and Elaphropus occidentalis (type locality: Perú: Loreto, Pithecia, 74°45'W 05°28'S); Stigmatachys uvea (type locality: Perú: Loreto: Campamento San Jacinto, 2°18.75'S, 75°51.77'W, 175–215m); and Meotachys riparius (type locality: Colombia: Amazonas: Leticia, 700 ft), Meotachys ballorum (type locality: Brazil: Amazonas, Rio Negro Cucui), and Meotachys rubrum (type locality: Perú: Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza, 11°56°47'S 071°17°00'W, 356m). An updated key to the genera and subgenera of Tachyina occurring in the New World is provided, with accompanying illustrations. PMID:27833435
Tian, Mingyi; Huang, Sunbin; Wang, Xinhui; Tang, Mingruo
Abstract Recent discoveries reveal that southern China’s karsts hold the most diverse and morphologically modified subterranean trechine beetles in the world, albeit the first troglobitic blind beetle was only reported in the early 1990’s. In total, 110 species belonging to 43 genera of cavernicolous trechines have hitherto been recorded from the karsts of southern China, including the following five new genera proposed below: Shiqianaphaenops Tian, gen. n., to contain two species: Shiqianaphaenops majusculus (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops majusculus Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), the type species from Cave Feng Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou, and Shiqianaphaenops cursor (Uéno, 1999) (= Shenaphaenops cursor Uéno, 1999, comb. n.), from Cave Shenxian Dong, Shiqian, Guizhou; and the monotypic Dianotrechus Tian, gen. n. (the type species: Dianotrechus gueorguievi Tian, sp. n., from Cave Dashi Dong, Kunming, Yunnan), Tianeotrechus Tian & Tang, gen. n. (the type species: Tianeotrechus trisetosus Tian & Tang, sp. n., from Cave Bahao Dong, Tian’e County, Guangxi), Huoyanodytes Tian & Huang, gen. n. (the type species: Huoyanodytes tujiaphilus Tian & Huang, sp. n., from Longshan, Hunan) and Wanhuaphaenops Tian & Wang, gen. n. (the type species: Wanhuaphaenops zhangi Tian & Wang, sp. n., from Cave Songjia Dong, Chenzhou, Hunan). PMID:27081334
Lohaj, Roman; Ceplík, Dávid; Lakota, Ján
Duvalius (sg. Neoduvalius) gejzadunayi sp. n. from Pećina u Dubokom potoku cave ( Donje Biševo village near Rožaje, Montenegro), the first known representative of this subgenus from the territory of Montenegro is described, illustrated and compared with the related species of the subgenus Neoduvalius Müller, 1913. This new species is characterised by depigmented, medium sized body, totally reduced eyes, deep and complete frontal furrows, 3-4 pairs of discal setae in third elytral stria, as well as by the shape of aedeagus. Data on the distribution and the ecology of this remarkable species, as well as a check-list of the subgenus Neoduvalius are also provided. Recently described genera Serboduvalius Ćurčić, S. B. Pavićević & Ćurčić, B.P.M., 2001, Rascioduvalius Ćurčić, S. B. Brajković, Mitić & Ćurčić, B.P.M., 2003, Javorella Ćurčić, S. B. Brajković, Ćurčić, B.P.M. & Mitić, 2003 and Curcicia Ćurčić, S. B. & Brajković, 2003 are regarded as junior synonyms of the genus Duvalius Delarouzée.
Erwin, Terry L.; Zamorano, Laura S.
Abstract This synopsis provides an identification key to the genera of Tribe Lachnophorini of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres including five genera previously misplaced in carabid classifications. The genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 is revised with 23 new species added and four species reassigned from Eucaerus LeConte, 1853 to Asklepia Liebke, 1938. In addition, a new genus is added herein to the Tribe: Peruphorticus gen. n. with its type species P. gulliveri sp. n. from Perú. Five taxa previously assigned to other tribes have adult attributes that make them candidates for classification in the Lachnophorini: Homethes Newman, Aeolodermus Andrewes, Stenocheila Laporte de Castelnau, Diplacanthogaster Liebke, and Selina Motschulsky are now considered to belong to the Lachnophorini as genera incertae sedis. Three higher level groups are proposed to contain the 18 recognized genera: the Lachnophorina, Eucaerina, and incertae sedis. Twenty-three new species of the genus Asklepia are described and four new combinations are presented. They are listed with their type localities as follows: (geminata species group) Asklepia geminata (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil; (hilaris species group) Asklepia campbellorum Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia demiti Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., circa Rio Demiti, Brazil, Asklepia duofos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia hilaris (Bates, 1871), comb. n, São Paulo de Olivença, Brazil, Asklepia grammechrysea Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Pithecia, Cocha Shinguito, Perú, Asklepia lebioides (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia laetitia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Leticia, Colombia, Asklepia matomena Zamorano & Erwin, sp.n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil; (pulchripennis species group) Asklepia adisi Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia asuncionensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Asunción, Río Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia biolat Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia bracheia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Explornapo Camp, Río Napo, Cocha Shimagai, Perú, Asklepia cuiabaensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Cuiabá, Brazil, Asklepia ecuadoriana Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Limoncocha, Ecuador, Asklepia kathleenae Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Belém, Brazil, Asklepia macrops Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Concordia, Río Uruguay, Argentina, Asklepia marchantaria Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia marituba Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Marituba, Ananindeua, Brazil, Asklepia paraguayensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., San Lorenzo, Rio Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia pakitza Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia pulchripennis (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia samiriaensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú, Asklepia stalametlitos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Guayamer, Río Mamoré, Bolivia, Asklepia strandi Liebke, 1938, Guyana, Asklepia surinamensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., l’Hermitage, Surinam River, Surinam, Asklepia vigilante Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú. Images of adults of all 18 genera are provided. PMID:25152663
Abstract Sadonebria Ledoux & Roux, 2005 is one of the more diverse subgenera of the genus Nebria Latreille, 1802 in East Asia, and its taxonomy remains unrevised at the subgeneric and specific levels. In this paper, two new species of this subgenus are described from Japan. Nebria quinquelobata sp. n. is described from Mt. Myôkô and is externally similar to Nebria saeviens Bates, 1883, to which specimens of this new species previously had been assigned. Nebria yatsugatakensis sp. n. is described from the Yatsugatake Mountains and is externally similar to locally adjacent species that had been recognized as Nebria sadona Bates, 1883 and were recently revealed as separate species. Both new species are distinguished by morphological (the shape of the endophallus) and morphometric (geometric morphometrics of the pronotum and aedeagus) features. For Nebria yatsugatakensis, the morphology of all larval instars is described based on specimens reared from eggs laid by collected adults. These results, together with previous studies of the species-level taxonomy of Sadonebria and larval morphology of other Nebria subgenera, suggest (i) the utility of geometric morphometrics in species-level taxonomy; (ii) the importance of larval secondary setae in the subgeneric taxonomy of the genus Nebria; and (iii) the presence of further cryptic species in Sadonebria. PMID:27110197
In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism. PMID:26978071
Schmidt, Joachim; Belousov, Igor; Michalik, Peter
Abstract The third fossil species of the genus Trechus Clairville, 1806 is described from Baltic amber: Trechus exhibitorius sp. n. Details of external and internal morphology were analysed using X-ray micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and important diagnostic features of the internal male genital sac (endophallus) are described in detail for the first time in a fossil ground beetle. Based on these data, we could assign Trechus exhibitorius sp. n. to Trechus sensu stricto and this new fossil species seems to represent a basal branch of a lineage comprising species diverse groups of extant Trechus mainly distributed in the Caucasus and Anatolia. Thus, our results support previous studies suggesting that Trechus is a phylogenetically old lineage already present in the Eocene with numerous species. PMID:27667935
During a period of three years (2006-2008) the carabid fauna in wet and humid forest habitats of different stages of succession was studied at the Puszcza Knyszynska (north-east part of Poland). The aim of this study was to determine how the assemblages of the carabid fauna change in relation to the ongoing process of succession. Using pitfall traps, 24 plots were sampled. The plots were located in stands of different age, from two year old plantations to more than 100 year old forests. Additionally, the stands were ordered in three moisture classes (wet, humid and very humid) and two classes of soil richness. As indicators for change in the carabid fauna in relation to age of the stands Mean Individual Biomass (MIB), species diversity and share of forest species were used. By applying multivariate statistics the relation of the different habitat characteristics to changes in the carabid fauna was examined. During the study 8903 individuals belonging to 57 species were collected. Pterostichus niger represented 28% of the total catches and therefore the most common species. Another common species, Pterostichus melanarius, contributed to 13% of the total catch. This species was caught at every plot, even in the old forests. In contrast to the results obtained by Szyszko (1990) for fresh and dry pine stands, in this study the relation of MIB with the age of forest was not significant. Although the number of species was rather constant, the number of individuals belonging to the group of forest species significantly increased with the ageing of the forest. The multivariate analysis showed a relationship with ageing of the stands and soil richness rather than with moisture and size of the forest. According to the present paper, clear cuttings in wet and humid habitats do not cause a strong degradation of the carabid fauna.
Giachino, Pier Mauro; Guéorguiev, Borislav; Vailati, Dante
Abstract Paralovricia gen. n. beroni sp. n., belonging to the new subtribe Lovriciina, is described from two caves in the Western Rhodopes (Bulgaria): Kraypatnata peshtera, near Smilyan Village (Smolyan Municipality) and Snezhanka, near Peshtera Town (Peshtera Municipality). Three currently known genera, Lovricia Pretner, 1979, Neolovricia Lakota, Jalžić & Moravec, 2009 and Paralovricia gen. n. represent a monophyletic unit supported by important synapomorphies that allows to propose the establishment of the new subtribe Lovriciina, characterized by the following characters: last maxillary palpomeres very long and narrow, basal angles of pronotum without seta, elytra without discal setae, elytral umbilicate series of nine pores in which the main pores are the 2nd, 6th and 9th, apical recurrent striole absent and mesotibial apex expanded outward. Its systematic position within the subfamily Trechinae (sensu Lorenz 2005) is discussed and Lovriciina is placed near Anillina. Key to the genera of the subtribe is proposed. Distribution data and zoogeographical hypotheses are discussed. PMID:21998506
Schmidt, Joachim; Hoffmann, Hannes; Michalik, Peter
The first eyeless beetle known from Baltic amber, Trechus eoanophthalmus sp. n., is described and imaged using light microscopy and X-ray micro-computed tomography. Based on external characters, the new species is most similar to species of the Palaearctic Trechus sensu stricto clade and seems to be closely related to the Baltic amber fossil T. balticus Schmidt & Faille, 2015. Due to the poor conservation of the internal parts of the body, no information on the genital characters can be provided. Therefore, the systematic position of this fossil within the megadiverse genus Trechus remains dubious. The occurrence of the blind and flightless T. eoanophthalmus sp. n. in the Baltic amber forests supports a previous hypothesis that these forests were located in an area partly characterised by mountainous habitats with temperate climatic conditions.
In nature, almost all animals have to cope with periods of food shortage during their lifetimes. Starvation risks are especially high for carnivorous predatory species, which often experience long intervals between stochastic prey capturing events. A laboratory experiment using the common predatory carabid beetle Anchomenus dorsalis revealed an exceptional level of starvation resistance in this species: males survived up to 137 days and females up to 218 days without food at 20°C. Individual starvation resistance was strongly positively affected by pre-starvation body mass but only slightly by beetle structural body size per se. Females outperformed males even when the effect of gender was corrected for the effects of structural body size and pre-starvation body mass. The better performance of females compared to males and of beetles with higher relative pre-starvation body mass could be linked to higher fat content and lean dry mass before starvation, followed by a greater decrease in both during starvation. There was also a difference between the sexes in the extent of body mass changes both during ad libitum feeding and following starvation; the body masses of females fluctuated more compared to males. This study stresses the need to distinguish between body mass and structural body size when investigating the ecological and evolutionary consequences of body size. Investigation of the net effects of body size and sex is necessary to disentangle the causes of differences in individual performances in studies of species with significant sexual size dimorphism.
Wizen, Gil; Gasith, Avital
Abstract Species identification using the characteristics of developmental stages is challenging. However, for insect taxonomy the coloration of larval stages can be an informative feature. The use of live specimens is recommended for this because the color fades in preserved specimens. In this study we examine the possibility of using variation in coloration and color pattern of larvae in order to distinguish between twoground beetlesspecies Epomis dejeani (Dejean, 1831) and Epomis circumscriptus (Duftschmid, 1812). We present an atlas and describe the coloration and body size of the three larval stages of the above species based on live specimens. An identification key is given for the three larval instars of the two Epomis species. The first instar larvae of the two Epomis species can be easily distinguished based on their color. From the second instar on, the variability in coloration and color patterns increases, creating an overlap in these attributes between larvae of the two species. Except for minor differences in color of the antennae and the base of the mandibles, larvae of the two species are indistinguishable at the second and third larval stages. To the best of our knowledge this is the first attempt to use variation in coloration and color pattern in live larvae in order to identify coleopterans. The color atlas of the larvae enables simple separation of the two Epomis species without requiring sophisticated magnifying devices, although it is less straightforward at the second and third larval stages. We found similar body lengths between the two species for all developmental stages, except for third instar larvae prior to pupation. In the two species the difference in larval body length before pupation positively correlated with that of the adult beetles. More than 70% of the adults’ length can be explained by the length of the late third-instar larva; i.e. the large larvae develop into large adults. The larger specimens are the females. PMID:21998516
Erwin, Terry L.; Ball, George E.
Abstract Badister (Badister) amazonus sp. n. is described from Perú, Loreto, 1.0 km SW Boca del Rio Samiria, Vigilante Post 1, 130m, “04°40.5'S, 074°18.9'W" its type locality. It is known also from two other localities in Loreto Department, Perú, in both the Varzea and Igapó river systems. This new species is sufficiently different that a new informal higher taxon, the amazonus species complex, is recognized. An updated key to the Western Hemisphere species of subgenus Badister is provided. PMID:22371669
Alvarez-Alfageme, Fernando; Ortego, Félix; Castañera, Pedro
We investigated the effects of a Bt maize hybrid on fitness and digestive physiology of the ground-dwelling predator Poecilus cupreus L., as compared with the near-isogenic hybrid. A tritrophic assay revealed that there was a great decline in the detection of Cry1Ab toxin through the trophic chain, the concentration of the toxin being 945, 349 and 37 ng g(-1) of fresh weight in Bt maize leaves, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) larvae and P. cupreus larvae, respectively. Moreover, the toxin was only detected in 8% of the P. cupreus adults collected from fields growing Bt maize. Developmental time of both larvae and pupae of P. cupreus was not adversely affected by the Cry1Ab toxin via fed-prey. To elucidate potential detrimental effects due to a reduction in the quality of the prey, we assessed the digestive proteolytic activities of P. cupreus adults from a laboratory culture and insects collected in commercial Bt and non-Bt maize fields. Field-collected P. cupreus adults had higher proteolytic activities than those reared in the laboratory, whereas no significant differences were found between P. cupreus adults reared on Bt and non-Bt maize fed-S. littoralis or between P. cupreus adults collected in commercial Bt and non-Bt maize fields.
Roza, André Silva; Mermudes, José Ricardo M
The Atlantic Rainforest is one of the most threatened biomes of the world, with only 11-12 % of its original cover. The Cicindelinae are present in this biome with a relatively high diversity, but data of their immature forms are few. On the basis of six larvae and four pupae of Pentacomia (Mesochila) smaragdula we describe and illustrate the third larval instar of the larva and the pupa of this species. Notes on the species distribution are also given.
Skłodowski, Jarosław; Garbalińska, Paulina
Ground beetle assemblages were studied during 2003-08 in the Pisz Forest by comparing stands disturbed by a tornado to undisturbed control stands. The following exploratory questions were put forward. (1) How do the carabid assemblages change during six years following the tornado impact? (2) Does the carabid assemblage recovery begin during the six first post-tornado years? To assess the state of carabid assemblages we used two indices: the MIB (Mean Individual Biomass) and the SPC (Sum of Progressive Characteristics). Carabid assemblages in the disturbed and in the control stands, as expressed by these two indices, were compared using the length of a regression distance (sample distance in a MIB:SPC coordinate system). A cluster analysis revealed that the assemblages of the disturbed and the control stands were different. The tornado-impacted stands produced lower carabid catch rates, but species richness was significantly higher there than in the control stands. They hosted lower proportions of individuals of European species, of large zoophages, and of forest and brachypterous species, than the control stands. The observed reduction in SPC and MIB, and an increase in the regression distances may indicate that the carabid assemblages had not started to recover from the tornado-caused disturbance. Carabid assemblages apparently responded to the tornado in two steps. Firstly, the first three years were characterized by moderate decreases of index values. Secondly, from the fourth to the sixth year after the tornado, many observed changes became magnified. We did not observe clear signals of the recovery of forest carabid assemblages during the six follow-up years.
Bergdahl, James C.; Kavanaugh, David H.
Abstract Two new species of Pterostichus Bonelli subgenus Pseudoferonina Ball, are described from the mountains of central Idaho: Pterostichus bousqueti Bergdahl [type locality = small tributaries of South Fork of Payette River watershed, ca. 1170 m (3840 ft), 44.0675°; -115.6822°, near Lowman, Salmon River Mountains, Boise County, Idaho, U.S.A.] and Pterostichus lolo Bergdahl [type locality = Cottonwood/Orogrande Creek, ca. 870 m (2850 ft), 46.5528°; -115.5522°, North Fork of Clearwater River watershed, Clearwater Mountains, near Bungalow, Clearwater County, Idaho, U.S.A.]. Males of Pterostichus bousqueti and Pterostichus lolo are easily distinguished from each other and the seven previously described Pseudoferonina species by the form of the median lobe of the aedeagus, and from most individuals of the other species of Pseudoferonina in Idaho by features of pronotal shape and macrosculpture. Both species appear to be obligate ripicolous hygrophiles, restricted in distribution primarily to the margins of small montane streams in forested areas. Widespread intensive stream surveys for Pseudoferonina over many years indicate the geographic ranges of both species are highly localized, and additional undescribed species may occur in Idaho. PMID:21852918
Harry, Ingmar; Drees, Claudia; Höfer, Hubert; Assmann, Thorsten
Abstract While pitfall trapping is generally accepted as the standard method for sampling carabid beetles, this method has rarely been used in mountain ecosystems, mainly due to the high labour intensity it involves. As part of a research project in the German Alps, we investigated the phenologic appearance of adult carabid beetles in mountain ecosystems along with the consequences of possible reductions in sampling periods. Our results show that an early activity peak among carabids is predominant in mountain ecosystems. However, there are differences among species: the main group of species showed the highest activity directly after snow melt, a second group showed a delayed activity peak and a small third group had no clear peak at all. Based on this study, we recommend two fortnightly sampling periods as a minimum for a sampling programme: one immediately after snow melt, and a second sampling period after a pause of two weeks. PMID:21738416
Erwin, Terry L; Zamorano, Laura S
This synopsis provides an identification key to the genera of Tribe Lachnophorini of the Western and Eastern Hemispheres including five genera previously misplaced in carabid classifications. The genus Asklepia Liebke, 1938 is revised with 23 new species added and four species reassigned from Eucaerus LeConte, 1853 to Asklepia Liebke, 1938. In addition, a new genus is added herein to the Tribe: Peruphorticus gen. n. with its type species P. gulliveri sp. n. from Perú. Five taxa previously assigned to other tribes have adult attributes that make them candidates for classification in the Lachnophorini: Homethes Newman, Aeolodermus Andrewes, Stenocheila Laporte de Castelnau, Diplacanthogaster Liebke, and Selina Motschulsky are now considered to belong to the Lachnophorini as genera incertae sedis. Three higher level groups are proposed to contain the 18 recognized genera: the Lachnophorina, Eucaerina, and incertae sedis. Twenty-three new species of the genus Asklepia are described and four new combinations are presented. They are listed with their type localities as follows: ( geminata species group) Asklepia geminata (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil; ( hilaris species group) Asklepia campbellorum Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia demiti Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., circa Rio Demiti, Brazil, Asklepia duofos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil, Asklepia hilaris (Bates, 1871), comb. n, São Paulo de Olivença, Brazil, Asklepia grammechrysea Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Pithecia, Cocha Shinguito, Perú, Asklepia lebioides (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia laetitia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Leticia, Colombia, Asklepia matomena Zamorano & Erwin, sp.n., 20 km SW Manaus, Brazil; ( pulchripennis species group) Asklepia adisi Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia asuncionensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Asunción, Río Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia biolat Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia bracheia Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., circa Explornapo Camp, Río Napo, Cocha Shimagai, Perú, Asklepia cuiabaensis Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Cuiabá, Brazil, Asklepia ecuadoriana Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Limoncocha, Ecuador, Asklepia kathleenae Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Belém, Brazil, Asklepia macrops Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Concordia, Río Uruguay, Argentina, Asklepia marchantaria Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Ilha de Marchantaria, Lago Camaleão, Brazil, Asklepia marituba Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Marituba, Ananindeua, Brazil, Asklepia paraguayensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., San Lorenzo, Rio Paraguay, Paraguay, Asklepia pakitza Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., BIOLAT Biological Station, Pakitza, Perú, Asklepia pulchripennis (Bates, 1871), comb. n, Santarém, Rio Tapajós, Brazil, Asklepia samiriaensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú, Asklepia stalametlitos Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., Guayamer, Río Mamoré, Bolivia, Asklepia strandi Liebke, 1938, Guyana, Asklepia surinamensis Zamorano & Erwin, sp. n., l'Hermitage, Surinam River, Surinam, Asklepia vigilante Erwin & Zamorano, sp. n., Boca del Río Samiria, Perú. Images of adults of all 18 genera are provided.
Rainforest understory beetles of the Neotropics, Mizotrechus Bates 1872, a generic synopsis with descriptions of new species from Central America and northern South America (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Perigonini)
Erwin, Terry L.
Abstract Information on the single previously described species, Mizotrechus novemstriatus Bates 1872 (type locality: Brazil – Amazonas, Tefé), is updated and 17 new species for the genus from Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guyane are described. The species records in the literature and on determined specimens in some collections of Mizotrechus novemstriatus Bates from Central America are not that species; currently, Mizotrechus novemstriatus is known only from its type locality in Amazonian Brazil. For the new species described, their known general distributions are as follows: Mizotrechus batesi sp. n. (Guyane), Mizotrechus bellorum sp. n. (Guyane), Mizotrechus brulei sp. n. (Guyane), Mizotrechus belevedere sp. n. (Guyane), Mizotrechus costaricensis sp. n. (Costa Rica), Mizotrechus dalensi sp. n. (Guyane), Mizotrechus edithpiafae sp. n. (provenance unknown), Mizotrechus fortunensis sp. n. (Panamá), Mizotrechus gorgona. sp. n. (Colombia), Mizotrechus grossus sp. n. (Guyane), Mizotrechus jefe sp. n. (Panamá), Mizotrechus marielaforetae sp. n. (Guyane), Mizotrechus minutus sp. n. (Guyane), Mizotrechus neblinensis sp. n. (Guyane, Venezuela), Mizotrechus poirieri sp. n. (Guyane), and Mizotrechus woldai sp. n. (Panamá). Long-term use of flight intercept traps in Guyane provided so many new species that apparently the use of FITs is the way to collect adults of this taxon, previously known from very few specimens. Many more species of this genus can be expected to be discovered throughout the Neotropics; the present contribution is a preliminary synopsis with identification key and adult images of all known species. Likely numerous species are yet to be discovered throughout tropical climes. PMID:22287885
Lessel, Tanja; Marx, Michael Thomas; Eisenbeis, Gerhard
Within the scope of the Integrated Rhine Program an ecological flood gate and channel was inserted into the polder "Ingelheim" to enhance animal and plant diversity. In 2008, carabid beetles and springtails were collected, using pitfall traps, to measure the effects of ecological flooding and a strong precipitation event at a flood-disturbed and a dry location in this area. At both localities, xerophilic and mesophilic carabid beetle species were dominant throughout the study period. The total number of individuals of hygrophilic species was comparatively constant, while species number increased, partly due to the changed moisture conditions caused by ecological flooding and strong precipitation. Carabid beetle diversity and evenness decreased marginally when ecological flooding was absent. Springtails represent a less mobile arthropod order, and as such the impact of ecological flooding was stronger. An increase in both numbers of species and individuals of hygrophilic and hygrotolerant species occurred in the flood-disturbed location after ecological flooding. After the sites at both locations had dried, the number of individuals belonging to these species declined rapidly. In contrast to carabid species, the strong precipitation event showed no influence on hygrophilic springtail species. Thus, collembolan diversity and evenness decreased markedly in the absence of flooding. We showed that ecological flooding has an influence on the spatial and temporal dynamics of different arthropod groups that inhabit the polder "Ingelheim". These findings demonstrate the importance of using different arthropod groups as bioindicators in determining the ecological value of a particular polder design.
Bourassa, S; Cárcamo, H A; Larney, F J; Spence, J R
Carabids were sampled in 2000 (pretreatment year) and 2003-2005 in experimental plots in southern Alberta, Canada, after a rotation of beans, wheat, and potato under sustainable and conventional farming practices. Each phase of the rotation was present in every year. Crop type had a stronger effect than sustainable treatment on carabid-expected species richness, diversity, and species composition. However, carabid activity density was consistently higher in plots under sustainable treatments than those maintained conventionally. Potato plots, which were sprayed with insecticide for pest control, showed a significantly lower carabid activity density than the other crops. These results support other studies showing the beneficial effect of sustainable farming on activity density of carabid beetles.
Faille, Arnaud; Bourdeau, Charles; Fresneda, Javier
Abstract A molecular phylogeny of the species from the Trechus brucki clade (previously Trechus uhagoni group)based on fragments of four mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene is given. We describe Trechus (Trechus) bouilloni sp. n. from the western pre–Pyrenees: Sierras de Urbasa–Andía, Navarra, Spain. The species was collected in mesovoid shallow substratum (mss), a subterranean environment. Molecular as well as morphological evidences demonstrate that the new species belongs to the Trechus brucki clade. A narrow endemic species of high altitude in western French Pyrenees merged with Trechus brucki Fairmaire, 1862a, Trechus bruckoides sp. n., is described. A lectotype is designated for Trechus brucki and Trechus planiusculus Fairmaire, 1862b (junior synonym of Trechus brucki). The species group is redefined based on molecular and morphological characters, and renamed as the brucki group, as Trechus brucki was the first described species of the clade. A unique synapomorphy of the male genitalia, a characteristic secondary sclerotization of the sperm duct, which is shared by all the species of the brucki group sensu novo, is described and illustrated. The Trechus brucki group sensu novo is composed of Trechus beusti (Schaufuss, 1863), Trechus bouilloni sp. n., Trechus brucki, Trechus bruckoides sp. n., Trechus grenieri Pandellé, 1867, T. uhagoni uhagoni Crotch, 1869, T. uhagoni ruteri Colas, 1935 and Trechus pieltaini Jeannel, 1920. We discuss the taxonomy of the group and provide illustrations of structures showing the differences between the species, along with distribution data and biogeographical comments. PMID:22977341
Busato, Enrico; Ghittino, Claudio; Casale, Achille
According to current taxonomy, Subgenus Cathoplius C.G. Thomson, 1875, within the Genus Carabus Linnaeus, 1758 (in the broad sense), includes two species: C. (Cathoplius) asperatus (Dejean, 1826), monotypic with a northern distribution, and the southern polytypic substitutive species C. (Cathoplius) stenocephalus Lucas, 1866. The authors describe the life-way, life-cycle and pre-imaginal characters of the taxa currently ascribed to Subgenus Cathoplius, with details never provided before. Cathoplius are ground beetles adapted to live in arid environments and extreme habitats such as sub-desert areas. All of them are strictly helicophagous, both during the pre-imaginal stages and as adults, and are localized in a narrow fringe along the Atlantic coast of northwestern Africa. Several data and observations on the eco-ethology of the different taxa, obtained both in field and in laboratory, are reported. The life-cycle of Cathoplius belongs to the winter breeding type, with an extremely high fecundity rate concentrated in a very short period of time, that has no similarity to any other Carabus species. Eggs, larvae and pupae of the different species and subspecies of Cathoplius are described and illustrated. Larval characters clearly place Subgenus Cathoplius into the lineage of Neocarabi, confirming it as a monophyletic and homogeneous assemblage. Hybridization trials between some taxa led to a reduced survival rate of the progeny, thus confirming their specific or subspecific differentiation as proposed by classical taxonomy. Furthermore, hybridization results suggest that C. (Cathoplius) stenocephalus aliai could be considered as a distinct species. Notes about the origin, biogeography and phylogeny of Cathoplius are also provided.
Azadbakhsh, Saeed; Wrase, David W
A new species of the genus Acinopus Dejean, 1821, namely Acinopus (Acinopus) zagrosensis sp. n., is described on the basis of specimens collected from west Iran (type locality: Iran, Fars province, Zagros Mts., Sepidan env., 2060 m). The new species is compared with closely related species. A key for the identification of species of genus Acinopus in Iran is provided.
Boyd, Olivia F; Erwin, Terry L
The classification of the carabid subtribe Tachyina (Trechitae: Bembidiini) is reviewed in light of newly discovered diversity from Central and South America. Described herein are three new genera (Tachyxystagen. n., Stigmatachysgen. n., Nothoderisgen. n.), two new subgenera of Meotachys (Scolistichussubgen. n., Hylotachyssubgen. n.), and two new subgenera of Elaphropus (Ammotachyssubgen. n., Idiotachyssubgen. n.). Two names previously synonymized under Polyderis (Polyderidius Jeannel, 1962) and Elaphropus (Nototachys Alluaud, 1930) are elevated to generic and subgeneric status, respectively. Eight new species are recognized: Tachyxysta howdenorum (type locality: México: Chiapas: El Aguacero, 680m); Elaphropus marchantarius (type locality: Brazil, Amazonas, Rio Solimões, Ilha de Marchantaria), Elaphropus acutifrons (type locality: Brazil: Pará, Santarém) and Elaphropus occidentalis (type locality: Perú: Loreto, Pithecia, 74°45'W 05°28'S); Stigmatachys uvea (type locality: Perú: Loreto: Campamento San Jacinto, 2°18.75'S, 75°51.77'W, 175-215m); and Meotachys riparius (type locality: Colombia: Amazonas: Leticia, 700 ft), Meotachys ballorum (type locality: Brazil: Amazonas, Rio Negro Cucui), and Meotachys rubrum (type locality: Perú: Madre de Dios: Rio Manu, Pakitza, 11°56°47'S 071°17°00'W, 356m). An updated key to the genera and subgenera of Tachyina occurring in the New World is provided, with accompanying illustrations.
Examination of holotypes of Tilloclytus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Anaglyptini) in the Fernando de Zayas collection (Havana, Cuba) and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University reveals that T. elongatus Zayas (1975) is a new synonym of T. rufipes Fisher (1942)....
The generic differences and similarities between Leptostylus LeConte and Leptostylopsis Dillon (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Acanthocinini) are discussed. Leptostylopsis is redescribed and the following species are transferred from Leptostylus to Leptostylopsis: Leptostylopsis annulipes (Fisher 1942)...
Field and laboratory-choice tests were conducted to better understand host plant preference by the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), in Virginia. In laboratory olfactometer studies, L. decemlineata preferred potato over both tomato and eggplant foli...
de Jong, Paulien; van Beek, Rick; Hoogenboom, Tamara; zu Schlochtern, Melanie Meijer
The evolution of asymmetry in male genitalia is a pervasive and recurrent phenomenon across almost the entire animal kingdom. Although in some taxa the asymmetry may be a response to the evolution of one-sided, male-above copulation from a more ancestral female-above condition, in other taxa, such as Mammalia and Coleoptera, this explanation appears insufficient. We carried out an informal assessment of genital asymmetry across the Coleoptera and found that male genital asymmetry is present in 43% of all beetle families, and at all within-family taxonomic levels. In the most diverse group, Cucujiformia, however, genital asymmetry is comparatively rare. We also reconstructed the phylogeny of the leiodid tribe Cholevini, and mapped aspects of genital asymmetry on the tree, revealing that endophallus sclerites, endophallus, median lobe and parameres are, in a nested fashion, increasingly unlikely to have evolved asymmetry. We interpret these results in the light of cryptic female choice versus sexually antagonistic coevolution and advocate further ways in which the phenomenon may be better understood. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Provocative questions in left–right asymmetry’. PMID:27821530
Paulsen, M J; Ocampo, Federico C
The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10.
Paulsen, M.J.; Ocampo, Federico C.
Abstract The Ochodaeidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) of Argentina are revised. Previously, two species of Ochodaeinae were known from the country, both in the genus Parochodaeus Nikolajev: Parochodaeus campsognathus (Arrow) and Parochodaeus cornutus (Ohaus). An additional 7 species of Parochodaeus from Argentina are described here as new. In addition, Gauchodaeus patagonicus, new genus and new species in the subfamilyChaetocanthinae, is described. This is the first record of the subfamily Chaetocanthinae in South America. Redescriptions, diagnoses, and maps are provided for each species. We also provide a key to genera and a key to species of Parochodaeus of Argentina. With this work, the number of ochodaeid species known from Argentina is increased from 2 to 10. PMID:22451781
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei(Coleoptera: Curculionidae)(Ferrari), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and has been recently introduced in Hawai’i, first detected in the state in 2010. Adult silvanid flat bark beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and adult laemoph...
Monné, Marcela L; Monné, Miguel A
Three new species of Hemilophini (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae) are described: Chrysaperda mimica sp. nov. and Malacoscylus nearnsi sp. nov. from Ecuador, and Eulachnesia boteroi sp. nov. from Colombia.
Paulsen, M J
Two new species of South American Glaresidae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) are described: Glaresis smithi Paulsen, new species from Argentina, and Glaresis mondacai Paulsen, new species from Chile and Peru. The species are compared to their closest congener, Glaresis fritzi Martínez et al., and a key is provided for the known South American species of the genus Glaresis Erichson.
Webster, Reginald P.
Abstract All 3,062 species of Coleoptera from 92 families known to occur in New Brunswick, Canada, are recorded, along with their author(s) and year of publication using the most recent classification framework. Adventive and Holarctic species are indicated. There are 366 adventive species in the province, 12.0% of the total fauna. PMID:27110174
Redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is a nonnative pest that vectors the pathogenic fungus Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt in trees of the family Lauraceae. Laurel wilt is present in the commercial growing areas of avocado (Perse...
One hundred years ago, one of the most significant biological invasions of an agricultural insect pest in the Americas was initiated. Endemic to Africa, the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei; Coleoptera: Curculionidae) was accidentally introduced to Brazil in 1913 and years later invaded coffe...
Measurements of head capsule, mandible, metanotum, and body weight were done on larvae of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionide) from the second to the last instar. Instar number varied from 14 to 18, but 15 or 16 instars were the most common. The value of dimensional measurements was evalua...
Mirutenko, Vladyslav; Ghahari, Hassan
A checklist of Iranian Malachiidae (Coleoptera) is given in this paper. Eighty two species from 22 genera (subfamily Malachiinae) are listed in the fauna of Iran. Of these species, 31 are endemic to Iran, and one Anthocomus pupillatus Abeille de Perrin, 1890 is a new record for this country.
Coffee berry borer(CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is a serious pest of coffee worldwide and a new invasive pest in Hawaii. Adult flat bark beetles, mainly Leptophloeus sp.(75%) and Cathartus quadricollis(21%) (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae and Silvanidae, respectively), were found feeding in CBB-infested c...
To assess one likely effect of global warming, we experimentally increased the temperature and precipitation of a coleopteran community (mainly Carabidae) of an agro-ecosystem. We simulated climate change on a field of spring wheat by experimentally increasing the temperature by 2°C using infrared h...
Bartolozzi, Luca; Ghahari, Hassan; Sprecher-Uebersax, Eva; Zilioli, Michele
An updated checklist of the Lucanidae (Coleoptera) from Iran is given. New locality records are listed and some dubious distributional records are discussed. Dorcus vavrai Nonfried, 1905 is placed in synonymy with Dorcus peyronis Reiche and Saulcy, 1856 (new synonymy) The female of Lucanus xerxes Král, 2004 is described. A key for the identification of the Iranian stag beetle species is also provided and all the species are figured.
Mądra-Bielewicz, Anna; Frątczak-Łagiewska, Katarzyna; Matuszewski, Szymon
The estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) based on successional patterns of adult insects is largely limited, due to the lack of potential PMI markers. Sex and size of adult insects could be easily used for such estimation. In this study, sex- and size-related patterns of carrion attendance by adult insects were analyzed in Necrodes littoralis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae). For both species, abundance of males and females changed similarly during decomposition. A slightly female-biased sex ratio was recorded in N. littoralis. Females of N. littoralis started visiting carcasses, on average, one day earlier than males. There was a rise in size of males of N. littoralis at the end of decomposition, whereas for females of both species and males of C. maxillosus, no size-related patterns of carrion visitation were found. Current results demonstrate that size and sex of adult carrion beetles are poor indicators of PMI.
Boobar, L.R.; Gibbs, K.E.; Longcore, J.R.; Perillo, A.M.
Locations, habitat descriptions, and collection dates are listed for new records of 4 genera and 12 species of predaceous diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) in Maine. Previously, 17 genera and 53 species of the aquatic beetle were reported from Maine.
Abstract A new species Phymatodes (Poecilium) latefasciatus sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiini) from China is described and illustrated. Features distinguishing the new species from its congeners are presented. PMID:24478575
The primary types of longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) are catalogued and figured, current through 2012 (but also including some 2013 holotypes). Data on the original combination, current combina...
The primary types of Chinese (mainland China, Taiwan, and Tibet) longhorned woodboring beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae, Disteniidae) of the Smithsonian Institution are catalogued and figured, current through 2012. Data on the original combination, current name, current tribal classification, and ...
The following nomenclatural changes are proposed in the Coleoptera, Curculionidae: the author of Apostasimerini is Schoenherr (1844), not Lacordaire (1866); Madopterini Lacordaire, 1866 is demoted to subtribe of Apostasimerini; Erirhinus mourei Bondar, 1943 is a new synonym of Apostasimerus serriros...
Two new species of Cryptocephalus Geoffroy (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from fossil resin: Cryptocephalus groehni sp. nov (Baltic amber) and Cryptocephalus kheelorum sp. nov. (Dominican amber). These are the first described species of Cryptocephalinae from fossil resin. ...
Lee, Seunghyun; Lee, Seunghwan
A new species of the genus Falsoibidion Pic, 1922 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Cerambycinae, Callidiopini) from Korea is described. Habitus and genitalia of male and female of the new species are illustrated.
He, Li; Liu, Bin; Wang, Cheng-Bin
Abstract Pseudomacrochenus wusuae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Lamiini) is described from Sichuan, China. Relevant morphological characters are illustrated by colour plates and a differential diagnosis of the new species from its relatives is provided. PMID:28331404
The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), reduces sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae), yields by spreading pathogens, damaging vascular tissues, and promoting lodging of sunflower plants. To assess weevil populations for host plant resistanc...
The toxicity of eight commercially-available botanical formulations were evaluated against 3rd instars of the nursery-infesting white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Popillia japonica Newman, Exomala orientalis (Waterhouse), Rhizotrogus majalis (Razoumowsky), and Cyclocephala borealis Arrow. In vi...
López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Cave, Ronald D; Amat-García, Germán
An updated and annotated checklist of the Pentodontini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) of the New World is presented. The tribe is composed of 32 genera and 151 species, including the introduced species Heteronychus arator (Fabricius).
Remarkable similarities have been found in the pheromonal communication of Phyllotreta vittula Redtenbacher and of Ph. cruciferae Goeze (European population) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae). In previous European field tests with Ph. cruciferae, only the major male-produced sesquiterpene identified from ...
Adult Chinese rose beetles, Adoretus sinicus (Burmeister) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Adoretini), present in China, Taiwan, Indonesia, Cambodia, Laos, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, the Marianas Islands, the Caroline Islands, and the Hawaiian Islands, are nighttime defoliators that feed on a wide vari...
Tamutis, Vytautas; Tamutė, Brigita; Ferenca, Romas
Abstract This paper presents the first complete and updated list of all 3597 species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera) belonging to 92 familiesfound and published in Lithuania until 2011, with comments also provided on the main systematic and nomenclatural changes since the last monographic treatment in two volumes (Pileckis and Monsevičius 1995, 1997). The introductory section provides a general overview of the main features of the territory of Lithuania, the origins and formation of the beetle fauna and their conservation, the faunistic investigations in Lithuania to date revealing the most important stages of the faunistic research process with reference to the most prominent scientists, an overview of their work, and their contribution to Lithuanian coleopteran faunal research. Species recorded in Lithuania by some authors without reliable evidence and requiring further confirmation with new data are presented in a separate list, consisting of 183 species. For the first time, analysis of errors in works of Lithuanian authors concerning data on coleopteran fauna has been conducted and these errors have been corrected. All available published and Internet sources on beetles found in Lithuania have been considered in the current study. Over 630 literature sources on species composition of beetles, their distribution in Lithuania and neighbouring countries, and taxonomic revisions and changes are reviewed and cited. An alphabetical list of these literature sources is presented. After revision of public beetle collections in Lithuania, the authors propose to remove 43 species from the beetle species list of the country on the grounds, that they have been wrongly identified or published by mistake. For reasons of clarity, 19 previously noted but later excluded species are included in the current checklist with comments. Based on faunal data from neighbouring countries, species expected to occur in Lithuania are matnioned. In total 1390 species are attributed to this
Bukejs, Andris; Schmitt, Michael
Abstract Based on a single well-preserved specimen from Eocene Baltic amber, Lilioceris groehni sp. n. is described and illustrated using phase-contrast X-ray microtomography. It is the first described species of Criocerinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber. A check-list of fossil Criocerinae is provided. Placement of Crioceris pristiana (Germar, 1813) is discussed, this species is removed from Criocerinae and placed in Coleoptera incertae sedis. PMID:27853400
Bukejs, Andris; Schmitt, Michael
Based on a single well-preserved specimen from Eocene Baltic amber, Lilioceris groehnisp. n. is described and illustrated using phase-contrast X-ray microtomography. It is the first described species of Criocerinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) from Baltic amber. A check-list of fossil Criocerinae is provided. Placement of Crioceris pristiana (Germar, 1813) is discussed, this species is removed from Criocerinae and placed in Coleoptera incertae sedis.
Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola
Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584
Bousquet, Yves; Bouchard, Patrice; Davies, Anthony E.; Sikes, Derek S.
Abstract All 8237 species-group taxa of Coleoptera known to occur in Canada and Alaska are recorded by province/territory or state, along with their author(s) and year of publication, in a classification framework. Only presence of taxa in each Canadian province or territory and Alaska is noted. Labrador is considered a distinct geographical entity. Adventive and Holarctic species-group taxa are indicated. References to pertinent identification keys are given under the corresponding supraspecific taxa in the data archive. PMID:24363590
The Australian fauna of Ceratocanthinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Hybosoridae) is revised. Two genera are present, both shared with Asia, with a total of seven species, all localized in eastern Queensland and all except one, endemic to Australia. Cyphopisthes is comprised of three species, two of them new (Cyphopisthes yorkensis sp. n. and Cyphopisthes monteithi sp. n., the latter, together with Cyphopisthes descarpentriesi Paulian, 1977 displaying an unusual ecology, with occurrence in the southern Queensland dry rainforest/scrub habitats), and Pterorthochaetes is comprised of four species, two of them new (Pterorthochaetes danielsi sp. n. and Pterorthochaeres storeyi sp. n.). Descriptions, distribution, ecological remarks and a key to species are provided.
Jiménez-Ferbans, Larry; Reyes-Castillo, Pedro; Schuster, Jack C
We present a synthesis of the state of knowledge concerning the species of Passalidae (Coleoptera) of the West Indies and we present a key to the species. The recently described genus Antillanax Boucher renders the subgenus Passalus (Pertinax) Kaup paraphyletic, therefore we place Antillanax in synonymy with Passalus (Pertinax) and we propose a new combination for Passalus (Pertinax) doesburgi (Boucher). The island richest in species is Hispaniola, with five species, three of them endemic. Excluding Trinidad and Tobago, the passalid fauna of the West Indies comprises 13 species; this is low richness, but with high endemism (50%), especially for the Greater Antilles.
Abstract The Australian fauna of Ceratocanthinae (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea, Hybosoridae) is revised. Two genera are present, both shared with Asia, with a total of seven species, all localized in eastern Queensland and all except one, endemic to Australia. Cyphopisthes is comprised of three species, two of them new (Cyphopisthes yorkensis sp. n. and Cyphopisthes monteithi sp. n., the latter, together with Cyphopisthes descarpentriesi Paulian, 1977 displaying an unusual ecology, with occurrence in the southern Queensland dry rainforest/scrub habitats), and Pterorthochaetes is comprised of four species, two of them new (Pterorthochaetes danielsi sp. n. and Pterorthochaeres storeyi sp. n.). Descriptions, distribution, ecological remarks and a key to species are provided. PMID:24146587
Ozdemir, Senem; Sert, Osman
In this study, 40 species from Staphylinidae, Histeridae, Dermestidae, Silphidae, Nitidulidae and Cleridae families of Coleoptera which were found in 12 pig (Sus scrofa L.) carcasses were identified and recorded during a one-year period at the Hacettepe University Beytepe Campus located in Ankara, Turkey. According to the duration of their presence on the carcasses, 22 of these species were accepted to be important in decomposition. Their distribution over the months and the duration of their presence in the various decomposition stages over the seasons were determined.
Ghahari, Hassan; Volkovitsh, Mark G; Bellamy, Charles L
An annotated taxonomic catalogue of the jewel beetles (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) of Iran is given. Original descriptions and recent revisionary or catalogue data are included along with the distribution, both within and outside of Iran, ecological data and host plant associations, junior synonyms, and comments. A complete bibliography completes the catalogue. In total 428 species and 52 subspecies of jewel beetles belonging to 6 subfamilies (Julodinae, Polycestinae, Galbellinae, Chrysochroinae, Buprestinae, and Agrilinae), 20 tribes, and 38 genera are known from Iran including doubtful records and 4 nomina nuda. It is likely that the number of jewel beetle species from Iran will be between 460-480 and possibly even more species.
Biranvand, Amir; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Nedvěd, Oldřich; Khormizi, Mehdi Zare; Nicolas, Vincent; Canepari, Claudio; Shakarami, Jahanshir; Fekrat, Lida; Fürsch, Helmut
The Iranian species of the tribe Hyperaspidini Mulsant, 1846 (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are reviewed. The current list includes 12 species, all placed in a single genus Hyperaspis Chevrolat, 1836. Hyperapsis asiatica Lewis, 1896 and H. pumila Mulsant, 1850 are excluded from the Iranian list of Coccinellidae. Diagnoses of the tribe Hyperaspidini and the genus Hyperaspis are given. Images of adult beetles and diagnostic characters of the male genitalia of all species distributed in Iran are shown. A key to identification of the species is presented. Distribution records are provided for each species along with information on host plants and prey species when available.
A taxonomic review of the anilline genus Zeanillus Jeannel (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Bembidiini) of New Zealand, with descriptions of seven new species, re-classification of the species, and notes on their biogeography and evolution.
Sokolov, Igor M
Based upon external features of adults of the genus Zeanillus ten species are recognized, seven of which are new to science. Because of significant morphological differences, all species are arranged in four subgenera: the nominotypical subgenus Zeanillus, including Z. phyllobius (Broun), Z. punctigerus (Broun), and Z. nunni, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Trotters George); the monobasic subgenus Brounanillus, new subgenus, including Z. pallidus (Broun); the monobasic subgenus Nunnanillus, new subgenus, including Z. pellucidus, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Oamaru); and the most species-rich subgenus Otagonillus, new subgenus, including Z. brouni, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Oamaru), Z. lescheni, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Southland, Waikaia Forest), Z. carltoni, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Mount Watkin), Z. montivagus, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, North Rough Ridge), and Z. nanus, new species (New Zealand, South Island, Otago, Waipori River Valley). Based on new morphological data, a redescription of genus, redescriptions of previously described species, and descriptions of all new taxa are given and a taxonomic key for all known species is provided. Maps of species distributions and illustrations of main taxonomic characters used in the text are also included. Some biogeographic/evolutionary aspects of Zeanillus origin and diversification are discussed.
Halocoryza Alluaud 1919, sea-side beetles of the Indian, Atlantic (sensu lato), and Pacific Oceans: a generic synopsis and description of a remarkable new species from Baja California Sur, México (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Scaritini, Clivinina).
Erwin, Terry L
Information on the three previously described species of Halocoryza Alluaud is updated and a new species for the genus from Isla Carmen, Sea of Cortés, Baja California Sur, México is described. Halocoryza whiteheadianasp. n. was found at UV light on a beach of that island. This species does not fit the profile of the other three species, i.e., living on coralline beach sands, or in the Mangrove intertidal zone. Two alternative possibilities as to why this is so are suggested and a study plan for testing these possibilities is proposed.
Revision of the East Mediterranean Orthomus (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Pterostichini), with description of Parorthomus gen. n. socotranus sp. n. from Socotra Island and key to the Old World genera of subtribe Euchroina
Guéorguiev, Borislav; Wrase, David W.; Farkač, Jan
Abstract The East Mediterranean species of Orthomus Chaudoir, 1838 are revised. The type series of Feronia longula Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, F. berytensis Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, F. proelonga Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, Orthomus longior Chaudoir, 1873, O. sidonicus Chaudoir, 1873, and O. berytensis akbensis Mateu, 1955 were studied and lectotypes for the first four are designated. Also, the following nomenclatural acts are proposed: Feronia proelonga Reiche & Saulcy, 1855, syn. n. of Orthomus berytensis (Reiche & Saulcy, 1855); Feronia elongata Chaudoir, 1859, syn. n. of Orthomus berytensis (Reiche & Saulcy, 1855); Orthomus sidonicus Chaudoir, 1873, syn. n. of Orthomus longior Chaudoir, 1873; Orthomus velocissimus andalusiacus Mateu, 1957, syn. n. of Orthomus velocissimus akbensis Mateu, 1955, new assignment for Orthomus berytensis akbensis Mateu, 1955. As a result, three species of the genus inhabit the East Mediterranean biogeographical region: O. berytensis, O. longior, and O. longulus. A key to these three species is given. O. longior is recorded for Turkey and Syria for the first time. In addition, a new synonymy of two West Mediterranean taxa is proposed: O. szekessyi (Jedlička, 1956), syn. n. of O. balearicus (Piochard de la Brûlerie, 1868), and a new genus and a species are described: Parorthomus gen. n. socotranus sp. n. (type locality: Republic of Yemen, Socotra Archipelago, Socotra Island, Fimihin env., 530 m.a.s.l.). Illustrations of the species dealt with here are provided including external characters, habitus, mentum and submentum, and genitalia are provided. Nine genera of the “African Series” of subtribe Euchroina Chaudoir, 1874 are keyed for the first time. Checklists of the species of Orthomus and of the Old World euchroine genera are given. PMID:25147463
Cladistic assessment of subtribal affinities within the tribe Moriomorphini with description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n. from the South Island, and revision of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris from the North Island, New Zealand (Coleoptera, Carabidae).
Liebherr, James K
Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Moriomorphini Sloane, 1890 are analyzed cladistically based on 75 morphological characters and 21 ingroup terminal taxa rooted at a Trechus obtusus Erichson outgroup. Based on the resultant cladistic relationships, two subtribes-Moriomorphina and Amblytelina Blackburn, 1892-are recognized, with the following new synonymies proposed: Meonides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Tropopterides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Mecyclothoracitae Jeannel, 1940 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY). Monophyly of Moriomorphina is based on presence of elongate, parallel-sided and glabrous to nearly glabrous male parameres, whereas Amblytelina are defined most broadly by possession of conchoid parameres with narrowed, setose apices, subtending a clade defined by a more derived parameral configuration whereby elongate styloid parameres terminate in a whip-like apical extension. Representatives of all New Zealand moriomorphine genera are included in the analysis, with cladistic results necessitating description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n., known from a single locality near the Franz Josef Glacier, Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Monophyly of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris, 2009 is demonstrated, and its six species are taxonomically revised: Meonochilus amplipennis (Broun), Meonochilus eplicatus (Broun), Meonochilus placens (Broun), Meonochilus bellorum, sp. n., Meonochilus rectus, sp. n., and Meonochilus spiculatus, sp. n. Geographic restriction of Meonochilus to the North Island of New Zealand, coupled with its sister-group status to an Australian-based Amblytelus Erichson-Mecyclothorax Sharp clade reinforce the interpretation that Meonochilus was isolated in New Zealand by vicariance along the Norfolk Ridge, subsequent to New Zealand's initial Cretaceous isolation from Tasmania and southeastern Australia via opening of the Tasman Sea.
Life beneath the surface of the central Texan Balcones Escarpment: genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 (Coleoptera, Carabidae, Bembidiini): new species, a key to the Texas species, and notes about their way of life and evolution
Sokolov, Igor M.; Reddell, James R.; Kavanaugh, David H.
Abstract The Texas fauna of the genus Anillinus Casey, 1918 includes three previously described species (A. affabilis (Brues), 1902, A. depressus (Jeannel), 1963 and A. sinuatus (Jeannel), 1963) and four new species here described: A. acutipennis Sokolov & Reddell, sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas); A. comalensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: 7 miles W of New Braunfels, Comal County, Texas); A. forthoodensis Sokolov & Reddell, sp. n. (type locality: Fort Hood area, Bell County, Texas); A. wisemanensis Sokolov & Kavanaugh, sp. n. (type locality: Wiseman Sink, Hays County, Texas). A key for identification of adults of these species is provided. The fauna includes both soil- and cave-inhabiting species restricted to the Balcones Fault Zone and Lampasas Cut Plain and adjacent areas underlain by the Edwards-Trinity Aquifer. Based on morphological and distributional data, we hypothesize that four lineages of endogean Anillinus species extended their geographical ranges from a source area in the Ouachita-Ozark Mountains to the Balconian region in central Texas. There the cavernous Edwards-Trinity aquifer system provided an excellent refugium as the regional climate in the late Tertiary and early Quaternary became increasingly drier, rendering life at the surface nearly impossible for small, litter-inhabiting arthropods. Isolated within the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system, these anilline lineages subsequently differentiated, accounting for the currently known diversity. The paucity of specimens and difficulty in collecting them suggest that additional undiscovered species remain to be found in the region. PMID:25061356
Cladistic assessment of subtribal affinities within the tribe Moriomorphini with description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n. from the South Island, and revision of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris from the North Island, New Zealand (Coleoptera, Carabidae)
Liebherr, James K.
Abstract Phylogenetic relationships within the tribe Moriomorphini Sloane, 1890 are analyzed cladistically based on 75 morphological characters and 21 ingroup terminal taxa rooted at a Trechus obtusus Erichson outgroup. Based on the resultant cladistic relationships, two subtribes–Moriomorphina and Amblytelina Blackburn, 1892–are recognized, with the following new synonymies proposed: Meonides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Tropopterides Sloane, 1898 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY); Mecyclothoracitae Jeannel, 1940 = Amblytelina (NEW SYNONYMY). Monophyly of Moriomorphina is based on presence of elongate, parallel-sided and glabrous to nearly glabrous male parameres, whereas Amblytelina are defined most broadly by possession of conchoid parameres with narrowed, setose apices, subtending a clade defined by a more derived parameral configuration whereby elongate styloid parameres terminate in a whip-like apical extension. Representatives of all New Zealand moriomorphine genera are included in the analysis, with cladistic results necessitating description of Rossjoycea glacialis, gen. n. and sp. n., known from a single locality near the Franz Josef Glacier, Westland, South Island, New Zealand. Monophyly of Meonochilus Liebherr and Marris, 2009 is demonstrated, and its six species are taxonomically revised: Meonochilus amplipennis (Broun), Meonochilus eplicatus (Broun), Meonochilus placens (Broun), Meonochilus bellorum, sp. n., Meonochilus rectus, sp. n., and Meonochilus spiculatus, sp. n. Geographic restriction of Meonochilus to the North Island of New Zealand, coupled with its sister-group status to an Australian-based Amblytelus Erichson-Mecyclothorax Sharp clade reinforce the interpretation that Meonochilus was isolated in New Zealand by vicariance along the Norfolk Ridge, subsequent to New Zealand’s initial Cretaceous isolation from Tasmania and southeastern Australia via opening of the Tasman Sea. PMID:22371667
Further contribution to the knowledge of Georgian species of the Carabus Linnaeus, 1758 subgenus Neoplectes Reitter, 1885, with description of a new subspecies of C. titarenkoi Zamotajlov & Fominykh, 2014 (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Carabini).
Fominykh, Dmitriy D; Zamotajlov, Alexandr S; Titarenko, Andrey Yu
Based on material collected by the authors in 2015 in Georgia, further data are provided on the distribution, ecology, and morphology of the Carabus subgenus Neoplectes Reitter, 1885. A preliminary original identification key to the known species is provided, and a new subspecies, C. (Neoplectes) titarenkoi djanoliensis subsp. nov., is described from Dzhanoli river valley. The statuses of C. (Neoplectes) lafertei Chaudoir, 1846, C. (Neoplectes) chaudoirianus Lapouge, 1909, C. (Neoplectes) martviliensis Retezár & Djavelidze, 1992, C. (Neoplectes) prunierianus Deuve, 2012, and C. (Neoplectes) titarenkoi Zamotajlov & Fominykh, 2014 are resurrected to specific. C. (Neoplectes) mellyi boulbenorum Deuve, 2015 is synonymized with the nomynotypical subspecies. A new status of the subspecies Carabus (Neoplectes) lafertei montreuilianus Deuve, 2014, stat. nov. is also proposed.
[Features of the life cycles of Pterostichus montanus (Motschulsky, 1844) and Carabus loschnikovi (Fischer-Waldheim, 1822) (Coleoptera, Carabidae) in conditions of the mountain taiga belt in the Eastern Sayan].
Sharova, I Kh; khobrakova, L Ts
We studied the seasonal dynamics and demographic structure of abundant ground beetle species from the mountain taiga belt in the Eastern Sayan. Data on the dynamics of the sexual and age structure of the populations as well as on the reproductive capacity of females in the biotopes on the slopes with different exposure and height were obtained. Life cycles with one- and two-year development were revealed for the ground beetles typical for the mountain taiga belt. As an example, data on the life cycles of Pterostichus montanus (Motschulsky, 1844) with one-year spring development and Carabus loschnikovi (Fischer-Waldheim, 1822) with two-year polyvariant multiseasonal development are given for the first time. Two strategies were revealed in the life cycles of ground beetles under alpine conditions: an accelerated population development in spring one-year species and a two-year development with pronounced polyvariance in two intrapopulation groups of ground beetles of the Carabus genus. The seasonal dynamics of the activity and reproduction periods proved to vary for these species on the slopes along the height gradient.
The impact of prior captures on the trapping performance of floor traps was evaluated for the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in laboratory conditions. The effect...
Kollmann, Martin; Schmidt, Rovenna; Heuer, Carsten M; Schachtner, Joachim
Beetles comprise about 400,000 described species, nearly one third of all known animal species. The enormous success of the order Coleoptera is reflected by a rich diversity of lifestyles, behaviors, morphological, and physiological adaptions. All these evolutionary adaptions that have been driven by a variety of parameters over the last about 300 million years, make the Coleoptera an ideal field to study the evolution of the brain on the interface between the basic bauplan of the insect brain and the adaptions that occurred. In the current study we concentrated on the paired antennal lobes (AL), the part of the brain that is typically responsible for the first processing of olfactory information collected from olfactory sensilla on antenna and mouthparts. We analyzed 63 beetle species from 22 different families and thus provide an extensive comparison of principal neuroarchitecture of the AL. On the examined anatomical level, we found a broad diversity including AL containing a wide range of glomeruli numbers reaching from 50 to 150 glomeruli and several species with numerous small glomeruli, resembling the microglomerular design described in acridid grasshoppers and diving beetles, and substructures within the glomeruli that have to date only been described for the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida. A first comparison of the various anatomical features of the AL with available descriptions of lifestyle and behaviors did so far not reveal useful correlations. In summary, the current study provides a solid basis for further studies to unravel mechanisms that are basic to evolutionary adaptions of the insect olfactory system.
Abstract Background The Scymnini (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) of the Indian region is rich and highly speciose, with nearly 90 described species and scores of undescribed species (Poorani 2002). There is a dire need to systematically revise the genera and species of this tribe from the Indian region. Due to paucity of representative collections covering the entire region and lack of access to types, it is difficult to identify most of the Scymnini of the Indian region to species. As a result, many economically important species remain poorly characterized, or worse, unnamed. New information Two economically important and unique species of Scymnini (Coccinellidae) belonging to Horniolus Weise (1900) and Scymnus (Pullus) Mulsant (1846) from the Southern Indian state of Karnataka that have remained unnamed for long are treated in this paper. These species are externally similar to other known species and often misidentified. Horniolus sororius sp. n. and Scymnus (Pullus) rajeshwariae sp. n. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) are described here and illustrated with notes on their biology and related species. PMID:26177296
Amorim, Igor Costa; Milani, Diogo; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo Cavalcanti; Rocha, Marília França; Moura, Rita Cássia
B chromosomes have so far been described in about 80 species of Coleoptera, mainly using conventional staining analysis. In this study, 152 individuals of the dung beetle Dichotomius sericeus (Coleoptera), collected from three isolated geographical areas in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil, were analyzed to determine the frequency, prevalence, distribution, meiotic behavior, and possible B chromosome origin. The cytogenetic analysis consisted of conventional staining, C-banding, triple fluorochrome staining (CMA3/DA/DAPI), and fluorescent in situ hybridization using ribosomal DNAs (rDNAs) and H3 histone gene as probes, as well as microdissection and chromosome painting of the B chromosome. The B chromosomes were detected in all populations analyzed. Analysis revealed the heterochromatic nature and the presence of G+C-rich blocks and 18S rDNA on the B chromosome. FISH with DNA from microdissected B chromosome painted the entire extension of the B chromosome for all populations, besides the pericentromeric regions of all the autosomes, as well as the X chromosome. Finally, cross-hybridization in nine related species of Dichotomius using the microdissected B chromosome as probe did not reveal any hybridization signal. The results suggest an intraspecific and monophyletic origin for B chromosomes in D. sericeus, probably from the second or third autosomal pair.
Maguire, Dorothy Y; Robert, Katleen; Brochu, Kristen; Larrivée, Maxim; Buddle, Christopher M; Wheeler, Terry A
Forest canopies support high arthropod biodiversity, but in temperate canopies, little is known about the spatial distribution of these arthropods. This is an important first step toward understanding ecological roles of insects in temperate canopies. The objective of this study was to assess differences in the species composition of two dominant and diverse taxa (Diptera and Coleoptera) along a vertical gradient in temperate deciduous forest canopies. Five sugar maple trees from each of three deciduous forest sites in southern Quebec were sampled using a combination of window and trunk traps placed in three vertical strata (understory, mid-canopy, and upper-canopy) for three sampling periods throughout the summer. Coleoptera species richness and abundance did not differ between canopy heights, but more specimens and species of Diptera were collected in the upper-canopy. Community composition of Coleoptera and Diptera varied significantly by trap height. Window traps collected more specimens and species of Coleoptera than trunk traps, although both trap types should be used to maximize representation of the entire Coleoptera community. There were no differences in abundance, diversity, or composition of Diptera collected between trap types. Our data confirm the relevance of sampling all strata in a forest when studying canopy arthropod biodiversity.
Acoustic detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) trees and offshoots in Saudi Arabian orchards
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal-tissue feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect until after they have caused severe economic damage; consequently, infestations may remain undetected until they are widespread in an orchard....
Paula-Bueno, M C; Fonseca-Gessner, A A
Macrophytes in oxbow lakes represent an important substrate for the Coleoptera. Two oxbow lakes the Rio Paranapanema were studied and the other two Rio Mogi-Guaçu, in the State de São Paulo, Brasil. In this study, there is greater similarity between the communities of Coleoptera of lakes greater connectivity with the main river channel or the difference in the species of Salvinia collected in the lakes studied interferes Coleoptera fauna that uses as substrate. A total of 9,222 specimens of Coleoptera were collected and identified in 10 families and 40 genera. The analysis MDS for abundance of Coleoptera showed the grouping of the oxbow lakes the Paranapanema River and a distancing the oxbow lakes the Mogi-Guaçu. The PERMANOVA test did not reveal any difference in the fauna between the wet and dry periods. It was concluded that the connectivity between river and lake is not decisive for the richness and abundance of aquatic fauna of Coleoptera. Therefore, the richness and abundance of aquatic Coleoptera associated vary with the species of Salvinia used as substrate.
Muths, Erin Louise
Burying beetles Nicrophorus orbicollis (Coleoptera: Silphidae) secure and bury small vertebrate carcasses as a food resource for their offspring and themselves. Burial may take place at the point of carcass discovery or at some distance from that site. Burying beetles were tested to determine if they discriminate between different substrates when burying a carcass. Three substrates were presented simultaneously. Substrate one contained soil from typical beetle habitat; substrates two and three contained 2:1 and 5:1 ratios, respectively, of soil and a senescent prairie grass (Panicum virgatum), which added a bulk structural component to the soil. Beetles generally moved and buried the carcass within 24 hours. Results for both paired and individual trials suggest that burying beetles discriminate between substrates, preferring substrates with added bulk over those without.
Dupuy, Madeleine M.; Ramirez, Ricardo A.
Billbugs (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Sphenophorus spp.) are a complex of weevil pests affecting turfgrass throughout the United States. Billbug larvae cause damage by feeding in stems, on roots, and on the crowns of turf, causing severe discoloration and eventual plant death. Monitoring efforts have focused on nondestructive pitfall sampling of ground-active billbug adults and on destructive sampling using soil cores for larval stages in the soil. Given the cryptic nature of the susceptible larval stages, billbugs are typically managed by preventive applications of long-residual, systemic insecticides, including neonicotinoids and anthranilic diamides. Despite knowledge of effective management practices including pest-resistant turf varieties, irrigation management, and microbial controls that contribute to an IPM approach, billbug management continues to rely heavily on prophylactic synthetic insecticides. This review will summarize the identification and biology of billbugs and strategies for their management. PMID:27065080
Abstract Revision of the Neotropical genera of the subtribe Anthaxiina Gory & Laporte, 1839 (Coleoptera, Buprestidae, Buprestinae, Anthaxiini). Five new genera are described: Anthaxita gen. n., Charlesina gen. n., Cobosina gen. n., Marikia gen. n. and Sanchezia gen. n. Genus Agrilaxia Kerremans, 1903 is divided into two subgenera: Agrilaxia and Costiptera subgen. n. and the genus Bilyaxia Hołyński, 1989 is divided into three subgenera: Bilyaxia, Paraguayetta subgen. n. and Tomasia subgen. n. One new species is described: Anthaxita peruviana sp. n., and two informal species-groups are suggested within Agrilaxia (Costiptera subgen. n.): Agrilaxia (Costiptera) modesta (Kerremans, 1897) species-group and Agrilaxia (Costiptera) occidentalis (Kerremans, 1900) species-group. Lectotype is designated for Agrilaxia mrazi Obenberger, 1932. A key of all genera/subgenera is provided and all treated taxa are illustrated. PMID:23794907
Higginbotham, Ryan W; Froese, Paul S; Carter, Arron H
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae), the subterranean larval stage of the click beetle, are becoming more prevalent in many cropping systems and posing an increasing economic threat to wheat growers in the Pacific Northwest following the cancellation of the insecticide lindane in 2006. Current insecticide seed treatments alone are not adequate for wireworm control. The objective of this study was to evaluate a diverse set of 163 wheat genotypes for tolerance to wireworm feeding. Entries were planted in replicated field trials over 3 yr and evaluated for their performance when grown in the presence of wireworms. Entries were rated based on survival and given a tolerance score. Results indicated that differences exist among wheat genotypes in their level of tolerance to wireworm feeding. In particular, consistently high-ranking genotypes of interest may be 'BR 18', 'Sonalika', 'Safed Lerma', and 'Hollis'. These genotypes, used in conjunction with other cultural or chemical control methods, may help provide an economic means of controlling wireworms.
Kollmann, Martin; Schmidt, Rovenna; Heuer, Carsten M.
Beetles comprise about 400,000 described species, nearly one third of all known animal species. The enormous success of the order Coleoptera is reflected by a rich diversity of lifestyles, behaviors, morphological, and physiological adaptions. All these evolutionary adaptions that have been driven by a variety of parameters over the last about 300 million years, make the Coleoptera an ideal field to study the evolution of the brain on the interface between the basic bauplan of the insect brain and the adaptions that occurred. In the current study we concentrated on the paired antennal lobes (AL), the part of the brain that is typically responsible for the first processing of olfactory information collected from olfactory sensilla on antenna and mouthparts. We analyzed 63 beetle species from 22 different families and thus provide an extensive comparison of principal neuroarchitecture of the AL. On the examined anatomical level, we found a broad diversity including AL containing a wide range of glomeruli numbers reaching from 50 to 150 glomeruli and several species with numerous small glomeruli, resembling the microglomerular design described in acridid grasshoppers and diving beetles, and substructures within the glomeruli that have to date only been described for the small hive beetle, Aethina tumida. A first comparison of the various anatomical features of the AL with available descriptions of lifestyle and behaviors did so far not reveal useful correlations. In summary, the current study provides a solid basis for further studies to unravel mechanisms that are basic to evolutionary adaptions of the insect olfactory system. PMID:27973569
Dekeirsschieter, Jessica; Frederick, Christine; Verheggen, Francois J; Drugmand, Didier; Haubruge, Eric
Most forensic studies are focused on Diptera pattern colonization while neglecting Coleoptera succession. So far, little information is available on the postmortem colonization by beetles and the decomposition process they initiate under temperate biogeoclimatic countries. These beetles have, however, been referred to as being part of the entomofaunal colonization of a dead body. Forensic entomologists need increased databases detailing the distribution, ecology, and phenology of necrophagous insects, including staphylinids (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). While pig carcasses are commonly used in forensic entomology studies to surrogate human decomposition and to investigate the entomofaunal succession, very few works have been conducted in Europe on large carcasses. Our work reports the monitoring of the presence of adult rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) on decaying pig carcasses in a forest biotope during four seasons (spring, summer, fall, and winter). A total of 23 genera comprising 60 species of rove beetles were collected from pig carcasses.
Hanson, B.A.; Swanson, G.A.
The aquatic Coleoptera of a prairie wetland complex in Stutsman County, North Dakota, were collected from April 1979 to November 1980. Identification of 2594 individuals confirmed 57 species, including seven new records for North Dakota. Two seasonally flooded and two semipermanent wetlands, totaling 7.43 ha, contained 53% of the Dytiscidae, 43% of the Haliplidae, 38% of the Hydrophilidae, and 22% of the Gyrinidae species previously identified from North Dakota. Although 49.1% of the Coleoptera species occurred in both types of wetlands, the occurrence of 29 species varied by wetland class.
Abstract All scientific names of Trachypachidae, Rhysodidae, and Carabidae (including cicindelines) recorded from America north of Mexico are catalogued. Available species-group names are listed in their original combinations with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, type locality, location of the name-bearing type, and etymology for many patronymic names. In addition, the reference in which a given species-group name is first synonymized is recorded for invalid taxa. Genus-group names are listed with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, type species with way of fixation, and etymology for most. The reference in which a given genus-group name is first synonymized is recorded for many invalid taxa. Family-group names are listed with the author(s), year of publication, page citation, and type genus. The geographical distribution of all species-group taxa is briefly summarized and their state and province records are indicated. One new genus-group taxon, Randallius new subgenus (type species: Chlaenius purpuricollis Randall, 1838), one new replacement name, Pterostichus amadeus new name for Pterostichus vexatus Bousquet, 1985, and three changes in precedence, Ellipsoptera rubicunda (Harris, 1911) for Ellipsoptera marutha (Dow, 1911), Badister micans LeConte, 1844 for Badister ocularis Casey, 1920, and Agonum deplanatum Ménétriés, 1843 for Agonum fallianum (Leng, 1919), are proposed. Five new genus-group synonymies and 65 new species-group synonymies, one new species-group status, and 12 new combinations (see Appendix 5) are established. The work also includes a discussion of the notable private North American carabid collections, a synopsis of all extant world geadephagan tribes and subfamilies, a brief faunistic assessment of the fauna, a list of valid species-group taxa, a list of North American fossil Geadephaga (Appendix 1), a list of North American Geadephaga larvae described or illustrated (Appendix 2), a list of Geadephaga species
Recent populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) have been inconsistent or declining, particularly in North Dakota. Consequently, field and laboratory research on weevil biology, including development of resistant germplasm, have been limited....
Wireworms, the larval stage of click beetles (Coleoptera: Elateridae), are serious soil dwelling pests of small grain, corn, sugar beet and potato crops. Limonius californicus (Mannerheim) and Hypnoidus bicolor (Eschscholtz) are the predominant wireworm species infesting wheat in Montana, particula...
Ceratapion basicorne (Coleoptera: Apionidae) is a weevil native to Europe and western Asia that is being evaluated as a prospective classical biological control agent of Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) in the United States. Choice oviposition experiments were conducted under laboratory ...
Adults of three native species of lady beetles [Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, Coccinella transversoguttata richardsoni Brown, and Adalia bipunctata (L.); Coleoptera: Coccinellidae] of conservation interest were detected during recent surveys at several locations in western South Dakota and western ...
Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...
Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi
Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchusaffinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchusatomarius L., 1761, Bruchusloti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinuskergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species.
Abstract Invasive ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are an important pest problem at ornamental tree nurseries. Available chemical measures are not completely effective, and due to the length of the beetle dispersal period and product breakdown, repeated treatments can become costly in ...
Valois, M; Silva, F
Golinca trevisani Valois & Silva, new species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Trichiini: Incina) from Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, and Amazonas, Brazil is described, representing the first record of the genus Golinca for Brazil. Diagnosis, illustrations of key morphological characters, the first male genitalia description in the genus, and a key for identification of four species of Golinca are provided.
Jäch, Manfred A.; Delgado, Juan A.
Abstract Hydraena matyoti sp. n. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Hydraena mahensis Scott, 1913 is redescribed. The latter is here recorded from La Digue for the first time. A key to the species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 of the Seychelles is presented. PMID:27843389
Traps baited with pheromones are used to monitor the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), populations in flour mills to aid in making pest management decisions, but the factors that influence T. castaneum flight aren’t fully understood. We investigated the impa...
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is an important insect pest in food processing facilities. Pheromone trapping is frequently used to monitor red flour beetle populations in structures; however, the optimal trap density and the relationship between trap ...
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is the most important stored-product insect pest infesting rice mills in the U.S. Due to the phasing out of methyl bromide in accordance with the 1987 Montreal Protocol, the efficacy of alternative fumigants in controlli...
Irradiation is a quarantine treatment option for stored products pests. Dose response tests were conducted to identify a postharvest radiation treatment that would control rice weevil, Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in rice. Rice infested with adult or immature weevils was treate...
In June and July 2011 traps were deployed in Tuskegee National Forest, Macon County, Alabama to test the influence of chemical and visual cues on for the capture of bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). \\using chemical and visual cues. The first experiment investigated t...
A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...
Waqa-Sakiti, Hilda; Winder, Linton; Lingafelter, Steven W.
Abstract A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification. PMID:26692805
A survey was undertaken in 2010 to assess the makeup of the ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) community at two research sites in South Mississippi. Inexpensive beetle traps were constructed and fitted with ethanol lures, with bi-weekly collections made from March through November. The gr...
Camino, Nora B; Reboredo, Guillermo R
Cephalobellus cyclocephalae n. sp. (Oxyurida: Thelastomatidae), a parasite of larvae of Cyclocephala signaticollis (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae), found in Argentina is described and illustrated. It is characterized by the cuticle striated at the anterior end in both sexes, with 15 annules, buccal cavity short and not armed, and the male with 4 pairs of genital papillae, 1 pair of preanal papillae, 3 pairs of postanal papillae.
Jäch, Manfred A; Delgado, Juan A
Hydraena matyotisp. n. (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae) is described from the Seychelles, Indian Ocean. Hydraena mahensis Scott, 1913 is redescribed. The latter is here recorded from La Digue for the first time. A key to the species of the genus Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 of the Seychelles is presented.
The genus Platytenerus Miyatake, 1985 (Coleoptera: Cleridae) is redescribed and classified into the subfamily Neorthopleurinae Opitz, 2009. A phylogenetic tree is supplementally provided for Platytenerus based on twenty morphological and two geographical characters. A new species of the genus, Platytenerus iriomotensis sp. n. is described from Iriomote Island, Okinawa, Japan.
Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) and Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are two of the most damaging non-native ambrosia beetle pests in ornamental tree nurseries. Adult females tunnel into the stems and branches of host trees to create galleries with bro...
Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Zhang, Li; Guo, Zhong-Long; Liu, Yong-Jian; Shen, Yu-Ying; Shao, Renfu
The Coleoptera (beetles) exhibits tremendous morphological, ecological, and behavioral diversity. To better understand the phylogenetics and evolution of beetles, we sequenced three complete mitogenomes from two families (Cleridae and Meloidae), which share conserved mitogenomic features with other completely sequenced beetles. We assessed the influence of six datasets and three inference methods on topology and nodal support within the Coleoptera. We found that both Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood with homogeneous-site models were greatly affected by nucleotide compositional heterogeneity, while the heterogeneous-site mixture model in PhyloBayes could provide better phylogenetic signals for the Coleoptera. The amino acid dataset generated more reliable tree topology at the higher taxonomic levels (i.e. suborders and series), where the inclusion of rRNA genes and the third positions of protein-coding genes improved phylogenetic inference at the superfamily level, especially under a heterogeneous-site model. We recovered the suborder relationships as (Archostemata+Adephaga)+(Myxophaga+Polyphaga). The series relationships within Polyphaga were recovered as (Scirtiformia+(Elateriformia+((Bostrichiformia+Scarabaeiformia+Staphyliniformia)+Cucujiformia))). All superfamilies within Cucujiformia were recovered as monophyletic. We obtained a cucujiform phylogeny of (Cleroidea+(Coccinelloidea+((Lymexyloidea+Tenebrionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+(Chrysomeloidea+Curculionoidea))))). This study showed that although tree topologies were sensitive to data types and inference methods, mitogenomic data could provide useful information for resolving the Coleoptera phylogeny at various taxonomic levels by using suitable datasets and heterogeneous-site models.
This study reports a survey conducted to find the South American palm weevil Rhynchophorus palmarum (L.) and the red palm weevil R. ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), two invasive species of palm trees. The study was performed in the Rio Grande Valley of south Texas and near the bor...
Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is a pest of stored food products and problematic to every type of poultry production facility. Larvae and adults can ingest and harbor foodborne and poultry pathogens. Determining the efficiency of this insect’s capacity to transmit dise...
The non-native shot-hole borer, Euwallacea nr. fornicatus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), was discovered in Florida’s avocado production area in Homestead in 2010. It is a highly polyphagous ambrosia beetle that carries Fusarium fungal symbionts. In susceptible host trees, the fung...
Myllocerus undecimpustulatus undatus Marshall (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) also known as Sri Lankan weevil, is becoming a major pest of ornamentals and tropical fruit trees in the southern states of USA, especially in Florida. Recent findings of this species in Florida citrus groves justify research ...
Discovered in North America in 2002, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a phloem-feeding beetle from Asia that attacks and kills ash trees (Fraxinus spp.). Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) populations surveyed for natural enemies in North America reveal low prevalence of native larva...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic pest of U.S. trees in the family Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and redbay (P. borbonia). It threatens avocado production in Florida by transmitting Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal...
A taxonomic review of the genus Ceresium (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) found within the Fiji Islands is presented. A total of 17 species is treated. Full morphological descriptions and comparative images of each species are included, along with a dichotomous key for their identification....
Competition and cooperation between bark beetles, Tomicus yunnanensis and Tomicus minor (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) were examined when they coexisted together in living Yunnan pine trees (Pinus yunnanensis L.) in Yunnan province in southwest China. T. yunnanensis bark beetles were observed to initiate ...
Several factors which might affect pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), were investigated. Included were a comparison of porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), the effect of male age, the effect of time of day, the effect of mal...
Li, You; Wang, Zhiliang; Guo, Jianjun; Nápoles, Jesús Romero; Ji, Yingchao; Jiang, Chunyan; Zhang, Runzhi
Abstract Nineteen species of seed-beetles belonging to the subfamily Bruchinae (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) were collected in Xinjiang, China. Of these, the following four were new records for China: Bruchus affinis Frolich, 1799, Bruchus atomarius L., 1761, Bruchus loti Paykull, 1800 and Kytorhinus kergoati Delobel & Legalov, 2009. We provide an annotated checklist, illustrations and a key to the 19 species. PMID:25610333
Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae) in the tropics and subtropics. It is difficult to detect the presence of A. obtectus because the larvae are cryptic and spend most of their developmental time...
Rearing conditions, particularly the crowding of larvae, may have a significant impact on production efficiency of some insects produced commercially, such as Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Although larval densities are known to affect developmental time and growth in T. molitor, n...
The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of cultivated cotton in the Americas, and reinfestation of zones from which they have been eradicated is of perpetual concern. Extensive arrays of pheromone traps monitor for reintroductions, but occasionally...
Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor Jaime; Deloya, Cuauhtémoc
A new Cotinis Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Cetoniinae: Gymnetini) species from Venezuela is described and illustrated. The new species is compared with Cotinis barthelemyi (Gory & Percheron) from Colombia. The Neotropical distribution of Cotinis is expanded to Venezuela. A revised key to the species of Cotinis is provided in both English and Spanish.
Exotic ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are important pests of tree nurseries. While they are known to migrate in early spring from peripheral forested areas into nurseries, there are few data to show how far ambrosia beetles will fly to infest new host trees, or whether a mass trapping...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors laurel wilt, a lethal vascular disease of trees in the Lauraceae, including avocado (Persea americana) and native Persea species (redbay, swampbay). As part...
Grosman, Donald M; Upton, William W
We evaluated the efficacy of the systemic insecticides dinotefuran, emamectin benzoate, fipronil, and imidacloprid for preventing attacks and brood production of southern pine engraver beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and wood borers (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) on standing, stressed trees and bolt sections of loblolly pine, Pinus taeda L., in eastern Texas. Emamectin benzoate significantly reduced the colonization success of engraver beetles and associated wood borers in both stressed trees and pine bolt sections. Fipronil was nearly as effective as emamectin benzoate in reducing insect colonization of bolts 3 and 5 mo after injection but only moderately effective 1 mo after injection. Fipronil also significantly reduced bark beetle-caused mortality of stressed trees. Imidacloprid and dinotefuran were ineffective in preventing bark beetle and wood borer colonization of bolts or standing, stressed trees. The injected formulation of emamectin benzoate was found to cause long vertical lesions in the sapwood-phloem interface at each injection point.
Sim, Sheina B; Yoneishi, Nicole M; Brill, Eva; Geib, Scott M; Follett, Peter A
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a serious pest of coffee worldwide. It was first detected in Hawai'i in 2010. Two predatory beetles, Cathartus quadricollis (Coleoptera: Silvanidae) and Leptophloeus sp. (Coleoptera: Laemophloeidae), have been observed in H. hampei-infested coffee. Under laboratory conditions, colony-reared C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. prey upon all life stages of H. hampei. However, the H. hampei life cycle occurs almost exclusively within a coffee bean obscured from direct observation. Thus, it is unknown if C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. consume H. hampei as prey in the wild. To demonstrate predation of H. hampei by C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp., a molecular assay was developed utilizing species-specific primers targeting short regions of the mitochondrial COI gene to determine species presence. Using these primers, wild C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. were collected and screened for the presence of H. hampei DNA using PCR. Analysis of collections from five coffee farms revealed predation of C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. on H. hampei. Further laboratory testing showed that H. hampei DNA could be detected in predators for as long as 48 h after feeding, indicating the farm-caught predators had preyed on H. hampei within 2 d of sampling. This study demonstrates the utility of molecular markers for the study of the ecology of predators and prey with cryptic behavior, and suggests C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. might be useful biocontrol agents against H. hampei.
Iorio, Osvaldo Di; Turienzo, Paola
The family Cavognathidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) in Argentina is represented by three species of the genus Taphropiestes Reitter, 1875: T. fusca Reitter, 1875 [Chubut], T. magna Ślipiński & Tomaszewska, 2010 [Río Negro; Chubut], and T. plaumanni Ślipiński & Tomaszewska 2010 [Buenos Aires]. A total of 2565 larvae (multiple instars), 83 pupae, 2028 live adults, and 16 dead adults of T. plaumanni were found in Argentina between 2005 and 2013 in the nests of birds representing the families Columbidae, Emberizidae, Falconidae, Furnariidae, Hirundinidae, Mimidae, Passeridae, Psittacidae, Troglodytidae and Tyrannidae. The adults were most abundant in closed mud nests of Furnarius rufus (Gmelin, 1788) [Furnariidae] and its inquiline birds, but the larvae were most abundant in wood nest boxes. When T. plaumanni was scarcely represented in bird nests from some localities, Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer, 1797), an exotic darkling beetle [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Tenebrioninae], and one native species, Phobelius crenatus Blanchard, 1842 [Col.: Tenebrionidae: Lagriinae], were most abundant in stick nests of Furnariidae. In contrast, when A. diaperinus and P. crenatus were absent in one locality from the province of Buenos Aires, T. plaumanni was the most abundant beetle. A complete account of data is provided for these collections of T. plaumanni in Argentina. Known distributional data for all Argentinian species of Taphropiestes are plotted on maps with biogeographical provinces indicated.
Angus, Robert B.; Holloway, Teresa C.
Abstract Karyotypes are presented for 10 species of Gyrinus Geoffroy, 1762: Gyrinus minutus Fabricius, 1798, Gyrinus caspius Ménétriés, 1832, Gyrinus paykulli Ochs, 1927, Gyrinus distinctus Aubé, 1836 var. fairmairei Régimbart, 1883, Gyrinus marinus Gyllenhal, 1808, Gyrinus natator (Linnaeus, 1758), Gyrinus opacus Sahlberg, 1819, Gyrinus substriatus Stephens, 1869, Gyrinus suffriani Scriba, 1855, Gyrinus urinator Illiger, 1807 and for Orectochilus villosus (Müller, 1776) (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae). The 10 Gyrinus species have karyotypes comprising 13 pairs of autosomes plus sex chromosomes which are X0 (♂), XX (♀), with the X chromosomes the longest in the nucleus. Orectochilus villosus has 16 pairs of autosomes plus X0, XX sex chromosomes. The data obtained by Saxod and Tetart (1967) and Tetart and Saxod (1968) for five of the Gyrinus species are compared with our results. Saxod and Tetart considered the X chromosome to be the smallest in the nucleus in all cases, and this is considered to result from confusion arising from uneven condensation of some of the chromosomes. Small differences between the chromosomes of different Gyrinus species have been detected, but not between Greenland and Swedish populations of Gyrinus opacus, nor between typical Gyrinus distinctus from France and Gyrinus distinctus var. fairmairei from Kuwait. PMID:27186347
Shao, L L; Huang, D Y; Sun, X Y; Hao, J S; Cheng, C H; Zhang, W; Yang, Q
We sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Cheirotonus jansoni (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), an endangered insect species from Southeast Asia. This long legged scarab is widely collected and reared for sale, although it is rare and protected in the wild. The circular genome is 17,249 bp long and contains a typical gene complement: 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 putative tRNA genes, and a non-coding AT-rich region. Its gene order and arrangement are identical to the common type found in most insect mitogenomes. As with all other sequenced coleopteran species, a 5-bp long TAGTA motif was detected in the intergenic space sequence located between trnS(UCN) and nad1. The atypical cox1 start codon is AAC, and the putative initiation codon for the atp8 gene appears to be GTC, instead of the frequently found ATN. By sequence comparison, the 2590-bp long non-coding AT-rich region is the second longest among the coleopterans, with two tandem repeat regions: one is 10 copies of an 88-bp sequence and the other is 2 copies of a 153-bp sequence. Additionally, the A+T content (64%) of the 13 protein-coding genes is the lowest among all sequenced coleopteran species. This newly sequenced genome aids in our understanding of the comparative biology of the mitogenomes of coleopteran species and supplies important data for the conservation of this species.
Vannatta, A R; Hauer, R H; Schuettpelz, N M
Emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), plays a significant role in the health and extent of management of native North American ash species in urban forests. An economic analysis of management options was performed to aid decision makers in preparing for likely future infestations. Separate ash tree population valuations were derived from the i-Tree Streets program and the Council of Tree and Landscape Appraisers (CTLA) methodology. A relative economic analysis was used to compare a control option (do-nothing approach, only removing ash trees as they die) to three distinct management options: 1) preemptive removal of all ash trees over a 5 yr period, 2) preemptive removal of all ash trees and replacement with comparable nonash trees, or 3) treating the entire population of ash trees with insecticides to minimize mortality. For each valuation and management option, an annual analysis was performed for both the remaining ash tree population and those lost to emerald ash borer. Retention of ash trees using insecticide treatments typically retained greater urban forest value, followed by doing nothing (control), which was better than preemptive removal and replacement. Preemptive removal without tree replacement, which was the least expensive management option, also provided the lowest net urban forest value over the 20-yr simulation. A "no emerald ash borer" scenario was modeled to further serve as a benchmark for each management option and provide a level of economic justification for regulatory programs aimed at slowing the movement of emerald ash borer.
Abstract Nearly 260 taxa and chromosomal races of subfamily Chrysomelinae have been chromosomally analyzed showing a wide range of diploid numbers from 2n = 12 to 2n = 50, and four types of male sex-chromosome systems. with the parachute-like ones Xyp and XYp clearly prevailing (79.0%), but with the XO well represented too (19.75%). The modal haploid number for chrysomelines is n = 12 (34.2%) although it is not probably the presumed most plesiomorph for the whole subfamily, because in tribe Timarchini the modal number is n = 10 (53.6%) and in subtribe Chrysomelina n = 17 (65.7%). Some well sampled genera, such as Timarcha, Chrysolina and Cyrtonus, are variable in diploid numbers, whereas others, like Chrysomela, Paropsisterna, Oreina and Leptinotarsa, are conservative and these differences are discussed. The main shifts in the chromosomal evolution of Chrysomelinae seems to be centric fissions and pericentric inversions but other changes as centric fusions are also clearly demonstrated. The biarmed chromosome shape is the prevalent condition, as found in most Coleoptera, although a fair number of species hold a few uniarmed chromosomes at least. A significant negative correlation between the haploid numbers and the asymmetry in size of karyotypes (r = -0.74) has been found from a large sample of 63 checked species of ten different genera. Therefore, the increases in haploid number are generally associated with a higher karyotype symmetry. PMID:22303104
Insular populations and their closest mainland counterparts commonly display body size differences that are considered to fit the island rule, a theoretical framework to explain both dwarfism and gigantism in isolated animal populations. The island rule is used to explain the pattern of change of body size at the inter-specific level. But the model implicitly makes also a prediction for the body size of isolated populations of a single species. It suggests that, for a hypothetical species covering a wide range of island sizes, there exists a specific island size where this species reaches the largest body size. Body size would be small (in relative terms) in the smallest islets of the species range. It would increase with island size, and reach a maximum at some specific island size. However, additional increases from such a specific island size would instead promote body size reduction, and small (in relative terms) body sizes would be found again on the largest islands. The biogeographical patterns predicted by the island rule have been described and analysed for vertebrates only (mainly mammals), but remain largely untested for insects or other invertebrates. I analyse here the pattern of body size variation between seven isolated insular populations of a flightless beetle, Asida planipennis (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae). This is an endemic species of Mallorca, Menorca and a number of islands and islets in the Balearic archipelago (western Mediterranean). The study covers seven of the 15 known populations (i.e., there are only 15 islands or islets inhabited by the species). The populations studied fit the pattern advanced above and we could, therefore, extrapolate the island rule to a very different kind of organism. However, the small sample size of some of the populations invites some caution at this early stage.
Strom, B L; Smith, S L; Brownie, C
Jeffrey pine, Pinus jeffreyi Greville and Balfour, is a dominant yellow pine and important overstory component of forests growing on diverse sites from southwestern Oregon to Baja California to western Nevada. The Jeffrey pine beetle, Dendroctonus jeffreyi Hopkins (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is monophagous on Jeffrey pine and its primary insect pest. Despite the importance of P. jeffreyi, difficult terrain, environmental concerns, and lack of roads can constrain pest management activities. Semiochemicals are often easier to apply and more environmentally acceptable than other options, but they are lacking in this system. Attractants have been identified, but field bioassays have been limited because of infrequent or short duration outbreaks and a lack of beetles during nonoutbreak periods. Disruptant semiochemicals have not been assessed for D. jeffreyi during outbreak conditions; however, commercially available semiochemicals have been implicated as disruptants for this bark beetle. The objective of this study was to identify the most effective commercially available attractant and disruptant semiochemicals for D. jeffreyi. Our highest observed catch occurred with the blend of 5% 1-heptanol and 95% n-heptane. When this was used to challenge potential disruptant semiochemicals, the combination of S-(-)-verbenone and the green leaf volatile blend (cis-3-Hexenol and 1-Hexanol) reduced trap catch by ≍80%. However, frontalin was most effective, reducing the number of D. jeffreyi caught by >96%. Within each year of the study, the percentage female of D. jeffreyi caught with our attractant decreased from start to end of the experimental period. On average, our first collection in a year (mid-June to early July) was 59% female, whereas our last (mid-August) was 34%. Frontalin was equally or more effective against females (the pioneering sex) than males, providing optimism that semiochemical disruption may be possible for protecting Jeffrey pines from D
Mahroof, Rizana M; Edde, Peter A; Robertson, Barrett; Puckette, J Andrew; Phillips, Thomas W
The lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), a serious pest of stored cereal grains, is widely distributed and has been collected in different habitats in North America, such as those from agricultural and nonagricultural settings. Our objective was to study the dispersal distances and direction of dispersal by R. dominica after external marking using fluorescent powder, releasing marked beetles, and recapturing adults using pheromone traps in distinctively different ecological habitats, wooded sites and open grasslands, for 2 consecutive yr. The recapture rate of marked beetles ranged from 6 to 26% in both sites and was generally higher in the wooded site than the open field site for both years. There was a significant difference in dispersal distances between wooded and open sites. Mean dispersal distances in the wooded site ranged from 337 to 375 m, whereas in the open site, they varied from 261 to 333 m. Trap captures for both marked and feral beetles were related to the ambient temperature such that increase in trap captures occurred with increasing temperature. Significant differences were observed for directional movement of R. dominica in both sites and indicated that most beetles dispersed in the northwest direction. Correlation analyses showed that the relationship between numbers of marked-released-recaptured beetles significantly decreased with increasing trap distances. Understanding dispersal distances and directions provide insight to flight behavior of R. dominica and to the relationship between ecologically diverse breeding habitats. Knowledge of R. dominica habitat ecology outside of grain storage facilities may be useful in designing suitable management tactics to minimize the onset of infestations in grain storages.
Seago, Ainsley E.; Brady, Parrish; Vigneron, Jean-Pol; Schultz, Tom D.
Members of the order Coleoptera are sometimes referred to as ‘living jewels’, in allusion to the strikingly diverse array of iridescence mechanisms and optical effects that have arisen in beetles. A number of novel and sophisticated reflectance mechanisms have been discovered in recent years, including three-dimensional photonic crystals and quasi-ordered coherent scattering arrays. However, the literature on beetle structural coloration is often redundant and lacks synthesis, with little interchange between the entomological and optical research communities. Here, an overview is provided for all iridescence mechanisms observed in Coleoptera. Types of iridescence are illustrated and classified into three mechanistic groups: multilayer reflectors, three-dimensional photonic crystals and diffraction gratings. Taxonomic and phylogenetic distributions are provided, along with discussion of the putative functions and evolutionary pathways by which iridescence has repeatedly arisen in beetles. PMID:18957361
Barsics, Fanny; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.
Wireworms (Coleoptera: Elateridae) are important soil dwelling pests worldwide causing yield losses in many crops. The progressive restrictions in the matter of efficient synthetic chemicals for health and environmental care brought out the need for alternative management techniques. This paper summarizes the main potential tools that have been studied up to now and that could be applied together in integrated pest management systems and suggests guidelines for future research. PMID:26466799
Wang, Cheng-Bin; Nishikawa, Masaaki; Perreau, Michel; Růžička, Jan; Hayashi, Yasuhiko
Abstract Ptomaphagus (s. str.) chenggongi sp. n. and Ptomaphagus (s. str.) tingtingae sp. n. (Coleoptera, Leiodidae, Cholevinae, Ptomaphagini) are described from Taiwan Island. In addition, a new subjective synonym is proposed, Ptomaphagus (s. str.) yasutoshii Nishikawa, 1993 = Ptomaphagus (s. str.) smetanai Perreau, 1996, syn. n. Relevant morphological characters of the examined Ptomaphagus species are illustrated with colour plates, and their known distributions are mapped. PMID:27563271
Stevenson, B J; Cai, L; Faucher, C; Michie, M; Berna, A; Ren, Y; Anderson, A; Chyb, S; Xu, W
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a worldwide pest of stored grains. Using "Y"-tube olfactometry we studied the response of T. castaneum to odors from simulated wheat infestations containing conspecifics, and infestations containing the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), and the granary weevil Sitophilus granarius (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Tribolium castaneum larvae were significantly attracted to odors from all three test species. Tribolium castaneum adults were attracted to grains infested by R. dominica and flour infested by T. castaneum but repelled from grains infested by S. granarius. Further behavioral analysis with pheromones showed that T. castaneum were significantly attracted to their aggregation pheromone, dimethyldecanal (DMD), but not to the R. dominica aggregation pheromone, a mixture of dominicalure 1 and 2. Female T. castaneum adults were attracted to ∼50-fold less DMD than larvae and 100-fold less than male adults, suggesting they are more sensitive to DMD. This study improves our understanding of T. castaneum behaviors to infested grain volatile compounds and pheromones, and may help develop new control methods for grain pest species.
Yus-Ramos, Rafael; Ventura, Daniel; Bensusan, Keith; Coello-García, Pedro; György, Zoltán; Stojanova, Anelia
Under the framework of the DAISIE consortium, whose main mission is to make an inventory of the alien invasive species of Europe and its islands, we review the current state of knowledge and provide an up-to-date catalogue and distributional status for alien seed beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae) in Europe. This work is based on studies of the species detected from the last century to the present, but with greater emphasis on the beginning of the 21st century, during which new biological studies have been carried out and findings made in European countries. The main objective of this paper is to focus on this last fact, which has promoted new views on the existing and potential threat of exotic bruchids in relation to climate change. This must now be regarded as a matter of concern for European agricultural and environmental policies. Only species of exotic origin introduced in European regions outside their native range were considered. Therefore, species of European origin spreading to new countries within Europe are not treated. Also, we provide a new approach to classifying alien seed beetle species according to their ability to become established, distinguishing between the well-established and those that may appear in seed stores but are not capable of invading natural and agricultural ecosystems. We present a taxonomic characterization of the alien bruchids found in Europe, providing an illustrated key based on external morphological characters of adults. The key facilitates the identification of the sixteen most frequently recorded genera, which represent 37 of the 42 species of exotic species recorded in Europe up to the present, whether established, not established or occasional. Finally, we provide a summary of the state of knowledge of the taxonomy and biology of the 20 most worrying species as pests, both established and non-established. This includes, where appropriate, an illustrated key for the identification of species. The study
Acoustic Detection of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) and Oryctes elegans (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in Phoenix dactylifera (Arecales: Arecacae) Trees and Offshoots in Saudi Arabian Orchards.
Mankin, R W; Al-Ayedh, H Y; Aldryhim, Y; Rohde, B
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) larvae are cryptic, internal tissue-feeding pests of palm trees that are difficult to detect; consequently, infestations may remain hidden until they are widespread in an orchard. Infested trees and propagable offshoots that develop from axillary buds on the trunk frequently are transported inadvertently to previously uninfested areas. Acoustic methods can be used for scouting and early detection of R. ferrugineus, but until now have not been tested on multiple trees and offshoots in commercial date palm orchard environments. For this report, the acoustic detectability of R. ferrugineus was assessed in Saudi Arabian date palm orchards in the presence of commonly occurring wind, bird noise, machinery noise, and nontarget insects. Signal analyses were developed to detect R. ferrugineus and another insect pest, Oryctes elegans Prell (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), frequently co-occurring in the orchards, and discriminate both from background noise. In addition, it was possible to distinguish R. ferrugineus from O. elegans in offshoots by differences in the temporal patterns of their sound impulses. As has been observed often with other insect pests, populations of the two species appeared clumped rather than uniform or random. The results are discussed in relation to development of automated methods that could assist orchard managers in quickly identifying infested trees and offshoots so that R. ferrugineus infestations can be targeted and the likelihood of transferring infested offshoots to uninfested areas can be reduced.
Hassan, Muhammad Waqar; Gulraize; Ali, Usman; Ur Rehman, Fazal; Najeeb, Hafsa; Sohail, Maryam; Irsa, Bakhtawar; Muzaffar, Zubaria; Chaudhry, Muhammad Shafiq
Three standard foodstuff plastic packaging namely polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinylchloride (PVC) were evaluated for management of lesser grain borer Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Resistance parameters in packaging were recorded as punctures, holes, penetrations, sealing defects, and invasions with two thicknesses and tested for two lengths of time. Damages like punctures, holes and penetrations by both insects were more in PE packaging however R. dominica made more penetrations in PP than in PE. For both insects sealing defects and invasions were predominant in PVC than in others. Thickness did not affect significantly damage types but significantly more holes and penetrations by R. dominica were in less thickness. Punctures and holes by R. dominica were more after less time period but other damages in packaging were more after more time period. However for T. castaneum all sorts of damages were seen more after more time period. Overall categorization between two insects showed R. dominica made more penetrations and T. castaneum made more invasions compared with their counterparts. Pictures were taken under camera fitted microscope to magnify punctures and holes in different packaging and thicknesses. Insect mortality due to phosphine was more in PP and PE packaging and least in PVC packaging and thickness effect was marginal. T. castaneum mortality was significantly more after 48 h than after 24 h. Damages extent in packaging and fumigation results showed PP to be the best of three packaging materials to manage these insects. PMID:27638958
Although some species of Cryptocephalinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been documented with ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) for almost 200 years, information on this association is fragmentary. This contribution synthesizes scattered literature to determine the patterns in ant host use. Some degr...
A new species from the Philippines closely related to the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, 1888 (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is described: Agrilus rubensteini Chamorro & Jendek, new species. This is the first species in the A. cyaneoniger species-group recorded for the Philippines. Agr...
Abstract In nearly every forest habitat, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae, Platypodinae) plant and maintain symbiotic fungus gardens inside dead or dying trees. Some non-native ambrosia beetles aggressively attack live trees and damage tree crops, lumber, and native woody pla...
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most devastating insect pest of coffee throughout the world. The insect is endemic to Africa but can now be found throughout nearly all coffee producing countries. One area of the basic biology of the insec...
Sugars and several plant essential oils were evaluated as feeding stimulants for larvae of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Compounds were evaluated by quantifying biting rates of wireworms on treated filter paper disks, modifying a method used previously in assays w...
The color preferences for landing surfaces were examined for Spathius agrili Yang (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), a parasitic wasp introduced for biocontrol of emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Lures with the 3-component pheromone blend of male S. agrili were use...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring pest that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the etiologic agent of laurel wilt. To date, all confirmed U.S. hosts of X. glabratus and suscepts of laurel wilt are members of the family Laurac...
Discovery of the non-native Anoplophora glabripennis Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 led to the implementation of an eradication program. The plan consisted of removing all infested trees and all trees within 400 m of an infested tree belonging to a genus consider...
The redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is an exotic wood-boring insect that vectors Raffaelea lauricola, the fungal pathogen responsible for laurel wilt, a lethal disease of trees in the Lauraceae. First detected in the U.S. near Savannah, ...
Redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus Eichhoff (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), a native of Asia, was first discovered in the U.S. near Savannah, Georgia in 2002. RAB is an effective vector of Raffaelea lauricola T.C. Harr., Fraedrich & Aghayeva that causes laurel wilt (LW), a l...
Wood-boring ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), including Xylosandrus spp., are key pests in ornamental nurseries. Knowledge of their activity in spring is important for nursery growers to effectively time their protective sprays. We evaluated the reliability of ethanol-baite...
A cadherin-like gene and its mRNA were cloned from western corn rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera: Coleoptera), an economically important agricultural pest in North America and Europe. The full length cDNA (5371 bp in length) encodes an open reading frame for a 1688 amino ...
The jewel beetle Agrilus fleischeri Obenberger (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) is a newly emerging major pest of poplar trees (Populus spp.) in northeast China and is responsible for the poplar mortality throughout its distribution range. In order to determine how to manage this pest effectively, we stud...
The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius (F.) (Coleoptera: Brentidae), is one of the most important pests of sweet potatoes in the world. With free trade between the United States and the U. S.-controlled Marianas Islands, C. formicarius has spread along with this commodity. Because of the cryptic ...
Microcenoscelis n. gen. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae: Ulomini) caeca n. sp. is described from Zimbabwe, a small and completely blind species. A second known species, however with completely developed eyes, and originally described as Uloma minuscula Ardoin, 1969, was also placed in the new genus. Microcenoscelis n. gen. seems to be mostly related to the genera Cenoscelis Wollaston, 1867, and Cneocnemis Gebien, 1914.
Host plant odors are important for insect location of food and mates. Synergy between host plant odors and aggregation pheromones occurs in many Curculionidae species. The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major pest of pome and stone fruit. Males produce t...
Insect growth regulators are promising alternatives to traditional pesticides in stored grain. The efficacy of the juvenile hormone analogue methoprene was evaluated as a layer treatment in a laboratory experiment for control of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) in wheat, rice and...
Field trapping assays were conducted in 2009 and 2010 throughout western Michigan, USA, to evaluate lures for adult emerald ash borer, A. planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). Several ash tree volatiles were tested on purple prism traps in 2009, and a dark green prism trap in 2010. In 200...
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae), the red palm weevil, is an economically important palm tree pest in subtropical regions of the world. Previous studies have shown that R. ferrugineus can be infected and killed by the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana. Howev...
This study describes a new genus and species of microsporidia which is a pathogen of the elm leaf beetle, Xanthogaleruca luteola Muller, 1776 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). The beetles were collected from Istanbul in Turkey. All developmental stages are uninucleate and in direct contact with the host ...
The Coleoptera, or beetles, are represented in the world by about 220,000 described species, of which about 24,000 occur in the United States and Canada. A comprehensive taxonomic catalog of beetles for this area has not been available except the series of world-based 'Coleopterorum Catalogus' volumes (1909-present, Junk, Berlin).
Adult and larval Oryctes rhinoceros (L) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae) were acoustically detected in live and dead palm trees and logs in recently invaded areas of Guam, along with Nasutitermes (Isoptera: Termitidae), and other small, sound-producing invertebrates and invertebrates. The sou...
From 2012 to 2015, 429,668 Lilioceris cheni Gressit and Kimoto (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) were released in Florida for biological control of air potato [Dioscorea bulbilfera L. (Dioscoreaceae)]. The spatial distribution of releases was highly aggregated, with several areas of high density releases ...
The host race of Ceutorhynchus assimilis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) that specifically develops on Lepidium draba (Brassicales: Brassicaceae), an invasive weed in North America, is being considered for use as a biocontrol agent. Because there are other races that attack other plants, it is important...
Joharchi, Omid; Halliday, Bruce; Beyzavi, Gholamreza
We describe a new species of mite from Iran - Pronacrolaelaps propomacrus sp. nov. (Acari: Laelapidae). The new species was collected in association with the beetle Propomacrus bimucronatus (Pallas) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Euchirinae) in holes in the trunk of oak trees. The genus Promacrolaelaps is redescribed and distinguished from the related genus Hypoaspis Canestrini sells. strict.
Metallic wood boring insects (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) species are responsible for high levels of host plant injury to deciduous shade and flowering trees in commercial nurseries, urban forests, and managed landscapes. Ornamental plant producers in the southeastern U.S. have ranked borers, includin...
The movement observed in the Tenebrio molitor L., 1758 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae can be a type of defense strategy. This makes it significant to study the development and reproduction of the predatory stinkbugs Asopinae with the immobilized pupae of this prey. The aim was to evaluate the per...
Larvae of scarab beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) are important contaminant and root-herbivore pests of ornamental crops. In order to develop alternatives to conventional insecticides, 24 plant essential oils were tested for their acute toxicity against third instar larvae of the Japanese beetle P...
López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán
A new Tomarus Erichson, 1847 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Dynastinae: Pentodontini) species is described from western Colombia. The new species is compared with Tomarus laevicollis (Bates, 1888) from Central America. An identification key is also provided to the species occurring in the country.
Several flea beetle species from the genus Aphthona (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) have been introduced into North America as biological control agents for the rangeland weed, leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.). Three brownish colored species and two black species were released at many locations beginn...
A 6-year field study evaluated 52 sunflower, Helianthus annuus L., accessions, 20 breeding lines, and 9 interspecific crosses for resistance to infestation by naturally occurring populations of the red sunflower seed weevil, Smicronyx fulvus LeConte (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Germplasm with potent...
An aberrant specimen of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) also known as Red Palm Weevil, the most economically important insect pest of palms in the world, was found among a batch of conspecifics reared for research purposes. A morphological analysis of this weevil revealed the ...
The book entitled Leaf and Seed Beetles of South Carolina (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae and Orsodacnidae), by J. C. Ciegler. (246 pages, 324 black and white illustrations, 8.5 “ x 11"; ISBN 0-9753471-8-7. Forty dollars, paperback. Biota of South Carolina. Volume 5. Clemson University, Clemson, S. ...
Bukejs, Andris; Nadein, Konstantin
In the current paper the first fossil representatives of leaf-beetles from the subfamily Lamprosomatinae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are described and illustrated from Upper Eocene Baltic amber: Succinoomorphus warchalowskii gen. et sp. nov., Archelamprosomius balticus gen. et sp. nov., and Archelamprosomius kirejtshuki sp. nov. A key to fossil Lamprosomatinae is provided.
Prado e Castro, Catarina; García, María Dolores; Martins da Silva, Pedro; Faria e Silva, Israel; Serrano, Artur
Some Coleoptera are recognised as being forensically important as post-mortem interval (PMI) indicators, especially in the later stages of cadaver decomposition. Because insect species and their timings of appearance in cadavers vary according to geographic location, it is important to know their succession patterns, as well as seasonality at a regional level. In this study, we aimed to contribute to broaden this knowledge by surveying beetle communities from the Lisbon area during the four seasons of the year, using piglet carcasses as animal models. Five stages were recognised during the decomposition process and they could be separated taking into account the occurrence and abundance of the specific groups of Coleoptera collected. Decay stages in general recorded higher abundance and richness of beetle species. A total of 82 species were identified, belonging to 28 families, in a total of 1968 adult Coleoptera collected. Autumn yielded the highest values of species abundance and richness, while the lowest values were recorded during winter. Staphylinidae was the most abundant family in all seasons, although in spring and summer Dermestidae was also quite dominant. In general, most species were related to the decay stages, particularly Margarinotus brunneus (Histeridae) and Creophilus maxillosus (Staphylinidae), and also Saprinus detersus (Histeridae) and Thanatophilus sinuatus (Silphidae), while only few were related to the dry stage, namely Oligota pusillima (Staphylinidae) and Dermestidae spp. larvae. On the other hand, Anotylus complanatus and Atheta pertyi (Staphylinidae) were apparently more associated with the fresh and bloated stages, respectively. The presence of some species was markedly seasonal, allowing a season characterisation based on the occurrence of certain taxa, which can be useful for forensic purposes.
Audisio, Paolo; Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone; de Jong, Yde
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde.
Alonso Zarazaga, Miguel-Angel; Slipinski, Adam; Nilsson, Anders; Jelínek, Josef; Taglianti, Augusto Vigna; Turco, Federica; Otero, Carlos; Canepari, Claudio; Kral, David; Liberti, Gianfranco; Sama, Gianfranco; Nardi, Gianluca; Löbl, Ivan; Horak, Jan; Kolibac, Jiri; Háva, Jirí; Sapiejewski, Maciej; Jäch, Manfred; Bologna, Marco Alberto; Biondi, Maurizio; Nikitsky, Nikolai B.; Mazzoldi, Paolo; Zahradnik, Petr; Wegrzynowicz, Piotr; Constantin, Robert; Gerstmeier, Roland; Zhantiev, Rustem; Fattorini, Simone; Tomaszewska, Wioletta; Rücker, Wolfgang H.; Vazquez-Albalate, Xavier; Cassola, Fabio; Angelini, Fernando; Johnson, Colin; Schawaller, Wolfgang; Regalin, Renato; Baviera, Cosimo; Rocchi, Saverio; Cianferoni, Fabio; Beenen, Ron; Schmitt, Michael; Sassi, David; Kippenberg, Horst; Zampetti, Marcello Franco; Trizzino, Marco; Chiari, Stefano; Carpaneto, Giuseppe Maria; Sabatelli, Simone
Abstract Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Coleoptera represent a huge assemblage of holometabolous insects, including as a whole more than 200 recognized families and some 400,000 described species worldwide. Basic information is summarized on their biology, ecology, economic relevance, and estimated number of undescribed species worldwide. Little less than 30,000 species are listed from Europe. The Coleoptera 2 section of the Fauna Europaea database (Archostemata, Myxophaga, Adephaga and Polyphaga excl. the series Elateriformia, Scarabaeiformia, Staphyliniformia and the superfamily Curculionoidea) encompasses 80 families (according to the previously accepted family-level systematic framework) and approximately 13,000 species. Tabulations included a complete list of the families dealt with, the number of species in each, the names of all involved specialists, and, when possible, an estimate of the gaps in terms of total number of species at an European level. A list of some recent useful references is appended. Most families included in the Coleoptera 2 Section have been updated in the most recent release of the Fauna Europaea index, or are ready to be updated as soon as the FaEu data management environment completes its migration from Zoological Museum Amsterdam to Berlin Museum für Naturkunde
Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin
The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.
Filippini, Valentina; Onore, Giovanni; Guidolin, Laura
The third instars are described and illustrated for five Anomalini (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Rutelinae) species from Ecuador: Anomala balzapambae Ohaus, 1897, A. popayana Ohaus, 1897, A. valida Burmeister, 1844, Callistethus buchwaldianus (Ohaus, 1908), and C. levii (Blanchard, 1851). The pupae of three Ecuadorian species are also described and illustrated: A. discoidalis Bates, 1888, A. popayana, and C. levii. Diagnostic characters of the species are provided. A key to the known larvae of Anomalini from the New World is provided, which now includes five genera and 31 species.
Gustafson, Grey T; Miller, Kelly B
All available genus- and family- group nomina for the Gyrinidae (Coleoptera: Adephaga) are listed along with original citation, original and current status, type nominal taxon with method of designation, and known synonymies and incorrect subsequent spellings. The nomina included follow the most current classification. Discussion is provided clarifying numerous nomenclatural problems with original spellings, correct authorship and type designation. Dineutini Ochs, 1926 syn. nov. is found to be a junior homonym of Dineutini Desmarest, 1851, and Enhydrini Régimbart, 1882 syn. nov. and its justified emendation Enhydrusini (Anonymous 2012) are here synonymized with Dineutini Desmarest, 1851.
Poinar, George; Poinar, Roberta
Hastisetae are extremely elaborate and intricate insect setae that occur solely on dermestid larvae (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The present work characterizes hastisetae found in mid-Cretaceous amber from Myanmar and compares them to hastisetae found on extant dermestid larvae. The presence of hastisetae in Myanmar amber shows that lineages of dermestid beetles had already developed hastisetae by the mid-Cretaceous and their presence allows us to follow the evolutionary development of this particular arthropod structure over the past 100 million years. Hastisetae attached to a parasitic wasp in the same piece of amber indicates that ancient dermestid beetles used their hastisetae for defense, similar to their function today.
Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.
This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.
Vuts, József; Imrei, Zoltán; Töth, Miklós
In electroantennographic tests isosafrol, methyl salicylate, (+/-)-lavandulol, geraniol, (E)-anethol, and beta-ionone evoked the largest responses from antennae of female or male Oxythyrea funesta (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Cetoniinae) adult beetles. In field trapping tests in Hungary the 1:1 blend of (+/-)-lavandulol and 2-phenylethanol attracted significantly more adult O. funesta than the single compounds. The addition of (E)-anethol, a previously described attractant for the species, was without effect. There was no difference in the responses of male or female beetles. The binary 2-phenylethanol/(+/-)-lavandulol bait described, in this study is recommended for the use in traps of O. funesta for agricultural purposes.
Penchenier, L; Mouchet, J; Cros, B; Legall, P; Cosnefroy, J Y; Quézédé, P; Chandenier, J
In May 1993, at the end of the rainy season, outbreaks of Paederus sabaeus (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) were recorded in Brazzaville (Congo), Kinshasa (Zaire), Franceville and Libreville (Gabon) and even in Bangui (CAR) at the North of the equator. A short review of previous outbreaks in Africa and on vesicant substances is given by the authors. These beetles are attracted to neon lights and they rest on the walls or on the skin of the occupants. When the insects are crushed on the bare skin their haemolymph liberate pederine and related vesicant components which provocate dermatitis. The insects disappeared spontaneously after three to four weeks.
Platia, Giuseppe; Ghahari, Hassan
The fauna of Iranian Elateridae (Coleoptera: Elateroidea) is summarized in this paper. In total 245 species from 58 genera and 7 subfamilies Agrypninae Candèze (13 genera, 36 species), Cardiophorinae Candèze (4 genera, 55 species), Cebrioninae Latreille (2 genera, 6 species), Dendrometrinae Gistel (13 genera, 28 species), Elaterinae Leach (23 genera, 104 species), Lissominae Laporte (1 genus, 1 species) and Negastriinae Nakane & Kishii (2 genera, 15 species) are listed in literature as the fauna of Iran. Totally 74 species are endemic to Iran.
The genus Pachycyphon is erected for marsh beetles (Coleoptera: Scirtidae) from tropical rainforests in Queensland, Australia. The following species are included: P. corpulentus sp. n., P. crassus sp. n., P. elegans sp. n., P. funicularis sp. n., P. gravis sp. n., P. monteithi sp. n., P. obesus sp. n., P. pinguis sp. n., P. serratus sp. n., P. turgidus sp. n. (the type species). Females are wingless and have fossorial ovipositors, a terrestrial larval life is therefore hypothesized. Pachycyphon is compared with other genera, especially probable relatives from temperate rainforests in southeastern Australia.
Ground beetles such as Poecilus chalcites (Coleoptera:Carabidae) are beneficial insects in agricultural systems where they contribute to the control of insect and weed pests. We determined the number and identity of bacterial populations occurring in the digestive tracts of field-collected P. chalc...
Mayoral, Jaime G; Barranco, Pablo
Alhamitrombium tetraseta n. g., n. sp. (Acari: Eutrombidiidae: Eutrombidiinae) is described from two larvae ectoparasitic on Trymosternus bolivari Mateu (Coleoptera: Carabidae) from Almería, Spain. The new genus is distinguished from Hexathrombium Cooreman, 1944 and Beronium Southcott, 1986 on the basis of details of the coxalae. A key to the genera of larval Hexathrombiini is presented.
Carbaryl-bran bait is effective against grasshoppers without many impacts on non-target organisms, but ground beetles (Coleoptera: Carabidae) may be susceptible to these baits. Carabids are beneficial in agricultural settings as predators of insect pests and weed seeds. Carabid species composition a...
Gómez Lutz, María Constanza; Kehr, Arturo I; Fernández, Liliana A
Rice fields occupy large areas in Northeastern Argentina, and in Corrientes this widespead activity has become a feature in the landscape, as it is one of the main producing provinces. The aquatic Coleoptera is part of the fauna inhabiting these artificial environments but little is known about this group in irrigated rice fields. The aims of this study were to determine the diversity and species richness of coleopterans in a typical rice field, and to characterize the community of water beetles through different abundance models. For this, samples were collected from an active rice field located in "El Sombrero" town, in Corrientes Province, between November 2011 and April 2012. An entomological net of 30 cm diameter was used, and species richness, diversity and equitability were calculated monthly; besides, the community composition was characterized by means of rank-abundance models. A total of 74 species of aquatic coleopterans were identified. January and February resulted the months with the highest diversity. The aquatic Coleoptera species found in most of the sampled months were adjusted to the logarithmic rank-abundance model. The data suggests that, if it is properly managed, rice cropping in Northeastern Argentina can support a diverse aquatic coleopteran fauna.
Yu, Qian-Qian; Liu, Zhen-Kai; Chen, Chong; Wen, Junbao
Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis (Olivier) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and E. brandti (Harold) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) are the two most important pests of tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle and its variety Ailanthus altissima var. Qiantouchun in China. They are also considered potential biological control agents for tree-of-heaven in North America. In this study, the external morphologies and antennal sensilla of both species were examined using scanning electron microscopy to better understand their host-finding mechanisms. Eleven morphological sensilla types were recorded, that is, Böhm bristles, six types of sensilla chaetica (Sch. 1-6), two types of sensilla basiconica (Sb. 1-2), and two types of sensilla trichodea (St. 1-2). Sch. 5 were absent from the antennae of E. chinensis, while Sch. 2 were absent from the antennae of E. brandti. Abundant cuticular pores were present on the antennae of both species. Three types of sensilla on the antennae of E. chinensis that were not found in a previous study, and ten different types of sensilla on the antennae of E. brandti were identified for the first time. The possible functions of the sensilla types are discussed based on a comparison with previous studies. Four types of sensilla (Sb. 1, Sb. 2, St. 2, and Sch. 6) on the antennae of both species indicate chemoreception may play a significant role in host location.
Wang, Yan; Shi, Meng; Hou, Xiaojuan; Meng, Shanshan; Zhang, Fuchun; Ma, Ji
Microdera punctipennis Kaszab (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) is an endemic species in Guerbantonggut desert in China. To explore the ways that M. punctipennis egg adapts to dry desert environment, morphological characteristics of the egg was investigated along with the egg of the nondesert beetle Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Water loss rate and survival rate of these eggs under different dry treatments (relative humidity0, 10, and 20%) were measured to evaluate the desiccation resistance of the eggs at different developmental stages (day 0, 2, and 5 eggs). Our results showed that the 50-egg weight in T. molitor was heavier than M. punctipennis, while the 50-first-instar larva weight in T. molitor was almost the same as in M. punctipennis. The water loss rate of M. punctipennis egg under dry conditions was significantly lower than T. molitor, and the egg survival rate was significantly higher than T. molitor. The estimated developmental threshold temperature of M. punctipennis egg was 18.30°C, and the critical thermal maximum of M. punctipennis egg is above 39°C. These features partly account for the adaptability of M. punctipennis to desert environment in egg stage.
Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo
Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy.
Sun, Jiyu; Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin
The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems.
Wu, Wei; Ling, Mingze; Tong, Jin
Summary The diving beetles (Dytiscidae, Coleoptera) are families of water beetles. When they see light, they fly to the light source directly from the water. Their hind wings are thin and fragile under the protection of their elytra (forewings). When the beetle is at rest the hind wings are folded over the abdomen of the beetle and when in flight they unfold to provide the necessary aerodynamic forces. In this paper, the unfolding process of the hind wing of Cybister japonicus Sharp (order: Coleoptera) was investigated. The motion characteristics of the blood in the veins of the structure system show that the veins have microfluidic control over the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process. A model is established, and the hind wing extending process is simulated. The blood flow and pressure changes are discussed. The driving mechanism for hydraulic control of the folding and unfolding actions of beetle hind wings is put forward. This can assist the design of new deployable micro air vehicles and bioinspired deployable systems. PMID:27547607
Miller, D R; Allison, J D; Crowe, C M; Dickinson, D M; Eglitis, A; Hofstetter, R W; Munson, A S; Poland, T M; Reid, L S; Steed, B E; Sweeney, J D
Detection tools are needed for Monochamus species (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) because they are known to introduce pine wilt disease by vectoring nematodes in Asia, Europe, and North America. In 2012-2014, we examined the effects of the semiochemicals monochamol and ipsenol on the flight responses of the sawyer beetles Monochamus carolinensis (Olivier), Monochamus clamator (LeConte), Monochamus mutator LeConte, Monochamus notatus (Drury), Monochamus obtusus Casey, Monochamus scutellatus (Say), and Monochamus titillator (F.) complex (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) to traps baited with α-pinene. Experiments were set in pine forests in New Brunswick and Ontario (Canada), and Arizona, Georgia, Michigan, Montana, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, and Washington (United States). In brief, 40 traps were placed in 10 blocks of 4 traps per block per location. Traps were baited with: 1) α-pinene; 2) α-pinene + monochamol; 3) α-pinene + ipsenol; and 4) α-pinene + monochamol + ipsenol. Monochamol increased catches of six species and one species complex of Monochamus with an additive effect of ipsenol for five species and one species complex. There was no evidence of synergy between monochamol and ipsenol on beetle catches. Monochamol had no effect on catches of other Cerambycidae or on any associated species of bark beetles, weevils, or bark beetle predators. We present a robust data set suggesting that the combination of α-pinene, ipsenol, and monochamol may be a useful lure for detecting Monochamus species.
Vitturi, R; Colomba, M S; Barbieri, R; Zunino, M
Mitotic metaphase chromosomes of the scarab beetle Thorectes intermedius (Costa) (Coleoptera Scarabaeoidea: Geotrupidae) were analyzed using various banding methods and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) with a ribosomal probe. The results obtained indicate that silver and CMA3 staining are unable to localize the chromosome sites of nucleolar organizer regions (NORs). Such an inadequacy is a consequence of the extensive silver and CMA3 stainability of both constitutive heterochromatin and heterochromatin associated to the NORs.
Lin, Renchao; Jia, Fenglong; Fikáček, Martin
Abstract A new species of the genus Elocomosta Hansen, 1989 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae: Sphaeridiinae: Coelostomatini), Elocomosta lilizheni sp. n., is described from Guangxi Province, China. It is compared in detail with the only other known species of the genus, Elocomosta nigra Hansen, 1989 from Borneo, and the genus is diagnosed from the remaining coelostomatine genera. The new species is unusual among Hydrophilidae by having extremely reduced eyes. PMID:27551232
Loni, Augusto; Jucker, Costanza; Belokobylskij, Sergey; Lupi, Daniela
Abstract The species Rhoptrocentrus piceus Marshall (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) was reared from the larvae of the xylophagous beetle Psacothea hilaris hilaris (Pascoe) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), an exotic pest of Ficus and Morus species native to eastern Asia. It was recorded in the north of Italy in September 2005. This discovery is the first report of this species as parasitoids of the yellow spotted longicorn beetle all over the world. PMID:25709526
Simões, Marianna V P; Monné, Marcela L
Immatures of Mesomphalia gibbosa (Fabricius, 1781) and Mesomphalia turrita (Illiger, 1801) (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Cassidinae, Mesomphaliini) are described based on specimen collections from Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The last-instar larva and pupal exuviae of M. gibbosa (Fabricius, 1781) and the eggs, first-instar larva, and pupa of M. turrita (Illiger, 1801) are described, photographed and illustrated, with emphasis on chaetotaxy. Additional notes on their biology are presented.
Ferreira, Vinicius S
While searching for Calochromini (Coleoptera: Lycidae) specimens in entomological collections and identifying other Lycidae, a new species of Falsocaenia Pic, 1922 was found in the collection of Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA). This genus is one of the smallest in the tribe Calopterini with 13 known species, two of which were recently described by Bocákova et al. (2012) in their revision of the genus, and can be found in Central and South America.
McElrath, Thomas C.; Boyd, Olivia F.; McHugh, Joseph V.
Abstract A matrix-based LucidTM key is presented for the twelve genera of Monotomidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) represented in the New World. A general overview is given for the features and technical specifications of an original interactive key for the identification of these genera. The list of terminal taxa included with the key provides a current summary of monotomid generic diversity for the Nearctic and Neotropical regions. PMID:27917049
Insecticidal efficacy of silica gel with Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) essential oil against Sitophilus oryzae (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).
Athanassiou, Christos G; Kavallieratos, Nickolas C; Evergetis, Epameinondas; Katsoula, Anna-Maria; Haroutounian, Serkos A
Laboratory bioassays were carried out to evaluate the effect of silica gel enhanced with the essential oil (EO) of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. oxycedrus (Pinales: Cupressaceae) (derived from berry specimens from Greece) against adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). For that purpose, a dry mixture consisting of 500 mg of silica gel that had absorbed 2.18 mg of EO (total weight: 502.18 mg) was tested at three doses; 0.125, 0.250, and 0.5 g/kg of wheat, corresponding to 125, 250, and 500 ppm, respectively, and silica gel alone at 0.5 g/kg of wheat corresponding to 500 ppm, at different exposure intervals (24 and 48 h and 7 and 14 d for S. oryzae; 24 and 48 h and 7, 14, and 21 d for T. confusum). The chemical content of the specific EO was determined by gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analyses indicating the presence of 31 constituents with myrcene and germacrene-D being the predominant compounds. The bioactivity results for S. oryzae indicated that 48 h of exposure in wheat resulted in an 82% mortality for treatment with 500 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. For 7 d of exposure, 100 and 98% of S. oryzae adults died when they were treated with 500 and 250 ppm of enhanced silica gel, respectively. At 14 d of exposure, all adults died both at 250 and 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. At 48 h, 7 and 14 d of exposure significantly less S. oryzae adults died in wheat treated with silica gel alone than at 250 or 500 ppm of enhanced silica gel. In the case of T. confusum, at 7 d of exposure, mortality in wheat treated with silica gel only was significantly higher in comparison to the other treatments. At the 14 d of exposure mortality in wheat treated with 500 ppm of silica gel alone was significantly higher than 125 and 250 ppm of the enhanced silica gel. Similar trends were also noted at 21 d of exposure, indicating that there is no enhancement effect from the addition of
López-García, Margarita M; Gasca-Álvarez, Héctor J; Amat-García, Germán
Pentodontini is the most diverse tribe of Dynastinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and most of the genera are restricted to a single biogeographic region. In this work, the taxonomic composition of the Pentodontini in Colombia was determined, and genera and species were diagnosed based on external morphology and male genitalia. Records of 1,580 specimens from 31 departments and 398 localities in Colombia were obtained from 24 species in the genera Bothynus Hope, Denhezia Dechambre, Euetheola Bates, Hylobothynus Ohaus, Oxyligyrus Arrow, Parapucaya Prell, Pucaya Ohaus, and Tomarus Erichson. Oxyligyrus cayennensis Endrödi, Tomarus cicatricosus (Prell), and T. pullus (Prell) are reported for the first time from Colombia. Pucaya punctata Endrödi is reduced to synonymy with Pucaya pulchra Arrow. Possible changes in the classification of Denhezia Dechambre are discussed. Dichotomous keys are provided for Colombian genera and species. Taxonomic descriptions and distribution maps are included for all species.
Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang
The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8–10 beetles per minute. PMID:25934924
Wang, Yan; Ma, Ji; Mao, Xinfang
The darkling beetle, Sternoplax souvorowiana (Reitter) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is flightless and lives in the Guerbantonggut desert in northwestern China. Its special eggshell structure, day-active habit, large body size, short life cycle, and ease of rearing under laboratory conditions make it an excellent model for advanced studies on desert adaptation. Determining the sex of this beetle is usually complicated by the lack of a discreet, externally visible gender-specific character. To date, dissection has been used for sex identification in this species, whereas a nondestructive means is needed for further studies of sexual dimorphism. Here, a new method based on the difference of the pigmentation pattern on the eighth tergite of each sex is described and illustrated. This method can be quickly learned, is nondestructive, is 100% accurate, and is fast enough for most applications in both the field and the laboratory. Experienced users in our laboratory routinely sex 8-10 beetles per minute.
Frolov, Andrey; Akhmetova, Lilia
The Afrotropical Region is the center of the diversity of the scarab beetle genus Orphnus MacLeay, 1819 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Orphninae), with 94 species occurring from Sahel in the north to Little Karoo in the south (Paulian, 1948; Petrovitz, 1971; Frolov, 2008). The East African Rift is one of the richest regions of the Afrotropics housing more than 20 species of Orphnus (Paulian, 1948; Frolov, 2013), most of which are endemic to this region. Yet the scarab beetle fauna of the East African Rift, and especially the Eastern Arc Mountains, is still inadequately studied. Examination of the material housed in the Museum of Natural History of Humboldt-Universität, Berlin, Germany (ZMHUB), revealed a series of brachypterous Orphnus beetles belonging to an undescribed species. The new species is described and illustrated below.
Mietelski, Jerzy W; Szwałko, Przemysław; Tomankiewicz, Ewa; Gaca, Paweł; Grabowska, Sylwia
Adults of the geotrupine beetle Anoplotrupes stercorosus (Coleoptera, Geotrupidae), a common European forest insect species, were used in the role of bio-monitors for mainly man-made radionuclides in a forest environment. Activities of 137Cs, 40K, 238Pu, (239+240)Pu, 90Sr and 241Am were studied. Samples originated from four areas in Poland, two from the north-east and two from the south of the country. The north-eastern areas were previously recognized as the places where hot particle fallout from Chernobyl took place. Results confirmed the differences in the activities between north-eastern and southern locations. Significant correlations were found between activities of 40K and 137Cs, and between activities of plutonium and americium isotopes. An additional study of the concentration of radionuclides within the bodies of beetles showed a general pattern of distribution of radioisotopes in the insect body.
Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi
Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.
Inoda, Toshio; Tajima, Fumitada; Taniguchi, Hiroshi; Saeki, Motoyuki; Numakura, Kazuki; Hasegawa, Masami; Kamimura, Shinji
The effects of temperature on the mating behavior, gonad development, germ cell maturation, and egg spawning of the predaceous diving beetle Dytiscus sharpi (Coleoptera; Dytiscidae), were investigated. By field observations, we found that mating behavior started in October and occurred more frequently from November to December. Under our laboratory breeding conditions, we observed almost the same seasonal variation in mating behavior. We found that temperatures lower than 20 degrees C were required to trigger mating behavior. We also found the same temperature threshold triggered gonadogenesis as well as spermatogenesis. Furthermore, for females, exposure to lower temperatures (<8 degrees C) during the winter was required for egg maturation and spawning in spring; that is, there was a second threshold for successful female reproduction. We conclude that the termination of summer reproductive diapause of D. sharpi is regulated in a temperature-dependent manner, thus effecting the adaptation of D. sharpi to southern warm habitats.
Jacobs, Carmen T; Scholtz, Clarke H; Strümpher, Werner P
Three new species of the Cape high-mountain stag beetle genus, Colophon Gray (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), from South Africa are described. They are C. deschodti new species, C. switalae new species, and C. struempheri new species. The new taxa fall within a species complex of geographically disjunct entities related to Colophon stokoei Barnard. Furthermore, the mitochondrial COI gene shows a high degree of sequence divergence, with pairwise genetic distances between the species ranging between 7.4-10.7%. The new species are illustrated by photographs. Colophon eastmani nagaii Mizukami is raised to species level on the basis of geographic range and molecular differences between it and the nominate subspecies. This brings the total number of described species in the genus to 21. An updated checklist of the South African species of Colophon is also provided.
Wu, Yuan-Yuan; Cao, Yu-Yan; Fang, Jie; Wan, Xia
The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Prosopocoilus gracilis (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that is endemic to Southern China is determined. The circular genome is 736 bp in length and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA, 2 rRNA genes and a control region. Gene order is identical to that of the putative ancestral arrangement of insects. The nucleotide composition of heavy strand is A (36.6%), C (22.6%), T (29.5%) and G (11.3%). All protein-coding genes start with a typical ATN codon except for the gene COI that uses AAC as the start codon. tRNA-Ser (AGN) uses the anticodon UCU instead of the commonly used GCU. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses support the monophyly of Lucanidae and the sister relationship of Nigidionus and the remaining sampled genera. Two species of Prosopocoilus were not recovered as a monophyletic group.
Tanahashi, Masahiko; Kubota, Kôhei; Matsushita, Norihisa; Togashi, Katsumi
Most wood-feeding insects need an association with microbes to utilize wood as food, and some have special organs to store and convey the microbes. We report here the discovery of the microbe-storage organ (mycangium) in stag beetles (Coleoptera: Lucanidae), which develop in decayed wood. The mycangium, which was discovered in the abdomen, is present in all adult females of 22 lucanid species examined in this study, but absent in adult males. By contrast, adult insects of both sexes of selected Passalidae, Geotrupidae, and Scarabaeidae, which are related to Lucanidae, lacked mycangia similar to those of the lucanid species. Yeast-like microbes were isolated from the mycangium of five lucanid species. DNA sequence analyses indicate that the microbes are closely related to the xylose-fermenting yeasts Pichia stipitis, Pichia segobiensis, or Pichia sp. known from the gut of a passalid species.
Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J
A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties.
Janovy, J; Detwiler, J; Schwank, S; Bolek, M G; Knipes, A K; Langford, G J
The following new gregarine taxa are described from larvae of flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): Awrygregarina billmani, n. gen., n. sp., from Tribolium brevicornis; Gregarina cloptoni, n. sp., from Tribolium freemani; Gregarina confusa, n. sp., from Tribolilum confusum; and Gregarina palori, n. sp., from Palorus subdepressus. In addition, the description of Gregarina minuta Ishii, 1914, from Tribolium castaneum, is emended. Scanning electron micrograph studies of these species' oocysts reveal differences in surface architecture. The Gregarina species have oocysts with longitudinal ridges, visible with SEM, whereas Awrygregarina billmani oocysts have fine circumferential striations; surface architecture is the main feature distinguishing the 2 gregarine genera. Although parasites from adult beetles are not included in the descriptions, adults of all host species can be infected experimentally using oocysts from the new taxa.
Li, Fengbo; Zhang, Huixian; Wang, Wei; Weng, Hongbiao; Meng, Zhiqi
We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which is a major forest pest in Asia. The genome is 15,874 bp in length containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and one non-coding A+T-rich region. Its gene content and order are typical of other coleopteran mitochondrial genomes described to date. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons. Eight PCGs use complete stop codons TAG or TAA, whereas other PCGs end with a single T. All tRNA genes show typical secondary cloverleaf structures except for tRNA(Ser(AGN)), which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The large non-coding A+T-rich region of 1249 bp contains a 14 bp-long poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (AT)(TA)7 and (TA)8 elements.
Jiao, Hengwu; Ding, Minghui; Zhao, Huabin
The firefly Aquatica leii (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) is widely distributed in China. In this study, we sequenced and characterized the first complete mitochondrial genome of the firefly from the subfamily Luciolinae. The circular genome of 16,856 bp in length contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and a non-coding AT-rich region. Overall base composition of the genome is 42.28% A, 34.80% T, 13.91% C and 9.01% G, with an AT bias of 77.08%. All protein-coding genes start with an ATN codon, and terminate with the typical stop codon TAA, TAG or a single T. The non-coding AT-rich region is unusually long (2239 bp), containing six 113 bp tandem repeats and a microsatellite-like (TA)7 element. The genome sequence is useful for studying the evolution of sexual signaling and many ecological specializations in fireflies.
Batelka, Jan; Hájek, Jiří
Taxonomy of the genus Denierella Kaszab, 1952 (Coleoptera: Meloidae: Epicautini) is evaluated. The following new synonyms and combinations (all from the genus Epicauta Dejean, 1834) are established: Denierella thailandica (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. = D. striolata Yang & Ren, 2007 syn. nov.; Denierella emmerichi (Pic, 1934) comb. nov. = D. serrata Kaszab, 1952 syn. nov.; Denierella promerotricha (Dvořák, 1996) comb. nov. A lectotype is designated for Epicauta emmerichi. Epicauta emmerichi yunnanensis Kaszab, 1960 is provisionally raised to E. yunnanensis stat. nov., until its status can be confirmed by the study of the holotype specimen. Five new country records, one new Chinese province record and two new Indian state records of six Denierella species are provided, and the distribution of all species included in this study is outlined. A checklist of the genus Denierella is provided and general problems in the taxonomy of Asiatic Epicautini are discussed.
Santos, W E; Alves, A C F; Creão-Duarte, A J
The species richness, abundance and seasonality of Coleoptera fauna associated with pig carcasses exposed in a Caatinga area were examined. Tray, pitfall and modified Shannon traps were settled together to collect these insects during two seasons (dry and rainy). 4,851 beetles were collected, belonging to 19 families and 88 species. Staphylinidae (2,184) and Histeridae (1,264) were the most abundant families and accounted for 71.1% of the specimens collected. Scarabaeidae (15) showed the highest species richness. The most abundant species were Atheta iheringi Bernhauer, 1908 (Staphylinidae) (1,685), Euspilotus sp. (Histeridae) (461), Stelidota geminata (Say, 1825) (Nitidulidae) (394), Xerosaprinus diptychus (Marseul, 1855) (Histeridae) (331) and Dermestes maculatus De Geer, 1774 (Dermestidae). Amongst these species, X. diptychus showed to be strongly influenced by seasonality, since 96.1% of the specimens were collected during the dry season.
Audisio, Paolo; Cline, Andrew R; Lasoń, Andrzej; Jelínek, Josef; Sabatelli, Simone; Serri, Sayeh
During recent expeditions in North and Southwest Iran, 10 species of Kateretidae and Nitidulidae (Coleoptera) were found. One species of Kateretidae, Brachyleptus bicoloratus Reitter, 1896, and three nitidulid species, Afrogethes schilskyi (Reitter, 1897), Stachygethes khnzoriani (Kirejtshuk, 1979), and S. nigerrimus (Rosenhauer, 1856) are recorded for the first time for the Iranian fauna (the latter is also a new record for Asia). Thymogethes ahriman (Jelínek, 1981) is herein resurrected to species rank, and two species, Thymogethes kassites sp. nov. and T. khorasanicus sp. nov., are described as new. An updated key to the known Near East and Afghan species of the genus Thymogethes Audisio & Cline, 2009 is also provided. Available and recently collected biological and distributional data, as well as short taxonomic comments, are given for the discussed species.
Harris, Marvin K; Hunt, Kenneth L; Cognato, Anthony I
Larvae found infesting fruit from a Carpathian walnut, Juglans regia L., tree in Missouri were confirmed by DNA analysis to be those of pecan weevil, Curculio caryae (Horn) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The infested walnut tree occurs in the midst of pecan weevil-infested pecans, Carya illinoinensis (Wang.) K. Koch; the larval haplotypes were found to be identical to pecan weevil larvae from the region, indicating that the walnut infestation arose by association with infested pecan. This is the first confirmed DNA analysis showing pecan weevil attacks J. regia and the second report that J. regia may be at risk of infestation by pecan weevil. Further study indicates this infestation on walnut is established and ongoing. The pecan weevil is a key pest of pecan and seems capable of inflicting similar damage to walnut if spread to commercial areas that produce J. regia.
Chang, Hong; Liu, Qun; Hao, Dejun; Liu, Yong; An, Yulin; Qian, Lu; Yang, Xiaojun
Members of the large and complex genus Xyleborus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae: Xyleborini) are the most commonly intercepted beetles associated with solid wood-packing materials at ports of entry in China. The accurate identification of species is critical in preventing the invasion of exotic insects. Considering the difficulties in morphological identification, genetic divergences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) genes have been used in insect species identification. In this study, 32 Xyleborus and 2 outgroup species were collected from Jiangsu ports and selected to evaluate the effectiveness of DNA barcoding for Xyleborus species. The results showed that the mean interspecific divergence values (23.6%) were 15-fold higher than the observed intraspecific divergence (1.6%), except Xyleborus affinis. The results supported the inference that the barcode variation within species of insects is somewhat higher than interspecific ones. Thus, this study validated the effectiveness of barcoding for the identification of Xyleborus species.
Cao, Yan-Kun; Huang, Min
There are direct relationships between the behavioral mechanisms and sensilla. To obtain a better understanding of the behavioral mechanisms in Omosita colon (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), we investigated the types, quantities, and distribution of sensilla on the antenna and mouthparts of O. colon by scanning electron microscopy. The clavate antenna comprised the scape, pedicel, and nine segment flagellomeres and had six types of sensilla, including two subtypes of sensilla chaetica (SC), three subtypes of sensilla basiconica (SB) and sensilla trichodea (ST), and one type of sensilla cavity, sensilla styloconica, and Böhm bristles (BB). The chewing mouthparts of O. colon consist of the labrum, mandible, maxillae, labium, and hypopharynx and had seven types sensilla, including two subtypes of SC and sensilla placodea, seven subtypes of SB, and one type of BB, ST, sensilla coeloconica, and sensilla campaniformia. In this research, we also deduced the relationships between the sensilla on the antenna and mouthparts and their functions.
Vega, Fernando E; Kramer, Matthew; Jaramillo, Juliana
Three experiments were conducted to determine the influence of number of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), females (one, two, or five) reared in artificial diet on fecundity and subsequent development of larvae, pupae, and adults. Our results demonstrated that increasing female density from one to two or five individuals did not result in the expected two- or five-fold increase in progeny, despite ample food resources available. Instead, decreased fecundity was observed with increasing density for all experiments. The mechanism reducing fecundity was not identified, but possibly, volatiles are being produced (e.g., host-marking pheromones). The decrease in fecundity may explain why infestations of only one colonizing female per berry are the norm in the field.
Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Szymańczyk, Mateusz; Obrępalska-Stęplowska, Aleksandra
Colorado potato beetle (CPB, Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is one of the most serious insect pest feeding on wild and cultivated Solanaceae plants. This pest poses a significant threat to potato crops. CPB originated from North America but has become widespread and has adapted in new localizations. Currently, it is reported in many countries worldwide. Endosymbiotic bacteria might have an influence on insect adaptation to new conditions. They are known to play a role in invasiveness of insect hosts and to facilitate colonization of new niches; however, information on endosymbionts of the CPB is very limited. In this study, we screened CPB populations collected from 20 evenly distributed locations in Poland for the presence of Arsenophonus, Cardinium, Wolbachia, and Flavobacterium. We found the presence of Flavobacterium in the studied insects. Little is known about CPB–endosymbionts interactions, thus this study may provide a reference for future studies in this subject. PMID:26206894
Timmermans, Martijn J T N; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P
Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML ("nonhomogeneous") algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees.
Timmermans, Martijn J. T. N.; Barton, Christopher; Haran, Julien; Ahrens, Dirk; Culverwell, C. Lorna; Ollikainen, Alison; Dodsworth, Steven; Foster, Peter G.; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P.
Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4 suborders, 15 superfamilies of Polyphaga, and altogether 97 families, including 159 newly sequenced full or partial mitogenomes. Compositional heterogeneity greatly affected 3rd codon positions, and to a lesser extent the 1st and 2nd positions, even after RY coding. Heterogeneity also affected the encoded protein sequence, in particular in the nad2, nad4, nad5, and nad6 genes. Credible tree topologies were obtained with the nhPhyML (“nonhomogeneous”) algorithm implementing a model for branch-specific equilibrium frequencies. Likelihood searches using RAxML were improved by data partitioning by gene and codon position. Finally, the PhyloBayes software, which allows different substitution processes for amino acid replacement at various sites, produced a tree that best matched known higher level taxa and defined basal relationships in Coleoptera. After rooting with Neuropterida outgroups, suborder relationships were resolved as (Polyphaga (Myxophaga (Archostemata + Adephaga))). The infraorder relationships in Polyphaga were (Scirtiformia (Elateriformia ((Staphyliniformia + Scarabaeiformia) (Bostrichiformia (Cucujiformia))))). Polyphagan superfamilies were recovered as monophyla except Staphylinoidea (paraphyletic for Scarabaeiformia) and Cucujoidea, which can no longer be considered a valid taxon. The study shows that, although compositional heterogeneity is not universal, it cannot be eliminated for some mitochondrial genes, but dense taxon sampling and the use of appropriate Bayesian analyses can still produce robust phylogenetic trees. PMID:26645679
Dodds, Kevin J
Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of habitat selection and trap placement on catches of Scolytidae and Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) in northeastern U.S. forests. In a nonreplicated case study, four habitat types--closed canopy hardwood stand, closed canopy conifer stand, a low-intensity thinned Pinus strobus L. stand, and a high-intensity thinned P. strobus stand--were surveyed using alpha-pinene, ethanol, ipsenol, ipsdienol, and lanierone. Average trap catches, species richness, and the number of unique species captured were all highest in at least one of the thinned habitats. A second experiment that was replicated evaluated the placement of traps in relation to habitat patches. Semiochemical-baited traps (alpha-pinene and ethanol) were placed under a closed canopy forest, along an edge, and in a clearing and tested for effects on Scolytidae and Cerambycidae trap catches. Abundance and species richness were generally higher in the closed canopy and edge placements compared with traps in the open area. The highest number of unique species were captured in the edge and clearing.
Sweetpotato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lamarck, one of the top ten staple crops produced worldwide, has increased in production in Hawaii in recent years. The sweetpotato weevil, Cylas formicarius elegantulus (Summers)(Coleoptera: Brentidae), is a major economic and quarantine pest of sweetpotato in Hawa...
A biological control program against tropical soda apple (TSA) (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae)) released 176,643 Gratiana boliviana Spaeth (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Florida from 2003 to 2008. The spatial distribution of releases was clustered with more beetles released in south/central Flor...
A new egg parasitoid of the emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) from the Russian Far East, Oobius primorskyensis Yao et Duan is described. Both morphological characters and analysis of DNA sequence divergence suggest that this species is different from the previ...
Oobius agrili Zhang and Huang is a solitary egg parasitoid of the invasive emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) and has been introduced to the United States for biological control. We characterized the weekly survivorship, fecundity, and diapause patterns of bo...
Khaustov, Alexander A; Sazhnev, Alexey S
In this paper we describe a new monotypic genus Protoallopygmephorus gen. nov. and two new species of the genus Allopygmephorus Cross, 1965, A. spinisetus sp. nov. and A. punctatus sp. nov. Specimens were collected phoretic on beetles of the family Heteroceridae (Coleoptera) in Russia and Kazakhstan. Scutacarus sphaeroideus Karafiat, 1959 (Acari: Scutacaridae) is recorded on Heteroceridae for the first time.
Bioassays were conducted to evaluate the effects of combining thiamethoxam at 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 mg/kg with the diatomaceous earth (DE) formulation, SilicoSec, at the rate of 100 mg/kg against four diverse populations of the lesser grain borer, Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrychidae) th...
The Yunnan pine shoot beetle, Tomicus yunnanensis Kirkendall and Faccoli (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) is an important pest of Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis Franch) in China. Experiments with host log baits were done to develop a pest monitoring system using host tree kairomone. Five Yunnan pine logs (e...
1. Diet and rearing protocols were developed for two members of the cryptic Euwallacea fornicatus species complex, polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB) and tea shot hole borer (TSHB) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), using sawdust from boxelder Acer negundo and avocado Persea americana. 2. Bio...
The plum curculio Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a key pest of stone and pome fruit. Though grandisoic acid was identified as a male-produced aggregation pheromone for this species, other components likely exist, as have been identified various curculionids. To determ...
Emerald ash borer (EAB) Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is an invasive beetle species from Asia that has caused extensive mortality of ash trees (Fraxinus spp.) since arriving in the U.S. in 2002. Especially hard hit are green ash (F. pennsylvanica), black ash (F. nigra), a...
Rough sweetpotato weevil, Blosyrus asellus(Olivier)(Coleoptera: Curculionidae), was first detected in the state of Hawaii at a commercial Okinawan sweetpotato farm in Waipio, Oahu, on 14 November 2008. Reported here is, the first detection of this pest in sweetpotato fields on the island of Hawaii (...
Effects of exposure to agricultural drainage ditch water on survivorship, distribution, and abundnance of riffle beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) in headwater streams of the Cedar Creek watershed, Indiana
Riffle Beetles (Coleoptera: Elmidae) require very good water quality, mature streams with riffle habitat, and high dissolved oxygen content. As such, they prove to be good indicators of ecological health in agricultural headwater streams. We conducted static renewal aquatic bioassays using water fro...
The redbay ambrosia beetle (RAB), Xyleborus glabratus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) vectors the fungal pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, which causes laurel wilt (LW), a lethal disease of trees in the family Lauraceae, including the most commercially important crop in this family, avocado, Pe...
Immunofluorescence localization and ultrastructure of Stewart’s wilt disease bacterium Pantoea stewartii in maize leaves and in its flea beetle vector Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)
Pantoea stewartii is the causal agent of Stewart's wilt of sweet corn, the most serious bacterial disease of sweet corn and maize in the North-Central and Eastern USA. P. stewartii is transmitted mainly by the corn flea beetle Chaetocnema pulicaria (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and this bacterium is a...
Native to China, the Chinese tallow, Triadica sebifera (Euphorbiaceae) is an aggressive woody invader in the southeastern United States. The flea beetle, Bikasha collaris (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a common herbivore attacking this plant in China. To evaluate its potential as a biological contr...
Bukejs, Andris; Alekseev, Vitalii I
Microscapha andrzeji sp. nov., the first fossil representative of the genus is described from Eocene Baltic amber. An updated list of fossil Melandryidae (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidea) is provided. The presence of Microscapha within Baltic amber suggests some potential for palaeoenvironmental inferences based on the melandryid assemblage within the deposit.
Mahaney, William C.; Hart, Kris M.; O'Reilly, Shane S.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Dohm, James M.; Hancock, Ronald G. V.; Kelleher, Brian P.; Milner, Michael W.
Bulk paleosol samples collected from a Middle to Early Miocene moraine in the New Mountain area of the Dry Valleys, Antarctica, yielded Coleoptera exoskeletons and occasional endoskeletons showing considerable diagenetic effects along with several species of bacteria, all lodged in a dry-frozen but salt-rich horizon at shallow depth to the land surface. The till is at the older end of a chronologic sequence of glacial deposits, thought to have been deposited before the transition from wet-based to cold-based ice (∼15 Ma), and hence, entirely weathered in contact with the subaerial atmosphere. It is possible, though not absolutely verifiable, that the skeletons date from this early stage of emplacement having undergone modifications whenever light snowmelt occurred or salt concentrations lowered the freezing temperature to maintain water as liquid. Correlation of the Coleoptera species with cultured bacteria in the sample and the likelihood of co-habitation with Beauveria bassiani found in two adjacent, although younger paleosols, leads to new questions about the antiquity of the Coleoptera and the source of N and glucose from chitinase derived from the insects. The skeletons in the 831 section may date close to the oldest preserved chitin (Oligocene) yet found on Earth. While harsh Martian conditions make it seemingly intolerable for complex, multicellular organisms such as insects to exist in the near-surface and subaerially, life within similar cold, dry paleosol microenvironments (Cryosols) of Antarctica point to life potential for the Red Planet, especially when considering the relatively diverse microbe (bacteria and fungi) population.
Putshkov, Alexander V; Martynov, Alexander V
A catalogue of type specimens of species and subspecies of caraboid beetles, tiger-beetles here treated as family Cicindelidae, and ground-beetles (Carabidae) of suborder Adephaga deposited in the I.I. Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology NAS of Ukraine is provided. For all type-specimens original photos of each specimen (with label) and label data are given in the original spelling (translated to English if the original label was in Cyrillic alphabet). In some cases data concerning the current status of taxons are discussed. Nominal taxa names are alphabethically listed within each family. Altogether, 372 type specimens of 133 taxa names (species and subspecies) are included in the catalogue: 15 holotypes, 344 paratypes (120 species and subspecies) and 13 specimens (9 taxa) with other type status.
Morffe, Jans; García, Nayla
Abstract Hystrignathus dearmasi sp. n. (Oxyurida: Hystrignathidae) is described from an unidentified passalid beetle (Coleoptera: Passalidae) from Panama. It resembles Hystrignathus cobbi Travassos & Kloss, 1957 from Brazil, by having a similar form of the cephalic end, extension of cervical spines and absence of lateral alae. It differs from the latter species by having the body shorter, the oesophagus and tail comparatively larger, the vulva situated more posterior and the eggs ridged. This species constitutes the first record of a nematode parasitizing a Panamanian passalid. PMID:21594186
Andujar, Carmelo; Arribas, Paula; Linard, Benjamin; Kundrata, Robin; Bocak, Ladislav; Vogler, Alfried P
The complete mitochondrial genome of the recently discovered beetle family Iberobaeniidae is described and compared with known coleopteran mitogenomes. The mitochondrial sequence was obtained by shotgun metagenomic sequencing using the Illumina Miseq technology and resulted in an average coverage of 130 × and a minimum coverage of 35×. The mitochondrial genome of Iberobaeniidae includes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs genes, and 1 putative control region, and showed a unique rearrangement of protein-coding genes. This is the first rearrangement affecting the relative position of protein-coding and ribosomal genes reported for the order Coleoptera.
Androcioli, H G; Hoshino, A T; Pastório, M A; Cardoso, P C; de Araújo, P M; Fernandes, T A P; Menezes, A O
We present the first report on Euphoria lurida (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) infestation on safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a crop of industrial and medicinal importance. Between September and October 2013-2015 in Paraná State, we observed E. lurida adults feeding on safflower plants from the inception of flower head formation onwards, over an area of approximately 400 m(2). Losses in the productivity of infested plants were estimated between 15 and 50%. The damage was characterized by perforations in the upper portion and at the base of the developing flower heads or open flowers, resulting in withering and abortion of the reproductive structures.
Tashakor, Samaneh; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Saboori, Alireza
Two new species of Silphitrombium Fain, 1992 (Acari: Prostigmata: Neothrombiidae), ectoparasites of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera), are described from Sistan and Baluchestan Province, eastern Iran: S. elateridum sp. nov. on Heteroderes heideni Reitter, 1891 (Col.: Elateridae) and S. iranicum sp. nov. on Opatroides punctulatus Brullé, 1832 (Col.: Tenebrionidae) and the genus Silphitrombium is redefined. It is the first record of the relationship between beetles of the families Elateridae and Tenebrionidae, and mites of the genus Silphitrombium. A key to the species of the genus is presented.
Loghmani, Amir; Hajiqanbar, Hamidreza; Talebi, Ali Asghar
Pavania setiformis Loghmani & Hajiqanbar sp. nov. (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Dolichocybidae) associated with Onthophagus (Palaeonthophagus) vitulus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is described from northeastern Iran. This remarkable new species represents a new setiformis species group characterized by seta-like sc(1), instead of capitate trichobothria. The genus Pavania is thus divided into three species groups: the fusiformis group (15 species), the gymnopleuri group (3 species) and the setiformis group (1 species). We also found P. sabzevarensis Hajiqanbar & Khaustov, 2010 and P. onthophagi Hajiqanbar & Khaustov, 2010 phoretic on Gymnopleurus mopsus (Pallas) and Onthophagus (Euonthophagus) amyntas alces (Fabricius), respectively.
Abstract A new species of the forensically interesting genus Oxelytrum Gistel (Coleoptera, Silphidae), Oxelytrum selknan, is described from Santa Cruz and Tierra del Fuego provinces, Argentina. The new species resembles Oxelytrum biguttatum (Philippi) in outer aspect, but has different male genitalia, in particular a median lobe longer than the paramera. All the described species of Oxelytrum have the median lobe shorter than the paramera. The internal sac, as far as it could be reconstructed from dry-pinned specimens, also shows differences between the two species. A key to the species of Oxelytrum is given and illustrated. PMID:22773910
Miller, Kelly B; Montano, Elizabeth T
The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American.
Miller, Kelly B.; Montano, Elizabeth T.
Abstract The genus Fontidessus Miller & Spangler, 2008 (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Bidessini) is reviewed. The genus now includes seven species with three previously described, and four new species described here: F. microphthalmus Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. bettae Miller & Montano, sp. n.; F. christineae Miller & Montano, sp. n., and F. aquarupe Miller & Montano, sp. n. Each species is diagnosed and described, including the previously known species, based on new specimens and new information. Habitus, male genitalia and other diagnostic features are illustrated for each species. A key to the seven species is provided. Fontidessus species are unique to hygropetric habitats in the Guiana Shield craton of northern South American. PMID:25147458
Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian
Abstract We report 20 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna in New Brunswick, Canada, five of which are new records for the Maritime provinces, including one species that is new for Canada. One species of Kateretidae, Kateretes pusillus (Thunberg) is newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Stelidota octomaculata (Say), Phenolia grossa (Fabricius), andCryptarcha strigatula Parsons of the family Nitidulidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick; the latter species is new to the Maritime provinces. Two species of Cerylonidae, Philothermus glabriculus LeConte and Cerylon unicolor (Ziegler), are reported for the first time for New Brunswick. Philothermus glabriculus is new for the Maritime provinces. Two species of Endomychidae, Hadromychus chandleri Bousquet and Leschen and Danae testacea (Ziegler) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Three species of Coccinelidae, Stethorus punctum punctum (LeConte), Naemia seriata seriata Melsheimer, and Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) are added to the provincial list. Macronaemia episcopalis (Kirby) is a species new to the Maritime provinces. Nine species of Latridiidae, Cartodere nodifer (Westwood), Dienerella ruficollis (Marsham), Enicmus aterrimus Motschulsky, Enicmus fictus Fall, Encimus histrio Jay and Tomlin, Lathridius minutus (Linnaeus), Stephostethus productus Rosenhauer, Corticaria elongata (Gyllenhal), and Corticarina longipennis (LeConte) are newly recorded for New Brunswick. Stephostehus productus is newly recorded from Canada. Collection and habitat data are presented for all these species. PMID:22539894
Downey, Danielle; Chun, Stacey; Follett, Peter
Small hive beetle, Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae), is considered a serious threat to beekeeping in the Western Hemisphere, Australia, and Europe mainly due to larval feeding on honey, pollen, and brood of the European honeybee, Apis mellifera L. Control methods are limited for this pest. Studies were conducted to provide information on the radiobiology of small hive beetle and determine the potential for sterile insect releases as a control strategy. Adult males and females were equally sensitive to a radiation dose of 80 Gy and died within 5-7 d after treatment. In reciprocal crossing studies, irradiation of females only lowered reproduction to a greater extent than irradiation of males only. For matings between unirradiated males and irradiated females, mean reproduction was reduced by >99% at 45 and 60 Gy compared with controls, and no larvae were produced at 75 Gy. Irradiation of prereproductive adults of both sexes at 45 Gy under low oxygen (1-4%) caused a high level of sterility (>99%) while maintaining moderate survivorship for several weeks, and should suffice for sterile insect releases. Sterile insect technique holds potential for suppressing small hive beetle populations in newly invaded areas and limiting its spread.
Peng, Lu; Miao, Yunxin; Hou, Youming
Understanding how temperature affects fitness is important for conservation and pest management, especially in the era of global climate change. Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Oliver) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a worldwide pest of many economically important crops. Although much is known about this pest’s life cycle, its adaptability to different temperatures is not fully understood. Here, we used age- and stage-specific life tables to investigate the effects of temperature on fitness-related traits and demographic parameters of R. ferrugineus under eight constant temperature regimens in the laboratory. The growth potential of these populations was also evaluated. The greatest longevity for males and females was 158.0 d at 24 °C and 144.5 d at 21 °C, respectively, but mean total fecundity was the highest at 27 °C. The intrinsic rate of increase (r), finite rate of increase (λ), and net reproductive rate (R0) increased initially at low temperatures and then decreased. All metrics reached a maximum at 27 °C and a minimum at 36 °C. Mean generation times (T ) decreased across the temperature range with a minimum at 36 °C. Our results indicate that the optimum temperature for growth of R. ferrugineus was approximately 27 °C. Our work will be of value for developing strategies for control management of this pest species. PMID:27545594
Limbu, Samita; Cassidy, Katie; Keena, Melody; Tobin, Patrick; Hoover, Kelli
Scymnus (Neopullus) camptodromus Yu and Liu (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was brought to the United States from China as a potential biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). Scymnus camptodromus phenology is closely synchronized with that of A. tsugae and has several characteristics of a promising biological control agent. As a prerequisite to field release, S. camptodromus was evaluated for potential nontarget impacts. In host range studies, the predator was given the choice of sympatric adelgid and nonadelgid prey items. Nontarget testing showed that S. camptodromus will feed to some degree on other adelgid species, but highly prefers A. tsugae. We also evaluated larval development of S. camptodromus on pine bark adelgid (Pineus strobi (Hartig)) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) and larch adelgid (Adelges laricis Vallot) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae); a small proportion of predator larvae was able to develop to adulthood on P. strobi or A. laricis alone. Scymnus camptodromus showed no interest in feeding on woolly alder aphid (Paraprociphilus tessellatus Fitch) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) or woolly apple aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and minimal interest in cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in choice and no-choice experiments. Scymnus camptodromus females did not oviposit on any host material other than A. tsugae-infested hemlock. Under the circumstances of the study, S. camptodromus appears to be a specific predator of A. tsugae, with minimal risk to nontarget species. Although the predator can develop on P. strobi, the likelihood that S. camptodromus would oviposit on pine hosts of this adelgid is small.
Robbins, Paul S; Alm, Steven R; Armstrong, Charlesd; Averill, Anne L; Baker, Thomas C; Bauernfiend, Robert J; Baxendale, Frederick P; Braman, S Kris; Brandenburg, Rick L; Cash, Daniel B; Couch, Gary J; Cowles, Richard S; Crocker, Robert L; DeLamar, Zandra D; Dittl, Timothy G; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M; Flanders, Kathy L; Forgatsch, Tom; Gibb, Timothy J; Gill, Bruce D; Gilrein, Daniel O; Gorsuch, Clyde S; Hammond, Abner M; Hastings, Patricia D; Held, David W; Heller, Paul R; Hiskes, Rose T; Holliman, James L; Hudson, William G; Klein, Michael G; Krischik, Vera L; Lee, David J; Linn, Charles E; Luce, Nancy J; MacKenzie, Kenna E; Mannion, Catherine M; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Potter, Daniel A; Roelofs, Wendell L; Royals, Brian M; Salsbury, Glenn A; Schiff, Nathan M; Shetlar, David J; Skinner, Margaret; Sparks, Beverly L; Sutschek, Jessica A; Sutschek, Timothy P; Swier, Stanley R; Sylvia, Martha M; Vickers, Neil J; Vittum, Patricia J; Weidman, Richard; Weber, Donald C; Williamson, R Chris; Villani, Michael G
The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester.
Mulungu, Loth S; Mpinga, Makala; Mwatawala, Maulid W
Studies were conducted at the horticulture unit of Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania, to assess the incidence and effect of mango weevil, Cryptorhynchus mangiferae (F.) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), infestation on mango, Mangifera indica L., seed viability. Three polyembryo mango cultivars ('Sindano nyeusi', 'Sindano nyeupe', and 'Dodo') as well as three monoembryo mango cultivars ('Ex-horticulture', 'Tango', and 'Bongwa') were collected and examined for the presence of C. mangiferae. The effect of seed damage on viability was assessed for both naturally and artificially damaged seeds. However, for artificially damaged seeds, the viability was assessed by cutting away 0, 25, 50, or 75% of the cotyledon before planting. In this experiment, only monoembryo mango cultivars were used. All the examined cultivars were infested by C. mangiferae, although at varying levels. Polyembryo mango cultivars were relatively more infested than monoembryo cultivars. Bongwa and Tango were least infested, whereas Sindano nyeusi recorded the highest C. mangiferae incidence. Germination rates of damaged seeds of polyembryonic cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control, except for Sindano nyeusi. There were no significant differences in germination percentage among the three monoembryo cultivars, and all the cultivars differed significantly from the uninfested control. The germination rates of seeds with 25% of their cotyledons removed did not differ significantly from the undamaged seeds, indicating that monoembryo cultivar seeds can withstand up to 25% damage and germinate successfully.
Ehsine, M'hammed; Belkadhi, Mohamed Sadok; Chaieb, Mohammed
The rhinoceros borer Oryctes agamemnon Burmeister (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a date palm insect pest that causes damage to trunk and roots of palm trees in several countries, including Tunisia, the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Oman, and Saudi Arabia. The aim of this study was to monitor the seasonal and nocturnal activities of this beetle. Experiments were performed on a date palm of Rjim Maatoug during a 6-yr period (2004-2007, 2009-2010). Field survey using light traps shows that O. agamemnon is a univoltine, with a single population peak. Adults appear in the field around late May-early June and the population continued to build until maximum numbers are reached between the end of July and the beginning of August in the same year. No adults were found after first 10 d of November. This peak was characterized by female dominance in number. The monitoring of nocturnal activity showed that it starts its activities roughly 40 min after the sundown and continues until approximately 1 h before sunrise. The highest number of trapped beetles was remarked in the two first hours of flight activity, with a dominance of female in the first hour and a dominance of male in the second hour. We remarked that the sex ratio (female:male) of the cumulated number of trapped adults in the different years and nights of survey was in favor of females.
Barden, S Addison; Held, David W; Graham, L C Fudd
Insecticides are widely used to manage turfgrass pest such as white grubs (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae). Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta (Buren) are important predators and pests in managed turfgrass. We tested the susceptibility of white grub life stages (adults, egg, and larvae) to predation by S. invicta and determined if insecticides applied for control of S. invicta would result in locally greater white grub populations. Field trials over 2 yr evaluated bifenthrin, fipronil, and hydramethylnon applied to large and small scale turfgrass plots for impacts on fire ant foraging and white grub populations. Coincident with these trials, adults, larvae, and eggs of common scarab species were evaluated for susceptibility to predation by S. invicta under field conditions. Field trials with insecticides failed to show a significant increase in white grub populations resulting from treatment of turfgrass for fire ants. This, in part, may be because of a lack of predation of S. invicta on adult and larval scarabs. Egg predation was greatest at 70% but < 20% of adults and larvae were attacked in a 24 h test. Contrary to other studies, results presented here suggest that fire ants and fire ant control products applied to turfgrass have a minimal impact on white grub populations.
Gossner, Martin M.; Simons, Nadja K.; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H. O.; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W.
Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience.
Storer, Caroline G; Breinholt, Jesse W; Hulcr, Jiri
Euwallacea Hopkins and Wallacellus Hulcr & Cognato are ambrosia beetle genera within the tribe Xyleborini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae). Several species have recently received attention due to their establishment in non-native regions with serious ecological and economic consequences. To clarify generic placement of these species, we tested reciprocal monophyly of the two genera and the placement of several species using molecular phylogenetics. We sequenced, or re-used published sequences of, three markers (COI mtDNA, 28S nuclear rDNA and ArgK single-copy nuclear) from representatives of Euwallacea, Wallacellus, the Ambrosiodmus clade, and the clade containing Xyleborus s. str., and inferred their relationships with a Bayesian approach. We also tested explicit alternative topologies, and examined taxonomic utility of characters used for the delimitation of the genera. All species of Euwallacea, Wallacellus, and two species of Xyleborus were monophyletic with high phylogenetic support. Based on the analysis and shared morphological characters, we transferred the following species to Euwallacea: Xyleborus declivispinatus (Schedl), Wallacellus piceus (Motschulsky), Xyleborus posticus (Eichhoff), Wallacellus similis (Ferrari), and Wallacellus striatulus (Browne). The genus Wallacellus was made a junior synonym of Euwallacea and morphological diagnosis of Euwallacea was updated. The results demonstrated that Euwallacea has a pantropical distribution.
Leys, Remko; Watts, Chris H S; Cooper, Steve J B; Humphreys, William F
Calcrete aquifers in arid inland Australia have recently been found to contain the world's most diverse assemblage of subterranean diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). In this study we test whether the adaptive shift hypothesis (ASH) or the climatic relict hypothesis (CRH) is the most likely mode of evolution for the Australian subterranean diving beetles by using a phylogeny based on two sequenced fragments of mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 16S-tRNA-ND1) and linearized using a relaxed molecular clock method. Most individual calcrete aquifers contain an assemblage of diving beetle species of distantly related lineages and/or a single pair of sister species that significantly differ in size and morphology. Evolutionary transitions from surface to subterranean life took place in a relatively small time frame between nine and four million years ago. Most of the variation in divergence times of the sympatric sister species is explained by the variation in latitude of the localities, which correlates with the onset of aridity from the north to the south and with an aridity maximum in the Early Pliocene (five mya). We conclude that individual calcrete aquifers were colonized by several distantly related diving beetle lineages. Several lines of evidence from molecular clock analyses support the CRH, indicating that all evolutionary transitions took place during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene as a result of aridification.
Åbjörnsson, Kajsa; Wagner, Bálint M A; Axelsson, Anna; Bjerselius, Rickard; Olsén, K Håkan
In this study we tested the hypothesis that the presence of chemical stimuli from a hungry predator would initiate anti-predator responses, while stimuli from a satiated predator would not. We used chemical stimuli released from starved perch (Perca fluviatilis) and from satiated perch (predator). As prey we used adult Acilius sulcatus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae). The reaction of the beetles to different predator conditions was tested during daytime. We also tested the reaction to starved perch during the night. A. sulcatus activity decreased when it was exposed to stimuli released from starved perch during daytime when visibility was poor, due to the presence of artificial vegetation. There was, however, no reaction to satiated perch under the same experimental conditions. These results indicate that A. sulcatus can discriminate between chemical cues from hungry and satiated fish predators. When visibility was good and the concentration of chemical cues was constant, the beetles did not react to starved perch in the daytime, but their activity decreased at night in response to stimuli released from starved perch. Visual as well as chemical cues seem to be important for detecting a potential predator. When visibility is good, beetles seem to rely on visual stimuli, while in darkness they seem to use chemical stimuli to detect the presence of predators.
Sbita, Sarah J; Morgan, Randy C; Buschbeck, Elke K
Nearly nothing is known about the transition that visual brain regions undergo during metamorphosis, except for Drosophila in which larval eyes and the underlying neural structure are strongly reduced. We have studied the larvae of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), which are sophisticated visually oriented predators characterized by six elaborate stemmata on each side of the head and an associated large optic lobe. We used general neurohistological staining and 3D reconstruction to determine how the eyes and optic lobe of T. marmoratus change morphologically during metamorphosis. We find that in third (last) instar larvae, the adult neuropils are already forming de novo dorsally and slightly anteriorly to the larval neuropils, while the latter rapidly degenerate. Larval eyes are eventually reduced to distinct areas with dark pigmentation. This complete reorganization, which may be an evolutionarily conserved trait in holometabolous insects, occurs despite the considerable costs that must apply to such a visually complex animal. Our findings are consistent with the concept that stemmata are homologous to the most posterior ommatidia of hemimetabolous insects, an idea also recently supported by molecular data.
Larvae of diving beetles such as the various Dytiscus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) are carnivorous and usually prey on other aquatic animals. Cannibalism among larvae of Dytiscus sharpi sharpi (Wehncke) was observed to begin when they were starved for more than two days under artificial breeding conditions. However, the 2-day starved larvae did not show cannibalism in the presence of intact, motionless, frozen tadpoles, or frozen shrimps. The beetle larvae attacked and captured intact tadpoles faster (15 sec) than other motionless and frozen tadpoles (120 sec), indicating that prey movement was an important factor in stimulating feeding behavior in larvae. Prey density does not have an effect on larval cannibalism. In cases in which preys are present at lower densities than that of larvae, a group of beetle larvae frequently fed on single prey. This feeding behavior, therefore, provides direct evidence of self-other recognition at the species level. Using two traps in one aquarium that allows the larvae to detect only prey smell, one containing tadpoles and another empty, the beetle larvae were attracted to the trap with tadpoles at high frequency, but not to the empty trap. In another experiment, the beetle larvae were not attracted to the trap containing a beetle larva. These results suggest that the larvae of D. sharpi sharpi are capable of recognizing prey scent, which enables the promotion of foraging behavior and the prevention of cannibalism.
Bocek, Matej; Bocak, Ladislav
Abstract Species delimitation was compared in a group of closely related lineages of aposematically colored Eniclases (Coleoptera, Lycidae) using morphology, genetic distances, and Bayesian implementation of the Poisson Tree Processes model. A high diversity of net-winged beetles was found in previously unsampled regions of New Guinea and ten new species are described: Eniclases bicolor sp. n., Eniclases bokondinensis sp. n., Eniclases brancuccii sp. n., Eniclases elelimensis sp. n., Eniclases infuscatus sp. n., Eniclases niger sp. n., Eniclases pseudoapertus sp. n., Eniclases pseudoluteolus sp. n., Eniclases tikapurensis sp. n., and Eniclases variabilis sp. n. Different levels of genetic and morphological diversification were identified in various sister-species pairs. As a result, both morphological and molecular analyses are used to delimit species. Sister-species with uncorrected pairwise genetic divergence as low as 0.45% were morphologically distinct not only in color pattern, but also in the relative size of eyes. Conversely, differences in color pattern regardless of their magnitude did not necessarily indicate genetic distance and intraspecific mimicry polymorphism was common. Additionally, genetic divergence without morphological differentiation was detected in one sister-species pair. Low dispersal propensity, diverse mimicry patterns, and mimetic polymorphism resulted in complex diversification of Eniclases and uncertain species delimitation in recently diversified lineages. PMID:27408550
Muilenburg, Vanessa L; Herms, Daniel A
Bronze birch borer (Agrilus anxius Gory) (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a specialist wood-borer endemic to North America, is prone to periodic outbreaks that have caused widespread mortality of birch (Betula spp.) in boreal and north temperate forests. It is also the key pest of birch in ornamental landscapes. Amenity plantings have extended the distribution of birch in North America, for which we report an updated map. Life history and phenology also are summarized. Larvae feed primarily on phloem tissue of stems and branches, which can girdle and kill trees. Stressors such as drought, elevated temperature, and defoliation predispose trees to bronze birch borer colonization and trigger outbreaks, which implicates the availability of suitable host material in the bottom-up regulation of populations. Stress imposed by climate change may increase the frequency of outbreaks and alter the distribution of birch. Bronze birch borer has a diverse array of natural enemies, but their role in top-down population regulation has not been studied. There is substantial interspecific variation in resistance to this insect. North American species share a coevolutionary history with bronze birch borer and are much more resistant than Eurasian species, which are evolutionarily naïve. Potential resistance mechanisms are reviewed. The high susceptibility of Eurasian birch species and climatic similarities of North America and Eurasia create high risk of widespread birch mortality in Eurasia if the borer was inadvertently introduced. Bronze birch borer can be managed in amenity plantings through selection of resistant birch species, plant health care practices, and insecticides.
Liu, Zhen-Kai; Wen, Jun-Bao
Eucryptorrhynchus chinensis Olivier (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the most important pests of Ailanthus altissima; however, so far, no studies on the genome or transcriptome of E. chinensis have been reported. Using the Roche 454 FLX Titanium platform, an RNA pool obtained from E. chinensis eggs, larva, pupae, and adults was sequenced and assembled de novo to achieve maximum diversity of sampled transcripts. We obtained 1,441,137 (∼518 Mb) raw reads with an average length of 360 bp. After trimming, 89% qualified reads were produced and assembled into 35,509 isotigs with an average length of 440 bp, N50 of 1,048 bp, and 111,643 singletons. We generated 87,894 unigenes following a cluster analysis of the isotigs and singletons, and then functionally annotated the unigenes with gene descriptions. We obtained 23,363 GO assignments, and 12,724 unigenes were assigned to KOG. Based on these annotations, 294 biochemical pathways involved in growth, reproduction, and stress or immune responses were predicted. A total of 659,026 single nucleotide variants and 6,112 simple sequence repeats were detected. Our data provide comprehensive information on the sequence and possible functions of E. chinensis transcripts. PMID:27620556
Coyle, D R; D.C. Booth: M.S. Wallace
ABSTRACT In spring 2002, ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) infested an intensively managed 22-ha tree plantation on the upper coastal plain of South Carolina. Nearly 3,500 scolytids representing 28 species were captured in ethanol-baited traps from 18 June 2002 to 18 April 2004. More than 88% of total captures were exotic species. Five species [Dryoxylon onoharaensum (Murayama), Euwallacea validus (Eichhoff), Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus (Zimmermann), Xyleborus atratus Eichhoff, and Xyleborus impressus Eichhoff]) were collected in South Carolina for the first time. Of four tree species in the plantation, eastern cottonwood, Populus deltoides Bartram, was the only one attacked, with nearly 40% of the trees sustaining ambrosia beetle damage. Clone ST66 sustained more damage than clone S7C15. ST66 trees receiving fertilization were attacked more frequently than trees receiving irrigation, irrigation_fertilization, or controls, although the number of S7C15 trees attacked did not differ among treatments. The study location is near major shipping ports; our results demonstrate the necessity for intensive monitoring programs to determine the arrival, spread, ecology, and impact of exotic scolytids.
Webster, Reginald P.; Sweeney, Jon D.; DeMerchant, Ian
Abstract We report 21 new species records for the Coleoptera fauna of New Brunswick, Canada, seven of which are new records for the Maritime provinces. Four species of Mycetophagidae (Litargus didesmus Say, Litargus tetrapilotus LeConte, Mycetophagus punctatus Say, and Mycetophagus quadriguttatus Müller) are newly reported for the province of New Brunswick. Litargus didesmus is newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. Seven species of Tetratomidae are added to the faunal list of New Brunswick: Eustrophus tomentosus Say, Penthe obliquata (Fabricius), and Tetratoma tessellata Melsheimer are new to New Brunswick: Hallomenus serricornis LeConte, Pisenus humeralis Kirby, Synstrophus repandus (Horn), and Tetratoma variegata Casey, which are newly recorded for New Brunswick and the Maritime provinces. Ten additional species of Melandryidae are reported from New Brunswick, of which Orchesia cultriformis Laliberté, Orchesia ovata Laliberté, Phloeotrya fusca (LeConte), Scotochroides antennatus Mank, Spilotus quadripustulatus (Melsheimer), Symphora flavicollis (Haldeman), Symphora rugosa (Haldeman), and Zilora hispida LeConte are new for the province, and Microscapha clavicornis LeConte and Zilora nuda Provancher are newly recorded for the Maritime provinces. In addition, we report numerous additional records for three species of Mycetophagidae and one species of Melandryidae previously recorded from New Brunswick that suggest these species are more widely distributed than previously known. Collection, habitat data, and distribution maps are presented for all these species. PMID:22539895
Kanzaki, Natsumi; Ragsdale, Erik J.; Susoy, Vladislav; Sommer, Ralf J.
A new species of diplogastrid nematode, Leptojacobus dorci n. gen., n. sp., was isolated from adults of the stag beetle Dorcus ritsemae (Coleoptera: Lucanidae) that were purchased from a pet shop in Japan. Leptojacobus n. gen. is circumscribed by a very thin, delicate body and by a small stoma with minute armature. A combination of other stomatal characters, namely the division of the cheilostom into adradial plates, the symmetry of the subventral stegostomatal sectors, and the presence of a thin, conical dorsal tooth, further distinguishes Leptojacobus n. gen. from other genera of Diplogastridae. Phylogenetic analysis of nearly full-length SSU rRNA sequences support the new species, together with an isolate identified previously as Koerneria luziae, to be excluded from a clade including all other molecularly characterized diplogastrids with teeth and stomatal dimorphism. Therefore, the new species will be of importance for reconstruction of ancestral character histories in Diplogastridae, a family circumscribed by a suite of feeding-related novelties. PMID:24644371
Kang, Jung Koo; Pittendrigh, Barry R; Onstad, David W
The cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus F. (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), can cause up to 100% yield loss of stored cowpea seeds in a few months in West Africa. Genes expressing toxins delaying insect maturation (MDTs) are available for genetic engineering. A simulation model was used to investigate the possible use of MDTs for managing C. maculatus. Specifically, we studied the effect of transgenic cowpea expressing an MDT, an insecticide, or both, on the evolution of resistance by C. maculatus at constant temperature. Transgenic cowpea expressing only a nonlethal MDT causing 50-100% maturation delay did not control C. maculatus well. Mortality caused by a maturation delay improved the efficacy of transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT, but significantly reduced the durability of transgenic cowpea Transgenic cowpea expressing only a lethal MDT causing 50% maturation delay and 90% mortality controlled C. maculatus better than one expressing only a nonlethal MDT, but its durability was only 2 yr. We concluded that transgenic cowpea expressing only an MDT has little value for managing C. maculatus. The resistance by C. maculatus to transgenic cowpea expressing only an insecticide rapidly evolved. Stacking a gene expressing a nonlethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea did not significantly improve the durability of an insecticide, but stacking a gene expressing a lethal MDT and a gene expressing an insecticide in transgenic cowpea significantly improved the durability of an insecticide and an MDT. We also discussed this approach within the idea of using transgenic RNAi in pest control strategies.
Liu, Su; Rao, Xiang-Jun; Li, Mao-Ye; Feng, Ming-Feng; He, Meng-Zhu; Li, Shi-Guang
We present the first antennal transcriptome sequencing information for the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Analysis of the transcriptome dataset obtained 52,216,616 clean reads, from which 35,363 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 18,820 unigenes showed significant similarity (E-value <10(-5)) to known proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. Gene ontology (GO) and Cluster of Orthologous Groups (COG) analyses were used for functional classification of these unigenes. We identified 19 putative odorant-binding protein (OBP) genes, 12 chemosensory protein (CSP) genes, 20 olfactory receptor (OR) genes, 6 ionotropic receptor (IR) genes and 2 sensory neuron membrane protein (SNMP) genes. BLASTX best hit results indicated that these chemosensory genes were most identical to their respective orthologs from Tribolium castaneum. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that the T. molitor OBPs and CSPs are closely related to those of T. castaneum. Real-time quantitative PCR assays showed that eight TmolOBP genes were antennae-specific. Of these, TmolOBP5, TmolOBP7 and TmolOBP16 were found to be predominantly expressed in male antennae, while TmolOBP17 was expressed mainly in the legs of males. Several other genes were identified that were neither tissue-specific nor sex-specific. These results establish a firm foundation for future studies of the chemosensory genes in T. molitor.
Halffter, Gonzalo; Pineda, Eduardo; Arellano, Lucrecia; Escobar, Federico
We analyzed changes over time in species composition and functional guild structure (temporal beta diversity) for natural assemblages and those modified by humans in a fragmented, tropical mountain landscape. The assemblages belong to cloud forests (the original vegetation type), secondary forests, traditional shaded coffee plantations, commercial shaded coffee plantations, and a cattle pasture. Copronecrophagous beetles, subfamily Scarabaeinae (Insecta: Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), were used as the indicator group. This group has been used in previous studies and other tropical forests and has been found to be a good indicator of the effects of anthropogenic change. For each assemblage, we compared samples that were collected several years apart. Changes were found in species composition, order of abundance, and in the proportion that a given species is present in the different functional groups. The changes that occurred between samplings affected the less abundant species in the cloud forest and in the pasture. In the other vegetation types, both abundant and less abundant species were affected. Their order of abundance and proportion in the different guilds also changed. This study shows that, although landscape richness remains relatively constant, richness at the local level (alpha diversity) changes notably even over short lapses of time. This could be a characteristic of landscapes with intermediate degrees of disturbance (such as those that have been partially modified for human use), where assemblage composition is very fluid.
Manachini, Barbara; Schillaci, Domenico; Arizza, Vincenzo
Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier 1790) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is becoming a serious problem in Mediterranean areas where it is well-adapted, and now is present even in the United States (California). The infestations are primarily in urban areas where chemical control is not advisable and million of Euros are spent to control it. The effects of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Nematoda: Steinernematidae) on mortality, growth, as well as the immune activity of R. ferrugineus larvae, were investigated. R. ferrugineus mortality exhibited a positive trend with the dosage and duration of exposure to S. carpocapsae. The median lethal dose and median lethal time, important to optimize the treatments, were calculated. S. carpocapsae also had a detrimental effect on R. ferrugineus weight. In vivo and in vitro effects of S. carpocapsae on the phagocytic responses of R. ferrugineus hemocytes also were recorded. S. carpocapsae was not encapsulated by R.ferrugineus hemocytes. After 24 h, the number of hemocytes recorded in treated larvae was reduced. To investigate the defensive abilities of R. ferrugineus humoral and cellular immune systems, specifically against the bacterium Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteraceae), the minimum inhibitory concentration that inhibits bacterial growth was measured. This is the first time that this technique is applied to entomopathogenic bacteria.
Ren, Li-Li; Wu, Ying; Shi, Juan; Zhang, Lu; Luo, You-Qing
We used scanning and transmission electron microscopy to study the typology, morphology, distributions, and ultrastructures of the antennal sensilla of Tetrigus lewisi Candèze, a predatory click beetle that feeds on longhorned beetles, such as, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). We observed eight types of sensilla on the antennae, including sensilla chaetica (with three subtypes: ch.1, ch.2, ch.3), sensilla basiconica (subtypes: ba.1, ba.2, ba.3), sensilla trichodea (subtypes: tr.1, tr.2), as well as sensilla auricillica, sensilla coeloconica, sensilla campaniformia, sensilla styloconica and Böhm's bristles. Significant sexual dimorphism was found in the antenna morphology, as well as in the density of type 2 sensilla trichodea and type 1 sensilla basiconica. We observed thick cuticular walls on sensilla chaetica, sensilla trichodea and sensilla campaniformia; clear pore structures on sensilla trichodea, sensilla basiconica and sensilla auricillica; and double walls with spoke-channels on sensilla coeloconica. The chemoreception, mechanoreception and thermo-/hygro-reception functions were deduced from fine structures on the cuticular walls and the dendrites of the different sensilla types. We suggest that all these sensilla have important roles in the host location, mating and predatory behavior of T. lewisi.
Kölsch, Gregor; Synefiaridou, Dimitra
When symbioses between insects and bacteria are discussed, the origin of a given association is regularly of interest. We examined the evolution of the symbiosis between reed beetles (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae, Donaciinae) and intracellular symbionts belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae. We analyzed the partial sequence of the 16S rRNA to assess the phylogenetic relationships with bacteria we found in other beetle groups (Cerambycidae, Anobiidae, other Chrysomelidae). We discuss the ecology of each association in the context of the phylogenetic analysis. The bacteria in Sagra femorata (Chrysomelidae, Sagrinae) are very closely related to those in the Donaciinae and are located in similar mycetomes. The Sagrinae build a cocoon for pupation like the Donaciinae, in which the bacteria produce the material required for the cocoon. These aspects support the close relationship between Sagrinae and Donaciinae derived in earlier studies and make a common ancestry of the symbioses likely. Using PCR primers specific for fungi, we found Candida sp. in the mycetomes of a cerambycid beetle along with the bacteria. PMID:26466539
Dunlop, Jason A.; Kontschán, Jenő; Zwanzig, Michael
Fossil mesostigmatid mites are extremely rare. Inclusions assignable to the tortoise mites (Mesostigmata, Uropodina) are described here for the first time from Eocene (ca. 44-49 Ma) Baltic amber. This is the oldest record of Uropodina and documents the first unequivocal amber examples potentially assignable to the extant genus Uroobovella Berlese, 1903 (Uropodoidea: Urodinychidae). Further mites in the same amber pieces are tentatively assigned to Microgynioidea (Microgyniina) and Ascidae (Gamasina), both potentially representing the oldest records of their respective superfamily and family groups. This new material also preserves behavioural ecology in the form of phoretic deutonymphs attached to their carriers via a characteristic anal pedicel. These deutonymphs in amber are intimately associated with longhorn beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), probably belonging to the extinct species Nothorhina granulicollis Zang, 1905. Modern uropodines have been recorded phoretic on species belonging to several beetle families, including records of living Uroobovella spp. occurring on longhorn beetles. Through these amber inclusions, a uropodine-cerambycid association can now be dated back to at least the Eocene.
Robbins, Paul S.; Alm, Steven R.; Armstrong, Charles. D.; Averill, Anne L.; Baker, Thomas C.; Bauernfiend, Robert J.; Baxendale, Frederick P.; Braman, S. Kris; Brandenburg, Rick L.; Cash, Daniel B.; Couch, Gary J.; Cowles, Richard S.; Crocker, Robert L.; DeLamar, Zandra D.; Dittl, Timothy G.; Fitzpatrick, Sheila M.; Flanders, Kathy L.; Forgatsch, Tom; Gibb, Timothy J.; Gill, Bruce D.; Gilrein, Daniel O.; Gorsuch, Clyde S.; Hammond, Abner M.; Hastings, Patricia D.; Held, David W.; Heller, Paul R.; Hiskes, Rose T.; Holliman, James L.; Hudson, William G.; Klein, Michael G.; Krischik, Vera L.; Lee, David J.; Linn, Charles E.; Luce, Nancy J.; MacKenzie, Kenna E.; Mannion, Catherine M.; Polavarapu, Sridhar; Potter, Daniel A.; Roelofs, Wendell L.; Royals, Brian M.; Salsbury, Glenn A.; Schiff, Nathan M.; Shetlar, David J.; Skinner, Margaret; Sparks, Beverly L.; Sutschek, Jessica A.; Sutschek, Timothy P.; Swier, Stanley R.; Sylvia, Martha M.; Vickers, Neil J.; Vittum, Patricia J.; Weidman, Richard; Weber, Donald C.; Williamson, R. Chris; Villani, Michael G
The sex pheromone of the scarab beetle, Phyllophaga anxia, is a blend of the methyl esters of two amino acids, L-valine and L-isoleucine. A field trapping study was conducted, deploying different blends of the two compounds at 59 locations in the United States and Canada. More than 57,000 males of 61 Phyllophaga species (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae) were captured and identified. Three major findings included: (1) widespread use of the two compounds [of the 147 Phyllophaga (sensu stricto) species found in the United States and Canada, males of nearly 40% were captured]; (2) in most species intraspecific male response to the pheromone blends was stable between years and over geography; and (3) an unusual pheromone polymorphism was described from P. anxia. Populations at some locations were captured with L-valine methyl ester alone, whereas populations at other locations were captured with L-isoleucine methyl ester alone. At additional locations, the L-valine methyl ester-responding populations and the L-isoleucine methyl ester-responding populations were both present, producing a bimodal capture curve. In southeastern Massachusetts and in Rhode Island, in the United States, P. anxia males were captured with blends of L-valine methyl ester and L-isoleucine methyl ester. PMID:19537965
Du, Chao; He, Shilin; Song, Xuhao; Liao, Qi; Zhang, Xiuyue; Yue, Bisong
The blister beetle is an important resource insect due to its defensive substance cantharidin, which was widely used in pharmacology and plant protection. We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of Epicauta chinensis Laporte (Coleoptera: Tenebrionoidae: Meloidae). The circular genome is 15,717 bp long, encoding 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNAs and 22 tRNAs and containing a A+T-rich region with gene arrangement identical to other Coleopteran species. Twelve PCGs start with typical ATN codon, while ATP8 gene initiate with GTT for first report in Insecta. All PCGs terminate with conventional stop codon TAA or TAG. All tRNAs in E. chinensis are predicted to fold into typical cloverleaf secondary structure, except tRNA-Ser(AGN), in which the dihydrouracil arm (DHU arm) could not form stable stem-loop structure. The secondary structure of lrRNA and srRNA comprises 48 helices and 32 helices respectively. The 1101 bp A+T-rich region contains a 15 bp poly-T stretch and microsatellite-like repeats rather than large tandem repetitive sequences. Phylogenetic analysis, based on 13 PCGs of 45 Coleopteran species, show that E. chinensis grouped with Tenebrionidae species. It also support the topology of (((Chrysomelidae+Curculionoidea)+(Cucujoidea+Cleroidea))+Tenebrionoidea) within Cucujiformia.
Merrill, Scott C; Gebre-Amlak, Assefa; Armstrong, J Scott; Peairs, Frank B
The sunflower stem weevil, Cylindrocopturus adspersus (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), has caused yield losses across much of the western Great Plains. Little is known about the field biology of this pest. Simple prediction models, such as degree-day models, are an integral tool for development of C. adspersus management strategies. Using data collected in Colorado, Kansas, and Nebraska, we sought for predictable variation between C. adspersus pupation, adult eclosion, and emergence and accumulated degree-days Celsius (DD) by using a temperature threshold of 5 degrees C. Accurate phenological models can be used to time scouting efforts and pesticide applications. The relationship between phenological data and accumulated DD fit nonlinear, Gaussian distributions better than uniform distributions. Phenological models were developed to describe these distributions for pupation, adult presence within the stalk and adult emergence. The pupation model predicts 50% pupation at 197 DD and 90% at 307 DD. Model results predict that 50% of adult eclosion within the stalks will have transpired at 396 DD and 90% at 529 DD. A model-averaged result from two data sets predicts 5% adult emergence from stalks at 262 DD, 50% emergence at 540 DD, 75% emergence at 657 DD, and 90% at 777 DD. Scouting for adults thus can be initiated at 262 DD. Current chemical controls target adults to prevent oviposition. Thus, applications therefore should not be made before this point.
Vayias, B J; Athanassiou, C G; Kavallieratos, N G; Buchelos, C Th
Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the susceptibility of seven populations (strains) of the confused flour beetle, Tribolium confusum Jacquelin du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), to five commercially available diatomaceous earth (DE) formulations: Insecto, Protect-It, Protector, PyriSec, and SilicoSec. These DEs were applied on wheat, Triticum durum Desf., at two dose rates, 500 and 1000 ppm. The six beetle strains were obtained from Denmark, United Kingdom, Greece, Germany, Italy, and Portugal, whereas a seventh strain came from the Greek strain after laboratory selection with SilicoSec-treated wheat for six generations. Adults of the above-mentioned strains were exposed for 7 d to wheat treated with each DE formulation, and mortality was assessed after exposure. For all DE-dose combinations, significant differences were noted in mortality levels among strains. Generally, the strains from Denmark, United Kingdom, and Germany were the most susceptible to the DEs used, whereas the strain from Portugal was the least susceptible. No significant differences were noted in susceptibility level between the initial Greek strain and the laboratory-selected Greek strain, with the exception of Protector, where the selected strain was significantly more tolerant than the initial strain for both dose rates tested.
Hough-Goldstein, J; Stout, A R; Schoenstein, J A
Rhinoncomimus latipes Korotyaev (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), a biological control agent of mile-a-minute weed, Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross, has been mass reared with no infusion of new genetic material for 8-9 yr (at least 24-36 generations), while insects from the same genetic stock have been subject to field conditions in North America for that same period of time. Our main objective was to compare the laboratory population with the field population (and in 1 yr with a Chinese field population) to determine whether genetic changes had occurred, especially ones that may reduce the effectiveness of the laboratory population when released in the field. The laboratory insects laid more eggs and had reduced survival compared with field weevils in several comparisons, and had reduced responsiveness to cues that induce reproductive diapause. Exposure to older plants had the greatest effect on induction of reproductive diapause in both laboratory and field weevils, with effects of daylength and temperature less pronounced. At least a portion of the laboratory weevil population overwintered successfully. Results suggest that it is not necessary to add wild-type genetic material to the rearing colony at this time.
Guillermina Socías, María; Van Nieuwenhove, Guido; Murúa, María Gabriela; Willink, Eduardo; Liljesthröm, Gerardo Gustavo
The soybean stalk weevil, Sternechus subsignatus Boheman 1836 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a very serious soybean pest in the Neotropical region. Both adults and larvae feed on soybean, causing significant yield losses. Adult survival was evaluated during three soybean growing seasons under controlled environmental conditions. A survival analysis was performed using a parametric survival fit approach in order to generate survival curves and obtain information that could help optimize integrated management strategies for this weevil pest. Sex of the weevils, crop season, fortnight in which weevils emerged, and their interaction were studied regarding their effect on adult survival. The results showed that females lived longer than males, but both genders were actually long-lived, reaching 224 and 176 d, respectively. Mean lifetime (l50) was 121.88±4.56 d for females and 89.58±2.72 d for males. Although variations were observed in adult longevities among emergence fortnights and soybean seasons, only in December and January fortnights of the 2007–2008 season and December fortnights of 2009–2010 did the statistically longest and shortest longevities occur, respectively. Survivorship data (lx) of adult females and males were fitted to the Weibull frequency distribution model. The survival curve was type I for both sexes, which indicated that mortality corresponded mostly to old individuals.
Baughman, William B.; Nelson, Peter N.; Grieshop, Matthew J.
We assessed the efficacy of cultivation as a potential management strategy for codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar Herbst (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in apple orchards. Cocooned codling moth pupae and thinning apples infested with plum curculio larvae were cultivated over in the field. Emergence, percent burial, damage to buried fruit, and depth of burial was recorded. In the laboratory, both insects were buried at variable depths in sand and potting soil and emergence was measured. A greater proportion of plum curculio larvae buried in infested fruit under laboratory conditions survived to adulthood compared with unburied infested fruit, down to 15 cm. No codling moth adults emerged from under 1 cm or more of sand. Buried codling moth larvae experienced drastically reduced survival to adulthood compared with unburied larvae. These results indicate that strip cultivation may negatively impact codling moth diapausing larvae and pupae on the ground, but not likely to negatively impact plum curculio in infested dropped apples. PMID:26470248
Keeling, Christopher I.; Blomquist, Gary J.; Tittiger, Claus
In several pine bark beetle species, phloem feeding induces aggregation pheromone production to coordinate a mass attack on the host tree. Male pine engraver beetles, Ips pini (Say) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), produce the monoterpenoid pheromone component ipsdienol de novo via the mevalonate pathway in the anterior midgut upon feeding. To understand how pheromone production is regulated in this tissue, we used quantitative real-time PCR to examine feeding-induced changes in gene expression of seven mevalonate pathway genes: acetoacetyl-coenzyme A thiolase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase, mevalonate 5-diphosphate decarboxylase, isopentenyl-diphosphate isomerase, geranyl-diphosphate synthase (GPPS), and farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPS). In males, expression of all these genes significantly increased upon feeding. In females, the expression of the early mevalonate pathway genes (up to and including the isomerase) increased significantly, but the expression of the later genes (GPPS and FPPS) was unaffected or decreased upon feeding. Thus, feeding coordinately regulates expression of the mevalonate pathway genes necessary for pheromone biosynthesis in male, but not female, midguts. Furthermore, basal mRNA levels were 5- to 41-fold more abundant in male midguts compared to female midguts. This is the first report of coordinated regulation of mevalonate pathway genes in an invertebrate model consistent with their sex-specific role in de novo pheromone biosynthesis.
Pineda-Castellanos, Mónica L.; Rodríguez-Segura, Zitlhally; Villalobos, Francisco J.; Hernández, Luciano; Lina, Laura; Nuñez-Valdez, M. Eugenia
Serratia marcescens is a Gram negative bacterium (Enterobacteriaceae) often associated with infection of insects. In order to find pathogenic bacteria with the potential to control scarab larvae, several bacterial strains were isolated from the hemocoel of diseased Phyllophaga spp (Coleoptera:Scarabaeidae) larvae collected from cornfields in Mexico. Five isolates were identified as Serratia marcescens by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical tests. Oral and injection bioassays using healthy Phyllophaga blanchardi larvae fed with the S. marcescens isolates showed different degrees of antifeeding effect and mortality. No insecticidal activity was observed for Spodoptera frugiperda larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) by oral inoculation. S. marcescens (Sm81) cell-free culture supernatant caused significant antifeeding effect and mortality to P. blanchardi larvae by oral bioassay and also mortality by injection bioassay. Heat treated culture broths lost the ability to cause disease symptoms, suggesting the involvement of proteins in the toxic activity. A protein of 50.2 kDa was purified from the cell-free broth and showed insecticidal activity by injection bioassay towards P. blanchardi. Analysis of the insecticidal protein by tandem- mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) showed similarity to a Serralysin-like protein from S. marcescens spp. This insecticidal protein could have applications in agricultural biotechnology. PMID:25984910
Sun, Jiyu; Ling, Mingze; Wu, Wei; Bhushan, Bharat; Tong, Jin
In most beetles, the hind wings are thin and fragile; when at rest, they are held over the back of the beetle. When the hind wing unfolds, it provides the necessary aerodynamic forces for flight. In this paper, we investigate the hydraulic mechanism of the unfolding process of the hind wings in Dorcus titanus platymelus (Oder: Coleoptera). The wing unfolding process of Dorcus titanus platymelus was examined using high speed camera sequences (400 frames/s), and the hydraulic pressure in the veins was measured with a biological pressure sensor and dynamic signal acquisition and analysis (DSA) during the expansion process. We found that the total time for the release of hydraulic pressure during wing folding is longer than the time required for unfolding. The pressure is proportional to the length of the wings and the body mass of the beetle. A retinal camera was used to investigate the fluid direction. We found that the peak pressures correspond to two main cross-folding joint expansions in the hind wing. These observations strongly suggest that blood pressure facilitates the extension of hind wings during unfolding.
Ju, Qian; Guo, Xiao-Qiang; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Xiao-Jing; Jiang, Xiang-Guo; Ni, Wan-Li; Qu, Ming-Jing
Holotrichia parallela (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) is a notorious pest of many crops. To improve the effectiveness of its female-produced sex pheromone (L-isoleucine methyl ester:(R)-(-)-linalool = 6:1), 14 plant volatiles, including dodecanoic acid, dodecanal, farnesol, α-farnesene, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, (R)-(+)-limonene, α-phellandrene, α-pinene, ocimene, methyl benzoate, and benzaldehyde, were individually evaluated using electroantennography and olfactometer assays. (E)-2-Hexenyl acetate and (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate were found to elicit the strongest responses in both males and females. Further testing of these two compounds in mixtures with the sex pheromone indicated that (E)-2-hexenyl acetate had a stronger synergistic effect than (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate. Field evaluations showed that mixtures of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and the sex pheromone resulted in significantly higher catches than the sex pheromone alone. Using a 5:1 mixture of the sex pheromone and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate, the maximum number of females per trap per day was 14, showing a synergistic effect of a factor of four. For males, a 3:1 mixture of the sex pheromone and (E)-2-hexenyl acetate yielded a maximum number of 310 individuals per trap per day, equivalent to a synergistic effect of 175%. These results may provide the basis for the development of efficient pest management systems against H. parallela using plant volatiles and insect sex pheromones.
Khan, Inamullah; Din, Sadrud; Khan Khalil, Said; Ather Rafi, Muhammad
An extensive survey of predatory Coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was conducted in the Chitral District, Pakistan, over a period of 7 months (April through October, 2001). A total of 2600 specimens of Coccinellids were collected from 12 different localities having altitudes from 1219.40–2651.63 m. Twelve different species belonging to 9 genera of 3 tribes and 2 sub-families were recorded. Two sub-families, viz, Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807 and Chilocorinae Mulsant, 1846 were identified. The following 8 species belonged to family Coccinellinae Latreille 1807 and tribe Coccinellini Latreille 1807: Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus, 1758, Hippodamia (Adonia) variegata Goeze, 1777, Calvia punctata (Mulsant, 1846), Adalia bipunctata (Linnaeus, 1758),Adalia tetraspilota (Hope, 1831), Aiolocaria hexaspilota Hope 1851, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri Mader, 1930,Oenopia conglobata Linnaeus, 1758. Only one species namely Halyzia tschitscherini Semenov, 1965 represented tribe Psylloborini of the sub-family Coccinellinae Latreille, 1807. Three species occurred from sub-family Chilocorinae Mulsant 1846 and tribe Chilocorini Mulsant 1846: Chilocorus rubidus Hope, 1831, Chilocorus circumdatus (Gyllenhal, 1808), Priscibrumus uropygialis (Mulsant, 1853). From the aforementioned species 6 were recorded for the first time from Pakistan: Chilocorus circumdatus, Calvia punctata, Adalia bipunctata, Macroilleis (Halyzia) hauseri, Priscibrumus uropygialis, and Oenopia conglobata. PMID:20334592
Martínez, Luis C; Plata-Rueda, Angelica; Zanuncio, José C; Serrão, José E
Demotispa neivai Bondar (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) damage oil palm fruits, which makes it necessary to develop products to control this insect. The mortality, repellency, and antifeeding effects on adults of D. neivai of six plant extracts of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Sapindales: Meliaceae), Ricinus communis (L.) (Malpighiaes: Euphorbiaceae), Citrus sinensis Oesbek (Sapindales: Rutaceae), Nicotiana tabacum (L.) (Slanales: Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum (L.) (Solanales: Solanaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (L.) (Asterales: Asteraceae) were determined: 1) the lethal concentration LC50-90, lethal time of D. neivai was evaluated after spraying the fruits of oil palm; 2) repellent effects of each ingredient were evaluated by calculating the index of repellency; 3) antifeeding effects with the rate of inhibition calculated between doses of 20 and 24 g/liter. The mortality of D. neivai was higher with the extracts Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum. The mortality of D. neivai increased in the first 72 hr in all treatments. The extracts of N. tabacum, Ca. annuum, and A. indica were more repellent to D. neivai that those of Ci. sinensis, Ar. Absinthium, and R. communis. Antifeeding effect was higher with Ci. sinensis and R. communis. The increased mortality of D. neivai by Ci. sinensis can be explained by the effect of this compound on the respiratory system of insects. Extracts of Ci. sinensis, R. communis, N. tabacum, and Ca. annuum repelled and caused mortality of D. neivai and, thus, can be used in integrate pest management programs of this pest in oil palm plantations.
Sousa, A H; Faroni, L R A; Silva, G N; Guedes, R N C
Ozone is a recognized alternative to the fumigants methyl bromide and phosphine for the control of stored product insects. However, as with fumigants in general, the potential sublethal effects of ozone on targeted insect species may compromise its efficacy and has yet to be investigated. Here, we determined ozone toxicity of 30 field-collected populations of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and assessed the walking response of adult insects from these populations to sublethal ozone exposure. Time-mortality toxicity to ozone at 50 ppm concentration in a continuous 2 liter/min flow indicated uniform susceptibility among the populations studied without any indication of ozone resistance (toxicity ratios [at LT50] > two-fold). In contrast, there was significant variation in walking activity among the maize weevil populations, which was not correlated with ozone susceptibility. This was not surprising because of the relatively uniform susceptibility to ozone among the maize weevil populations. Respiration rate affected ozone toxicity but not walking activity, whereas body mass was negatively correlated with walking activity but was not correlated with ozone toxicity. Based on our data, lower respiration rates may potentially lead to reduced ozone uptake whereas larger body mass limits walking activity. Ozone seems a promising alternative fumigant with low short-term risk of resistance development because of the high susceptibility and low variability of response to this compound. Furthermore, ozone reduces walking activity of S. zeamais that implies it likely reduces the chances of insects escaping exposure at the early stages of fumigation.
Lusebrink, Inka; Dettner, Konrad; Seifert, Karlheinz
Stenusine is well known as the alkaloid, discharged by the rove beetle, genus Stenus Latreille (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae). The Stenus beetles employ the alkaloid as an escape mechanism when on water surfaces. In the case of danger, they lower their abdomen and emit stenusine from their pygidial glands. Stenusine shows a low surface tension and therefore a high spreading pressure; these properties propel the beetle quickly over the water. Many Steninae do not live in habitats with open waters, but in detritus, leaf litter, mosses, etc. This raises the possibility that stenusine might also have another function, e.g., as antibiotic or fungicide. Stenus beetles show an intense grooming behaviour. With gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses we could prove that they cover themselves with their secretion. To tests its antimicrobial properties we conducted agar diffusion tests with stenusine and norstenusine, another substance that is abundant in most Stenus species. Both compounds have an antimicrobial effect on entomopathogenic bacteria and fungi. Stenusine not only allows for an extraordinary method of locomotion on water surfaces, it also protects the Steninae from being infested with microorganisms.
Eller, Fred J.; Palmquist, Debra E.
Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after “lights on”) and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils. PMID:26462948
Addesso, K M; McAuslane, H J; Stansly, P A; Slansky, F; Schuster, D J
The pepper weevil, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a major pest of cultivated peppers (Capsicum spp.) and other cultivated and wild species within the family Solanaceae. Laboratory study of this insect, as well as its biological control agents, will be greatly facilitated by an artificial rearing system that does not rely on pepper fruit. An egg collection method and amendments to a standard larval diet were investigated for use in the rearing of this weevil. Spherical sachets made of Parafilm or netting enclosing leaves of pepper, American black nightshade, eggplant, tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco induced oviposition. Tomato, potato, and jasmine tobacco leaves were accepted despite the fact that these are not oviposition hosts for pepper weevils in the wild. A standard larval diet formula was modified in an attempt to improve egg hatch, larval survival, developmental time, and adult mass. The diet formula was modified with the addition of freeze-dried jalapeño pepper powder, an additional lipid source, alternate protein sources, and the removal of methyl paraben. None of the aforementioned treatments resulted in a significant improvement over the standard diet. Egg hatch was greater when eggs were incubated on moist paper towels rather than in diet; thus, placement of neonates rather than eggs into diet improved production of adults. Suggestions for more efficient rearing of weevils on the currently available diet and future directions for the development of an artificial rearing system for pepper weevil are discussed.
Eller, Fred J; Palmquist, Debra E
Several factors affecting pheromone production by male pepper weevils, Anthonomus eugenii Cano (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as well as collection efficiency were investigated. Factors studied included: porous polymer adsorbents (Tenax versus Super Q), male age, time of day, male density, and male diet. Super Q was found to be a superior adsorbent for the male-produced alcohols and geranic acid as well as the plant-produced E-β-ocimene. Pheromone production increased with male age up to about age 15 days old and then tapered off. Male pepper weevils produced the highest amount of pheromone between noon and 2 pm (i.e., 4 to 6 h after "lights on") and were producing ca. 800 ng/h during this period. Thereafter, pheromone production decreased and was extremely low during the scotophase (i.e., ca. 12 ng/h). Male pepper weevil density had a significant effect on both release rate and pheromone composition. Pheromone production on a per male basis was highest for individual males and the percentage of geranic acid in the blend was lowest for individual males. Male pepper weevils produced only extremely low amounts of pheromone when feeding on artificial diet; however, they produced very high amounts when on fresh peppers. Together, this information will be useful in designing better attractant lures for pepper weevils.
Guo, W; Yan, X; Zhao, C; Han, R
The efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) against the white grub Holotrichia parallela Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in the peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields was evaluated. In the first experiment with a high initial white grub population (24.65 +/- 2.44 larvae per m2) in the field, Steinernema longicaudum X-7 and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora H06 at 10,000 and 5,000 infective juveniles (IJs) per plant contributed to significantly higher percentage reduction of the white grub larvae, lower percentage of the injured legume, and higher peanut yield compared with chlorpyrifos and other treatments. The peanut yields harvested from the plots treated with EPNs at 5,000 IJs per plant were at least 70% higher than that from the untreated control (water) and at least 30% higher than that from chlorpyrifos-treated plots. In the second experiment with a low initial white grub population (8.07 +/- 1.29 larvae per m2) in the field, EPN treatment did not increase peanut yield compared with the other treatments. But both S. longicaudum X-7 and H. bacteriophora H06 gained higher percentage reduction of the white grub larvae and lower percentage of the injured legume than Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser) All and the control. The cost-benefit of using EPNs for white grub control was estimated to be comparable with that of using chemicals. S. longicaudum X-7 and H. bacteriophora H06 showed promise for white grub control in peanut fields.
Fakoorziba, M R; Eghbal, F; Azizi, K; Moemenbellah-Fard, M D
Linear dermatitis (or dermatitis linearis, DL) is a skin blistering inflammatory lesion caused by exposure to the pederin toxin from rove beetles. Although it is prevalent in many countries of the Middle East region, this is not a notifiable disease. In recent years, a number of clinical symptoms outbreaks of DL has been reported from a few neighboring countries of Iran, but no report of experimental treatment among small laboratory rodents is known. This is a prerequisite to ascertain the nature of the best treatment strategy in cases of infestation with these beetles, as it occurs among local settlers during hot seasons in certain parts of the southern Iranian province of Fars. Live Paederus beetles were collected, identified to species level, sexed apart and partly processed to obtain their hemolymph toxin pederin in ethanol for dermal application on guinea pigs. Two Paederus species were found. Paederus ilsae (Bernhauer) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae) was more abundant than P. iliensis (Coiffait). Recovery from DL due to live P. ilsae beetles was quicker and less complex than that of pederin in ethanol on guinea pigs. The application of potassium permanganate with calamine to heal DL was also more effective than fluocinolone treatment. This topical corticosteroid is thus considered less able to avert the cytotoxic action of pederin on the skin of guinea pigs than the antipruritic and cleansing agents. It seems likely that fluocinolone has certain effects which delays the recovery period for the treated skin.
Coleman, Tom W; Smith, Sheri L; Jones, Michael I; Graves, Andrew D; Strom, Brian L
The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), was linked in 2008 to ongoing tree mortality in oak woodlands of southern California. Mortality of coast live oak, Quercus agrifolia Née, and California black oak, Q. kelloggii Newb., continues as this exotic phloem borer spreads in southern California. Management options are needed to preserve high-value oaks and maintain management objectives. From 2009 to 2012, we tested four contact insecticide formulations in four experiments against A auroguttatus in California. The impact of contact insecticides was evaluated ∼<1, 8, and 12 mo postapplication against A auroguttatus adults in no-choice leaf-feeding or walking bioassays. At <1 mo postapplication, bifenthrin, carbaryl, lambda-cyhalothrin, and permethrin all reduced adult survival and feeding in leaf-feeding and walking bioassays. At 8 mo postapplication, only bifenthrin reduced adult feeding, but had no effect on survivorship. At 12 mo postapplication, adult A auroguttatus survived fewer days and fed less in leaf-feeding bioassays with bifenthrin, carbaryl, and permerthin. These results support the annual application of contact insecticides prior to A auroguttatus' flight period to reduce adult leaf maturation feeding and activity on the bark surface (e.g., oviposition), but additional studies are needed to show these contact treatments can prevent tree mortality from this invasive species.
Lopez, Vanessa M; McClanahan, Michael N; Graham, Laurie; Hoddle, Mark S
The goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is native to southern Arizona and is an invasive wood-boring beetle that has caused considerable mortality to native oak species in southern California. Assessing the dispersal capabilities of this woodborer may help to determine its potential environmental and economic risk within the invaded region, and possibly assist with the development of species-specific management strategies. The flight performance of A. auroguttatus adults under different age, mating, and nutritional status was assessed by tethering individuals to computerized flight mills for a 24-h trial period to collect information on total distance flown, flight times and velocities, number and duration of flight bouts, and postflight weight. The nutritional status and body size (i.e., elytron length) of A. auroguttatus adults had a significant influence on overall flight performance. Mating status and gender had no significant influence on total flight distance, duration, velocity, and flight bout time. Significant interactions between nutritional status and age were observed in the overall flight performance of A. auroguttatus, with decreased flight activity in old (approximately 6 d of age) starved individuals during a 24-h trial period. Overall, results of these flight mill assays indicate that A. auroguttatus is unable to disperse long distances across habitats that lack suitable oak hosts. This work supports the hypothesis that human-aided transportation via infested oak firewood from southern Arizona across the Sonoran desert likely caused the initial introduction, and subsequent satellite infestations of A. auroguttatus within southern California's native oak woodlands.
Qubaiová, Jarin; Růžička, Jan; Šípková, Hana
Abstract The genus Ablattaria Reitter, 1884 (Coleoptera: Silphidae: Silphinae) is revised. Four taxa are recognized as valid species: Ablattaria arenaria (Kraatz, 1876), Ablattaria cribrata (Ménétries, 1832), Ablattaria laevigata (Fabricius, 1775) and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. Ablattaria laevigata var. meridionalis Ganglbauer, 1899 is newly treated as a junior subjective synonym of Ablattaria laevigata. Lectotypes are designated for Phosphuga arenaria Kraatz, 1876, Ablattaria arenaria var. punctigera Reitter, 1884, Ablattaria arenaria var. alleoni Portevin, 1926, Silpha cribrata Ménétries, 1832, Silpha laevigata Fabricius, 1775, Silpha gibba Brullé, 1832, Ablattaria gibba var. costulata Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. distinguenda Portevin, 1926, Ablattaria gibba var. punctata Portevin, 1926 and Ablattaria subtriangula Reitter, 1905. The distribution of all taxa is mapped, based on material examined. Geometric morphometric methods were used to evaluate shape variability in Ablattaria. Results indicated sexual dimorphism in all species. Shape inconsistency was found between the sexes of all taxa when tested independently. The first two relative warp axes indicated 65.17% shape variation in males and 65.72% in females. Canonical variate analysis separated the taxa studied. There was minimal overlap between some groups in both sexes. Differences in body shape between populations of Ablattaria laevigata from Central Europe, Italy and Greece + Turkey were also examined. Relative warps implied 58.01% shape variability on both axes in males and 64.78% in females. CVA revealed noticeable overlaps between the groups, although the Italian population demonstrated a higher separation in both sexes. PMID:25685005
Ray, Ann M; Ginzel, Matthew D; Hanks, Lawrence M
Adult male Megacyllene robiniae (Förster) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) that are paired with a female often are challenged by conspecific males that attempt to displace them. In staged laboratory bouts, challenging males used seven distinct tactics to displace defending males, including wedging their head between the defender and the female (termed wedging), straddling the mated pair and pulling the defender off (prying), pulling it with the mandibles, batting it with the antennae, or pushing, biting, or kicking the defender. Individual challengers attempted as many as six different tactics in a single bout, repeating certain tactics multiple times. They often attempted tactics that were not very effective. For example, prying was one of the most common attempted tactics but was rarely effective. However, few challengers attempted to push defenders off the female, even though that tactic often was effective. Challengers apparently were influenced by context in their choice of particular tactics. For example, males that approached the mated pair from the side were likely to use wedging, whereas those approaching head on were more likely to bat with the antennae. Choice of tactic apparently was not influenced by absolute size of challengers, nor was it strongly influenced by relative size of defenders. However, the effectiveness of tactics varied significantly with relative body size: larger challengers were most successful when prying or pushing, while smaller challengers were most successful when biting and kicking. By using different tactics, relatively small males were as adept as larger males at displacing rivals.
Jaramillo, Juliana; Chabi-Olaye, Adenirin; Borgemeister, Christian
The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is the most important constrain for coffee production throughout the world. Knowledge on the emergence pattern of H. hampei females to infest new berries is crucial to effectively plan control measures. In this laboratory study, we assessed the development of immature stages and the emergence pattern of H. hampei females from the berries by exposing them to temperatures that are typical for high-altitude plantations (> or = 1,700 m above sea level [masl] ) or when coffee is grown under shade trees (20-22 degrees C), and optimum altitude plantations (1,200-1,600 masl) or nonshaded coffee (25-30 degrees C). Fecundity and emergence pattern of H. hampei females from coffee berries varied with temperature. Temperature played a crucial role determining the rate of H. hampei development and therefore the emergence of the females to start a new infestation cycle. The emergence and colonization phases of new colonizing females in coffee plantations with mean temperatures of 20, 25, or 30 degrees C would take place at different moments in the development of the coffee berries, and in some cases more than once. The implications of our findings for an improved, site-specific timing of control interventions against H. hampei are discussed.
Zanetti, Noelia I; Ferrero, Adriana A; Centeno, Néstor D
The aims of this study were to detect and quantify fluoxetine, an antidepressant, from entomological samples. Larvae, pupae and adults of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera, Dermestidae) were reared on pig muscle previously treated with fluoxetine. The concentration selected, 2000mg/kg, emulates a fluoxetine overdose lethal to humans and laboratory animals. Thirty larvae on the fourth and fifth stages, 50 adults and several exuviae were analyzed for fluoxetine content. Detection of fluoxetine was performed by UV spectrophotometry at 270 and 277nm. All developmental stages of D. maculatus and exuviae were positive for fluoxetine. We also quantified the drug and no significant differences were found either between the days or the stages in the general model, but at 277nm a tendency of the concentration to decrease with time was observed. Concentrations of fluoxetine at 277nm were almost equal or greater than those at 270nm. This is the first study to detect and quantify fluoxetine from entomological samples and, in particular, from D. maculatus beetles.
Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C
Tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency, fruit were infested with plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and treated with insecticides to target late instars, neonates, and eggs. The organophosphates azinphos-methyl and phosmet and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam reduced larval emergence rates by >90% for all life stage targets; after >30 d, few surviving larvae were found inside fruit. Acetamiprid and thiacloprid also had curative activity and yielded >75% reductions in emergence and few surviving larvae in the fruit after >30 d. The juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen reduced larval emergence, but 66% of fruit that was treated to target late-instars still had live larvae inside of them after >30 d. Novaluron, chlorantraniliprole, and esfenvalerate had no curative activity. Indoxacarb had limited curative activity, and all targeted life stages had larval emergence. Internal and external residues were analyzed and are discussed in relation to their penetration and curative potential. The curative activity of azinphos-methyl has played an important role in meeting federal standards for infestation-free tart cherries at processing. Regulatory changes are eliminating the use of this compound, and new integrated pest management programs for plum curculio will need to address the loss of azinphos-methyl's curative activity.
Greco, E B; Wright, M G
The black twig borer, Xylosandrus compactus (Eichhoff) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), is a serious pest of coffee (Coffea arabica L.) in the Kona region of the island of Hawaii, the center of the largest area of coffee production within the state of Hawaii. This study indirectly characterizes the spatial distribution of X. compactus in coffee plantations through assessment of twig borer damage, and presents a sequential sampling plan for monitoring X. compactus population densities. Taylor's Power Law (TPL) and Iwao's mean crowding index showed that X. compactus infestations were highly aggregated within plantations, with b and ß values significantly larger than 1. The TPL linear regression of log variance against log mean (R2 = 0.92) provided a better fit to the data than the linear regression of mean crowding on the mean (R2 = 0.68). Subsequently, Taylor's power law parameters were used to develop the Green's sequential plan to estimate densities of X. compactus at the 90 and 75% precision levels.
Gossner, Martin M; Simons, Nadja K; Achtziger, Roland; Blick, Theo; Dorow, Wolfgang H.O; Dziock, Frank; Köhler, Frank; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Weisser, Wolfgang W
Analyses of species traits have increased our understanding of how environmental drivers such as disturbances affect the composition of arthropod communities and related processes. There are, however, few studies on which traits in the arthropod community are affected by environmental changes and which traits affect ecosystem functioning. The assembly of arthropod traits of several taxa is difficult because of the large number of species, limited availability of trait databases and differences in available traits. We sampled arthropod species data from a total of 150 managed grassland plots in three regions of Germany. These plots represent the spectrum from extensively used pastures to mown pastures to intensively managed and fertilized meadows. In this paper, we summarize information on body size, dispersal ability, feeding guild and specialization (within herbivores), feeding mode, feeding tissue (within herbivorous suckers), plant part (within herbivorous chewers), endophagous lifestyle (within herbivores), and vertical stratum use for 1,230 species of Coleoptera, Hemiptera (Heteroptera, Auchenorrhyncha), Orthoptera (Saltatoria: Ensifera, Caelifera), and Araneae, sampled by sweep-netting between 2008 and 2012. We compiled traits from various literature sources and complemented data from reliable internet sources and the authors’ experience. PMID:25977817
Quiroz, Andrés; Palma, Ruben; Etcheverría, Paulina; Navarro, Vicente; Rebolledo, Ramón
The behavioral responses of Hylamorpha elegans L. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae, Rutelinae) to the semiochemicals released from conspecific individual adults were studied, with particular attention paid to female attraction of males. Odors released from virgin females significantly attracted male conspecifics in both the field and laboratory olfactometer and wind tunnel bioassays. However, females did not attract other females, and males attracted no one. The response of male H. elegans to (1) compounds (1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone) released only by unmated females; (2) the essential oil of the secondary host (Nothofagus obliqua); and (3) the blend of 1,4-hydroquinone and 1,4-benzoquinone with N. obliqua essential oil was studied. The blend of 1,4-benzoquinone mixed with essential oil at the trial concentration was attractive with males. The same response was found with 1,4-hydroquinone alone. The essential oil did not have the expected attractant effect on conspecific males. These results suggest that, when combined with essential oil, 1,4-benzoquinone may function in the sexual behavior of males and females. These findings are discussed in terms of the ecological role of this putative sexual pheromone and its potential use in a strategy of control of this pest.
Zanetti, N I; Visciarelli, E C; Centeno, N D
The intraspecific variation in larval instars is a widely distributed phenomenon amongst holometabolous insects. Several factors can affect the number of instars, such as temperature, humidity, and density. Only a few references could be found in the literature because the invariability in the number of larval instars is considered normal, and the issue has raised little to no interest. Despite this, no study to date has intended to assess or focus on the larval development. Here, we analyzed the effect of different rearing temperature on the larval stage of Dermestes maculatus DeGeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae). The results indicated that at all temperatures, L5 represented a decisive point for individuals as well as the other later larval instars, because the next step to follow was to pupate or molt to the next larval instar. Furthermore, there were mainly two populations, L5 and L6, although in different proportions according to temperature. We also found that at a greater number of instars, the larval development at all temperatures lasted longer. Moreover, the exponential model was the best adjustment in the developmental time of all populations as well as for the accumulated developmental time of L1-L4. Thus, we conclude that random factors such as genetics could probably cause interspecific variability in D. maculatus larval development.
Tansey, J A; Dosdall, L M; Keddie, B A; Sarfraz, R M
Insecticidal seed treatments are used commonly throughout the Northern Great Plains of North America to systemically protect seedlings of canola (Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L.) from attack by the flea beetles Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) and Phyllotreta striolata (F.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). Here, we investigated differential responses by the two flea beetle species to the neonicotinoid seed treatments thiamethoxam (Helix and Helix XTra) and clothianidin (Prosper 400) in greenhouse experiments. P. cruciferae experienced higher mortality and fed less when exposed to these compounds than did P. striolata. Beetles of the overwintered and the summer generations responded differently when feeding on seedlings that developed with insecticidal seed treatments, with mortality higher for P. cruciferae in May than in August. When the two flea beetle species were held together at equal densities and allowed to feed on seedlings affected by the seed treatments, mortality of P. cruciferae significantly exceeded that of P. striolata. Differences in efficacies of these compounds for these beetles have ramifications for management strategies in regions where these insects occur sympatrically. Competitive release of P. striolata was previously reported to occur when P. cruciferae was excluded from brassicaceous crops; consequently, the consistent use of these seed treatments over millions of hectares of canola cropland may be a factor that contributes to a shift in prevalence of flea beetle pest species from P. cruciferae toward P. striolata.
Whipple, Sean D; Hoback, W Wyatt
Although the preference of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) for specific types and conditions of dung has been given substantial attention, little has been done to investigate the potential effects of exotic mammal introduction for game farms or rewilding projects. We used pitfall traps baited with various native and exotic herbivore, carnivore, and omnivore dung to evaluate dung beetle preference in the Great Plains of North America. Additionally, we analyzed of the nutrient quality of each dung type. In total, 9,089 dung beetles from 15 species were captured in 2 yr of sampling. We found significant differences (P < 0.05) in mean dung beetle capture among omnivore, herbivore, and carnivore dung, as well as differences in individual species preference for dung type. Omnivore dung was the most attractive with chimpanzee and human dung having the highest mean capture (291.1 ± 27.6 and 287.5 ± 28.5 respectively). Carrion also was highly attractive with a mean of 231.9 ± 20.6 beetles per trap (N = 8). Our results suggest definitive local preference of carrion in Phanaeus vindex Macleay and Onthophagus hecate (Panzer), while the congener, O. pennsylvanicus (Harold), was rarely captured in carrion and highly preferred omnivore dung. Preference for a specific bait type does not appear to be correlated with dung quality, mammalian diet, or origin of mammal. Results suggest niche segregation by dung type among dung beetle species.
Reddy, Gadi V P; Raman, A
Trap designs for banana root borer, Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been done essentially on the understanding that C. sordidus rely primarily on chemical cues. Our present results indicate that these borers also rely on visual cues. Previous studies have demonstrated that among the eight differently colored traps tested in the field, brown traps were the most effective compared with the performances of yellow, red, gray, blue, black, white, and green traps; mahogany-brown was more effective than other shades of brown.In the current study, efficiency of ground traps with different colors was evaluated in the laboratory for the capture of C. sordidius. Response of C. sordidus to pheromone-baited ground traps of several different colors (used either individually or as 1:1 mixtures of two different colors) were compared with the standardized mahogany-brown traps. Traps with mahogany-brown mixed with different colors had no significant effect. In contrast, a laboratory color-choice tests indicated C. sordidus preferred black traps over other color traps, with no specific preferences for different shades of black. Here again, traps with black mixed with other colors (1:1) had no influence on the catches. Therefore, any other color that mixes with mahogany-brown or black does not cause color-specific dilution of attractiveness. By exploiting these results, it may be possible to produce efficacious trapping systems that could be used in a behavioral approach to banana root borer control.
Sanon, Antoine; Ba, Niango M; Binso-Dabire, Clementine L; Pittendrigh, Barry R
The biopesticide Spinosad controls many insect pests of stored-food products. Laboratory and field trials were carried out to determine the efficacy of this pesticide against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), the main storage pest of cowpea, Vigna unguiculata, Walp, in West Africa. In the laboratory, Spinosad caused high mortality of adult C. maculatus and decreased the number of eggs laid by females. Spinosad, however, was less toxic in the 24 h treatment to C. maculatus than deltamethrin, an insecticide commonly used in Burkina Faso to control this insect. In "on-farm" experiments, Spinosad was effective in controlling C. maculatus. After 6 mo of storage, the number of insects emerging from cowpeas seeds was reduced by >80% by coating seeds with Spinosad but only by 43% by coating with deltamethrin. Less than 20% of the seeds were perforated in the Spinosad treatment compared with 29% for deltamethrin. Spinosad controlled C. maculatus throughout the 6 mo of cowpea storage whereas deltamethrin failed to control C. maculatus after 3 mo of storage. Spinosad has the potential to be more effective in controlling C. maculatus than deltamethrin.
Adhikary, P; Mukherjee, A; Barik, A
Callosobruchus maculatus (F.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) is an important stored grain pest of Lathyrus sativus L. (Leguminosae), commonly known as khesari, in India, Bangladesh and Ethiopia. Volatiles were collected from four varieties, i.e., Bio L 212 Ratan, Nirmal B-1, WBK-14-7 and WBK-13-1 of uninfested khesari seeds, and subsequently identified and quantified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and gas chromatography flame ionization detector analyses, respectively. A total of 23 volatiles were identified in the four varieties of khesari seeds. In Bio L 212 Ratan and WBK-13-1 seeds, nonanal was the most abundant followed by farnesyl acetone; whereas farnesyl acetone was predominant followed by nonanal in Nirmal B-1 and WBK-14-7 khesari seeds. The olfactory responses of female C. maculatus toward volatile blends from four varieties of khesari seeds, and individual synthetic compounds and their combinations were examined through Y-shaped glass tube olfactometer bioassays. Callosobruchus maculatus showed significant preference for the whole volatile blends from Bio L 212 Ratan seeds compared to whole volatile blends from other three varieties. The insect exhibited attraction to five individual synthetic compounds, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal. A synthetic blend of 448, 390, 1182, 659 and 8114 ng/20 μl methylene chloride of 3-octanone, 3-octanol, linalool oxide, 1-octanol and nonanal, respectively, was most attractive to C. maculatus, and this combination might be used for insect pest management program such as baited traps.
Loha, Kumelachew Mulu; Shakil, Najam A; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Manish K; Srivastava, Chitra
In the present investigation, bioefficacy of developed β-cyfluthrin formulations, utilizing laboratory synthesized poly(ethylene glycols) based amphiphilic copolymers, were evaluated against Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The bioefficacy data indicated that the formulations developed by utilizing polymers having PEG - 1500 (3c) and PEG - 2000 (3d) as the hydrophilic segment showed greater efficacy after 14 days as evident from EC(50) values (2.2 and 1.58 mg L(-1) respectively). Also, release from the commercial SC formulation was faster than developed formulations as the commercial formulation had the lowest EC(50) value on the first day (0.51 mg L(-1)). The mean EC(50) of the commercial formulation against C. maculatus was quite high as compared to those of developed formulations. The results suggest that depending upon the polymer matrix used, the application rate of β-cyfluthrin can be optimized to achieve insect control at the desired level and period. The results described in this paper are promising and provide a comparison of developed formulations with the commercial one showing an earlier degradation of β-cyfluthrin in the latter and relatively prolonged activity in the former.
Lopes, L M; Araújo, A E F; Santos, A C V; Santos, V B; Sousa, A H
The common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris (L.), is one of the most important sources of protein worldwide, and Latin America is one of the recognized centers of diversity of this species. However, storage of this product after harvest is not feasible because of bruchid attacks. This study determined the accumulated normalized rate of emergence and the daily emergence rate of Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae:Bruchinae) in five landrace varieties of common bean (BRL 01, SNA 01, RDR 01, RBC 01, and RBC 13) that occurin southwestern Amazonia. These varieties were selected for this study because they are well-distributed throughout the Amazonian communities. Beans of each variety were infested with 50 unsexed adults, and the insects were removed 13 d after beginning the bioassays. The adult progeny obtained from the feeding substrate were counted and removed every other day after the first emergence, until the end of the emergence period. Differences were observed in the calculated rates of development; however, the time required for development and emergence of the insects was independent. Of the five varieties of bean investigated, we observed that the RDR 01, BRL 01, and SNA 01 cultivars are resistant to Z. subfasciatus; the results indicate that the use of these three varieties can reduce problems associated with bruchid attacks and enable storage of the product after harvesting.
Fogang, Hervet Paulain Dongmo; Womeni, Hilaire Macaire; Piombo, Georges; Barouh, Nathalie; Tapondjou, Léon Azefack
Experiments were conducted in the laboratory to evaluate the bioefficacy of essential and vegetable oils of Zanthoxylum xanthoxyloides (Rutaceae) against Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). The chemical composition of the essential oil and the fatty acid composition of the vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Z. xanthoxyloides were determined. The insecticidal activities of these oils and the associated aromatized clay powder were evaluated against A. obtectus. Both oils were strongly repellent (100% repellency at 0.501 μl/cm² essential oil and 3.144 μl/cm² vegetable oil) and highly toxic (LC₅₀ = 0.118 μl/cm² for essential oil) to this beetle after contact on filter paper. The vapors of the essential oil were highly toxic to adult insects (LC₅₀ = 0.044 μl/cm³), and the aromatized powder made from clay and essential oil was more toxic (LD₅₀ = 0.137 μl/g) than the essential oil alone (LD₅₀ = 0.193 μl/g) after 2 days of exposure on a common bean. Both oils greatly reduced the F₁ insect production and bean weight loss and did not adversely affect the bean seed viability. In general, the results obtained indicate that these plant oils can be used for control of A. obtectus in stored beans.
Andrew Jansen, M; Singh, Sudhanshu S; Chawla, Nikhilesh; Franz, Nico M
Curculio longinasus Chittenden, 1927 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a weevil species common throughout the southwestern United States that uses its rostrum - a very slender, curved, beak-like projection of the head - to excavate tunnels in plant organs (such as acorns) for egg laying (oviposition). Once the apical portion of the rostrum has been inserted into the preferred substrate for oviposition, the female begins rotating around the perimeter of the hole, elevating her head by extending the fore-legs, and rotating the head in place in a drilling motion. This action causes significant elastic deformation of the rostrum, which will bend until it becomes completely straight. To better understand the mechanical behavior of the cuticle as it undergoes deformation during the preparation of oviposition sites, we develop a comprehensive micro/macro model of the micromechanical structure and properties of the cuticle, spanning across all cuticular regions, and reliably mirroring the resultant macroscale properties of the cuticle. Our modeling approach relies on the use of multi-scale, hierarchical biomaterial representation, and employs various micromechanical schemata - e.g., Mori-Tanaka, effective field, and Maxwell - to calculate the homogenized properties of representative volume elements at each level in the hierarchy. We describe the configuration and behavior of this model in detail, and discuss the theoretical implications and limitations of this approach with emphasis on future biomechanical and comparative evolutionary research. Our detailed account of this approach can thereby serve as a methodological template for exploring the biomechanical behavior of new insect structures.
Osman, Wafaa; El-Samad, Lamia M; Mokhamer, El-Hassan; El-Touhamy, Aya; Shonouda, Mourad
Soil pollution in Egypt became far more serious than before due to either the heavy usage of different toxic pesticides or aerosol deposition of industrial pollutants. The present mentioned ground beetle, Blaps polycresta Tschinkel 1975 (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), showed ecological, morphological, and histological alterations in adult insects as biomonitors. Two cultivated sites (reference and polluted) were chosen for sampling the insects. The results indicated a significant increase in soil cadmium concentration of the polluted site leading to sex-specific difference in cadmium accumulation in gonads and alimentary canal of insects that being higher in males than females. The cadmium pollution leads significantly to a decrease in population density, a reduction in body weight, an increase in mortality rate, and an increase in sex ratio of the insects. The results also revealed a striking decrease in body length of the polluted insects with a marked increase in the percentage of deformed gonads and alimentary canal of both sexes. Some histopathological alterations were also recorded in testis, ovary, and midgut of the polluted insects. Our results confirmed that beetles are a good bioindicator for soil pollution, and the different studied parameters could be easily employed as sensitive monitors for cadmium soil pollution.
Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Ceballos, Ricardo; Lizama, Marcelo; Pardo, Fernando; Perich, Fernando; Quiroz, Andrés
The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of host volatiles in the relationship between a blueberry plant Vaccinium corymbosum L. and the raspberry weevil Aegorhinus superciliosus (Guérin) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the principal pest of blueberry in the south of Chile. Volatiles from the aerial part of different phenological stages of the host were collected on Porapak Q and analyzed by coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Several chemical groups were identified including green leaf volatiles, aromatic compounds, and terpenes. The olfactometric responses of A. superciliosus toward different odor sources were studied in a four-arm olfactometer. Blueberry shoots at the phenological stages of fruit set, and blue-pink fruit color elicited the greatest behavioral responses from weevils. Five compounds (2-nonanone, eucalyptol, R- and S-limonene, and 4-ethyl benzaldehyde) elicited an attractant behavioral response from A. superciliosus. The results suggest the host location behavior of A. superciliosus could be mediated by volatiles derived from V. corymbosum. This work has identified a number of compounds with which it is possible to develop a lure for the principal pest of blueberry in southern Chile.
Leskey, Tracy C; Piñero, Jaime C; Prokopy, Ronald J
The plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), one of the most important pests of apple (Malus spp.) in eastern and central North America, historically has been managed in New England apple orchards by three full block insecticide applications. Efforts to reduce insecticide inputs against plum curculio include perimeter row sprays, particularly after petal fall, to control immigrating adults. The odor-baited trap tree approach represents a new reduced input strategy for managing plum curculio based on the application of insecticides to a few perimeter-row trap trees rather than the entire perimeter row or full orchard block. Here, we compared the efficacy of a trap tree approach with perimeter row treatments to manage populations after petal fall in commercial apple orchards in 2005 and 2006. Injury was significantly greater in trap trees compared with unbaited perimeter row treated trees in both years of the study. In 2005, heavy rains prevented growers from applying insecticide applications at regular intervals resulting in high injury in nearly all blocks regardless of type of management strategy. In 2006, both the trap-tree and perimeter-row treatments prevented penetration by immigrating populations and resulted in economically acceptable levels of injury. The trap tree management strategy resulted in a reduction of approximately 70% total trees being treated with insecticide compared with perimeter row sprays and 93% compared with standard full block sprays.