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Sample records for anthracycline-based combination chemotherapy

  1. Anthracycline-based chemotherapy in extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMC) is a rare subgroup within soft tissue sarcomas. Its sensitivity to chemotherapy is reported to be low. Methods We retrospectively reviewed a series of 11 EMC patients treated as from 2001 within the Italian Rare Cancer Network (RCN) with anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Pathologic diagnosis was centrally reviewed in all cases and confirmed by the presence of the specific chromosomal rearrangements, involving the NR4A3 gene locus on chromosome 9. Results Eleven patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy were included (M/F: 9/2 – mean age: 52 years – site of primary: lower limb/other = 9/2 - metastatic = 11 – front line/ further line = 10/1 – anthracycline as single agent/ combined with ifosfamide = 1/10). Ten patients are evaluable for response. Overall, best response according to RECIST was: partial response (PR) = 4 (40 %), stable disease (SD) = 3, progressive disease (PD) = 3 cases. Median PFS was 8 (range 2–10) months. Conclusions By contrast to what reported so far, anthracycline-based chemotherapy is active in a distinct proportion of EMC patients. PMID:24345066

  2. Chromosome 17 Centromere Duplication and Responsiveness to Anthracycline-Based Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer12

    PubMed Central

    Tibau, Ariadna; López-Vilaró, Laura; Pérez-Olabarria, Maitane; Vázquez, Tania; Pons, Cristina; Gich, Ignasi; Alonso, Carmen; Ojeda, Belén; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Lerma, Enrique; Barnadas, Agustí; Escuin, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) genes have been proposed as predictive biomarkers of sensitivity to anthracycline chemotherapy. Recently, chromosome 17 centromere enumeration probe (CEP17) duplication has also been associated with increased responsiveness to anthracyclines. However, reports are conflicting and none of these tumor markers can yet be considered a clinically reliable predictor of response to anthracyclines. We studied the association of TOP2A gene alterations, HER2 gene amplification, and CEP17 duplication with response to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 140 patients with operable or locally advanced breast cancer. HER2 was tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization and TOP2A and CEP17 by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Thirteen patients (9.3%) achieved pathologic complete response (pCR). HER2 amplification was present in 24 (17.5%) of the tumors. TOP2A amplification occurred in seven tumors (5.1%). CEP17 duplication was detected in 13 patients (9.5%). CEP17 duplication correlated with a higher rate of pCR [odds ratio (OR) 6.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-34.29, P = .026], and analysis of TOP2A amplification showed a trend bordering on statistical significance (OR 6.97, 95% CI 0.96-50.12, P = .054). TOP2A amplification and CEP17 duplication combined were strongly associated with pCR (OR 6.71, 95% CI 1.66-27.01, P = .007). HER2 amplification did not correlate with pCR. Our results suggest that CEP17 duplication predicts pCR to primary anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CEP17 duplication, TOP2A amplifications, and HER2 amplifications were not associated with prognosis. PMID:25379022

  3. Chromosome 17 centromere duplication and responsiveness to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Tibau, Ariadna; López-Vilaró, Laura; Pérez-Olabarria, Maitane; Vázquez, Tania; Pons, Cristina; Gich, Ignasi; Alonso, Carmen; Ojeda, Belén; Ramón y Cajal, Teresa; Lerma, Enrique; Barnadas, Agustí; Escuin, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2A) genes have been proposed as predictive biomarkers of sensitivity to anthracycline chemotherapy. Recently, chromosome 17 centromere enumeration probe (CEP17) duplication has also been associated with increased responsiveness to anthracyclines. However, reports are conflicting and none of these tumor markers can yet be considered a clinically reliable predictor of response to anthracyclines. We studied the association of TOP2A gene alterations, HER2 gene amplification, and CEP17 duplication with response to anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in 140 patients with operable or locally advanced breast cancer. HER2 was tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization and TOP2A and CEP17 by chromogenic in situ hybridization. Thirteen patients (9.3%) achieved pathologic complete response (pCR). HER2 amplification was present in 24 (17.5%) of the tumors. TOP2A amplification occurred in seven tumors (5.1%). CEP17 duplication was detected in 13 patients (9.5%). CEP17 duplication correlated with a higher rate of pCR [odds ratio (OR) 6.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.25-34.29, P = .026], and analysis of TOP2A amplification showed a trend bordering on statistical significance (OR 6.97, 95% CI 0.96-50.12, P = .054). TOP2A amplification and CEP17 duplication combined were strongly associated with pCR (OR 6.71, 95% CI 1.66-27.01, P = .007). HER2 amplification did not correlate with pCR. Our results suggest that CEP17 duplication predicts pCR to primary anthracycline-based chemotherapy. CEP17 duplication, TOP2A amplifications, and HER2 amplifications were not associated with prognosis.

  4. Right heart function deteriorates in breast cancer patients undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Boczar, Kevin Emery; Aseyev, Olexiy; Sulpher, Jeffrey; Johnson, Christopher; Burwash, Ian G; Turek, Michele; Dent, Susan; Dwivedi, Girish

    2016-09-01

    Cardiotoxicity from anthracycline-based chemotherapy is an important cause of early and late morbidity and mortality in breast cancer patients. Left ventricular (LV) function is assessed for patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy to identify cardiotoxicity. However, animal studies suggest that right ventricular (RV) function may be a more sensitive measure to detect LV dysfunction. The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if breast cancer patients undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy experience RV dysfunction. Forty-nine breast cancer patients undergoing anthracycline-based chemotherapy at the Ottawa Hospital between November 2007 and March 2013 and who had 2 echocardiograms performed at least 3months apart were retrospectively identified. Right atrial area (RAA), right ventricular fractional area change (RV FAC) and RV longitudinal strain of the free wall (RV LSFW) were evaluated according to the American Society of Echocardiography guidelines. The majority (48/49) of patients were females with an average age of 53.4 (95% CI: 50.1-56.7years). From baseline to follow-up study, average LV ejection fraction (LVEF) decreased from 62.22 (95% CI: 59.1-65.4) to 57.4% (95% CI: 54.0-60.9) (P=0.04). During the same time period, the mean RAA increased from 12.1cm(2) (95% CI: 11.1-13.0cm(2)) to 13.8cm(2) (95% CI: 12.7-14.9cm(2)) (P=0.02), mean RV FAC decreased (P=0.01) from 48.3% (95% CI: 44.8-51.74) to 42.1% (95% CI: 38.5-45.6%), and mean RV LSFW worsened from -16.2% (95% CI: -18.1 to -14.4%) to -13.81% (95% CI: -15.1 to -12.5%) (P=0.04). This study demonstrates that breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy experience adverse effects on both right atrial size and RV function. Further studies are required to determine the impact of these adverse effects on right heart function and whether this represents an earlier marker of cardiotoxicity. © 2016 The authors.

  5. Diastolic Dysfunction Following Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients: Incidence and Predictors

    PubMed Central

    González, Iria; Del Castillo, Silvia; Muñiz, Javier; Morales, Luis J.; Moreno, Fernando; Jiménez, Rosa; Cristóbal, Carmen; Graupner, Catherine; Talavera, Pedro; Curcio, Alejandro; Martínez, Paula; Guerra, Juan A.; Alonso, Joaquín J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Cardiotoxicity represents a major limitation for the use of anthracyclines or trastuzumab in breast cancer patients. Data from longitudinal studies of diastolic dysfunction (DD) in this group of patients are scarce. The objective of the present study was to assess the incidence, evolution, and predictors of DD in patients with breast cancer treated with anthracyclines. Methods. This analytical, observational cohort study comprised 100 consecutive patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapy (CHT) for breast cancer. All patients underwent clinical evaluation, echocardiogram, and measurement of cardiac biomarkers at baseline, end of anthracycline-based CHT, and at 3 months and 9 months after anthracycline-based CHT was completed. Fifteen patients receiving trastuzumab were followed with two additional visits at 6 and 12 months after the last dose of anthracycline-based CHT. A multivariate analysis was performed to find variables related to the development of DD. Fifteen of the 100 patients had baseline DD and were excluded from this analysis. Results. At the end of follow-up (median: 12 months, interquartile range: 11.1–12.8), 49 patients (57.6%) developed DD. DD was persistent in 36 (73%) but reversible in the remaining 13 patients (27%). Four patients developed cardiotoxicity (three patients had left ventricular systolic dysfunction and one suffered a sudden cardiac death). None of the patients with normal diastolic function developed systolic dysfunction during follow-up. In the logistic regression model, body mass index (BMI) and age were independently related to the development of DD, with the following odds ratio values: BMI: 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04–1.36), and age: 1.12 (95% CI: 1.03–1.19). Neither cardiac biomarkers nor remaining clinical variables were predictors of DD. Conclusion. Development of diastolic dysfunction after treatment with anthracycline or anthracycline- plus trastuzumab chemotherapy is common. BMI

  6. Prognostic implication of HSPA (HSP70) in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nadin, Silvina B; Sottile, Mayra L; Montt-Guevara, Maria M; Gauna, Gisel V; Daguerre, Pedro; Leuzzi, Marcela; Gago, Francisco E; Ibarra, Jorge; Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Ciocca, Daniel R; Vargas-Roig, Laura M

    2014-07-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is used in patients with locally advanced breast cancer to reduce tumor size before surgery. Unfortunately, resistance to chemotherapy may arise from a variety of mechanisms. Heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are highly expressed in mammary tumor cells, have been implicated in anticancer drug resistance. In spite of the widely described value of HSPs as molecular markers in cancer, their implications in breast tumors treated with anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been poorly explored. In this study, we have evaluated, by immunohistochemistry, the expression of HSP27 (HSPB1) and HSP70 (HSPA) in serial biopsies from locally advanced breast cancer patients (n = 60) treated with doxorubicin (DOX)- or epirubicin (EPI)-based monochemotherapy. Serial biopsies were taken at days 1, 3, 7, and 21, and compared with prechemotherapy and surgical biopsies. After surgery, the patients received additional chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil. High nuclear HSPB1 and HSPA expressions were found in invasive cells after DOX/EPI administration (P < 0.001), but the drug did not affect the cytoplasmic expression of the HSPs. Infiltrating lymphocytes showed high nuclear HSPA (P < 0.01) levels at postchemotherapy. No correlations were found between HSPs expression and the clinical and pathological response to neoadjuvant therapy. However, in postchemotherapy biopsies, high nuclear (>31 % of the cells) and cytoplasmic HSPA expressions (>11 % of the tumor cells) were associated with better DFS (P = 0.0348 and P = 0.0118, respectively). We conclude that HSPA expression may be a useful prognostic marker in breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant DOX/EPI chemotherapy indicating the need to change the administered drugs after surgery for overcoming drug resistance.

  7. Cardioprotective Effect of Dexrazoxane in Patients with HER2-Positive Breast Cancer Who Receive Anthracycline Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy Followed by Trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Ho; Lee, Ji Eun; Youn, Ho-Joong; Song, Byung Joo

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We intended to determine whether dexrazoxane (DZR) is cardioprotective during administration of adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy followed by a 1-year trastuzumab treatment. Methods The medical records of 228 patients who underwent surgical resection and received adjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer between January 2010 and December 2014 were reviewed. Approximately 25% of patients received DZR prior to each administration of doxorubicin during doxorubicin with cyclophosphamide (AC) chemotherapy. DZR was not administered during the 1-year trastuzumab maintenance period. Rates of cardiac events (reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] by 10% or more; reduction in absolute LVEF to <45%) and cardiac event-free duration (CFD) were examined. The trastuzumab interruption rate was also assessed. Results Twelve percent of patients experienced a cardiac event. Repeated-measures analysis of variance for ejection fraction revealed a significant main effect of time, and a significant group (DZR)×time interaction. The group treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and DZR experienced significantly lower frequencies of cardiac events than the adjuvant chemotherapy only group. In multivariate analysis, DZR administration was associated with significantly fewer cardiac events. Moreover, DZR administration was an independent good prognostic factor for CFD. Only one patient (2.3%) experienced early interruption of trastuzumab in the adjuvant chemotherapy with DZR group due to cardiac toxicity, whereas 10 patients (7.6%) experienced a trastuzumab stop event in the adjuvant chemotherapy only group. Conclusion DZR is cardioprotective in HER2-positive breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab. A large cohort randomized trial is needed to determine if DZR has an effect on trastuzumab interruption and completion of 12-month trastuzumab. Because

  8. BRCAness as a Biomarker for Predicting Prognosis and Response to Anthracycline-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Patients with Triple-Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Reiki; Osako, Tomofumi; Arima, Nobuyuki; Okumura, Yasuhiro; Okido, Masayuki; Yamada, Mai; Kai, Masaya; Kishimoto, Junji; Miyazaki, Tetsuyuki; Oda, Yoshinao; Otsuka, Takao; Nakamura, Masafumi

    2016-01-01

    Background Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous tumor that encompasses many different subclasses of the disease. In this study, we assessed BRCAness, defined as the shared characteristics between sporadic and BRCA1-mutated tumors, in a large cohort of TNBC cases. Methods The BRCAness of 262 patients with primary TNBCs resected between January 2004 and December 2014 was determined through the isolation of DNA from tumor tissue. Classification of BRCAness was performed using multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The tumor subtypes were determined immunohistochemically using resected specimens. Results Of the 262 TNBCs, the results of the MLPA assays showed that 174 (66.4%) tumors had BRCAness. Patients with BRCAness tumors were younger than patients with non-BRCAness tumors (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference between the two groups regarding their pathological stages. The BRCAness group had a significantly shorter recurrence-free survival (RFS) compared with the non-BRCAness group (P = 0.04) and had a shorter overall survival (OS) although this did not reach statistical significance. Adjuvant treatments with anthracycline-based regimens provided significantly greater benefits to the BRCAness group (P = 0.003 for RFS, and P = 0.03 for OS). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that BRCAness was an independent negative prognostic factor, and the anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy was an independent positive prognostic factor for both RFS and OS in TNBC. Conclusions The 66.4% patients of TNBCs showed BRCAness. BRCAness is essential as a biomarker in the subclassification of TNBCs and might be of use for predicting their prognosis. Furthermore, this biomarker might be a predictive factor for the effectiveness of anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy for patients with TNBCs. PMID:27977696

  9. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Front-line Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy Regimens for Peripheral T-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    AbouYabis, Abeer N.; Shenoy, Pareen J.; Sinha, Rajni; Flowers, Christopher R.; Lechowicz, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Anthracycline-based chemotherapy remains standard treatment for peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) although its benefits have been questioned. We performed systematic literature review and meta-analyses examining the complete response (CR) and overall survival (OS) rates for patients with PTCL. The CR rate for PTCL patients ranged from 35.9% (95% CI 23.4–50.7%) for enteropathy-type T-cell lymphoma (ETTL) to 65.8% (95% CI 54.0–75.9%) for anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). The 5-year OS was 38.5% (95% CI 35.5–41.6%) for all PTCL patients and ranged from 20.3% (95% CI 12.5–31.2%) for ETTL to 56.5% (95% CI 42.8–69.2%) for ALCL. These data suggest that there is marked heterogeneity across PTCL subtypes in the benefits of anthracycline-based chemotherapy. While anthracyclines produce CR in half of PTCL patients, this yields reasonable 5-year OS for patients with ALCL but not for those with PTCL-NOS or ETTL. Novel agents and regimens are needed to improve outcomes for these patients. PMID:22084700

  10. A prospective comparison of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and radionuclide ventriculography in the assessment of cardiac function in patients treated with anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sipola, Petri; Petri, Sipola; Vanninen, Esko; Esko, Vanninen; Jantunen, Esa; Esa, Jantunen; Nousiainen, Tapio; Tapio, Nousiainen; Kiviniemi, Mikko; Mikko, Kiviniemi; Hartikainen, Juha; Juha, Hartikainen; Kuittinen, Taru; Taru, Kuittinen

    2012-01-01

    To compare cardiac MRI and radionuclide ventriculography (RVG) in cardiac monitoring during anthracycline (doxorubicin)-based chemotherapy. We studied 10 previously untreated adult non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was assessed by MRI and RVG simultaneously. In addition, left ventricular (LV) and left atrial size were determined by MRI. Both MRI and RVG measurements were determined at baseline and then repeated after eight cycles of CHOP chemotherapy (cumulative doxorubicin dose of 400 mg/m²). Power calculations were made on the basis of reproducibility measurements. Clinical heart failure was not observed in any patient during the study. MRI detected a statistically significant increase in LV end-diastolic volume (128 ± 39 vs. 151 ± 46 ml, P<0.05) and LV mass (119 ± 32 vs. 146 ± 49 g, P<0.05) after doxorubicin therapy but no change in LVEF (46 ± 8 vs. 47 ± 11%, P=NS) or left atrial area. A significant LVEF reduction compared with baseline was observed by RVG (61 ± 10 vs. 50 ± 6%, P<0.01). On average, MRI resulted in 7 ± 10% lower LVEF values compared with RVG. RVG seems to be a valuable and repeatable tool in detecting early, subclinical deterioration in cardiac function and is the method of choice in the follow-up of LV function during anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Whether LV volumetric and mass changes found in MRI could predict later significant permanent cardiac damage should be evaluated in larger studies with long-term follow-up.

  11. Differential Response of Immunohistochemically Defined Breast Cancer Subtypes to Anthracycline-Based Adjuvant Chemotherapy with or without Paclitaxel

    PubMed Central

    Fountzilas, George; Dafni, Urania; Bobos, Mattheos; Batistatou, Anna; Kotoula, Vassiliki; Trihia, Helen; Malamou-Mitsi, Vassiliki; Miliaras, Spyros; Chrisafi, Sofia; Papadopoulos, Savvas; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Filippidis, Theodoros; Gogas, Helen; Koletsa, Triantafyllia; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios; Televantou, Despina; Kalogeras, Konstantine T.; Pectasides, Dimitrios; Skarlos, Dimosthenis V.; Koutras, Angelos; Dimopoulos, Meletios A.

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of adjuvant dose-dense sequential chemotherapy with epirubicin, paclitaxel, and CMF in subgroups of patients with high-risk operable breast cancer, according to tumor subtypes defined by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Materials and Methods Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue samples from 1,039 patients participating in two adjuvant dose-dense sequential chemotherapy phase III trials were centrally assessed in tissue micro-arrays by IHC for 6 biological markers, that is, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PgR), HER2, Ki67, cytokeratin 5 (CK5), and EGFR. The majority of the cases were further evaluated for HER2 amplification by FISH. Patients were classified as: luminal A (ER/PgR-positive, HER2-negative, Ki67low); luminal B (ER/PgR-positive, HER2-negative, Ki67high); luminal-HER2 (ER/PgR-positive, HER2-positive); HER2-enriched (ER-negative, PgR-negative, HER2-positive); triple-negative (TNBC) (ER-negative, PgR-negative, HER2-negative); and basal core phenotype (BCP) (TNBC, CK5-positive and/or EGFR-positive). Results After a median follow-up time of 105.4 months the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 73.1% and 86.1%, respectively. Among patients with HER2-enriched tumors there was a significant benefit in both DFS and OS (log-rank test; p = 0.021 and p = 0.006, respectively) for those treated with paclitaxel. The subtype classification was found to be of both predictive and prognostic value. Setting luminal A as the referent category, the adjusted for prognostic factors HR for relapse for patients with TNBC was 1.91 (95% CI: 1.31–2.80, Wald's p = 0.001) and for death 2.53 (95% CI: 1.62–3.60, p<0.001). Site of and time to first relapse differed according to subtype. Locoregional relapses and brain metastases were more frequent in patients with TNBC, while liver metastases were more often seen in patients with HER2

  12. Utility of Routine Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction Measurement Before Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy in Patients With Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Amber L.; Gundrum, Jacob D.; McHugh, Vicki L.; Go, Ronald S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the lack of evidence, routine left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) measurement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) before anthracycline-based chemotherapy (ABC) is recommended by practice guidelines and required in DLBCL trials in the United States. Methods: We determined the frequency of the following in 197 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL treated at our institution: one, LVEF measurement before ABC; two, finding of asymptomatic LV dysfunction (ALVD); and three, modification in treatment strategy as a result of LVEF measurement. Results: The median age was 71 years, and 54% of patients were men. LVEF was measured in 128 patients (65%) pretreatment, including in 15 with prior congestive heart failure (CHF). The reasons for not measuring LVEF were: clinically low risk for ALVD (n = 32), medical frailty (n = 15), palliative care (n = 3), ABC not standard therapy (n = 12), and prior CHF (n = 7). Among patients without prior CHF who had LVEF assessed (n = 113), ALVD was detected in four (4%), with LVEF ranging from 41% to 48%. Four patients were not treated despite normal LVEF because of comorbidities and anticipated toxicities. In contrast, all four patients with ALVD received ABC. No patient had a modification in treatment strategy as a result of LVEF measurement. After a median follow-up of 60 months, among those who remained alive, CHF developed in 15% versus 6% of patients receiving ABC who did and did not have LVEF measured, respectively (P = .246). Conclusion: Our findings challenge the utility of routine LVEF measurement in patients with DLBCL before ABC. Potential cost savings to our health care system could be substantial. PMID:23598842

  13. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) in patients receiving neoadjuvant and adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy for breast cancer: incidence and risk factors.

    PubMed

    Waks, Adrienne G; Tolaney, Sara M; Galar, Alicia; Arnaout, Amal; Porter, Julie B; Marty, Francisco M; Winer, Eric P; Hammond, Sarah P; Baden, Lindsey R

    2015-11-01

    Opportunistic infection with Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP) has not been recognized as a significant complication of early-stage breast cancer treatment. However, we have observed an increase in PCP incidence among patients receiving chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer. Herein we identify risk factors for and calculate incidence of PCP in this population. We identified all cases of PCP at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Brigham and Women's Hospital (DFCI/BWH) from 1/1/2000 to 12/31/2013 in patients with stage I-III breast cancer treated with an adriamycin/cyclophosphamide (AC)-containing regimen. Nineteen cases of PCP in non-metastatic breast cancer patients were identified. All patients with PCP were diagnosed after receipt of either three or four cycles of AC chemotherapy on a dose-dense schedule. Patients who developed PCP were treated with median 16.4 mg prednisone equivalents/day as nausea prophylaxis for a median 64 days. The overall incidence of PCP among 2057 patients treated with neoadjuvant or adjuvant dose-dense AC for three or more cycles was 0.6 % (95 % confidence interval 0.3-1.0 %). No PCP was diagnosed in 1001 patients treated with non-dose-dense AC. There was one death from PCP. Women receiving dose-dense AC chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer are at risk for PCP. Administering the same chemotherapy and corticosteroid dose over an 8-week versus 12-week non-dose-dense schedule appears to have created a novel infectious vulnerability. Replacing dexamethasone with alternative anti-emetics may mitigate this risk.

  14. Anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy in surgically resected axillary node-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    RECCHIA, FRANCESCO; CANDELORO, GIAMPIERO; CESTA, ALISIA; DI STASO, MARIO; BONFILI, PIERLUIGI; GRAVINA, GIOVANNI LUCA; DI CESARE, ERNESTO; NECOZIONE, STEFANO; REA, SILVIO

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the toxicity and efficacy of 4 courses of anthracyclines-taxane (AT) chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy (XRT) concurrent with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) in surgically resected axillary node-positive (N+) breast cancer. A total of 200 women with N+ breast cancer were treated with adriamycin and docetaxel followed by XRT concurrent with six courses of CMF. Two courses of dose-dense chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide, supported by pegfilgrastim, were administered to patients with >5 histologically confirmed axillary lymph node metastases and patients with triple-negative disease. Additional treatments included 1 year of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients, 5 years of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue in premenopausal women and 5 years of an aromatase inhibitor (AI) in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients. The mean number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 4.4 (range, 2–37), 52% of the patients were premenopausal, 74% were ER+ and 26% had triple-negative disease. After a median follow-up of 73 months, grade 2 and 3 hematological toxicity was observed in 20% of the patients. The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 73 and 77%, respectively. There was no significant difference in DFS between ER+ and estrogen receptor-negative (ER−) patients (P>0.05), whereas the OS was better in ER+ vs. ER− patients (P<0.05) and in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal patients (P<0.005). In conclusion, induction AT concurrent CMF and XRT and dose-dense chemotherapy followed by AI in N+ high-risk breast cancer was associated with a low level of systemic and late cardiac toxicity and excellent local control, DFS and OS. PMID:24772320

  15. Anthracycline-based induction chemotherapy followed by concurrent cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil and radiation therapy in surgically resected axillary node-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Francesco; Candeloro, Giampiero; Cesta, Alisia; DI Staso, Mario; Bonfili, Pierluigi; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; DI Cesare, Ernesto; Necozione, Stefano; Rea, Silvio

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the toxicity and efficacy of 4 courses of anthracyclines-taxane (AT) chemotherapy followed by radiation therapy (XRT) concurrent with cyclophosphamide, methotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (CMF) in surgically resected axillary node-positive (N+) breast cancer. A total of 200 women with N+ breast cancer were treated with adriamycin and docetaxel followed by XRT concurrent with six courses of CMF. Two courses of dose-dense chemotherapy with ifosfamide, carboplatin and etoposide, supported by pegfilgrastim, were administered to patients with >5 histologically confirmed axillary lymph node metastases and patients with triple-negative disease. Additional treatments included 1 year of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive patients, 5 years of a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue in premenopausal women and 5 years of an aromatase inhibitor (AI) in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) patients. The mean number of positive axillary lymph nodes was 4.4 (range, 2-37), 52% of the patients were premenopausal, 74% were ER+ and 26% had triple-negative disease. After a median follow-up of 73 months, grade 2 and 3 hematological toxicity was observed in 20% of the patients. The 10-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 73 and 77%, respectively. There was no significant difference in DFS between ER+ and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) patients (P>0.05), whereas the OS was better in ER+ vs. ER- patients (P<0.05) and in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal patients (P<0.005). In conclusion, induction AT concurrent CMF and XRT and dose-dense chemotherapy followed by AI in N+ high-risk breast cancer was associated with a low level of systemic and late cardiac toxicity and excellent local control, DFS and OS.

  16. Accuracy of MRI for treatment response assessment after taxane- and anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy in HER2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Charehbili, A; Wasser, M N; Smit, V T H B M; Putter, H; van Leeuwen-Stok, A E; Meershoek-Klein Kranenbarg, W M; Liefers, G J; van de Velde, C J H; Nortier, J W R; Kroep, J R

    2014-10-01

    Studies suggest that MRI is an accurate means for assessing tumor size after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC). However, accuracy might be dependent on the receptor status of tumors. MRI accuracy for response assessment after homogenous NAC in a relative large group of patients with stage II/III HER2-negative breast cancer has not been reported before. 250 patients from 26 hospitals received NAC (docetaxel, adriamycin and cyclophosphamide) in the context of the NEOZOTAC trial. MRI was done after 3 cycles and post-NAC. Imaging (RECIST 1.1) and pathological (Miller and Payne) responses were recorded. Accuracy measures were calculated and MRI and pathologically assessed tumor sizes were correlated. Tumor size over- and underestimation were quantified. Accuracy of MRI for determining pathological complete response (pCR) was 76%. The ROC-curve of MRI response and pCR had an area under the curve value of 0.63 (95% C.I. 0.52-0.74). The correlation coefficient of MRI and histopathological tumor measurements was 0.46 (p < 0.001). Correlations were different for ER-positive (r = 0.40, p < 0.001) and ER-negative (r = 0.76, p < 0.001) breast tumors. MRI under- and overestimated the tumor size in 47% and 40% of all patients. In cases of substantial tumor size underestimation (>2 cm), surgical margins were more often tumor positive compared to the rest of the patients (33% vs.12%, p = 0.005). MRI measurements correlated moderately with tumor size on the surgical specimen. Only in ER-negative breast tumors, MRI tumor sizes correlated sufficiently with residual tumor size on the pathological specimen. Therefore, post-NAC MRI should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of patient reported quality of life and impact of treatment side effects experienced with a taxane-containing regimen and standard anthracycline based chemotherapy for early breast cancer: 6 year results from the UK TACT trial (CRUK/01/001).

    PubMed

    Hall, E; Cameron, D; Waters, R; Barrett-Lee, P; Ellis, P; Russell, S; Bliss, J M; Hopwood, P

    2014-09-01

    The TACT trial (CRUK/01/001) compared adjuvant sequential FEC-docetaxel (FEC-D) chemotherapy with standard anthracycline-based chemotherapy of similar duration in women with early breast cancer. Results at a median of 5 years suggested no improvement in disease-free survival with FEC-D. Given differing toxicity profiles of the regimens, the impact on quality of life (QL) was explored. Patients from 44 centres completed standardised QL questionnaires before chemotherapy, after cycles 4 and 8, at 9, 12, 18 and 24 months and at 6 years follow-up. Patient diaries assessed frequency, associated distress and impact on daily activity of 15 treatment related side effects. 830 patients (415 FEC-D; 415 controls) contributed assessments during 0-24 months; 362 of whom participated again at 6 years. During chemotherapy, FEC-D impaired global health/QL and depression rates and significantly more QL domains than standard regimens. Novel diary card ratings highlighted significantly more distress and interference with daily activities due to FEC-D side effects compared with standard treatment. In both groups, most QL parameters returned to baseline levels by 2 years and were unchanged at 6 years. Within expected negative effects of chemotherapy on wide ranging QL domains FEC-D patients reported greater toxicity, disruption and distress during treatment with no improvement in disease outcome at 5 years than patients receiving standard anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Findings should inform future patients of relative costs and benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison between the antiemetic effects of palonosetron and granisetron in breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based regimens

    PubMed Central

    OHZAWA, HIDEYUKI; MIKI, ATSUSHI; HOZUMI, YASUO; MIYAZAKI, CHIEKO; SAGARA, YUKA; TANAKA, YUMIKO; SHIBA, SATOMI; JOUTOKU, HIROMI; SAKURAGI, MASAKO; TAKEHARA, MEGUMI; SAKUMA, YASUNARU; NISHIMURA, WATARU; FUJII, HIROFUMI; YASUDA, YOSHIKAZU

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting is a serious adverse side-effect of anthracycline-based chemotherapy regimens, in patients with breast cancer. A combination of three drugs, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT3) receptor antagonist, aprepitant and dexamethasone, is recommended for antiemetic therapy. Palonosetron (PALO), a novel 5-HT3 receptor antagonist has been identified to be effective against delayed nausea and vomiting. In this study, the results of PALO for patients who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy were compared with that of granisetron (GRA) using a crossover study design. This study evaluated the efficacy of antiemetics in the first cycle of chemotherapy, as well as the second and third cycles. A total of 21 patients and 19 patients were assigned to PALO and GRA treatment groups during the first cycle of chemotherapy, respectively. The patients switched to the other antiemetic drug for the second chemotherapy cycle (PALO followed by GRA or GRA followed by PALO). The patients could select PALO or GRA antiemetics for the third cycle, according to their preference. A total of 21 patients selected PALO and 18 patients selected GRA in the third cycle, and one patient was withdrawn from the study as their third cycle questionnaire was not obtained. No significant differences between PALO and GRA were identified in first and second cycles. However, during the third cycle, a significant difference was observed in acute-phase complete control of emetic events between the PALO and GRA groups, which was defined as no emetic episode, no additional antiemetic treatment and no more than mild nausea, between PALO and GRA. These results demonstrated that changing antiemetics may affect the efficacy of antiemetics. This study indicates that alteration of antiemetic regimens, including drug combination and order, may improve the efficacy of antiemetic treatment. PMID:25435944

  19. Outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia failing to front-line treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based chemotherapy (PETHEMA protocols LPA96 and LPA99): benefit of an early intervention.

    PubMed

    Esteve, J; Escoda, L; Martín, G; Rubio, V; Díaz-Mediavilla, J; González, M; Rivas, C; Alvarez, C; González San Miguel, J D; Brunet, S; Tomás, J F; Tormo, M; Sayas, M J; Sánchez Godoy, P; Colomer, D; Bolufer, P; Sanz, M A

    2007-03-01

    To determine prognosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) failing to front-line therapy with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracyclines, outcome of 52 patients (32 M/20 F; age: 37, 3-72) included in PETHEMA trials LPA96 and LPA99 who presented with either molecular failure (MOLrel, n=16) or hematological relapse (HEMrel, n=36) was analyzed. Salvage therapy consisted of ATRA and high-dose ara-C-based chemotherapy (HDAC) in most cases (83%), followed by stem-cell transplantation (autologous, 18; allogeneic, 10; syngeneic, 1). Fourteen patients with MOLrel (88%) achieved second molecular complete response (molCR), whereas 81% HEMrel patients responded to second-line treatment, with 58% molCR. After median follow-up of 45 months, four MOLrel and 18 HEMrel patients, respectively, experienced a second relapse. Outcome after MOLrel compared favorably to HEMrel, with longer survival (5-year survival: 64+/-14 vs 24+/-8%, P=0.01) and lower relapse risk (5-year relapse risk: 30+/-13 vs 64+/-9%; P=0.044). Additionally, age

  20. Understanding resistance to combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pritchard, Justin R; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Hemann, Michael T

    2012-10-01

    The current clinical application of combination chemotherapy is guided by a historically successful set of practices that were developed by basic and clinical researchers 50-60 years ago. Thus, in order to understand how emerging approaches to drug development might aid the creation of new therapeutic combinations, it is critical to understand the defining principles underlying classic combination therapy and the original experimental rationales behind them. One such principle is that the use of combination therapies with independent mechanisms of action can minimize the evolution of drug resistance. Another is that in order to kill sufficient cancer cells to cure a patient, multiple drugs must be delivered at their maximum tolerated dose - a condition that allows for enhanced cancer cell killing with manageable toxicity. In light of these models, we aim to explore recent genomic evidence underlying the mechanisms of resistance to the combination regimens constructed on these principles. Interestingly, we find that emerging genomic evidence contradicts some of the rationales of early practitioners in developing commonly used drug regimens. However, we also find that the addition of recent targeted therapies has yet to change the current principles underlying the construction of anti-cancer combinatorial regimens, nor have they made substantial inroads into the treatment of most cancers. We suggest that emerging systems/network biology approaches have an immense opportunity to impact the rational development of successful drug regimens. Specifically, by examining drug combinations in multivariate ways, next generation combination therapies can be constructed with a clear understanding of how mechanisms of resistance to multi-drug regimens differ from single agent resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Rationale for combining immunotherapy with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Dalgleish, Angus G

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has usually been considered as an alternative to more traditional modalities. Moreover, it has previously been felt that chemotherapy is inherently immunosuppressive and not suitable for combining with immunotherapy. In this review, the concept of combining different modalities that result in cell death, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy, with immunotherapy is explored. Tumors actively cause immune suppression which can be reversed by their removal but when this is not possible, enhancing the immune response with nonspecific immune stimulation can enhance the response to other modalities, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Additionally, several chemotherapy agents at low doses selectively inhibit regulatory and suppressor cells.

  2. BRCA1 promoter methylation is a marker of better response to anthracycline-based therapy in sporadic TNBC.

    PubMed

    Ignatov, T; Poehlmann, A; Ignatov, A; Schinlauer, A; Costa, S D; Roessner, A; Kalinski, T; Bischoff, J

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the role of BRCA1 gene aberrations in sporadic triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and its impact on anthracycline-based therapy. BRCA1 promoter methylation was analyzed in 70 TNBC and compared with the clinical and pathologic characteristics. As a control group, we used 70 patients with non-TNBC. BRCA1 promoter methylation was observed in 65.2 % of patients and was similar in both groups. BRCA1 promoter methylation was associated with decreased intensity of BRCA1 protein expression (P = 0.002) and significant increase of median disease-free survival (DFS) of TNBC patients receiving adjuvant anthracycline-based chemotherapy (P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that BRCA1 promoter methylation remains a favorable factor in regard to DFS (HR 0.224; 95 % CI 0.092-0.546, P = 0.001) in TNBC after adjustment for other prognostic factors. In contrast, in non-TNBC, BRCA1 promoter methylation was not associated with any clinical and pathologic parameters. BRCA1 promoter methylation is a common mechanism of BRCA1 gene aberration in sporadic breast cancer and is predictive for better response to anthracycline-based therapies.

  3. Novel Combination Chemotherapy for Localized Ewing Sarcoma

    Cancer.gov

    In this clinical trial, researchers will test whether the addition of the drug combination vincristine, topotecan, and cyclophosphamide to a standard chemotherapy regimen improves overall survival in patients with extracranial Ewing

  4. [Combination chemotherapy of experimental leukemia].

    PubMed

    Emanuel', N M; Konovalova, N P; D'iachkovskaia, R F

    1977-01-01

    In the present work an attempt was made to gain greater therapeutic effect of diazane coupled with adriamycin and sarcolysin. Leucemias L-1210 and La served as a model. In leucosis La diazane was injected once in 5 days. Either an additional injection of adriamycin two days prior to diazane injection or sarcolysin injected simultaneously with diazane enabled the authors to obtain a distinct synergestic effect. In leucemia L-1210 a simultaneous administration of diazane and sarcolysin also contributes to considerably longer survival of leucemic animals. Such combinations are likely to be promising in their clinical use.

  5. Combination chemotherapy for advanced bilharzial bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Khaled, H M; Gad el-Mawla, N; el-Said, A; Hamza, M R; Gaafar, R; el-Attar, I; Abu Rabia, A; Magrath, I

    1996-09-01

    Carcinoma of the bilharzial bladder, the most common cancer in Egyptian patients has been, until recently, largely treated by surgery. We have studied the activity of a series of single agents in phase II trials and identified a number of active agents. Here we report the results of a trial in which therapeutic combinations of the most active agents were administered in alternating cycles to patients who had never received chemotherapy. The study included 30 patients with histologically proven inoperable (20), recurrent (5, 2 of whom subsequently developed metastases), or metastatic disease (5). There were 27 males and 3 females, with a median age of 48.5 years (range 29-65 years). Fourteen patients had squamous cell carcinoma, 12 had transitional cell carcinoma, 2 had adenocarcinoma, and the remaining 2 had undifferentiated carcinoma. Chemotherapy consisted of epidoxorubicin (120 mg/sqm i.v. d1) and vincristine (1.4 mg/sqm i.v., days 1 and 8) alternating with etoposide (100 mg/sqm i.v. infusion over 1 hour, days 1 to 5) and ifosfamide (1800 mg/sqm i.v. infusion over 2 hours, days 1 to 5). Mesna was given as a uroprotector at 40% of the ifosfamide dose at 0, 4, and 8 hours after the ifosfamide infusion. Courses were repeated every 3-4 weeks. Among the 22 evaluable patients, 8 (36.5%) had a partial and one (4.5%), a complete response, giving a response rate of 46%. Three more patients had responses that were less than a partial remission, and 6 patients showed disease stabilisation on chemotherapy. Toxicities were tolerable and consisted mainly of myelosuppression. Results were further analysed in relation to pathologic subtype, disease status at the start of chemotherapy, and the delivered dose intensity. No relationship was found between any of these parameters and response to therapy. Advanced bilharzial bladder cancer is relatively sensitive to combination chemotherapy, but complete remission and prolonged survival is rare in this subgroup of patients with

  6. Cyclical Combination Chemotherapy for Advanced Breast Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Canellos, George P.; Devita, Vincent T.; Gold, G. Lennard; Chabner, Bruce A.; Schein, Philip S.; Young, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Twenty-five patients with advanced metastatic breast cancer were treated with the combination of methotrexate 60 mg/M2 and 5-fluorouracil 700 mg/M2 intravenously on the first and eighth days, and cyclophosphamide 100 mg/M2 and prednisone 40 mg/M2 by mouth daily for the first 14 days of a 28-day cycle. The patients had had no previous chemotherapy or extensive radiotherapy and all but two had not responded to hormonal therapy or endocrine ablation. The major metastatic lesions were: lung (12 patients), liver (four patients), bone (four patients), soft tissue (three patients), nodes (two patients). Seventeen of the 25 patients (68%) responded to treatment with seven complete remissions; these included patients suffering metastatic lesions in the lung, nodes, and soft tissue. The overall median duration of response was nine months (range 6-26 months). Toxicity was primarily haematological, but the group received an average of at least 75% of their calculated dose for each monthly cycle. Haematological toxicity was most pronounced in patients with liver dysfunction and bone marrow involvement. Out of eight nonresponders seven died, with a median survival of six months. Only six of 17 responders died, and the median survival in this group will exceed thirteen months. There was no correlation between the length of the metastasis-free interval after previous treatment and subsequent response to chemotherapy. PMID:4818162

  7. Management of Chemotherapy Induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients on Multiday Cisplatin Based Combination Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ranganath, Praveen; Einhorn, Lawrence; Albany, Costantine

    2015-01-01

    Introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of germ cell tumors. A common side effect of multiday cisplatin chemotherapy is severe nausea and vomiting. Considerable progress has been made in the control of these side effects since the introduction of cisplatin based chemotherapy in the 1970s. Germ cell tumor which is a model for a curable neoplasm has also turned into an excellent testing ground to develop effective strategies to prevent chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) in multiday cisplatin based regimens. The use of combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine (HT)3 receptor antagonist, a neurokinin-1 (NK1) antagonist, and dexamethasone has greatly improved our ability to prevent and control acute and delayed CINV. Mechanism and pattern of CINV with multiday chemotherapy may differ from those in single day chemotherapy and therefore efficacy of antiemetic drugs as observed in single day chemotherapy may not be applicable. There are only few randomized clinical trials with special emphasis on multiday chemotherapy. Further studies are essential to determine the efficacy, optimal dose, and duration of the newer agents and combinations in multiday cisplatin based chemotherapy. PMID:26425563

  8. Combination chemotherapy of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    The rationale for the treatment of the non-Hodgkin's lymphomas in childhood is discussed. Results from recent trials of combination chemotherapy are given, and the treatment strategy of the United Kingdom Children's Cancer Study Group is described.

  9. Phase II Trial of Trastuzumab in Combination With Cytotoxic Chemotherapy for Treatment of Metastatic Osteosarcoma With Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Overexpression: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group

    PubMed Central

    Ebb, David; Meyers, Paul; Grier, Holcombe; Bernstein, Mark; Gorlick, Richard; Lipshultz, Steven E.; Krailo, Mark; Devidas, Meenakshi; Barkauskas, Donald A.; Siegal, Gene P.; Ferguson, William Shay; Letson, George Douglas; Marcus, Karen; Goorin, Allen; Beardsley, Peter; Marina, Neyssa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Despite efforts to intensify chemotherapy, survival for patients with metastatic osteosarcoma remains poor. Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in osteosarcoma has been shown to predict poor therapeutic response and decreased survival. This study tests the safety and feasibility of delivering biologically targeted therapy by combining trastuzumab with standard chemotherapy in patients with metastatic osteosarcoma and HER2 overexpression. Patients and Methods Among 96 evaluable patients with newly diagnosed metastatic osteosarcoma, 41 had tumors that were HER2-positive by immunohistochemistry. All patients received chemotherapy with cisplatin, doxorubicin, methotrexate, ifosfamide, and etoposide. Dexrazoxane was administered with doxorubicin to minimize the risk of cardiotoxicity from treatment with trastuzumab and anthracycline. Only patients with HER2 overexpression received concurrent therapy with trastuzumab given for 34 consecutive weeks. Results The 30-month event-free and overall survival rates for patients with HER2 overexpression treated with chemotherapy and trastuzumab were 32% and 59%, respectively. For patients without HER2 overexpression, treated with chemotherapy alone, the 30-month event-free and overall survival rates were 32% and 50%, respectively. There was no clinically significant short-term cardiotoxicity in patients treated with trastuzumab and doxorubicin. Conclusion Despite intensive chemotherapy plus trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive disease, the outcome for all patients was poor, with no significant difference between the HER2-positive and HER2-negative groups. Although our findings suggest that trastuzumab can be safely delivered in combination with anthracycline-based chemotherapy and dexrazoxane, its therapeutic benefit remains uncertain. Definitive assessment of trastuzumab's potential role in treating osteosarcoma would require a randomized study of patients with HER2-positive disease

  10. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... the cancer cells. This is called palliative chemotherapy. Chemotherapy for conditions other than cancer Some chemotherapy drugs ... you'll receive. Side effects that occur during chemotherapy treatment Common side effects of chemotherapy drugs include: ...

  11. Discovery and Delivery of Synergistic Chemotherapy Drug Combinations to Tumors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Kathryn Militar

    Chemotherapy combinations for cancer treatments harbor immense therapeutic potentials which have largely been untapped. Of all diseases, clinical studies of drug combinations are the most prevalent in oncology, yet their effectiveness is disputable, as complete tumor regressions are rare. Our research has been devoted towards developing delivery vehicles for combinations of chemotherapy drugs which elicit significant tumor reduction yet limit toxicity in healthy tissue. Current administration methods assume that chemotherapy combinations at maximum tolerable doses will provide the greatest therapeutic effect -- a presumption which often leads to unprecedented side effects. Contrary to traditional administration, we have found that drug ratios rather than total cumulative doses govern combination therapeutic efficacy. In this thesis, we have developed nanoparticles to incorporate synergistic ratios of chemotherapy combinations which significantly inhibit cancer cell growth at lower doses than would be required for their single drug counterparts. The advantages of multi-drug incorporation in nano-vehicles are many: improved accumulation in tumor tissue via the enhanced permeation and retention effect, limited uptake in healthy tissue, and controlled exposure of tumor tissue to optimal synergistic drug ratios. To exploit these advantages for polychemotherapy delivery, two prominent nanoparticles were investigated: liposomes and polymer-drug conjugates. Liposomes represent the oldest class of nanoparticles, with high drug loading capacities and excellent biocompatibility. Polymer-drug conjugates offer controlled drug incorporations through reaction stoichiometry, and potentially allow for delivery of precise ratios. Here, we show that both vehicles, when armed with synergistic ratios of chemotherapy drugs, significantly inhibit tumor growth in an aggressive mouse breast carcinoma model. Furthermore, versatile drug incorporation methods investigated here can be broadly

  12. Examining the Effects of Exercise Training on Tumor Response to Anthracycline-Based Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Histopathology of necropsy specimens will be performed by Dr. Chiu, University of Alberta Hospital, Department of Pathology. Suspected infection -associated...H, Galipeau J, Belliveau DJ, Wang T, et al. (2002) Retroviral delivery of connexin genes to human breast tumor cells inhibits in vivo tumor growth by

  13. Recent Advances of Cocktail Chemotherapy by Combination Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Quanyin; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Gu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Combination chemotherapy is widely exploited for enhanced cancer treatment in clinic. However, the traditional cocktail administration of combination regimens often suffers from varying pharmacokinetics among different drugs. The emergence of nanotechnology offers an unparalleled opportunity for developing advanced combination drug delivery strategies with the ability to encapsulate various drugs simultaneously and unify the pharmacokinetics of each drug. This review surveys the most recent advances in combination delivery of multiple small molecule chemotherapeutics using nanocarriers. The mechanisms underlying combination chemotherapy, including the synergistic, additive and potentiation effects, are also discussed with typical examples. We further highlight the sequential and site-specific co-delivery strategies, which provide new guidelines for development of programmable combination drug delivery systems. Clinical outlook and challenges are also discussed in the end. PMID:26546751

  14. Recent advances of cocktail chemotherapy by combination drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Hu, Quanyin; Sun, Wujin; Wang, Chao; Gu, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    Combination chemotherapy is widely exploited for enhanced cancer treatment in the clinic. However, the traditional cocktail administration of combination regimens often suffers from varying pharmacokinetics among different drugs. The emergence of nanotechnology offers an unparalleled opportunity for developing advanced combination drug delivery strategies with the ability to encapsulate various drugs simultaneously and unify the pharmacokinetics of each drug. This review surveys the most recent advances in combination delivery of multiple small molecule chemotherapeutics using nanocarriers. The mechanisms underlying combination chemotherapy, including the synergistic, additive and potentiation effects, are also discussed with typical examples. We further highlight the sequential and site-specific co-delivery strategies, which provide new guidelines for development of programmable combination drug delivery systems. Clinical outlook and challenges are also discussed in the end.

  15. [Nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy for patients with malignant gliomas].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qun-ying; Shen, Dong; Sai, Ke; Mu, Yong-gao; Jiang, Xiao-bing; Zhang, Xian-heng; Chen, Zhong-ping

    2011-03-01

    Nimotuzumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody targeted against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Recent clinical studies show that patients with malignant gliomas could benefit from nimotuzumab treatment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and side effects of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy for patients with malignant gliomas. The patients received 200 mg of nimotuzumab infusion intravenously over 60 minutes once weekly for the first eight weeks and then once every two weeks until unacceptable toxicity or tumor progression occurred. Individualized chemotherapy was administered based on O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression and previous chemotherapy responses in combined with nimotuzumab. Fourteen patients received a total of 122 times of nimotuzumab ranging from 2 to 20 (median 7.5 times). Combined chemotherapy regimens included: continuous 21-day temozolomide (10 cases), standard 5-day temozolomide (2 cases), teniposide plus cisplatin (1 case), and teniposide plus nimustine (1 case). Partial response (PR) and stable disease (SD) were found in 3 patients (21.4%)and 6 patients (42.9%), respectively. Disease control rate (PR + SD) was 64.3%. The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 4 months (95%CI: 0.7 - 7.3) and PFS at 6 months was 30.6%. The most common toxicities include grade I-II neutropenia (2 cases), thrombocytopenia (2 cases), lymphopenia (1 case), nausea and vomitting (3 case) and asymptomatic transaminase increase (1 case). One patient developed grade IV neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. One patient developed nimotuzumab-related acneiform rash. Nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy has moderate activity in patients with malignant gliomas and the toxicities are well tolerable, therefore, worth further investigation.

  16. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... during chemotherapy. Chemotherapy is most often given in cycles. These cycles may last 1 day, several days, or a ... period when no chemotherapy is given between each cycle. A rest period may last for days, weeks, ...

  17. Bugs and Drugs: Oncolytic Virotherapy in Combination with Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wennier, Sonia Tusell; Liu, Jia; McFadden, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Single agent therapies are rarely successful in treating cancer, particularly at metastatic or end stages, and survival rates with monotherapies alone are generally poor. The combination of multiple therapies to treat cancer has already driven significant improvements in the standard of care treatments for many types of cancers. The first combination treatments exploited for cancer therapy involved the use of several cytotoxic chemotherapy agents. Later, with the development of more targeted agents, the use of novel, less toxic drugs, in combination with the more classic cytotoxic drugs has proven advantageous for certain cancer types. Recently, the combination of oncolytic virotherapy with chemotherapy has shown that the use of these two therapies with very distinct anti-tumor mechanisms may also lead to synergistic interactions that ultimately result in increased therapeutic effects not achievable by either therapy alone. The mechanisms of synergy between oncolytic viruses (OVs) and chemotherapeutic agents are just starting to be elucidated. It is evident, however, that the success of these OV-drug combinations depends greatly on the particular O V, the drug(s) selected, and the cancer type targeted. This review summarizes the different OV-drug combinations investigated to date, including the use of second generation armed OVs, which have been studied with the specific purpose of generating synergistic interactions with particular chemotherapy agents. The known mechanisms of synergy between these OV-drug combinations are also summarized. The importance of further investigating these mechanisms of synergy will be critical in order to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of OV-drug combination therapies in the future. PMID:21740354

  18. Bugs and drugs: oncolytic virotherapy in combination with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Wennier, Sonia Tusell; Liu, Jia; McFadden, Grant

    2012-07-01

    Single agent therapies are rarely successful in treating cancer, particularly at metastatic or end stages, and survival rates with monotherapies alone are generally poor. The combination of multiple therapies to treat cancer has already driven significant improvements in the standard of care treatments for many types of cancers. The first combination treatments exploited for cancer therapy involved the use of several cytotoxic chemotherapy agents. Later, with the development of more targeted agents, the use of novel, less toxic drugs, in combination with the more classic cytotoxic drugs has proven advantageous for certain cancer types. Recently, the combination of oncolytic virotherapy with chemotherapy has shown that the use of these two therapies with very distinct anti-tumor mechanisms may also lead to synergistic interactions that ultimately result in increased therapeutic effects not achievable by either therapy alone. The mechanisms of synergy between oncolytic viruses (OVs) and chemotherapeutic agents are just starting to be elucidated. It is evident, however, that the success of these OV-drug combinations depends greatly on the particular OV, the drug(s) selected, and the cancer type targeted. This review summarizes the different OV-drug combinations investigated to date, including the use of second generation armed OVs, which have been studied with the specific purpose of generating synergistic interactions with particular chemotherapy agents. The known mechanisms of synergy between these OV-drug combinations are also summarized. The importance of further investigating these mechanisms of synergy will be critical in order to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of OV-drug combination therapies in the future.

  19. ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-chemotherapy sequential consolidation achieves long-term efficacy in primary acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Long, Zi-Jie; Hu, Yuan; Li, Xu-Dong; He, Yi; Xiao, Ruo-Zhi; Fang, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Dong-Ning; Liu, Jia-Jun; Yan, Jin-Song; Huang, Ren-Wei; Lin, Dong-Jun; Liu, Quentin

    2014-01-01

    The combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (As2O3, ATO) has been effective in obtaining high clinical complete remission (CR) rates in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but the long-term efficacy and safety among newly diagnosed APL patients are unclear. In this retrospective study, total 45 newly diagnosed APL patients received ATRA/chemotherapy combination regimen to induce remission. Among them, 43 patients (95.6%) achieved complete remission (CR) after induction therapy, followed by ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-based chemotherapy sequential consolidation treatment with a median follow-up of 55 months. In these patients, the estimated overall survival (OS) and the relapse-free survival (RFS) were 94.4% ± 3.9% and 94.6 ± 3.7%, respectively. The toxicity profile was mild and reversible. No secondary carcinoma was observed. These results demonstrated the high efficacy and minimal toxicity of ATO/ATRA/anthracycline-based chemotherapy sequential consolidation treatment for newly diagnosed APL in long-term follow-up, suggesting a potential frontline therapy for APL.

  20. Combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy in non-Hodgkin's lymphomata.

    PubMed Central

    Bonadonna, G.; De Lena, M.; Lattuada, A.; Milani, F.; Monfardini, S.; Beretta, G.

    1975-01-01

    The results obtained with intensive chemotherapy and intensive chemotherapy plus radiotherapy in non-Hodgkin's lymphomata are reported. A quintuple drug regimen (mechloretamine, adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine and prednisone) in histiocytic lymphomata (Stage III and IV) yielded complete remissions in 53% and complete plus partial remissions in 77%. These figures were 44% and 64% respectively in lymphocytic lymphoma. In Stage III complete responders after combination chemotherapy were subsequently irradiated (involved field irradiation). The median duration of complete remission after completion of radiotherapy was 9-5 months in histiocytic and 12-0 months in lymphocytic lymphomata. At 2 years actuarial survival in Stage III and IV was better in patients with the lymphocytic type and with nodular pattern than with histiocytic and diffuse patterns. A more recent trial compares, in Stage IV patients, cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone (CVP) versus adriamycin, bleomycin and prednisone (ABP). Although the number of evaluable patients is still limited, there appears to be no difference in the response rate between CVP and ABP. In Stages I and II, 6 cycles of CVP were given as adjuvant treatment after radiotherapy. At the present moment, there is no statistical difference in the relapse rate between the group of patients treated with radiotherapy alone and that with radiotherapy plus CVP. PMID:52367

  1. Chemotherapy

    Cancer.gov

    Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to kill cancer cells. Learn how chemotherapy works against cancer, why it causes side effects, and how it is used with other cancer treatments.

  2. Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people. But knowing what chemotherapy is, how it works, and what to expect can often help calm your fears. It can also give you a better sense of control over your cancer treatment. ... Drugs Work CancerQuest: Chemotherapy [video] Interactive Chemotherapy Program from Emmi ...

  3. Electrosprayed Janus Particles for Combined Photo-Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Vazquez, Brenda; Amaral, Adérito J R; Yu, Deng-Guang; Pasparakis, George; Williams, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    This work is a proof of concept study establishing the potential of electrosprayed Janus particles for combined photodynamic therapy-chemotherapy. Sub-micron-sized particles of polyvinylpyrrolidone containing either an anti-cancer drug (carmofur) or a photosensitiser (rose bengal; RB), and Janus particles containing both in separate compartments were prepared. The functional components were present in the amorphous form in all the particles, and infrared spectroscopy indicated that intermolecular interactions formed between the different species. In vitro drug release studies showed that both carmofur and RB were released at approximately the same rate, with dissolution complete after around 250 min. Cytotoxicity studies were undertaken on model human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and lung cancer (A549) cells, and the influence of light on cell death explored. Formulations containing carmofur as the sole active ingredient were highly toxic to both cell lines, with or without a light treatment. The RB formulations were non-toxic to HDF when no light was applied, and with photo-treatment caused large amounts of cell death for both A549 and HDF cells. The Janus formulation containing both RB and carmofur was non-toxic to HDF without light, and only slightly toxic with the photo-treatment. In contrast, it was hugely toxic to A549 cells when light was applied. The Janus particles are thus highly selective for cancer cells, and it is hence proposed that such electrosprayed particles containing both a chemotherapeutic agent and photosensitiser have great potential in combined chemotherapy/photodynamic therapy.

  4. Combining chemotherapy and targeted therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, J; Zarate, R; Bandres, E; Viudez, A; Chopitea, A; García-Foncillas, J; Gil-Bazo, I

    2007-01-01

    Colorectal cancer remains one of the major causes of cancer death worldwide. During the past years, the development of new effective treatment options has led to a considerable improvement in the outcome of this disease. The advent of agents such as capecitabine, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, cetuximab and bevacizumab has translated into median survival times in the range of 2 years. Intense efforts have focused on identifying novel agents targeting specific growth factor receptors, critical signal transduction pathways or mediators of angiogenesis. In addition, several clinical trials have suggested that some of these molecularly targeted drugs can be safely and effectively used in combination with conventional chemotherapy. In this article we review various treatment options combining cytotoxic and targeted therapies currently available for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. PMID:17990352

  5. Targeting Cancer using Polymeric Nanoparticle mediated Combination Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gad, Aniket; Kydd, Janel; Piel, Brandon; Rai, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    Cancer forms exhibiting poor prognosis have been extensively researched for therapeutic solutions. One of the conventional modes of treatment, chemotherapy shows inadequacy in its methodology due to imminent side-effects and acquired drug-resistance by cancer cells. However, advancements in nanotechnology have opened new frontiers to significantly alleviate collateral damage caused by current treatments via innovative delivery techniques, eliminating pitfalls encountered in conventional treatments. Properties like reduced drug-clearance and increased dose efficacy by the enhanced permeability and retention effect deem nanoparticles suitable for this application. Optimization of size, surface charge and surface modifications have provided nanoparticles with stealth properties capable of evading immune responses, thus deeming them as excellent carriers of chemotherapeutic agents. Biocompatible and biodegradable forms of polymers enhance the bioavailability of chemotherapeutic agents, and permit a sustained and time-dependent release of drugs which is a characteristic of their composition, thereby providing a controlled therapeutic approach. Studies conducted in vitro and animal models have also demonstrated a synergism in cytotoxicity given the mechanism of action of anticancer drugs when administered in combination providing promising results. Combination therapy has also shown implications in overcoming multiple-drug resistance, which can however be subdued by the adaptable nature of tumor microenvironment. Surface modifications with targeting moieties can therefore feasibly increase nanoparticle uptake by specific receptor-ligand interactions, increasing dose efficacy which can seemingly overcome drug-resistance. This article reviews recent trends and investigations in employing polymeric nanoparticles for effectively delivering combination chemotherapy, and modifications in delivery parameters enhancing dose efficacy, thus validating the potential in this

  6. Cancer immunotherapy via combining oncolytic virotherapy with chemotherapy: recent advances.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Guy R; Relph, Kate; Harrington, Kevin; Melcher, Alan; Pandha, Hardev

    2016-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses are multifunctional anticancer agents with huge clinical potential, and have recently passed the randomized Phase III clinical trial hurdle. Both wild-type and engineered viruses have been selected for targeting of specific cancers, to elicit cytotoxicity, and also to generate antitumor immunity. Single-agent oncolytic virotherapy treatments have resulted in modest effects in the clinic. There is increasing interest in their combination with cytotoxic agents, radiotherapy and immune-checkpoint inhibitors. Similarly to oncolytic viruses, the benefits of chemotherapeutic agents may be that they induce systemic antitumor immunity through the induction of immunogenic cell death of cancer cells. Combining these two treatment modalities has to date resulted in significant potential in vitro and in vivo synergies through various mechanisms without any apparent additional toxicities. Chemotherapy has been and will continue to be integral to the management of advanced cancers. This review therefore focuses on the potential for a number of common cytotoxic agents to be combined with clinically relevant oncolytic viruses. In many cases, this combined approach has already advanced to the clinical trial arena.

  7. Long-term outcome of older patients with newly diagnosed de novo acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with ATRA plus anthracycline-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Cuadrón, D; Montesinos, P; Vellenga, E; Bernal, T; Salamero, O; Holowiecka, A; Brunet, S; Gil, C; Benavente, C; Ribera, J M; Pérez-Encinas, M; De la Serna, J; Esteve, J; Rubio, V; González-Campos, J; Escoda, L; Amutio, M E; Arnan, M; Arias, J; Negri, S; Lowënberg, B; Sanz, M A

    2017-06-06

    Treatment outcome in older patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is lower compared with younger patients, mainly because of a higher induction death rate and postremission non-relapse mortality (NRM). This prompted us to design a risk- and age-adapted protocol (Programa Español de Tratamientos en Hematología (PETHEMA)/HOVON LPA2005), with dose reduction of consolidation chemotherapy. Patients aged ⩾60 years reported to the PETHEMA registry and were treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) plus anthracycline-based regimens according to three consecutive PETHEMA trials that were included. We compared the long-term outcomes of the LPA2005 trial with the preceding PETHEMA trials using non-age-adapted schedules (LPA96&LPA99). From 1996 to 2012, 389 older patients were registered, of whom 268 patients (69%) were eligible. Causes of ineligibility were secondary APL (19%), and unfit for chemotherapy (11%). Median age was 67 years, without relevant differences between LPA2005 and LPA96&LPA99 cohorts. Overall, 216 patients (81%) achieved complete remission with no differences between trials. The 5-year NRM, cumulative incidence of relapse, disease-free survival and overall survival in the LPA2005 vs the LPA96&99 were 5 vs 18% (P=0.15), 7 vs 12% (P=0.23), 87 vs 69% (P=0.04) and 74 vs 60% (P=0.06). A less intensive front-line regimen with ATRA and anthracycline monochemotherapy resulted in improved outcomes in older APL patients.Leukemia advance online publication, 7 July 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.178.

  8. Antiangiogenic Agents in Combination with Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ulahannan, Susanna V; Brahmer, Julie R

    2011-01-01

    Most patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) present with advanced disease requiring systemic chemotherapy. Treatment with the antiangiogenic agent bevacizumab in combination with standard platinum-based doublet chemotherapy has been shown to improve outcomes in patients with advanced NSCLC. Several multitargeted antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g., sorafenib, sunitinib, cediranib, vandetanib, BIBF 1120, pazopanib, and axitinib) are also being evaluated in combination with standard chemotherapy. Here we review current clinical data with combination therapy involving antiangiogenic agents and cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with advanced NSCLC. PMID:21469981

  9. [Study of introperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy combined with systemic neoadjuvent chemotherapy in treatment of gastric cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Daguang; Xing, Yanpeng; Guo, YuChen; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Yujia; Suo, Jian

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study is to discuss the curative effect of introperitoneal hyperthermic perfusion chemotherapy(IHPC) combined with systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy on the gastric cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Sixty-four patients with gastric cancer and peritoneal carcinomatosis who were hospitalized in the Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery of First Hospital of Jilin University from December 2006 to December 2013. After peritoneal carcinomatosis was confirmed during laparoscopic exploration, FOLFOX6 (oxaliplatin and calcium folinate and 5-Fu) was performed for systemic chemotherapy. One course was 14 days and a complete treatment includes four courses. At the same time, patients underwent peritoneal catheter insertion and received IHPC(5-Fu 1 500 mg/m(2) and Cisplatin 35 mg/m(2) were added into 0.9% NaCl solution 2 000 ml, the infusion velocity was 35-45 ml/min, infusion time was 45-60 minutes, the temperature was controlled to 41°C). A comprehensive evaluation was taken after the fourth course of treatment before operation. Further surgical therapy was performed according to the assessment result. Sixty-four patients received IHPC combined with systemic chemotherapy. Thirty-two patients(50.0%) had partial response, 18(28.1%) stable disease, and 14(21.9%) progressive disease after chemotherapy. No severe complications or death occurred during the neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Thirty-two patients(50.0%) received radical resection, 10(15.6%) palliative operation, and another 22 patients(37.4%) didn't comply with inclusion criteria of operation. Patients receiving operation had a median survival time of 678 days, which was significantly longer than patients without operation, with a median survival time of 251(χ(2)=23.34, P=0.02). IHPC combined with systemic chemotherapy is an effective therapeutic method for gastric cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis in terms of reducing preoperative tumor load and achieving radical resection.

  10. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-grade brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barazzuol, Lara

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and among the most aggressive of all tumours. For several decades, the standard care of GBM was surgical resection followed by radiotherapy alone. In 2005, a landmark phase III clinical trial coordinated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) demonstrated the benefit of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. With TMZ, the median life expectancy in optimally managed patients is still only 12-14 months, with only 25% surviving 24 months. There is an urgent need for new therapies in particular in those patients whose tumour has an unmethylated methylguanine methyltransferase gene (MGMT) promoter, which is a predictive factor of benefit from TMZ. In this dissertation, the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation is investigated using both a mathematical model, based on in vivo population statistics of survival, and in vitro experimentation on a panel of human GBM cell lines. The results show that TMZ has an additive effect in vitro and that the population-based model may be insufficient in predicting TMZ response. The combination of TMZ with particle therapy is also investigated. Very little preclinical data exists on the effects of charged particles on GBM cell lines as well as on the concomitant application of chemotherapy. In this study, human GBM cells are exposed to 3 MeV protons and 6 MeV alpha particles in concomitance with TMZ. The results suggest that the radiation quality does not affect the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation, showing reproducible additive cytotoxicity. Since TMZ and radiation cause DNA damage in cancer cells, there has been increased attention to the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP is a family of enzymes that play a key role in the repair of DNA breaks. In this study, a novel PARP inhibitor, ABT-888

  11. [Nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Lan-Fang; Wang, Hua-Qing; Liu, Xian-Ming; Zhang, Hui-Lai; Qiu, Li-Hua; Qian, Zheng-Zi; Li, Wei

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the role of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The clinical data of 37 NSCLC patients who received nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy in Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital from January 2009 to October 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the thirty-seven patients, 12 patients were in stage III B, 25 patients in stage IV. Twenty-four patients recived platinum-based chemotherapy in combination with nimotuzumab, 13 patients recived nonplatinum-based chemotherapy in combination with nimotuzumab. Ten patients received nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy as first-line regimen, 23 patients as second-line regimen, 4 patients as third-line regimen. Of the 37 advanced NSCLC patients who received nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy, the total number of chemotherapy were 137 cycles, the mean number was 3.7 cycles. One patient had complete remission (CR), 9 patients had partial remission (PR), 16 cases had stable disease (SD), and 11 patients had progressive disease (PD). The response rate (RR) was 27% and clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 70.3%. The main side effects were bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal reactions. Grade I acneiform rash was found in one patient. The regimen of nimotuzumab in combination with chemotherapy can improve the response rate and was well tolerated in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

  12. 'Smart' gold nanoshells for combined cancer chemotherapy and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhongshi; Li, Xingui; Xie, Yegui; Liu, Shunying

    2014-04-01

    Nanomaterials that circulate in the body have great potential in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Here we report that 'smart' gold nanoshells can carry a drug payload, and that their intrinsic near-infrared (NIR) plasmon resonance enables the combination of chemotherapeutic and hyperthermia therapies. The 'smart' gold nanoshells (named DOX/A54@GNs) consist of (a) gold nanoshells (GNs) with NIR plasmon resonance, which not only act as nanoblocks but also produce local heat to allow hyperthermia; (b) an anticancer drug, doxorubicin (DOX), which was conjugated onto the nanoblocks by pH-dependent biodegradable copolymer thiol poly(ethylene glycol) derivatives via carbamate linkage; and (c) the targeting peptide A54 (AGKGTPSLETTP) to facilitate its orientation to liver cancer cells and enhance cellular uptake. The conjugated DOX was released from the DOX/A54@GNs much more rapidly in an acidic environment (pH 5.3) than in a neutral environment (pH 7.4), which is a desirable characteristic for intracellular tumor drug release. DOX-modified GNs showed pH-dependent release behavior, and the in vitro cell uptake experiment using ICP-AES and microscopy showed greater internalization of A54-modified GNs in the human liver cancer cell line BEL-7402 than of those without A54. Flow cytometry and fluoroscopy analysis were conducted to reveal the enhanced cell apoptosis caused by the A54-modified GNs under combined chemotherapeutic and hyperthermia therapies. These results imply that DOX/A54@GNs could be used as a multifunctional nanomaterial system with pH-triggered drug-releasing properties for tumor-targeted chemotherapy and hyperthermia.

  13. Combining Chemotherapy with Bevacizumab Improves Outcomes for Ovarian Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Results from two phase III randomized clinical trials suggest that, at least for some patients with ovarian cancer, adding the antiangiogenesis agent bevacizumab to chemotherapy increases the time to disease progression and may improve survival.

  14. Coenzyme complex decreased cardiotoxicity when combined with chemotherapy in treating elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Yan; Lu, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of coenzyme complex on decreasing cardiotoxicity in elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer who were treated by chemotherapy. From September 2011 to February 2015, we recruited 54 elderly (with more than 70 years of age) patients with gastrointestinal cancer, with advanced disease. Then treated with chemotherapy combined with or without coenzyme complex. After two cycles of treatment, the effect of coenzyme complex on decreasing cardiotoxicity were evaluated. Chemotherapy was combined with coenzyme complex in 32 patients (22man, 10 woman; median age: 74 years, range: 70-87 years) without coenzyme complex in 22 patients (15man, 7 woman; median age: 73 years, range: 70-80 years) with gastrointestinal cancer. Cardiac event was significantly lower in patients treated with chemotherapy combined with coenzyme complex (p<0.01). Coenzyme Complex decreased cardiotoxicity when combined with chemotherapy in treating elderly patients with gastrointestinal cancer.

  15. Mixed beam radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy in localized pancreatic adenocarcinoma - preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Bukowski, R.M.; Gahbauer, R.; Rodriquez-Antunez, A.; Hermann, R.

    1982-07-01

    A pilot study of mixed beam radiotherapy (fast neutrons alternating with photons) followed by combination chemotherapy with SMF (streptozotocin, 5-flouoruracil, mitomycin C) in localized pancreatic cancer was performed. Thirteen patients were treated and a median survival of 10.0 months was noted (range 5-30+). Toxicity was mild to moderate. Further studies of radiation and chemotherapy are indicated.

  16. Numerical simulation of a mathematical model of combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy of cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hsiu-Chuan; Hwang, Shin-Feng; Chen, Yuh-Yih; Chen, Tze-Jang

    2013-10-01

    In this study, a mathematical model of tumor growth with a combination of immunotherapy and chemotherapy is considered. A numerical simulation using human data in clinical literature is conducted. A numerical method based on the continuation technique is employed to locate the unstable fixed-point curve as the dosage varies. A combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy can employ low dosages of drugs. The effect of the combined dosages is also investigated in this work.

  17. Cardiac arrhythmia and ischaemic events after combination chemotherapy for testicular cancer.

    PubMed

    Villani, F; Misrachi, D; Galimberti, M

    1994-11-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the type and the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias and ischaemic events in patients suffering from testicular cancer and submitted to combination chemotherapy with cisplatin, bleomycin and vinblastine (PVB) or etoposide (PEB). Forty-seven patients took part in the study; 23 were treated with PVB and 24 with PEB. Holter monitoring was performed in each patient before chemotherapy and on the 1st, 2nd and 5th day of the first cycle of drug administration. The results showed that combination chemotherapy with PVB or PEB was accompanied by the appearance of, or an increase in, the incidence of supraventricular ectopic beats. No significant difference was found between the two groups. No significant conduction disturbances were recorded. These results show that combination chemotherapy with PVB or PEB, at least during the first cycle, has no significant ventricular arrhythmogenic or ischaemic potency in young people with no history of cardiac disease.

  18. Chemotherapy of disseminated seminoma with combination of cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Vugrin, D; Whitemore, W J; Batata, M

    1981-01-01

    Nine patients with metastatic seminoma who had received no prior chemotherapy were induced with a combination containing cis-platinum 120 mg/m2 I.V. and cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 I.V. for three to six treatments at 4-6 weeks intervals, and then received maintenance with cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 I.V. every 3-4 weeks to complete 2 years of chemotherapy. Eight patients entered complete remission: five with chemotherapy alone and three with chemotherapy and radiation or resection of residual disease. Seven patients remain in CR with a minimum follow up of 17 months. Chemotherapy is effective in treatment of metastatic seminoma.

  19. AB058. Intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy to treat T1G3 bladder urothelial carcinoma after transurethral resection of bladder tumor: results of a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Hu, Hailong; Tian, Dawei; Wu, Changli

    2016-01-01

    Objective The management of stage 1 and grade 3 (T1G3) bladder cancer continues to be controversial. Although the transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) followed by intravesical chemotherapy is a conservative strategy for treatment of T1G3 bladder cancer, a relatively high risk of tumor recurrence and progression remains regarding the therapy. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder cancer after TURBT surgery. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the cases of 457 patients who were newly diagnosed with T1G3 bladder urothelial carcinoma between January 2009 and March 2014. After TURBT, 281 patients received intravesical chemotherapy alone, whereas 176 patients underwent intravesical chemotherapy in combination with intravenous chemotherapy. Tumor recurrence and progression were monitored periodically by urine cytology and cystoscopy in follow-up. Recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival of the two chemotherapy strategies following TURBT were analyzed. Univariable and multivariable Cox hazards analyses were performed to predict the prognostic factors for tumor recurrence and progression. Results The tumor recurrence rate was 36.7% for patients who received intravesical chemotherapy alone after TURBT, compared with 19.9% for patients who received intravenous chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy after TURBT (P<0.001). The progression rate was 10.6% for patients who underwent intravesical chemotherapy alone and 2.3% for patients who underwent the combined chemotherapies (P=0.003). Kaplan-Meier curves showed significant differences in recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival between the two treatment strategies, with a log-rank P value of <0.001 and 0.003, respectively. Multivariable analyses revealed that intravenous chemotherapy was the independent prognostic factor for tumor recurrence and

  20. Chemotherapy Combinations With Monoclonal Antibodies in Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kahl, Brad

    2010-01-01

    Although the use of monoclonal antibodies as single agents has had a tremendous impact on the care of patients with non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL), the greatest benefit has been generated by the addition of monoclonal antibodies to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Rituximab is the monoclonal antibody responsible for all clinical improvement noted to date. The addition of rituximab to cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (CHOP) chemotherapy (R-CHOP regimen) improves the response rate, progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Adding rituximab to CHOP chemotherapy improves response rates and PFS in mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Finally, the addition of rituximab to a variety of chemotherapy regimens improves the response rates, PFS, and OS in follicular lymphoma (FL). Several other (epratuzumab, bevacizumab, alemtuzumab) monoclonal antibody–chemotherapy combinations are currently under study in NHL. This review will summarize the data supporting the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy in NHL and discuss preliminary data regarding the use of other monoclonal antibodies in combination with chemotherapy. PMID:18381103

  1. Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) combined with chemotherapy for unresected pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gurka, Marie K.; Kim, Christine; He, Ruth; Charabaty, Aline; Haddad, Nadim; Johnson, Lynt; Jackson, Patrick; Weiner, Louis; Marshall, John L; Collins, Sean P.; Pishvaian, Michael J.; Unger, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The role of conventionally fractionated radiation therapy in the management of unresectable pancreatic cancer is controversial. One concern about concurrent chemoradiation relates to the timing of chemotherapy. In contrast to conventional radiation therapy, SBRT delivers high doses in a shorter duration resulting in minimal disruption in chemotherapy. Here we report our results of patients treated with SBRT and chemotherapy for inoperable pancreatic cancer. Methods Thirty-eight consecutive patients treated with SBRT and chemotherapy for locally advanced, borderline resectable, and medically inoperable at our institution from January 2008 to December 2012 were included in this retrospective analysis. Treatment was delivered in 5 fractions of 5 or 6 Gy per fraction over five days. Median time from diagnosis to SBRT was 1.9 months. Toxicities were scored using the CTCAE v.3. Survival was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results The median age was 70 years (range 45 – 90). ECOG performance status ranged from 0 – 3. Thirty-four patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Four other patients received sequential chemotherapy. Median OS was 14.3 months and median PFS was 9.2 months from diagnosis. From radiation, OS and PFS were 12.3 months and 6.8 months, respectively. The overall local control rate was 79%. Acute toxicity was minimal. Severe late SBRT-related toxicities included one grade 3 gastric outlet obstruction, one grade 4 biliary stricture and a grade 5 gastric hemorrhage. Conclusions SBRT combined with chemotherapy for unresectable pancreatic cancer is convenient, feasible and generally well tolerated. The outcomes of SBRT combined with chemotherapy compare favorably to the results of treatment with chemotherapy and conventional radiation therapy. PMID:25171298

  2. [Case of metastatic malignant melanoma responded to combination chemotherapy with DTIC].

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Miyamoto, H; Harada, M; Makinoya, T; Yamamoto, M; Miyoshi, Y; Komi, N

    1984-02-01

    A 60-year old woman with metastatic malignant melanoma who was well responded to a combination chemotherapy including DTIC was reported. She was noted a lentigo in the left first toe and histological examination revealed malignant melanoma in October 1978. Amputation of the left lower leg and dissection of the left inguinal lymph nodes had been done. OK-432 was injected as postoperative immunotherapy. She was readmitted to our hospital with the symptoms of pain and numbness of the left arm. Physical examination revealed a palpable mass in the left supraclavicular region. Incisional biopsy of the supraclavicular mass revealed metastatic malignant melanoma. She received a combination of 100mg DTIC i.v. for 5 days, 100 mg ACNU i.v. for one day and 1 mg VCR i.v. for one day (DAV chemotherapy) postoperatively. Subcutaneous injection of OK-432 with the dose of 5 KE per week was continued. Major side effects of DAV chemotherapy were nausea and transient leukocytopenia. No serious side effects were observed. On completion of the first course of DAV chemotherapy, abnormal shadow of the left apex was completely disappeared and on completion of the third course of DAV chemotherapy, high density area was markedly decreased in the cervical CT. She gained symptomatic reliefs and was discharged in August 1983. The combination chemotherapy including DTIC appeared to be effective in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma.

  3. Conversion Chemotherapy for Technically Unresectable Colorectal Liver Metastases: A Retrospective, STROBE-Compliant, Single-Center Study Comparing Chemotherapy Alone and Combination Chemotherapy With Cetuximab or Bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Basso, Michele; Dadduzio, Vincenzo; Ardito, Francesco; Lombardi, Pasquale; Strippoli, Antonia; Vellone, Maria; Orlandi, Armando; Rossi, Sabrina; Cerchiaro, Eleonora; Cassano, Alessandra; Giuliante, Felice; Barone, Carlo

    2016-05-01

    The response rate of patients with unresectable liver-limited metastases of colorectal cancer can be improved by converting inoperable disease to operable disease. However, the benefits of conversion chemotherapy for survival are still controversial.Patients considered to have technically inoperable disease by a multidisciplinary team were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were stratified based on the treatment they received, into the chemotherapy only (G1), chemotherapy plus bevacizumab (G2), or chemotherapy plus cetuximab (G3) groups. The primary endpoint was the resection rate. The secondary endpoint was the overall survival (OS), according to both the treatment received and liver surgery status.In total, 104 patients were included: 30 in the G1, 39 in the G2, and 35 in the G3 groups. All G3 patients had the wild-type KRAS exon 2. The surgical resection rates for patients in the G1, G2, and G3 groups were 43.3% (13/30), 30.7% (12/39), and 51.4% (18/35), respectively. Disease-free survival did not show significant differences among the 3 groups. The median OS was 35.2 months in the G1, 28.8 months in the G2, and 42.1 months in the G3 (P = 0.25) groups. The OS was significantly higher in patients who underwent surgical resection than those who did not. The median OS was 28.4 months in patients who did not undergo resection, whereas it had not been reached after a median follow-up period of 37.5 months for patients who underwent surgical resection (events: 21/43).Our data confirmed that the conversion of initially inoperable disease to operable disease conferred a survival benefit, even in patients who relapsed after surgery. The addition of cetuximab to chemotherapy improved the objective response and resection rates, conferring a potential survival benefit even in patients whose diseases were not converted to operable disease, compared to chemotherapy alone or in combination with bevacizumab.

  4. Experimental studies of combination of PDT and tumor chemotherapy or 60Co irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didziapetriene, Janina; Prasmickiene, Grazina; Sukeliene, Dalija; Rotomskis, Ricardas; Streckyte, Giedre; Atkocius, Vydmantas; Staciokiene, Laima; Smilgevicius, Valerijus

    1995-01-01

    We present experimental results obtained by combining photodynamic therapy (PDT) with tumor chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Dimethoxyhematoporphyrin (DMHp) and photosan (PS) were used as photosensitizers, pharanoxi and vincristine as antitumor drugs. The therapeutic effect of the combination of PDT and antitumor drugs (pharanoxi, vincristine) slightly increases as compared to the treatment of PDT or antitumor drug alone. The additive therapeutic effect is achieved under the combination of PDT and 60Co irradiation. It seems that the sensitizers DMHp and PS regulate lipid peroxidation in blood serum of experimental animals, which becomes more active under the influence of alkylating antitumor drugs. Therefore, they could protect an organism from negative influence of tumor chemotherapy.

  5. Unlocking the promise of oncolytic virotherapy in glioma: combination with chemotherapy to enhance efficacy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Drew A; Young, Jacob S; Kanojia, Deepak; Kim, Julius W; Polster, Sean P; Murphy, Jason P; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2015-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a relentless burden to both patients and clinicians, and calls for innovation to overcome the limitations in current management. Glioma therapy using viruses has been investigated to accentuate the nature of a virus, killing a host tumor cell during its replication. As virus mediated approaches progress with promising therapeutic advantages, combination therapy with chemotherapy and oncolytic viruses has emerged as a more synergistic and possibly efficacious therapy. Here, we will review malignant glioma as well as prior experience with oncolytic viruses, chemotherapy and combination of the two, examining how the combination can be optimized in the future.

  6. Intratumoral chemotherapy with paclitaxel liposome combined with systemic chemotherapy: a new method of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for stage III unresectable non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bei; Sun, Lixin; Yan, Xi; Ai, Zhenzhong; Xu, Jinzhi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intratumoral chemotherapy with paclitaxel liposome combined with systemic chemotherapy as induction therapy in clinical stage III unresectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Between January 2011 and July 2014, 48 patients, stage III, performance status 0-1, with unresectable clinical stage IIIA or IIIB NSCLC suitable for definitive radiation treatment, were included in the study. Patients with T3N1M0 and T4 (ipsilateral lung nodules) N0-1M0 were not included. Patients were given 3 cycles of chemotherapy every 3 weeks. Carboplatin (AUC5 by i.v. on day 1) and gemcitabine (i.v. 1,000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8) were administered. Paclitaxel liposome was injected at 1-3 mg/ml concentration into the tumor lesion by computed tomography-guided percutaneous fine-needle intratumoral injection and proven malignant lymph nodes according to pretreatment histological/cytological results by endobronchial ultrasound drug delivery with a needle on day 1 and day 8. Toxicity was assessed on days 8 and 22 in each cycle. Overall response rate (ORR) evaluation was performed at the end of cycle 3. Out of the 48 enrolled patients, 28 were males and 20 females, 19 patients had stage IIIA and 29 stage IIIB NSCLC. Thirty-six partial responses and two complete responses were observed, for an ORR of 81 %. The most frequent G3-G4 toxicity included neutropenia (in 15 % of cases), hypertransaminasemia (6 %), and diarrhea (4 %). A median PFS of 16.5 months (95 % CI 13.7-19.2) and median OS of 23.2 months (95 % CI 20.0-26.3) were observed. Eleven stage IIIA patients underwent surgery, for a resection rate of 58 %. Intratumoral chemotherapy with paclitaxel liposome combined with systemic chemotherapy demonstrated a considerable disease response and resection rate, with acceptable toxicity.

  7. Magnetic nanoparticle-conjugated polymeric micelles for combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Kim, Eunjoo; Jeong, Sang Won; Ha, Tae-Lin; Park, Sang-Im; Lee, Se Guen; Lee, Sung Jun; Lee, Seung Woo

    2015-10-01

    Magnetic nanoparticle-conjugated polymeric micelles (MNP-PMs) consisting of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (PEG-PLA) and iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared and used as nanocarriers for combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy. Doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated in MNP-PMs, and an alternating magnetic field (AMF) resulted in an increase to temperature within a suitable range for inducing hyperthermia and a higher rate of drug release than observed without AMF. In vitro cytotoxicity and hyperthermia experiments were carried out using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. When MNP-PMs encapsulated with an anticancer drug were used to treat A549 cells in combination with hyperthermia under AMF, 78% of the cells were killed by the double effects of heat and the drug, and the combination was more effective than either chemotherapy or hyperthermia treatment alone. Therefore, MNP-PMs encapsulated with an anticancer drug show potential for combined chemotherapy and hyperthermia.Magnetic nanoparticle-conjugated polymeric micelles (MNP-PMs) consisting of poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactide) (PEG-PLA) and iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared and used as nanocarriers for combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy. Doxorubicin (DOX) was encapsulated in MNP-PMs, and an alternating magnetic field (AMF) resulted in an increase to temperature within a suitable range for inducing hyperthermia and a higher rate of drug release than observed without AMF. In vitro cytotoxicity and hyperthermia experiments were carried out using human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells. When MNP-PMs encapsulated with an anticancer drug were used to treat A549 cells in combination with hyperthermia under AMF, 78% of the cells were killed by the double effects of heat and the drug, and the combination was more effective than either chemotherapy or hyperthermia treatment alone. Therefore, MNP-PMs encapsulated with an anticancer drug show potential for combined chemotherapy and hyperthermia. Electronic

  8. [Preventive effect of mecobalamin combined with glutathione on neurotoxicity induced by FOLFOX4 chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Li, S D; Shi, J H; Li, X J

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the preventive effect of mecobalamin combined with glutathione on neurotoxicity induced by FOLFOX4 chemotherapy. Ninety-four patients receiving FOLFOX4 chemotherapy between January 2012 and December 2013 were randomized into experimental group and control group. Patients in the experimental group were given mecobalamin tablets and glutathione injection during chemotherapy while the patients in control group received glutathione injection only. The status of neurotoxicity was evaluated by the Levi neurotoxicity criteria 1992. After six cycles of chemotherapy, the incidence of grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ neurotoxicity in the experimental and control groups were 34.7% (17/49) and 55.6%(25/45), respectively (P=0.042), the incidence of grade Ⅲ neurotoxicity in the experimental and control groups were 2.0%(1/49) and 13.3%(6/45), the difference is also statistically significant (P=0.037). After nine cycles of chemotherapy, significantly less grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ neurotoxicity was observed in the experimental group (44.6%) than that in the control group(70.3%, P=0.019). Incidence of grade Ⅲ neurotoxicity in the experimental group was significantly lower(4.26%) than that in the control group(18.9%, P=0.031). Mecobalamin combined with glutathione can significantly reduce the incidence and severity of neurotoxicity induced by FOLFOX4 chemotherapy, therefore, worthy of clinical application.

  9. Nine years' experience of BELD combination chemotherapy (bleomycin, vindesine, CCNU and DTIC) for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Stables, G I; Doherty, V R; MacKie, R M

    1992-11-01

    During the 9-year period from 1982 to 1991, 72 patients with melanoma were treated with a 5-day quadruple drug chemotherapy regime (BELD) comprising bleomycin, vindesine (Eldesine), CCNU (Lomustine) and DTIC. Forty-three patients had stage III melanoma, 34 of whom had evaluable disease. Of these 34, six (17.6%) achieved a complete response (CR), eight (23.5%) had a partial response (PR), five (14.7%) had stabilized disease (SD) and 15 (44.1%) had progressive disease (PD). Overall median survival of stage III melanoma patients was 38 weeks. Median survival of responders (CR + PR) was 47 weeks and 21 weeks for non-responders (SD + PD) (P < 0.005). Median follow-up time was 38 weeks. Following these encouraging results, 30 patients with stage II melanoma received BELD chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy after regional node dissection and clearance. Adjuvant BELD chemotherapy did not alter survival in these patients. BELD combination chemotherapy is well-tolerated, the main problems being nausea, vomiting, and leucopenia. We have maintained a combined response rate (CR + PR) of 41.1% for stage III disease. This is comparable with other combination chemotherapy regimes, which have as yet not been superseded by the newer biological therapies.

  10. [The usefulness and adverse events of bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy against advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Oga, Junichi; Sakata, Makiko; Sato, Sumito; Matsumura, Naoki; Hatakeyama, Toshiyuki; Nagayama, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Osamu; Ishida, Yasuo; Hataya, Kiyoshi

    2010-06-01

    We examined clinical results of 35 patients on bevacizumab(BV)combined with chemotherapy at our hospital. The subjects were 35 patients with advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer who received BV combined with chemotherapy for approximately 2 years. Their median age was 66 years(41 to 86 years), PS was 2 or less for all; it was first-line therapy in 21 patients, second-line in 12 patients and thirdline in 2 patients. The concomitant chemotherapy was mFOLFOX 6 in 24 / patients, 5-FU/LV in 8 patients and FOLFIRI in 3 patients. Therapeutic efficacy was CR in 2 patients, PR in 10 patients, and the overall response rate was 35%. There were 7 adverse events of Grade 3 or higher, among which 4 events were leucopenia. Neither overall survival nor any concomitant chemotherapy reached the median periods. Moreover, the median periods of / progression-free survival in mFOLFOX6/FOLFIRI were 191 days. BV combined with chemotherapy should be actively introduced as first-line therapy against advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer because of its high therapeutic efficacy.

  11. Combining chemotherapy with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibition in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Linda; Loong, Herbert

    2012-01-01

    Treatment of advanced stage lung cancer is changing rapidly. With the new found knowledge on molecular targets such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), effective therapy is now available in a selected population with the target mutation. Single-agent epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) is a standard first-line therapy for patients with activating-EGFR mutation such as base-pair deletion in exon 19 or point mutation at exon 21. At the same time, this class of drugs may be combined with chemotherapy. Studies on the concurrent combination of chemotherapy and EGFR-TKI confirmed a lack of efficacy. A phase II study on sequential intercalated combination has demonstrated an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS), but this needs to be validated by the ongoing phase III study. The third approach is to combine EGFR-TKI as maintenance therapy after tumour response or stable disease to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Two phase III studies have shown improvement in PFS, but the use of biomarkers for the selection of maintenance therapy remains debatable. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody against EGFR and its combination with chemotherapy was shown to improve overall survival in an unselected population. A new biomarker using the H-score will help to select patients for this combination. PMID:22754591

  12. Inhibition of formyl peptide receptor 1 reduces the efficacy of anticancer chemotherapy against carcinogen-induced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baracco, Elisa E.; Pietrocola, Federico; Buqué, Aitziber; Bloy, Norma; Senovilla, Laura; Zitvogel, Laurence; Vacchelli, Erika; Kroemer, Guido

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The loss-of-function mutation of formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) has a negative impact on the progression-free and overall survival of breast cancer patients treated with anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy. This effect may be attributed to the fact that chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires FPR1 and that such anticancer immune responses are responsible for the long-term effects of chemotherapy. Here, we investigated the possible contribution of FPR1 to the efficacy of a combination of mitoxantrone (MTX) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) for the treatment of hormone-induced breast cancer. Breast cancer induced by a combination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) and 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) could be successfully treated with MTX plus CTX in thus far that tumor growth was retarded and overall survival was extended (as compared to vehicle-only treated controls). However, the therapeutic efficacy of the combination therapy was completely abolished when FPR1 receptors were blocked by means of cyclosporin H (CsH). Future genetic studies on neoadjuvant chemotherapy-treated breast cancers are warranted to validate these findings at the clinical level. PMID:27471610

  13. Prognostic markers of survival after combined mitotane- and platinum-based chemotherapy in metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Malandrino, Pasqualino; Al Ghuzlan, Abir; Castaing, Marine; Young, Jacques; Caillou, Bernard; Travagli, Jean-Paul; Elias, Dominique; de Baere, Thierry; Dromain, Clarisse; Paci, Angelo; Chanson, Philippe; Schlumberger, Martin; Leboulleux, Sophie; Baudin, Eric

    2010-09-01

    To progress in the stratification of the first-line therapeutic management of metastatic adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC), we searched for prognostic parameters of survival in patients treated with combined mitotane- and cisplatinum-based chemotherapy as first-line. We retrospectively studied prospectively collected parameters from 131 consecutive patients with metastatic ACC (44 with a tissue specimen available) treated at the Gustave Roussy Institute with mitotane- and platinum-based chemotherapy. Fifty-five patients with clinical, pathological, and morphological data available together with treatment characteristics including detailed follow-up were enrolled. Plasma mitotane levels and ERCC1 protein staining were analyzed. Response was analyzed according to RECIST criteria as well as overall survival (OS) from the start of cisplatinum-based chemotherapy. Parameters impacting on OS were evaluated by univariate analysis, and then analyzed by multivariate analysis. Using a landmark method, OS according to response to chemotherapy was analyzed. Objective response to combined mitotane- and cisplatinum-based chemotherapy was 27.3%. Median OS was 1 year. In the univariate analysis, resection of the primary, time since diagnosis, mitotane monotherapy as single first-line treatment, number of affected organs, plasma mitotane above 14 mg/l, and objective response were predictors of survival. In the multivariate analysis, mitotane level > or =14 mg/l and objective response to platinum-based chemotherapy were found to be independent predictors of survival (P=0.03 and <0.001). Our study suggests a prognostic role for mitotane therapy and objective response to platinum-based chemotherapy.

  14. A combined model of human erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis under growth factor and chemotherapy treatment

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Haematotoxicity of conventional chemotherapies often results in delays of treatment or reduction of chemotherapy dose. To ameliorate these side-effects, patients are routinely treated with blood transfusions or haematopoietic growth factors such as erythropoietin (EPO) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). For the latter ones, pharmaceutical derivatives are available, which differ in absorption kinetics, pharmacokinetic and -dynamic properties. Due to the complex interaction of cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy and the stimulating effects of different growth factor derivatives, optimal treatment is a non-trivial task. In the past, we developed mathematical models of thrombopoiesis, granulopoiesis and erythropoiesis under chemotherapy and growth-factor applications which can be used to perform clinically relevant predictions regarding the feasibility of chemotherapy schedules and cytopenia prophylaxis with haematopoietic growth factors. However, interactions of lineages and growth-factors were ignored so far. Results To close this gap, we constructed a hybrid model of human granulopoiesis and erythropoiesis under conventional chemotherapy, G-CSF and EPO applications. This was achieved by combining our single lineage models of human erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis with a common stem cell model. G-CSF effects on erythropoiesis were also implemented. Pharmacodynamic models are based on ordinary differential equations describing proliferation and maturation of haematopoietic cells. The system is regulated by feedback loops partly mediated by endogenous and exogenous EPO and G-CSF. Chemotherapy is modelled by depletion of cells. Unknown model parameters were determined by fitting the model predictions to time series data of blood counts and cytokine profiles. Data were extracted from literature or received from cooperating clinical study groups. Our model explains dynamics of mature blood cells and cytokines after growth-factor applications in

  15. A combined model of human erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis under growth factor and chemotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Schirm, Sibylle; Engel, Christoph; Loeffler, Markus; Scholz, Markus

    2014-05-26

    Haematotoxicity of conventional chemotherapies often results in delays of treatment or reduction of chemotherapy dose. To ameliorate these side-effects, patients are routinely treated with blood transfusions or haematopoietic growth factors such as erythropoietin (EPO) or granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). For the latter ones, pharmaceutical derivatives are available, which differ in absorption kinetics, pharmacokinetic and -dynamic properties. Due to the complex interaction of cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy and the stimulating effects of different growth factor derivatives, optimal treatment is a non-trivial task. In the past, we developed mathematical models of thrombopoiesis, granulopoiesis and erythropoiesis under chemotherapy and growth-factor applications which can be used to perform clinically relevant predictions regarding the feasibility of chemotherapy schedules and cytopenia prophylaxis with haematopoietic growth factors. However, interactions of lineages and growth-factors were ignored so far. To close this gap, we constructed a hybrid model of human granulopoiesis and erythropoiesis under conventional chemotherapy, G-CSF and EPO applications. This was achieved by combining our single lineage models of human erythropoiesis and granulopoiesis with a common stem cell model. G-CSF effects on erythropoiesis were also implemented. Pharmacodynamic models are based on ordinary differential equations describing proliferation and maturation of haematopoietic cells. The system is regulated by feedback loops partly mediated by endogenous and exogenous EPO and G-CSF. Chemotherapy is modelled by depletion of cells. Unknown model parameters were determined by fitting the model predictions to time series data of blood counts and cytokine profiles. Data were extracted from literature or received from cooperating clinical study groups. Our model explains dynamics of mature blood cells and cytokines after growth-factor applications in healthy volunteers

  16. Regional hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy in paediatric, adolescent and young adult patients: current and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Georg; Budach, Volker; Keilholz, Ulrich; Wust, Peter; Eggert, Angelika; Ghadjar, Pirus

    2016-04-30

    Here we evaluate the current status of clinical research on regional hyperthermia (RHT) in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy in paediatric oncology.Data were identified in searches of MEDLINE, Current Contents, PubMed, and references from relevant articles using medical subject headings including hyperthermia, cancer, paediatric oncology, children, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Currently, only two RHT centres exist in Europe which treat children. Clinical RHT research in paediatric oncology has as yet been limited to children with sarcomas and germ cell tumours that respond poorly to or recur after chemotherapy. RHT is a safe and effective treatment delivering local thermic effects, which may also stimulate immunological processes via heat-shock protein reactions. RHT is used chiefly in children and adolescents with sarcomas or germ cell tumours located in the abdomino-pelvic region, chest wall or extremities to improve operability or render the tumour operable. It could potentially be combined with radiation therapy in a post-operative R1 setting where more radical surgery is not possible or combined with chemotherapy instead of radiation therapy in cases where the necessary radiation dose is impossible to achieve or would have mutilating consequences. RHT might also be an option for chemotherapy intensification in the neoadjuvant first-line treatment setting for children and adolescents, as was recently reflected in the promising long-term outcome data in adults with high-risk soft tissue sarcomas (EORTC 62961/ESHO trial).The limited data available indicate that combining RHT with chemotherapy is a promising option to treat germ cell tumours and, potentially, sarcomas. RHT may also be beneficial in first-line therapy in children, adolescents and young adults. The research should focus on optimising necessary technical demands and then initiate several clinical trials incorporating RHT into interdisciplinary treatment of children

  17. EGFR inhibitor and chemotherapy combinations for acquired TKI resistance in EGFR-mutant NSCLC models.

    PubMed

    Laurila, Niina; Koivunen, Jussi P

    2015-07-01

    Acquired resistance to EGFR TKIs is the most important limiting factor for treatment efficiency in EGFR-mutant NSCLC. Although the continuation of EGFR TKI beyond disease progression in combination with chemotherapy is often suggested as a strategy for treating acquired resistance, the optimal treatment sequence for EGFR TKI and chemotherapy is unknown. In the current work, NSCLC cell lines PC9ER, H1975 and HCC827GR, representing the acquired TKI resistance genotypes (T790M, cMET), were exposed to a chemotherapeutic agent, cisplatin or paclitaxel, in combination with EGFR TKIs (erlotinib, WZ4002) in vitro and analysed for cytotoxicity and apoptotic response. The result showed that all the combinations of EGFR TKIs with a chemotherapeutic agent tested had a synergistic effect on cytotoxicity and increased the apoptotic response. The sequences involving a chemotherapeutic agent concurrently with an EGFR TKI or preceding it were the most efficient strategies. Our in vitro models suggest that the combination of an EGFR TKI and chemotherapy is beneficial in cases of acquired EGFR TKI resistance. Furthermore, the sequence of chemotherapy followed by EGFR TKI is significantly more powerful than the reversed order, so that an intercalated approach is likely to be the most active strategy in clinical use and ought to be tested in a randomized clinical trial.

  18. When Combined with Chemotherapy, Bevacizumab Is Associated with Increased Risk of Death

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer patients who receive the targeted therapy bevacizumab (Avastin) in combination with chemotherapy are at increased risk of serious side effects that may lead to death, according to a meta-analysis of 16 clinical trials that was published February 2,

  19. Olaparib combined with chemotherapy for recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer: a randomised phase 2 trial.

    PubMed

    Oza, Amit M; Cibula, David; Benzaquen, Ana Oaknin; Poole, Christopher; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Sonke, Gabe S; Colombo, Nicoletta; Špaček, Jiří; Vuylsteke, Peter; Hirte, Holger; Mahner, Sven; Plante, Marie; Schmalfeldt, Barbara; Mackay, Helen; Rowbottom, Jacqui; Lowe, Elizabeth S; Dougherty, Brian; Barrett, J Carl; Friedlander, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib has shown antitumour activity in patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent, high-grade serous ovarian cancer with or without BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of olaparib in combination with chemotherapy, followed by olaparib maintenance monotherapy, versus chemotherapy alone in patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent, high-grade serous ovarian cancer. In this randomised, open-label, phase 2 study, adult patients with platinum-sensitive, recurrent, high-grade serous ovarian cancer who had received up to three previous courses of platinum-based chemotherapy and who were progression free for at least 6 months before randomisation received either olaparib (200 mg capsules twice daily, administered orally on days 1-10 of each 21-day cycle) plus paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2), administered intravenously on day 1) and carboplatin (area under the curve [AUC] 4 mg/mL per min, according to the Calvert formula, administered intravenously on day 1), then olaparib monotherapy (400 mg capsules twice daily, given continuously) until progression (the olaparib plus chemotherapy group), or paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2) on day 1) and carboplatin (AUC 6 mg/mL per min on day 1) then no further treatment (the chemotherapy alone group). Randomisation was done by an interactive voice response system, stratified by number of previous platinum-containing regimens received and time to disease progression after the previous platinum regimen. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1, analysed by intention to treat. Prespecified exploratory analyses included efficacy by BRCA mutation status, assessed retrospectively. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01081951, and has been completed. Between Feb 12 and July 30, 2010, 173 patients at 43 investigational sites in 12 countries were enrolled

  20. A Reactive 1O2 - Responsive Combined Treatment System of Photodynamic and Chemotherapy for Cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaojun; Meng, Guoqing; Zhang, Song; Liu, Xinli

    2016-07-01

    The development of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive drug delivery and drug release has gradually attracted much attention in recent years as a promising therapeutic strategy. Singlet oxygen (1O2) as the major ROS species is widely used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. In the present study, we introduce a combined treatment using ROS-sensitive thioketal (TK) linkage as a linker between upconversion nanoparticles (UNs)-based PDT and doxorubicin (DOX)-based chemotherapy. UNs can not only play a role in PDT, but can also be used as a nanocarrier for drug delivery of DOX. Moreover, the products of 1O2 during PDT are able to cleave TK linker inducing the release of DOX which can further achieve the goal of chemotherapy. By using this 1O2-responsive nanocarrier delivery system, DOX can easily reach the tumor site and be accumulated in the nuclei to effectively kill the cancer cells, and therefore decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy on the body. Thus, PDT also has the function of controlling drug release in this combination treatment strategy. Compared with monotherapy, the combination of PDT with chemotherapy also possesses excellent drug loading capability and anticancer efficiency.

  1. A Reactive 1O2 - Responsive Combined Treatment System of Photodynamic and Chemotherapy for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaojun; Meng, Guoqing; Zhang, Song; Liu, Xinli

    2016-01-01

    The development of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-responsive drug delivery and drug release has gradually attracted much attention in recent years as a promising therapeutic strategy. Singlet oxygen (1O2) as the major ROS species is widely used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of cancer. In the present study, we introduce a combined treatment using ROS-sensitive thioketal (TK) linkage as a linker between upconversion nanoparticles (UNs)-based PDT and doxorubicin (DOX)-based chemotherapy. UNs can not only play a role in PDT, but can also be used as a nanocarrier for drug delivery of DOX. Moreover, the products of 1O2 during PDT are able to cleave TK linker inducing the release of DOX which can further achieve the goal of chemotherapy. By using this 1O2-responsive nanocarrier delivery system, DOX can easily reach the tumor site and be accumulated in the nuclei to effectively kill the cancer cells, and therefore decreasing the side effects of chemotherapy on the body. Thus, PDT also has the function of controlling drug release in this combination treatment strategy. Compared with monotherapy, the combination of PDT with chemotherapy also possesses excellent drug loading capability and anticancer efficiency. PMID:27443831

  2. Outcome of early clinical trials of the combination of hydroxychloroquine with chemotherapy in cancer.

    PubMed

    Poklepovic, Andrew; Gewirtz, David A

    2014-08-01

    The premise of inhibiting autophagy to overcome resistance to chemotherapy has been investigated in 5 clinical phase I trials combining hydroxychloroquine with vorinostat, temsirolimus, temozolomide, or bortezomib. These studies have provided a number of insights relating to the tolerability of the combination treatments. In addition, these studies should provide guidance in the planning and design of future trials to directly determine whether the strategy of autophagy inhibition could prove useful in the treatment of various malignancies.

  3. Thermosensitive gemcitabine-magnetoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Roberta V; Martins, Thaís Maria da Mata; Goes, Alfredo Miranda; Fabris, José D; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D; Outon, Luis Eugenio Fernandez; Domingues, Rosana Z

    2016-02-26

    The combination of magnetic hyperthermia therapy with the controlled release of chemotherapeutic agents in tumors may be an efficient therapeutic with few side effects because the bioavailability, tolerance and amount of the drug can be optimized. Here, we prepared magnetoliposomes consisting of magnetite nanoparticle cores and the anticancer drug gemcitabine encapsulated by a phospholipid bilayer. The potential of these magnetoliposomes for controlled drug release and cancer treatment via hyperthermic behavior was investigated. The magnetic nanoparticle encapsulation efficiency was dependent on the initial amount of magnetite nanoparticles present at the encapsulation stage; the best formulation was 66%. We chose this formulation to characterize the physicochemical properties of the magnetoliposomes and to encapsulate gemcitabine. The mean particle size and distribution were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and the zeta potential was measured. The magnetoliposome formulations all had acceptable characteristics for systemic administration, with a mean size of approximately 150 nm and a polydispersity index <0.2. The magnetoliposomes were stable in aqueous suspension for at least one week, as determined by DLS. Temperature increases due to the dissipation energy of magnetoliposome suspensions subjected to an applied alternating magnetic field (AMF) were measured at different magnetic field intensities, and the values were appropriated for cancer treatments. The drug release profile at 37 °C showed that 17% of the gemcitabine was released after 72 h. Drug release from magnetoliposomes exposed to an AMF for 5 min reached 70%.

  4. Thermosensitive gemcitabine-magnetoliposomes for combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Roberta V.; da Mata Martins, Thaís Maria; Goes, Alfredo Miranda; Fabris, José D.; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D.; Eugenio Fernandez Outon, Luis; Domingues, Rosana Z.

    2016-02-01

    The combination of magnetic hyperthermia therapy with the controlled release of chemotherapeutic agents in tumors may be an efficient therapeutic with few side effects because the bioavailability, tolerance and amount of the drug can be optimized. Here, we prepared magnetoliposomes consisting of magnetite nanoparticle cores and the anticancer drug gemcitabine encapsulated by a phospholipid bilayer. The potential of these magnetoliposomes for controlled drug release and cancer treatment via hyperthermic behavior was investigated. The magnetic nanoparticle encapsulation efficiency was dependent on the initial amount of magnetite nanoparticles present at the encapsulation stage; the best formulation was 66%. We chose this formulation to characterize the physicochemical properties of the magnetoliposomes and to encapsulate gemcitabine. The mean particle size and distribution were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), and the zeta potential was measured. The magnetoliposome formulations all had acceptable characteristics for systemic administration, with a mean size of approximately 150 nm and a polydispersity index <0.2. The magnetoliposomes were stable in aqueous suspension for at least one week, as determined by DLS. Temperature increases due to the dissipation energy of magnetoliposome suspensions subjected to an applied alternating magnetic field (AMF) were measured at different magnetic field intensities, and the values were appropriated for cancer treatments. The drug release profile at 37 °C showed that 17% of the gemcitabine was released after 72 h. Drug release from magnetoliposomes exposed to an AMF for 5 min reached 70%.

  5. Managing toxicities associated with antiangiogenic biologic agents in combination with chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Grenon, Nina N

    2013-08-01

    Toxicities commonly associated with antiangiogenic agents include hypertension, proteinuria, wound-healing complications, bleeding or hemorrhage, thromboembolic events, hypersensitivity reactions, and gastrointestinal perforation; however, toxicities most often attributed to chemotherapy include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, fatigue, neuropathy, mucositis, hand-foot syndrome, hypersensitivity reactions, and myelosuppression. Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) who receive an antiangiogenic agent in combination with chemotherapy may experience toxicities related to both chemotherapy and the antiangiogenic agent. If possible, evidence-based interventions should be used for the management of toxicities. Patient education about expected toxicities and optimal toxicity management can promote the optimal use of therapy to improve survival and quality of life. Oncology nurses are well positioned to educate patients and their families on anticipated treatment and management of side effects. This article summarizes the incidence of toxicities associated with the antiangiogenic biologic agents aflibercept and bevacizumab, in combination with chemotherapy for patients with mCRC, and provides strategies for managing these toxicities based on clinical practice guidelines.

  6. [Epirubicin-based combination chemotherapy combined with G-CSF for the elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Miyata, A; Fujii, S; Kikuchi, T; Kibata, M

    2000-02-01

    We devised a new epirubicin-based combination chemotherapy (Epi-COP) regimen for the patients with elderly non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and have treated 30 patients aged 66 years and older who had measurable diseases. In Epi-COP therapy, epirubicin was used as a substitute for doxorubicin in the CHOP regimen, and some dose modifications were made for the other agents. Combined modality treatment (CMT; chemotherapy plus radiotherapy) was adopted for 9 patients with localized disease. Complete response was obtained in 21 of all the 30 patients (70%), 8 in 9 (89%) of the CMT group and 13 in 21 (62%) of the patients with chemotherapy only (chemotherapy group). The median follow up time is 350 days, ranging from 2 to 77 months. The 2 year survival rate was 56% in all patients, 67% in the CMT group and 52% in the chemotherapy group. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) was administered when the leucocyte count decreased below 2,000/microliter, and 16 patients received it in the first course. The regimen could be repeated every three weeks in most cases. Although we encountered two early deaths, the overall toxicity level seemed to be acceptable. Even when we take account of the small number of patients and the short observation period, it might be concluded that Epi-COP was effective in inducing a good remission rate with moderate toxic effect in elderly patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and CMT should be adopted if it is localized. A randomized comparative study with the CHOP regimen is necessary.

  7. Chemotherapy response as a prognosticator for survival in patients with limited squamous cell lung cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Eagan, R.T.; Fleming, T.R.; Lee, R.E.; Ingle, J.N.; Frytak, S.; Creagan, E.T.

    1980-07-01

    Twenty-two patients with limited unresectable squamous cell lung cancer were treated with 6 courses of combination chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, cisplatin, and bleomycin (CAP-Bleo) and short-course thoracic irradiation started after the first 4 weeks of chemotherapy. Of 20 patients with visible tumor who were treated with 4 weeks of chemotherapy alone, 10 (50%) had a tumor regression in that 4 week period and 10 did not. Those patients with tumor regression had significantly better progression free and overall survivals than did patients with no chemotherapy regressions (medians of 258 days vs. 136 days and 356 days vs. 150 days respectively). The original bleomycin dose had to be reduced by 50% primarily because of excessive radiation esophagitis that has not been reported with use of either the CAP regimen or bleomycin along in conjunction with thoracic irradiation. An initial chemotherapy regression seems to be a good prognosticator for progression-free and overall survival in patients with limited squamous cell lung cancer treated with combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

  8. Immunobiological effects of gemcitabine and capecitabine combination chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Gary; Greenhalf, William; Costello, Eithne; Shaw, Victoria; Cox, Trevor; Ghaneh, Paula; Palmer, Daniel H; Neoptolemos, John P

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preclinical studies suggest that chemotherapy may enhance the immune response against pancreatic cancer. Methods: The levels of granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the associated inflammatory marker C-reactive protein (CRP) were assessed in 38 patients receiving gemcitabine and capecitabine combination chemotherapy for advanced pancreatic cancer within the TeloVac trial. Apoptosis (M30) and total immune response (delayed-type hypersensitivity and/or T-cell response) were also assessed and levels of apoptosis induction correlated with immune response. The telomerase GV1001 vaccine was given either sequentially (n=18) or concomitantly (n=24) with the combination chemotherapy. Results: There were no differences between baseline and post-treatment levels of CRP (P=0.19), IL-6 (P=0.19) and GM-CSF (P=0.71). There was a positive correlation between post-chemotherapy CRP and IL-6 levels (r=0.45, P=0.005) and between CRP with carbohydrate antigen-19-9 (CA19-9) levels at baseline (r=0.45, P=0.015) and post treatment (r=0.40, P=0.015). The change in CRP and IL-6 levels was positively correlated (r=0.40, P=0.012). Hazard ratios (95% CI) for baseline CA19-9 (1.30 (1.07–1.59), P=0.009) and CRP (1.55 (1.00–2.39), P=0.049) levels were each independently predictive of survival. The M30 mean matched differences between pre- and post-chemotherapy showed evidence of apoptosis in both the sequential (P=0.058) and concurrent (P=0.0018) chemoimmunotherapy arms. Respectively, 5 of 10 and 9 of 20 patients had a positive immune response but there was no association with apoptosis. Conclusions: Combination gemcitabine and capecitabine chemotherapy did not affect circulating levels of GM-CSF, IL-6 and CRP. Chemotherapy-induced apoptosis was not associated with the immunogenicity induced by the GV1001 vaccine in advanced pancreatic cancer. PMID:26931369

  9. Modeling Combined Chemotherapy and Particle Therapy for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Durante, Marco; Tommasino, Francesco; Yamada, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is the only cancer for which deaths are predicted to increase in 2014 and beyond. Combined radiochemotherapy protocols using gemcitabine and hypofractionated X-rays are ongoing in several clinical trials. Recent results indicate that charged particle therapy substantially increases local control of resectable and unresectable pancreas cancer, as predicted from previous radiobiology studies considering the high tumor hypoxia. Combination with chemotherapy improves the overall survival (OS). We compared published data on X-ray and charged particle clinical results with or without adjuvant chemotherapy calculating the biological effective dose. We show that chemoradiotherapy with protons or carbon ions results in 1 year OS significantly higher than those obtained with other treatment schedules. Further hypofractionation using charged particles may result in improved local control and survival. A comparative clinical trial using the standard X-ray scheme vs. the best current standard with carbon ions is crucial and may open new opportunities for this deadly disease. PMID:26217585

  10. Combined laparoscopic cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in a patient with peritoneal mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Esquivel, Jesus; Averbach, Andrew

    2009-08-01

    The role of minimally invasive, laparoscopic hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has been reported by several centers around the world, mainly to palliate intractable ascites in patients with extensive peritoneal surface malignancies who are not candidates for a complete cytoreduction. In this paper, we report on the first case of combined laparoscopic cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC with curative intent in a patient with limited peritoneal mesothelioma.

  11. The benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy combined with postoperative radiotherapy for endometrial cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Jong; Nam, Eun Ji; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Yong Bae; Kim, Young Tae

    2013-09-01

    The objective of our study was to determine whether adjuvant chemotherapy combined with postoperative radiotherapy would have benefits for the disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with high-risk endometrial cancer. Electronic searches for studies of adjuvant chemotherapy combined with postoperative radiotherapy in endometrial cancer patients between March 1971 and March 2012 were made on MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane library. Articles with more than 4 stars on the Newcastle-Ottawa scale or a score of more than 4 on the modified Jadad scale were included. A meta-analysis was performed, and pooled hazard ratios (HR) of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between patients whose adjuvant chemotherapy was combined with radiotherapy (the CTx+RTx group) and patients with adjuvant radiotherapy only (the RTx group) were derived from the fixed effect model or random effect model. Three observational studies and 3 randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included in the final analysis. Subgroup analysis for FIGO stage showed that the CTx+RTx group had a more significant survival benefit compared to that of the RTx group in advanced stage endometrial cancer (OS HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.36-0.80; PFS HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.37-0.77), but no significant benefit in early stage endometrial cancer (OS HR 0.96, 95% CI 0.70-1.32; PFS HR 1.00, 95% CI 0.39-2.58). This meta-analysis suggests that adjuvant chemotherapy combined with postoperative radiotherapy could probably reduce disease progression and overall death in patients with advanced-stage disease. In order to examine whether the multimodal treatment has benefit in high-risk endometrial cancer, we need further large-scale RCTs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CRAdRGDflt-IL24 virotherapy in combination with chemotherapy of experimental glioma

    PubMed Central

    Kaliberova, LN; Krendelchtchikova, V; Harmon, DK; Stockard, CR; Petersen, AS; Markert, JM; Gillespie, GY; Grizzle, WE; Buchsbaum, DJ; Kaliberov, SA

    2015-01-01

    Malignant forms of glioma, the most common primary brain tumors, remain poorly responsive to multimodality therapeutic interventions, including chemotherapy. Suppressed apoptosis and extraordinary invasiveness are important distinctive features that contribute to the malignant phenotype of glioma. We have developed the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR-1/flt-1) conditional replicating adenoviral vector (CRAdRGDflt-IL24) encoding the interleukin-24 (IL-24) gene. We investigated whether a combination of CRAdRGDflt-IL24-mediated oncolytic virotherapy and chemotherapy using temozolomide (TMZ) produces increased cytotoxicity against human glioma cells in comparison with these agents alone. Combination of CRAdRGDflt-IL24 and TMZ significantly enhanced cytotoxicity in vitro, inhibited D54MG tumor growth and prolonged survival of mice harboring intracranial human glioma xenografts in comparison with CRAdRGDflt-IL24 or TMZ alone. These data indicate that combined treatment with CRAdRGDflt-IL24-mediated oncolytic virotherapy and TMZ chemotherapy provides a promising approach for glioma therapy. PMID:19363468

  13. [Efficacy of radiofrequency hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy in treatment of malignant pericardial effusion caused by lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Luo, Pengfei; Cao, Peiguo; Yao, Zhiping

    2011-07-01

    Malignant pericardial effusion is one of the serious complications of lung cancer and lack effective treatment methods. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiofrequency hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy for patients with malignant pericardial effusion caused by lung cancer. Fifty-five patients with malignant pericardial effusion caused by lung cancer were divided into hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy group (combined therapy group) and chemotherapy group. The combined therapy group was treated with radiofrequency hyperthermia after the pericardiocentesis and intracavitary injection (cisplatin 20 mg and dexamethasone 5 mg), when patients' general state of health improved, systemic chemotherapy was performed. The chemotherapy group was treated only with intracavitary injection and systemic chemotherapy. Intracavitary chemotherapy was performed for 1-6 times (average 3 times). Hyperthermia was performed twice per week with an average of 6 times following intracavitary and systemic chemotherapy. The temperature of intracavitary was 40.5 °C-41.5 °C for 60 min during the hyperthermia periods. Systemic chemotherapy consists of cisplatin (75 mg/m²) and vinorelbine (50 mg/m²). The complete remission rate (CR) of malignant pericardial effusion was 54.3% and the response rate (RR) was 91.4% in the combined therapy group, while the rates of CR and RR of chemotherapy group were 25.0% and 70.0%, and the differences of CR and RR between the two groups were significant (P<0.05). After treatment, the quality of life improved significantly in both groups, but the combined therapy group had a higher KPS score than in the chemotherapy group (P<0.05). The adverse events associated with the chemotherapy included gastrointestinal toxicity and myelosuppression, and there were no significant differences between the two groups. The main side effects associated with radiofrequency hyperthermia included local skin ache (8.6%) and induration of

  14. Combining anti-miR-155 with chemotherapy for the treatment of lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Van Roosbroeck, Katrien; Fanini, Francesca; Setoyama, Tetsuro; Ivan, Cristina; Rodriguez-Aguayo, Cristian; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Xiao, Lianchun; Vannini, Ivan; Redis, Roxana; D'Abundo, Lucilla; Zhang, Xinna; Nicoloso, Milena S; Rossi, Simona; Gonzalez-Villasana, Vianey; Rupaimoole, Rajesha; Ferracin, Manuela; Morabito, Fortunato; Neri, Antonino; Ruvolo, Peter; Ruvolo, Vivian R; Pecot, Chad V; Amadori, Dino; Aruzzo, Lynne; Calin, Steliana; Wang, Xuemei; You, M James; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Orlowski, Robert Z; Plunkett, William; Lichtenberg, Tara; Davuluri, Ramana V; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Negrini, Massimo; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Hagop, Kantarjian; Sood, Anil K; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Keating, Michael J; Fabbri, Muller; Calin, George A

    2016-11-30

    Purpose The oncogenic miR-155 is upregulated in many human cancers and its expression is increased in more aggressive and therapy resistant tumors, but the molecular mechanisms underlying miR-155-induced therapy resistance are not fully understood. The main objectives of this study were to determine the role of miR-155 in resistance to chemotherapy and to evaluate anti-miR-155 treatment to chemosensitize tumors. Experimental Design We performed in vitro studies on cell lines to investigate the role of miR-155 in therapy resistance. To assess the effects of miR-155 inhibition on chemoresistance, we used an in vivo orthotopic lung cancer model of athymic nude mice, which we treated with anti-miR-155 alone or in combination with chemotherapy. To analyze the association of miR-155 expression and the combination of miR-155 and TP53 expression with cancer survival, we studied 956 patients with lung cancer, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Results We demonstrate that miR-155 induces resistance to multiple chemotherapeutic agents in vitro, and that downregulation of miR-155 successfully resensitizes tumors to chemotherapy in vivo. We show that anti-miR-155-DOPC can be considered non-toxic in vivo. We further demonstrate that miR-155 and TP53 are linked in a negative feedback mechanism, and demonstrate that a combination of high expression of miR-155 and low expression of TP53 is significantly associated with shorter survival in lung cancer. Conclusions Our findings support the existence of a miR-155/TP53 feedback loop, which is involved in resistance to chemotherapy and which can be specifically targeted to overcome drug resistance, an important cause of cancer-related death.

  15. Salvage combined chemotherapy with paclitaxel, ifosfamide and nedaplatin for patients with advanced germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Terukazu; Ueda, Takashi; Oishi, Masakatsu; Nakanishi, Hiroyuki; Fujihara, Atsuko; Naya, Yoshio; Hongo, Fumiya; Kamoi, Kazumi; Okihara, Koji; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy of combined regimen with paclitaxel, ifosfamide and nedaplatin as salvage chemotherapy in patients with cisplatin-refractory or multiple relapsed germ cell tumors. A total of 65 patients refractory to cisplatin-based chemotherapy or with relapse after induction or salvage chemotherapy received paclitaxel 210 mg/m(2) on day 1, ifosfamide 1.2 g/m(2) on days 2-6 and nedaplatin 100 mg/m(2) on day 2 of a 3-week cycle. The primary and secondary end-points were the response rate and overall survival, respectively. Paclitaxel, ifosfamide and nedaplatin therapy was carried out as second-line therapy in 17 patients, third-line in 31 and fourth-line or later in 17. Patients were pretreated with a median of six cycles of platinum-based chemotherapy (range 3-15 cycles). The overall response rate was 62.9%, including one patient with complete response and 38 with partial response. Serum tumor marker levels normalized in 35 (56.5%) patients. Overall survival at a median follow up of 34 months was 59.3%, and median time to progression was 12 months. Multivariate analysis showed that serum tumor marker normalization was the only independent predictor of better progression-free survival and overall survival. Grade 3/4 of neutropenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia was observed in 96.9%, in 81.5%, and in 90.8% of patients, respectively. Paclitaxel, ifosfamide and nedaplatin chemotherapy appears to be effective when used as first or second salvage treatment in advanced relapsed germ cell tumors. Even after fourth-line therapy, patients with serum tumor marker normalization might have a chance for a cure. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  16. Comparing Intra-Arterial Chemotherapy Combined With Intravesical Chemotherapy Versus Intravesical Chemotherapy Alone: A Randomised Prospective Pilot Study for T1G3 Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma After Bladder-Preserving Surgery

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Junxing Yao, Zhijun Qiu, Shaopeng Chen, Lingwu; Wang, Yu Yang, Jianyong Li, Jiaping

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To compare the efficacy of intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy versus intravesical chemotherapy alone for T1G3 bladder transitional cell carcinoma (BTCC) followed by bladder-preserving surgery. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with T1G3 BTCC were randomly divided into two groups. After bladder-preserving surgery, 29 patients (age 30-80 years, 24 male and 5 female) received intra-arterial chemotherapy in combination with intravesical chemotherapy (group A), whereas 31 patients (age 29-83 years, 26 male and 5 female) were treated with intravesical chemotherapy alone (group B). Twenty-nine patients were treated with intra-arterial epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) + cisplatin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) chemotherapy 2-3 weeks after bladder-preserving surgery once every 4-6 weeks. All of the patients received the same intravesical chemotherapy: An immediate prophylactic was administered in the first 6 h. After that, therapy was administered one time per week for 8 weeks and then one time per month for 8 months. The instillation drug was epirubicin (50 mg/m{sup 2}) and lasted for 30-40 min each time. The end points were tumour recurrence (stage Ta, T1), tumour progression (to T2 or greater), and disease-specific survival. During median follow-up of 22 months, the overall survival rate, tumour-specific death rate, recurrence rate, progression rate, time to first recurrence, and adverse reactions were compared between groups. Results: The recurrence rates were 10.3 % (3 of 29) in group A and 45.2 % (14 of 31) in group B, and the progression rates were 0 % (0 of 29) in group A and 22.6 % (7 of 31) in group B. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding recurrence (p = 0.004) and progression rates (p = 0.011). Median times to first recurrence in the two groups were 15 and 6.5 months, respectively. The overall survival rates were 96.6 and 87.1 %, and the tumour-specific death rates were 0 % (0 of 29) and 13.5 % (4 of 31

  17. [Radiofrequency ablation therapy combined with intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for liver metastasis of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Shinya; Inagaki, Masaru; Miyoshi, Kazuya; Takahashi, Masahiko; Oosaki, Toshihide; Fuchimoto, Sadanori; Sakata, Tatsuhiko

    2003-10-01

    We performed radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy combined with intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for 7 patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer. Synchronous metastasis accounted for 5 cases and metachronous for 2 cases. Two cases were H1, 2 cases H2, and 3 cases H3. Following the resection of colorectal primary lesion, we performed RFA for liver metastasis, using a Cool-tip electrode purchased from Radionics (Burlington, MA, USA). The mean number of sessions per patient was 5.1 (1-10). Ablation time of each session was changed according to tumor size, as follows: less than 1 cm in diameter: 2 min, 2 cm: 5 min, 2.5 cm: 10 min. By using intra-operative catheterization, weekly intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy was performed for liver metastasis. Excellent ablation was achieved in all cases by CT evaluation and no significant side-effect was observed. Average observation period was 15 months (maximal survival period was 31 months) and 6 patients are alive. RFA therapy combined with intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy achieved excellent therapeutic effect, and maintained good quality of life in patients.

  18. Malignant Esophagogastric Junction Obstruction: Efficacy of Balloon Dilation Combined with Chemotherapy and/or Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Ko, Gi-Young; Song, Ho-Young Hong, Heuk-Jin; Sung, Kyu-Bo; Seo, Tae-Seok; Yoon, Hyun-Ki

    2003-04-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of balloon dilation combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy for palliation of dysphagia due to malignant esophagogastric junction strictures. Methods: Fluoroscopically guided balloon dilation was attempted in 20 patients. The causes of strictures were gastric adenocarcinoma (n = 10) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 10). Scheduled chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy followed balloon dilation in all patients. Results: There were no technical failures or major complications. After balloon dilation, 15 (75%) patients showed improvement of dysphagia. No patient complained of reflux esophagitis during the follow-up period. Among the 15 patients, seven needed no further treatment for palliation of dysphagia until their deaths. The remaining eight patients underwent repeat balloon dilation(n = 4) or stent placement (n = 4)3-43 weeks (mean 15 weeks) after the initial balloon dilation because of recurrent dysphagia. Conclusion: Balloon dilation combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy seems to be an easy and reasonably effective palliative treatment for malignant esophagogastric strictures.

  19. Drug Resistance and the Role of Combination Chemotherapy in Improving Patient Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Yardley, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    Resistance to cancer chemotherapy is a common phenomenon especially in metastatic breast cancer (MBC), a setting in which patients typically have had exposure to multiple lines of prior therapy. The subsequent development of drug resistance can result in rapid disease progression during or shortly after completion of treatment. Moreover, cross-class multidrug resistance limits patient treatment choices, particularly in a setting where treatments options are few. One attempt to minimize the impact of drug resistance has been the concurrent use of two or more chemotherapy agents with unrelated mechanisms of action and differing modes of drug resistance, with the intent of blocking the development of multiple intracellular escape pathways essential for tumor survival. Within the past decade, an array of mechanistically diverse agents has augmented the list of combination regimens that may be both synergistic and efficacious in pretreated MBC. The aim of this paper is to review mechanisms of resistance to common chemotherapy agents and to consider current combination treatment options for heavily pretreated and/or drug-resistant patients with MBC. PMID:23864953

  20. Pilot studies of superfractionated radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy in limited oat cell carcinoma of the bronchus

    SciTech Connect

    Hodson, D.I.; Malaker, K.; Meikle, A.L.; Levitt, M.

    1984-10-01

    There are sound radiobiologic and suggestive clinical rationale for superfractionating the radiotherapeutic regimens employed for the therapy of rapidly growing malignancies. Oat cell carcinoma of the bronchus is such a tumor. The authors report their experience combining aggressive systemic combination chemotherapy with supperfractionated radiotherapy for the treatment of limited oat cell carcinoma of the bronchus. Overall, patient tolerance was satisfactory and a complete remission rate of 74% was achieved. It remains to be proven, in a prospective randomized fashion, whether this approach is superior to current conventional management.

  1. Phase II studies of dianhydrogalactitol-based combination chemotherapy for recurrent brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Eagan, R T; Creagan, E T; Bisel, H F; Layton, D D; Groover, R V; Herman, R C

    1981-01-01

    The drug combinations of dianhydrogalactitol and VP-16 and dianhydrogalactitol, VP-16, and triazinate were used in patients with primary brain tumors, principally astrocytoma, recurrent following cranial irradiation. Tumor regressions were noted in 40% of patients treated with the 2-drug regimen and in 33% of patients treated with the 3-drug regimens. Regression were noted in all grades of tumor. Poor performance score on the patients' part did not seem to effect regression rates. Myelosuppression was the principal toxicity encountered. Dianhydrogalactitol-based combination chemotherapy seems as active as nitrosourea therapy and presents an alternative to nitrosourea therapy.

  2. Combination chemotherapy for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    PubMed

    Coker, D D; Elias, E G; Chretien, P B; Gray, W C; Coleman, J J; Zentai, T A; Didolkar, M S; Morris, D M; Viravathana, T; Hebel, J R

    1981-01-01

    Fifty-one patients (32 previously untreated, 19 previously treated) with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck received a single course of combination chemotherapy consisting of high dose cis-platinum (DDP), bleomycin (Bleo), +/- high dose methotrexate (MTX). Thirty-three (65%) patients responded to therapy; 5 (10%) of these patients had a complete response. Previously untreated patients and those who received the three drugs (DDP, Bleo and MTX) had the highest response rates. The duration of response was 8 to 12 weeks. Seven (15%) patients showed a two-year survival rate. All nonresponders were dead of disease within two years. Three (56%) of the five complete-response patients and 4 (21%) of the partial-response patients survived for two years. The role of preoperative chemotherapy in head and neck cancer is yet to be conclusively defined.

  3. Ginseng and Anticancer Drug Combination to Improve Cancer Chemotherapy: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shihong; Huang, Ying; O'Barr, Stephen A.; Wong, Rebecca A.; Chow, Moses Sing Sum

    2014-01-01

    Ginseng, a well-known herb, is often used in combination with anticancer drugs to enhance chemotherapy. Its wide usage as well as many documentations are often cited to support its clinical benefit of such combination therapy. However the literature based on objective evidence to make such recommendation is still lacking. The present review critically evaluated relevant studies reported in English and Chinese literature on such combination. Based on our review, we found good evidence from in vitro and in vivo animal studies showing enhanced antitumor effect when ginseng is used in combination with some anticancer drugs. However, there is insufficient clinical evidence of such benefit as very few clinical studies are available. Future research should focus on clinically relevant studies of such combination to validate the utility of ginseng in cancer. PMID:24876866

  4. Immune Effects of Chemotherapy, Radiation, and Targeted Therapy and Opportunities for Combination With Immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Wargo, Jennifer A.; Reuben, Alexandre; Cooper, Zachary A.; Oh, Kevin S.; Sullivan, Ryan J.

    2016-01-01

    There have been significant advances in cancer treatment over the past several years through the use of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, molecularly targeted therapy, and immunotherapy. Despite these advances, treatments such as monotherapy or monomodality have significant limitations. There is increasing interest in using these strategies in combination; however, it is not completely clear how best to incorporate molecularly targeted and immune-targeted therapies into combination regimens. This is particularly pertinent when considering combinations with immunotherapy, as other types of therapy may have significant impact on host immunity, the tumor microenvironment, or both. Thus, the influence of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and molecularly targeted therapy on the host anti-tumor immune response and the host anti-host response (ie, autoimmune toxicity) must be taken into consideration when designing immunotherapy-based combination regimens. We present data related to many of these combination approaches in the context of investigations in patients with melanoma and discuss their potential relationship to management of patients with other tumor types. Importantly, we also highlight challenges of these approaches and emphasize the need for continued translational research. PMID:26320064

  5. Single-agent Taxane Versus Taxane-containing Combination Chemotherapy as Salvage Therapy for Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sonpavde, Guru; Pond, Gregory R; Choueiri, Toni K; Mullane, Stephanie; Niegisch, Guenter; Albers, Peter; Necchi, Andrea; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe; Buonerba, Carlo; Rozzi, Antonio; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Lee, Jae-Lyun; Kitamura, Hiroshi; Kume, Haruki; Bellmunt, Joaquim

    2016-04-01

    Single-agent taxanes are commonly used as salvage systemic therapy for patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma (UC). To study the impact of combination chemotherapy delivering a taxane plus other chemotherapeutic agents compared with single-agent taxane as salvage therapy. Individual patient-level data from phase 2 trials of salvage systemic therapy were used. Trials evaluating either single agents (paclitaxel or docetaxel) or combination chemotherapy (taxane plus one other chemotherapeutic agent or more) following prior platinum-based therapy were used. Information regarding the known major baseline prognostic factors was required: time from prior chemotherapy, hemoglobin, performance status, albumin, and liver metastasis status. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate the association of prognostic factors and combination versus single-agent chemotherapy with overall survival (OS). Data were available from eight trials including 370 patients; two trials (n=109) evaluated single-agent chemotherapy with docetaxel (n=72) and cremophor-free paclitaxel (n=37), and six trials (n=261) evaluated combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine-paclitaxel (two trials, with n=99 and n=24), paclitaxel-cyclophosphamide (n=32), paclitaxel-ifosfamide-nedaplatin (n=45), docetaxel-ifosfamide-cisplatin (n=26), and paclitaxel-epirubicin (n=35). On multivariable analysis after adjustment for baseline prognostic factors, combination chemotherapy was independently and significantly associated with improved OS (hazard ratio: 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.82; p=0.001). The retrospective design of this analysis and the trial-eligible population were inherent limitations. Patients enrolled in trials of combination chemotherapy exhibited improved OS compared with patients enrolled in trials of single-agent chemotherapy as salvage therapy for advanced UC. Prospective randomized trials are required to validate a potential role for rational and tolerable combination

  6. Efficacy of chemotherapy combined with targeted arterial infusion of verapamil in patients with advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhongliang; Chen, Dong; Liu, Aiguo; Fan, Pingsheng; Duan, Qiaohong; Zhang, Tengyue; Fan, Gaofei

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of chemotherapy combined with targeted arterial infusion of verapamil in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Forty patients were enrolled. Targeted arterial infusion of verapamil was done once a month, 3-5 times per patient, along with chemotherapy. After 2 bouts of combined treatment, the efficacy was evaluated. Primary gastric tumor was confirmed in 38/40 patients, and unconfirmed in 2/40 patients due to adhesion of tumors to surrounding tissue. Combined treatment was administered in 38 patients with defined tumors. Complete response to the treatment was in 5/38 (13.1 %) patients, partial response in 27/38 (71.1 %) patients, stable disease in 4/38 (10.5 %) patients, and progressive disease in 2/38 (5.26 %) patients. The effective rate (i.e., complete + partial response) comprised 84.2 %. There were 31 patients with liver metastases; 10/31 (32.3 %) patients showed complete response, 16/31 (51.6 %) patients showed partial response, 3/31 (9.7 %) patients had stable disease, and 2/31 (6.5 %) patients had progressive disease. The effective rate in these patients was 83.8 %. Thirty-seven patients were followed up, and 27/37 (73.0 %) patients were alive for 6 months or longer, 19/37 (51.3 %) for 12 months, 8 (35.1 %) for 18 months, and 8/37 (21.6 %) for 24 months. In conclusion, in patients with advanced gastric cancer, chemotherapy is more effective when combined with targeted arterial infusion of verapamil, leading to extended patients' survival and improved quality of life.

  7. The rationale of combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy - Joint action of Castor and Pollux.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas B

    2016-08-01

    This article aims to review the rationale behind the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Theoretical concepts describing the principles of the joint effects of chemoradiotherapy are reviewed. Preclinical and clinical evidence are collected and summarised demonstrating the co-operation between the two modalities which form the mainstay of the treatment of most solid tumours. Initially, the evolution of chemoradiotherapy was mostly empirically driven which is true for both, the early studies and the experimental investigations, rather than relying on scientific rationale. To date, the revised Steel's model proposes five mechanisms, spatial cooperation, cytotoxic enhancement, biological co-operation, temporary modulation and normal tissue protection to describe the interaction between radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Chemoradiotherapy has become the standard modality for most patients with locally advanced solid tumours due to better control of loco-regional disease and prolonged survival. Gradually, molecular prediction of efficacy is integrated such as MGMT status for combining temozolomide with radiotherapy in glioblastoma. As molecular targeted drugs are ready to be taken into triple combinations with chemoradiotherapy it is crucial to have a good understanding of the mechanisms of chemoradiotherapy for the rational development of future combinations.

  8. Therapeutic and scintigraphic applications of polymeric micelles: combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Ying-Hsia; Peng, Cheng-Liang; Chiang, Ping-Fang; Lin, Wuu-Jyh; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated a multifunctional micelle simultaneously loaded with doxorubicin (Dox) and labeled with radionuclide rhenium-188 (188Re) as a combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. We investigated the single photon emission computed tomography, biodistribution, antitumor efficacy, and pathology of 188Re-Dox micelles in a murine orthotopic luciferase-transfected BNL tumor cells hepatocellular carcinoma model. The single photon emission computed tomography and computed tomography images showed high radioactivity in the liver and tumor, which was in agreement with the biodistribution measured by γ-counting. In vivo bioluminescence images showed the smallest size tumor (P<0.05) in mice treated with the combined micelles throughout the experimental period. In addition, the combined 188Re-Dox micelles group had significantly longer survival compared with the control, 188ReO4 alone (P<0.005), and Dox micelles alone (P<0.01) groups. Pathohistological analysis revealed that tumors treated with 188Re-Dox micelles had more necrotic features and decreased cell proliferation. Therefore, 188Re-Dox micelles may enable combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy to maximize the effectiveness of treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26719687

  9. Combined modality treatment for stage I-II non-Hodgkin's lymphomas: CVP versus BACOP chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Bajetta, E.; Valagussa, P.; Bonadonna, G.; Lattuada, A.; Buzzoni, R.; Rilke, F.; Banfi, A.

    1988-07-01

    This paper reports the 5-year results of a prospective randomized study beginning in 1976 on 177 evaluable patients with pathologic Stage I-IE and II-IIE non-Hodgkin's lymphomas with diffuse histology according to the Rappaport classification. Treatment consisted of either CVP or BACOP chemotherapy (3 cycles) followed by regional radiotherapy (40 to 50 Gy) and further cycles of either combination. In both arms, complete remission at the end of combined treatment was high (CVP 93%, BACOP 98%) regardless of age, stage or bulky disease. At 5 years, the comparative freedom from first progression was 62% for CVP vs 78% for BACOP (p = 0.02), respectively. Clinically relevant differences favoring BACOP chemotherapy were essentially documented in patients with large cell lymphomas (International Working Formulation), those with Stage II having more than three involved anatomical sites, bulky disease and age over 60 years. Recurrence within radiation fields was documented in only 5% of complete responders. Combined treatment was, in general, well tolerated particularly when BACOP was used. In only 2 patients given CVP post radiation cutaneous fibrosis was documented. Second solid tumors were detected in 4 patients. One patient started on CVP died because of brain stem necrosis after 45 Gy. We conclude that in Stage I-II patients with nodal and extranodal diffuse non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, particularly large cell lymphomas, combined modality approach with primary Adriamycin and bleomycin containing regimen, such as BACOP, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy offers high chances of cure with minimal toxicity.

  10. Hyaluronic acid-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles for colon cancer-targeted combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Han, Moon Kwon; Viennois, Emilie; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Mingzhen; Si, Xiaoying; Merlin, Didier

    2015-11-14

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based combination chemotherapy has been proposed as an effective strategy for achieving synergistic effects and targeted drug delivery for colon cancer therapy. Here, we fabricated a series of hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized camptothecin (CPT)/curcumin (CUR)-loaded polymeric NPs (HA-CPT/CUR-NPs) with various weight ratios of CPT to CUR (1 : 1, 2 : 1 and 4 : 1). The resultant spherical HA-CPT/CUR-NPs had a desirable particle size (around 289 nm), relative narrow size distribution, and slightly negative zeta potential. These NPs exhibited a simultaneous sustained release profile for both drugs throughout the time frame examined. Subsequent cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that the introduction of HA to the NP surface endowed NPs with colon cancer-targeting capability and markedly increased cellular uptake efficiency compared with chitosan-coated NPs. Importantly, the combined delivery of CPT and CUR in one HA-functionalized NP exerted strong synergistic effects. HA-CPT/CUR-NP (1 : 1) showed the highest antitumor activity among the three HA-CPT/CUR-NPs, resulting in an extremely low combination index. Collectively, our findings indicate that this HA-CPT/CUR-NP can be exploited as an efficient formulation for colon cancer-targeted combination chemotherapy.

  11. Phase II study of DTIC, ACNU, and vincristine combination chemotherapy for supratentorial malignant astrocytomas.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, J; Aida, T; Sawamura, Y; Abe, H; Kaneko, S; Kashiwaba, T; Kawamoto, T; Mitsumori, K; Saitoh, H

    1996-08-01

    This phase II clinical study evaluated the use of 5-(3-3'-dimethyl-1-triazeno)imidazole-4-carboxamide (DTIC) pretreatment to reduce cellular resistance and enhance the antitumor effects of chloroethyl nitrosoureas in 32 patients with supratentorial malignant gliomas, including 13 anaplastic astrocytoma and 19 glioblastoma multiforme. All patients received a total dose of 50-65 Gy radiation therapy after surgery. Chemotherapy consisted of DTIC (1 mg/kg) on days 1-5, 1-(4-amino-2-methyl-5-pyrimidinyl)methyl-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3-nitrosourea hydrochloride (2 mg/kg) on day 5, and vincristine (0.02 mg/kg) on days 1 and 15 every 5 weeks. One patient achieved complete response and 12 patients showed partial response. Median survival time was 18 months and median time-to-progression was 11 months. No significant toxicity was encountered. There was no significant benefit of this pretreatment to combination chemotherapy when compared with previous results. This study does not support a further role for DTIC as a depleter of O6-alkylguanine deoxyribonucleic acid alkyltransferase activity preceding chloroethyl nitrosourea-based chemotherapy.

  12. Successful combination chemotherapy for metastatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: A case report

    PubMed Central

    INADOMI, KYOKO; KUMAGAI, HOZUMI; TAKAYOSHI, KOTOE; ARIYAMA, HIROSHI; KUSABA, HITOSHI; NISHIE, AKIHIRO; YAMAMOTO, HIDETAKA; TAKASE, KEN; TANAKA, MAMORU; SAGARA, KOSUKE; OKUMURA, YUTA; NIO, KENTA; NAKANO, MICHITAKA; ARITA, SHUJI; ODA, YOSHINAO; AKASHI, KOICHI; BABA, EISHI

    2015-01-01

    A 64-year-old male presented with increased abdo-minal fullness and fever. Radiological examination revealed moderate ascites, a tumor with a diameter of 12.5 cm in the mesenteric region, as well as multiple tumors in the thoracic and abdominal para-aortic regions and in the left supraclavicular regions. Pathohistological findings of the biopsy specimen revealed atypical spindle cells accompanied by infiltration of lymphocytes. The plasmacytes were positive for CD68, murine double minute 2 and S-100, while they were negative for α-smooth muscle actin, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Clinically, the patient presented systemic symptoms and laboratory results indicated an elevation in the inflammatory response, while the CT and MRI findings were consistent with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Based on the clinical and histological findings, the patient was diagnosed with IMT. In total, 4 cycles of combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide were administered. Tumor size reduction by 50% was achieved subsequent to the 4th chemotherapy cycle. In conclusion, successful control of this rare metastatic IMT was achieved by systemic chemotherapy. PMID:26722275

  13. Successful combination chemotherapy for metastatic inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor: A case report.

    PubMed

    Inadomi, Kyoko; Kumagai, Hozumi; Takayoshi, Kotoe; Ariyama, Hiroshi; Kusaba, Hitoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Yamamoto, Hidetaka; Takase, Ken; Tanaka, Mamoru; Sagara, Kosuke; Okumura, Yuta; Nio, Kenta; Nakano, Michitaka; Arita, Shuji; Oda, Yoshinao; Akashi, Koichi; Baba, Eishi

    2015-11-01

    A 64-year-old male presented with increased abdo-minal fullness and fever. Radiological examination revealed moderate ascites, a tumor with a diameter of 12.5 cm in the mesenteric region, as well as multiple tumors in the thoracic and abdominal para-aortic regions and in the left supraclavicular regions. Pathohistological findings of the biopsy specimen revealed atypical spindle cells accompanied by infiltration of lymphocytes. The plasmacytes were positive for CD68, murine double minute 2 and S-100, while they were negative for α-smooth muscle actin, cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and anaplastic lymphoma kinase. Clinically, the patient presented systemic symptoms and laboratory results indicated an elevation in the inflammatory response, while the CT and MRI findings were consistent with an inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT). Based on the clinical and histological findings, the patient was diagnosed with IMT. In total, 4 cycles of combination chemotherapy with doxorubicin and ifosfamide were administered. Tumor size reduction by 50% was achieved subsequent to the 4th chemotherapy cycle. In conclusion, successful control of this rare metastatic IMT was achieved by systemic chemotherapy.

  14. Combined systemic and intraventricular chemotherapy in primary CNS lymphoma: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Schlegel, U; Pels, H; Glasmacher, A; Kleinschmidt, R; Schmidt-Wolf, I; Helmstaedter, C; Fliessbach, K; Deckert, M; Van Roost, D; Fimmers, R; Bode, U; Klockgether, T

    2001-01-01

    The objective was to evaluate response rate, response duration, and toxicity after systemic and intraventricular chemotherapy in primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL).
 From September 1995 to September 1998, 20 consecutive patients with PCNSL (median age 64, range 27 to 71 years) were enrolled in a pilot study evaluating chemotherapy without radiotherapy. A high dose methotrexate (MTX) (cycles 1, 2, 4, 5) and cytarabine (ara-C) (cycles 3, 6) based systemic therapy (including dexamethasone, vinca alkaloids, ifosfamide, and cyclophosphamide) was combined with intraventricular MTX, prednisolone, and ara-C.
 Complete response was achieved in 11 and partial remission in two patients; in one response could not be determined. Four patients showed progressive disease and two (70, 71 years) died from treatment related complications. Observation time was 2 to 59 months (median 31.5 months). Kaplan-Meier estimate for median time to treatment failure (TTF) was 20.5 months, and for median survival 54 months. Systemic toxicity was mainly hematological. Ommaya reservoir infection occurred in four patients and acute transient MTX induced encephalopathy in two (subacute in another). Cognitive dysfunction possibly due to treatment was seen in only one patient after relapse and after a total of 12 cycles (six at relapse).
 In conclusion, primary chemotherapy based on high dose MTX and ara-C is highly efficient in PCNSL. Toxicity is manageable in patients younger than 70years.

 PMID:11413277

  15. Hematopoietic toxicity of regional radiation therapy. Correlations for combined modality therapy with systemic chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Abrams, R.A.; Lichter, A.S.; Bromer, R.H.; Minna, J.D.; Cohen, M.H.; Deisseroth, A.B.

    1985-04-01

    Using circulating granulocyte-monocyte precursor colony-forming units in culture (CFUc) numbers as a probe along with standard blood count (CBC), the authors have quantitatively examined the hematopoietic toxicity of conventionally fractionated radiation therapy (RT) when combined with concurrent systemic chemotherapy or when used alone. Among 20 patients with limited stage small cell lung cancer receiving systemic chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, CCNU, and methotrexate, the addition of involved field chest RT resulted in increased hematopoietic toxicity as judged by increased need for platelet transfusion (P less than 0.05) and decreased frequency of measurable CFUc (P less than 0.04). Among 22 patients receiving regional radiotherapy alone consistent hematopoietic toxicity was also observed. This toxicity, although generally of only mild to moderate clinical significance, was detected earlier and to a greater degree in patients who required radiation to larger treatment volumes, who had significant amounts of bone marrow in the port, and who had a high percentage of cardiac output flowing through the port. These data suggest that the hematopoietic toxicity of regional radiotherapy may be additive to that of concurrent systemic chemotherapy and may occur more promptly and to a greater degree when treatment volumes are larger or incorporate increased amounts of marrow volume or cardiac output.

  16. The role of temperature increase rate in combinational hyperthermia chemotherapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yuan; McGoron, Anthony J.

    2010-02-01

    Hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy has been widely used in cancer treatment. Our previous study has shown that rapid rate hyperthermia in combination with chemotherapy can synergistically kill cancer cells whereas a sub-additive effect was found when a slow rate hyperthermia was applied. In this study, we explored the basis of this difference. For this purpose, in vitro cell culture experiments with a uterine cancer cell line (MES-SA) and its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant MES-SA/Dx5 were conducted. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, Caspase 3 activity, and heat shock protein 70 (HSP 70) expression following the two different modes of heating were measured. Doxorubicin (DOX) was used as the chemotherapy drug. Indocyanine green (ICG), which absorbs near infrared light at 808nm (ideal for tissue penetration), was chosen for achieving rapid rate hyperthermia. Slow rate hyperthermia was provided by a cell culture incubator. Two sets of thermal doses were delivered by either slow rate or rapid rate hyperthermia. HSP70 expression was highly elevated under low dose slow rate incubator hyperthermia while maintained at the baseline level under the other three treatments. Caspase3 level slightly increased after low dose slow rate incubator hyperthermia while necrotic cell death was found in the other three types of heat treatment. In conclusion, when given at the same thermal dose, slow rate hyperthermia is more likely to induce thermotolerance. Meanwhile, hyperthermia showed a dose dependent capability in reversing P-gp mediated MDR; when MDR is reversed, the combinational treatment induced extensive necrotic cell death. During this process, the rate of heating also played a very important role; necrosis was more dramatic in rapid rate hyperthermia than in slow rate hyperthermia even though they were given at the same dose.

  17. Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia following fludarabine combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Carney, D A; Westerman, D A; Tam, C S; Milner, A; Prince, H M; Kenealy, M; Wolf, M; Januszewicz, E H; Ritchie, D; Came, N; Seymour, J F

    2010-12-01

    Fludarabine combination chemotherapy achieves high response rates in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and indolent lymphoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence and characteristics of treatment-related myelodysplasia and acute myeloid leukemia (t-MDS/AML) after treatment with fludarabine in combination for lymphoproliferative disorders and identify risk factors for its development. In all, 176 patients treated with fludarabine combination were followed for a median of 41 months (range 6-125 months). In all, 19 cases of t-MDS/AML have been identified for an overall rate of 10.8%. Median overall survival post-t-MDS/AML diagnosis was 11 months. Patients developing t-MDS/AML included 11/54 with follicular lymphoma (FL) (crude rate 20.4%), 5/82 with CLL (6.1%) and 3/24 with Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia or marginal zone lymphoma (12.5%). Most patients had other cytotoxic treatments (median 4, range 0-7) but three with FL had fludarabine combination as their only line of treatment. Of the eleven patients (6.3%) who received mitoxantrone with their first fludarabine combination, four (36.4%) developed t-MDS/AML (P=0.007). There was a trend toward prior cytotoxic therapy increasing the risk for t-MDS/AML (P=0.067). Fludarabine combination chemotherapy is associated with a moderate risk of t-MDS/AML particularly when combined with mitoxantrone. This complication should be considered when evaluating the potential benefit of this treatment in lymphoproliferative disorders.

  18. Water-soluble polymer–drug conjugates for combination chemotherapy against visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Nicoletti, Salvatore; Seifert, Karin; Gilbert, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    There is a need for new safe, effective and short-course treatments for leishmaniasis; one strategy is to use combination chemotherapy. Polymer–drug conjugates have shown promise for the delivery of anti-leishmanial agents such as amphotericin B. In this paper, we report on the preparation and biological evaluation of polymer–drug conjugates of N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA), amphotericin B and alendronic acid. The combinatorial polymer–drug conjugates were effective anti-leishmanial agents in vitro and in vivo, but offered no advantage over the single poly(HPMA)–amphotericin B conjugates. PMID:20338769

  19. Stimuli-free programmable drug release for combination chemo-therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Jin, Boquan; Zhang, Silu; Song, Chaojun; Li, Quan

    2016-06-01

    Combinational chemotherapy capable of targeted delivery and programmable multi-drug release leads to enhanced drug efficacy, and is highly desired for cancer treatment. However, effective approaches for achieving both features in a single treatment are limited. In the present work, we demonstrated programmed delivery of both chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents with tumor cell targeting capability by using SiO2 based self-decomposable nanoparticulate systems. The programmable drug delivery is realized by manipulating drug loading configurations instead of relying on external stimuli. Both in vitro and in vivo results showed specific drug binding to FAT1-expressing colon cancer cells. The loaded dual drugs were demonstrated to be delivered in a sequential manner with specific time intervals between their peak releases, which maximize the synergistic effect of the chemotherapeutics. These features led to significantly enhanced drug efficacy and reduced system toxicity. The tumor weight decreased by 1/350, together with a moderate increase in rats' body weight, which were observed when adopting the dual drug loaded nanoparticles, as compared to those of the control groups. The present system provides a simple and feasible method for the design of targeting and combination chemotherapy with programmed drug release.Combinational chemotherapy capable of targeted delivery and programmable multi-drug release leads to enhanced drug efficacy, and is highly desired for cancer treatment. However, effective approaches for achieving both features in a single treatment are limited. In the present work, we demonstrated programmed delivery of both chemotherapeutic and immunotherapeutic agents with tumor cell targeting capability by using SiO2 based self-decomposable nanoparticulate systems. The programmable drug delivery is realized by manipulating drug loading configurations instead of relying on external stimuli. Both in vitro and in vivo results showed specific drug

  20. Effect of vinorelbine, ifosfamide, and cisplatin combination chemotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J B; Ko, W K; Lee, J G; Shim, K Y; Jeung, H C; Park, J O; Yoo, N C; Kim, B S; Kim, S K; Kim, S K; Kim, J H

    2000-12-01

    Cisplatin-based chemotherapy is being tried in the treatment of nonoperable cases of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the prognosis is unfavorable and to improve survival, clinical studies using various combinations of a variety of drugs as well as experimental material are in progress. We compared the efficacy and toxicities of combination chemotherapy using different doses of vinorelbine and ifosfamide with a constant dose of cisplatin in this study. Patients diagnosed with inoperable stage III or IV NSCLC between June 1997 and December 1998 were included. Cisplatin was administered at a constant dose of 80 mg/m2 on day 5, whereas vinorelbine on days 1 and 5 and ifosfamide on day 5 were administered in one of two different doses. In arm A, vinorelbine 25 mg/m2 and ifosfamide 3.0 g/m2 were administered. In arm B, vinorelbine 20 mg/m2 and ifosfamide 2.5 g/m2 were administered. Also, we reviewed for phase II and III studies that test 1) cisplatin, 2) vinorelbine monotherapy, and 3) vinorelbine/cisplatin/ifosfamide combination chemotherapy for stage IIIb-IV non-SCLC. Summation dose intensity (SDI) was calculated in each published and current study. Twenty patients in arm A and 35 patients in arm B were available for evaluation. There was no difference in patient activity, pathologic diagnosis, and differentiation or stage between the two arms. The median number of cycles was four in both arms. The response rate was 50% in arm A and 30% in arm B. The median survival times for arm A and B were 40 and 42 weeks, respectively, whereas the SDI was 1.94 and 1.7, respectively. More than grade III leukopenia was observed in 28.9% in arm A, which is more frequent than the 17.2% in arm B. There was a significant correlation between the SDIs and response rates and median survival (r2 = 0.629, p = 0.001; r2 = 0.453, p = 0.001, respectively). Although the follow-up period is relatively short, the survival time was similar in both arms. Because a high response rate may

  1. The competition of drugs to serum albumin in combination chemotherapy: NMR study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sułkowska, A.; Bojko, B.; Równicka, J.; Rezner, P.; Sułkowski, W. W.

    2005-06-01

    Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide (CM), metotrexate and 5-fluorouracil (FU) is used in treatment of patients with breast carcinoma. Although clinical toxicity of CM combinated with FU is greater than that of CM, the levels were clinically acceptable. The mechanism of competition of CM and FU to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was examined with the use of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shifts and the linewidth of individual proton and carbon resonances of each drug were measured as a function of the drug/BSA molar ratio in order to analyse the drug-protein interaction and the molecular motion of the drug. The effect of the second drug used in the combination chemotherapy on the analysed NMR parameters is discussed. It was found that FU and CM bind to BSA at molar ratio drug/BSA 160 and 330, respectively. The formation of lev-BSA complex was not confirmed. Whereas it was proved that in the presence of both lev and CM the number of FU molecules bound with BSA increases. It was also observed that FU induces the rising of the affinity between lev and BSA.

  2. Capecitabine and radiation therapy preceded and followed by combination chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Bryan J.; McGinn, Cornelius J.; Chang, Alfred E.; Colletti, Lisa M.; Normolle, Daniel P.; Hejna, Gwen F. P.A.; Zalupski, Mark M. . E-mail: Zalupski@umich.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the tolerance and toxicity of radiation therapy (RT) and capecitabine in patients with advanced, unresectable pancreatic carcinoma. To control micrometastatic disease, combination chemotherapy (gemcitabine and cisplatin) before and after combined modality therapy (CMT) was planned. Methods and Materials: Patients with unresectable or metastatic pancreatic cancer were eligible. Gemcitabine 1000 mg/m{sup 2} and cisplatin 35 mg/m{sup 2} were administered on Days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle for two cycles. RT was then given to a dose of 50.4 Gy in 1.8 Gy fractions. Patients were treated with capecitabine 1330 mg/m{sup 2} daily during RT. After CMT, two additional cycles of gemcitabine and cisplatin completed the treatment. Results: Twenty-three patients were treated. Eighteen patients completed CMT. One patient was removed from study during CMT for toxicity issues. Treatment delays and dose reductions were common during the final two cycles of gemcitabine and cisplatin as a result of myelosuppression. Median survival was 10.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 7.6, 13.7) for all 23 patients and 12.8 months (95% CI = 8.2, 18.9) for 18 patients without metastasis. Conclusion: Combined modality therapy with RT and capecitabine was well tolerated. Chemotherapy after CMT was difficult to complete owing to cumulative myelosuppression. Survival, response, and toxicity were comparable to infusional 5-fluorouracil and RT.

  3. The impact of combined radiation and chemotherapy on outcome in uterine papillary serous carcinoma compared to chemotherapy alone

    PubMed Central

    Nutter, Benjamin; Abdul-Karim, Fadi; Amarnath, Sudha; Rose, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of pelvic radiation on survival in patients with uterine serous carcinoma (USC) who received adjuvant chemotherapy. Methods Patients with stage I-IV USC were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program 2000 to 2009. Patients were included if treated with surgery and chemotherapy. Patients were divided into two groups: those who received chemotherapy and pelvic radiation therapy (CT_RT) and those who received chemotherapy only (CT). Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox regression proportional hazard models were used. Results Of the 1,838 included patients, 1,272 (69%) were CT and 566 (31%) were CT_RT. Adjuvant radiation was associated with significant improvement in overall survival (OS; p<0.001) and disease-specific survival (DSS; p<0.001) for entire cohort. These findings were consistent for the impact of radiation on OS (p<0.001) and DSS (p<0.001) in advanced stage (III-IV) disease but not for early stage (I–II) disease (p=0.21 for OS and p=0.82 for DSS). In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, stage, race and extent of lymphadenectomy, adjuvant radiation was a significant predictor of OS and DSS for entire cohort (p=0.003 and p=0.05) and in subset of patients with stage III (p=0.02 and p=0.07) but not for patients with stage I (p=0.59 and p=0.49), II (p=0.83 and p=0.82), and IV USC (p=0.50 and p=0.96). Other predictors were stage, positive cytology, African American race and extent of lymphadenectomy. Conclusion In USC patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy, adjuvant radiation was associated with significantly improved outcome in stage III disease but not for other stages. Positive cytology, extent of lymphadenectomy and African race were significant predictors of outcome. PMID:26463437

  4. Synergistic Cisplatin/Doxorubicin Combination Chemotherapy for Multidrug-Resistant Cancer via Polymeric Nanogels Targeting Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiqiu; Jin, Haojie; Wang, Cun; Zhang, Zihao; Ruan, Haoyu; Sun, Luyan; Yang, Chen; Li, Yongjing; Qin, Wenxin; Wang, Changchun

    2017-03-08

    Combination chemotherapy has been proposed to achieve synergistic effect and minimize drug dose for cancer treatment in clinic application. In this article, the stimuli-responsive polymeric nanogels (<100 nm in size) based on poly(acrylic acid) were designed as codelivery system for doxorubicin and cisplatin to overcome drug resistance. By chelation, electrostatic interaction, and π-π stacking interactions, the nanogels could encapsulate doxorubicin and cisplatin with designed ratio and high capacity. Compared with free drugs, the nanogels could deliver more drugs into MCF-7/ADR cells. Significant accumulation in tumor tissues was observed in the biodistribution experiments. The in vitro antitumor studies demonstrated the superior cell-killing activity of the nanogel drug delivery system with a combination index of 0.84, which indicated the great synergistic effect. All the antitumor experimental data revealed that the combination therapy was effective for the multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR tumor with reduced side effects.

  5. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer with pirarubicin versus epirubicin in combination with cyclophosphamide and docetaxel.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xi; Jia, Shi; Wei, Wei; Zhang, Wen-Hai

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancers (BC) are treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) is an emerging treatment option in many cancers and is given before primary therapy to shrink tumor size. The efficacy of NACT in varied settings of BC, such as inoperable tumors, borderline resectable tumors, and breast-conserving surgery, has been debated extensively in literature, and the results remain unclear and depended on a wide variety of factors such as cancer type, disease extent, and the specific combination of chemotherapy drugs. This study was performed to examine the efficacy, toxicity, and tolerability of pirarubicin (THP) and epirubicin (EPI) in combination with docetaxel and cyclophosphamide in a NACT setting for BC. A total of 48 patients with stage II or III breast cancers were randomly divided into two groups: THP group and EPI group. The patients in THP group received 2-4 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with DTC regimen (docetaxel, THP, cyclophosphamide), while patients in the EPI group received 2-4 cycles of DEC regimen (docetaxel, EPI, cyclophosphamide) before surgery. The incidence of adverse reactions and the efficacy of the treatment regimen were compared between the two groups. Prognostic evaluation indexes were estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, including the 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The overall response rate in THP group was 83.3 %, and the EPI group showed a response rate of 79.2 %, with no statistically significant difference in response rate between the two groups. The incidence of cardiac toxicity, myelosuppression, nausea, and vomiting in the THP group was significantly lower than the EPI group (all P < 0.05). The incidence of hepatic toxicity, alopecia, and diarrhea in the THP group was also lower than the EPI group, but these differences were not statistically significant. The 5-year DFS and OS in THP versus EPI groups were 80 versus 76 % (DFS) and 86 versus 81 % (OS

  6. Nimotuzumab Combined with Chemotherapy is a Promising Treatment for Locally Advanced and Metastatic Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Han, Xinghua; Lu, Nannan; Pan, Yueyin; Xu, Jianming

    2017-01-24

    BACKGROUND Nimotuzumab is an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody which has been widely used in cancer treatment. However, the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy in locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer patients remain unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS To address this open question, we collected a total data of 21 patients diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer between 2012 and 2016 in a, retrospective study. The patient characteristics, efficacy safety, and toxicity were evaluated in our study. RESULTS We observed 1 (4.8%) patient with complete response, 7 (33.3%) patients with partial response, 9 (42.9%) patients with stable response and 4 (19%) patients with progression response. The objective response rate was 38.1% and disease control rate was 81%. The mean progression-free-survival was 7 months and the 18-month overall survival (OS) was 10%. The incidence rate of anemia and leukopenia was 71.4% and 81%, respectively. Two patients showed the serious adverse event of myelosuppression, with nausea, fatigue, and anorexia. No long-term drug-related toxicity was observed during the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS Nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy can achieve promising clinical outcomes in locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer, without accumulation of toxicity and was well-tolerated.

  7. Nimotuzumab Combined with Chemotherapy is a Promising Treatment for Locally Advanced and Metastatic Esophageal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xinghua; Lu, Nannan; Pan, Yueyin; Xu, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Background Nimotuzumab is an anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody which has been widely used in cancer treatment. However, the safety and efficacy of nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy in locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer patients remain unclear. Material/Methods To address this open question, we collected a total data of 21 patients diagnosed with locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer between 2012 and 2016 in a, retrospective study. The patient characteristics, efficacy safety, and toxicity were evaluated in our study. Results We observed 1 (4.8%) patient with complete response, 7 (33.3%) patients with partial response, 9 (42.9%) patients with stable response and 4 (19%) patients with progression response. The objective response rate was 38.1% and disease control rate was 81%. The mean progression-free-survival was 7 months and the 18-month overall survival (OS) was 10%. The incidence rate of anemia and leukopenia was 71.4% and 81%, respectively. Two patients showed the serious adverse event of myelosuppression, with nausea, fatigue, and anorexia. No long-term drug-related toxicity was observed during the follow-up. Conclusions Nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy can achieve promising clinical outcomes in locally advanced or metastatic esophageal cancer, without accumulation of toxicity and was well-tolerated. PMID:28115730

  8. Nanocomposite hydrogel incorporating gold nanorods and paclitaxel-loaded chitosan micelles for combination photothermal-chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nan; Xu, Xuefan; Zhang, Xue; Qu, Ding; Xue, Lingjing; Mo, Ran; Zhang, Can

    2016-01-30

    Development of combination photothermal-chemotherapy platform is of great interest for enhancing antitumor efficacy and inhibiting tumor recurrence, which supports selective and dose-controlled delivery of heat and anticancer drugs to tumor. Here, an injectable nanocomposite hydrogel incorporating PEGylated gold nanorods (GNRs) and paclitaxel-loaded chitosan polymeric micelles (PTX-M) is developed in pursuit of improved local tumor control. After intratumoral injection, both GNRs and PTX-M can be simultaneously delivered and immobilized in the tumor tissue by the thermo-sensitive hydrogel matrix. Exposure to the laser irradiation induces the GNR-mediated photothermal damage confined to the tumor with sparing the surrounding normal tissue. Synergistically, the co-delivered PTX-M shows prolonged tumor retention with the sustained release of anticancer drug to efficiently kill the residual tumor cells that evade the photothermal ablation due to the heterogeneous heating in the tumor region. This combination photothermal-chemotherapy presents superior effects on suppressing the tumor recurrence and prolonging the survival in the Heps-bearing mice, compared to the photothermal therapy alone.

  9. Pregnancies and menstrual function before and after combined radiation (RT) and chemotherapy (TVPP) for Hodgkin's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lacher, M.J.; Toner, K.

    1986-01-01

    The menstrual cycle, pregnancies, and offspring were evaluated before and after initial combined radiation (RT) and chemotherapy with thiotepa, vinblastine, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (TVPP), in 34 women between the ages of 18 and 44 (median 26.5 years) treated for Stage II and Stage III Hodgkin's disease. The median range of follow-up is 83.1 months (range 40.5-140). After therapy 94.1% (32/34) continued to menstruate. Two of the four patients over the age of 35 ceased to menstruate. All patients under the age of 35 continued to menstruate (30/30). Age at the time of diagnosis was the only factor affecting change in menses with a significant probability (p = .001) that women greater than 30 years of age will experience some change in menstrual pattern. Seventeen pregnancies occurred in 12 women after therapy; 2 had 4 elective abortions; 10 delivered 12 children with normal physical development; 1 will deliver six months from now. Twelve of thirteen patients who wanted to become pregnant have conceived. The ability to become pregnant and deliver normal children after intensive treatment with combined radiation and chemotherapy (RT/TVPP) was comparable to the patients' pretreatment record.

  10. A prospective comparison of intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy and intravesical chemotherapy alone after transurethral resection with a thulium laser in high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Feng; Zhao, Ruizhe; Zhu, Yiyong; Cui, Di; Wang, Xiaohai; Han, Bangmin; Liang, Shengjie; Liu, Haitao; Sun, Xiaowen; Zhao, Fujun; Xu, Dongliang; Xia, Shujie

    2017-06-01

    Objective To compare intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy with intravesical chemotherapy alone in the treatment of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HRBC) after thulium laser resection of a bladder tumor (TmLRBT). From January 2009 to December 2013, 283 patients with HRBC were randomly assigned to the combined group (group A, n = 141) or intravesical chemotherapy-alone group (group B, n = 142) after TmLRBT. Intra-arterial chemotherapy was administered after initial TmLRBT, with 3 courses at 4-week intervals. Each course consisted of cisplatin (50 mg/m(2)) and epirubicin (30 mg/m(2)). Intravesical chemotherapy was administered in both groups, including an immediate 50 mg of epirubicin instillation after TmLRBT and weekly maintenance for 8 weeks, followed by monthly maintenance for 1 year. The recurrence rate was 29.1% (41/141) in group A and 42.9% (61/142) in group B, with a significant difference (p = 0.01). The progression rate was 15.6% (22/141) in group A and 25.3% (36/142) in group B, with a significant difference (p = 0.039). Patients with concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS) also had a lower recurrence rate and progression rate in group A compared to those in group B (p = 0.006 and p = 0.03, respectively). On univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, patients with low-grade histology had a higher reccurrence-free rate. Multivariate COX analysis of tumor-related factors suggested that concomitant CIS was the only significant prognostic factor associated with poorer recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival. Intra-arterial chemotherapy combined with intravesical chemotherapy could reduce the risk of recurrence and progression compared to intravesical chemotherapy alone in HRBC.

  11. Treatment of resistant metastatic melanoma using sequential epigenetic therapy (decitabine and panobinostat) combined with chemotherapy (temozolomide).

    PubMed

    Xia, Chang; Leon-Ferre, Roberto; Laux, Douglas; Deutsch, Jeremy; Smith, Brian J; Frees, Melanie; Milhem, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    To explore the safety and tolerability of combining two epigenetic drugs: decitabine (a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor) and panobinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor), with chemotherapy with temozolomide (an alkylating agent). The purpose of such combination is to evaluate the use of epigenetic priming to overcome resistance of melanoma to chemotherapy. A Phase I clinical trial enrolling patients aged 18 years or older, with recurrent or unresectable stage III or IV melanoma of any site. This trial was conducted with full Institutional Review Board approval and was registered with the National Institutes of Health under the clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT00925132. Patients were treated with subcutaneous decitabine 0.1 or 0.2 mg/kg three times weekly for 2 weeks (starting on day 1), in combination with oral panobinostat 10, 20, or 30 mg every 96 h (starting on day 8), and oral temozolomide 150 mg/m(2)/day on days 9 through 13. In cycle 2, temozolomide was increased to 200 mg/m(2)/day if neutropenia or thrombocytopenia had not occurred. Each cycle lasted 6 weeks, and patients could receive up to six cycles. Patients who did not demonstrate disease progression were eligible to enter a maintenance protocol with combination of weekly panobinostat and thrice-weekly decitabine until tumor progression, unacceptable toxicity, or withdrawal of consent. Twenty patients were initially enrolled, with 17 receiving treatment. The median age was 56 years. Eleven (65%) were male, and 6 (35%) were female. Eleven (64.7%) had cutaneous melanoma, 4 (23.5%) had ocular melanoma, and 2 (11.8%) had mucosal melanoma. All patients received at least one treatment cycle and were evaluable for toxicity. Patients received a median of two 6-week treatment cycles (range 1-6). None of the patients experienced DLT. MTD was not reached. Adverse events attributed to treatment included grade 3 lymphopenia (24%), anemia (12%), neutropenia (12%), and fatigue (12%), as well as grade 2 leukopenia

  12. Hyaluronic acid-functionalized polymeric nanoparticles for colon cancer-targeted combination chemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Bo; Han, Moon Kwon; Viennois, Emilie; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Mingzhen; Si, Xiaoying; Merlin, Didier

    2015-10-01

    Nanoparticle (NP)-based combination chemotherapy has been proposed as an effective strategy for achieving synergistic effects and targeted drug delivery for colon cancer therapy. Here, we fabricated a series of hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized camptothecin (CPT)/curcumin (CUR)-loaded polymeric NPs (HA-CPT/CUR-NPs) with various weight ratios of CPT to CUR (1 : 1, 2 : 1 and 4 : 1). The resultant spherical HA-CPT/CUR-NPs had a desirable particle size (around 289 nm), relative narrow size distribution, and slightly negative zeta potential. These NPs exhibited a simultaneous sustained release profile for both drugs throughout the time frame examined. Subsequent cellular uptake experiments demonstrated that the introduction of HA to the NP surface endowed NPs with colon cancer-targeting capability and markedly increased cellular uptake efficiency compared with chitosan-coated NPs. Importantly, the combined delivery of CPT and CUR in one HA-functionalized NP exerted strong synergistic effects. HA-CPT/CUR-NP (1 : 1) showed the highest antitumor activity among the three HA-CPT/CUR-NPs, resulting in an extremely low combination index. Collectively, our findings indicate that this HA-CPT/CUR-NP can be exploited as an efficient formulation for colon cancer-targeted combination chemotherapy.Nanoparticle (NP)-based combination chemotherapy has been proposed as an effective strategy for achieving synergistic effects and targeted drug delivery for colon cancer therapy. Here, we fabricated a series of hyaluronic acid (HA)-functionalized camptothecin (CPT)/curcumin (CUR)-loaded polymeric NPs (HA-CPT/CUR-NPs) with various weight ratios of CPT to CUR (1 : 1, 2 : 1 and 4 : 1). The resultant spherical HA-CPT/CUR-NPs had a desirable particle size (around 289 nm), relative narrow size distribution, and slightly negative zeta potential. These NPs exhibited a simultaneous sustained release profile for both drugs throughout the time frame examined. Subsequent cellular uptake experiments

  13. Recent Developments in Active Tumor Targeted Multifunctional Nanoparticles for Combination Chemotherapy in Cancer Treatment and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Glasgow, Micah D. K.; Chougule, Mahavir B.

    2016-01-01

    Nanotechnology and combination therapy are two major fields that show great promise in the treatment of cancer. The delivery of drugs via nanoparticles helps to improve drug’s therapeutic effectiveness while reducing adverse side effects associated with high dosage by improving their pharmacokinetics. Taking advantage of molecular markers over-expressing on tumor tissues compared to normal cells, an “active” molecular marker targeted approach would be beneficial for cancer therapy. These actively targeted nanoparticles would increase drug concentration at the tumor site, improving efficacy while further reducing chemo-resistance. The multidisciplinary approach may help to improve the overall efficacy in cancer therapy. This review article summarizes recent developments of targeted multifunctional nanoparticles in the delivery of various drugs for a combinational chemotherapy approach to cancer treatment and imaging. PMID:26554150

  14. Treatment dilemmas of cetuximab combined with chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Feng; Li, Qiu

    2016-01-01

    Although monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) have largely enriched the available therapeutic choices for colorectal cancer (CRC), the understanding and management of their associated clinical toxicities are limited. In addition, the combined strategies of administering EGFR mAbs and traditional cytotoxic agents, such as 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and irinotecan, have resulted in a more complicated management of CRC treatment-related side effects compared with EGFR mAb monotherapy. We believe that a thorough recognition of the toxicities of EGFR mAb drugs is essential for physicians to increase the therapeutic index in the treatment of CRC. This review aims to summarize the existing information regarding the treatment dilemmas of cetuximab combined with chemotherapy in the management of metastatic CRC. PMID:27340349

  15. Combination of CCNU and DTIC chemotherapy for treatment of resistant lymphoma in dogs.

    PubMed

    Flory, A B; Rassnick, K M; Al-Sarraf, R; Bailey, D B; Balkman, C E; Kiselow, M A; Autio, K

    2008-01-01

    Pleotropic-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated resistance is the usual cause of relapse in dogs with lymphoma. 1-(2-chloroethyl)3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosurea (CCNU) and 5-(3,3-dimethyl-1-triazeno)-imidazole-4-carboxamide (DTIC) are alkylating agents that are not affected by P-gp and lack cross-resistance to each other. A combination protocol offers the advantage of improved summation dose and synergistic activity. A combination of CCNU and DTIC that is well tolerated can be used to treat dogs with lymphoma that developed resistance or failed to respond to previously administered chemotherapy. Fifty-seven dogs with lymphoma that were resistant to treatment with standard chemotherapy (L-CHOP; L-asparaginase, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, prednisone). Prospective phase I and II trials were performed. CCNU was given PO immediately before a 5-h IV infusion of DTIC. Concurrent antiemetics and prophylactic antibiotics were used. Treatments were administered every 4 weeks. Based on the results of 8 dogs in the phase I study, CCNU at 40 mg/m(2) PO combined with DTIC at 600 mg/m(2) IV was used to treat 57 dogs with resistant lymphoma. Thirteen (23%) dogs had a complete response (CR) for a median of 83 days and 7 (12%) had a partial response for a median of 25 days. The median L-CHOP CR duration of the dogs that did not respond to CCNU-DTIC was significantly longer than that of the dogs that did achieve remission with CCNU-DTIC (225 days versus 92 days, P= .02). The principal toxic event was neutropenia; the median neutrophil count 7 days after treatment was 1,275 cells/microL. Increases in alanine transaminase activity, possibly associated with hepatotoxicity, were detected in 7 dogs. A combination of CCNU and DTIC can be an effective option to rescue dogs with resistant lymphoma.

  16. The impact of novel retinoids in combination with platinum chemotherapy on ovarian cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Whitworth, Jenny M; Londoño-Joshi, Angelina I; Sellers, Jeffrey C; Oliver, Patsy J; Muccio, Donald D; Atigadda, Venkatram R; Straughn, J Michael; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2012-04-01

    Retinoids are important modulators of cell growth, differentiation, and proliferation. 9cUAB30, 9cUAB124, and 9cUAB130 are three novel retinoid compounds that show cytotoxic effects in other malignancies. We evaluated these novel retinoids in combination with chemotherapy against ovarian cancer stem cells (CSCs) in vitro and in an ex vivo model. A2780 cells were plated in 96-well plates and treated with retinoid, carboplatin, or combination therapy. Cell viability was evaluated using ATPLite assay. The A2780 cell line was also analyzed for CSCs by evaluating ALDH activity using flow cytometry. A2780 cells treated ex vivo with retinoids and chemotherapy were injected into the flank of athymic nude mice in order to evaluate subsequent tumor initiating capacity. A2780 cells were sensitive to treatment with retinoids and carboplatin. The best treatment resulted from the combination of retinoid 9cUAB130 and carboplatin. Untreated A2780 cells demonstrated ALDH activity in 3.3% of the cell population. Carboplatin treatment enriched ALDH activity to 27.3%, while 9cUAB130±carboplatin maintained the ALDH positive levels similar to untreated controls (2.3% and 6.7%, respectively). Similar results were found in tumorsphere-forming conditions. Flank injections of ex vivo treated A2780 cells resulted in 4/4 mice developing tumors at 40 days in the untreated group, while 0/4 tumors developed in the 9cUAB130 and carboplatin treated group. Combination treatment with carboplatin and retinoids reduced cell-viability, reduced CSC marker expression, and inhibited tumorigenicity, making it a more effective treatment when compared with carboplatin alone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. [Construction of optimal combined chemotherapy of anti-tumor drugs based on chronotherapy].

    PubMed

    To, Hideto

    2006-06-01

    Metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is almost always incurable, and the median survival is of the order on 18-24 months. Combination therapy with adriamycin (ADR) and docetaxel (DOC) is more effective against MBC than the previous therapy due to differences between their mechanisms. However, the combination of ADR and DOC induces severe adverse effects, limiting its clinical use in many patients with MBC. The biologic functions of most living organisms are organized along an approximate 24 h time cycle or circadian rhythm. Chronotherapy is defined as the administration of medications using biological rhythms to optimize the therapeutic outcomes and/or control adverse effects. To decrease adverse effects, many antitumor drugs have been particularly studied in humans and animals. The toxicities of ADR and DOC have also been found to depend on dosing-time in animals and humans. This study was to establish the most suitable dosing schedule to relieve severe adverse effects and improve antitumor effects by considering a chronopharmacological approach, dosing-interval and dosing-sequence to the combination chemotherapy of ADR and DOC in mice. In the results, we demonstrate that the dosing schedule based on dosing-sequence, dosing-interval and dosing-time not only significantly reduced leukopenia and toxic death but also significantly increased the inhibition rate of tumor growth compared with the dosing schedule without an interval between each injection, commonly used in clinical practice. These findings suggest that the therapeutic index of combined chemotherapy can be improved by choosing an optimal dosing-schedule (dosing-interval, dosing-sequence and dosing-time).

  18. Predictive value of MGMT, hMLH1, hMSH2 and BRCA1 protein expression for pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in basal-like breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Katsuya; Mitomi, Hiroyuki; Alkam, Yimit; Arakawa, Atsushi; Yao, Takashi; Tokuda, Emi; Saito, Mitsue; Kasumi, Fujio

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the importance of biological markers to predict pathologic complete response (pCR) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in patients with locally advanced basal-like breast cancers (BLBCs). Thirty-two BLBC patients receiving NACT with an anthracycline-based regimen plus taxane were included in this study. The immunoreactivities of MGMT, MLH1, MSH2 and BRCA1 before and after NACT were evaluated. A pCR was obtained in 10 of 32 cases (31%). Cancer-related (P = 0.013) and disease-free (P = 0.023) survival rates were significantly higher in the pCR group than in the non-pCR group. In biopsy samples before NACT, attenuated expression of MGMT, MLH1, MSH2 and BRCA1 was observed in 12/32 (38%), 0/32 (0%), 5/32 (16%) and 28/32 (88%) cases, respectively. On evaluation of pCR, patients' characteristics (patients' age, menopausal status, or clinical and pathological stages) and immunohistochemical patterns, attenuated expression of MGMT was only found to be significantly predictive of a pCR (P = 0.018). Paired biopsy sample before NACT and a surgical tumor material after NACT were available for 19 cases of non-pCR. In these cases, decrease in expression during NACT were more frequently observed for MGMT as compared to MLH1, MSH2 or BRCA1 (P = 0.021). MGMT status is a predictive factor for pCR with neoadjuvant anthracycline-based plus taxane combination chemotherapy, which may be helpful in the selection of appropriate NACT for Japanese patients with BLBC.

  19. Overcoming therapeutic resistance in pancreatic cancer is not a simple mix of PDT and chemotherapy: Evaluation of PDT-chemotherapy combinations in 3D tumor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan P.; Petrovic, Ljubica; Massdodi, Iqbal; Rizvi, Imran; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2013-03-01

    The dismal survival statistics for pancreatic cancer are due in large part to the notoriously poor response of these tumors to conventional therapies. Here we examine the ability of photodynamic therapy (PDT), using the photosensitizer verteporfin to enhance of the efficacy of traditional chemotherapy agents and/or eradicate populations that are nonresponsive to these agents. Using an in vitro 3D tumor model of pancreatic cancer combined with an imaging-based methodology for quantifying therapeutic response, we specifically examine PDT combination treatments with gemcitabine and oxaliplatin. We show that our 3D cell culture model recapitulates a more clinically-relevant dose response to gemcitabine, with minimal cytotoxic response even at high doses. The same cultures exhibit modest response to PDT treatments, but are also less responsive to this modality relative to our previous reports of monolayer dose response in the same cells. In combination we found no evidence of any enhancement in efficacy of either PDT or gemcitabine treatment regardless of dose or sequence (PDT before gemcitabine, or gemcitabine before PDT). However, when oxaliplatin chemotherapy was administered immediately after treatment with 2.5J/cm2 verteporfin PDT, there was an observable enhancement in response that appears to exceed the additive combination of either treatment alone and suggesting there may be a synergistic interaction. This observation is consistent with previous reports of enhanced efficacy in combinations of PDT with platinum-based chemotherapy. The contrast in results between the combinations examined here underscores the need for rational design of mechanism-based PDT combinations.

  20. Comparison of the effects of photon versus carbon ion irradiation when combined with chemotherapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schlaich, Fabian; Brons, Stephan; Haberer, Thomas; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E; Weber, Klaus-Josef

    2013-11-06

    Characterization of combination effects of chemotherapy drugs with carbon ions in comparison to photons in vitro. The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line WiDr was tested for combinations with camptothecin, cisplatin, gemcitabine and paclitaxel. In addition three other human tumour cell lines (A549: lung, LN-229: glioblastoma, PANC-1: pancreas) were tested for the combination with camptothecin. Cells were irradiated with photon doses of 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy or carbon ion doses of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 Gy. Cell survival was assessed using the clonogenic growth assay. Treatment dependent changes in cell cycle distribution (up to 12 hours post-treatment) were measured by FACS analysis after propidium-iodide staining. Apoptosis was monitored for up to 36 hours post-treatment by Nicoletti-assay (with qualitative verification using DAPI staining). All cell lines exhibited the well-known increase of killing efficacy per unit dose of carbon ion exposure, with relative biological efficiencies at 10% survival (RBE10) ranging from 2.3 to 3.7 for the different cell lines. In combination with chemotherapy additive toxicity was the prevailing effect. Only in combination with gemcitabine or cisplatin (WiDr) or camptothecin (all cell lines) the photon sensitivity was slightly enhanced, whereas purely independent toxicities were found with the carbon ion irradiation, in all cases. Radiation-induced cell cycle changes displayed the generally observed dose-dependent G2-arrest with little effect on S-phase fraction for all cell lines for photons and for carbon ions. Only paclitaxel showed a significant induction of apoptosis in WiDr cell line but independent of the used radiation quality. Combined effects of different chemotherapeutics with photons or with carbon ions do neither display qualitative nor substantial quantitative differences. Small radiosensitizing effects, when observed with photons are decreased with carbon ions. The data support the idea that a radiochemotherapy with common

  1. [Combination Chemotherapy Using Oxaliplatin plus S-1 for Well-Advanced Gastric Cancer].

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroyuki; Suematsu, Yuki; Yamagishi, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Miyuki; Nakayama, Mao; Fukabori, Michiko; Morita, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Itoh, Yutaka

    2016-11-01

    We studied the clinical efficacy of pre-operative combination chemotherapy using S-1 plus oxaliplatin for advanced gastric cancer. Four patients hadclinical Stage IV disease, 1 patient had clinical Stage III C disease, 2 patients had clinical Stage III B disease, and 1 patient had clinical Stage III A disease. The patients received 2-8 courses of oxaliplatin(130mg/m2)on day 1, andS -1 on days 1-14 every 3 weeks. The response rate was 56%(5 PR, 1 PD, and2 SD), andthe disease control rate was 88%. Toxicities were Grade 2 anemia, Grade 1 peripheral neuropathy, Grade 1 fatigue, and anorexia. Five of the 8 patients underwent R0 surgery after SOX chemotherapy, and no severe complications occurred. Histological responses were Grade 3 for 2 cases, Grade 2 for 2 cases, andGrad e 1a for 1 case. The SOX regimen showeda high objective tumor response, andis one of the promising regimens in the neoadjuvant setting for well-advanced gastric cancer.

  2. Multifunctional Gold Nanostar Conjugates for Tumor Imaging and Combined Photothermal and Chemo-therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Haiyan; Zhang, Xin; Dai, Shuhang; Ma, Yuxiang; Cui, Sisi; Achilefu, Samuel; Gu, Yueqing

    2013-01-01

    Uniform gold nanostars (Au NS) were conjugated with cyclic RGD (cRGD) and near infrared (NIR) fluorescence probe (MPA) or anti-cancer drug (DOX) to obtain multi-functional nanoconstructs, Au-cRGD-MPA and Au-cRGD-DOX respectively. The NIR contrast agent Au-cRGD-MPA was shown to have low cytotoxicity. Using tumor cells and tumor bearing mice, these imaging nanoparticles demonstrated favorable tumor-targeting capability mediated by RGD peptide binding to its over-expressed receptor on the tumor cells. The multi-therapeutic analogue, Au-cRGD-DOX, integrates targeting tumor, chemotherapy and photo-thermotherapy into a single system. The synergistic effect of photo-thermal therapy and chemotherapy was demonstrated in different tumor cell lines and in vivo using S180 tumor-bearing mouse models. The viability of MDA-MB-231 cells was only 40 % after incubation with Au-cRGD-DOX and irradiation with NIR light. Both tail vein and intratumoral injections showed Au-cRGD-DOX treated mice exhibiting the slowest tumor increase. These results indicate that the multifunctional nanoconstruct is a promising combined therapeutic agent for tumor-targeting treatment, with the potential to enhance the anti-cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:24019851

  3. PEGylated polydopamine-coated magnetic nanoparticles for combined targeted chemotherapy and photothermal ablation of tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Peng; Sun, Lihong; Li, Qian; Zhang, Lei; Guo, Jinhong; Xu, Zhigang; Kang, Yuejun

    2017-09-08

    The integration of multifunctional therapeutic capabilities into a single nanosystem has attracted much attention for use as an efficient cancer therapy. However, developing biocompatible therapeutic nano-agents with desirable safety, efficiency, targeting, and synergistic effects remains challenging. Herein, we designed a class of multifunctional PEGylated magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) with a core-shell structure and polydopamine (PDA) coating, which were loaded with the anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) for simultaneous targeted chemotherapy and photothermal ablation of tumour cells. This nanosystem showed strong near-infrared absorption due to the polydopamine layer and was capable of magnetic field-guided drug delivery due to the superparamagnetism of the carrier. The resultant product exhibited excellent stability and biocompatibility in vitro due to the PEGylation of dopamine. Notably, the combination of chemotherapy and photothermal therapy had an evident synergistic effect on the ablation of tumour cells. This multifunctional nanoplatform has promising potential as an efficient therapeutic agent for multimodal cancer treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. New potential chemotherapy for ovarian cancer - Combined therapy with WP 631 and epothilone B.

    PubMed

    Bukowska, Barbara; Rogalska, Aneta; Marczak, Agnieszka

    2016-04-15

    Despite more modern therapeutics approaches and the use of new drugs for chemotherapy, patients with ovarian cancer still have poor prognosis and therefore, new strategies for its cure are highly needed. One of the promising ways is combined therapy, which has many advantages as minimizing drug resistance, enhancing efficacy of treatment, and reducing toxicity. Combined therapy has rich and successful history in the field of ovarian cancer treatment. Currently use therapy is usually based on platinum-containing agent (carboplatin or cisplatin) and a member of taxanes (paclitaxel or docetaxel). In the mid-2000s this standard regimen has been expanded with bevacizumab, monoclonal antibody directed to Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Another drug combination with promising perspectives is WP 631 given together with epothilone B (Epo B). WP 631 is a bisanthracycline composed of two molecules of daunorubicin linked with a p-xylenyl linker. Epo B is a 16-membered macrolide manifesting similar mechanism of action to taxanes. Their effectiveness against ovarian cancer as single agents is well established. However, the combination of WP 631 and Epo B appeared to act synergistically, meaning that it is much more potent than the single drugs. The mechanism lying under its efficacy includes disturbing essential cell cycle-regulating proteins leading to mitotic slippage and following apoptosis, as well as affecting EpCAM and HMGB1 expression. In this article, we summarized the current state of knowledge regarding combined therapy based on WP 631 and Epo B as a potential way of ovarian cancer treatment.

  5. Evaluation of platinum chemotherapy in combination with HER2-targeted α-particle radiation.

    PubMed

    Milenic, Diane E; Baidoo, Kwamena E; Shih, Joanna H; Wong, Karen J; Brechbiel, Martin W

    2013-01-01

    The studies described herein assess the potential of combining platinum-based chemotherapy with high-linear energy transfer (LET) α-particle-targeted radiation therapy using trastuzumab as the delivery vehicle. An initial study explored the combination of cisplatin with (213)Bi-trastuzumab in the LS-174T i.p. xenograft model. This initial study determined the administration sequence of cisplatin and (213)Bi-trastuzumab. Cisplatin coinjected with (213)Bi-trastuzumab increased the median survival (MS) to 90 days versus 65 days for (213)Bi-trastuzumab alone. Toxicity was observed with a weight loss of 17.6% in some of the combined treatment groups. Carboplatin proved to be better tolerated. Maximal therapeutic benefit, that is, a 5.1-fold increase in MS, was obtained in the group injected with (213)Bi-trastuzumab, followed by carboplatin 24 hours later. This was further improved by administration of multiple weekly doses of carboplatin. The MS achieved with administration of 3 doses of carboplatin was 180 days versus 60 days with (213)Bi-trastuzumab alone. The combination of carboplatin with (212)Pb radioimmunotherapy was also evaluated. The therapeutic efficacy of (212)Pb-trastuzumab (58-day MS) increased when the mice were pretreated with carboplatin 24 hours prior (157-day MS). These results again demonstrate the necessity of empirically determining the administration sequence when combining therapeutic modalities.

  6. Comparison of single agent versus combined chemotherapy in previously treated patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Jun; Zhi, Yi; He, Peng; Zhou, Xiao-Zhou; Zheng, Ji; Chen, Zhi-Wen; Zhou, Zhan-Song

    2016-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced urothelial cancer (UC) and is generally used in the first-line setting. However, the optimal salvage treatment for previously treated UC patients is unclear. We conducted a systematic review of published clinical trials of single agent versus combined chemotherapy as salvage treatment in previously treated UC patients. Trials published between 1994 and 2015 were identified by an electronic search of public databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane library). All relevant studies were independently identified by two authors for inclusion. Demographic data, treatment regimens, objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), median progression-free and overall survival (PFS, OS), and grade 3/4 toxicities were extracted and analyzed using Comprehensive Meta Analysis software (Version 2.0). Fifty cohorts with 1,685 patients were included for analysis: 814 patients were treated with single agent chemotherapy and 871 with combined chemotherapy. Pooled OS was significantly higher at 1 year for combined chemotherapy than for single agent (relative risk [RR] 1.52; 95% CI: 1.01-2.37; P=0.03) but not for 2-year OS (RR 1.31; 95% CI: 0.92-1.85; P=0.064). Additionally, combined chemotherapy significantly improved ORR (RR 2.25; 95% CI: 1.60-3.18; P<0.001) and DCR (RR 1.12; 95% CI: 1.01-1.25, P=0.033) compared to single agent for advanced UC patients. As for grade 3 and 4 toxicities, more frequencies of leukopenia and thrombocytopenia were observed in the combined chemotherapy than in single agent group, while equivalent frequencies of anemia, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea were found between the two groups. In comparison with single agent alone, combined chemotherapy as salvage treatment for advanced UC patients significantly improved ORR, DCR, and 1-year OS, but not 2-year OS. Our findings support the need to compare combined chemotherapy with single agent alone in the salvage setting in large prospective

  7. Efficacy of preoperative transcatheter arterial chemoembolization combined with systemic chemotherapy for treatment of unresectable hepatoblastoma in children.

    PubMed

    Hirakawa, Masakazu; Nishie, Akihiro; Asayama, Yoshiki; Fujita, Nobuhiro; Ishigami, Kousei; Tajiri, Tatsurou; Taguchi, Tomoaki; Honda, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, retrospectively, the clinical efficacy of preoperative transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) combined with systemic chemotherapy for unresectable hepatoblastoma. Five boys and three girls (mean age 15.2 months) were treated with preoperative TACE combined with systemic chemotherapy for unresectable hepatoblastomas. Mean tumor diameter and mean alfa-fetoprotein (AFP) level were 11.8 cm and 549,386 ng/mL, respectively. Pretreatment, the extent of disease (PRETEXT) was: II, 1; III, 6; IV, 1. For all patients, preoperative systemic chemotherapy was administered before TACE. At each TACE, carboplatin and adriamycin mixed with iodized oil were infused into the feeding arteries. Tumor response and prognosis after treatment were evaluated. TACE resulted in few Grade 1 adverse effects (AEs), without G3 or more AEs, according to CTACAE 3.0. Mean tumor shrinkage was 60.9%, and the mean AFP decrease from initial levels was 94.8%. In all cases TACE combined with systemic chemotherapy enabled subsequent safe and complete surgical resection. After a mean follow-up of 59 months, tumor-free survival was 75%. Preoperative TACE combined with systemic chemotherapy was effective in inducing surgical resectability of unresectable hepatoblastoma.

  8. Efficacy and safety of target combined chemotherapy in advanced gastric cancer: a meta-analysis and system review.

    PubMed

    Zou, Kun; Yang, Shuailong; Zheng, Liang; Yang, Chaogang; Xiong, Bin

    2016-09-15

    The aim of our meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of the target combined chemotherapy for the patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. In accordance with the standard meta-analysis procedures, the patients included in our study were with unresectable advanced or recurrent gastric cancer and allocated randomly to receive target combined chemotherapy or the traditional chemotherapy. The search was applied to PubMed, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, Cocran's library (from inception to February 2016). All analyses were performed by STATA 12.0, with the odds ratio, hazard ratio, and 95 % confidence interval as the effect measures. Fourteen studies were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 5067 patients with advanced gastric cancer were divided into two arms: traditional chemotherapy arm and target combined chemotherapy arm. A significant improvement for overall survival (hazard ratio was 0.89, 95 % confidence interval: 0.83-0.95) and overall response rate (odds ratio was 1.44, 95 % confidence interval: 1.15-1.81) was observed, but no significant difference was found for progression-free survival (hazard ratio was 0.89, 95 % confidence interval: 0.77-1.00) in the target combined chemotherapy arm. In subgroup analysis, increasing benefits regarding overall survival and progression-free survival were found in anti epidermal growth factor receptor target drugs for selected patients subgroup and anti vascular endothelial growth factor receptor target drugs for unselected patients subgroup, but not in anti epidermal growth factor receptor target drugs for unselected patients subgroup. Besides, some adverse events were increased in the target combined chemotherapy arm. The target combined chemotherapy represented a better overall survival benefit and treatment efficiency and higher incidence of some grade 3-4 adverse events than the traditional chemotherapy for patients with unresectable advanced or recurrence gastric

  9. Combination chemotherapy for marrow relapse in children and adolescents with acute lymphocytic leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Amadori, S; Spiriti, M A; Meloni, G; Pacilli, L; Papa, G; Mandelli, F

    1981-04-01

    38 children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) in haematologic relapse were retreated with vincristine, daunomycin and prednisone (VPD) together with intrathecal methotrexate and prednisone, followed by asparaginase in those patients not in complete remission after 4 weeks. The overall complete remission (CR) rate was 79%; asparaginase was needed to achieve CR in 7 of the 30 responding patients. The median duration of second remission was only 36 weeks, but 6 out of 15 children receiving the COAP-POMP-CART consolidation regimen remain in continuous second remission after 37-260 weeks; 3 of them are currently off all therapy. It is concluded that a prolonged second remission can be achieved in children with ALL in bone marrow relapse by combining intensive chemotherapy with the prevention of meningeal leukaemia.

  10. [A Case of Ascending Colon Cancer Showing Marked Reduction of Ascites by Bevacizumab Combination Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Kusama, Toshiyuki; Higashida, Akihiro; Komatsubara, Takashi; Nishigori, Hideaki; Kokado, Yujiro; Ishii, Masayuki

    2015-09-01

    A 68-year-old woman presented to our hospital with abdominal fullness. Computed tomography(CT)revealed ascites and massive tumors in the abdominal cavity. She was diagnosed with ascending colon cancer with peritoneal dissemination and ovarian metastasis. After ileostomy, panitumumab plus mFOLFOX6 therapy was initiated, but it was discontinued due to adverse events. As the ascites rapidly increased, her chemotherapy was changed to bevacizumab(BV)plus FOLFIRI. BV combination therapy resulted in a dramatic decrease in ascites and improved her quality of life, whereas the therapy did not reduce the primary and metastatic lesions. Our case suggested that BV could decrease ascites by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor(VEGF)-induced vascular permeability.

  11. Sequential hemibody and local irradiation with combination chemotherapy for small cell lung carcinoma: a preliminary analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, B.L.; Jackson, D.V. Jr.; Scarantino, C.W.; Pope, E.; Choplin, R.; Craig, J.B.; Atkins, J.N.; Cooper, M.R.; Hopkins, J.O.; McMahan, R.

    1985-03-01

    Sequential hemibody irradiation (SHB) was integrated with combination chemotherapy and local irradiation (LRT) in the induction and consolidation phases of a therapeutic protocol for small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). Forty-one previously untreated patients were entered into this program. Among 38 evaluable patients (20 with limited disease (LD) and 18 with extensive disease (ED)), the overall response rate was 63% (90% in LD and 33% in ED patients). The estimated overall survival is 8.1 months. The major toxicity has been myelosuppression - especially thrombocytopenia. The frequency of previously described acute radiation syndromes and radiation pneumonitis associated with hemibody irradiation have been substantially decreased at the current dosage with premedication and shielding techniques.

  12. Combined chemoradiation for the management of nasal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma: elucidating the significance of systemic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ye; Lu, Jiade J; Ma, Xuejun; Wang, Biyun; Hong, Xiaonan; Li, Xiaoqiu; Li, Jin

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and treatment outcome of CHOP and CHOP combined with nitrosourea chemotherapy in natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma of the nasal cavity. Sixty-three patients with NK/T-cell lymphoma of the nasal cavity were treated with CHOP or CHOP combined with oral nitrosourea chemotherapy between January 1997 and June 2005. By the Ann Arbor Lymphoma Staging Classification, 57 patients (90%) had Stage IE or IIE disease and six patients (10%) had Stage III or IV disease. All patients with Stage IE or IIE disease were intended to be treated curatively with combined chemoradiation; and patients who had Stage III or IV disease were treated with chemotherapy alone with curative intention. Chemotherapy consisted of: (1) up to six cycles of the standard CHOP based regimen, or (2) up to six cycles of the standard CHOP based regimen with oral Semustine dosed at 120 mg (or Lomustine dosed at 100mg) on day 1 of each chemotherapy cycle. External beam radiation therapy was delivered by daily conventional fractionation by Co-60 or 6MVx linear accelerator for patients with Stage IE or IIE disease. The radiation dose to the tumor bed was between 36 and 50 Gy with a median dose of 45 Gy. Fifty-three patients received chemotherapy prior to radiation, and four patients were treated with involved field radiation before chemotherapy. The median follow up for all 44 surviving patients was 31 months (range: 6-104 months). The 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 60% and 70%, respectively. The PFS and OS of patients who were treated with or without oral nitrosourea in addition to CHOP were 73% vs. 44% (P=0.035) and 75% vs. 64% (P=0.276), respectively. Nine patients with Stage IE or IIE diseases developed disease progression during their planned treatment and died within 10 months after the initiation of treatment; Six patients who achieved complete response (CR) after planned chemoradiation developed

  13. Dangerous Combinations: Ingestible CAM Supplement Use During Chemotherapy in Patients with Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sweet, Erin; Lowe, Kimberly A.; Standish, Leanna J.; Drescher, Charles W.; Goff, Barbara A.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Some ingestible complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) supplements, including herbal remedies, teas, and vitamins, have biological activities that make them likely to interact poorly with conventional chemotherapeutic treatments. This study surveyed women with ovarian cancer to document the extent to which women use ingestible CAM supplements and conventional chemotherapeutic treatments that are believed to be of potential concern when used together. Methods A total of 219 patients with ovarian cancer who received care from 1 of 2 participating conventional oncology practices were surveyed about CAM use during and after ovarian cancer treatment. Results A total of 200 women reported having chemotherapy to treat their ovarian cancer. Of those, 79 (40%) reported using 1 or more CAM supplements that could be cause for concern when taken with 1 or more of the chemotherapy medications they were receiving. Many patients took multiple supplements of potential concern. Of these women, 42% (n=33) consulted with a conventional provider and 24% (n=19) consulted with a CAM provider about the contraindicated supplements they used. Conclusion Although it is not clear that any of these contraindicated combinations of CAM and conventional therapy actually caused adverse outcomes, increased toxicities, or reduced the effectiveness of primary therapies, all these effects are possible given the substances being used in combination. Research is needed to understand the real risk associated with CAM and conventional polypharmacy. If risks associated with CAM use prove substantial, then improved systems to assure that all women get advice regarding supplement use during ovarian cancer treatment will be needed. PMID:23445210

  14. Salvage chemotherapy with procarbazine and fotemustine combination in the treatment of temozolomide treated recurrent glioblastoma patients.

    PubMed

    Silvani, Antonio; Lamperti, Elena; Gaviani, Paola; Eoli, Marica; Fiumani, Anna; Salmaggi, Andrea; Falcone, Chiara; Filippini, Graziella; Botturi, Andrea; Boiardi, Amerigo

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of Procarbazine (PCB) and fotemustine (FTM) combination in the treatment of pre-temozolomide treated, recurrent GBM patients. The primary end-point was progression free survival at 6 months (PFS-6). Secondary end-points were overall survival, response rates (CR + PR) and toxicity. About 54 patients (41 men and 13 women) aged 26-68 years (median age, 53.5 years) with recurrent GBM were treated. PCB was administered as an oral dosage of 450 mg on days 1-2 and a total dose of 300 mg on day 3. FTM was administered on day 3, 3 h after the last PCB intake at a dose of 110 mg/mq/BSA. The treatment was repeated every 5 weeks. Treatment was continued for a maximum of six cycles or until disease progression. After two cycles of chemotherapy: 6 patients (11.2%) experienced a neuroradiographic partial response (PR), 29 patients (53.7%) had stable disease (SD), and 19 patients (35.1%) had progressive disease (PD). For the whole group of patients, the median PFS was 19.3 weeks (95% CI, 14.1-24.4 weeks), and PFS-6 was 26.7% (95% CI, 10.6-42.8%). Overall MST from the beginning of PCB + FTM chemotherapy was 28.7 weeks (95% CI, 24.8-32.7 weeks). At 6 and 12 months, 64.4% (95% CI, 51.5-77.3%) and 23.6% (95% CI, 10.1-37.1%) of patients were alive. The median survival time calculated from the first diagnosis was 20.8 months (95% CI, 16.7-24.8). We concluded that the PCB + FTM combination as done in the current trial for patients with recurrent GBM after treatment with TMZ showed some benefit with regards to increased survival and that a Phase III trial is warranted.

  15. EMP combination chemotherapy and low-dose monotherapy in advanced prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Tadaichi; Nishimatsu, Hiroaki; Hamamoto, Toshiaki; Tomita, Kyoichi; Takeuchi, Takumi; Ohta, Nobutaka

    2002-02-01

    Many chemotherapeutic regimens combined with estramustine phosphate (EMP) have been elaborated for the treatment of hormone-refractory prostate cancer over 30 years. However, older EMP-based combination chemotherapies with vinblastine, vinorelbine, doxorubicin or cyclophosphamide showed relatively low PSA response rate (25-58%) accompanied with high toxicities. On the other hand, newly developed EMP-based combination regimens with etoposide, pacitaxel, carboplatin or docetaxel demonstrated promising PSA response rate (43-77%) with moderate to severe toxicity in the rate of thromboembolic event (5-18%) and of neutropenia (9-41%). Treatment-related death was less in the latter combination group (5/615, 0.8%) than that in the former group (3/234, 1.3%). Of note, in the docetaxel combination with EMP, PSA response rate is as high as 77% with high rate (41%) of neutropenia but no treatment-related death was observed. Docetaxel combination with EMP seems to be the best regimen, though not completely justified by randomized trials, to be selected in the modern era, which will be followed by paclitaxel, carboplatin and EMP combination with PSA response rate of 71%. In addition, an interim report in 83 patients was presented. They were not consecutively enrolled but were treated on low-dose EMP monotherapy for previously untreated advanced prostate cancer in Department of Urology of Tokyo University and our 21 affiliated hospitals. Overall PSA response rate was as high as 93.4% out of 76 assessable patients. However, overall toxicity rate was abnormally high (39.5%) with drug discontinuation rate of 32.1%. The reason of low drug compliance may be attributed to gastrointestinal symptoms. To overcome the low drug compliance, appropriate patients for EMP administration should be selected by using gene analysis on the basis of sophisticated tailor-made medicine.

  16. Preclinical Evaluation of the PARP Inhibitor, Olaparib, in Combination with Cytotoxic Chemotherapy in Pediatric Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Robin E.; Adamson, Peter C.; Nguyen, Vu T.; Fox, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) signals DNA damage and facilitates DNA repair. PARP inhibitors are being evaluated in cancers with defective DNA repair mechanisms or in combination with cytotoxic therapy or radiation. We evaluated the PARP inhibitor, olaparib, in combination with chemotherapy using in vitro and in vivo pediatric solid tumor models. Procedure The IC50 of olaparib alone and in combination with cytotoxic agents was determined in 10 pediatric solid tumor cell lines. Synergy was assessed using the combination index of Chou-Talalay. Olaparib alone and in combination with topotecan/cyclophosphamide was evaluated in xenograft models of Ewing sarcoma (ES) and neuroblastoma (NGP). PAR activity was evaluated in cell lines and tumor lysates. Results Olaparib induced growth inhibition, median (range) IC50=3.6 (1–33.8) µM, and inhibited PAR activity in pediatric solid tumor cell lines. The addition of olaparib to DNA damaging agents resulted in additive to synergistic interactions. In ES and NGP xenografts, olaparib inhibited PAR activity by 88% to 100% as a single agent and 100% when administered with cyclophosphamide/topotecan. Although the addition of olaparib did not antagonize the activity of cyclophosphamide/topotecan, clear evidence of synergy could not be demonstrated. Conclusions In pediatric solid tumor cell lines, clinically achievable concentrations of single agent olaparib caused growth inhibition. Although the in vitro data demonstrated synergistic efficacy of olaparib when added to the camptothecins and alkylating agents, synergy was not discernible in vivo. Clinical trials of PARP inhibitors in combination DNA damaging agents are necessary to establish the role of PARP inhibitors in childhood cancer. PMID:24038812

  17. Preclinical evaluation of the PARP inhibitor, olaparib, in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapy in pediatric solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Norris, Robin E; Adamson, Peter C; Nguyen, Vu T; Fox, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) signals DNA damage and facilitates DNA repair. PARP inhibitors are being evaluated in cancers with defective DNA repair mechanisms or in combination with cytotoxic therapy or radiation. We evaluated the PARP inhibitor, olaparib, in combination with chemotherapy using in vitro and in vivo pediatric solid tumor models. The IC50 of olaparib alone and in combination with cytotoxic agents was determined in 10 pediatric solid tumor cell lines. Synergy was assessed using the combination index of Chou-Talalay. Olaparib alone and in combination with topotecan/cyclophosphamide was evaluated in xenograft models of Ewing sarcoma (RD-ES) and neuroblastoma (NGP). PAR activity was evaluated in cell lines and tumor lysates. Olaparib induced growth inhibition, median (range) IC50 = 3.6 (1-33.8) µM, and inhibited PAR activity in pediatric solid tumor cell lines. The addition of olaparib to DNA damaging agents resulted in additive to synergistic interactions. In RD-ES and NGP xenografts, olaparib inhibited PAR activity by 88-100% as a single agent and 100% when administered with cyclophosphamide/topotecan. Although the addition of olaparib did not antagonize the activity of cyclophosphamide/topotecan, clear evidence of synergy could not be demonstrated. In pediatric solid tumor cell lines, clinically achievable concentrations of single agent olaparib caused growth inhibition. Although the in vitro data demonstrated synergistic efficacy of olaparib when added to the camptothecins and alkylating agents, synergy was not discernible in vivo. Clinical trials of PARP inhibitors in combination DNA damaging agents are necessary to establish the role of PARP inhibitors in childhood cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Exclusive Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Nonmetastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer: 20 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgier, Celine; Pessoa, Eduardo Lima; Dunant, Ariane; Heymann, Steve; Spielmann, Marc; Uzan, Catherine; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Marsiglia, Hugo

    2012-02-01

    Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy (CT) with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy (RT Asterisk-Operator CT) without mastectomy. Methods and Materials: From September 1983 to December 1989, 124 women with nonmetastatic IBC (T4d M0) were treated with three cycles of primary AVCMF chemotherapy (anthracycline, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and then an alternating RT Asterisk-Operator CT schedule followed by three cycles of FAC. Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation (12 Gy in four fractions) or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Results: Local control was achieved in 82% of patients. The 10- and 20-year local relapse rates were 26% and 33%, respectively, but only 10% of locally controlled cases were not associated with concurrent distant metastasis. The 10- and 20-year overall survival rates were 39% and 19%, respectively. Severe fibrosis occurred in 54% of patients, grade 3 brachial plexus neuropathy in 4%, grade 2 pneumonitis in 9%. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens (primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy). Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

  19. [Combination Therapy of Pregabalin with Tramadol for Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy in Patients with Gynecological Cancer Receiving Taxane Containing Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nishikawa, Tadaaki; Hasegawa, Kosei; Shintani, Daisuke; Yano, Yuri; Sato, Sho; Yabuno, Akira; Kurosaki, Akira; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2017-03-01

    Taxane-based regimens are often used in gynecologic cancer chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy( CIPN)is one of the typical side effects caused by taxanes. Grade 2 or higher CIPN is observed in 5% to 30% of ovarian cancer patients who are treated with paclitaxel, which is recognized as one of the unmanageable side effects leading to treatment interruption. We retrospectively investigated the significance of combination therapy of pregabalin with tramadol for CIPN in patients with gynecological cancer. In the current study, 19 patients(19/22; 86%)were administered pregabalin with tramadol orally for at least 1week, and we observed improvement of the CIPN in 15 patients(15/19; 79%).We suggest that the combination therapy of pregabalin with tramadol has a positive impact on the CIPN in patients under a taxane-based chemotherapy.

  20. Synergistic simvastatin and metformin combination chemotherapy for osseous metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Babcook, Melissa A; Shukla, Sanjeev; Fu, Pingfu; Vazquez, Edwin J; Puchowicz, Michelle A; Molter, Joseph P; Oak, Christine Z; MacLennan, Gregory T; Flask, Chris A; Lindner, Daniel J; Parker, Yvonne; Daneshgari, Firouz; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-10-01

    Docetaxel chemotherapy remains a standard of care for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Docetaxel modestly increases survival, yet results in frequent occurrence of side effects and resistant disease. An alternate chemotherapy with greater efficacy and minimal side effects is needed. Acquisition of metabolic aberrations promoting increased survival and metastasis in CRPC cells includes constitutive activation of Akt, loss of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity due to Ser-485/491 phosphorylation, and overexpression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR). We report that combination of simvastatin and metformin, within pharmacologic dose range (500 nmol/L to 4 μmol/L simvastatin and 250 μmol/L to 2 mmol/L metformin), significantly and synergistically reduces C4-2B3/B4 CRPC cell viability and metastatic properties, with minimal adverse effects on normal prostate epithelial cells. Combination of simvastatin and metformin decreased Akt Ser-473 and Thr-308 phosphorylation and AMPKα Ser-485/491 phosphorylation; increased Thr-172 phosphorylation and AMPKα activity, as assessed by increased Ser-79 and Ser-872 phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and HMG-CoAR, respectively; decreased HMG-CoAR activity; and reduced total cellular cholesterol and its synthesis in both cell lines. Studies of C4-2B4 orthotopic NCr-nu/nu mice further demonstrated that combination of simvastatin and metformin (3.5-7.0 μg/g body weight simvastatin and 175-350 μg/g body weight metformin) daily by oral gavage over a 9-week period significantly inhibited primary ventral prostate tumor formation, cachexia, bone metastasis, and biochemical failure more effectively than 24 μg/g body weight docetaxel intraperitoneally injected every 3 weeks, 7.0 μg/g/day simvastatin, or 350 μg/g/day metformin treatment alone, with significantly less toxicity and mortality than docetaxel, establishing combination of simvastatin and

  1. Synergistic Simvastatin and Metformin Combination Chemotherapy for Osseous Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Babcook, Melissa A.; Shukla, Sanjeev; Fu, Pingfu; Vazquez, Edwin J.; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; Molter, Joseph P.; Oak, Christine Z.; MacLennan, Gregory T.; Flask, Chris A.; Lindner, Daniel J.; Parker, Yvonne; Daneshgari, Firouz; Gupta, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Docetaxel (DTX) chemotherapy remains a standard-of-care for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). DTX modestly increases survival, yet results in frequent occurrence of side-effects and resistant disease. An alternate chemotherapy with greater efficacy and minimal side-effects is needed. Acquisition of metabolic aberrations promoting increased survival and metastasis in CRPC cells include constitutive activation of Akt, loss of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity due to Ser-485/491 phosphorylation, and over-expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR). We report that combination of simvastatin (SIM) and metformin (MET), within pharmacological dose range (500nM to 4µM SIM and 250µM to 2mM MET), significantly and synergistically reduces C4-2B3/B4 CRPC cell viability and metastatic properties with minimal adverse effects on normal prostate epithelial cells. Combination of SIM and MET decreased Akt Ser-473 and Thr-308 phosphorylation and AMPKα Ser-485/491 phosphorylation, increased Thr-172 phosphorylation and AMPKα activity as assessed by increased Ser-79 and Ser-872 phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and HMG-CoAR, respectively; decreased HMG-CoAR activity, and reduced total cellular cholesterol and its synthesis in both cell lines. Studies of C4-2B4 orthotopic NCr-nu/nu mice further demonstrated that combination of SIM and MET (3.5–7.0µg/g body weight SIM and 175–350µg/g body weight MET) daily by oral gavage over 9-week period significantly inhibited primary ventral prostate tumor formation, cachexia, bone metastasis, and biochemical failure more effectively than 24µg/g body weight DTX intraperitoneally-injected every three weeks, 7.0µg/g/day SIM, or 350µg/g/day MET treatment alone, with significantly less toxicity and mortality than DTX, establishing combination SIM and MET as a promising chemotherapeutic alternative for metastatic CRPC. PMID:25122066

  2. Bevacizumab combined with chemotherapy for platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer: The AURELIA open-label randomized phase III trial.

    PubMed

    Pujade-Lauraine, Eric; Hilpert, Felix; Weber, Béatrice; Reuss, Alexander; Poveda, Andres; Kristensen, Gunnar; Sorio, Roberto; Vergote, Ignace; Witteveen, Petronella; Bamias, Aristotelis; Pereira, Deolinda; Wimberger, Pauline; Oaknin, Ana; Mirza, Mansoor Raza; Follana, Philippe; Bollag, David; Ray-Coquard, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    In platinum-resistant ovarian cancer (OC), single-agent chemotherapy is standard. Bevacizumab is active alone and in combination. AURELIA is the first randomized phase III trial to our knowledge combining bevacizumab with chemotherapy in platinum-resistant OC. Eligible patients had measurable/assessable OC that had progressed < 6 months after completing platinum-based therapy. Patients with refractory disease, history of bowel obstruction, or > two prior anticancer regimens were ineligible. After investigators selected chemotherapy (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, weekly paclitaxel, or topotecan), patients were randomly assigned to single-agent chemotherapy alone or with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg every 2 weeks or 15 mg/kg every 3 weeks) until progression, unacceptable toxicity, or consent withdrawal. Crossover to single-agent bevacizumab was permitted after progression with chemotherapy alone. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by RECIST. Secondary end points included objective response rate (ORR), overall survival (OS), safety, and patient-reported outcomes. The PFS hazard ratio (HR) after PFS events in 301 of 361 patients was 0.48 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.60; unstratified log-rank P < .001). Median PFS was 3.4 months with chemotherapy alone versus 6.7 months with bevacizumab-containing therapy. RECIST ORR was 11.8% versus 27.3%, respectively (P = .001). The OS HR was 0.85 (95% CI, 0.66 to 1.08; P < .174; median OS, 13.3 v 16.6 months, respectively). Grade ≥ 2 hypertension and proteinuria were more common with bevacizumab. GI perforation occurred in 2.2% of bevacizumab-treated patients. Adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy statistically significantly improved PFS and ORR; the OS trend was not significant. No new safety signals were observed.

  3. [Sensitivity of esophageal cancer to anticancer agents and supplementary chemotherapy combined with surgical treatment].

    PubMed

    Masaki, Y; Ishigami, K; Oka, M; Matsumoto, N; Honma, K; Uchiyama, T

    1986-04-01

    The authors examined the sensitivities of esophageal cancer to Bleomycin (BLM), Peplomycin (PEP), Cisplatin (CDDP) and 5-FU by the INAS method using 3H-thymidine or 14C-formate as labeled precursors, and determined the concentrations of anticancer agents in cancer lesions by the Band Culture method. On the other hand, the authors investigated the superiority or inferiority of various methods of BLM administration by observing the prevention effect of BLM on the development of experimental esophageal cancer in rats. Forty-three cases out of 76, 57%, showed a sensitivity to BLM, 60% to PEP, 38% to CDDP and 56% to 5-FU. As to the types of roentgenological findings, the superficial and tumorous types showed a high sensitivity rate. As to the types of macroscopical findings, the protruded and superficial types showed a high sensitivity rate. As to the types of histological findings, well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma showed a high sensitivity rate. Sensitivity was higher in metastatic lymph nodes than in main cancer lesions. Tumor tissues which had undergone previous hyperthermic management (at 42 degrees C) showed a higher sensitivity than those which had not. PEP at a half dose brought about the same grade of anticancer effect as BLM. The sensitivities of esophageal cancer to various anticancer agents showed individual differences among clinical cases. Therefore, combination chemotherapy for esophageal cancer was thought to be an effective administration method. The divided administration of small doses of BLM was thought to be more superior than the one-shot administration of a large dose for esophageal cancer. The results of the INAS sensitivity test were perfectly coincident with the effects of chemotherapy in clinical cases of esophageal cancer.

  4. Assessment of the novel tubulin-binding agent EHT 6706 in combination with ionizing radiation or chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Clémenson, Céline; Chargari, Cyrus; Désiré, Laurent; Casagrande, Anne-Sophie; Bourhis, Jean; Deutsch, Eric

    2012-12-01

    The potential of EHT 6706, a novel tubulin-binding agent, was investigated in combination with ionizing radiation (IR) and with conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy agents. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis and clonogenic assays were performed in five human cancer cell lines: H460 (non small cell lung carcinoma, NSCLC), HCT116 and HCT116 p53-/- (colorectal cancer), MDA-MB-231 (breast cancer), and MiaPaca2 cells (pancreatic cancer). The drug inhibited cell proliferation in all cell lines. This effect was associated with G2/M arrest and activation of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. The drug was then tested in combination with chemotherapy and IR in vitro. Effects on proliferation and clonogenic survival were analyzed. EHT 6706 treatment inhibited clonogenic survival synergistically with IR in H460 and MiaPaca2 cell lines. In the remaining cell lines, the effects of EHT 6706 and IR were additive. For H460 and MiaPaca2 cell lines, the highest effect was seen when cells were exposed for 20 h to EHT 6706 before being irradiated. EHT 6706 also exerted additive inhibition of proliferation when given in combination with conventional chemotherapy agents, such as oxaliplatin, cisplatin and gemcitabine in H460 and MiaPaca2 tumor cell lines. These data show that EHT 6706 could act synergistically with IR and additively with chemotherapy in tumor cell lines in vitro. This provides a good rationale to further assess EHT 6706 in combination protocols and confirm these effects in vivo.

  5. [Peritoneal mesothelioma: treatment with cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Passot, G; Cotte, E; Brigand, C; Beaujard, A-C; Isaac, S; Gilly, F-N; Glehen, O

    2008-01-01

    Diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare and lethal disease. Locoregional treatments combining cytoreductive surgery with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) seem to improve prognosis. Cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC was performed in 22 patients at the Centre Hospitalier-Lyon Sud between 1989 and 2006. A retrospective analysis of survival was carried out to assess clinical and histological prognostic factors. Nineteen patients with diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma were included (16 epithelial, 3 biphasic and 3 multicystic forms). Sixteen patients presented stage 3 or 4 peritoneal mesothelioma according to the Gilly classification. Optimal cytoreductive surgery was performed for 11 patients (complete macroscopic resection or residual tumor nodules less than 2.5mm). No post-operative deaths occurred but 9 patients (47%) presented grade III or IV post-operative complications. The overall median survival was 36.9 months; completeness of cytoreduction was the only significant prognostic factor. Cytoreductive surgery combined with HIPEC may improve the length of survival for patients with diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma; such patients should be treated in specialized centers.

  6. Chemoembolization alone vs combined chemoembolization and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy in inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Song; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Guo, Jian-Hai; Chen, Hui; Xu, Hai-Feng; Liu, Peng; Yang, Ren-Jie; Zhu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the efficacy and safety of chemoembolization alone or chemoembolization combined with hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC), including oxaliplatin (OXA), 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and folinic acid (CF), in inoperable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without distant metastasis. METHODS: Eighty-four inoperable HCC patients were enrolled. Thirty-nine patients underwent chemoembolization alone, and the other 45 patients underwent chemoembolization + HAIC (OXA/5-FU/CF) treatment non-randomly. The progression free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR) and adverse reactions were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: A significant difference in the ORR was observed between the chemoembolization alone and chemoembolization + HAIC groups. There was no statistically significant difference in DCR between the two groups. The median PFS (mPFS) showed a significant difference between the two groups. For patients with BCLC stage A/B disease, with or without vessel invasion, the chemoembolization + HAIC group showed better mPFS when compared to chemoembolization alone, but no significant difference was found in patients with BCLC stage C disease. The parameter of pain (grade III-IV) in the chemoembolization + HAIC group was increased statistically. CONCLUSION: Chemoembolization combined with HAIC with OXA/5-FU/CF may be safe and more effective than chemoembolization alone for inoperable HCC patients without distant metastasis. PMID:26420971

  7. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Cisplatin and Phthalocyanine for Combination Chemotherapy and Photodynamic Therapy in vitro.

    PubMed

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L; Elnagheeb, Maram

    2015-12-16

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been synthesized and loaded with both aluminum chloride phthalocyanine (AlClPc) and cisplatin as combinatorial therapeutics for treating cancer. The structural and photophysical properties of the MSN materials were characterized by different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity were evaluated in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assays, respectively. The CLSM experiments showed that the MSN materials can be readily internalized in HeLa cells. The cytotoxic experiments demonstrated that, after light exposure, the combination of both AlClPc and cisplatin compounds in the same MSN platform potentiate the toxic effect against HeLa cells in comparison to the control AlClPc-MSN and cisplatin-MSN materials. These results show the potential of using MSN platforms as nanocarriers for combination photodynamic and chemotherapies to treat cancer.

  8. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Loaded with Cisplatin and Phthalocyanine for Combination Chemotherapy and Photodynamic Therapy in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Vivero-Escoto, Juan L.; Elnagheeb, Maram

    2015-01-01

    Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) have been synthesized and loaded with both aluminum chloride phthalocyanine (AlClPc) and cisplatin as combinatorial therapeutics for treating cancer. The structural and photophysical properties of the MSN materials were characterized by different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. Intracellular uptake and cytotoxicity were evaluated in human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) assays, respectively. The CLSM experiments showed that the MSN materials can be readily internalized in HeLa cells. The cytotoxic experiments demonstrated that, after light exposure, the combination of both AlClPc and cisplatin compounds in the same MSN platform potentiate the toxic effect against HeLa cells in comparison to the control AlClPc-MSN and cisplatin-MSN materials. These results show the potential of using MSN platforms as nanocarriers for combination photodynamic and chemotherapies to treat cancer. PMID:28347122

  9. [Novel approved form of treatment for colonic cancer with peritoneal metastases - radicality-aimed surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Lepistö, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Carcinomatosis occurs in almost 10% of colonic cancer patients, whereby the five-year survival rate on cytostatic chemotherapy is approx. 13% at best. For patients having carcinomatosis restricted to a fairly small area, surgical removal of peritoneal metastases combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) may be a curative procedure. The treatment has resulted in a five-year life expectancy of 30 to 35% for selected patients. The treatment is, however, associated with significant morbidity and even mortality. Colorectal cancer patients diagnosed with restricted peritoneal carcinomatosis should be referred to an assessment for HPEC treatment.

  10. Clinical efficacy of CyberKnife combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Si-Xiang; Yang, Gui-Qing; Liu, Han-Chen; Sun, Dong-Ning; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2013-05-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is responsible for at least 80% of all lung tumors and has a poor prognosis, since 75% of NSCLCs are first diagnosed at an advanced stage. This study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CyberKnife in combination with chemotherapy and hyperthermia for selected patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Clinical charts, imaging and pathology reports of patients with advanced NSCLC who underwent CyberKnife therapy in our Tumor Therapy Center were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical efficacy was evaluated for local control, Karnofsky performance status scale (KPS) and toxicity analysis. A total of 119 patients with 136 target areas were evaluated. A prescribed dose of 24-51 Gy to the gross tumor volume was delivered in 3-6 fractions. The median prescription dose was 35 Gy (mean, 34.73±4.80 Gy), with an average of five fractions. Patients, who voluntarily participated in the study, were assigned to one of three groups, which were as follows: CyberKnife therapy alone, CyberKnife combined with chemotherapy and CyberKnife combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia. The median follow-up period was 6 months and curative efficiencies were 62.16, 71.79 and 90.70%, respectively, as determined by radiographic and clinical re-examinations. Patients treated by CyberKnife combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia achieved optimal improvement in the aspect of KPS, which was statistically different compared to the other two groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, our results indicated that CyberKnife combined with chemotherapy and hyperthermia achieved favorable short-term outcomes and may be a more viable option for patients with advanced NSCLC. However, further investigations are required to evaluate long-term outcomes.

  11. [Early results of combined treatment (induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy) of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx].

    PubMed

    Szutkowski, Z; Krzakowski, M; Hliniak, A; Wasilewski, M

    1990-01-01

    The results of combined treatment (induction chemotherapy followed by irradiation) in 23 patients with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx were presented. Chemotherapy program included Cisplatin 100 mg/m2 i.v. in day 1 and 5-fluorouracil 750 mg/m2 i.v. on day 1-5. The chemotherapy was administered every 3 weeks for maximum 3 cycles. Complete response in 15 patients (65%), stabilization in 4 patients (17%) and progressive disease was found in 3 patients (14%). 20 patients were irradiated with radical intention. Complete response was found in 9 patients (45%) after radiotherapy. Treatment was relatively well-tolerated. Out of 17 patients with at least 6 months' follow-up (range 6-24) 6 patients are alive with no evidence of disease. We estimate the postirradiation reaction as slightly more severe than after radiotherapy alone. The reaction did not influence the prescribed way of fractionation.

  12. Metronomic Cyclophosphamide and Methotrexate Chemotherapy Combined with 1E10 Anti-Idiotype Vaccine in Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Soriano, Jorge L.; Batista, Noyde; Santiesteban, Eduardo; Lima, Mayté; González, Joaquín; García, Robin; Zarza, Yohanka; López, María V.; Rodríguez, Myriam; Loys, Jorge L.; Montejo, Narciso; Aguirre, Frank; Macías, Amparo; Vázquez, Ana M.

    2011-01-01

    The use of low doses of cytotoxic agents continuously for prolonged periods is an alternative for the treatment of patients with metastatic breast cancer who have developed resistance to conventional chemotherapy. The combination of metronomic chemotherapy with therapeutic vaccines might increase the efficacy of the treatment. Twenty one patients with metastatic breast cancer in progression and a Karnosky index ≥60%, were treated with metronomic chemotherapy (50 mg of cyclophospamide orally daily and 2.5 mg of methotrexate orally bi-daily), in combination with five bi-weekly subcutaneous injections of 1 mg of aluminum hydroxide-precipitated 1E10 anti-idiotype MAb (1E10-Alum), followed by reimmunizations every 28 days. Five patients achieved objective response, eight showed stable disease and eight had disease progression. Median time to progression was 9,8 months, while median overall survival time was 12,93 months. The median duration of the response (CR+PR+SD) was 18,43 months (12,20–24,10 months), being higher than 12 months in 76,9% of the patients. Overall toxicity was generally mild. Metronomic chemotherapy combined with 1E10-Alum vaccine immunotherapy might be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer due to its potential impact on survival and patient quality of live, low toxicity and advantages of the administration. PMID:22295231

  13. [Combination chemotherapy with bleomycin, vinca alkaloid and cisplatin (BVP) for advanced urothelial cancer].

    PubMed

    Sekine, H; Fukui, I; Yamada, T; Takeuchi, S; Tachibana, Y; Yokokawa, M

    1984-08-01

    Since October 1979, 18 patients with metastatic urothelial cancer have been treated with combination chemotherapy of bleomycin (5-10 mg/day administered on days 1 to 7), vinca alkaloid (vinblastine 5-10 mg/day or vincristine 1 mg/sqm on days 8 and 9) and CDDP (60 mg/sqm on day 10). CR was achieved in 3 of the 18 patients and PR in 6 patients. Over-all, the response rate was 50%. Among 3 patients who achieved CR, 2 patients are still free of disease for 31 months and for 28 months, and the other is alive with cancer for 26 months. The 2-year survival rate was 58% in responders (CR + PR) and 0% in nonresponders. (p less than 0.005). In many cases, the response was observed after the first or second course of BVP therapy, and there was a relatively good response in patients with lymphnode metastasis alone. The treatment was tolerated well and common toxic effects were nausea, vomiting of moderate to severe degree (100%), myelosuppression (50%) and mild nephrotoxicity (22%). As to the choice of vinca alkaloids, vincristine seemed to be the treatment of choice because it was less toxic than vinblastine and was almost equally effective.

  14. Cholesterol uptake disruption, in association with chemotherapy, is a promising combined metabolic therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Guillaumond, Fabienne; Bidaut, Ghislain; Ouaissi, Mehdi; Servais, Stéphane; Gouirand, Victoire; Olivares, Orianne; Lac, Sophie; Borge, Laurence; Roques, Julie; Gayet, Odile; Pinault, Michelle; Guimaraes, Cyrille; Nigri, Jérémy; Loncle, Céline; Lavaut, Marie-Noëlle; Garcia, Stéphane; Tailleux, Anne; Staels, Bart; Calvo, Ezequiel; Tomasini, Richard; Iovanna, Juan Lucio; Vasseur, Sophie

    2015-02-24

    The malignant progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is accompanied by a profound desmoplasia, which forces proliferating tumor cells to metabolically adapt to this new microenvironment. We established the PDAC metabolic signature to highlight the main activated tumor metabolic pathways. Comparative transcriptomic analysis identified lipid-related metabolic pathways as being the most highly enriched in PDAC, compared with a normal pancreas. Our study revealed that lipoprotein metabolic processes, in particular cholesterol uptake, are drastically activated in the tumor. This process results in an increase in the amount of cholesterol and an overexpression of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) in pancreatic tumor cells. These findings identify LDLR as a novel metabolic target to limit PDAC progression. Here, we demonstrate that shRNA silencing of LDLR, in pancreatic tumor cells, profoundly reduces uptake of cholesterol and alters its distribution, decreases tumor cell proliferation, and limits activation of ERK1/2 survival pathway. Moreover, blocking cholesterol uptake sensitizes cells to chemotherapeutic drugs and potentiates the effect of chemotherapy on PDAC regression. Clinically, high PDAC Ldlr expression is not restricted to a specific tumor stage but is correlated to a higher risk of disease recurrence. This study provides a precise overview of lipid metabolic pathways that are disturbed in PDAC. We also highlight the high dependence of pancreatic cancer cells upon cholesterol uptake, and identify LDLR as a promising metabolic target for combined therapy, to limit PDAC progression and disease patient relapse.

  15. Drug-Loaded Nano/Microbubbles for Combining Ultrasonography and Targeted Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Zhonggao; Kennedy, Anne M.; Christensen, Douglas A.; Rapoport, Natalya Y.

    2008-01-01

    A new class of multifunctional nanoparticles that combine properties of polymeric drug carriers, ultrasound imaging contrast agents, and enhancers of ultrasound-mediated drug delivery has been developed. At room temperature, the developed systems comprise perfluorocarbon nanodroplets stabilized by the walls made of biodegradable block copolymers. Upon heating to physiological temperatures, the nanodroplets convert into nano/microbubbles. The phase state of the systems and bubble size may be controlled by the copolymer/perfluorocarbon volume ratio. Upon intravenous injections, a long-lasting, strong and selective ultrasound contrast is observed in the tumor volume indicating nanobubble extravasation through the defective tumor microvasculature, suggesting their coalescence into larger, highly echogenic microbubbles in the tumor tissue. Under the action of tumor-directed ultrasound, microbubbles cavitate and collapse resulting in a release of the encapsulated drug and dramatically enhanced intracellular drug uptake by the tumor cells. This effect is tumor-selective; no accumulation of echogenic microbubbles is observed in other organs. Effective chemotherapy of the MDA MB231 breast cancer tumors has been achieved using this technique. PMID:18096196

  16. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: cyclical chemotherapy with three combinations of four drugs (COAP-POMP-CART regimen).

    PubMed

    Spiers, A S; Roberts, P D; Marsh, G W; Parekh, S J; Franklin, A J; Galton, D A; Szur, Z L; Paul, E A; Husband, P; Wiltshaw, E

    1975-12-13

    Forty-two adults and children with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were entered into a programme of chemotherapy in which three combinations, each of four drugs were administered in a predetermined cyclical rotation together with cranial irradiation and intrathecal injections of methotrexate. Forty-one patients (98%) entered remission and no patient developed neuroleukaemia. Relapse of ALL occurred in 10 patients, and three patients died during remission, while eight patients stopped treatment after two and a half years and have remained in remission for two to 26 months. Comparison of remission and survival experience in this mixed group of children and adults with the experience of children treated at Memphis and in the Medical Research Council's UKALL-I trial showed no significant differences. On the other hand, analysis by prognostic factors showed that neither age nor blast cell count at presentation had any adverse effect in patients treated in this study. No relapses occurred in nine patients with blast cell counts greater than 20 x 109/1 at presentation. This regimen is effective treatment for ALL and may be of special value in patients with poor prognoses. The regiment has not as yet proved superior for the treatment of children with ALL who do not have adverse prognostic features.

  17. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: cyclical chemotherapy with three combinations of four drugs (COAP-POMP-CART regimen).

    PubMed Central

    Spiers, A S; Roberts, P D; Marsh, G W; Parekh, S J; Franklin, A J; Galton, D A; Szur, Z L; Paul, E A; Husband, P; Wiltshaw, E

    1975-01-01

    Forty-two adults and children with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were entered into a programme of chemotherapy in which three combinations, each of four drugs were administered in a predetermined cyclical rotation together with cranial irradiation and intrathecal injections of methotrexate. Forty-one patients (98%) entered remission and no patient developed neuroleukaemia. Relapse of ALL occurred in 10 patients, and three patients died during remission, while eight patients stopped treatment after two and a half years and have remained in remission for two to 26 months. Comparison of remission and survival experience in this mixed group of children and adults with the experience of children treated at Memphis and in the Medical Research Council's UKALL-I trial showed no significant differences. On the other hand, analysis by prognostic factors showed that neither age nor blast cell count at presentation had any adverse effect in patients treated in this study. No relapses occurred in nine patients with blast cell counts greater than 20 x 109/1 at presentation. This regimen is effective treatment for ALL and may be of special value in patients with poor prognoses. The regiment has not as yet proved superior for the treatment of children with ALL who do not have adverse prognostic features. PMID:1060502

  18. Clinical study of nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of late stage gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chong-De

    2014-01-01

    To explore the clinical effects of nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of late gastric cancer. A total of 34 reoccurrence or metastatic patients with late stage gastric cancer who were confirmed by histopathology and/or cytology were selected and randomly divided into observational and control groups, of 17 cases each. Patients in the control group were treated with the standard DCF plan, while patients in observational group additionally received nimotuzumab. The short-term and long-term efficacy and adverse reactions in the 2 groups were followed. The objective response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR) were 64.7% (11/17) and 82.4% (14/17) in observational group and 25.0%(4/16) and 37.5%(6/16) in the control group(ORR and DCR between 2 groups, χ2=5.2412, P=0.0221 and χ2=6.9453, P=0.0084). The median progression-free survival (PFS) time and median overall survival (OS) time were 6.50 months and 12.50 months in observational group and 4.50 months and 8.25 months in the control group (P=0.0212; P=0.0255). The main toxic and side effects in the 2 groups were reduced leukocytes and hemoglobin, gastrointestinal reactions and hair loss and these were relieved after symptomatic treatment and nutrition support therapy. There were no differences in the occurrence of toxic and side effects between the 2 groups. Nimotuzumab combined with DCF plan is effective in treating late stage gastric cancer. A larger scale study is now warranted for confirmation of the findings.

  19. Preparation of novel curcumin-loaded multifunctional nanodroplets for combining ultrasonic development and targeted chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Gangjian; Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Jianhai

    2014-05-15

    Recently, a new class of multifunctional nanodroplets that combine the properties of polymeric drug carriers, ultrasound imaging contrast agents, and enhancers of ultrasound-mediated drug delivery has been developed. We studied the formation mechanism of nanodroplets of a drug and its application in chemotherapy. Curcumin was loaded in polymeric micelles as a anti-cancer drug using polyethylene glycol block-poly(caprolactone) with encapsulation efficiency of 95.60%. At room temperature, the developed systems comprised perfluorocarbon nanodroplets stabilized by walls comprising biodegradable block copolymers. Upon heating to 37°C, the nanodroplets were converted to nano/microbubbles. Under ultrasound, nanobubbles cavitated and collapsed, resulting in release of the encapsulated drug. The percentage release of curcumin-loaded nanodroplets by insonation was 90.95%, showing enhancement compared with the non-ultrasound group. Nanodroplets strongly retained the loaded drugs in vivo yet, under ultrasound-mediated vaporization, they released the drugs, thereby implementing effective targeting into the tumor. The tumor inhibition of the group in which curcumin-loaded nanodroplets were combined with ultrasound was 71.30%, more than that of the group of curcumin-loaded nanodroplets (53.00%). Nanodroplets showed high enhancement of anti-cancer effects under ultrasound. Upon intravenous injection, a long-lasting, strong and selective ultrasound contrast was observed, suggesting their coalescence into larger, highly echogenic microbubbles. These multifunctional nanodroplets, which manifest excellent therapeutic and ultrasound properties, could be promising anti-cancer drug delivery systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced ovarian cancer: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As increased angiogenesis has been linked with the progression of ovarian cancer, a number of anti-angiogenic agents have been investigated, or are currently in development, as potential treatment options for patients with advanced disease. Bevacizumab, a recombinant monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has gained European Medicines Agency approval for the front-line treatment of advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, fallopian tube cancer or primary peritoneal cancer in combination with carboplatin and paclitaxel, and for the treatment of first recurrence of platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer in combination with carboplatin and gemcitabine. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify available efficacy and safety data for bevacizumab in ovarian cancer as well as for newer anti-angiogenic agents in development. We analyzed published data from randomized, controlled phase II/III clinical trials enrolling women with ovarian cancer to receive treatment with bevacizumab. We also reviewed available data for emerging anti-angiogenic agents currently in phase II/III development, including trebananib, aflibercept, nintedanib, cediranib, imatinib, pazopanib, sorafenib and sunitinib. Significant efficacy gains were achieved with the addition of bevacizumab to standard chemotherapy in four randomized, double-blind, phase III trials, both as front-line treatment (GOG-0218 and ICON7) and in patients with recurrent disease (OCEANS and AURELIA). The type and frequency of bevacizumab-related adverse events was as expected in these studies based on published data. Promising efficacy data have been published for a number of emerging anti-angiogenic agents in phase III development for advanced ovarian cancer. Further research is needed to identify predictive or prognostic markers of response to bevacizumab in order to optimize patient selection and treatment benefit. Data from phase III trials of newer anti-angiogenic agents in ovarian cancer are

  1. Phase I trial of daily triapine in combination with cisplatin chemotherapy for advanced-stage malignancies.

    PubMed

    Kunos, Charles A; Chu, Edward; Beumer, Jan H; Sznol, Mario; Ivy, S Percy

    2017-01-01

    Advanced-stage malignancies have increased deoxyribonucleotide demands in DNA replication and repair, making deoxyribonucleotide supply a potential exploitable target for therapy based on ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) inhibition. A dose-finding phase I trial was conducted of intravenous (i.v.) triapine, a small-molecule RNR inhibitor, and cisplatin chemotherapy in patients with advanced-stage solid tumor malignancies. Patients received dose-finding levels of i.v. triapine (48-96 mg/m(2)) and i.v. cisplatin (20-75 mg/m(2)) on 1 of 3 different schedules. The primary endpoint was to identify the maximum tolerated dose of a triapine-cisplatin combination. Secondary endpoints included the rate of triapine-cisplatin objective response and the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of a single oral triapine dose. (Clinicaltrials.gov number, NCT00024323). The MTD was 96 mg/m(2) triapine daily days 1-4 and 75 mg/m(2) cisplatin split over day 2 and day 3. Frequent grade 3 or 4 adverse events included fatigue, dyspnea, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and electrolyte abnormalities. No objective responses were observed; 5 (50%) of 10 patients treated at the MTD had stable disease. Pharmacokinetics indicated an oral triapine bioavailability of 88%. The triapine-cisplatin combination may be given safely in patients with advanced-stage solid tumor malignancies. On the basis of these results, a phase I trial adequately powered to evaluate oral triapine bioavailability in women with advanced-stage uterine cervix or vulvar cancers is underway.

  2. Organ irradiation and combination chemotherapy in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukaemia in children.

    PubMed Central

    Lanzkowsky, P; Shende, A; Aral, I; Saluja, G

    1975-01-01

    Lanzkowsky, P., Shende, A., Aral, I., Saluja, G. (1975). Archives of Disease in Childhood, 50, 685. Organ irradiation and combination chemotherapy in treatment of acute lymphocytic leukaemia in children. A total of 30 consecutive children with acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL) were treated from June 1971 until December 1974. Remission was induced with the use of vincristine and prednisone. After induction of remission, cranial irradiation and intrathecal methotrexate were given. Then the liver, spleen, and kidney were irradiated and 6-mercaptopurine, cyclophosphamide, and methotrexate were administered during the maintenance phase. Pulsed doses of vincristine and prednisone were administered at 10- to 12-week intervals. The patients were subdivided into two groups based on their initial white blood cell (WBC) counts: a standard risk group with an initial WBC count of less than 25 000/mm3 (25 X 10(9)/1) and a high risk group with an initial WBC count greater than 25 000/mm3 (25 X 10(9)/1). Of the 30 children entered in this study one standard risk patient died in the induction phase before attaining remission. Analysis of the results is therefore based on the remaining 29 patients, 22 standard risk and 7 high risk patients, who attained complete remission. Survival rates in continuous remission were found to be 43% of the high risk group, 88% for the standard risk group, and 77% for the combined group. Analysis of the data indicates that this therapy is unsatisfactory in high risk ALL. The results to date of this therapy for standard risk are sufficiently encouraging to continue its use in this subgroup of patients. PMID:1059384

  3. The combination of bortezomib with chemotherapy to treat relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia of childhood.

    PubMed

    Bertaina, Alice; Vinti, Luciana; Strocchio, Luisa; Gaspari, Stefania; Caruso, Roberta; Algeri, Mattia; Coletti, Valentina; Gurnari, Carmelo; Romano, Mariateresa; Cefalo, Maria Giuseppina; Girardi, Katia; Trevisan, Valentina; Bertaina, Valentina; Merli, Pietro; Locatelli, Franco

    2017-02-01

    Achieving complete remission (CR) in childhood relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) is a difficult task. Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, has in vitro activity against ALL blasts. A phase I-II trial, reported by the Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukaemia and Lymphoma (TACL) consortium, demonstrated that bortezomib with chemotherapy has acceptable toxicity and remarkable activity in patients with relapsed ALL failing 2-3 previous regimens. We evaluated bortezomib in combination with chemotherapy in 30 and 7 children with B-cell precursor (BCP) and T-cell ALL, respectively. Bortezomib (1·3 mg/m(2) /dose) was administered intravenously on days 1, 4, 8, and 11. Chemotherapy agents were the same as those used in the TACL trial, consisting of dexamethasone, doxorubicin, vincristine and pegylated asparaginase. Three patients (8·1%) died due to infections. Twenty-seven patients (72·9%) achieved CR or CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Fourteen had minimal residual disease (MRD) lower than 0·1%. Twenty-two of 30 BCP-ALL patients (73·3%) and 5/7 patients (71%) with T-cell ALL achieved CR/CRp. The 2-year overall survival (OS) is 31·3%; CR/CRp patients with an MRD response had a remarkable 2-year OS of 68·4%. These data confirm that the combination of bortezomib with chemotherapy is a suitable/effective option for childhood relapsed/refractory ALL. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [A Case of Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer Responding to Preoperative GEM plus Nab-PTX Combination Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Takuya; Ueno, Tomio; Sakamoto, Kazuhiko; Matsukuma, Satoshi; Matsui, Hiroto; Shindo, Yoshitaro; Tokumitsu, Yukio; Kanekiyo, Shinsuke; Iida, Michihisa; Tokuhisa, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Takeda, Shigeru; Yoshino, Shigefumi; Hazama, Shoichi; Nagano, Hiroaki

    2016-11-01

    We report a case of borderline resectable(BR)pancreatic cancer, which was eligible for R0 resection following preoperative chemotherapy with GEM plus nab-PTX. A 77-year-old woman presented with brown urine and clay-colored stool. After further examination, she was diagnosed with obstructive jaundice due to pancreatic head cancer. Because the tumor was in contact with the region attached to the SMA nerve plexus, she was also diagnosed with BR-A pancreatic cancer. After 6 courses of preoperative GEM plus nab-PTX combination chemotherapy, she underwent subtotal stomach-preservingpancreaticoduodenectomy with SMV resection and right semicircular SMA nerve plexus dissection. In the histopathological diagnosis, malignant cells were observed at low levels in both the pancreatic parenchyma and duodenal mucosa. There were no findings of residual malignant cells in the wall of the SMV or in the nerve plexus around the SMA. Since the final diagnosis was pT3,(DU+), pN0, cM0, fStage III , we concluded that the R0 resection as complete. Histological therapeutic evaluation with the Evans classification concluded that the disease was Grade III . GEM plus nab-PTX combination chemotherapy could be considered for preoperative chemotherapy, which may allow R0 resection for BR pancreatic cancer.

  5. Review of oral fixed-dose combination netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) for the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.

    PubMed

    Lorusso, Vito; Karthaus, Meinolf; Aapro, Matti

    2015-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend the combination of a neurokinin-1 (NK1) receptor antagonist (RA) and a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) RA, together with corticosteroids, in order to prevent chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting with anthracycline-cyclophosphamide and highly emetogenic chemotherapy, and it is to be considered with moderately emetogenic chemotherapy. Netupitant and palonosetron (NEPA) is a fixed-dose combination of netupitant, a novel, highly selective NK1 RA, and palonosetron, a new-generation 5-HT3 RA, targeting two major emetic pathways in a single oral capsule. In clinical trials, NEPA administered on day 1 together with dexamethasone was highly effective and well tolerated in the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients with solid tumors undergoing moderately emetogenic chemotherapy or highly emetogenic chemotherapy. NEPA offers maximal convenience, and as a simple guideline-based regimen, has the potential to improve adherence to guidelines.

  6. The treatment of advanced stage favorable histology non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a preliminary report of a randomized trial comparing single agent chemotherapy, combination chemotherapy, and whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoppe, R.T.; Kushlan, P.; Kaplan, H.S.; Rosenberg, S.A.; Brown, B.W.

    1981-09-01

    Between 1975 and 1978, 51 patients with favorable histology non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, pathologic stage III-IV, were treated prospectively on a randomized treatment protocol. Treatment options were single alkylating agent chemotherapy, combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, and prednisone (CVP), or fractionated whole body irradiation followed by low dose involved field irradiation. The median follow-up interval in this group of patients is not 41 mo. Actuarial survival is excellent, 84% at 4 yr for the entire group, with similar survival observed for each of the three treatment options. Initial complete remission rates (64%, 88%, and 71%) were not significantly different in the three treatment arms. Frequent relapse after initial remission induction was noted, however, with a freedom from relapse at 4 yr of only 25%. The toxicities of the three therapies were acceptable. Acute complications of therapy were most numerous in the group of patients treated with CVP; however, long-term hematologic depression was most commonly observed in patients treated with whole body irradiation. In general, hematologic complications were more frequent among patients who had marrow involvement and intact spleens at the time of initial therapy. The relationship of this study to other clinical trials in the management of patients with advanced stage favorable histology lymphomas and its implications for future clinical trials are discussed.

  7. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma: Defining high-risk patients who may benefit before concurrent chemotherapy combined with intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiao-Jing; Tang, Ling-Long; Chen, Lei; Mao, Yan-Ping; Guo, Rui; Liu, Xu; Sun, Ying; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Kang, Tie-Bang; Shao, Jian-Yong; Lin, Ai-Hua; Ma, Jun

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a prognostic model for distant metastasis in patients with locally advanced NPC who accept concurrent chemotherapy combined with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (CCRT) to identify high-risk patients who may benefit from neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). A total of 881 patients with newly-diagnosed, non-disseminated, biopsy-proven locoregionally advanced NPC were retrospectively reviewed; 411 (46.7%) accepted CCRT and 470 (53.3%) accepted NACT followed by CCRT. Multivariate analysis demonstrated N2–3 disease, plasma Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) DNA > 4000 copies/mL, serum albumin ≤46 g/L and platelet count >300 k/cc were independent prognostic factors for distant metastasis in the CCRT group. Using these four factors, a prognostic model was developed, as follows: 1) low-risk group: 0–1 risk factors; and 2) high-risk group: 2–4 risk factors. In the high-risk group, patients who accepted NACT + CCRT had significantly higher distant metastasis-free survival and progression-free survival rates than the CCRT group (P = 0.001; P = 0.011). This simple prognostic model for distant metastasis in locoregionally advanced NPC may facilitate with the selection of high-risk patients who may benefit from NACT prior to CCRT. PMID:26564805

  8. Blood Transfusion Requirements for Patients With Sarcomas Undergoing Combined Radio- and Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Earl, Helena M.; Whitehead, Lynne; Jefferies, Sarah J.; Burnet, Neil G.

    2005-01-01

    Patients with bony and soft tissue sarcomas may require intensive treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which often leads to a fall in haemoglobin levels, requiring blood transfusion. There may be advantages in predicting which patients will require transfusion, partly because anaemia and hypoxia may worsen the response of tumours to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Between 1997 and 2003, a total of 26 patients who received intensive treatment with curative intent were identified. Transfusions were given to maintain the haemoglobin at 10g/dl or above during chemotherapy, and at 12 g/dl or above during radiotherapy. Eighteen (69%) required a transfusion, the majority as a result of both the chemotherapy and RT criteria. There were 78 transfusion episodes, and 181 units of blood given. In the 18 patients who required transfusion, the average number of units was 10.1, but seven patients required more blood than this. The most significant factor influencing blood transfusion was choice of intensive chemotherapy. Intensive chemotherapy and presenting Hb less than 11.6 g/dl identified 13 out of 18 patients who needed transfusion. Adding a drop in haemoglobin of greater than 1.7 g/dl after one cycle of chemotherapy identified 16 out of 18 patients who required transfusion. The seven patients who had heavy transfusion requirements were identified by age 32 or less, intensive chemotherapy and a presenting Hb of 12 g/dl or less. Erythropoietin might be a useful alternative to transfusion in selected patient groups, especially those with heavy transfusion requirements. PMID:18521418

  9. Chemotherapy-induced antitumor immunity requires formyl peptide receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Vacchelli, Erika; Ma, Yuting; Baracco, Elisa E; Sistigu, Antonella; Enot, David P; Pietrocola, Federico; Yang, Heng; Adjemian, Sandy; Chaba, Kariman; Semeraro, Michaela; Signore, Michele; De Ninno, Adele; Lucarini, Valeria; Peschiaroli, Francesca; Businaro, Luca; Gerardino, Annamaria; Manic, Gwenola; Ulas, Thomas; Günther, Patrick; Schultze, Joachim L; Kepp, Oliver; Stoll, Gautier; Lefebvre, Céline; Mulot, Claire; Castoldi, Francesca; Rusakiewicz, Sylvie; Ladoire, Sylvain; Apetoh, Lionel; Bravo-San Pedro, José Manuel; Lucattelli, Monica; Delarasse, Cécile; Boige, Valérie; Ducreux, Michel; Delaloge, Suzette; Borg, Christophe; André, Fabrice; Schiavoni, Giovanna; Vitale, Ilio; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Mattei, Fabrizio; Zitvogel, Laurence; Kroemer, Guido

    2015-11-20

    Antitumor immunity driven by intratumoral dendritic cells contributes to the efficacy of anthracycline-based chemotherapy in cancer. We identified a loss-of-function allele of the gene coding for formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) that was associated with poor metastasis-free and overall survival in breast and colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. The therapeutic effects of anthracyclines were abrogated in tumor-bearing Fpr1(-/-) mice due to impaired antitumor immunity. Fpr1-deficient dendritic cells failed to approach dying cancer cells and, as a result, could not elicit antitumor T cell immunity. Experiments performed in a microfluidic device confirmed that FPR1 and its ligand, annexin-1, promoted stable interactions between dying cancer cells and human or murine leukocytes. Altogether, these results highlight the importance of FPR1 in chemotherapy-induced anticancer immune responses.

  10. Potent antitumor activities of recombinant human PDCD5 protein in combination with chemotherapy drugs in K562 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Lin; Song, Quansheng; Zhang, Yingmei; Lou, Yaxin; Wang, Yanfang; Tian, Linjie; Zheng, Yi; Ma, Dalong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Wang, Ying

    2010-05-28

    Conventional chemotherapy is still frequently used. Programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) enhances apoptosis of various tumor cells triggered by certain stimuli and is lowly expressed in leukemic cells from chronic myelogenous leukemia patients. Here, we describe for the first time that recombinant human PDCD5 protein (rhPDCD5) in combination with chemotherapy drugs has potent antitumor effects on chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor efficacy of rhPDCD5 protein with chemotherapy drugs, idarubicin (IDR) or cytarabine (Ara-C), was examined in K562 cells in vitro and K562 xenograft tumor models in vivo. rhPDCD5 protein markedly increased the apoptosis rates and decreased the colony-forming capability of K562 cells after the combined treatment with IDR or Ara-C. rhPDCD5 protein by intraperitoneal administration dramatically improved the antitumor effects of IDR treatment in the K562 xenograft model. The tumor sizes and cell proliferation were significantly decreased; and TUNEL positive cells were significantly increased in the combined group with rhPDCD5 protein and IDR treatment compared with single IDR treatment groups. rhPDCD5 protein, in combination with IDR, has potent antitumor effects on chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells and may be a novel and promising agent for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  11. Tailored cancer immunotherapy using combinations of chemotherapy and a mixture of antibodies against EGF-receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Lindzen, Moshit; Lavi, Sara; Leitner, Orith; Yarden, Yosef

    2010-07-13

    Growth factors are implicated in several processes essential for cancer progression. Specifically, growth factors that bind to ErbB family receptors have been implicated in cell proliferation and in resistance of solid tumors to chemotherapy. We quantified ligand secretion by several human cancer cell lines, and generated mAbs against two ligands, namely TGF-alpha and heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor. These growth factors are frequently secreted by pancreatic tumor cell lines, including BxPC3 cells. The monoclonal antibodies were tested for their antigen specificity and ability to inhibit growth of BxPC3 cells in vitro. Combining the two antibodies resulted in enhanced inhibition of BxPC3 cell growth, both in vitro and in tumor-bearing animals. Hence, we combined the two antibodies with gemcitabine, an effective chemotherapeutic drug commonly used to treat pancreatic cancer patients. Because treatment with a combination of two monoclonal antibodies enhanced the ability of chemotherapy to inhibit BxPC3 tumors in mice, we propose a general cancer therapeutic strategy that entails profiling the repertoire of growth factors secreted by a tumor, and combining with chemotherapy several antibodies capable of blocking autocrine ligands.

  12. Enhanced synergism of thermo-chemotherapy by combining highly efficient magnetic hyperthermia with magnetothermally-facilitated drug release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yang; Li, Jianbo; Ren, Jie; Leng, Junzhao; Lin, Chao; Shi, Donglu

    2014-10-01

    A magnetothermally-responsive nanocarrier was developed for efficient thermo-chemotherapy by combining efficient magnetic hyperthermia (MH) and magnetothermally-facilitated drug release. The effective magnetothermal-response contributed to high enhancement of tumor cell killing by an operating mechanism involving MH-facilitated cellular uptake and Heat Shock Protein over-expression.A magnetothermally-responsive nanocarrier was developed for efficient thermo-chemotherapy by combining efficient magnetic hyperthermia (MH) and magnetothermally-facilitated drug release. The effective magnetothermal-response contributed to high enhancement of tumor cell killing by an operating mechanism involving MH-facilitated cellular uptake and Heat Shock Protein over-expression. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03384a

  13. Stevens-Johnson Syndrome Patient Received Combination Chemotherapy Gemcitabine, Cisplatin, and 5-FU for Biliary Tract Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aznab, Mozaffar; Khazaei, Mansour

    2016-06-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome has been an acute, usually self-limiting disease of the skin and mucous membranes. This case report has presented an evidence of the development Stevens - Johnson syndrome associated with combination chemotherapy administration of 5FU, gemcitabin and cisplatin in a patient with biliary tract cancer. Our case was a 54-year-old woman patient, a case of biliary tract cancer who has developed more severe symptoms of Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Diagnosis has confirmed by skin biopsy of an affected area .The patient has improved with supportive care, and during 25 day occurred recovery. Although Stevens-Johnson syndrome has been a rare toxicity, physicians should pay a special attention to the monitoring of biliary tract cancer patients on combination chemotherapy with 5FU, cisplatin and gemcitabin.

  14. [Combination chemotherapy resulting in complete response of huge lymph node metastases in undifferentiated gastric cancer--case report].

    PubMed

    Megumi, Koichi; Ishigami, Sumiya; Yanagita, Shigehiro; Arigami, Takaaki; Uenosono, Yoshikazu; Kurahara, Hiroshi; Maemura, Kosei; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Hokita, Shuichi; Ueno, Shinichi; Natsugoe, Shoji

    2010-07-01

    A 67-year-old male was admitted to Kagoshima University Hospital and received distal gastrectomy with D1 lymph node dissection under the diagnosis of early gastric cancer. Five years later, a retroperitoneal tumor 12 cm in diameter was detected by abdominal CT. Although the tumor was curatively resected, rapid recurrence was identified in the same retroperitoneal space. Chemoradiation therapy (radiation 50 Gy and bleomycin) for residual tumor was performed, but the tumor rapidly grew. The patient was given cisplatin (CDDP) and gemcitabine (GEM) following CPT-11 treatment. The recurred tumor was remarkably shrunken and completely regressed after eight courses of the chemotherapy. The retroperitoneal tumor was finally diagnosed as lymph node relapse from undifferentiated gastric cancer. This rare case of undifferentiated gastric cancer showed a complete lymph node response following combination chemotherapy of CDDP and GEM. Combination chemotherapeutic regime with CDDP and GEM seems to be useful for treatment of undifferentiated gastric cancer.

  15. Combined treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with surgery, chemotherapy, and hyperfractionated accelerated external radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    De Crevoisier, Renaud . E-mail: rdecrevo@mdanderson.org; Baudin, Eric; Bachelot, Anne; Leboulleux, Sophie; Travagli, Jean-Paul; Caillou, Bernard; Schlumberger, Martin

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: To analyze a prospective protocol combining surgery, chemotherapy (CT), and hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Methods and materials: Thirty anaplastic thyroid carcinoma patients (mean age, 59 years) were treated during 1990-2000. Tumor extended beyond the capsule gland in 26 patients, with tracheal extension in 8. Lymph node metastases were present in 18 patients and lung metastases in 6. Surgery was performed before RT-CT in 20 patients and afterwards in 4. Two cycles of doxorubicin (60 mg/m{sup 2}) and cisplatin (120 mg/m{sup 2}) were delivered before RT and four cycles after RT. RT consisted of two daily fractions of 1.25 Gy, 5 days per week to a total dose of 40 Gy to the cervical lymph node areas and the superior mediastinum. Results: Acute toxicity (World Health Organization criteria) was Grade 3 or 4 pharyngoesophagitis in 10 patients; Grade 4 neutropenia in 21, with infection in 13; and Grade 3 or 4 anemia and thrombopenia in 8 and 4, respectively. At the end of the treatment, a complete local response was observed in 19 patients. With a median follow-up of 45 months (range, 12-78 months), 7 patients were alive in complete remission, of whom 6 had initially received a complete tumor resection. Overall survival rate at 3 years was 27% (95% confidence interval 10-44%) and median survival 10 months. In multivariate analysis, tracheal extension and macroscopic complete tumor resection were significant factors in overall survival. Death was related to local progression in 5% of patients, to distant metastases in 68%, and to both in 27%. Conclusions: Main toxicity was hematologic. High long-term survival was obtained when RT-CT was given after complete surgery. This protocol avoided local tumor progression, and death was mainly caused by distant metastases.

  16. Nilotinib combined with multiagent chemotherapy for newly diagnosed Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Young; Joo, Young-Don; Lim, Sung-Nam; Kim, Sung-Doo; Lee, Jung-Hee; Lee, Je-Hwan; Kim, Dong Hwan Dennis; Kim, Kihyun; Jung, Chul Won; Kim, Inho; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Park, Seonyang; Ahn, Jae-Sook; Yang, Deok-Hwan; Lee, Je-Jung; Lee, Ho-Sup; Kim, Yang Soo; Mun, Yeung-Chul; Kim, Hawk; Park, Jae Hoo; Moon, Joon Ho; Sohn, Sang Kyun; Lee, Sang Min; Lee, Won Sik; Kim, Kyoung Ha; Won, Jong-Ho; Hyun, Myung Soo; Park, Jinny; Lee, Jae Hoon; Shin, Ho-Jin; Chung, Joo-Seop; Lee, Hyewon; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Lee, Gyeong Won; Cho, Young-Uk; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, Chan-Jeoung; Chi, Hyun-Sook; Lee, Kyoo-Hyung

    2015-08-06

    We investigated the effects of nilotinib plus multiagent chemotherapy, followed by consolidation/maintenance or allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) for adult patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia-positive (Ph-pos) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Study subjects received induction treatment that comprised concurrent vincristine, daunorubicin, prednisolone, and nilotinib. After achieving complete hematologic remission (HCR), subjects received either 5 courses of consolidation, followed by 2-year maintenance with nilotinib, or allo-HCT. Minimal residual disease (MRD) was assessed at HCR, and every 3 months thereafter. The molecular responses (MRs) were defined as MR3 for BCR-ABL1/G6PDH ratios ≤10(-3) and MR5 for ratios <10(-5). Ninety evaluable subjects, ages 17 to 71 years, were enrolled in 17 centers. The HCR rate was 91%; 57 subjects received allo-HCT. The cumulative MR5 rate was 94%; the 2-year hematologic relapse-free survival (HRFS) rate was 72% for 82 subjects that achieved HCR, and the 2-year overall survival rate was 72%. Subjects that failed to achieve MR3 or MR5 were 9.1 times (P = .004) or 6.3 times (P = .001) more prone to hematologic relapse, respectively, than those that achieved MR3 or MR5. MRD statuses just before allo-HCT and at 3 months after allo-HCT were predictive of 2-year HRFS. Adverse events occurred mainly during induction, and most were reversible with dose reduction or transient interruption of nilotinib. The combination of nilotinib with high-dose cytotoxic drugs was feasible, and it effectively achieved high cumulative complete molecular remission and HRFS rates. The MRD status at early postremission time was predictive of the HRFS. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00844298. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Anticancer chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1988-10-01

    Despite troubled beginnings, anticancer chemotherapy has made significant contribution to the control of cancer in man, particularly within the last two decades. Early conceptual observations awakened the scientific community to the potentials of cancer chemotherapy. There are now more than 50 agents that are active in causing regression of clinical cancer. Chemotherapy's major conceptual contributions are two-fold. First, there is now proof that patients with overt metastatic disease can be cured, and second, to provide a strategy for control of occult metastases. In man, chemotherapy has resulted in normal life expectancy for some patients who have several types of metastatic cancers, including choriocarcinoma, Burkitt's lymphomas, Wilm's tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia, Hodgkins disease, diffuse histiocytic lymphoma and others. Anticancer chemotherapy in Veterinary medicine has evolved from the use of single agents, which produce only limited remissions, to the concept of combination chemotherapy. Three basic principles underline the design of combination chemotherapy protocols; the fraction of tumor cell killed by one drug is independent of the fraction killed by another drug; drugs with different mechanisms of action should be chosen so that the antitumor effects will be additive; and since different classes of drugs have different toxicities the toxic effects will not be additive.

  18. [A case of unresectable advanced gastric cancer responding remarkably to combined chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and low-dose cisplatin].

    PubMed

    Yasumoto, K; Iwamoto, M; Hoshiko, M; Kawabata, S; Fujii, T; Morimatsu, M; Takeda, J; Kakegawa, T

    1995-11-01

    A 62-year-old male patient complaining epigastralgia was diagnosed as having Borrmann type 2 gastric concer (por). The primary lesion was unresectable, so the patient was treated by combined chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and low-dose cisplatin for 4 weeks, which resulted in the disappearance of primary tumor and a remarkable reduction of metastatic lymph nodes. The patient has a good quality of life without any sign of recurrence now.

  19. Fatal tracheal aspergillosis during rituximab combined chemotherapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma that developed after lung transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, K; Shibasaki, Y; Sato, S; Nemoto, H; Takizawa, J; Narita, M; Tsuchida, M; Sone, H; Masuko, M

    2015-12-01

    Invasive tracheal aspergillosis (ITA) is an infection that is unique to patients who have undergone lung transplantation (LT). Although the activity of this disease often appears on imaging, we encountered a case of ITA that became exacerbated, despite few computed tomography (CT) findings, during rituximab combined chemotherapy for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. ITA developed during immunosuppressive therapy after LT. Because CT findings may show false-negative results, bronchoscopy is recommended for such cases.

  20. A Case of Common Bile Duct Cancer That Completely Responded to Combination Chemotherapy of Gemcitabine and TS-1.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Ryu, Ji Kon; Choi, Yoon Jin; Kwon, Jieun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lee, Yun Bin; Kim, Jae Hwan; Yoon, Won Jae; Kim, Yong Tae; Yoon, Yong Bum

    2013-05-01

    Common bile duct (CBD) cancer is a relatively rare malignancy that arises from the biliary epithelium and is associated with a poor prognosis. Here, we report a case of advanced metastatic CBD cancer successfully treated by chemotherapy with gemcitabine combined with S-1 (tegafur+gimeracil+oteracil). A 65-year-old male presented with pyogenic liver abscess. After antibiotic therapy and percutaneous drainage, follow-up computed tomography (CT) showed an enhanced nodule in the CBD. Biopsy was performed at the CBD via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, which showed adenocarcinoma. Additional CT and magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple small nodules in the right hepatic lobe, which were confirmed as metastatic adenocarcinoma by sono-guided liver biopsy. The patient underwent combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and S-1. After nine courses of chemotherapy, the hepatic lesion disappeared radiologically. Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy was performed, and no residual tumor was found in the resected specimen. Three weeks after the operation, the patient was discharged with no complications. Through 3 months of follow-up, no sign of recurrence was observed on CT scan. Gemcitabine combined with S-1 may be a highly effective treatment for advanced cholangiocarcinoma.

  1. Polymeric Prodrug Grafted Hollow Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles Encapsulating Near-Infrared Absorbing Dye for Potent Combined Photothermal-Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ang, Chung Yen; Li, Menghuan; Tan, Si Yu; Qu, Qiuyu; Zhao, Yanli

    2016-03-23

    In this study, polymeric prodrug coated hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) with encapsulated near-infrared (NIR) absorbing dye were prepared and explored for combined photothermal-chemotherapy. A copolymer integrated with tert-butoxycarbonyl protected hydrazide groups and oligoethylene glycols was initially grafted on the surface of HMSNs via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization followed by the deprotection to reactivate the hydrazide groups for the conjugation of anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX). DOX was covalently bound onto the polymer substrate by acid-labile hydrazone bond and released quickly in weak acidic environment for chemotherapy. The hollow cavity of HMSNs was loaded with an NIR absorbing dye IR825 to form the final multifunctional hybrid denoted as HMSNs-DOX/IR825. The hybrid exhibited good dispersity and stability as well as high light-to-heat conversion efficiency. As revealed by confocal microscopy and flow cytometry analysis, the hybrid was efficiently taken up by cancer cells, and the conjugated DOX could be released under the cellular environment. In vitro cytotoxicity study demonstrated that anticancer activity of HMSNs-DOX/IR825 could be significantly improved by the NIR irradiation, which led to a satisfactory therapeutic efficacy through the combination treatment. Thus, the developed hybrid could be a promising candidate for the combined photothermal-chemotherapy of cancer.

  2. Rituximab combined with chemotherapy and interferon in follicular lymphoma patients: results of the GELA-GOELAMS FL2000 study.

    PubMed

    Salles, Gilles; Mounier, Nicolas; de Guibert, Sophie; Morschhauser, Franck; Doyen, Chantal; Rossi, Jean-François; Haioun, Corinne; Brice, Pauline; Mahé, Béatrice; Bouabdallah, Reda; Audhuy, Bruno; Ferme, Christophe; Dartigeas, Caroline; Feugier, Pierre; Sebban, Catherine; Xerri, Luc; Foussard, Charles

    2008-12-15

    The FL2000 study was undertaken to evaluate the combination of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab with chemotherapy plus interferon in the first-line treatment of follicular lymphoma patients with a high tumor burden. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 12 courses of the chemotherapy regimen CHVP (cyclophosphamide, adriamycin, etoposide, and prednisolone) plus interferon-alpha2a (CHVP+I arm) over 18 months or 6 courses of the same chemotherapy regimen combined with 6 infusions of 375 mg/m(2) rituximab and interferon for the same time period (R-CHVP+I arm). After a median follow-up of 5 years, event-free survival estimates were, respectively, 37% (95% confidence interval [CI], 29%-44%) and 53% (95% CI, 45%-60%) in the CHVP+I and R-CHVP+I arm (P = .001). Five-year overall survival estimates were not statistically different in the CHVP+I (79%; 95% CI, 72%-84%) and R-CHVP+I (84%; 95% CI, 78%-84%) arms. In a multivariate regression analysis, event-free survival was significantly influenced by both the Follicular Lymphoma International Prognostic Index score (hazard ratio = 2.08; 95% CI, 1.6%-2.8%) and the treatment arm (hazard ratio = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.44%-0.78%). With a 5-year follow-up, the combination of rituximab with CHVP+I provides superior disease control in follicular lymphoma patients despite a shorter duration of chemotherapy. This study's clinical trial was registered at the National Institutes of Health website as no. NCT00136552.

  3. Efficiency of complicated kidney tuberculosis chemotherapy in combination with low-level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koultchavenia, Ekaterina V.

    2001-01-01

    The conventional chemotherapy is not sufficient at present, and up to 84 percent of cavernous nephrotuberculosis patients have to be underdone a nephrectomy. 62 patients received only chemotherapy. Besides 88 other patients were subjected to the radiation of the low-level laser in the pathological point in different regimes. The application of the laser therapy allowed to raise the efficiency of complex treatment up 36,1 percent, resulted in quick negativation of urine in 100 percent, permitted to avoid surgical intervention for 35,2 percent.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy combined with thoracic radiotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for limited stage small cell lung cancer: A population-based propensity-score matched analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chun-Ru; Hsia, Te-Chun; Chen, Chih-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background The addition of thoracic radiotherapy improves the outcome of limited stage small cell lung cancer (LS-SCLC), however, the cost-effectiveness of this process has never been reported. We aimed to estimate the short-term cost-effectiveness of chemotherapy combined with thoracic radiotherapy (C-TRT) versus chemotherapy alone (C/T) for LS-SCLC patients from the payer's perspective (Taiwan National Health Insurance). Methods We identified LS-SCLC patients diagnosed within 2007–2009 through a comprehensive population-based database containing cancer and death registries, and reimbursement data. The duration of interest was one year within diagnosis. We included potential confounding covariables through literature searching and our own experience, and used a propensity score to construct a 1:1 population for adjustment. We used a net benefit (NB) approach to evaluate the cost-effectiveness at various willingness-to-pay (WTP) levels. Sensitivity analysis regarding potential unmeasured confounder(s) was performed. Results Our study population constituted 74 patients. The mean cost (2013 USD) and survival (year) was higher for C-TRT (42 439 vs. 28 357; 0.94 vs. 0.88). At the common WTP level (50 000 USD/life-year), C-TRT was not cost effective (incremental NB − 11 082) and the probability for C-TRT to be cost effective (i.e. positive net benefit) was 0.005. The result was moderately sensitive to potential unmeasured confounder(s) in sensitivity analysis. Conclusions We provide evidence that when compared to C/T, C-TRT is effective in improving survival, but is not cost-effective in the short-term at a common WTP level from a payer's perspective. This information should be considered by clinicians when discussing thoracic radiotherapy with their LS-SCLC patients. PMID:26767048

  5. ShenQi FuZheng Injection combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Rongzhong; Lin, Liubing; Li, Yong; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate cellular immunity and clinical efficacy of ShenQi FuZheng Injection (SFI) in the associated chemotherapy of colorectal cancer (CRC). PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Chinese Scientific Journals Full-text Database (VIP), WanFang Database and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) searches were undertaken to identify randomized controlled trials of SFI plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in CRC patients. The quality of each trial was assessed according to the Jadad's scale, and Review Manager 5 was used to statisitically analyze the outcomes. Eight studies involving 722 patients were included in this review. The meta-analyses suggested there was a significantly higher overall response rate (OR 1.89; CI: 1.10-3.24; p = 0.02), grades of KPS (OR 2.35; CI: 1.55-3.56; p<0.01), CD3+cells (MD 10.29; CI: 8.46-12.12; p<0.01), CD4+cells (MD 7.06; CI: 5.33-8.794; p<0.01), CD4/CD8+cells (MD 0.32; CI: 0.25-0.40; p<0.01), NK+ (MD 7.20; CI: 2.02-12.37, p = 0.006), WBC (MD 1.24; CI: 0.59-1.89; p<0.01), HB (MD 14.55; CI: 7.47-21.63; p<0.01), and PLT (MD 19.05; CI: 4.29-33.81; p = 0.01), but lower severe toxicity for leukocytopenia (OR 0.37; CI: 0.17-0.80; p = 0.01), thrombocytopenia (OR 0.32; CI: 0.14-0.74; p = 0.008), gastrointestinal toxicity (OR 0.48; CI: 0.24-0.96; p = 0.04), when chemotherapy combined with SFI was compared with chemotherapy alone. There were similarities between two groups in liver dysfunction (OR 0.44; CI: 0.18-1.08; p = 0.07) and CD8+ (MD 0.54; CI: -1.89-2.96; p = 0.66). Also, there was presence of heterogeneity in the CD8 results; after the sensitivity analysis, the result of CD8+ was reversed (MD 1.57; CI: 0.32-2.81; p = 0.01). There was no significant publication bias across studies according to the Egger's (P = 0.19) and Begg's test (P = 0.23). SFI enhances chemotherapy efficiency as they are combined and used in the treatment of colorectal cancer patients. At the

  6. Clinical observational study of conformal radiotherapy combined with topotecan chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, P; Zhang, Z H; Li, L; Du, X L; Shan, C P; Sheng, X G

    2015-04-22

    This retrospective study aimed to observe the cura-tive effect and adverse reactions of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with topotecan chemotherapy in patients with platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian carcinoma. The chemoradiotherapy group (N = 22) received 15 mv X-rays with 1.8 to 2.0 Gy/f/d radiation, 5 times per week. The total dose was 45 to 65 Gy; the median dose was 52.5 Gy. Topotecan chemotherapy (2.0 mg/m(2)) was administered after the first week of radiotherapy on days 1, 8, and 15; it was repeated every 28 days. The only che-motherapy group (N = 20) received topotecan chemotherapy (4.0 mg/m(2)) in the first week, and the dose was administered on days 1, 8, and 15; it was repeated every 28 days. The median follow-up times were 18.5 months (2 to 37.7) and 10.8 months (1.5 to 29.6) in the chemoradiotherapy and in the only chemotherapy groups, respectively. The total response rates were 42.1% (8/19) and 11.1% (2/18), respectively. The clinical benefit rates were 68.4% (13/19) and 22.2% (4/18), respectively, with significant difference (P < 0.05). The median disease progression-free periods were 9.8 and 6.6 months, respectively, with significant difference (P < 0.001). The median survival times were 19.7 and 12.5 months, respective-ly, with significant difference (P < 0.05). The degrees of digestive tract reaction rates were 26.3% (5/19) and 16.7% (3/18), whereas the hematology toxicity rates were 21.1% (4/19) and 22.2% (4/18), respectively, with no significant difference (P > 0.05). As three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy combined with topotecan che-motherapy had good curative effect on platinum-resistant recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer, with mild adverse reactions, this tech-nique can be used as a remedial measure.

  7. High dose lansoprazole combined with metronomic chemotherapy: a phase I/II study in companion animals with spontaneously occurring tumors.

    PubMed

    Spugnini, Enrico P; Buglioni, Sabrina; Carocci, Francesca; Francesco, Menicagli; Vincenzi, Bruno; Fanciulli, Maurizio; Fais, Stefano

    2014-08-21

    The treatment of human cancer has been seriously hampered for decades by resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. A very efficient mechanism of tumor resistance to drugs is the proton pumps-mediated acidification of tumor microenvironment. Metronomic chemotherapy has shown efficacy in adjuvant fashion as well as in the treatment of pets with advanced disease. Moreover, we have shown in veterinary clinical settings that pre-treatment with proton-pumps inhibitors (PPI) increases tumor responsiveness to chemotherapeutics. In this study pet with spontaneously occurring cancer have been recruited to be treated by a combination of metronomic chemotherapy and high dose PPIs and their responses have been matched to those of a historical control of ten patients treated with metronomic chemotherapy alone. Single arm, non randomized phase II open study, with historical control group, evaluating safety and efficacy of the combination of metronomic chemotherapy and alkalization. Twenty-four companion animals (22 dogs and 2 cats) were treated adding to their metronomic chemotherapy protocol the pump inhibitor lansoprazole at high dose, and a water alkalizer. Their responses have been evaluated by clinical and instrumental evaluation and matched to those of the control group. The protocol was overall well tolerated, with only two dogs experiencing side effects due to gastric hypochlorhydria consisting with vomiting and or diarrhea. In terms of overall response, in the alkalized cohort, 18 out of 24 had partial or complete responses (75%), two patients had a stable disease and the remaining patients experienced no response or progressive disease. On the other hand, only one patient in the control group experienced a complete response (10%) and three other experienced short lived responses. Median time to terminal event was 34 weeks for the experimental group versus 2 weeks in the controls (p= 0.042). Patient alkalization has shown to be well tolerated and to increase tumor response

  8. Clinical significance of CD56 expression in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based regimens.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Pau; Rayón, Chelo; Vellenga, Edo; Brunet, Salut; González, José; González, Marcos; Holowiecka, Aleksandra; Esteve, Jordi; Bergua, Juan; González, José D; Rivas, Concha; Tormo, Mar; Rubio, Vicente; Bueno, Javier; Manso, Félix; Milone, Gustavo; de la Serna, Javier; Pérez, Inmaculada; Pérez-Encinas, Manuel; Krsnik, Isabel; Ribera, Josep M; Escoda, Lourdes; Lowenberg, Bob; Sanz, Miguel A

    2011-02-10

    The expression of CD56 antigen in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) blasts has been associated with short remission duration and extramedullary relapse. We investigated the clinical significance of CD56 expression in a large series of patients with APL treated with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline-based regimens. Between 1996 and 2009, 651 APL patients with available data on CD56 expression were included in 3 subsequent trials (PETHEMA LPA96 and LPA99 and PETHEMA/HOVON LPA2005). Seventy-two patients (11%) were CD56(+) (expression of CD56 in ≥ 20% leukemic promyelocytes). CD56(+) APL was significantly associated with high white blood cell counts; low albumin levels; BCR3 isoform; and the coexpression of CD2, CD34, CD7, HLA-DR, CD15, and CD117 antigens. For CD56(+) APL, the 5-year relapse rate was 22%, compared with a 10% relapse rate for CD56(-) APL (P = .006). In the multivariate analysis, CD56 expression retained the statistical significance together with the relapse-risk score. CD56(+) APL also showed a greater risk of extramedullary relapse (P < .001). In summary, CD56 expression is associated with the coexpression of immaturity-associated and T-cell antigens and is an independent adverse prognostic factor for relapse in patients with APL treated with all-trans-retinoic acid plus idarubicin-derived regimens. This marker may be considered for implementing risk-adapted therapeutic strategies in APL. The LPA2005 trial is registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00408278.

  9. High Level of Progesteron Receptor Membrane Component 1 (PGRMC 1) in Tissue of Breast Cancer Patients is Associated with Worse Response to Anthracycline-Based Neoadjuvant Therapy.

    PubMed

    Willibald, Marina; Wurster, Isabel; Meisner, Christoph; Vogel, Ulrich; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O; Fehm, Tanja; Neubauer, Hans

    2017-08-01

    PGRMC1 is known to be highly expressed in breast cancer tissue and is associated with chemoresistance in breast cancer cells. However, its role in breast cancer signaling is not fully understood yet. In the present study, the expression status of PGRMC1 and its phosphorylated version (pPGRMC1) in breast cancer tissue and surrounding stroma before and after neoadjuvant therapy was examined to find a possible association to therapy response. Tissue biopsies of 69 breast cancer patients were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression levels of PGRMC1 and pPGRMC1. Expression status of PGRMC1 and pPGRMC1 in tumor tissue was compared with expression status of progesterone receptor (PR), estrogen receptor α (ERα), total estrogen receptor β (ERβ), ERβ1, ERβ2, the proliferation marker Ki-67, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu). Correlations were calculated for expression of PGRMC1 and pPGRMC1 before and after neoadjuvant-therapy. PGRMC1 and pPGRMC1 were highly abundant in every breast cancer tissue sample. Considerably lower signals were detected in surrounding tissue. Further, PGRMC1 and pPGRMC1 abundance was found to correlate with ERβ expression. A lower level of pPGRMC1 could be found in post-therapy surgical specimens compared to specimens before treatment. Interestingly, patients with high PGRMC1 tumor levels showed worse response to anthracycline-based therapy as patients with lower PGRMC1 levels. These new findings demonstrate that PGRMC1 might play an important role in progression and therapy resistance of human breast tumors and could offer an interesting target for anticancer therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Combination chemotherapy in vitro exploiting glutamine metabolism of human glioma and medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Dranoff, G; Elion, G B; Friedman, H S; Bigner, D D

    1985-09-01

    The human glioma-derived cell line D-54 MG and the human medulloblastoma-derived cell line TE-671 have been shown to be sensitive in culture to the pharmacological interference with glutamine metabolism by acivicin, 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine, and methionine sulfoximine. Using as a guide the multiple contributions of glutamine to the biosynthesis of proteins, purines, and pyrimidines, we now have identified six additional antimetabolites active against these lines in vitro at clinically relevant concentrations. The 50% growth-inhibitory levels of the drugs against D-54 MG in 6-day continuous exposure experiments were: L-asparaginase, 0.057 IU/ml; 5-fluorouracil, 0.5 micrograms/ml; 6-mercaptopurine, 0.8 micrograms/ml; actinomycin D, 0.0007 micrograms/ml; N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartic acid, 2.3 micrograms/ml; and 5-azacytidine, 0.2 micrograms/ml (3-day exposure. The corresponding 50% growth-inhibitory values in TE-671 were: L-asparaginase, 0.54 IU/ml; 5-fluorouracil, 1.5 micrograms/ml; 6-mercaptopurine, 4.7 micrograms/ml; actinomycin D, 0.00044 micrograms/ml; N-phosphonacetyl-L-aspartic acid, 4.5 micrograms/ml; and 5-azacytidine, 0.49 micrograms/ml. Dipyridamole up to 10 micrograms/ml was inactive against both lines. The isobologram method was used to evaluate the effectiveness of several two-drug combinations which were biochemically designed. The sums of the optimal fractional inhibitory concentrations for the pairs were: acivicin plus L-asparaginase, 0.14; acivicin plus methionine sulfoximine, 0.40; 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine plus methionine sulfoximine, 0.60; acivicin plus 6-mercaptopurine, 1.0, all in TE-671; and acivicin plus 5-fluorouracil, 0.79, in D-54 MG. Our findings suggest that an antimetabolite regimen exploiting glutamine sensitivity might improve the chemotherapy of some human gliomas and medulloblastomas.

  11. [High dose cinobufocini in attenuation and treatment of infection and granulocytopenia during combined chemotherapy of malignant blood diseases].

    PubMed

    Yue, B B

    1992-03-01

    The use of high dose Cinobufocini in attenuation and treatment of infection and granulocytopenia during combined chemotherapy was observed in patients with malignant blood diseases. The study was designed in such a way that each patient served as self control. The patients, 18 males and 12 females, aged 16-66 (average 34), 62 experiments in 20 patients with acute leukemia, 8 with malignant lymphoma and 2 with multiple myeloma were observed. In patients with the treatment of high dose Cinobufocini, infection was significantly decreased and the number of granulocytes was not markedly changed before and after the treatment. The observation demonstrated that high dose Cinobufocini can significantly reduce the risk of infection and degree and duration of granulocytopenia associated with chemotherapy of patients with malignant blood diseases. The use of high dose Cinobufocini is simple and convenient and with very little side effects.

  12. [Combined modality treatment with chemotherapy followed by surgery with immediate reconstruction and irradiation for primary unresectable oral cavity cancer].

    PubMed

    Kawecki, A; Starościak, S; Towpik, E; Jagielska, B; Pietras, M; Kiprian, D; Szutkowski, Z

    2000-01-01

    In the Head and Neck Cancer Department of Cancer in Warsaw between August 1997 and September 1998 twenty patients with primary unresectable oral cavity cancer were referred for combined modality treatment with cisplatin based chemotherapy followed by wide resection (in the case of tumor regression) with immediate reconstruction and adjuvant radiotherapy. Tumor regression after chemotherapy was obtained in 15 patients and all of them were referred to surgery; wide resection and reconstruction using pectoralis major (PM) flap. 14 patients completed all treatment protocol, also with adjuvant radiotherapy. Tolerance of treatment was excellent and there was no influence of chemo- and radiotherapy for adaptation of PM flaps. During observation local recurrence was observed in two cases. Twelve patients are alive without evidence of disease. Study is continued.

  13. Microwave Ablation in Combination with Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Zhigang Ye, Xin Yang, Xia Zheng, Aimin Huang, Guanghui Li, Wenhong Ni, Xiang Wang, Jiao; Han, Xiaoying

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo verify whether microwave ablation (MWA) used as a local control treatment had an improved outcome regarding advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) when combined with chemotherapy.MethodsThirty-nine patients with histologically verified advanced NSCLC and at least one measurable site other than the ablative sites were enrolled. Primary tumors underwent MWA followed by platinum-based doublet chemotherapy. Modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST) and RECIST were used to evaluate therapeutic response. Complications were assessed using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (version 3.0).ResultsMWA was administered to 39 tumors in 39 patients. The mean and median diameters of the primary tumor were 3.84 cm and 3.30 cm, respectively, with a range of 1.00–9.00 cm. Thirty-three (84.6 %) patients achieved a partial response. No correlation was found between MWA efficacy and clinicopathologic characteristics. For chemotherapy, 11 patients (28.2 %) achieved a partial response, 18 (46.2 %) showed stable disease, and 10 (25.6 %) had progressive disease. The overall objective response rate and disease control rate were 28.2 and 74.4 %, respectively. The median progression-free survival time was 8.7 months (95 % CI 5.5–11.9). The median overall survival time was 21.3 months (95 % CI 17.0–25.4). Complications were observed in 22 (56.4 %) patients, and grade 3 adverse events were observed in 3 (7.9 %) patients.ConclusionsPatients with advanced NSCLC could benefit from MWA in combination with chemotherapy. Complications associated with MWA were common but tolerable.

  14. Treatment of small cell carcinoma of lung with combined high dose mediastinal irradiation, whole brain prophylaxis and chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Shank, B.; Natale, R.B.; Hilaris, B.S.; Wittes, R.E.

    1981-04-01

    Survival of patients with small cell carcinoma of lung, treated on a new combined radiotherapy-chemotherapy protocol, compares favorably with other regimens in the literature and our own previous combined approaches. Radiation, given after induction chemotherapy, consisted of whole brain prophylaxis in all 44 evaluable patients. Patients with limited disease were also treated to the primary and mediastinum to a high dose (5000 rad equivalent) using multiple fields. The new chemotherapy regimen consisted of induction with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, and vincristine alternated with cis-platinum and VP-16 (an epipodophyllotoxin) for two cycles, followed by consolidation with low dose cyclophosphamide and vincristine concurrent with irradiation. Patients with limited disease who achieved less than complete response, and all patients with extensive disease were not continued on maintenance chemotherapy. Out of 24 evaluable patients with limited disease, there was 73% survival at 1 year by life-table analysis, measured from treatment initiation. After induction, 16/24 of these limited disease patients were CR (complete responders): 20/24 were CR at completion of their irradiation. Out of 20 evaluable patients with extensive disease, there was 59% survival at 1 year by life-table analysis. Only 4/44 (9%) brain parenchymal relapses occurred, one at 3 months and one at 6 months after local failure and two in patients who did not become CRs, implicating a possible re-seeding mechanism. Five patients had central nervous system relapses outside of brain parenchyma (spinal epidural and leptomeningeal); in three patients this was the initial site of failure. Significant complications included leukopenia (50%) and thrombocytopenia (24%) primarily during induction, and chronic pulmonary fibrosis (25%), possibly contributing to two deaths.

  15. Estimation of the cost of treatment by chemotherapy for early breast cancer in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is the first cancer in women both in incidence and mortality. The treatment of breast cancer benefited from the progress of chemotherapy and targeted therapies, but there was a parallel increase in treatment costs. Despite a relatively high incidence of many sites of cancer, so far, there is no national register for this disease in Morocco. The main goal of this paper is to estimate the total cost of chemotherapy in the early stages of breast cancer due to its frequency and the chances of patients being cured. This study provides health decision-makers with a first estimate of costs and the opportunity to achieve the optimal use of available data to estimate the needs of antimitotics and trastuzumab in Morocco. Method We start by evaluating the individual cost according to the therapeutic sub-groups, namely: 1. Patients needing chemotherapy with only anthracycline-based therapy. 2. Patients needing chemotherapy with both anthracycline and taxane but without trastuzumab. 3. Patients needing trastuzumab in addition to chemotherapy. For each sub-group, the protocol of treatment is described, and the individual costs per unit, and for the whole cycle, are evaluated. Then we estimate the number of women suffering from breast cancer on the basis of two data bases available in Morocco. Finally, we calculate the total annual cost of treatment of breast cancer in Morocco. Results The total cost of breast cancer in Morocco is given in Moroccan dirhams (MAD), the US dollar at the current exchange rate (MAD 10 = USD 1.30) and in international dollars or purchasing power parity (MAD 10 = PPP 1.95). The cost of a therapy with trastuzumab is 8.4 times the cost of a sequential chemotherapy combining anthracycline and taxane, and nearly 60 times the cost of chemotherapy based on anthracycline alone. Globally, between USD 13.3 million and USD 28.6 million need to be devoted every year by the Moroccan health authorities to treat women with localized breast

  16. Combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy is associated with improved survival at early stage type II endometrial cancer and carcinosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Sozen, Hamdullah; Çiftçi, Rumeysa; Vatansever, Dogan; Topuz, Samet; Iyibozkurt, Ahmet Cem; Bozbey, Hamza Ugur; Yaşa, Cenk; Çali, Halime; Yavuz, Ekrem; Kucucuk, Seden; Aydiner, Adnan; Salihoglu, Yavuz

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the impact of postoperative adjuvant treatment modalities and identify risk factors associated with recurrence and survival rates in women diagnosed with early stage type II endometrial cancer and carcinosarcoma. In this retrospective study, patients diagnosed with early stage (stages I-II) carcinosarcoma and type II endometrial cancer were reviewed. All women underwent comprehensive surgical staging. Postoperative treatment options of chemotherapy (CT), radiotherapy (RT), observation (OBS) and chemotherapy-radiotherapy (CT-RT) combination were compared in terms of recurrence and survival outcome. In CT-RT treatment arm, recurrence rate was found as 12.5% and this result is significantly lower than the other treatment approaches (P = 0.01 CT alone: 33.3%, RT alone: 26.7%, OBS: 62.5%). Three-year disease free survival(DFS) rate and overall survival (OS) rate were statistically higher for the group of women treated with combination of CT-RT (92-95%) compared to the women treated with RT alone (65-72%), treated with CT alone (67-74%) and women who received no adjuvant therapy (38-45%). The multivariate analysis revealed that carcinosarcoma histology was associated with shortened DFS and OS (P = 0.001, P = 0.002). On the other hand, being at stage Ia (P = 0.01, P = 0.04) and receiving adjuvant treatment of CT-RT combination (P = 0.005, P = 0.002) appeared to lead to increased DFS and OS rates. We identified that a combination treatment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy is superior compared to other postoperative adjuvant treatment approaches concerning PFS, OS and recurrence rates in stages I-II of type II endometrial cancers and uterine carcinosarcoma. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  17. Safety and efficacy of palliative systemic chemotherapy combined with colorectal self-expandable metallic stents in advanced colorectal cancer: A multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Cézé, Nicolas; Charachon, Antoine; Locher, Christophe; Aparicio, Thomas; Mitry, Emmanuel; Barbieux, Jean-Pierre; Landi, Bruno; Dorval, Etienne; Moussata, Driffa; Lecomte, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) placement is an accepted palliative therapy for management of acute malignant bowel obstruction in advanced colorectal cancer. Nevertheless, data are lacking on the effects of systemic chemotherapy combined with colorectal SEMS. The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of palliative chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer combined with colorectal SEMS placement. This multicentre retrospective study included all consecutive advanced colorectal cancer patients who received first-line palliative chemotherapy combined with endoscopic stenting for colorectal cancer with obstruction. We analyzed the number of cycles and the type of combination used. The primary endpoint was overall survival. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival, response rate, grade 3-4 toxicity and the outcomes of SEMS for malignant colorectal obstruction. A total of 38 patients were included. Among them, 25 patients received oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil combination chemotherapy. Objective response and stabilization occurred in 38 and 24% of patients, respectively. The median overall survival and progression-free survival from the start of chemotherapy were 18 and 5months, respectively. The objective response rate and overall disease control rate were 38 and 62%, respectively. Toxicity was generally acceptable. Major complications related to stenting included perforation (8%), stent migration (5%), and reobstruction secondary to tumor ingrowths (13%). Chemotherapy combined with colonic stenting as a first-line treatment seems to be a valid option in advanced colorectal cancer patients with malignant colorectal obstruction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy for advanced carcinoma of the cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Lipsztein, R.; Kredentser, D.; Dottino, P.; Goodman, H.M.; Dalton, J.F.; Bloomer, W.D.; Cohen, C.

    1987-12-01

    Ten patients with advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix received induction chemotherapy with cis-platinum, mitomycin-C, vincristine, and bleomycin (BOMP) over a 5 week period, followed by radiotherapy with concomitant weekly cisplatinum. Two patients were FIGO stage I-B barrel-shaped, five were stage II-B, and three were III-B. All patients responded to induction chemotherapy with five complete and five partial responses. At the completion of radiation therapy, nine patients had negative biopsies. One patient never reached a complete response and died of distant metastasis. Another underwent total exenteration for a central recurrence and was found to have microscopic paraaortic lymph node involvement. A third recurred in the parametrium. Two patients with barrel-shaped tumors underwent extrafascial hysterectomies; both had negative specimens and tolerated surgery well. Although follow-up is short, this new approach for advanced carcinoma of the cervix yielded excellent results and was well tolerated.

  19. First-line chemotherapy of advanced breast cancer with a combination of mitoxantrone, methotrexate, and vincristine (MIMO).

    PubMed

    Samonis, G; Bafaloukos, D; Margioris, A N; Katsarma, G; Toloudis, P; Bacoyannis, C; Karvounis, N; Georgoulias, V; Kosmidis, P

    1997-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with advanced breast cancer entered a prospective study of combination chemotherapy, consisting of mitoxantrone (10 mg/m2), methotrexate (30 mg/m2), and vincristine (1 mg/m2, MIMO) given intravenously every 21 days. None of the patients had received prior chemotherapy for metastatic disease, although 24 had been previously given adjuvant chemotherapy. Forty-seven patients were analyzed for response and toxicity. Objective response was observed in 20 of them (42%) with 3 complete responses (6%) stable disease in 7 (15%), and progression in 19 (40%). Best responses were achieved in lung metastases. Liver metastases did not respond. The median duration of response was 9 months and the median time to disease progression 11 months. Toxicity was mild. Nausea and myelotoxicity were the main side effects. MIMO was found to be an effective and well tolerated first-line treatment for advanced breast cancer. The regimen was compared historically with MIMO plus carboplatin. The two types of treatment were found equipotent, with MIMO being less toxic.

  20. Palliative hepatic intraarterial chemotherapy (HIC) using a novel combination of gemcitabine and mitomycin C: results in hepatic metastases.

    PubMed

    Vogl, Thomas J; Zangos, Stephan; Eichler, Katrin; Selby, J Bayne; Bauer, Ralf W

    2008-03-01

    To evaluate repeated hepatic intraarterial chemotherapy (HIC) as a palliative treatment option for unresectable cholangiocarcinoma and liver metastases of various origins that were progressive under systemic chemotherapy. Between 2002 and 2006, 55 patients were treated in 4-week intervals (mean five sessions). Combined gemcitabine/mitomycin was administered intraarterially within 1 h. Tumor response was evaluated after the third session according to RECIST. Treated tumor entities were colorectal carcinoma (CRC) (n = 12), breast cancer (BC) (n = 12), cholangiocarcinoma (CCC) (n = 10), pancreatic (n = 4), ovarian (n = 3), gastric, cervical, papillary (each n = 2), prostate, esophageal carcinoma, leiomyosarcoma (each n = 1), cancer of unknown primacy (CUP) (n = 5). All patients tolerated the treatment well without any major side effects or complications. In total, there were 1 complete response (CR), 19 partial responses (PR), 19 stable (SD) and 16 progressive diseases (PD). We observed 5 PR, 3 SD and 4 PD in CRC; 1 CR, 4 PR, 6 SD in BC; and 2 PR, 2 SD and 6 PD in CCC. Median survival after first HIC was 9.7 months for CRC, 11.4 months for BC and 6.0 months for CCC. HIC with gemcitabine/mitomycin is a safe, minimally invasive, palliative treatment for hepatic metastases that are progressive under systemic chemotherapy. The treatment yields respectable tumor control rates in CRC and BC patients.

  1. Concepts and mechanisms underlying chemotherapy induced immunogenic cell death: impact on clinical studies and considerations for combined therapies

    PubMed Central

    Gebremeskel, Simon; Johnston, Brent

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has historically been thought to induce cancer cell death in an immunogenically silent manner. However, recent studies have demonstrated that therapeutic outcomes with specific chemotherapeutic agents (e.g. anthracyclines) correlate strongly with their ability to induce a process of immunogenic cell death (ICD) in cancer cells. This process generates a series of signals that stimulate the immune system to recognize and clear tumor cells. Extensive studies have revealed that chemotherapy-induced ICD occurs via the exposure/release of calreticulin (CALR), ATP, chemokine (C–X–C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1). This review provides an in-depth look into the concepts and mechanisms underlying CALR exposure, activation of the Toll-like receptor 3/IFN/CXCL10 axis, and the release of ATP and HMGB1 from dying cancer cells. Factors that influence the impact of ICD in clinical studies and the design of therapies combining chemotherapy with immunotherapy are also discussed. PMID:26486085

  2. Apatinib treatment combined with chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Linghui; Wang, Yue; Lu, Wenbin; Liu, Qian; Wu, Jie; Jin, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Apatinib is a novel oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, which has been proved by clinical trials to be effective and safe for patients with chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer. To date, there is no study or case report on apatinib treatment for patients with ovarian cancer. Here, we present the case of a 50-year-old Chinese woman with advanced ovarian cancer, who received apatinib at a daily dose of 500 mg for 28 days per cycle after failure of fourth-line chemotherapy. Favorable oncologic outcome was achieved in this case after treatment with apatinib. The patient’s progression-free survival is now 11.3 months, and she is taking apatinib and capecitabine as maintenance treatment. The common side effect of apatinib was fatigue; however, the toxicity of apatinib was controllable and tolerable. Thus, apatinib may be an option for chemotherapy-refractory advanced epithelial ovarian cancer, but this still warrants further investigation. PMID:28352185

  3. Optimizing the Design of Preprinted Orders for Ambulatory Chemotherapy: Combining Oncology, Human Factors, and Graphic Design

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jennifer; White, Rachel E.; Hunt, Richard G.; Cassano-Piché, Andrea L.; Easty, Anthony C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To establish a set of guidelines for developing ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders. Methods: Multiple methods were used to develop the preprinted order guidelines. These included (A) a comprehensive literature review and an environmental scan; (B) analyses of field study observations and incident reports; (C) critical review of evidence from the literature and the field study observation analyses; (D) review of the draft guidelines by a clinical advisory group; and (E) collaboration with graphic designers to develop sample preprinted orders, refine the design guidelines, and format the resulting content. Results: The Guidelines for Developing Ambulatory Chemotherapy Preprinted Orders, which consist of guidance on the design process, content, and graphic design elements of ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders, have been established. Conclusion: Health care is a safety critical, dynamic, and complex sociotechnical system. Identifying safety risks in such a system and effectively addressing them often require the expertise of multiple disciplines. This study illustrates how human factors professionals, clinicians, and designers can leverage each other's expertise to uncover commonly overlooked patient safety hazards and to provide health care professionals with innovative, practical, and user-centered tools to minimize those hazards. PMID:23077436

  4. Optimizing the design of preprinted orders for ambulatory chemotherapy: combining oncology, human factors, and graphic design.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jennifer; White, Rachel E; Hunt, Richard G; Cassano-Piché, Andrea L; Easty, Anthony C

    2012-03-01

    To establish a set of guidelines for developing ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders. Multiple methods were used to develop the preprinted order guidelines. These included (A) a comprehensive literature review and an environmental scan; (B) analyses of field study observations and incident reports; (C) critical review of evidence from the literature and the field study observation analyses; (D) review of the draft guidelines by a clinical advisory group; and (E) collaboration with graphic designers to develop sample preprinted orders, refine the design guidelines, and format the resulting content. The Guidelines for Developing Ambulatory Chemotherapy Preprinted Orders, which consist of guidance on the design process, content, and graphic design elements of ambulatory chemotherapy preprinted orders, have been established. Health care is a safety critical, dynamic, and complex sociotechnical system. Identifying safety risks in such a system and effectively addressing them often require the expertise of multiple disciplines. This study illustrates how human factors professionals, clinicians, and designers can leverage each other's expertise to uncover commonly overlooked patient safety hazards and to provide health care professionals with innovative, practical, and user-centered tools to minimize those hazards.

  5. Gemcitabine-Based Combination Chemotherapy Followed by Radiation With Capecitabine as Adjuvant Therapy for Resected Pancreas Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Sameer; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Griffith, Kent A.; Simeone, Diane; Greenson, Joel K.; Francis, Isaac R.; Hampton, Janet; Colletti, Lisa; Chang, Alfred E.; Lawrence, Theodore S.; Zalupski, Mark M.

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: To report outcomes for patients with resected pancreas cancer treated with an adjuvant regimen consisting of gemcitabine-based combination chemotherapy followed by capecitabine and radiation. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a series of patients treated at a single institution with a common postoperative adjuvant program. Between January 2002 and August 2006, 43 resected pancreas cancer patients were offered treatment consisting of 4, 21-day cycles of gemcitabine 1 g/m{sup 2} intravenously over 30 min on Days 1 and 8, with either cisplatin 35 mg/m{sup 2} intravenously on Days 1 and 8 or capecitabine 1500 mg/m{sup 2} orally in divided doses on Days 1-14. After completion of combination chemotherapy, patients received a course of radiotherapy (54 Gy) with concurrent capecitabine (1330 mg/m{sup 2} orally in divided doses) day 1 to treatment completion. Results: Forty-one patients were treated. Median progression-free survival for the entire group was 21.7 months (95% confidence interval 13.9-34.5 months), and median overall survival was 45.9 months. In multivariate analysis a postoperative CA 19-9 level of >=180 U/mL predicted relapse and death. Toxicity was mild, with only two hospitalizations during adjuvant therapy. Conclusions: A postoperative adjuvant program using combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and either cisplatin or capecitabine followed by radiotherapy with capecitabine is tolerable and efficacious and should be considered for Phase III testing in this group of patients.

  6. Comparison of the Efficacy between Gemcitabine-Cisplatin and Capecitabine-Cisplatin Combination Chemotherapy for Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Hong, Tae Ho; Lee, In Seok; You, Young Kyoung; Lee, Myung Ah

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Gemcitabine-cisplatin combination chemotherapy has been regarded as standard regimen for advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancer (BTC), based on the ABC-02 trial. To date, however, no studies have compared the efficacies of gemcitabine-platinum and fluoropyrimidine- platinum combination chemotherapy, even though fluoropyrimidine has been widely used as a backbone agent for gastrointestinal cancer. This study compared the efficacy and toxicities of gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP) and capecitabine-cisplatin (XP) combination chemotherapy for treatment of advanced BTC. Materials and Methods We examined 49 patients treated with GP and 44 patients treated with XP from October 2009 to July 2012. All patients had unresectable BTC. The GP regimen comprised gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m2, intravenously [IV], days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (75 mg/m2, IV, day 1). The XP regimen comprised capecitabine (1,250 mg/m2 twice a day, peroral, days 1-14) and cisplatin (60 mg/m2, IV, day 1, every three weeks). We analyzed the response rate (RR), time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. Results The RRs were 27.3% and 6.1% in the XP and GP arms, respectively. XP resulted in longer TTP (5.2 months vs. 3.6 months, p=0.016), but OS was not statistically different (10.7 months vs. 8.6 months, p=0.365). Both regimens resulted in grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities, but febrile neutropenia was not noted. Grade 3-4 asthenia, stomatitis, and hand-foot syndrome occurred more frequently in the XP arm. Conclusion XP resulted in a superior TTP and RR compared to GP for treatment of advanced BTC, with comparable toxicity. Conduct of prospective large, randomized trials to evaluate the possibility of XP as another standard therapy is warranted. PMID:25648099

  7. Comparison of the Efficacy between Gemcitabine-Cisplatin and Capecitabine-Cisplatin Combination Chemotherapy for Advanced Biliary Tract Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Hong, Tae Ho; Lee, In Seok; You, Young Kyoung; Lee, Myung Ah

    2015-04-01

    Gemcitabine-cisplatin combination chemotherapy has been regarded as standard regimen for advanced or metastatic biliary tract cancer (BTC), based on the ABC-02 trial. To date, however, no studies have compared the efficacies of gemcitabine-platinum and fluoropyrimidine- platinum combination chemotherapy, even though fluoropyrimidine has been widely used as a backbone agent for gastrointestinal cancer. This study compared the efficacy and toxicities of gemcitabine-cisplatin (GP) and capecitabine-cisplatin (XP) combination chemotherapy for treatment of advanced BTC. We examined 49 patients treated with GP and 44 patients treated with XP from October 2009 to July 2012. All patients had unresectable BTC. The GP regimen comprised gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m(2), intravenously [IV], days 1 and 8) and cisplatin (75 mg/m(2), IV, day 1). The XP regimen comprised capecitabine (1,250 mg/m(2) twice a day, peroral, days 1-14) and cisplatin (60 mg/m(2), IV, day 1, every three weeks). We analyzed the response rate (RR), time to progression (TTP), overall survival (OS), and toxicity. The RRs were 27.3% and 6.1% in the XP and GP arms, respectively. XP resulted in longer TTP (5.2 months vs. 3.6 months, p=0.016), but OS was not statistically different (10.7 months vs. 8.6 months, p=0.365). Both regimens resulted in grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities, but febrile neutropenia was not noted. Grade 3-4 asthenia, stomatitis, and hand-foot syndrome occurred more frequently in the XP arm. XP resulted in a superior TTP and RR compared to GP for treatment of advanced BTC, with comparable toxicity. Conduct of prospective large, randomized trials to evaluate the possibility of XP as another standard therapy is warranted.

  8. Treatment of Breast Cancer With Antibodies Against DR4 and DR5 Receptors in Combination With Chemotherapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    author( s ) and should not be construed as an official Department of the Army position, policy or decision unless so designated by other documentation. ""RE...GRANT NUMBER Combination with Chemotherapy DAMD 17-02-1-0264 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Donald J. Buchsbaum, Ph.D. 5e...TASK NUMBER 6f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER University of Alabama at

  9. Californium-252 neutron brachytherapy combined with external pelvic radiotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy for cervical cancer: a retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Qian, Shen; Ye, Ling; Tian, Yun-Hong; Wang, Li-Gen; Huang, Zuo-Ping; Li, Feng; Hou, Bing; Song, Ni; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ying; Liu, Xiao; Zhou, Tao

    2017-02-28

    Cervical cancer is the sixth most common cancer in Chinese women. A standard treatment modality for cervical cancer is the combination of surgery, chemotherapy, external-beam radiotherapy and intracavitary brachytherapy. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the long-term treatment outcomes of patients with cervical cancer who were treated with californium-252 neutron brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 150 patients with primary stages IB-IVB cervical cancer who received neutron brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy concurrently with cisplatin chemotherapy. All patients were followed up. Using an actuarial analysis, patient outcomes and treatment-related adverse effects were evaluated and compared. The median overall survival (OS) was 33.2 months. The 3-year progression-free survival rates for patients with stages I-II, III, and IV diseases were 81.0% (68/84), 65.0% (39/60), and 0% (0/6), respectively; the 3-year OS rates were 90.5% (76/84), 85.0% (51/60), and 16.7% (1/6), respectively. Vaginal bleeding was controlled within the median time of 4.0 days. One month after treatment, 97.3% of patients achieved short-term local control. The local recurrence rates for patients with stages I-II, III, and IV disease were 4.8% (4/84), 11.7% (7/60), and 33.3% (2/6), respectively, and the occurrence rates of distant metastasis were 16.7% (14/84), 25.0% (15/60), and 100.0% (6/6), respectively. Cancer stage, tumor size, and lymph node metastasis were identified as prognostic risk factors, but only lymph node metastasis was found to be an independent prognostic factor. The most common adverse effects during treatment were grades 1 and 2 irradiation-related proctitis and radiocystitis. For patients with cervical cancer, neutron brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy plus concurrent chemotherapy produces a rapid response and greatly

  10. Association Between Use of a Scalp Cooling Device and Alopecia After Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rugo, Hope S; Klein, Paula; Melin, Susan Anitra; Hurvitz, Sara A; Melisko, Michelle E; Moore, Anne; Park, Glen; Mitchel, Jules; Bågeman, Erika; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Ver Hoeve, Elizabeth S; Esserman, Laura; Cigler, Tessa

    2017-02-14

    loss of 50% or less (Dean score of 0-2) was seen in 67 of 101 patients (66.3%; 95% CI, 56.2%-75.4%) evaluable for alopecia in the scalp cooling group vs 0 of 16 patients (0%) in the control group (P < .001). Three of 5 quality-of-life measures were significantly better 1 month after the end of chemotherapy in the scalp cooling group. Of patients who underwent scalp cooling, 27.3% (95% CI, 18.0%-36.6%) reported feeling less physically attractive compared with 56.3% (95% CI, 31.9%-80.6%) of patients in the control group (P = .02). Of the 106 patients in the scalp cooling group, 4 (3.8%) experienced the adverse event of mild headache and 3 (2.8%) discontinued scalp cooling due to feeling cold. Among women undergoing non-anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer, the use of scalp cooling vs no scalp cooling was associated with less hair loss at 4 weeks after the last dose of chemotherapy. Further research is needed to assess outcomes after patients receive anthracycline regimens, longer-term measures of alopecia, and adverse effects. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01831024.

  11. Therapeutic Effects of Microbubbles Added to Combined High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound and Chemotherapy in a Pancreatic Cancer Xenograft Model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mi Hye; Kim, Hae Ri; Kim, Bo Ram; Park, Eun-Joo; Kim, Hoe Suk; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of chemotherapy. Materials and Methods A pancreatic cancer xenograft model was established using BALB/c nude mice and luciferase-expressing human pancreatic cancer cells. Mice were randomly assigned to five groups according to treatment: control (n = 10), gemcitabine alone (GEM; n = 12), HIFU with microbubbles (HIFU + MB, n = 11), combined HIFU and gemcitabine (HIGEM; n = 12), and HIGEM + MB (n = 13). After three weekly treatments, apoptosis rates were evaluated using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling assay in two mice per group. Tumor volume and bioluminescence were monitored using high-resolution 3D ultrasound imaging and in vivo bioluminescence imaging for eight weeks in the remaining mice. Results The HIGEM + MB group showed significantly higher apoptosis rates than the other groups (p < 0.05) and exhibited the slowest tumor growth. From week 5, the tumor-volume-ratio relative to the baseline tumor volume was significantly lower in the HIGEM + MB group than in the control, GEM, and HIFU + MB groups (p < 0.05). Despite visible distinction, the HIGEM and HIGEM + MB groups showed no significant differences. Conclusion High-intensity focused ultrasound combined with microbubbles enhances the therapeutic effects of gemcitabine chemotherapy in a pancreatic cancer xenograft model. PMID:27587968

  12. Rapid sedation induced by fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection for leukemia in children.

    PubMed

    Tian, X; Yang, Y-H; Wei, H-Y; Lao, J-Q; Wang, H-P; Tian, Y-Y

    2015-04-17

    This study explored the sedative and analgesic effects of fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection for acute leukemia (acute lymphocytic leukemia or acute myelocytic leukemia) among children, to relieve pain and difficulty during intrathecal injection, improve treatment compliance, increase the success rate of single puncture, and reduce procedure failure, with the aim of developing a painless procedure for children with acute leukemia. Fifty person-times received fentanyl combined with propofol via an intrathecal chemotherapy injection among the hospitalized children with leukemia. The patients' cooperation with the procedure, response to the medication, dosages of fentanyl and propofol, reaction to the procedures, wake-up time, and changes in oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate (HR), respiration, and blood pressure (BP) before, during, and after the procedures were observed. The doctors who performed the procedures assessed the quality of sedation and analgesia. In the treatment group, the patients were quiet during the lumbar puncture and intrathecal injection, showing good sedation and analgesia. HR and respiration decreased slightly. There were no changes in SpO2 and BP. No obvious respiratory depression occurred with proper dosages. Only a few patients showed stertorous respiration, which stopped soon after the procedures. In the control group, the patients were agitated, crying, and not cooperative before and during the procedures, which made the procedures very difficult. During intrathecal injection, pain obviously reduced and the success rate of single lumbar puncture increased. It is safe and effective to apply fentanyl combined with propofol for sedation and analgesia.

  13. Intracavitary chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Markman, M.

    1985-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic modeling has suggested, and clinical investigations have confirmed, that intracavitary drug administration can result in a much greater drug exposure for the cavity into which the agent is instilled compared to the plasma. Both the safety and the efficacy of several agents administered individually or in combination have now been demonstrated. Several malignancies, in particular ovarian carcinoma and malignant mesothelioma, which remain confined to body cavities for much of their natural history, might be most rationally treated by the intracavitary treatment approach. Early clinical trials have demonstrated significant activity of intracavitary chemotherapy in both of these malignancies. Optimal drugs and dosages as well as appropriate scheduling for the various tumors involving body cavities remain to be defined. Whether or not combination intracavitary chemotherapy will significantly improve survival of patients with malignant disease confined to body cavities must await carefully controlled clinical trials comparing this treatment approach to standard systemically administered chemotherapy. 144 references.

  14. Combination chemotherapy with a substance P receptor antagonist (aprepitant) and melarsoprol in a mouse model of human African trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Jean; Bradley, Barbara; Kennedy, Peter G E

    2007-12-01

    Drug therapy for late-stage (encephalitic) human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is currently very unsatisfactory with the most commonly used drug, melarsoprol, having a 5% overall mortality. There is evidence in a mouse model of HAT that Substance P (SP) receptor antagonism reduces the neuroinflammatory reaction to CNS trypanosome infection. In this study we investigated the effects of combination chemotherapy with melarsoprol and a humanised SP receptor antagonist aprepitant (EMEND) in this mouse model. The melarsoprol/aprepitant drug combination did not produce any clinical signs of illness in mice with CNS trypanosome infection. This lack of any additional or unexpected CNS toxicity in the mouse model of CNS HAT provides valuable safety data for the future possible use of this drug combination in patients with late-stage HAT.

  15. [Response in a case of inoperable bile duct cancer treated by combined chemotherapy of S-1 and gemcitabine].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Nobuhiro; Ayata, Sakura; Maruyama, Yuzuru; Tsukada, Yoshihisa

    2010-08-01

    A 60-year-old male patient was diagnosed as bile duct cancer with left neck and abdominal para-aortic lymph node metastasis. He was treated by combined chemotherapy of S-1 and gemcitabine(GEM). S-1 (120 mg/day) was administered 14 days followed by 14 days rest as one course. GEM (1,000 mg/m2) was administered at 8 and 15 days after the start of S-1. Combined therapy could be continued, though S-1 and GEM were reduced for neutropemia. After 5 courses of treatment, CT and MRCP revealed a partial response. S-1/GEM combined therapy was effective for inoperable biliary tract carcinoma.

  16. Low-dose docetaxel, estramustine and prednisolone combination chemotherapy for castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    NAKANO, MAYURA; SHOJI, SUNAO; HIGURE, TARO; KAWAKAMI, MASAYOSHI; TOMONAGA, TETSURO; TERACHI, TOSHIRO; UCHIDA, TOYOAKI

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report our experience with weekly low-dose docetaxel (DOC) chemotherapy for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). From 2007 to 2014, 39 consecutive patients received weekly low-dose DOC; the oncological effectiveness, side effects and tolerability were prospectively analyzed. The median patient age, serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and Gleason score at diagnosis of prostate cancer were 71 years (range, 55–83 years), 187 ng/ml (range, 2.0–1711 ng/ml) and 8 (range, 5–10), respectively. The median number of cycles of DOC was 7 (range, 1–45 cycles). Of the 39 patients, the PSA level decreased by >50% in 13 (33%). In the multivariate analysis of prediction of patient overall survival, a decrease of the PSA level to <50% was a significant predictor (hazard ratio = 6.913; 95% confidence interval: 1.147–41.669; P=0.035). The median cancer-specific overall survival from the diagnosis of CRPC was 16.7 months (range, 2–54 months). Grade 3 toxicities were observed in 5 patients (13%); specifically, limb edema, nausea and hepatic disorders were detected in 2 (5%), 2 (5%) and 1 patient (3%), respectively. Treatment-related death (grade 5) occurred in 1 patient due to interstitial pneumonia after two courses of chemotherapy. The chemotherapy was completed in the majority of the patients (n=37, 94.8%) in the outpatient department, without interruption. These findings suggest that weekly low-dose DOC is feasible and safe for selected patients with CRPC, without treament with novel agents, such as abiraterone, enzalutamide and cabazitaxel. PMID:27284427

  17. A cat with acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation (M1) treated with combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mashita, Tadahisa; Shimoda, Tetsuya; Yoshioka, Hisao; Takahashi, Yasushi; Mitsuda, Masashi

    2006-01-01

    A 2-year-old domestic shorthair cat was presented to us with decreased activity and anorexia. Hematologic findings revealed a mild non-regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and leukocytosis with an increase in blast cells. Bone marrow aspirates also revealed a marked increase of blasts. The blastic cells were shown to be positive for peroxidase. Acute myeloblastic leukemia without maturation (M1) was diagnosed according to the FAB classification. Chemotherapy was initiated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and cytosine arabinoside. The cat responded partially. In total, the cats were given 7 blood transfusions. The cat died 14 weeks after first being presented to us.

  18. Metronomic chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mutsaers, Anthony J

    2009-08-01

    Chemotherapy drugs are usually administered at doses that are high enough to result in an obligatory break period to allow for the observation of potential side effects and institution of supportive care, if required. In recent years, efforts to administer chemotherapy on a more continuous basis, with a much shorter break period, or none at all, have received increased interest, and the practice has come to be known as metronomic chemotherapy. The basis for success with this currently investigational approach may be rooted in continuous drug exposure to susceptible cancer cells, inhibition of tumor blood vessel growth-a process known as tumor angiogenesis, and/or alterations in tumor immunology. Increased benefit also appears to occur when metronomic chemotherapy is used in combination with newer, targeted antiangiogenic agents, and therefore represents a promising approach to combination therapy, particularly as targeted oncology drugs make their way into veterinary oncology applications. There is still much to be learned in this field, especially with regard to optimization of the proper drugs, dose, schedule, and tumor applications. However, the low cost, ease of administration, and acceptable toxicity profiles potentially associated with this therapeutic strategy make metronomic chemotherapy protocols attractive and suitable to veterinary applications. Preliminary clinical trial results have now been reported in both human and veterinary medicine, including adjuvant treatment of canine splenic hemangiosarcoma and incompletely resected soft tissue sarcoma, and, further, more powerful studies are currently ongoing.

  19. Nimotuzumab combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin as second-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua-Qing; Ren, Yangang; Qian, Zheng-Zi; Fu, Kai; Zhang, Hui-Lai; Li, Wei; Hou, Yun; Zhou, Shi-Yong; Hao, Xi-Shan; Xie, Cong-Hua

    2012-02-01

      To evaluate the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin as second-line chemotherapy for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to investigate the association of the status of KRAS gene mutation and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) genotype with clinical outcome.   Twenty-eight patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled in this single center, uncontrolled pilot clinical study. All the patients developed drug resistance or disease progression after first-line chemotherapy of either a docetaxel + cisplatin regimen or a vinorelbine + cisplatin regimen and then received nimotuzumab combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin as second-line chemotherapy. Eight cases were stage IIIB and 20 were stage IV. An i.v. dosage regimen of 200 mg of nimotuzumab was given as a single dose, injected into the patient at days 1, 8 and 15; i.v. gemcitabine was injected at a dose of 1000 mg/m(2) at days 1 and 8 and cisplatin (25 mg/m(2) i.v.) at days 1, 2 and 3. Each patient received four or more therapeutic cycles. The efficacy and toxic reactions were evaluated, as well as time to progression and overall survival.   In total, 28 patients with advanced NSCLC received 101 therapeutic cycles. The mean cycle number was 3.6. Median time to progression was 4.9 (2.5-6.5) months; median overall survival and 1-year survival rate were 9.8 months and 48.5%, respectively. There was one case of complete response, six cases of partial response, 11 cases of stable disease and 10 cases of progressive disease. Response rate was 25%, and clinical benefit rate was 64.3%. Major toxic reactions were bone marrow suppression and gastrointestinal reaction. Only one patient developed grade I acneiform eruption.   Nimotuzumab combined with gemcitabine and cisplatin as second-line chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC was active and well-tolerated in this setting. Patients with EGFR amplification and KRAS gene wild type had a better prognosis. Prospective

  20. Combined photothermal-chemotherapy of breast cancer by near infrared light responsive hyaluronic acid-decorated nanostructured lipid carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Shaohui; Du Nguyen, Van; Song, Seung Yoon; Han, Jiwon; Park, Jong-Oh

    2017-10-01

    In this study, a novel type of hyaluronic acid (HA)-decorated nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) was prepared and investigated as a light-triggered drug release and combined photothermal-chemotherapy for cancer treatment. Polyhedral gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with an average size of 10 nm were synthesized and co-encapsulated with doxorubicin (DOX) in the matrix of NLCs with a high drug loading efficiency (above 80%). HA decoration was achieved by the electrostatic interaction between HA and CTAB on the NLC surface. A remarkable temperature increase was observed by exposing the Au NP-loaded NLCs to an NIR laser, which heated the samples sufficiently (above 40 °C) to kill tumor cells. The entrapped DOX exhibited a sustained, stepwise NIR laser-triggered drug release pattern. The biocompatibility of the NLCs was investigated by MTT assay and the cell viability was maintained above 85%, even at high concentrations. The intracellular uptake of free DOX and entrapped DOX, observed by confocal microscopy, revealed two distinct uptake mechanisms, i.e. passive diffusion and endocytosis, respectively. In particular, internalization of the HA-Au-DOX-NLCs was more extensively enhanced than the Au-DOX-NLCs, which was attributed to HA-CD44 receptor-mediated endocytosis. Meanwhile, the internalized NLCs successfully escaped from the lysosomes, increasing the intracellular DOX. The HA-Au-DOX-NLCs IC50 value decreased from 2.3 to 0.6 μg ml‑1 with NIR irradiation at 72 h, indicating the excellent synergistic antitumor effect of photothermal-chemotherapy. The photothermal ablation was further confirmed by a live/dead cell staining assay. Thus, a combined photothermal-chemotherapy approach has been proposed as a promising strategy for cancer treatment.

  1. Capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) combination systemic chemotherapy in heavily pre-treated HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jieun; Kim, Hyun Ho; Ro, Sang Mi; Yang, Ji Hyun

    2017-01-01

    After taxane and anthracycline failure, no standard chemotherapy regimen is established in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) combination shows promising results in gastrointestinal cancer, but there are relatively scarce data in MBC. We reviewed the clinical outcome of XP regimen in anthracycline and taxane resistant, heavily pretreated MBC patients. Between Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2016, 48 HER2 negative MBC patients who failed anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy were enrolled. In 43.8% of patients, more than 4 regimens were administrated before XP. Thirty-four patients (70.8%) were hormone receptor (HR) positive MBC. Patients were treated with XP (capecitabine [2000mg/m2 per oral; day 1-14] plus cisplatin [60mg/m2 IV; day 1], every 3 weeks) regimen. Median progression-free survival (PFS) in total population was 4.33 months (range 1.1~33.57 months). HR positive patients showed trends for superior PFS compared to triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), without statistical significance (6.53 vs. 3.83 months, P = 0.168). In HR positive group, patients receiving 3 or less lines of chemotherapy showed superior PFS compared to others (10.1 vs. 3.0 months, P = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, HR positive patients receiving 3 or less lines of regimens still showed superior PFS (HR = 2.624, 95% CI; 1.071~6.43, P = 0.032). Most common toxicity was grade 3-4 neutropenia, without treatment-related deaths. XP combination regimen showed clinical benefit with tolerable toxicity in heavily pretreated patients, including HR positive patients. After anthracycline and taxane failure, early administration of XP regimen in selected patients may have improve clinical outcome in breast cancer.

  2. Differential effects of histone deacetylase inhibitors on cellular drug transporters and their implications for using epigenetic modifiers in combination chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Valdez, Benigno C.; Li, Yang; Murray, David; Brammer, Jonathan E.; Liu, Yan; Hosing, Chitra; Nieto, Yago; Champlin, Richard E.; Andersson, Borje S.

    2016-01-01

    HDAC inhibitors, DNA alkylators and nucleoside analogs are effective components of combination chemotherapy. To determine a possible mechanism of their synergism, we analyzed the effects of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of drug transporters which export DNA alkylators. Exposure of PEER lymphoma T-cells to 15 nM romidepsin (Rom) resulted in 40%-50% reduction in mRNA for the drug transporter MRP1 and up to ~500-fold increase in the MDR1 mRNA within 32-48 hrs. MRP1 protein levels concomitantly decreased while MDR1 increased. Other HDAC inhibitors − panobinostat, belinostat and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) − had similar effects on these transporters. The protein level of MRP1 correlated with cellular resistance to busulfan and chlorambucil, and Rom exposure sensitized cells to these DNA alkylators. The decrease in MRP1 correlated with decreased cellular drug export activity, and increased level of MDR1 correlated with increased export of daunorubicin. A similar decrease in the level of MRP1 protein, and increase in MDR1, were observed when mononuclear cells derived from patients with T-cell malignancies were exposed to Rom. Decreased MRP1 and increased MDR1 expressions were also observed in blood mononuclear cells from lymphoma patients who received SAHA-containing chemotherapy in a clinical trial. This inhibitory effect of HDAC inhibitors on the expression of MRP1 suggests that their synergism with DNA alkylating agents is partly due to decreased efflux of these alkylators. Our results further imply the possibility of antagonistic effects when HDAC inhibitors are combined with anthracyclines and other MDR1 drug ligands in chemotherapy. PMID:27564097

  3. Capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) combination systemic chemotherapy in heavily pre-treated HER2 negative metastatic breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Kim, Hyun Ho; Ro, Sang Mi; Yang, Ji Hyun

    2017-01-01

    Purpose/Objective(s) After taxane and anthracycline failure, no standard chemotherapy regimen is established in metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Capecitabine and cisplatin (XP) combination shows promising results in gastrointestinal cancer, but there are relatively scarce data in MBC. We reviewed the clinical outcome of XP regimen in anthracycline and taxane resistant, heavily pretreated MBC patients. Materials/Methods Between Jan. 2010 to Feb. 2016, 48 HER2 negative MBC patients who failed anthracycline and taxane based chemotherapy were enrolled. In 43.8% of patients, more than 4 regimens were administrated before XP. Thirty-four patients (70.8%) were hormone receptor (HR) positive MBC. Patients were treated with XP (capecitabine [2000mg/m2 per oral; day 1–14] plus cisplatin [60mg/m2 IV; day 1], every 3 weeks) regimen. Results Median progression-free survival (PFS) in total population was 4.33 months (range 1.1~33.57 months). HR positive patients showed trends for superior PFS compared to triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), without statistical significance (6.53 vs. 3.83 months, P = 0.168). In HR positive group, patients receiving 3 or less lines of chemotherapy showed superior PFS compared to others (10.1 vs. 3.0 months, P = 0.039). In multivariate analysis, HR positive patients receiving 3 or less lines of regimens still showed superior PFS (HR = 2.624, 95% CI; 1.071~6.43, P = 0.032). Most common toxicity was grade 3–4 neutropenia, without treatment-related deaths. Conclusions XP combination regimen showed clinical benefit with tolerable toxicity in heavily pretreated patients, including HR positive patients. After anthracycline and taxane failure, early administration of XP regimen in selected patients may have improve clinical outcome in breast cancer. PMID:28234911

  4. Results of a conservative treatment combining induction (neoadjuvant) and consolidation chemotherapy, hormonotherapy, and external and interstitial irradiation in 98 patients with locally advanced breast cancer (IIIA-IIIB)

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquillat, C.; Baillet, F.; Weil, M.; Auclerc, G.; Housset, M.; Auclerc, M.; Sellami, M.; Jindani, A.; Thill, L.; Soubrane, C.

    1988-05-15

    Ninety-eight patients with locally advanced breast cancer (Stage IIIA-IIIB) were entered into a pilot study combining intensive induction (neoadjuvant) chemotherapy (VTMFAP) with or without hormonochemotherapy, external and interstitial radiotherapy, and consolidation chemotherapy with or without hormonochemotherapy. Tumor regression over 50% was observed in 91% patients after chemotherapy, and complete clinical remission occurred in 100% patients after irradiation. The rate of local relapse is 13%. The 3-year disease-free survival is 62% and 3-year global survival is 77%. Initial chemotherapeutic tumor regression greater than 75% is the main predictive factor for disease-free survival.

  5. [Comparison of the Effectiveness and Safety of Combined Chemotherapy with PEG-Asp for Treatment of ALL and T-NHL Patients].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Jin; Yang, Nan; Bai, Ju; Zhang, Peng-Yu; Gu, Liu-Fang; Lei, Bo; Liu, Jie; Wang, Fang-Xia; Huang, Bing-Qiao; Zhang, Wang-Gang; He, Ai-Li; Cao, Xing-Mei; Chen, Yin-Xia; Ma, Xiao-Rong

    2016-04-01

    To explore the effectiveness and safety of combined chemotherapy with pegasparaginase (PEG-Asp) for treatment of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and T cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (T-NHL) patients. A total of 62 ALL or T-NHL patients were diagnosed and treated in our department and were enrolled in this study. Among them, 22 patients received the combined chemotherapy with PEG-Asp, while the other 40 patients received the standard chemotherapy with L-asparaginase (L-Asp) as the control. Therapeutic effectiveness, adverse effects, duration and expense of hospitalization, treatment-related mortality and survival were evaluated and compared in 2 different groups. In group of combined chemotherapy with PEG-Asp, the overall response rate was 90.91% (20 cases), among them CR rate and PR rate are 77.27% (17 cases) and 13.64% (3 cases), respectively. In the group of standard chemotherapy with L-Asp, the overall response rate was 87.5% (35 cases), among them CR rate and PR rate were 72.5% (29 cases) and 15% (6 cases), respectively. The difference neither between PEG-Asp and L-Asp chemotherapy groups nor between ALL and T-NHL subgroups was significant (P > 0.05). The 6-month and 12-month overall survival rates were not significantly different between the PEG-Asp and L-Asp chemotherapy groups, respectively (P > 0.05). The adverse effects were identified as degree 1-2 according to the WHO criteria of drug toxicity. Neither the adverse effects identified as degree 3-4 nor the treatment-related death were observed. Expect for allergy and hyperglycaemia, the difference of side-effect incidence between the two groups were not significant (P > 0.05). The treatment for all the patients in PEG-Asp chemotherapy group was completed, while the treatment with L-Asp was completed only in 29 cases. Moreover, both average duration and expense of hospitalization after the combined chemotherapy were less than the control. With higher response rate, lower drug toxicity and

  6. [Combination chemotherapy of S-1, docetaxel and CDDP produces a remarkable response in a patient with metastases of supraclavicular lymph nodes and gingival carcinoma of the mandible].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Shoichiro; Ueda, Takashi; Higuchi, Masataka; Mima, Takashi; Yakushiji, Noboru

    2010-09-01

    We report a 53-year-old female patient with an unresectable metastasis to the supraclavicular lymph node from a primary gingival carcinoma of the mandible. The patient had a history of tongue carcinoma and had undergone a radical neck dissection for the treatment of gingival carcinoma. She underwent combined chemotherapy consisting of S-1 (80 mg on days 1-14, followed by a 7-day rest), docetaxel (35mg/m2 by intravenous infusion on days 1 and 8), and CDDP (10mg/m2 by intravenous infusion on days 1 and 8) every 3 weeks. After three courses of the above chemotherapy regimen, a computerized tomography examination revealed a complete response. The patient did not experience any severe side effects during the course of chemotherapy. Combined S-1, docetaxel, and CDDP chemotherapy can thus be effective for unresectable recurrences of oral cancer in lymph nodes.

  7. [A case of advanced esophagogastric junction cancer responding to pre-operative combination chemotherapy of docetaxel, cisplatin, S-1, and trastuzumab].

    PubMed

    Haruki, Shigeo; Takiguchi, Noriaki; Arita, Kaida; Usui, Shinsuke; Ito, Koji; Matsumoto, Akiyo; Hiranuma, Susumu; Bhunachet, Ekapot

    2013-08-01

    We have no consensus on surgical treatment and chemotherapy for esophagogastric junction cancer in Japan. A 51-yearold man reporting dysphagia was examined, and through upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was found to have a tumor at the esophagogastric junction. Histologically, biopsy specimens indicated adenocarcinoma with genetic amplification of human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2(HER2). Positron emission tomography showed swelling of several abdominal lymph nodes with accumulation of fluorodeoxyglucose. He was treated with esophagogastorectomy with left thoracotomy after combination chemotherapy of docetaxel, cisplatin, S-1, and trastuzumab. He had no complication from the operation and had no adverse effect from the combination chemotherapy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen showed a minute residual cancer nest at the muscularis propria of the esophagus, but no lymph node metastasis. This regimen could be useful for advanced junctional cancer with HER2 amplification as preoperative chemotherapy.

  8. Combined Cancer Photothermal-Chemotherapy Based on Doxorubicin/Gold Nanorod-Loaded Polymersomes

    PubMed Central

    Liao, JinFeng; Li, WenTing; Peng, JinRong; Yang, Qian; Li, He; Wei, YuQuan; Zhang, XiaoNing; Qian, ZhiYong

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) are well known in photothermal therapy based on near-infrared (NIR) laser absorption of the longitudinal plasmon band. Herein, we developed an effective stimulus system -- GNRs and doxorubicin co-loaded polymersomes (P-GNRs-DOX) -- to facilitate co-therapy of photothermal and chemotherapy. DOX can be triggered to release once the polymersomes are corrupted under local hyperthermic condition of GNRs induced by NIR laser irradiation. Also, the cytotoxicity of GNRs caused by the residual cetyltrimethylacmmonium bromide (CTAB) was reduced by shielding the polymersomes. The GNRs-loaded polymersomes (P-GNRs) can be efficiently taken up by the tumor cells. The distribution of the nanomaterial was imaged by IR-820 and quantitatively analyzed by ICP-AES. We studied the ablation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo, and found that co-therapy offers significantly improved therapeutic efficacy (tumors were eliminated without regrowth.) compared with chemotherapy or photothermal therapy alone. By TUNEL immunofluorescent staining of tumors after NIR laser irradiation, we found that the co-therapy showed more apoptotic tumor cells than the other groups. Furthermore, the toxicity study by pathologic examination of the heart tissues demonstrated a lower systematic toxicity of P-GNRs-DOX than free DOX. Thus, the chemo-photothermal treatment based on polymersomes loaded with DOX and GNRs is a useful strategy for maximizing the therapeutic efficacy and minimizing the dosage-related side effects in the treatment of solid tumors. PMID:25699095

  9. [A case of pineoblastoma successfully treated with surgery, combined chemotherapy of cisplatin and etoposide, and radiotherapy].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Y; Akiyama, Y; Kumai, J; Nishikawa, M

    1995-10-01

    A 5-year-old girl was admitted to another clinic because of vomiting and convulsions. She was brought to our clinic after a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted. CT scan on admission in our clinic showed a tumor in the pineal region with tumoral hemorrhage. Tumor markers such as HCG, AFP, CEA, P-LAP were within normal range. A biopsy of the tumor was performed and the histological diagnosis was pineoblastoma. Her recovery was excellent and disseminated metastasis was not recognized. A subtotal removal of the tumor was performed through the occipital transtentorial approach. She had no neurological deficits after surgery. She then received two 5-day cycles of chemotherapy, consisting of intravenous administration of 20 mg/m2/day cisplatin and 60 mg/m2/day etoposide, and craniospinal radiotherapy. After these therapies, the tumor responded and disappeared completely. Follow-up radiographic investigations also demonstrated no abnormal evidence except for brain atrophy. She is attending a primary school without any problems. Pineoblastoma is quite rare and remarkably malignant. Hence, aggressive therapies including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy is indicated for this tumor.

  10. Defect in assimilation following combined radiation and chemotherapy in patients with locally unresectable pancreatic carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Barkin, J.S.; Kalser, M.H.; Thomsen, S.; Redlhammer, D.

    1982-11-15

    The relative contributions of high-dose irradiation and/or chemotherapy to the nutritional problems of patients with inoperable pancreatic carcinoma were evaluated by study of pancreatic exocrine function and jejunal function and morphologic findings in ten patients before and after treatment. Nutrient assimilation studies included determination of serum carotene levels, D-xylose absorption and fat absorption. Crosby capsule biopsy specimen of jejunal mucosa were evaluated with light microscopy. Fat assimilation was the only parameter of nutritional function to significantly worsen after therapy. Low serum carotene levels present in the patients before therapy remained low but did not significantly change after treatment. D-xylose absorption and the morphologic structure of the jejunal mucosa were normal before and after treatment. These findings support the previous observations that the nutritional problems of the patient with inoperable pancreatic carcinoma are due to pancreatic insufficiency and that high dose irradiation and chemotherapy can exacerbate the pancreatic insufficiency but do not produce jejunal dysfunction. Therefore, it is suggested that pancreatic exocrine replacement therapy may improve the nutritional status of these patients.

  11. Vascular endothelial-targeted therapy combined with cytotoxic chemotherapy induces inflammatory intratumoral infiltrates and inhibits tumor relapses after surgery.

    PubMed

    Judy, Brendan F; Aliperti, Louis A; Predina, Jarrod D; Levine, Daniel; Kapoor, Veena; Thorpe, Philip E; Albelda, Steven M; Singhal, Sunil

    2012-04-01

    Surgery is the most effective therapy for cancer in the United States, but disease still recurs in more than 40% of patients within 5 years after resection. Chemotherapy is given postoperatively to prevent relapses; however, this approach has had marginal success. After surgery, recurrent tumors depend on rapid neovascular proliferation to deliver nutrients and oxygen. Phosphatidylserine (PS) is exposed on the vascular endothelial cells in the tumor microenvironment but is notably absent on blood vessels in normal tissues. Thus, PS is an attractive target for cancer therapy after surgery. Syngeneic mice bearing TC1 lung cancer tumors were treated with mch1N11 (a novel mouse chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets PS), cisplatin (cis), or combination after surgery. Tumor relapses and disease progression were decreased 90% by combination therapy compared with a 50% response rate for cis alone (P = .02). Mice receiving postoperative mch1N11 had no wound-related complications or added systemic toxicity in comparison to control animals. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that the effects of mch1N11 were associated with a dense infiltration of inflammatory cells, particularly granulocytes. This strategy was independent of the adaptive immune system. Together, these data suggest that vascular-targeted strategies directed against exposed PS may be a powerful adjunct to postoperative chemotherapy in preventing relapses after cancer surgery.

  12. Effective co-delivery of doxorubicin and dasatinib using a PEG-Fmoc nanocarrier for combination cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Jiang; Ghazwani, Mohammed; Zhao, Wenchen; Huang, Yixian; Zhang, Xiaolan; Venkataramanan, Raman; Li, Song

    2015-01-01

    A simple PEGylated peptidic nanocarrier, PEG5000-lysyl-(α-Fmoc-ε-Cbz-lysine)2 (PLFCL), was developed for effective co-delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) and dasatinib (DAS) for combination chemotherapy. Significant synergy of DOX and DAS in inhibition of cancer cell proliferation was demonstrated in various types of cancer cells, including breast, prostate, and colon cancers. Co-encapsulation of the two agents was facilitated by incorporation of 9-Fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) and carboxybenzyl (Cbz) groups into a nanocarrier for effective carrier-drug interactions. Spherical nanomicelles with a small size of ~30 nm were self-assembled by PLFCL. Strong carrier/drug intermolecular π-π stacking was demonstrated in fluorescence quenching and UV absorption. Fluorescence study showed more effective accumulation of DOX in nuclei of cancer cells following treatment with DOX&DAS/PLFCL in comparison with cells treated with DOX/PLFCL. DOX&DAS/PLFCL micelles were also more effective than other treatments in inhibiting the proliferation and migration of cultured cancer cells. Finally, a superior anti-tumor activity was demonstrated with DOX&DAS/PLFCL. A tumor growth inhibition rate of 95% was achieved at a respective dose of 5 mg/kg for DOX and DAS in a murine breast cancer model. Our nanocarrier may represent a simple and effective system that could facilitate clinical translation of this promising multi-agent regimen in combination chemotherapy. PMID:26210177

  13. Treatment of adult lymphoblastic leukaemia using cyclical chemotherapy with three combinations of four drugs (COAP, POMP, TRAP schedule).

    PubMed

    Proctor, S J; Finney, R; Walker, W; Thompson, R B

    1981-01-01

    Seventeen adult patients with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were entered into a schedule of chemotherapy in which 3 combinations, each of 4 drugs, were administered in a predetermined cyclical rotation in combination with cranial irradiation and intrathecal injections of methotrexate. Of the 17 patients, 16 completed induction therapy and 15 (94%) entered remission. The only patient with T-ALL died before receiving any therapy. The median survival for all patients (17) was 22 months. Meningeal leukaemia did not occur during the haematological remission phase although 3 patients developed this complication following relapse. The authors conclude that the addition of cyclophosphamide and cytosine arabinoside to vincristine/prednisone provides excellent remission induction but the aggressive maintenance schedule employed has not led to significant long-term survival.

  14. Treatment of adult lymphoblastic leukaemia using cyclical chemotherapy with three combinations of four drugs (COAP, POMP, TRAP schedule).

    PubMed Central

    Proctor, S. J.; Finney, R.; Walker, W.; Thompson, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Seventeen adult patients with previously untreated acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were entered into a schedule of chemotherapy in which 3 combinations, each of 4 drugs, were administered in a predetermined cyclical rotation in combination with cranial irradiation and intrathecal injections of methotrexate. Of the 17 patients, 16 completed induction therapy and 15 (94%) entered remission. The only patient with T-ALL died before receiving any therapy. The median survival for all patients (17) was 22 months. Meningeal leukaemia did not occur during the haematological remission phase although 3 patients developed this complication following relapse. The authors conclude that the addition of cyclophosphamide and cytosine arabinoside to vincristine/prednisone provides excellent remission induction but the aggressive maintenance schedule employed has not led to significant long-term survival. PMID:6944694

  15. [Cisplatin and vinca alkaloid combination chemotherapy of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer in the aged].

    PubMed

    Teramoto, S; Nagase, T; Fukuchi, Y; Ishida, K; Yamaoka, M; Matsuse, T; Jo, C; Orimo, H

    1990-11-01

    Fifteen patients aged over 65 years of age with advanced non-small-cl lung cancer (mean age = 70.7, stage IIIb: IV = 4:11) were treated with combination chemotherapy consisting of Cisplatin (50 or 80 mg/m2) and a vinca-alkaloid (Vindesine 3 mg/m2 or Etoposide 80 mg/m2). The effectiveness and side effects of this cisplatin therapy in different combinations of vinca-alkaloid regimens (Vindesine vs Etoposide) were examined. The mean dose of Cisplatin in the Etoposide combination group (75.2 mg/m2) was significantly higher than that in the Vindesine combination group (54.3 mg/m2) (p less than 0.01). A notable reduction the tumor size was observed in 25% of the Etoposide group, only. The 6-month survival rate and one-year survival rate were respectively 85.7%, 57.1% in the Vindesine + Cisplatin group, and 87.5%, 50% in the Etoposide + Cisplatin group. The common side effects were nausea, vomiting, anorexia, and alopecia. These symptoms were either alleviated by antiemetic drugs or followed by spontaneous recovery. Leucopenia, anemia and thrombocytopenia were found in both groups, and there was no difference in the time course of myelosuppression between the two groups. The extent of nephrotoxicity was assessed by creatinine clearance rate. Its decrease in the Vindesine group (60.1----38.9 ml/min) was higher than that in the Etoposide group (64.9----48.9 ml/min), while there was no significant change in BUN, serum creatinine and urine NAG between the two groups. There were no cases in which chemotherapy schedules had to be interrupted due to myelosuppression and nephrotoxicity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Metronomic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Maiti, Rituparna

    2014-01-01

    Toxic effects and chemoresistance are major hurdles in chemotherapy and to avoid these problems caused by traditional chemotherapeutic regimens, a new modality of drug administration called “metronomic chemotherapy” has emerged. Such regimen involves the frequent administration of conventional chemotherapeutic agents at very low doses to target activated endothelial cells in tumors, the advantages of which include minimal adverse effects and a rare chance of developing acquired drug resistance. Previously it was thought that they act by targeting angiogenesis, but recently additional mechanisms have been discovered which has established metronomic chemotherapy as a type of multi-targeted therapy. The knowledge gained from the preclinical studies of metronomic chemotherapy, along with clinical experience, will help to design better therapeutic protocols against cancer. Detailed pharmacogenomic and pharmacoproteomic studies on tumor endothelial cells and large multi-centered clinical trials, integrating bio-marker analyzes, are needed to investigate and validate the best treatment combinations for each tumor type and patient population. PMID:25210398

  17. Transcranial electro-hyperthermia combined with alkylating chemotherapy in patients with relapsed high-grade gliomas: phase I clinical results.

    PubMed

    Wismeth, Caecilia; Dudel, Christine; Pascher, Christina; Ramm, Paul; Pietsch, Torsten; Hirschmann, Birgit; Reinert, Christiane; Proescholdt, Martin; Rümmele, Petra; Schuierer, Gerhard; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Hau, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Non-invasive loco-regional electro-hyperthermia (EHT) plus alkylating chemotherapy is occasionally used as salvage treatment in the relapse of patients with high-grade gliomas. Experimental data and retrospective studies suggest potential effects. However, no prospective clinical results are available. We performed a single-center prospective non-controlled single-arm Phase I trial. Main inclusion criteria were recurrent high-grade glioma WHO Grade III or IV, age 18-70, and Karnofsky performance score > or = 70. Primary endpoints were dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) with the combined regimen. Groups of 3 or 4 patients were treated 2-5 times a week in a dose-escalation scheme with EHT. Alkylating chemotherapy (ACNU, nimustin) was administered at a dose of 90 mg/m(2) on day 1 of 42 days for up to six cycles or until tumor progression (PD) or DLT occurred. Fifteen patients with high-grade gliomas were included. Relevant toxicities were local pain and increased focal neurological signs or intracranial pressure. No DLT occurred. In some patients, the administration of mannitol during EHT or long-term use of corticosteroids was necessary to resolve symptoms. Although some patients showed responses in their primarily treated sites, the pattern of response was not well defined. EHT plus alkylating chemotherapy is tolerable in patients with relapse of high-grade gliomas. Episodes of intracranial pressure were, at least, possibly attributed to EHT but did not cause DLTs. A Phase II trial targeting treatment effects is warranted on the basis of the results raised in this trial.

  18. Phase 2 Study of Erlotinib Combined With Adjuvant Chemoradiation and Chemotherapy in Patients With Resectable Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, Joseph M.; Fan, Katherine Y.; Wild, Aaron T.; Hacker-Prietz, Amy; Wood, Laura D.; Blackford, Amanda L.; Ellsworth, Susannah; Zheng, Lei; Le, Dung T.; De Jesus-Acosta, Ana; Hidalgo, Manuel; Donehower, Ross C.; Schulick, Richard D.; Edil, Barish H.; Choti, Michael A.; Hruban, Ralph H.; and others

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: Long-term survival rates for patients with resected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) have stagnated at 20% for more than a decade, demonstrating the need to develop novel adjuvant therapies. Gemcitabine-erlotinib therapy has demonstrated a survival benefit for patients with metastatic PDAC. Here we report the first phase 2 study of erlotinib in combination with adjuvant chemoradiation and chemotherapy for resected PDAC. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients with resected PDAC received adjuvant erlotinib (100 mg daily) and capecitabine (800 mg/m{sup 2} twice daily Monday-Friday) concurrently with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), 50.4 Gy over 28 fractions followed by 4 cycles of gemcitabine (1000 mg/m{sup 2} on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days) and erlotinib (100 mg daily). The primary endpoint was recurrence-free survival (RFS). Results: The median follow-up time was 18.2 months (interquartile range, 13.8-27.1). Lymph nodes were positive in 85% of patients, and margins were positive in 17%. The median RFS was 15.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.4-17.9), and the median overall survival (OS) was 24.4 months (95% CI, 18.9-29.7). Multivariate analysis with adjustment for known prognostic factors showed that tumor diameter >3 cm was predictive for inferior RFS (hazard ratio, 4.01; P=.001) and OS (HR, 4.98; P=.02), and the development of dermatitis was associated with improved RFS (HR, 0.27; P=.009). During CRT and post-CRT chemotherapy, the rates of grade 3/4 toxicity were 31%/2% and 35%/8%, respectively. Conclusion: Erlotinib can be safely administered with adjuvant IMRT-based CRT and chemotherapy. The efficacy of this regimen appears comparable to that of existing adjuvant regimens. Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0848 will ultimately determine whether erlotinib produces a survival benefit in patients with resected pancreatic cancer.

  19. Aberrant Promoter Methylation of Caveolin-1 Is Associated with Favorable Response to Taxane-Platinum Combination Chemotherapy in Advanced NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Brodie, Seth A.; Lombardo, Courtney; Li, Ge; Kowalski, Jeanne; Gandhi, Khanjan; You, Shaojin; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Marcus, Adam; Vertino, Paula M.; Brandes, Johann C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Aberrant promoter DNA methylation can serve as a predictive biomarker for improved clinical responses to certain chemotherapeutics. One of the major advantages of methylation biomarkers is the ease of detection and clinical application. In order to identify methylation biomarkers predictive of a response to a taxane-platinum based chemotherapy regimen in advanced NSCLC we performed an unbiased methylation analysis of 1,536 CpG dinucleotides in cancer-associated gene loci and correlated results with clinical outcomes. Methods We studied a cohort of 49 patients (median age 62 years) with advanced NSCLC treated at the Atlanta VAMC between 1999 and 2010. Methylation analysis was done on the Illumina GoldenGate Cancer panel 1 methylation microarray platform. Methylation data were correlated with clinical response and adjusted for false discovery rates. Results Cav1 methylation emerged as a powerful predictor for achieving disease stabilization following platinum taxane based chemotherapy (p = 1.21E-05, FDR significance  = 0.018176). In Cox regression analysis after multivariate adjustment for age, performance status, gender, histology and the use of bevacizumab, CAV1 methylation was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR 0.18 (95%CI: 0.03–0.94)). Silencing of CAV1 expression in lung cancer cell lines(A549, EKVX)by shRNA led to alterations in taxane retention. Conclusions CAV1 methylation is a predictor of disease stabilization and improved overall survival following chemotherapy with a taxane-platinum combination regimen in advanced NSCLC. CAV1 methylation may predict improved outcomes for other chemotherapeutic agents which are subject to cellular clearance mediated by caveolae. PMID:25222296

  20. [A case of complete response of gemcitabine (GEM) monotherapy-refractive liver metastatic pancreatic cancer treated with GEM+S-1 combined chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Hatata, Tomoko; Takaya, Seigo; Taniguchi, Kenjiro; Naka, Takuji; Kondo, Akira; Ikeguchi, Masahide

    2011-01-01

    A 75-year-old man with pancreatic body cancer underwent distal pancreatectomy and was treated with gemcitabine (GEM) as an adjuvant therapy. Multiple liver metastases appeared three months after the surgery. With GEM+S-1 combined chemotherapy, liver metastatic lesions became unidentifiable upon imaging 7 months later. Complete response status had continued as long as 13 months. Though grade 3 neutropenia appeared after 2 courses of the combined therapy, the patient well tolerated it after controlling the dosing schedule. The GEM+S-1 combined chemotherapy was expected to have synergistic effects for GEM monotherapy-refractive pancreatic cancer.

  1. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging in a phase Ⅱ study on neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining Rh-endostatin with docetaxel and epirubicin for locally advanced breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qianxin; Xu, Junqing; Jiang, Weifeng; Zheng, Minwen; Wei, Mengqi; Chen, Jianghao; Wang, Ling; Huan, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Anti-angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic strategy for locally advanced breast cancer. We performed this phase II trial to evaluate the anti-angiogenesis and anti-tumor effect of rh-endostatin combined with docetaxel and epirubicin in patients with locally advanced breast cancer by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging in 70 previously untreated locally advanced breast cancer patients. The study population was randomly assigned to neoadjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy group) or neoadjuvant chemotherapy combining rh-endostatin with docetaxel and epirubicin (neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group). The anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects of both regimens were evaluated by serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and microvessel density measurements after final surgery. The results suggested a higher clinical objective response (90.9% vs. 67.7%, P = 0.021) and greater reductions in tumor size (67.2% vs. 55.9%, P = 0.000), Ki-67 proliferation index (32.79% vs. 12.47%, P = 0.000), tumor signal enhanced ratio (64% vs. 48%, P = 0.018), and K(trans) (67% vs. 39%, P = 0.026) in neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group than those in neoadjuvant chemotherapy group. In addition, the microvessel density value in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin group was significantly lower than in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy group (18.67 ± 6.53 vs. 36.05 ± 9.64, P = 0.000). Moreover, the microvessel density value was significantly correlated with K(trans) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment (r=0.88, P = 0.00). The neoadjuvant chemotherapy+rh-endostatin treatment significantly repressed angiogenesis in locally advanced breast cancer and synergistically enhanced the anti-tumor effect of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Serial dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging data including reductions in tumor size and K(trans), could provide non-invasive evaluation for

  2. Clinical trial studies a new form of vincristine in standard combination chemotherapy for children with relapsed ALL | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    A combination of chemotherapy drugs known by the regimen UK ALL R3 is one of the most successful treatments for patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). In this study, investigators hope to improve outcomes by combining the treatment with Marqibo, a new formulation of the drug vincristine. Learn more...

  3. Antileukemia activity of the novel peptidic CXCR4 antagonist LY2510924 as monotherapy and in combination with chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Byung-Sik; Zeng, Zhihong; Mu, Hong; Wang, Zhiqiang; McQueen, Teresa; Protopopova, Marina; Cortes, Jorge; Marszalek, Joseph R.; Peng, Sheng-Bin; Ma, Wencai; Davis, R. Eric; Thornton, Donald E.; Andreeff, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the stromal cell–derived factor 1α (SDF-1α)/C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) axis has been shown to be a promising therapeutic approach to overcome chemoresistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We investigated the antileukemia efficacy of a novel peptidic CXCR4 antagonist, LY2510924, in preclinical models of AML. LY2510924 rapidly and durably blocked surface CXCR4 and inhibited stromal cell–derived factor 1 (SDF-1)α–induced chemotaxis and prosurvival signals of AML cells at nanomolar concentrations more effectively than the small-molecule CXCR4 antagonist AMD3100. In vitro, LY2510924 chiefly inhibited the proliferation of AML cells with little induction of cell death and reduced protection against chemotherapy by stromal cells. In mice with established AML, LY2510924 caused initial mobilization of leukemic cells into the circulation followed by reduction in total tumor burden. LY2510924 had antileukemia effects as monotherapy as well as in combination with chemotherapy. Gene expression profiling of AML cells isolated from LY2510924-treated mice demonstrated changes consistent with loss of SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling and suggested reduced proliferation and induction of differentiation, which was proved by showing the attenuation of multiple prosurvival pathways such as PI3K/AKT, MAPK, and β-catenin and myeloid differentiation in vivo. Effective disruption of the SDF-1α/CXCR4 axis by LY2510924 may translate into effective antileukemia therapy in future clinical applications. PMID:26031918

  4. Neoadjuvant and adjuvant chemotherapy combined with anatomical resection of feline injection-site sarcoma: results in 21 cats.

    PubMed

    Bray, J; Polton, G

    2016-06-01

    This study assesses the outcome of two combined treatment strategies for the treatment of feline injection-site sarcoma (FISS). Twenty-one cats with primary or recurrent FISS received 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with epirubicin (25 mg m(-2) ), then an anatomical resection of the entire muscle compartment containing the tumour was performed based on the findings of co-axial imaging. Cats then received a further 3 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy. Follow-up was performed by telephone contact with a median follow-up time of 1072 days. Three cats (14%) developed local tumour recurrence at days 264, 664 and 1573 after surgery. A median survival time could not be calculated as over 80% of the study population remained alive or were censored due to death from other causes. When compared to historical controls, the results of this study demonstrate superior rates of tumour-free survival and disease-free interval.

  5. Successful treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with a combination of oral valproic acid, chemotherapy, radiation and surgery.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Hitoshi; Yamashita, Hiroto; Murakami, Tsukasa; Hirai, Keisuke; Noguchi, Yasushi; Maruta, Junko; Yokoi, Tadao; Noguchi, Shiro

    2009-01-01

    Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) is the most aggressive of thyroid cancers whose treatment is not yet established and mortality is extremely high. Recent in vitro studies have shown that valproic acid (VA), a newly identified histone deacetilase (HDAC) inhibitor, induces apoptosis, modulates differentiation gene expression of thyroid tumors and enhances the sensitivity of anaplastic cancer cell lines to doxorubicin. We report a case of successful treatment of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma with a combination of oral valproic acid, chemotherapy consisting of cisplatin and doxorubicin, external and intra-operative radiation and surgery. Tumor volume decreased by 50.7% under CT measurement and 44.6% under sonogram measurement over the course of the treatment. No significant rebound of tumor size was observed between each cycle of chemotherapy. Serial cytology performed via fine needle aspiration (FNA) presented a rapidly changing profile of cell types, starting with anaplastic and proceeding through increasingly well differentiated presentations. Only microscopic remnants of ATC cells were found in the histological examination of the resected thyroid. Ga scintigraphy and whole body PET scan six months after surgery revealed no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. As of Nov. 22, 2008, the patient is alive and disease free two years after diagnosis.

  6. Primary diffuse large B cell lymphoma of the uterine cervix successfully treated by combined chemotherapy alone: A case report.

    PubMed

    Cubo, Ana María; Soto, Zandra Mileny; Cruz, Miguel Ángel; Doyague, María José; Sancho, Verónica; Fraino, Aurymar; Blanco, Óscar; Puig, Noemi; Alcoceba, Miguel; González, Marcos; Sayagués, José María

    2017-05-01

    Primary lymphomas of the uterine cervix are a rare disease. They are often misdiagnosed because of their rarity and because they can be easily confused with a squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, as they are usually presented as exophytic mass with vaginal bleeding as their most common symptoms. Nevertheless, considering that both the prognosis and the treatment are completely different between them, differential diagnosis should be taken into account. A case of a 51-year-old woman with a primary diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the cervix is presented. Diagnosis of this tumor was a challenge for pathologists and clinicians, as four biopsies were needed to achieve a final diagnosis. Patient was successfully treated with combined Rituximab and chemotherapy (R-CHOP) alone. Complete remission, confirmed through biopsy, was reached after six courses of chemotherapy. At 2-years follow up, patient is alive and free of disease. Considering that the prognosis and treatment of primary malignant lymphoma of the cervix are completely different than that of the squamous cell carcinoma, awareness of this disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis.

  7. Combination radiation and chemotherapy for the treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the male and female urethra.

    PubMed

    Licht, M R; Klein, E A; Bukowski, R; Montie, J E; Saxton, J P

    1995-06-01

    We report on 2 men and 2 women with locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra who were treated with combination chemotherapy and radiation. Treatment consisted of 1,000 mg./M.2 5-fluorouracil plus 15 mg./M.2 mitomycin-C followed by 30 to 50 Gy. external beam radiation. The 2 women achieved durable complete responses, and are alive with no evidence of disease 94 and 43 months later, respectively. The men also had regional lymph node metastases, and 1 achieved complete response and has no evidence of disease 98 months posttreatment, while the other experienced partial response in the primary tumor and complete response in the involved inguinal nodes. The latter patient died of an unrelated cause with residual disease at 7 months. Only mild toxicity occurred in 3 patients. This regimen of chemotherapy and radiation is well tolerated and should be considered as primary therapy for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the male and female urethra.

  8. Combined gemcitabine and S-1 chemotherapy for treating unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma: a randomized open-label clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zun-Qiang; Guan, Jiao; Tong, Da-Nian; Zhou, Guang-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Although the combination of cisplatin and gemcitabine (GEM) is considered the standard first-line chemotherapy against unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HC), its efficacy is discouraging. The present randomized open-label clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the GEM plus S-1 (GEM-S-1) combination against unresectable HC. Twenty-five patients per group were randomly assigned to receive GEM, S-1 or GEM-S-1. Neutropenia (56%) and leukopenia (40%) were the most common chemotherapy-related toxicities in the GEM-S-1 group. Median overall survival (OS) in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups was 11, 10 and 6 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved OS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.68; 95%CI, 0.50–0.90; P=0.008). Median progression-free survival (PFS) times in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups were 4.90, 3.70 and 1.60 months, respectively. GEM plus S-1 significantly improved PFS compared to S-1 monotherapy (OR=0.50; 95%CI, 0.27–0.91; P=0.024). Response rates were 36%, 24% and 8% in the GEM-S-1, GEM and S-1 groups, respectively. A statistically significant difference was found in response rates between the gemcitabine-S-1 and S-1 groups (36% vs 8%, P=0.017). Patients with CA19-9<466 U/ml were more responsive to chemotherapeutic agents than those with CA19-9≥571 U/ml (88.9% vs 0%, P<0.001). We conclude that the combination of GEM plus S-1 provides a better OS, PFS and response rate than S-1 monotherapy, but it did not significantly differ from GEM monotherapy. (ChiCTR-TRC-14004733). PMID:27058753

  9. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of Merkel cell carcinoma using (177)lutetium-labeled somatostatin analogs in combination with radiosensitizing chemotherapy: a potential novel treatment based on molecular pathology.

    PubMed

    Salavati, Ali; Prasad, Vikas; Schneider, Claus-Peter; Herbst, Rudolf; Baum, Richard Paul

    2012-05-01

    Few studies have been published on the safety and feasibility of synchronous use of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRNT), as source of internal radiation therapy, in combination with chemotherapy. In this study we reported a 53-year-old man with stage IV Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), who underwent synchronous internal radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Based on presumable poor prognosis with chemotherapy only, functional similarities of MCC with other neuroendocrine tumors and available evidence of effectiveness and safety of synchronous use of external beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy in treatment of high-risk MCC patients, our interdisciplinary neuroendocrine tumor board recommended him to add PRRNT to his ongoing chemotherapy. He received 2 courses of (177)Lu-DOTATATE(1, 4, 7, 10-Tetraazacyclododecane-1, 4, 7, 10-tetraacetic acid-1-D-Phe1-Tyr3-Thr8-octreotide) in combination with ongoing 8 cycles of liposomal doxorubicin based on standard protocols. Response to therapy was evaluated by (18)F-FDG and (68)gallium-somatostatin-receptor PET/CT. There was an impressive improvement of the clinical symptoms. However, follow-up PET/CT studies showed mixed pattern of response. Synchronous use of PRRNT and radiosensitizing chemotherapy seems safe and feasible in high risk MCC patients, however, further prospective studies and clinical trials are warranted to provide reliable evidence of possible pitfalls and effectiveness of PRRNT and (68)Ga-somatostatin-receptor PET/CT in the management of MCC.

  10. Complications of peripherally inserted central catheters in advanced cancer patients undergoing combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jun; Xu, Linjie; Xu, Xiaomin; Huang, Yunjuan

    2017-03-23

    To identify whether patients with advanced cancers were at high risk of peripherall"y inserted central catheter-related complications when treated with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Peripherally inserted central catheters are widely used in chemotherapy. However, catheter usage may elevate the risks of infections and thrombosis. It is important to identify the patients with high risk of peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications. To date, little is known about peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications in patients with advanced cancers and receiving concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. Five hundred and sixty-nine cancer patients with advanced cancers and treated by chemo-radiotherapy were analysed in the study. The incidences of peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications were investigated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were employed for identification of risk factors. Eighty-six (15.1%) patients exhibited peripherally inserted central catheter-related infectious complications, of which 6.3% were local infection, 3.9% were catheter-related bloodstream infection and 4.9% were exit-site infection. Sixty-five (11.4%) developed symptomatic peripherally inserted central catheter-related thrombosis, and 52 (9.1%) were suffering from phlebitis. The overall complication rate was 53.1%. The univariable logistic regression and multivariate analysis showed that comorbidity (OR 1.51, p = .0148) and body mass index (OR 1.46, p = .0157), and duration of radio-chemotherapy (OR 1.4733, p = .0049) were significantly associated with peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications. Patients with peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications showed lower 5-year survival rate than those without peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications. Identification of risk factors for peripherally inserted central catheter-related complications in patients with advanced

  11. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of the glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (GA101) in combination with chemotherapy in xenograft models of human lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Frank; Friess, Thomas; Bader, Sabine; Muth, Gunter; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Rieder, Natascha; Umana, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody in development for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We compared the anti-tumor activity of obinutuzumab and rituximab in preclinical studies using subcutaneous Z138 and WSU-DLCL2 xenograft mouse models. Obinutuzumab and rituximab were assessed alone and in combination with bendamustine, fludarabine, chlorambucil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide/vincristine. Owing to strong single-agent efficacy in these models, suboptimal doses of obinutuzumab were applied to demonstrate a combination effect. Obinutuzumab plus bendamustine achieved superior tumor growth inhibition versus rituximab plus bendamustine and showed a statistically significant effect versus the respective single treatments. Combinations of obinutuzumab with fludarabine, chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide/vincristine demonstrated significantly superior activity to rituximab-based treatment. Obinutuzumab monotherapy was at least as effective as rituximab plus chemotherapy in vivo, and obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy was superior to the respective monotherapies. These data support further clinical investigation of obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy. PMID:24304419

  12. Enhanced anti-tumor activity of the glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody obinutuzumab (GA101) in combination with chemotherapy in xenograft models of human lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Herting, Frank; Friess, Thomas; Bader, Sabine; Muth, Gunter; Hölzlwimmer, Gabriele; Rieder, Natascha; Umana, Pablo; Klein, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Obinutuzumab (GA101) is a novel glycoengineered type II CD20 antibody in development for non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We compared the anti-tumor activity of obinutuzumab and rituximab in preclinical studies using subcutaneous Z138 and WSU-DLCL2 xenograft mouse models. Obinutuzumab and rituximab were assessed alone and in combination with bendamustine, fludarabine, chlorambucil, doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide/vincristine. Owing to strong single-agent efficacy in these models, suboptimal doses of obinutuzumab were applied to demonstrate a combination effect. Obinutuzumab plus bendamustine achieved superior tumor growth inhibition versus rituximab plus bendamustine and showed a statistically significant effect versus the respective single treatments. Combinations of obinutuzumab with fludarabine, chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide/vincristine demonstrated significantly superior activity to rituximab-based treatment. Obinutuzumab monotherapy was at least as effective as rituximab plus chemotherapy in vivo, and obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy was superior to the respective monotherapies. These data support further clinical investigation of obinutuzumab plus chemotherapy.

  13. High dose intensity combination chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian carcinoma: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Sweetenham, J. W.; McKendrick, J. J.; Jones, D. H.; Whitehouse, J. M.; Williams, C. J.

    1990-01-01

    Retrospective studies have recently demonstrated a significant correlation between dose intensity of chemotherapy and response rates and survival in various diseases including epithelial ovarian carcinoma. As part of a proposed randomised trial to assess the effect of dose intensity on outcome in ovarian carcinoma, a pilot study has been undertaken to determine the toxicity and efficacy of the high intensity therapy. Nineteen patients with advanced ovarian carcinoma received initial treatment with cisplatin 120 mg m-2 i.v. day 1, and cyclophosphamide 1,000 mg-2 i.v. day 1, given at 21-day intervals for six cycles. The average relative dose intensity of this therapy is 1.14 when compared with the CHAP regimen. Severe toxicity was experienced by most patients. The median received average relative dose intensity was 0.90, with only one patient receiving treatment to the proposed intensity. Randomised studies of the effect of dose intensity in ovarian carcinoma are essential, but an initial step must be to assess whether the proposed high dose treatment can be delivered. PMID:2155645

  14. Liver complications in lymphomas treated with a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, E.; Le Bourgeois, J.P.; Kuentz, M.; Lobo, P.

    1983-09-01

    From May 1978 to May 1981, a total of 20 patients (18 patients with Non Hodgkin Lymphomas + 2 patients with Stage IV Hodgkin's disease) were treated with chemotherapy and whole or upper abdominal radiotherapy. All the patients were in complete remission at the time of irradiation. Shielding of the kidneys was effected at the start of treatment and the right lobe of the liver was shielded after a dose of 20 Gy was delivered. As of January 1982, 17 of the patients were alive and free of disease with a follow-up ranging from 6 to 32 months (mean follow-up of 18.5 months). Two patients were dead from their disease. Alterations in liver chemistry were observed in 5 patients, clinical jaundince or transient hepatomegaly along with changes in liver chemistry in 4 patients, classical veno-occlusive disease in 2 patients and 7 of the patients did not develop any complication. No death from complications were observed. The contribution of the following factors such as radiotherapy dose to the liver, drugs, nutritional status and associated medical conditions, towards the development of complications have been analyzed in detail.

  15. Cyclophosphamide, vincristine, methotrexate with leucovorin rescue, and cytarabine (COMLA) combination sequential chemotherapy for advanced diffuse histiocytic lymphoma

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, D.L.; Golomb, H.M.; Ultmann, J.E.

    1980-06-01

    A program of combination sequential chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide, vincristine, methotrexate with leucovorin rescue, and cytarabine (COMLA) was administered to 42 previously untreated patients with advanced diffuse histiocytic lymphoma. Twenty-three patients achieved a complete remission as determined by strict clinical restaging criteria. The observed median duration of survival for the complete responders is longer than 33 months. Eight patients achieved a partial response, with a median survival longer than 21 months. Eleven patients showed no response, with a median survival of 5 months. Toxicity was acceptable. None of the responders have shown central nervous system relapse. There was no difference in response rates between patients with stage III or IV lymphoma or between asymptomatic or symptomatic patients. The COMLA program produces a high rate of complete and durable remissions and should be considered as an initial form of management of patients with advanced diffuse histiocytic lymphoma.

  16. Plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy--POEMS syndrome presenting with vasculitic skin lesions and responding to combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sharabi, Y; Raanani, P; Shenkar, A; Thaler, M; Grossman, E

    2000-12-01

    We report a 61-year-old male patient who presented with severe sensorimotor neuropathy, leg edema and skin lesions with M-paraprotein and 50% plasma cells in the bone marrow. The POEMS (Crow-Fukase) syndrome was diagnosed and the skin lesions were compatible with vasculitis according to the histopathology. The patient was treated with aggressive combined chemotherapy, which induced improvement in both the clinical and laboratory parameters of his disease. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report of a vasculitic process underlying the skin changes in the POEMS syndrome. Our findings may shed light on the unknown pathogenesis of this syndrome and the successful results of treatment support the adoption of an aggressive therapeutic approach in symptomatic patients.

  17. A combination of photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy displays a differential cytotoxic effect on human metastatic melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Biteghe, Fa Nsole; Davids, L M

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma represents the most lethal form of skin cancer and remains refractory to current therapies. Failure of treatment has been attributed to the over-expression of ABC transporters which efflux the drugs, below their cytotoxic threshold within cells. Therefore, this study set to investigate; the efficacy of a combinatorial approach comprising chemotherapy (Dacarbazine) and photodynamic therapy (PDT) to overcome resistance in pigmented and unpigmented metastatic melanoma and potentially identify resistant mechanisms. The cytotoxic effect of the chemotherapy, PDT and combination therapy treatment (Dacarbazine+PDT) was determined using a cell viability XTT assay. Thereafter, melanoma cells morphology, self-renewal capacity and ABCG2 protein expression, were determined using fluorescence microscopy, clonogenic assay, western blot and flow cytometry. All results were analyzed by t-test and ANOVA, followed by individual comparisons with post-tests. This study describes possible synergism of PDT+DTIC in reducing melanoma cell viability in vitro. At 24h post-treatment, only the unpigmented melanomas were sensitive to DTIC treatment (20-25% death at 1.25mM). At 48h, a lethal dose of 50% was reached in these cells in contrast to the pigmented melanoma (20% at 48h). The same trend was observed with the combination therapy (DTIC+PDT) at both time points. Furthermore, complete morphological disruption could be observed upon PDT only and PDT+DTIC treatments. Moreover, PDT and DTIC+PDT suppressed the self-renewal capacity of both melanoma cell lines. No significant differences in ABCG2 protein expression was found at 24h post-treatment. Overall, these results suggest that human melanomas remain heterogeneous in their phenotypes. Moreover, in our metastatic melanoma cells, ABCG2 transporters did not seem to be involved in resistance to therapies. Significantly though, a combinatorial approach of PDT and chemotherapy significantly decreases the self-renewal capacity

  18. Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, thalidomide and dexamethasone for patients with refractory, newly diagnosed or relapsed myeloma.

    PubMed

    Sidra, Gamal; Williams, Cathy D; Russell, Nigel H; Zaman, Sonya; Myers, Bethan; Byrne, Jennifer L

    2006-06-01

    We evaluated the combination of thalidomide, pulsed dexamethasone and weekly cyclophosphamide (CTD) for the treatment of patients with newly diagnosed, relapsed or VAD-refractory multiple myeloma. We found that this combination was highly effective in inducing responses in all treatment groups with an overall response rate of 83.8%. CTD was well tolerated and did not impair stem cell mobilization.

  19. [The efficacy of large spot indirect ophthalmoscopy laser alone or combined with systemic chemotherapy in retinoblastoma therapy].

    PubMed

    Liang, J H; Cheng, Y; Deng, X; Yu, Y Y; Li, X X

    2016-10-11

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of large spot indirect ophthalmoscopy laser alone or combined with systemic chemotherapy in the treatment of early and middle stage retinoblastoma. Methods: Retrospective series case study. Clinical data of 21 patients (22 eyes) who were diagnosed as retinoblastoma (RB) in Peking University People's Hospital from March 2009 to August 2014 were collected. Medical and family history, ocular ultrasound, orbital and cranial MRI or CT examination of RB Children were detailed recorded. Ocular examination and laser treatment were performed under general anesthesia, once every 3-4 weeks until the tumor was under control. The observation period was at least 3 months after the last treatment. The ocular examination included intraocular pressure measurement, anterior segment and fundus examination and the fundus photography with Retcam. Laser therapeutic instrument was large spot indirect ophthalmoscopy laser of 810nm wavelength. Results: Of the 21 children, 16 were male and 5 were female. The range of age was 3 to 82 months averaged 17.3 months. Among 22 eyes, four with small tumor, eight with medium tumor, and ten with large tumor. Two eyes underwent laser treatment only and 20 eyes underwent laser treatment combined with systemic chemotherapy. During the average observation period of 33.9 months, 15 tumors were treated successfully, but 7 failed. The total success rate was 68.2%. The number and success rate of small, medium and large tumor eyes were 4 (100%), 5 (62.5%) and 5 (50%), respectively. There was one case of tumor brain metastases, and the classification of contralateral eye of the child was E phase.

  20. Randomized study of reduced-intensity chemotherapy combined with imatinib in adults with Ph-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chalandon, Yves; Thomas, Xavier; Hayette, Sandrine; Cayuela, Jean-Michel; Abbal, Claire; Huguet, Françoise; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Leguay, Thibaut; Rousselot, Philippe; Lepretre, Stéphane; Escoffre-Barbe, Martine; Maury, Sébastien; Berthon, Céline; Tavernier, Emmanuelle; Lambert, Jean-François; Lafage-Pochitaloff, Marina; Lhéritier, Véronique; Chevret, Sylvie; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé

    2015-06-11

    In this study, we randomly compared high doses of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib combined with reduced-intensity chemotherapy (arm A) to standard imatinib/hyperCVAD (cyclophosphamide/vincristine/doxorubicin/dexamethasone) therapy (arm B) in 268 adults (median age, 47 years) with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The primary objective was the major molecular response (MMolR) rate after cycle 2, patients being then eligible for allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) if they had a donor, or autologous SCT if in MMolR and no donor. With fewer induction deaths, the complete remission (CR) rate was higher in arm A than in arm B (98% vs 91%; P = .006), whereas the MMolR rate was similar in both arms (66% vs 64%). With a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 5-year event-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated at 37.1% and 45.6%, respectively, without difference between the arms. Allogeneic transplantation was associated with a significant benefit in relapse-free survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.69; P = .036) and OS (HR, 0.64; P = .02), with initial white blood cell count being the only factor significantly interacting with this SCT effect. In patients achieving MMolR, outcome was similar after autologous and allogeneic transplantation. This study validates an induction regimen combining reduced-intensity chemotherapy and imatinib in Ph+ ALL adult patients and suggests that SCT in first CR is still a good option for Ph+ ALL adult patients. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00327678.

  1. The Efficacy of Low-Dose Paclitaxel Added to Combination Chemotherapy of Carboplatin and Gemcitabine or Pegylated Liposomal Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Shoji; Iwasa, Norihiro; Kurosaki, Akira; Nishikawa, Tadaaki; Hanaoka, Tatsuya; Hasegawa, Kosei; Fujiwara, Keiichi

    2016-03-01

    Paclitaxel is known to produce the "platelet-sparing effect" that prevents the carboplatin-induced decrease in platelet count. We conducted a pilot study to assess whether the addition of low-dose paclitaxel to carboplatin-based combination chemotherapy prevents thrombocytopenia. Patients with platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer received intravenous (IV) paclitaxel at 60 mg/m(2) followed by IV carboplatin at an area under the curve of 6 and IV pegylated liposomal doxorubicin at 30 mg/m(2) on day 1 in a 28-day cycle (DC-LOP) or IV gemcitabine at 1000 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 8 in a 21-day cycle (GC-LOP). During May 2011 to December 2011, 7 patients received 29 cycles of DC-LOP; during January 2012 to May 2013, 15 patients received 88 cycles of GC-LOP. Grade 3/4 thrombocytopenia occurred in 2 (33%) of 6 and 9 (56%) of 16 patients in the DC-LOP and GC-LOP groups, respectively. No grade 3/4 nonhematological toxicity was observed. Only one patient who received GC-LOP had grade 2 sensory and motor peripheral neuropathy. Paclitaxel-related toxicities, including muscle pain, arthralgia, and peripheral neuropathy, were consistently rare and mild. The response rates of DC-LOP and GC-LOP were 33% (0, complete response; 2, partial response; 3, stable disease; 1, progression disease) and 50% (2, complete response; 6, partial response; 7, stable disease; 1, progression disease), respectively. Although low-dose paclitaxel addition did not alleviate thrombocytopenia in the setting of this pilot study, the results do not deny the existence of the "platelet-sparing effect" by low-dose paclitaxel. Further investigation of the carboplatin-based combination chemotherapy including a drug with mild hematological toxicity is warranted.

  2. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Combined Continuous Arterial Infusion and Systemic Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Advanced Pancreatic Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, O. Kusunoki, S.; Kudoh, K.; Takamori, H.; Tsuji, T.; Kanemitsu, K.; Yamashita, Y.

    2006-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the effects of combined continuous transcatheter arterial infusion (CTAI) and systemic chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic carcinoma. Methods. CTAI was performed in 17 patients with stage IV pancreatic cancer with (n = 11) or without (n = 6) liver metastasis. The reservoir was transcutaneously implanted with the help of angiography. The inferior pancreatic artery (IPA) was embolized to achieve delivery of the pancreatic blood supply through only the celiac artery. The systemic administration of gemcitabine was combined with the infusion of 5-fluorouracil via the reservoir. Treatment effects were evaluated based on the primary tumor size, liver metastasis, and survival time and factors such as tumor size, tumor location, and stage of pancreatic carcinoma; the embolized arteries were analyzed with respect to treatment effects and prognosis. Results. A catheter was fixed in the gastroduodenal artery and splenic artery in 10 and 7 patients, respectively. Complete peripancreatic arterial occlusion was successful in 10 patients. CT showed a decrease in tumor size in 6 of 17 (35%) patients and a decrease in liver metastases in 6 of 11 (55%) patients. The survival time ranged from 4 to 18 months (mean {+-} SD, 8.8 {+-} 1.5 months). Complete embolization of arteries surrounding the pancreas was achieved in 10 patients; they manifested superior treatment effects and prognoses (p < 0.05). Conclusion. In patients with advanced pancreatic cancer, long-term CTAI with systemic chemotherapy appeared to be effective not only against the primary tumor but also against liver metastases. Patients with successfully occluded peripancreatic arteries tended to survive longer.

  3. Chemotherapy with cisplatin or carboplatin in combination with etoposide for small-cell esophageal cancer: a systemic analysis of case series.

    PubMed

    Gao, R; Zhang, Y; Wen, X P; Fu, J; Zhang, G J

    2014-01-01

    Chemotherapy has been the first-choice treatment for small-cell esophageal cancer (SCEC), etoposide plus cisplatin or carboplatin (EP/CP) is the most commonly recommended chemotherapeutical strategy. However, the choice of chemotherapy in treating SCEC has not been validated by studies of large cohorts of cases because of the rarity of the malignancy, and the efficacy superiority of EP/CP over other chemotherapy combinations has not been confirmed. The present case series analysis was conducted to address the above issues. Reported studies of SCEC patients were retrieved. Case series with more than five patients were enrolled. Eight patients treated in our institute were also included as another case series. Data pertaining to clinical stages, treatment regimens, and survival time were collected and analyzed. Altogether, 19 SCEC case series were enrolled, including 164 male and 61 female patients with a median age of 63.5 years. The follow-up time ranged from 0.1 to 221 months (median 12.3 months). The median survival time (MST) was 19 months for limited disease (LD) patients (124 cases) and 9 months for extensive disease (ED) patients (88 cases) (P<0.001). For LD patients, MST was obviously prolonged by chemotherapeutical regimens (20 vs. 10 months, P<0.01), whereas this superiority was not proved in ED patients (10 vs. 10 months, P>0.05). EP/CP did not result in significantly longer MST, compared with that of the cases treated by other chemotherapy combinations (P>0.05, for either LD or ED cases). Chemotherapy prolongs the survival time of the LD SCEC patients, which indicates that chemotherapeutical treatment is effective for SCEC. EP/CP, as commonly recommended multidrug chemotherapy regimen, is not superior to other chemotherapy combinations. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  4. [A Retrospective Study of Chinese Herbal Medicine Combined with Systemic Chemotherapy and/or Regional Arterial Perfusion for Pancreatic Cancer with Liver Metastases].

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Hua-qiang; Pan, Zhan-yu; Liu, Fang; Xie, Guang-ru; Yan, Zhu-chen

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medicine combined with systemic chemotherapy and/or regional arterial perfusion for pancreatic cancer with liver metastases (PCLM). We retrospectively selected 292 patients with PCLM who were treated by Chinese herbal medicine combined with systemic chemotherapy and/or regional arterial perfusion at Tianjin Medical University Cancer Hospital from January 2001 to December 2010. All patients were assigned to the Western medicine treatment group (157 cases) and the integrative medicine treatment group (135 cases). Patients in the Western medicine treatment group were treated with gemcitabine (GEM)-based chemotherapy, and partial of them received regional arterial perfusion. Those in the integrative medicine treatment group additionally took Chinese herbs of clearing heat and eliminating mass for at least 4 weeks. The median survival time (MST) , adverse reactions and the incidence of complications were observed. There was no statistical significance in general data between the two groups (P > 0.05). There was statistical difference in MST between the two groups (4.8 months vs 5.5 months, P < 0.05). No death occurred during chemotherapy or regional arterial perfusion. All toxic or adverse reactions were tolerable. Chinese herbal medicine combined with systemic chemotherapy and/or regional arterial perfusion was effective and safe, and it could be optimally selected as palliative therapy for PCLM.

  5. Benefit of combination chemotherapy and radiation stratified by grade of stage IIIC endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Binder, Pratibha S; Kuroki, Lindsay M; Zhao, Peinan; Cusworth, Sarah; Divine, Laura M; Hagemann, Andrea R; McCourt, Carolyn K; Thaker, Premal H; Powell, Matthew A; Mutch, David G; Massad, L Stewart

    2017-09-12

    The optimal strategy for adjuvant therapy in stage IIIC endometrial cancer has not been determined. Our aim was to evaluate survival benefit of different treatments and to investigate if benefit varied by histologic grade. We identified 199 patients with stage IIIC endometrial cancer from 2000 to 2012 through the Siteman Cancer Center registry. All patients underwent surgical staging followed by no adjuvant therapy (NAT), radiation (RT), chemotherapy (CT) or chemoradiation (CRT). The association between adjuvant treatment and overall survival was explored using Kaplan-Meier plots and multivariable Cox regression analysis. Multivariable analysis was stratified by low- or high-grade to explore the interaction between grade and treatment. Most patients received CRT (50.3%) followed by CT (23.1%), RT (16.1%) and NAT (10.5%). Survival after CRT was superior to NAT (p<0.001), RT (p=0.010) and CT (p<0.001). After adjusting for covariates, treatment with RT, CT and CRT led to a 57% (p=0.024), 62% (p=0.003) and 83% (p<0.001) reduction in risk of death compared to NAT, respectively. With CRT as the reference, the adjusted hazard of death was higher with NAT (5.94, p<0.001), RT (2.56, p=0.009) and CT (2.24, p=0.004). Stratifying by grade, RT and CRT led to a 67% (p=0.039) and 85% (p<0.001) reduction in death, compared to NAT in low-grade patients. CT and CRT led to a 72% (p=0.003) and 83% (p<0.001) reduction in death, compared to NAT in high-grade patients. Our findings suggest that CRT should be the preferred adjuvant treatment strategy for patients with stage IIIC endometrial cancer. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Mesothelioma at era of helical tomotherapy: results of two institutions in combining chemotherapy, surgery and radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sylvestre, Alma; Mahé, Marc-André; Lisbona, Albert; Zefkili, Sofia; Savignoni, Alexia; Bonnette, Pierre; Barthes, Françoise Le Pimpec; Paris, Edouard; Perigaud, Christian; Yassa, Michael; Giraud, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    There is a scarce clinical experience about adjuvant helical tomotherapy (HT) in patients affected by malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) even though it appears as a useful technique to treat complex volume as the pleural cavity, and seems to have better dose distribution than the "classic" intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Twenty-four patients received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) by HT from August 1st, 2007 to December 1st, 2009 at Curie Institute (Paris) and René Gauducheau Cancer Center (Nantes). Thirteen patients had neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Extrapleural pleuropneumonectomy (EPP) was done in 23 patients. Median dose to PTV was 50Gy [48.7-55.9Gy] (2Gy/fraction). Acute and long term toxicities, disease free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS) and relapses are presented. Average follow up after RT was 7 months. The disease was staged mostly as T2-T3, N1-N2. Nineteen patients had epithelial type histology. Most patients tolerated radiotherapy with grade 1-2 side effects: redness of the skin, light cough or dyspnea, fatigue, nausea and odynophagia, mild increase of the post-operative thoracic pain. Grade 3 pneumonitis was suspected in 2 patients. Two grade 5 pneumonitis were also suspected. Eleven patients had a follow up of more than 6 months and no long term side effects related with HT were noted. At 24 months, 51.8% of patients were free of disease. Thirty percent of patients relapsed, with 2 patients presenting local relapses. Two patients died from recurrence. With limited follow up, HT has comparable toxicity to those observed with traditional IMRT. Higher radiation dose and good coverage results in excellent local control. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High-Dose Intravenous Vitamin C Combined with Cytotoxic Chemotherapy in Patients with Advanced Cancer: A Phase I-II Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hoffer, L. John; Robitaille, Line; Zakarian, Robert; Melnychuk, David; Kavan, Petr; Agulnik, Jason; Cohen, Victor; Small, David; Miller, Wilson H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biological and some clinical evidence suggest that high-dose intravenous vitamin C (IVC) could increase the effectiveness of cancer chemotherapy. IVC is widely used by integrative and complementary cancer therapists, but rigorous data are lacking as to its safety and which cancers and chemotherapy regimens would be the most promising to investigate in detail. Methods and Findings We carried out a phase I-II safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetic and efficacy trial of IVC combined with chemotherapy in patients whose treating oncologist judged that standard-of-care or off-label chemotherapy offered less than a 33% likelihood of a meaningful response. We documented adverse events and toxicity associated with IVC infusions, determined pre- and post-chemotherapy vitamin C and oxalic acid pharmacokinetic profiles, and monitored objective clinical responses, mood and quality of life. Fourteen patients were enrolled. IVC was safe and generally well tolerated, although some patients experienced transient adverse events during or after IVC infusions. The pre- and post-chemotherapy pharmacokinetic profiles suggested that tissue uptake of vitamin C increases after chemotherapy, with no increase in urinary oxalic acid excretion. Three patients with different types of cancer experienced unexpected transient stable disease, increased energy and functional improvement. Conclusions Despite IVC’s biological and clinical plausibility, career cancer investigators currently ignore it while integrative cancer therapists use it widely but without reporting the kind of clinical data that is normally gathered in cancer drug development. The present study neither proves nor disproves IVC’s value in cancer therapy, but it provides practical information, and indicates a feasible way to evaluate this plausible but unproven therapy in an academic environment that is currently uninterested in it. If carried out in sufficient numbers, simple studies like this one could identify

  8. Role of chemotherapy in combination with hormonal therapy in first-line treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ceresoli, G L; De Vincenzo, F; Sauta, M G; Bonomi, M; Zucali, P A

    2015-12-01

    Prostate cancer (PC) is a heterogeneous disease, whose growth is driven by androgens and androgen receptors. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is the standard treatment of hormone-naïve metastatic disease. The majority of patients are treated with medical castration with GnRH agonists or antagonists, which usually determines a profound PSA decline and a radiological and clinical benefit. However, essentially all patients experience progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), and overall prognosis remains disappointing. Early targeting of cells that survive hormonal therapy may potentially prevent the development of CRPC. Several trials have explored the use of combination therapy with ADT and chemotherapy, targeting both the androgen dependent and independent cells simultaneously. Docetaxel was administered in combination with ADT to men with hormone-naïve metastatic prostate cancer, in the attempt to improve the duration and quality of patient survival. Three large randomized trials (the GETUG-15, CHAARTED and more recently the STAMPEDE study) have assessed these endpoints, with partially conflicting results. Overall, the results from these trials seem to support the use of early docetaxel combined with ADT in selected hormone-naïve metastatic PC patients. Full publication of the results of all studies, with longer follow-up, and the results of other ongoing trials in this setting will hopefully further define the role and the indications of this therapeutic strategy.

  9. A phase II study of sorafenib in combination with bicalutamide in patients with chemotherapy-naive castration resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Beardsley, Emma K; Hotte, Sebastien J; North, Scott; Ellard, Susan L; Winquist, Eric; Kollmannsberger, Christian; Mukherjee, Som D; Chi, Kim N

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the clinical effects of sorafenib, a multi-targeted kinase inhibitor, in combination with androgen receptor blockade in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. This was a multicenter, two-stage, phase 2 trial. Eligible patients had rising PSA, minimal symptoms and were chemotherapy-naïve. Sorafenib 400 mg twice daily was administered with bicalutamide 50 mg once daily on a 28-day cycle. The primary endpoint was PSA response (≥ 50% decline) or stable disease ≥ 6 months. 39 patients were enrolled including eight without clinical evidence of metastases. Eighteen (47%) patients have had either a PSA response or stable disease ≥ 6 months. PSA declines of ≥ 50% occurred in 12 (32%) of 38 assessable patients, including seven of 27 patients (26%) with prior anti-androgen use. Median time to treatment failure was 5.5 months (95%CI = 4.8.1-8.3). Grade ≥ 3 adverse events included fatigue, skin rash, and hand-foot syndrome. PSA declines and stable disease were observed with a combination of sorafenib and bicalutamide including in patients previously progressing on bicalutamide. Strategies to combine multi-targeted kinase inhibitors with hormonal therapies warrant further study in patients with CRPC.

  10. Combination chemotherapy for intermediate and high grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Dhaliwal, H. S.; Rohatiner, A. Z.; Gregory, W.; Richards, M. A.; Johnson, P. W.; Whelan, J. S.; Gallagher, C. J.; Matthews, J.; Ganesan, T. S.; Barnett, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    One hundred and eighteen consecutive adults with newly diagnosed intermediate and high-grade non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were treated with chemotherapy comprising Doxorubicin, Cyclophosphamide, Vincristine and Prednisolone with mid-cycle Methotrexate (MTX) and leucovorin rescue ('CHOP-M'). Intrathecal MTX was given with each treatment cycle as central nervous system (CNS) prophylaxis. 'Clinical remission' was achieved in 70/110 evaluable patients (64%), complete remission: 45/110, (41%), good partial remission: 25/110 (23%). Twenty two patients (19%) died prior to completion of therapy, 18 patients had persistent disease. Hyponatremia (< 137 mmol l-1), advanced age and hypoalbuminaemia (< 32 g l-1) correlated adversely with achievement of CR (P = 0.0007, 0.0005 and 0.04 respectively). With a minimum follow up of 41 years, 47 of the seventy patients (67%) in whom clinical remission was achieved remain well, 19 have developed recurrent disease, resulting in an actuarial projected remission duration of 70% at 8 years. Four died in CR. There has been only one isolated CNS recurrence. On univariate analysis, hypoalbuminaemia, hyponatremia and beta 2 microglobulin (> 3) correlated with unfavourable outcome in terms of duration of remission (P = 0.0009, 0.007 and 0.04 respectively). On multivariate analysis, only the serum sodium (0.002) and advanced age (0.01) were predictive for remission duration. Fifty patients (45%) are alive, the overall actuarial projected survival is thus 42% at 8 years. On univariate analysis, age, hypoalbuminaemia, hyponatraemia, liver involvement and the presence of B symptoms correlated unfavourably with survival. On multivariate analysis, hypoalbuminaemia, advanced age, hyponatraemia, male gender (aged > 50) and diffuse large cell or large cell, immunoblastic histology (Working Formulation) had an adverse effect (P = 0.003, < 0.0001, < 0.0001, 0.002, and 0.03). It was further possible, using cut-off points of 32 g l-1 and 136 mmol l-1 for albumin

  11. Adding a combination of hydroxycitrate and lipoic acid (METABLOC™) to chemotherapy improves effectiveness against tumor development: experimental results and case report.

    PubMed

    Guais, Adeline; Baronzio, GianFranco; Sanders, Edward; Campion, Frédéric; Mainini, Carlo; Fiorentini, Giammaria; Montagnani, Francesco; Behzadi, Mahsa; Schwartz, Laurent; Abolhassani, Mohammad

    2012-02-01

    Altered metabolism of cancer first highlighted by Otto Warburg has a long history. Although ignored for a considerable amount of time, it is now receiving substantial attention. We recently published results obtained with a combination of two drugs, lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate, targeting metabolic enzymes particularly affected in cancer: ATP citrate lyase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. This treatment was as efficient as chemotherapy in the three mouse cancer models that were tested. In this work, we asked if our drug combination could be used in conjunction with standard cytotoxic chemotherapy, in particular cisplatin, to improve basic protocol efficacy. A combination of lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate was administered to mice implanted with syngeneic cancer cells, LL/2 lung carcinoma and MBT-2 bladder carcinoma, concommitantly with classical chemotherapy (cisplatin or methotrexate). We demonstrate that the triple combination lipoic acid + hydroxycitrate + cisplatin or methotrexate is more efficient than cisplatin or methotrexate used individually or the combination of lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate administered alone. Of particular note are the results obtained in the treatment of an 80 year-old female who presented with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas accompanied by liver metastases. A treatment course using gemcitabine plus α-lipoic acid and hydroxycitrate gave highly promising results. The in vivo data, coupled with the case study results, suggest a possible advantage in using a treatment targeted at cancer metabolism in association with classical chemotherapy.

  12. Comparisons of the survival time of patients with ovarian cancer adopting post-operative chemotherapy by use of paclitaxel combined with carboplatin or nedaplatin.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongfei; Yuan, Lijun; Han, Yimin

    2016-06-24

    The current study aims to evaluate and compare the efficacy of post-operative chemotherapy using paclitaxel plus carboplatin or nedaplatin in patients with ovarian cancer, as well as the effects of different combinational therapies on the survival times of patients. Ninety-four patients were recruited for the study. These ovarian cancer patients were admitted into the Cancer Hospital Affiliated with Harbin Medical University for surgery from January 2008 to October 2009. They were divided into different groups according to their post-operative chemotherapy schemes: paclitaxel plus carboplatin (CBP group, n = 48) and paclitaxel plus nedaplatin (NDP group, n = 46). Variance analysis was used to compare the effects of different chemotherapy schemes and pathological types of ovarian cancer on the level of CA125 in serum at different treatment time points. Univariate and multivariate analyses were employed to evaluate the survival times of patients in different groups and pathological types and ages. No significant differences were observed regarding the effects of various chemotherapy schemes (P = 0.561) and pathological types (P = 0.903) on the level of CA125 in serum of patients with ovarian cancer. However, the duration of chemotherapy had a profound impact on the level of CA125 in serum (P < 0.001). The survival times of patients was not affected by age (P = 0.101) and pathological type of ovarian cancer (P = 0.94) significantly. However, it was significantly affected by the chemotherapy scheme. Combined chemotherapy using carboplatin plus paclitaxel should be considered as the preferred treatment scheme for the initial treatment of ovarian cancer.

  13. Effect of TRA-8 anti-death receptor 5 antibody in combination with chemotherapy in an ex vivo human ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Frederick, Peter J; Kendrick, James E; Straughn, J Michael; Della Manna, Debbie L; Oliver, Patsy G; Lin, Hui-Yi; Grizzle, William E; Stockard, Cecil R; Alvarez, Ronald D; Zhou, Tong; LoBuglio, Albert F; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2009-07-01

    To investigate the cytotoxicity of TRA-8, an antibody that specifically binds death receptor 5, alone and in combination with chemotherapy, using an ex vivo human ovarian cancer model. Twenty-six ovarian cancer specimens were obtained during ovarian cancer debulking, and tumor slices were prepared with the Krumdieck tissue slicer. The tumor slices were exposed to varying concentrations of TRA-8, carboplatin/paclitaxel, or the combination of TRA-8 and chemotherapy. Using nonlinear modeling, dose-response curves and IC50 values were generated for specimens treated with TRA-8. The additive and synergistic cytotoxic effects of chemotherapy combination with TRA-8 were evaluated in specimens. In addition to adenosine triphosphate viability assays, the treated and untreated slices were assessed by immunohistochemistry to confirm apoptosis induction. Specimens from 13 patients yielded TRA-8-induced IC50 values. Of these specimens, 15% were found to be sensitive to TRA-8-induced cytotoxicity at IC50 doses less than 500 ng/mL. Specimens from 13 patients underwent combination treatment with TRA-8 and carboplatin/paclitaxel. Of these specimens, 77% exhibited additive cytotoxicity in comparison with those treated with either agent alone, whereas 15% exhibited synergistic cytotoxicity. Immunohistochemical analysis of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase biotin-dUTP nick end labeling and cleaved caspase 3 staining demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in apoptosis with the combination treatment. This study demonstrates the efficacy of the death receptor monoclonal antibody TRA-8 in combination with conventional chemotherapy in an ex vivo human ovarian cancer model. This model can be used to assess cytotoxicity of novel agents in combination with chemotherapy in ovarian cancer.

  14. Combination of chemotherapy and gefitinib as first-line treatment for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and sensitive EGFR mutations: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Han, Baohui; Jin, Bo; Chu, Tianqing; Niu, Yanjie; Dong, Yu; Xu, Jianlin; Gu, Aiqing; Zhong, Hua; Wang, Huimin; Zhang, Xueyan; Shi, Chunlei; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhang, Wei; Lou, Yuqing; Zhu, Lei; Pei, Jun

    2017-09-15

    To explore the optimal treatment strategy for patients who harbor sensitive EGFR mutations, a head-to-head study was performed to compare chemotherapy and gefitinib in combination or with either agent alone as first-line therapy, in terms of efficacy and safety. A total of 121 untreated patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma who harbored sensitive EGFR mutations were randomly assigned to receive gefitinib combined with pemetrexed and carboplatin, pemetrexed plus carboplatin or gefitinib alone. The progression-free survival (PFS) of patients in the combination group (17.5 months, 95% CI, 15.3-19.7) was longer than that of patients in the chemotherapy group (5.7 months, 95% CI, 5.2-6.3) or gefitinib (11.9 months, 95% CI, 9.1-14.6) group. The (hazard ratios) HRs of PFS for the combination group vs. chemotherapy and gefitinib groups were 0.16 (95% CI, 0.09-0.29, p < 0.001) and 0.48 (95% CI, 0.29-0.78, p = 0.003), respectively. The overall response rate (ORR) in the combination therapy group, chemotherapy group and the gefitinib group was 82.5%, 32.5% and 65.9%, respectively. The combinational strategy resulted in longer overall survival (OS) than chemotherapy (HR = 0.46, p = 0.016) or gefitinib (HR = 0.36, p = 0.001) alone. Our finding suggested that treatment with pemetrexed plus carboplatin combined with gefitinib could provide better survival benefits for patients with lung adenocarcinoma harboring sensitive EGFR mutations. © 2017 UICC.

  15. Development of in situ forming thermosensitive hydrogel for radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy in a mouse model of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Peng, Cheng-Liang; Shih, Ying-Hsia; Liang, Kuo-Sheng; Chiang, Ping-Fang; Yeh, Chung-Hsin; Tang, I-Chang; Yao, Cheng-Jung; Lee, Shin-Yi; Luo, Tsai-Yueh; Shieh, Ming-Jium

    2013-05-06

    This study evaluated a system for local cancer radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy. The delivery system is a thermosensitive hydrogel containing a therapeutic radionuclide ((188)Re-Tin colloid) and a chemotherapeutic drug (liposomal doxorubicin). The thermosensitive PCL-PEG-PCL copolymer was designed to spontaneously undergo a sol-gel phase transition in response to temperature, remaining liquid at room temperature and rapidly forming a gel at body temperature. A scanning electron microscope was used to observe the microstructure of the fully loaded hydrogel. Release of radionuclide and doxorubicin from the hydrogel was slow, and the system tended to remain stable for at least 10 days. After the intratumoral administration of Lipo-Dox/(188)Re-Tin hydrogel in mice with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), its retention by the tumor, spatiotemporal distribution, and therapeutic effect were evaluated. The residence time in the tumor was significantly longer for (188)Re-Tin loaded hydrogel than for Na (188)Re perrhenate (Na (188)ReO4). The hydrogel after thermal transition kept the radionuclide inside the tumor, whereas free (188)Re perrhenate ((188)ReO4) diffused quickly from the tumor. The tumor growth was more profoundly inhibited by treatment with Lipo-Dox/(188)Re-Tin hydrogel (with up to 80% regression of well-established tumors on day 32) than treatment with either (188)Re-Tin hydrogel or Lipo-Dox hydrogel. Therefore, this injectable and biodegradable hydrogel may offer the advantage of focusing radiotherapy and chemotherapy locally to maximize their effects on hepatocellular carcinoma.

  16. Combination of chemotherapy and cancer stem cell targeting agents: Preclinical and clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Atkinson, Katharine; Zhang, Tao

    2017-03-12

    The cancer stem cell model claims that the initiation, maintenance, and growth of a tumor are driven by a small population of cancer cells termed cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells possess a variety of phenotypes associated with therapeutic resistance and often cause recurrence of the diseases. Several strategies have been investigated to target cancer stem cells in a variety of cancers, such as blocking one or more self-renewal signaling pathways, reducing the expression of drug efflux and ATP-binding cassette efflux transporters, modulating epigenetic aberrations, and promoting cancer stem cell differentiation. A number of cell and animal studies strongly support the potential benefits of combining chemotherapeutic drugs with cancer stem cell targeting agents. Clinical trials are still underway to address the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of combination treatment. This mini-review provides an updated discussion of these preclinical and clinical studies.

  17. Combined radical radiation therapy and chemotherapy for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, B.J.; Rider, W.D.; Harwood, A.R.; Keane, T.J.; Thomas, G.M.; Erlichman, C.; Fine, S.

    1982-03-01

    Radical radiation therapy (5000 rads in 20 fractions in 4 weeks) combined with iv mitomycin (10 mg/m2) and 5-FU (1000 mg/m2/24 hours for 4 days) was used to treat 13 patients with locally advanced but operable squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal. All patients achieved local control and retained anal continence, and none developed metastases. The patients were followed from 4 to 34 months (median, 12). Severe acute gastrointestinal toxic effects were seen in three patients; the same patients had significant thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. Treatment with this combined program may allow conservative management of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal and should be considered as an alternative to abdominoperineal resection.

  18. A facile one-pot synthesis of colloidal stable, monodisperse, highly PEGylated CuS@mSiO2 nanocomposites for the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Lin; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-06-11

    A facile one-pot approach was developed for the synthesis of colloidal stable, monodisperse, highly PEGylated mesoporous silica coated copper sulfide nanocomposites for the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy. The proposed method can also be extended to the synthesis of other metal sulfide nanocomposites.

  19. [Immunochemotherapy of malignant melanoma. Epifocal administration of dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) combined with systemic chemotherapy with dacarbazine (DTIC)].

    PubMed

    Trcka, J; Kämpgen, E; Becker, J C; Schwaaf, A; Bröcker, E B

    1998-01-01

    We describe an immunochemotherapy for metastatic melanoma that combines epifocal applications of the contact sensitizer DNCB over cutaneous metastases with systemic DTIC treatment. 4 complete remissions and 3 partial remissions were achieved in 15 patients. 6 of these remissions were seen in the 7 previously untreated patients. The advantages of this therapy which is in particular interesting for dermatologists are tolerable side effects and low costs. This publication is designed to stimulate larger randomized trials in order to answer open questions.

  20. Smac therapeutic Peptide nanoparticles inducing apoptosis of cancer cells for combination chemotherapy with Doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingxing; Liu, Peng; Gao, Guanhui; Deng, Jizhe; Pan, Zhengyin; Wu, Xu; Xie, Gaofeng; Yue, Caixia; Cho, Chi Hin; Ma, Yifan; Cai, Lintao

    2015-04-22

    Smac-conjugated nanoparticle (Smac-NP) was designed to induce the apoptosis of cancer cells and as a drug carrier for combination therapy. It contained three parts, a SmacN7 peptide which could induce apoptosis of cancer cells by interacting with XIAPs, the cell penetrating domain rich in arginine, and four hydrophobic tails for self-assembled Smac-NP. We demonstrated that Smac-NPs exerted an antitumor effect in breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 and nonsmall lung cancer (NSCLC) cell H460, which efficiently inhibited cancer cells proliferation without influencing normal liver cell lines LO2. Smac-NPs also significantly induced apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 and H460 cells through activating pro-caspase-3, down-regulating the expression of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and up-regulating the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. Furthermore, Smac-NPs could be explored as a drug delivery system to load hydrophobic drug such as DOX for combination therapy. The DOX-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-Smac-NPs) exhibited higher cellular uptake efficiency and antitumor effect. Our work provided a new insight into therapeutic peptides integrated with drug simultaneously in one system for cancer combination treatment.

  1. Combined chemotherapy or biotherapy with jasmonates: targeting energy metabolism for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Elia, Uri; Flescher, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are known to play a key role in various cellular processes essential to both the life and death of cells, including calcium homeostasis, programmed cell death, and energy metabolism. Over 80 years ago, Otto Warburg discovered that in contrast to normal cells which produce most of their ATP via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, cancer cells preferentially utilize glycolysis for production of ATP, a phenomenon known today as the "Warburg effect", and one which has been of great importance in the emergence of novel drugs and chemotherapeutic agents specifically targeting cancer cells. Several groups have reported in recent years that members of the plant stress hormones family of jasmonates, and some of their synthetic derivatives, exhibit anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. Jasmonates have been shown to act directly on mitochondria of cancer cells, leading to mitochondrial swelling, membrane depolarization and cytochrome c release. Throughout the last few years, different groups have demonstrated that combination of jasmonates and various cytotoxic and chemotherapeutic agents yielded a synergistic cytotoxic effect. These results have been demonstrated in a variety of different cancer cell lines and may provide a strong basis for future clinical treatments which involve combination of MJ and different anti-cancerous agents. The potential synergistic effect may allow reduction of the administered dose, decrease of unwanted side effects, and reduction of the likelihood that the tumor will display resistance to the combined therapy.

  2. Dendritic cell immunotherapy combined with gemcitabine chemotherapy enhances survival in a murine model of pancreatic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ghansah, Tomar; Vohra, Nasreen; Kinney, Kathleen; Weber, Amy; Kodumudi, Krithika; Springett, Gregory; Sarnaik, Amod A; Pilon-Thomas, Shari

    2013-06-01

    Pancreatic cancer is an extremely aggressive malignancy with a dismal prognosis. Cancer patients and tumor-bearing mice have multiple immunoregulatory subsets including regulatory T cells (Tregs) and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) that may limit the effectiveness of anti-tumor immunotherapies for pancreatic cancer. It is possible that modulating these subsets will enhance anti-tumor immunity. The goal of this study was to explore depletion of immunoregulatory cells to enhance dendritic cell (DC)-based cancer immunotherapy in a murine model of pancreatic cancer. Flow cytometry results showed an increase in both Tregs and MDSC in untreated pancreatic cancer-bearing mice compared with control. Elimination of Tregs alone or in combination with DC-based vaccination had no effect on pancreatic tumor growth or survival. Gemcitabine (Gem) is a chemotherapeutic drug routinely used for the treatment for pancreatic cancer patients. Treatment with Gem led to a significant decrease in MDSC percentages in the spleens of tumor-bearing mice, but did not enhance overall survival. However, combination therapy with DC vaccination followed by Gem treatment led to a significant delay in tumor growth and improved survival in pancreatic cancer-bearing mice. Increased MDSC were measured in the peripheral blood of patients with pancreatic cancer. Treatment with Gem also led to a decrease of this population in pancreatic cancer patients, suggesting that combination therapy with DC-based cancer vaccination and Gem may lead to improved treatments for patients with pancreatic cancer.

  3. Treatment of metastatic breast cancer by combination of chemotherapy and photothermal ablation using doxorubicin-loaded DNA wrapped gold nanorods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dangge; Xu, Zhiai; Yu, Haijun; Chen, Xianzhi; Feng, Bing; Cui, Zhirui; Lin, Bin; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Chen, Chunying; Wang, Jun; Zhang, Wen; Li, Yaping

    2014-09-01

    Despite the exciting advances in cancer therapy over past decades, tumor metastasis remains the dominate reason for cancer-related mortality. In present work, DNA-wrapped gold nanorods with doxorubicin (DOX)-loading (GNR@DOX) were developed for treatment of metastatic breast cancer via a combination of chemotherapy and photothermal ablation. The GNR@DOX nanoparticles induced significant temperature elevation and DOX release upon irradiation with near infrared (NIR) light as shown in the test tube studies. It was found that GNR@DOX nanoparticles in combination with laser irradiation caused higher cytotoxicity than free DOX in 4T1 breast cancer cells. Animal experiment with an orthotropic 4T1 mammary tumor model demonstrated that GNR@DOX nanoplatform significantly reduced the growth of primary tumors and suppressed their lung metastasis. The Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining assays confirmed that the tumor growth inhibition and metastasis prevention of GNR@DOX nanoparticles were attributed to their abilities to induce cellular apoptosis/necrosis and ablate intratumoral blood vessels. All these results suggested a considerable potential of GNR@DOX nanoplatform for treatment of metastatic breast cancer.

  4. Clinical effects of autologous dendritic cells combined with cytokine-induced killer cells followed by chemotherapy in treating patients with advanced colorectal cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tao; Song, Chun; Chuo, Dong-Yu; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Jian

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dendritic cell and cytokine-induced killer (DC-CIK) cell-based immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy on the treatment of patients with advanced colorectal cancer. We prospectively included patients with advanced colorectal cancer and assessed the efficacy of DC-CIK cell-based immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy compared to treatment with chemotherapy alone. T cell subtypes, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), and adverse events were evaluated in each group. In total, 134 patients were included in the DC-CIK group and 121 patients were included in the control group. No significant differences were observed in the percentages of CD3(+), CD3(+)CD4(+), CD3(+)CD8(+), and NK cells after DC-CIK cell-based immunotherapy compared to before chemotherapy in the DC-CIK group. The median PFS and OS in the DC-CIK treatment group were 8.8 months (95 % CI 8.4-9.1) and 14.7 months (95 % CI 13.9-15.5), respectively, which were significantly improved compared to the PFS and OS in the control group. The frequencies of grade III and IV leukopenia (8.2 vs. 19.0 %, P = 0.011), grade III and IV anemia (3.0 vs. 9.1 %, P = 0.039), and grade III and IV thrombocytopenia (3.7 vs. 10.7 %, P = 0.029) were significantly lower in the DC-CIK group compared to the control group. DC-CIK cell-based immunotherapy could induce an immune response against colorectal cancer and prolong PFS and OS. DC-CIK cell-based immunotherapy combined with chemotherapy had a significant benefit in terms of survival in patients with colorectal cancer compared to chemotherapy alone.

  5. A bi-modal approach against cancer: magnetic alginate nanoparticles for combined chemotherapy and hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Ciofani, Gianni; Riggio, Cristina; Raffa, Vittoria; Menciassi, Arianna; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2009-07-01

    The use of polymeric carriers containing dispersed magnetic nanocrystalline particles has attracted considerable interest in the medical field. In this paper, we propose an innovative nanotechnological platform for cancer therapy, based on highly magnetized, biodegradable, and biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles. Alginate magnetic nanoparticles were prepared by our group by an efficient emulsion/reticulation technique and tested as drug delivery system. Here, we present a potential application that combines, in a single nanovector, efficient targeting, overcoming of bio-barriers, drug delivery, and physical disruption of tumor tissues.

  6. Combined preoperative neoadjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy for anal and rectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.E.; Muff, N.S.; Shetabi, H.

    1986-05-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy combining 5-fluorouracil, mitomycin C, and moderate-dose radiotherapy was given preoperatively to 29 patients with adenocarcinoma of the rectum, 3 patients with squamous cell cancer, and 1 patient with basaloid carcinoma of the anus. Significant downstaging, and even eradication, of these lesions was realized in a high percentage of cases. Population-based data for the period of 1979 to 1984 which encompasses the time of our study indicate the survival of those treated by the neoadjuvant therapy was superior to that of patients treated by surgery alone or by surgery followed by radiotherapy. In general, patients with the poorest clinical presentation had been referred for this therapy.

  7. Novel cutaneous effects of combination chemotherapy with BRAF and MEK inhibitors: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Green, J S; Norris, D A; Wisell, J

    2013-07-01

    The discovery that some melanoma tumours harbour mutations in the BRAF gene (e.g. V600E) and the subsequent development of specific BRAF inhibitors have greatly improved the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Resistance of tumour cells to BRAF inhibitors is reduced by the addition of an MEK inhibitor; both BRAF and MEK inhibitors have been reported to produce a variety of dermatological toxic effects. Benign naevi often harbour BRAF mutations but few reports exist that document the response of naevus cells to BRAF inhibition. We report sarcoidal-type granulomatous inflammation in two patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing treatment with combination BRAF and MEK inhibitor therapy. This inflammation manifested in one patient as a nonspecific papular eruption; in the other, in association with clinical regression of multiple benign-appearing naevi during the course of therapy. The significance of sarcoidal-type inflammation occurring during treatment of metastatic melanoma with a combination of BRAF and MEK inhibitors is unclear. Its association with the clinical regression of benign-appearing naevi suggests a possible exaggerated inflammatory response to degenerating naevus cells in these lesions. © 2013 The Authors BJD © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  8. Phase II study of capecitabine and irinotecan combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Baek, J H; Kim, J G; Jeon, S B; Chae, Y S; Kim, D H; Sohn, S K; Lee, K B; Choi, Y J; Shin, H J; Chung, J S; Cho, G J; Jung, H Y; Yu, W

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a combination regimen of capecitabine plus irinotecan in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Patients with previously untreated metastatic or recurrent, measurable gastric cancer received oral capecitabine 1000 mg m−2 twice daily from day 1 to 14 and intravenous irinotecan 100 mg m−2 on days 1 and 8, based on a 3-week cycle. Forty-one patients were enrolled in the current study, among whom 38 were assessable for efficacy and 40 assessable for toxicity. Three complete responses and 16 partial responses were confirmed, giving an overall response rate of 46.3%. At a median follow-up of 269 days, the median time to progression and overall survival were 5.1 and 8.6 months, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia occurred in four patients and grade 3 febrile neutropenia was observed in two patients. Grade 3 diarrhoea and grade 2 hand–foot syndrome occurred in six patients and eight patients, respectively. The combination of capecitabine and irinotecan was found to be well tolerated and effective in patients with advanced gastric cancer. Accordingly, this regimen can be regarded as one of first-line treatment options for advanced gastric cancer. PMID:16641916

  9. Phase I-II trial of ONYX-015 in combination with MAP chemotherapy in patients with advanced sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Galanis, E; Okuno, S H; Nascimento, A G; Lewis, B D; Lee, R A; Oliveira, A M; Sloan, J A; Atherton, P; Edmonson, J H; Erlichman, C; Randlev, B; Wang, Q; Freeman, S; Rubin, J

    2005-03-01

    ONYX-015 is a provisionally replication competent adenovirus with oncolytic activity in cells with malfunctioning p53. Sarcomas represent a rational target for this approach given the high frequency of p53 mutations (40-75%) and MDM-2 amplification (10-30%). We, therefore, undertook a phase I/II study of ONYX-015, days 1-5 every month administered intratumorally under radiographic guidance, in combination with MAP (mitomycin-C, doxorubicin, cisplatin) chemotherapy in patients with advanced sarcoma. Six patients were treated. Injected lesions included liver metastases in four patients and chest wall metastases in two patients. Sarcoma histologies were gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST, two patients), leiomyosarcoma (two patients), liposarcoma (one patient), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (1 patient). Dose escalation was performed from 10(9) plaque forming units (PFU)/dose (total dose of 5 x 10(9) PFU/cycle) to 10(10) PFU/dose (total dose of 5 x 10(10) PFU/cycle) without dose-limiting toxicity being encountered. Immunohistochemistry of the metastatic lesions prior to treatment showed that five out of six patients were positive for p53, while two patients also had mdm-2 overexpression. Adenoviral replication was detected in two out of six patient biopsies on day 5 of the first cycle, by in situ hybridization (ISH). Both patients were treated at the highest dose level. ONYX-015 viral DNA was detected by quantitative PCR in the plasma of 5/6 patients on day 5 of the first cycle, and up to day 12 (7 days after the last viral dose) in one patient who had extended sampling for viral kinetics performed, suggesting viral replication in sarcoma tissue. One patient with p53 mutation and MDM-2 amplification achieved a partial response to treatment that lasted 11 months. In conclusion, intratumoral administration of ONYX-015 in combination with MAP chemotherapy is well tolerated with no significant toxicity due to ONYX-015 being encountered. Detection of viral

  10. [Evaluation of a combination chemotherapy with nedaplatin and 5-FU for oral cancers].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, G; Shimada, T; Nishida, T; Ishida, Y; Iba, T; Nakata, T; Ohtsuki, T; Takigami, K; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshitake, K; Tanaka, A; Tsuda, Y

    2001-08-01

    Nedaplatin (cis-diammine-glycolato platinum: CDGP) is a platinum compound with a molecular weight of 303.18 that was recently developed in Japan. There have been reports of the antineoplastic effects of Nedaplatin on cancers in the cranio-cervical region, lung, esophagus, urinary bladder, testis, ovary, and uterus. In this study, we performed combined therapy of CDGP and fluorouracil (5-FU) for 8 patients with oral cancers, and evaluated the results to elucidate the clinical effect and adverse side effects. The subjects were 8 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (5 males and 3 females aged 33-65 years). The primary carcinoma regions were the tongue in 5 patients, oral floor in 2 patients, and mandibular gingiva in 1 patient. The T-classification was T2 in 6 patients and T4 in 2 patients, and the clinical staging was Stage II in 5 patients, Stage III in 1 patient and Stage IV in 2 patients. We first administered 700 mg/m2 5-FU per day from day 1 to day 5 (total dose 3,500 mg/m2), then 90 mg/m2 CDGP on day 5. The clinical effect was evaluated as a partial response in all cases, showing a 100% success rate. The histopathological findings of resected tumors were evaluated by Ohboshi and Shimozato's classification. One patient was Grade IIA, 5 patients Grade IIB, and 2 patients Grade III. The adverse side effects were slight myelotoxicity, gagging, nausea, alopecia, and stomatitis less than Grade II. Although the oral cancers in this study were extroverted superficial ulcerative cancers, and the number of patients was low at 8, this combined therapy is considered useful and worth evaluating in further accumulated cases.

  11. Use of combination chemotherapy for treatment of granulomatous and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) in patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID).

    PubMed

    Chase, Nicole M; Verbsky, James W; Hintermeyer, Mary K; Waukau, Jill K; Tomita-Mitchell, Aoy; Casper, James T; Singh, Sumit; Shahir, Kaushik S; Tisol, William B; Nugent, Melodee L; Rao, R Nagarjun; Mackinnon, A Craig; Goodman, Lawrence R; Simpson, Pippa M; Routes, John M

    2013-01-01

    A subset of patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) develops granulomatous and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD), a restrictive lung disease associated with early mortality. The optimal therapy for GLILD is unknown. This study was undertaken to see if rituximab and azathioprine (combination chemotherapy) would improve pulmonary function and/or radiographic abnormalities in patients with CVID and GLILD. A retrospective chart review of patients with CVID and GLILD who were treated with combination chemotherapy was performed. Complete pulmonary function tests (PFTs) and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans of the chest were done prior to therapy and >6 months later. HRCT scans of the chest were blinded, randomized, and scored independently (in pairs) by two radiologists. The differences between pre- and post-treatment HRCT scores and PFT parameters were analyzed. Seven patients with CVID and GLILD met inclusion criteria. Post-treatment increases were noted in both FEV1 (p=0.034) and FVC (p=0.043). HRCT scans of the chest demonstrated improvement in total score (p=0.018), pulmonary consolidations (p=0.041), ground-glass opacities (p=0.020) nodular opacities (p=0.024), and both the presence and extent of bronchial wall thickening (p=0.014, 0.026 respectively). No significant chemotherapy-related complications occurred. Combination chemotherapy improved pulmonary function and decreased radiographic abnormalities in patients with CVID and GLILD.

  12. Prospective multicenter study of combined treatment with chemotherapy and radiotherapy in breast cancer women with the rare clinical scenario of ipsilateral supraclavicular node recurrence without distant metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Pergolizzi, Stefano . E-mail: Stefano.Pergolizzi@unime.it; Adamo, Vincenzo; Russi, Elvio; Santacaterina, Anna; Maisano, Roberto; Numico, Gianmauro; Palazzolo, Carmela; Ferrau, Francesco; Settineri, Nicola; Altavilla, Giuseppe; Girlando, Andrea; Spadaro, Pietro; Cascinu, Stefano

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of chemotherapy combined with curative radiotherapy in breast cancer patients who presented with recurrent ipsilateral supraclavicular lymph node metastases (ISLM) without 'nonregional disease,' we designed an observational study performed prospectively. Patients and Methods: Forty-four consecutive patients with ISLM from breast cancer as part of recurrent regional disease without distant metastases were included in this study. All patients received chemotherapy with doxorubicin-based schema or paclitaxel for six courses and curative radiotherapy (60 Gy/30 fractions of 2 Gy/5 days a week). An 'involved field' radiation was delivered during the interval between the third and fourth chemotherapy course; hormonal therapy was given based on receptor status. Results: The rate of overall clinical response after chemotherapy and radiotherapy was 94.9%. Median time to progression and overall survival were 28 and 40 months, respectively; the 5-year actuarial overall survival and disease-free survival rates were 35% (95% confidence interval, 19-51) and 20% (95% confidence interval, 6-34), respectively. Conclusion: A curative course of intravenous chemotherapy and radical irradiation is feasible in patients with ISLM. All patients presenting recurrence in supraclavicular nodes should be treated with definitive locoregional treatments and systemic therapy because the outcomes are better than might be historically assumed.

  13. The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cetuximab (mono- or combination chemotherapy), bevacizumab (combination with non-oxaliplatin chemotherapy) and panitumumab (monotherapy) for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer after first-line chemotherapy (review of technology appraisal No.150 and part review of technology appraisal No. 118): a systematic review and economic model.

    PubMed

    Hoyle, M; Crathorne, L; Peters, J; Jones-Hughes, T; Cooper, C; Napier, M; Tappenden, P; Hyde, C

    2013-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the UK after breast and lung cancer. People with metastatic disease who are sufficiently fit are usually treated with active chemotherapy as first- or second-line therapy. Recently, targeted agents have become available including anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) agents, for example cetuximab and panitumumab, and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor agents, for example bevacizumab. To investigate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of panitumumab monotherapy and cetuximab (mono- or combination chemotherapy) for Kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS) wild-type (WT) patients, and bevacizumab in combination with non-oxaliplatin chemotherapy, for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer after first-line chemotherapy. The assessment comprises a systematic review of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness studies, a review and critique of manufacturer submissions and a de novo cohort-based economic analysis. For the assessment of effectiveness, a literature search was conducted in a range of electronic databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE and The Cochrane Library, from 2005 to November 2010. Studies were included if they were randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or systematic reviews of RCTs of cetuximab, bevacizumab or panitumumab in participants with EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer with KRAS WT status that has progressed after first-line chemotherapy (for cetuximab and panitumumab) or participants with metastatic colorectal cancer that has progressed after first-line chemotherapy (bevacizumab). All steps in the review were performed by one reviewer and checked independently by a second. Synthesis was mainly narrative. An economic model was developed focusing on third-line and subsequent lines of treatment. Costs and benefits were discounted at 3.5% per annum. Probabilistic and univariate deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed. The searches

  14. Prognostic factors for transarterial chemoembolization combined with sustained oxaliplatin-based hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy of colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hangyu; Guo, Jianhai; Gao, Song; Zhang, Pengjun; Chen, Hui; Wang, Xiaodong; Li, Xiaoting; Zhu, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the prognostic factors in chemorefractory colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM) patients treated by transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and sustained hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC). Methods Between 2006 and 2015, 162 patients who underwent 763 TACE and HAIC in total were enrolled in this retrospective study, including 110 males and 52 females, with a median age of 60 (range, 26–83) years. Prognostic factors were assessed with Log-rank test, Cox univariate and multivariate analyses. Results The median survival time (MST) and median progression-free survival (PFS) of the 162 patients from first TACE/HAIC were 15.6 months and 5.5 months respectively. Normal serum carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9, <37 U/mL) (P<0.001) and carbohydrate antigen 72-4 (CA72-4, <6.7 U/mL) (P=0.026), combination with other local treatment (liver radiotherapy or liver radiofrequency ablation) (P=0.034) and response to TACE/HAIC (P<0.001) were significant factors related to survival after TACE/HAIC in univariate analysis. A multivariate analysis revealed that normal serum CA19-9 (P<0.001), response to TACE/HAIC (P<0.001) and combination with other local treatment (P=0.001) were independent factors among them. Conclusions Our findings indicate that serum CA19-9 <37 U/mL and response to TACE/HAIC are significant prognostic indicators for this combined treatment, and treated with other local treatment could reach a considerable survival benefit for CRCLM. This could be useful for making decisions regarding the treatment of CRCLM. PMID:28373752

  15. Docetaxel/irinotecan combination chemotherapy in platinum/taxane-refractory and -resistant ovarian cancer: JGOG/WJGOG Intergroup Study.

    PubMed

    Ushijima, Kimio; Kamura, Toshiharu; Tamura, Kazuo; Kuzuya, Kazuo; Sugiyama, Toru; Noda, Kiichiro; Ochiai, Kazunori

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this phase II study was to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of docetaxel and irinotecan combination chemotherapy in patients with ovarian cancer refractory and resistant to both platinum and taxan treatment. Patients who had been treated with platinum and paclitaxel but whose ovarian cancer progressed or recurred within 6 months of treatment (n = 41) received docetaxel 60 mg/m(2) (day 1) and irinotecan 60 mg/m(2) (days 1, 8), repeated every 21 days [Japan Gynecologic Oncology Group (JGOG) study 3015] or every 28 days [West Japan Gynecologic Oncology Group (WJGOG) study 002] until disease progression was observed or unacceptable toxicity. Sixteen patients had platinum/paclitaxel-refractory disease, and 25 patients had platinum/paclitaxel-resistant disease. Thirty-two patients were available for determination of the clinical response. The overall response rate [complete response (CR) + partial response (PR)] was 6.3%, and the disease control rate (CR + PR + stable disease) was 34.4%. Among the 23 patients with resistant tumor, the disease control rate was 47.8%. Ten patients with refractory tumor showed a 10% disease control rate. The median progression-free interval was 12.1 weeks and the median overall survival time was 45.3 weeks. The major toxic adverse effect was neutropenia (grade 4, 56.1%), but the incidence of neutropenic fever was less frequent (4.9%). Neurotoxicity and gastro-intestinal toxicity were mild. Among our patients, a combination of docetaxel and irinotecan was well tolerated. However, this combination may not be a beneficial option for patients with platinum-refractory and -resistant ovarian cancer in terms of response rate and survival.

  16. Profile of netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA) fixed dose combination and its potential in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV)

    PubMed Central

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Netupitant, is a new NK-1 receptor antagonist with a high binding affinity, a long half-life of 90 hours, is metabolized by CYP3A4, and is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. NEPA is an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron which has recently been employed in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC and HEC). The clinical trials demonstrated that NEPA (300 mg of netupitant plus 0.50 mg of palonosetron) significantly improved the prevention of CINV compared to the use of palonosetron alone in patients receiving either HEC or MEC. The clinical efficacy was maintained over multiple cycles of chemotherapy. NEPA (Akynzeo®) has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25552904

  17. [Curative effects of the protocol of CDV combined with CiE as pre-operative chemotherapy in high-risk childhood neuroblastoma].

    PubMed

    Feng, Chen; Tang, Suo-Qin; Wang, Jian-Wen; Liu, Ying; Yang, Guang

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the effects and the toxicity of the protocol of CDV combined with CiE as pre-operative chemotherapy in childhood stage IV neuroblastoma. The clinical data of 27 children aged from 1.2 to 8 years with neuroblastoma in stage IV was retrospectively studied. The primary sites of the diseases were abdomen (n = 21), posterior mediastinum (n = 4) and pelvic cavity (n = 2). Twenty three patients had bone marrow metastasis. Twelve patients had bone metastasis. All patients were treated with the CDV protocol (cyclophosphamide + doxorubicin + vincristine) for 3 cycles and the CiE protocol (cisplatin + etoposide) for 2 cycles. Neuroblastoma therapeutic response evaluation criterion and common terminology criteria for adverse events of National Cancer Institute were used to evaluate effects and chemotherapy related toxicity. All patients received the pre-operative chemotherapy. The overall response rate was 82%. After chemotherapy, 24 patients received operations. Total resection of primary tumor was found in 14 patients (58%) and part resection in 10 patients (42%). The most common chemotherapy related toxicity was bone marrow suppression: grade IV suppression of neutrophils (n = 27), reduction in hemoglobin (III grade, n = 7; IV grade, n = 20) and reduction in platelet (III grade, n = 2; IV grade, n = 25). Infection was found in all patients and was controlled with antibiotics. I or II grade lesions of digestive, liver and kidney were found and could be recovered after therapy. Grade I neurotoxicity occurred in 2 patients (7%). The heart function damage was not found in any of patients. The protocol of CDV combined with CiE as pre-operative chemotherapy might be effective in children with stage IV neuroblastoma.

  18. Profile of netupitant/palonosetron (NEPA) fixed dose combination and its potential in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV).

    PubMed

    Navari, Rudolph M

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is associated with a significant deterioration in quality of life. The emetogenicity of the chemotherapeutic agents, repeated chemotherapy cycles, and patient risk factors significantly influence CINV. The use of a combination of a 5-hydroxytryptamine-3 (5-HT3) receptor antagonists, dexamethasone, and a neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist has significantly improved the control of acute and delayed emesis in single-day chemotherapy. Palonosetron, a second generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonist with a different half-life, different binding capacity, and a different mechanism of action than the first generation 5-HT3 receptor antagonists, appears to be the most effective agent in its class. Netupitant, is a new NK-1 receptor antagonist with a high binding affinity, a long half-life of 90 hours, is metabolized by CYP3A4, and is an inhibitor of CYP3A4. NEPA is an oral fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron which has recently been employed in Phase II and Phase III clinical trials for the prevention of CINV in patients receiving moderately and highly emetogenic chemotherapy (MEC and HEC). The clinical trials demonstrated that NEPA (300 mg of netupitant plus 0.50 mg of palonosetron) significantly improved the prevention of CINV compared to the use of palonosetron alone in patients receiving either HEC or MEC. The clinical efficacy was maintained over multiple cycles of chemotherapy. NEPA (Akynzeo(®)) has recently been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat nausea and vomiting in patients undergoing cancer chemotherapy.

  19. Chemotherapy, IL-12 gene therapy and combined adjuvant therapy of HPV 16-associated MHC class I-proficient and -deficient tumours.

    PubMed

    Indrová, Marie; Bieblová, Jana; Jandlová, Tána; Vonka, Vladimír; Pajtasz-Piasecka, Elzbieta; Reinis, Milan

    2006-01-01

    Moderately immunogenic HPV 16-associated murine tumour cell line mimicking human HPV 16-associated neoplasms TC-1 (MHC class I(+)) and its variants, TC-1/P3C10 and TC-1/A9, with a marked down-regulation of MHC I molecules, were used to examine the effect of local interleukin 12 (IL-12) gene therapy for the treatment of early tumour transplants and minimal residual tumour disease obtained after cytoreductive chemotherapy (CMRTD). Experiments were designed to examine whether down-regulation of MHC class I molecules plays a role during chemotherapy and gene therapy of early tumour transplants. It was found that peritumoral administration of IL-12-producing tumour cell vaccines (single dose, day 8 after tumour cell administration) inhibited the growth of both TC-1 (MHC class I positive) tumours and their MHC class I-deficient variants. To investigate the antitumour effects in a clinically relevant setting, IL-12 gene therapy was utilised for the treatment of minimal residual tumour disease after cytoreductive chemotherapy. Intra-peritoneal treatment of tumour-bearing mice with ifosfamide derivative, CBM-4A, produced a significant tumour-inhibitory effect. This treatment was followed by peritumoral s.c. administration of genetically modified TC-1 (MHC class I positive) or MK16/I/IIIABC (MHC class I negative) vaccines producing IL-12 (single dose, day 7 after chemotherapy) or with recombinant interleukin 12 (rIL-12) in two cycles of 5 daily doses (days 8-19) after chemotherapy. This combined therapy significantly inhibited the growth of TC-1 and TC-1/A9 (MHC class I-) tumours. When the combined therapy of TC-1 (MHC class I positive) tumours was followed by peritumoral administration of bone marrow dendritic cell (BMDC) vaccines, the IL-12-mediated inhibitory effect was significantly boosted. In the next set of experiments, the impacts of chemotherapy and IL-12 adjuvant therapy on MHC class I surface expression were assessed. Chemotherapy and gene therapy of tumours led

  20. Biologics in combination with chemotherapy for gastric cancer: is this the answer?

    PubMed

    Charalampakis, Nikolaos; Elimova, Elena; Shimodaira, Yusuke; Shiozaki, Hironori; Wadhwa, Roopma; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2015-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) continues to be a significant problem worldwide and is the third leading cause of cancer death. Armamentarium to treat GC whether it is potentially curable or metastatic (incurable) has changed little over the last decades with only two new agents being approved (trastuzumab and ramucirumab). Many relatively healthy patients after second-line therapy have limited and generally ineffective options. The recent The Cancer Genome Atlas analysis has uncovered four genotypes of GC; however, it is not sufficient to change our treatment strategies and more work needs to be done. The popular front-line regimen containing a platinum compound and a fluoropyrimidine is widely used for drug development and has worked well globally. Thus, this combination appears suitable for adding a biologic agent. The search for new classes of cytotoxics has almost stopped, but it is clear that cytotoxic therapy continues to contribute and it is here to stay. Biologic agents that modulate the immune system of the host appear promising along with many other biologics that can potentially inhibit signaling pathways that are often employed by GC cells. We will briefly describe the efforts that have targeted EGFR, mTOR, angiogenesis and MET pathways.

  1. Biologics in Combination with Chemotherapy for Gastric Cancer: Is This the Answer?

    PubMed Central

    Charalampakis, N.; Elimova, E.; Shimodaira, Y.; Shiozaki, H.; Wadhwa, R.; Ajani, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) continues to be a significant problem worldwide and is the third leading cause of cancer death. Armamentarium to treat GC whether it is potentially curable or metastatic (incurable) has changed little over the last decades with only two new agents being approved (trastuzumab and ramucirumab). Many relatively healthy patients after second line therapy have limited and generally ineffective options. The recent TCGA analysis has uncovered 4 genotypes of GC, however, it is not sufficient to change our treatment strategies and more work needs to be done. The popular front line regimen containing a platinum compound and a fluoropyrimidine is widely used for drug development and has worked well globally. Thus, this combination appears suitable for adding a biologic agent. The search for new classes of cytotoxics has almost stopped but it is clear that cytotoxic therapy continues to contribute and it is here to stay. Biologic agents that modulate the immune system of the host appear promising along with many other biologics that can potentially inhibit signaling pathways that are often employed by GC cells. We will briefly describe the efforts that have targeted EGFR, mTOR, angiogenesis, and MET pathways. PMID:25850442

  2. Core-shell nanoscale coordination polymers combine chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy to potentiate checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunbai; Duan, Xiaopin; Guo, Nining; Chan, Christina; Poon, Christopher; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Advanced colorectal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of only 12% for patients with the metastatic disease. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as the antibodies inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, are among the most promising immunotherapies for patients with advanced colon cancer, but their durable response rate remains low. We herein report the use of immunogenic nanoparticles to augment the antitumour efficacy of PD-L1 antibody-mediated cancer immunotherapy. Nanoscale coordination polymer (NCP) core-shell nanoparticles carry oxaliplatin in the core and the photosensitizer pyropheophorbide-lipid conjugate (pyrolipid) in the shell (NCP@pyrolipid) for effective chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Synergy between oxaliplatin and pyrolipid-induced PDT kills tumour cells and provokes an immune response, resulting in calreticulin exposure on the cell surface, antitumour vaccination and an abscopal effect. When combined with anti-PD-L1 therapy, NCP@pyrolipid mediates regression of both light-irradiated primary tumours and non-irradiated distant tumours by inducing a strong tumour-specific immune response. PMID:27530650

  3. [Current status of phase III study of combined treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for head and neck cancer].

    PubMed

    Inoue, T; Inoue, T; Murayama, S

    1995-02-01

    Concerning the combined treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for head and neck cancer, in general, there are many discrepancies between a single institutional pilot study and a multi-institutional prospective randomized study. Some of the differences depend on the insufficient number of patients entered into the study, since the annual incidence of head and neck cancer is relatively low, and the treatment result varies from site to site as well as the stage of the disease. Several types of bias, including patient selection and positive publications, and factors related to the design and analysis of clinical trials result in additional differences. To solve these problems, we organized the Quality Assurance Research Group in Japan, funded by the Ministry of Health and Welfare for several years. Based on much effort, it was emphasized the need for increased manpower and equipment in radiation oncology, for a quality assurance program of radiotherapy and the preparation of a standard treatment modality using decision tree and surrogate survey.

  4. A HHV-8 positive, HIV negative multicentric Castleman disease treated with R-CEOP chemotherapy and valganciclovir combination.

    PubMed

    Kantarci, Fatma Eda Nuhoglu; Eren, Rafet; Gündoğan, Cihan; Huq, Gülben Erdem; Doğu, Mehmet Hilmi; Suyanı, Elif

    2016-07-01

    Multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by systemic symptoms like recurrent lymphadenopathy, fever and hepatosplenomegaly. Human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) can be associated with MCD whether the patient is infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or not. A 59-year-old male patient presented with fatigue, drowsiness and enlarged lymph nodes. Thoracic and abdominal computed tomography showed enlarged mediastinal, axillary, paracardiac, paraaortic, celiac, mesenteric, obturator and inguinal lymph nodes concomitant with enlarged liver and spleen. Cervical lymph node biopsy revealed HHV-8 positive plasma cell MCD. The patient's tests were negative for HIV. R-CEOP (rituximab, cyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristin, prednisolone) and valganciclovir treatments were started simultaneously. After sixth cycle of R-CEOP, the patient achieved unconfirmed complete remission. Rituximab combined with CEOP protocol and antiviral therapy against HHV-8 might be an effective therapeutic approach without a considerable side effect for HHV-8-positive HIV-negative MCD patients. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Microfluidic assisted one-step fabrication of porous silicon@acetalated dextran nanocomposites for precisely controlled combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongfei; Zhang, Hongbo; Mäkilä, Ermei; Fan, Jin; Herranz-Blanco, Bárbara; Wang, Chang-Fang; Rosa, Ricardo; Ribeiro, António J; Salonen, Jarno; Hirvonen, Jouni; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-01-01

    An advanced nanocomposite consisting of an encapsulated porous silicon (PSi) nanoparticle and an acid-degradable acetalated dextran (AcDX) matrix (nano-in-nano), was efficiently fabricated by a one-step microfluidic self-assembly approach. The obtained nano-in-nano PSi@AcDX composites showed improved surface smoothness, homogeneous size distribution, and considerably enhanced cytocompatibility. Furthermore, multiple drugs with different physicochemical properties have been simultaneously loaded into the nanocomposites with a ratiometric control. The release kinetics of all the payloads was predominantly controlled by the decomposition rate of the outer AcDX matrix. To facilitate the intracellular drug delivery, a nona-arginine cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) was chemically conjugated onto the surface of the nanocomposites by oxime click chemistry. Taking advantage of the significantly improved cell uptake, the proliferation of two breast cancer cell lines was markedly inhibited by the CPP-functionalized multidrug-loaded nanocomposites. Overall, this nano-in-nano PSi@polymer composite prepared by the microfluidic self-assembly approach is a universal platform for nanoparticles encapsulation and precisely controlled combination chemotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of Outcome and Tolerability of Combination Chemotherapy with Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin as First Line Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehri, Zahra; Bakhshipour, Ali Reza; Zivari, Ali; Danesh, Hossein Ali; Metanat, Hasan Ali; Karimkoshteh, Azra; Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Rahimi, Hossein; Kiani, Zohre

    2016-01-01

    Background: Combination chemotherapy is accepted as a high efficacy treatment for gastric cancer, whereas choice of standard treatment is unclear. Multiple chemotherapeutic regimens have been used to achieve higher efficacy and lower toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the treatment results of advanced gastric cancer with Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin regimen. Subjects and Methods : All cases with documented gastric adenocarcinoma and advanced disease were candidates for receiving Xelox regimen (Capecitabine – 750 mg/m2/twice daily/ 1-14 days and Oxaliplatin 125 mg/m2 in 1st day). Results: Twenty five cases with advanced gastric cancer entered in study while 24 cases continued treatment protocol and were evaluated. Mean age was 59.5 ± 12.1 years (range: 20-75), male and female cases were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All cases received at least four cycles of Xelox regimen. Overall response rate was 74.99% with 29.16% complete response. Overall survival rate was 13 ± 0.53 months and DFS (disease-free survival) was 6 ± 1.09 months. Extremities neuropathy (62.5%), headache (45.8%) and muscle cramps (29.2%) were the most common complains. Haematological changes were rare and 16.7% of cases had mild cytopenia. Treatment related death was not observed. Conclusion: Xelox regimen is a safe and highly effective first line treatment for gastric cancer; however, considering it as first line therapy needs larger studies. PMID:27928475

  7. Evaluation of Outcome and Tolerability of Combination Chemotherapy with Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin as First Line Therapy in Advanced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mashhadi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehri, Zahra; Bakhshipour, Ali Reza; Zivari, Ali; Danesh, Hossein Ali; Metanat, Hasan Ali; Karimkoshteh, Azra; Hashemi, Seyed Mehdi; Rahimi, Hossein; Kiani, Zohre

    2016-10-01

    Background: Combination chemotherapy is accepted as a high efficacy treatment for gastric cancer, whereas choice of standard treatment is unclear. Multiple chemotherapeutic regimens have been used to achieve higher efficacy and lower toxicity. This study was designed to evaluate the treatment results of advanced gastric cancer with Capecitabine and Oxaliplatin regimen. Subjects and Methods: All cases with documented gastric adenocarcinoma and advanced disease were candidates for receiving Xelox regimen (Capecitabine - 750 mg/m(2)/twice daily/ 1-14 days and Oxaliplatin 125 mg/m(2) in 1st day). Results: Twenty five cases with advanced gastric cancer entered in study while 24 cases continued treatment protocol and were evaluated. Mean age was 59.5 ± 12.1 years (range: 20-75), male and female cases were 66.7% and 33.3%, respectively. All cases received at least four cycles of Xelox regimen. Overall response rate was 74.99% with 29.16% complete response. Overall survival rate was 13 ± 0.53 months and DFS (disease-free survival) was 6 ± 1.09 months. Extremities neuropathy (62.5%), headache (45.8%) and muscle cramps (29.2%) were the most common complains. Haematological changes were rare and 16.7% of cases had mild cytopenia. Treatment related death was not observed. Conclusion: Xelox regimen is a safe and highly effective first line treatment for gastric cancer; however, considering it as first line therapy needs larger studies.

  8. Core-shell nanoscale coordination polymers combine chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy to potentiate checkpoint blockade cancer immunotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chunbai; Duan, Xiaopin; Guo, Nining; Chan, Christina; Poon, Christopher; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-08-01

    Advanced colorectal cancer is one of the deadliest cancers, with a 5-year survival rate of only 12% for patients with the metastatic disease. Checkpoint inhibitors, such as the antibodies inhibiting the PD-1/PD-L1 axis, are among the most promising immunotherapies for patients with advanced colon cancer, but their durable response rate remains low. We herein report the use of immunogenic nanoparticles to augment the antitumour efficacy of PD-L1 antibody-mediated cancer immunotherapy. Nanoscale coordination polymer (NCP) core-shell nanoparticles carry oxaliplatin in the core and the photosensitizer pyropheophorbide-lipid conjugate (pyrolipid) in the shell (NCP@pyrolipid) for effective chemotherapy and photodynamic therapy (PDT). Synergy between oxaliplatin and pyrolipid-induced PDT kills tumour cells and provokes an immune response, resulting in calreticulin exposure on the cell surface, antitumour vaccination and an abscopal effect. When combined with anti-PD-L1 therapy, NCP@pyrolipid mediates regression of both light-irradiated primary tumours and non-irradiated distant tumours by inducing a strong tumour-specific immune response.

  9. Ofatumumab in combination with ICE or DHAP chemotherapy in relapsed or refractory intermediate grade B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Czuczman, Myron S.; Rodriguez, Maria Alma; Fennessy, Michael; Shea, Thomas C.; Spitzer, Gary; Lossos, Izidore S.; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A.; Joyce, Robin; Fayad, Luis; Henkel, Kristen; Liao, Qiming; Edvardsen, Klaus; Jewell, Roxanne C.; Fecteau, Doug; Singh, Rajendra P.; Lisby, Steen; Moskowitz, Craig H.

    2013-01-01

    Standard treatment of transplant-eligible patients with relapsed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) consists of rituximab and platinum-based chemotherapy, either ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide (ICE) or dexamethasone, cytarabine, and cisplatin (DHAP), with autologous transplant consolidation for those with chemosensitive disease. Nonetheless, outcomes are suboptimal for patients failing rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone (R-CHOP). We performed a multi-center phase II trial investigating the safety and efficacy of ofatumumab, a monoclonal antibody against CD20, combined with ICE or DHAP second-line therapy in patients with relapsed or refractory DLBCL, grade 3b follicular lymphoma, or transformed follicular lymphoma. Sixty-one patients were treated with either ofatumumab-ICE (35) or ofatumumab-DHAP (26). The overall response rate (ORR) was 61%, and the complete response (CR) rate was 37%. In patients with 2 or 3 adverse risk factors according to the second-line, age-adjusted, international prognostic index, the ORR was 59% and CR 31%, and in patients with early-relapsing or primary refractory disease, the ORR was 55% and CR 30%. Toxicity was largely hematologic, and stem cell mobilization was successful in 43 of 45 patients. Substitution of ofatumumab for rituximab in standard second-line regimens following failure of R-CHOP is a promising approach. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00823719. PMID:23692856

  10. Efficacy of combined chemotherapy against gastrointestinal nematodes and Fasciola hepatica in cattle.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Velarde, F; Vera-Montenegro, Y; Nájera-Fuentes, R; Sánchez-Albarran, A

    2001-08-20

    A controlled trial of the efficacy of several anthelmintic compounds as a combined therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) and Fasciola hepatica (F. hepatica) in naturally infected cattle was carried out. Twenty crossbred calves, 8-18 months old, were selected for inclusion in the trial based on finding eggs of F. hepatica and GIN in the faeces. They were blocked in four groups of five animals each according to GIN fecal egg counts on day 0. Treatments were sequentially allocated to animals in each block as follows: Group 1 served as non-treated control; Group 2 was treated with netobimin orally at 20 mg/kg; Group 3 received triclabendazole orally at 12 mg/kg and levamisole was applied intramuscularly at 5.5 mg/kg; Group 4 received clorsulon administered subcutaneously (s.c.) at 2 mg/kg and ivermectin s.c. at 200 microg/kg. Six to eight days after treatment the animals were euthanatized in order to collect and identify the parasites. Results showed a reduction of GIN by 87.3, 95.8 and 99.5% in Groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The percentage reduction of immature flukes was 0.0, 72.5, and 67.5% and for adult flukes 91.0, 97.5 and 100% for Groups 2, 3 and 4, respectively. Compounds indicated against nematodes showed high efficacy and products directed against F. hepatica acceptably removed adult flukes. However, efficacy against immature stages was generally not satisfactory.

  11. Effect of First-Line Chemotherapy Combined With Cetuximab or Bevacizumab on Overall Survival in Patients With KRAS Wild-Type Advanced or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Venook, Alan P.; Niedzwiecki, Donna; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Innocenti, Federico; Fruth, Briant; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.; Schrag, Deborah; Greene, Claire; O’Neil, Bert H.; Atkins, James Norman; Berry, Scott; Polite, Blase N.; O’Reilly, Eileen M.; Goldberg, Richard M.; Hochster, Howard S.; Schilsky, Richard L.; Bertagnolli, Monica M.; El-Khoueiry, Anthony B.; Watson, Peter; Benson, Al B.; Mulkerin, Daniel L.; Mayer, Robert J.; Blanke, Charles

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Combining biologic monoclonal antibodies with chemotherapeutic cytotoxic drugs provides clinical benefit to patients with advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer, but the optimal choice of the initial biologic therapy in previously untreated patients is unknown. OBJECTIVE To determine if the addition of cetuximab vsbevacizumab to the combination of leucovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin (mFOLFOX6) regimen or the combination of leucovorin, fluorouracil, and irinotecan (FOLFIRI) regimen is superior as first-line therapy in advanced or metastatic KRAS wild-type (wt) colorectal cancer. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Patients (≥18 years) enrolled at community and academic centers throughout the National Clinical Trials Network in the United States and Canada (November 2005-March 2012) with previously untreated advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer whose tumors were KRAS wt chose to take either the mFOLFOX6 regimen or the FOLFIRI regimen as chemotherapy and were randomized to receive either cetuximab (n = 578) or bevacizumab (n = 559). The last date of follow-up was December 15, 2015. INTERVENTIONS Cetuximab vs bevacizumab combined with either mFOLFOX6 or FOLFIRI chemotherapy regimen chosen by the treating physician and patient. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary objectives included progression-free survival and overall response rate, site-reported confirmed or unconfirmed complete or partial response. RESULTS Among 1137 patients (median age, 59 years; 440 [39%] women), 1074 (94%) of patients met eligibility criteria. As of December 15, 2015, median follow-up for 263 surviving patients was 47.4 months (range, 0–110.7 months), and 82% of patients (938 of 1137) experienced disease progression. The median overall survival was 30.0 months in the cetuximab-chemotherapy group and 29.0 months in the bevacizumab-chemotherapy group with a stratified hazard ratio (HR) of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.77–1.01; P = .08). The

  12. Clinical outcomes of cytoreductive surgery combined with intrapleural perfusion of hyperthermic chemotherapy in advanced lung adenocarcinoma with pleural dissemination

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Eunjue; Kim, Daejoong; Cho, Sukki; Kim, Kwhanmien

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the safety and feasibility of intrapleural perfusion hyperthermic chemotherapy (IPHC) followed by cytoreductive surgery as a part of multimodal strategy for the treatment of advanced lung adenocarcinoma. Methods Medical records of advanced lung cancer patients with pleural dissemination who underwent surgical treatment between 2003 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Enrolled patients were divided into a surgery group comprising patients who underwent surgery only and an IPHC group, which consisted of patients who underwent surgery combined with IPHC. Results A total of 33 patients were enrolled in this study. Twenty-three patients underwent IPHC after surgical resection, and 10 patients underwent surgical resection only. The complication rate of the IPHC group was estimated to be 34.8% (8 cases), none of which included postoperative mortality. The complication rate of the surgery group was 40.0% (4 cases), which included one postoperative mortality. The 6-month, 1-year, and 3-year overall survival rates for the IPHC group were 95.7%, 91.3% and 38.6%, respectively, while those of the surgery group were 80.0%, 80.0% and 37.5%. The 6-month, 1-year and 3-year progression-free survival rates for the IPHC group were 87.0%, 47.8% and 24.3%, while those of surgery group were 44.4%, 33.3% and 0.0%, respectively. There were significant differences in overall survival rates between two groups (P=0.045); however, progression-free survival was not different between the two groups. Conclusions IPHC combined with cytoreductive surgery for advanced lung adenocarcinoma associated with pleural seeding could be performed safely and feasible. It would be part of multimodality therapy for certain category of advanced lung adenocarcinoma. However, the long-term benefits for survival is uncertain. More extensive and precisely designed studies are warranted to further evaluate the effectiveness of IPHC. PMID:27499943

  13. Connectivity mapping using a combined gene signature from multiple colorectal cancer datasets identified candidate drugs including existing chemotherapies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background While the discovery of new drugs is a complex, lengthy and costly process, identifying new uses for existing drugs is a cost-effective approach to therapeutic discovery. Connectivity mapping integrates gene expression profiling with advanced algorithms to connect genes, diseases and small molecule compounds and has been applied in a large number of studies to identify potential drugs, particularly to facilitate drug repurposing. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a commonly diagnosed cancer with high mortality rates, presenting a worldwide health problem. With the advancement of high throughput omics technologies, a number of large scale gene expression profiling studies have been conducted on CRCs, providing multiple datasets in gene expression data repositories. In this work, we systematically apply gene expression connectivity mapping to multiple CRC datasets to identify candidate therapeutics to this disease. Results We developed a robust method to compile a combined gene signature for colorectal cancer across multiple datasets. Connectivity mapping analysis with this signature of 148 genes identified 10 candidate compounds, including irinotecan and etoposide, which are chemotherapy drugs currently used to treat CRCs. These results indicate that we have discovered high quality connections between the CRC disease state and the candidate compounds, and that the gene signature we created may be used as a potential therapeutic target in treating the disease. The method we proposed is highly effective in generating quality gene signature through multiple datasets; the publication of the combined CRC gene signature and the list of candidate compounds from this work will benefit both cancer and systems biology research communities for further development and investigations. PMID:26356760

  14. Combination chemotherapy using core-shell nanoparticles through the self-assembly of HPMA-based copolymers and degradable polyester.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Eliézer; Jäger, Alessandro; Chytil, Petr; Etrych, Tomáš; Ríhová, Blanka; Giacomelli, Fernando Carlos; Stěpánek, Petr; Ulbrich, Karel

    2013-01-28

    The preparation of core-shell polymeric nanoparticles simultaneously loaded with docetaxel (DTXL) and doxorubicin (DOX) is reported herein. The self-assembly of the aliphatic biodegradable copolyester PBS/PBDL (poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene dilinoleate)) and HPMA-based copolymers (N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide-based copolymers) hydrophobically modified by the incorporation of cholesterol led to the formation of narrow-size-distributed (PDI<0.10) sub-200-nm polymeric nanoparticles suitable for passive tumor-targeting drug delivery based on the size-dependent EPR (enhanced permeability and retention) effect. The PHPMA provided to the self-assembled nanoparticle stability against aggregation as evaluated in vitro. The highly hydrophobic drug docetaxel (DTXL) was physically entrapped within the PBS/PBDL copolyester core and the hydrophilic drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl) was chemically conjugated to the reactive PHPMA copolymer shell via hydrazone bonding that allowed its pH-sensitive release. This strategy enabled the combination chemotherapy by the simultaneous DOX and DTXL drug delivery. The structure of the nanoparticles was characterized in detail using static (SLS), dynamic (DLS) and electrophoretic (ELS) light scattering besides transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The use of nanoparticles simultaneously loaded with DTXL and DOX provided a more efficient suppression of tumor-cell growth in mice bearing EL-4 T cell lymphoma when compared to the effect of nanoparticles loaded with either DTXL or DOX separately. Additionally, the obtained self-assembled nanoparticles enable further development of targeting strategies based on the use of multiple ligands attached to an HPMA copolymer on the particle surface for simultaneous passive and active targeting and different combination therapies.

  15. Effectiveness of Olanzapine Combined with Ondansetron in Prevention of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Lei; Wang, Huayong; Zhang, Hao

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the effectiveness of olanzapine combined with ondansetron or ondansetron alone in preventing chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A total of 84 NSCLC patients were equally randomized into intervention group and control group. Both groups were intravenously administered with ondansetron 8 mg 30 min before chemotherapy. In the intervention group, olanzapin 10 mg was orally administered for 8 days, beginning from the first morning of chemotherapy. The antiemetic effectiveness was evaluated in the first chemotherapy cycle. The incidence of acute vomiting was 33.33 % (14/42) and 54.76 % (23/42) in the intervention group and control group (p < 0.05) whereas that of delayed vomiting was 16.57 % (7/42) and 47.62 % (20/42) (p < 0.05). Compared with ondansetron alone, the combination of olanzapine with ondansetron has better effectiveness in preventing CINV in NSCLC patients, particularly for the delayed type.

  16. Effectiveness of combinations of Ayurvedic drugs in alleviating drug toxicity and improving quality of life of cancer patients treated with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Vineeta; Kulkarni, Arvind; Bhargava, Sudhir; Patil, Tushar; Ramdasi, Vijay; Gangal, Sudha; Godse, Vasanti; Datar, Shrinivas; Gujar, Shweta; Sardeshmukh, Sadanand

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of combinations of Ayurvedic drugs in alleviating the toxicity of chemotherapy and improving the quality of life of cancer patients. The following was the research question: Can Ayurvedic drugs be used to alleviate the side effects of chemotherapy and improve the quality of life of cancer patients? Random patients with malignancies of different tissues, grades, and stages were divided into two groups according to their treatment modality. Group 1 consisted of 15 patients treated with six cycles of chemotherapy alone and who did not receive any Ayurvedic drugs (control group). Group 2 consisted of patients (divided into three arms) who received Ayurvedic drugs during chemotherapy and after chemotherapy. Nineteen patients in arm 1 received the Ayurvedic drugs Mauktikyukta Kamdudha (MKD) and Mauktikyukta Praval Panchamruta (MPP) along with a full course of chemotherapy. Fifteen patients in arm 2 received the same Ayurvedic treatment, but the treatment was started after completing the sixth cycle of chemotherapy. Eighteen patients in arm 3 received the Suvarnabhasmadi formulation (SBD) in addition to MKD and MPP after completing the sixth cycle of chemotherapy. Treatment was given for 16 weeks in all three arms. Patients from both groups were observed for a period of 6 months. The assessment criteria depended on Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC designed by NIH and NCI): haemogram; weight; physical examination including Quality of Life Questionnaire (QLQ designed by the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC)) for functional, symptom and global scores; and Karnofsky score for assessment of general well-being and activities of daily life. ECOG (Eastern Cooperation Oncology Group) score was also additionally included for assessment of symptoms. From amongst the symptomatic criteria, there was significant improvement in all the three arms compared with the control group in nausea, loss of appetite

  17. Efficacy of Capecitabine Plus Oxaliplatin Combination Chemotherapy for Advanced Pancreatic Cancer after Failure of First-Line Gemcitabine-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kwang Hyun; Ryu, Ji Kon; Son, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Jae Woo; Jang, Dong Kee; Lee, Sang Hyub; Kim, Yong-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Second-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) that progresses following gemcitabine-based treatment has not been established. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of second-line combination chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin (XELOX) in these patients. Methods Between August 2011 and May 2014, all patients who received at least one cycle of XELOX (capecitabine, 1,000 mg/m2 twice daily for 14 days; oxaliplatin, 130 mg/m2 on day 1 of a 3-week cycle) combination chemotherapy for unresectable or recurrent PDAC were retrospectively recruited. The response was evaluated every 9 weeks, and the tumor response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival, and adverse events were assessed. Results Sixty-two patients were included; seven patients (11.3%) had a partial tumor response, and 20 patients (32.3%) had stable disease. The median progression-free and overall survival were 88 days (range, 35.1 to 140.9 days) and 158 days (range, 118.1 to 197.9 days), respectively. Patients who remained stable longer with frontline therapy (≥120 days) exhibited significantly longer progression-free and overall survival. The most common grade 3 to 4 adverse events in patients were vomiting (8.1%) and anorexia (6.5%). There was one treatment-related mortality caused by severe neutropenia and typhlitis. Conclusions Second-line XELOX combination chemotherapy demonstrated an acceptable response and survival rate in patients with advanced PDAC who had failed gemcitabine-based chemotherapy. PMID:27965478

  18. Effective Management of Advanced Angiosarcoma by the Synergistic Combination of Propranolol and Vinblastine-based Metronomic Chemotherapy: A Bench to Bedside Study.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Eddy; André, Nicolas; Street, Janine; Chougule, Anuradha; Rekhi, Bharat; Ghosh, Jaya; Philip, Deepa S J; Meurer, Marie; MacKenzie, Karen L; Kavallaris, Maria; Banavali, Shripad D

    2016-04-01

    Angiosarcomas are rare malignant tumors of vascular origin that represent a genuine therapeutic challenge. Recently, the combination of metronomic chemotherapy and drug repositioning has been proposed as an attractive alternative for cancer patients living in developing countries. In vitro experiments with transformed endothelial cells were used to identify synergistic interactions between anti-hypertensive drug propranolol and chemotherapeutics. This led to the design of a pilot treatment protocol combining oral propranolol and metronomic chemotherapy. Seven consecutive patients with advanced/metastatic/recurrent angiosarcoma were treated with this combination for up to 12months, followed by propranolol-containing maintenance therapy. Gene expression analysis showed expression of ADRB1 and ADRB2 adrenergic receptor genes in transformed endothelial cells and in angiosarcoma tumors. Propranolol strongly synergized with the microtubule-targeting agent vinblastine in vitro, but only displayed additivity or slight antagonism with paclitaxel and doxorubicin. A combination treatment using bi-daily propranolol (40mg) and weekly metronomic vinblastine (6mg/m(2)) and methotrexate (35mg/m(2)) was designed and used in 7 patients with advanced angiosarcoma. Treatment was well tolerated and resulted in 100% response rate, including 1 complete response and 3 very good partial responses, based on RECIST criteria. Median progression-free and overall survival was 11months (range 5-24) and 16months (range 10-30), respectively. Our results provide a strong rationale for the combination of β-blockers and vinblastine-based metronomic chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced angiosarcoma. Furthermore, our study highlights the potential of drug repositioning in combination with metronomic chemotherapy in low- and middle-income country setting. This study was funded by institutional and philanthropic grants. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Conventional Cisplatin-Based Combination Chemotherapy Is Effective in the Treatment of Metastatic Spermatocytic Seminoma with Extensive Rhabdomyosarcomatous Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yumun; Cheon, Jaekyung; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lim, Doo-Ho; Lee, Sunpyo; Cho, Young-Mi; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Jae Lyun

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old man was presented with a huge left testicular mass and palpable cervical lymphadenopathy with retroperitoneal lymph node enlargement on an abdominal computed tomography. A left radical orchiectomy and an ultrasound-guided neck node biopsy were performed. A pathological examination revealed spermatocytic seminoma with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous transformation, a condition known to be highly resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy. The patient received four cycles of etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin (VIP) chemotherapy. A repeat computed tomography revealed a substantial regression consistent with a partial response. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was attempted, which revealed rhabdomyosarcoma; however, complete microscopic resection was not achieved. After surgery, the residual abdominal lymph node progressed and salvage paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin (TIP) chemotherapy was employed, which again achieved a partial response. Here, we present a first case report of a spermatocytic seminoma with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous transformation and multiple metastatic lymphadenopathies that showed a favorable response to platinum-based systemic chemotherapy. PMID:25381827

  20. Conventional Cisplatin-Based Combination Chemotherapy Is Effective in the Treatment of Metastatic Spermatocytic Seminoma with Extensive Rhabdomyosarcomatous Transformation.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yumun; Cheon, Jaekyung; Kim, Tae-Oh; Lim, Doo-Ho; Lee, Sunpyo; Cho, Young-Mi; Hong, Jun Hyuk; Lee, Jae Lyun

    2015-10-01

    A 52-year-old man was presented with a huge left testicular mass and palpable cervical lymphadenopathy with retroperitoneal lymph node enlargement on an abdominal computed tomography. A left radical orchiectomy and an ultrasound-guided neck node biopsy were performed. A pathological examination revealed spermatocytic seminoma with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous transformation, a condition known to be highly resistant to platinum-based chemotherapy. The patient received four cycles of etoposide, ifosfamide and cisplatin (VIP) chemotherapy. A repeat computed tomography revealed a substantial regression consistent with a partial response. Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection was attempted, which revealed rhabdomyosarcoma; however, complete microscopic resection was not achieved. After surgery, the residual abdominal lymph node progressed and salvage paclitaxel, ifosfamide and cisplatin (TIP) chemotherapy was employed, which again achieved a partial response. Here, we present a first case report of a spermatocytic seminoma with extensive rhabdomyosarcomatous transformation and multiple metastatic lymphadenopathies that showed a favorable response to platinum-based systemic chemotherapy.

  1. Immunoregulation of Shenqi Fuzheng Injection Combined with Chemotherapy in Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Wang; Xiumei, Gao

    2017-01-01

    Background. Immunosuppression is a well-recognised complication of chemotherapy in cancer patients. We assemble the clinical evidence that SQI, an adjuvant drug for lung cancer and gastric cancer which was widely prescribed in China, interventions could increase objective tumour response and regulate immunity in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Methods. We undertook a systemic review of the clinical data from randomised controlled trials up to September 2015 in which a SQI intervention was compared with a control arm in patients undergoing conventional chemotherapy. Revman 5.0 Software was used for the data analysis. Results. 49 randomised controlled trials were included in the systematic review. The meta-analysis results demonstrated that the SQI intervention with conventional chemotherapy exhibited better therapeutic efficacy than the conventional chemotherapy group with a statistically significant higher objective tumour response. Cotreatment with SQI could enhance NK, CD3+, CD4+ level, and CD4+/CD8+ ratio comparing with the conventional chemotherapy group. Conclusions. The conclusions of this review might suggest a high risk of bias due to the low quality and the limitation of cancer types in the included trials. A more reliable conclusion regarding the immunoregulation of SQI could be reached based on more trials of higher quality. PMID:28154607

  2. T-cell modulation combined with intratumoral CpG cures lymphoma in a mouse model without the need for chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Houot, Roch; Levy, Ronald

    2009-04-09

    We have previously shown that intratumoral injection of CpG oligodeoxynucleotide plus systemic chemotherapy can induce a T-cell immune response against lymphoma and serve as a therapeutic vaccine to cure tumors in a murine model. Here, we demonstrate that antibody-mediated modulation of T cells increases the efficacy of CpG vaccination, thereby eliminating the need for chemotherapy. T-cell modulation was accomplished by targeting both effector and regulatory T-cell populations using systemic administration of monoclonal antibodies against OX40, CTLA4, GITR, and folate receptor 4 (FR4). Each of these antibodies enhanced the effect of intratumoral CpG. Some pairwise combinations of these antibodies potentiated T-cell modulation and further enhanced the efficacy of CpG vaccination. Specifically, the combination of anti-OX40 and anti-CTLA4 which enhance activation and block cell-intrinsic negative regulatory circuits in T cells, respectively, was especially potent. When combined with intratumoral CpG, it induced antitumor CD4 and CD8 T-cell immunity, cured large and systemic lymphoma tumors without chemotherapy, and provided long-lasting immunity against tumor rechallenge. Our results show that the combination of intratumoral CpG and immunomodulatory T-cell antibodies has promise for therapeutic vaccination against lymphoma. These reagents are becoming available for human clinical trials.

  3. Verbal memory in breast cancer patients treated with chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide.

    PubMed

    Andryszak, P; Wiłkość, M; Żurawski, B; Izdebski, P

    2017-08-29

    Memory is one of the crucial human cognitive functions, and deficits in memory processes may lead to difficulties in everyday functioning. The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of anthracycline-based adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) used in breast cancer treatment on verbal memory and learning. We also evaluated the relationship between verbal memory and psychological, somatic and socio-demographic factors. The study was carried out on a group of 31 women with early breast cancer treated with adjuvant chemotherapy and 30 healthy controls. The patients underwent neuropsychological assessment using the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test at three time points: before chemotherapy, mid-chemotherapy and post-chemotherapy. The examination in the controls was conducted at the same time intervals. We found an association between AC-schema chemotherapy and deficits in delayed memory. A deterioration in performance after treatment was observed in 19% of patients. The results showed no deterioration of immediate memory or the verbal learning process. Moreover, a positive relationship was shown between the level of education, physical fitness and the functioning of verbal memory. The results of the study also indicate that age and hormonal status are factors that may increase the possibility of deficits in verbal memory after AC-schema chemotherapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Combination chemotherapy and alpha-interferon in the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, F A; Evans, W K; Garvey, B; Read, S E; Klein, M; Fanning, M M; Coates, R

    1988-10-01

    Thirteen men with a median age of 37 (range 28 to 46) years who had extensive Kaposi's sarcoma associated with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were treated with combination chemotherapy and alpha-interferon. Four patients had stage III disease and nine had stage IV disease (one with pulmonary and eight with gastrointestinal involvement). Treatment consisted of monthly courses of actinomycin D, 1 mg/m2, and vinblastine sulfate, 6 mg/m2, given intravenously on day 1, bleomycin, 10 mg/m2 given intravenously on days 1 and 8, and human lymphoblastoid (alpha-) interferon, 10 million U/m2 given subcutaneously three times a week for six doses starting on day 14. Forty-one treatment cycles (median 3, range 1 to 12) were administered. The median granulocyte and platelet counts on day 14 before the start of interferon therapy were 600 X 10(9)/L and 134 X 10(9)/L respectively; the counts did not fall further during interferon therapy. There was no difference in T-cell subsets, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase level or results of blastogenesis studies after interferon therapy. Four patients required admission to hospital for neutropenia-associated fever. A complete response (of 24 weeks' duration) was seen in one patient and a partial response (of 14 to 44 weeks' duration) in four. One patient had a mixed response, with regression of skin involvement but progression of pulmonary disease. The median length of survival was 48 (range 4 to 143) weeks. Eleven patients died of progressive Kaposi's sarcoma, one of lymphoma and one of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. The results suggest that this form of therapy is not appropriate for patients with Kaposi's sarcoma associated with AIDS.

  5. Anti-tumor activity of an anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody, TRA-8, in combination with taxane/platinum-based chemotherapy in an ovarian cancer model.

    PubMed

    Bevis, Kerri S; McNally, Lacey R; Sellers, Jeffery C; Della Manna, Deborah; Londoño Joshi, Angelina; Amm, Hope; Straughn, J Michael; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2011-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) mediates apoptosis via binding to death receptors and enhances the anti-tumor effect of conventional cancer therapies. We evaluated the efficacy of TRA-8, an agonistic antibody to DR5, combined with docetaxel and carboplatin in vitro in an intraperitoneal (IP) ovarian cancer model. Luciferase positive ES2 cells (ES2H) were treated in 96 well plates with TRA-8, carboplatin, docetaxel, and combination therapy. Cell viability was assessed using ATP-lite assay. Apoptosis was confirmed via Western blot analysis. ES2H cells were injected IP into female athymic nude mice. Animals were sorted based on bioluminescent signal with the following treatments: 1) untreated; 2) TRA-8 alone; 3) docetaxel+carboplatin; and 4) docetaxel+carboplatin+TRA-8. Animals receiving TRA-8 antibody were injected IP with 200 μg of TRA-8 twice weekly until death. Animals receiving docetaxel+carboplatin were injected IP with 5mg/kg and 15 mg/kg respectively every 3 weeks until death. Animals were assessed for tumor burden using bioluminescence imaging and overall survival. Combination therapy reduced viability of ES2H cells in vitro over single agent therapy. Tumor burden was lowest in the chemotherapy+TRA-8 group at days 23 (p<0.001) and 30 (p = 0.04). Mean survival was greatest in the chemotherapy+TRA-8 group (41 days) compared to the chemotherapy only group (34 days) and control group (27 days) as determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis (p<0.001). Conventional chemotherapy combined with TRA-8 reduced cell-viability via activation of apoptotic pathways, reduced tumor burden and improved survival in this ovarian cancer model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. First-line selective internal radiotherapy plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer (FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global): a combined analysis of three multicentre, randomised, phase 3 trials.

    PubMed

    Wasan, Harpreet S; Gibbs, Peter; Sharma, Navesh K; Taieb, Julien; Heinemann, Volker; Ricke, Jens; Peeters, Marc; Findlay, Michael; Weaver, Andrew; Mills, Jamie; Wilson, Charles; Adams, Richard; Francis, Anne; Moschandreas, Joanna; Virdee, Pradeep S; Dutton, Peter; Love, Sharon; Gebski, Val; Gray, Alastair; van Hazel, Guy; Sharma, Ricky A

    2017-09-01

    Data suggest selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) in third-line or subsequent therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer has clinical benefit in patients with colorectal liver metastases with liver-dominant disease after chemotherapy. The FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global randomised studies evaluated the efficacy of combining first-line chemotherapy with SIRT using yttrium-90 resin microspheres in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer with liver metastases. The studies were designed for combined analysis of overall survival. FOXFIRE, SIRFLOX, and FOXFIRE-Global were randomised, phase 3 trials done in hospitals and specialist liver centres in 14 countries worldwide (Australia, Belgium, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, Portugal, South Korea, Singapore, Spain, Taiwan, the UK, and the USA). Chemotherapy-naive patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (WHO performance status 0 or 1) with liver metastases not suitable for curative resection or ablation were randomly assigned (1:1) to either oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy (FOLFOX: leucovorin, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) or FOLFOX plus single treatment SIRT concurrent with cycle 1 or 2 of chemotherapy. In FOXFIRE, FOLFOX chemotherapy was OxMdG (oxaliplatin modified de Gramont chemotherapy; 85 mg/m(2) oxaliplatin infusion over 2 h, L-leucovorin 175 mg or D,L-leucovorin 350 mg infusion over 2 h, and 400 mg/m(2) bolus fluorouracil followed by a 2400 mg/m(2) continuous fluorouracil infusion over 46 h). In SIRFLOX and FOXFIRE-Global, FOLFOX chemotherapy was modified FOLFOX6 (85 mg/m(2) oxaliplatin infusion over 2 h, 200 mg leucovorin, and 400 mg/m(2) bolus fluorouracil followed by a 2400 mg/m(2) continuous fluorouracil infusion over 46 h). Randomisation was done by central minimisation with four factors: presence of extrahepatic metastases, tumour involvement of the liver, planned use of a biological agent, and investigational centre. Participants and investigators were not masked to treatment. The

  7. [The Clinical Utility of Pegfilgrastim in Combination with Adjuvant FEC(100)and TC Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Yanai, Hirotsugu; Endo, Kayoko; Matsumoto, Mayumi; Kon, Masanori; Sugie, Tomoharu

    2016-09-01

    More than 20%of breast cancer patients who undergo myelosuppressive chemotherapy involving FEC(100) or TC experience febrile neutropenia(FN), and pegfilgrastim is commonly recommended as the primary prophylaxis. Delays and/or dose-reductions in chemotherapy should be avoided as much as possible to maximize the clinical benefits of these adjuvant chemotherapies. This study assessed the relative dose intensity(RDI), efficacy, and safety of pegfilgrastim in patients with breast cancer. The incidence of FN was also evaluated. Twenty-six patients with breast cancer undergoing FEC(100)or TC were included in this retrospective study. Of the 26 patients, 19 patients who underwent FEC(100)and 7 patients who underwent TC received 3.6 mg of pegfilgrastim 24 hours after administration of the myelosuppressive chemotherapy. Four and 14 patients who underwent FEC(100)achieved 85-99% and 100% RDI, respectively. All 7 patients who underwent TC achieved 100% RDI. Grade 3 and 4 adverse events, as assessed using the CTCAE, were observed in 11 patients who underwent FEC(100): 2 patients experienced leukocytopenia, 7 experienced neutropenia, 1 experienced thrombocytopenia, and 1 experienced FN. Four patients who underwent TC experienced Grade 3 and 4 adverse events: 1 patient each experienced bone pain, neutropenia, anemia, and FN. Pegfilgrastim can reduce the incidence of FN and maintain RDI in patients with breast cancer undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy.

  8. Combining antiangiogenic therapy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy increases treatment efficacy in stage IIIA (N2) non-small cell lung cancer without increasing adverse effects

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiaoliang; Su, Yanjun; You, Jian; Gong, Liqun; Zhang, Zhenfa; Wang, Meng; Zhao, Zhenqing; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Xiaolin; Wang, Changli

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety and efficacy of combining Endostar antiangiogenic therapy with neoadjuvant chemotherapy for the treatment of stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC, we conducted a randomized, controlled, open-label clinical study of 30 NSCLC patients. Patients were randomly assigned to the test or control groups, which received either two cycles of an NP neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen combined with Endostar or the NP regimen alone, respectively, at a 2:1 ratio. Efficacy was assessed after 3 weeks, and surgical resection occurred within 4 weeks, in the 26 patients who successfully completed treatment. While total response rates (RR) and clinical benefit rates (CBR) did not differ between the experimental groups, total tumor regression rates (TRR) were higher in the test group than in the control group. Median DFS and OS also did not differ between the test and control groups. Clinical perioperative indicators, including intraoperative blood loss, number of dissected lymph node groups, duration of postoperative indwelling catheter use, and time to postoperative discharge, were comparable in the test and control groups. Finally, hematological and non-hematological toxicities and postoperative pathological indicators, including down-staging ratio, complete resection ratio, and metastatic lymph node ratio, also did not differ between the groups. Overall, combining Endostar with NP neoadjuvant chemotherapy increased therapeutic efficacy without increasing adverse effects in stage IIIA-N2 NSCLC patients. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (number NCT02497118). PMID:27566586

  9. A phase I study of combination S-1 plus cisplatin chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiation for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chikamori, Kenichi; Kishino, Daizo; Takigawa, Nagio; Hotta, Katsuyuki; Nogami, Naoyuki; Kamei, Haruhito; Kuyama, Shoichi; Gemba, Kenichi; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Kanazawa, Susumu; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Segawa, Yoshihiko; Takata, Saburo; Tabata, Masahiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2009-07-01

    A combination of S-1, a newly developed oral 5-fluorouracil derivative, and cisplatin is reported to show anti-tumour activity against advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because S-1 shows synergistic effects with radiation, we conducted a phase I study to evaluate the maximum tolerated doses (MTDs), recommended doses (RDs), and dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) of cisplatin and S-1 when combined with concurrent thoracic radiation (total dose of 60 Gy with 2 Gy per daily fraction) in patients with locally advanced NSCLC. Chemotherapy consisted of two 4-week cycles of cisplatin administered on days 1 and 8, and S-1 administered on days 1-14. S-1/cisplatin dosages (mg/m(2)/day) were escalated as follows: 60/30, 60/40, 70/40, 80/40 and 80/50. Twenty-two previously untreated patients were enrolled. The MTDs and RDs for S-1/cisplatin were 80/50 and 80/40, respectively. DLTs included febrile neutropaenia, thrombocytopaenia, bacterial pneumonia and delayed second cycle of chemotherapy. No patient experienced radiation pneumonitis>grade 2 and only one patient experienced grade 3 radiation oesophagitis. The overall response rate was 86.4% with a median survival time of 24.4 months. These results indicate that combination cisplatin-S-1 chemotherapy with concurrent thoracic radiation would be a feasible treatment option and a phase II study is currently under way.

  10. Locoregional Recurrence of Breast Cancer in Patients Treated With Breast Conservation Surgery and Radiotherapy Following Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Min, Sun Young; Lee, Seung Ju; Shin, Kyung Hwan; Park, In Hae; Jung, So-Youn; Lee, Keun Seok; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Seeyoun; Kim, Seok Won; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kang, Han-Sung; Cho, Kwan Ho

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: Breast conservation surgery (BCS) and radiotherapy (RT) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) have been linked with high locoregional recurrence (LRR) rates and ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence (IBTR) rates. The purpose of this study was to analyze clinical outcomes in patients who exhibited LRR and IBTR after being treated by BCS and RT following NCT. Methods and Materials: In total, 251 breast cancer patients treated with BCS and RT following NCT between 2001 and 2006 were included. All patients had been shown to be clinically node-positive. Clinical stage at diagnosis (2003 AJCC) was II in 68% of patients and III in 32% of patients. Of those, 50%, 35%, and 15% of patients received anthracycline-based, taxane-based, and combined anthracycline-taxane NCT, respectively. All patients received RT. Results: During follow-up (median, 55 months), 26 (10%) patients had LRR, 19 of these patients had IBTR. Five-year actuarial rates of IBTR-free and LRR-free survival were 91% and 89%, respectively. In multivariate analyses, lack of hormone suppression therapy was found to increase both LRR and IBTR rates. Hazard ratios were 7.99 (p < 0.0001) and 4.22 (p = 0.004), respectively. Additionally, pathology stage N2 to N3 increased LRR rate (hazard ratio, 4.22; p = 0.004), and clinical AJCC stage III IBTR rate (hazard ratio, 9.05; p = 0.034). Achievement of pathological complete response and presence of multifocal tumors did not affect LRR or IBTR. Conclusions: In patients with locally advanced disease, who were clinically node-positive at presentation, BCS after NCT resulted in acceptably low rates of IBTR and LRR. Mastectomy should be considered as an option in patients who present with clinical stage III tumors or who are not treated with adjuvant hormone suppression therapy, because they exhibit high IBTR rates after NCT and BCS.

  11. Long-term follow-up of European APL 2000 trial, evaluating the role of cytarabine combined with ATRA and Daunorubicin in the treatment of nonelderly APL patients.

    PubMed

    Adès, Lionel; Chevret, Sylvie; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Guerci-Bresler, Agnes; Pigneux, Arnaud; Vey, Nobert; Lamy, Thierry; Huguet, Francoise; Vekhoff, Anne; Lambert, Jean-Francois; Lioure, Bruno; de Botton, Stephane; Deconinck, Erick; Ferrant, Augustin; Thomas, Xavier; Quesnel, Bruno; Cassinat, Bruno; Chomienne, Christine; Dombret, Hervé; Degos, Laurent; Fenaux, Pierre

    2013-07-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) combined to anthracycline-based chemotherapy is the reference treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Whereas, in high-risk patients, cytarabine (AraC) is often considered useful in combination with anthracycline to prevent relapse, its usefulness in standard-risk APL is uncertain. In APL 2000 trial, patients with standard-risk APL [i.e., with baseline white blood cell (WBC) count <10,000/mm(3) ] were randomized between treatment with ATRA with Daunorubicin (DNR) and AraC (AraC group) and ATRA with DNR but without AraC (no AraC group). All patients subsequently received combined maintenance treatment. The trial had been prematurely terminated due to significantly more relapses in the no AraC group (J Clin Oncol, (24) 2006, 5703-10), but follow-up was still relatively short. With long-term follow-up (median 103 months), the 7-year cumulative incidence of relapses was 28.6% in the no AraC group, compared to 12.9% in the AraC group (P = 0.0065). In standard-risk APL, at least when the anthracycline used is DNR, avoiding AraC may lead to an increased risk of relapse suggesting that the need for AraC is regimen-dependent.

  12. [A case of small cell carcinoma in the urinary bladder responding to gemcitabine/cisplatin combination therapy as neoadjuvant chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Shirato, Akitomi; Shimamoto, Kenji; Ozawa, Akira; Tanji, Nozomu; Yokoyama, Masayoshi

    2006-12-01

    We report a case of primary small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. A 79-year-old man with the chief complaints of macrohematuria and pollakisuria was admitted to our hospital. Cystoscopy and computed tomography (CT) revealed a non-papillary broad-based bladder tumor. Histological diagnosis was small cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, and he underwent 3 courses of neoadjuvant chemotherapy including gemcitabine and cisplatin with a preoperative diagnosis of cT3bN0M0. After the chemotherapy, cystoscopy and CT showed complete remission. Total cystectomy with ileal conduit was performed following 3 courses of chemotherapy. Microscopic examination revealed that the small cell carcinoma had disappeared and the converted squamous cell carcinoma remained only in a small part of the specimens. The patient was carefully followed for 10 months after operation, with no tumor recurrence.

  13. A randomized phase III study evaluating the efficacy and safety of NEPA, a fixed-dose combination of netupitant and palonosetron, for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Aapro, M.; Rugo, H.; Rossi, G.; Rizzi, G.; Borroni, M. E.; Bondarenko, I.; Sarosiek, T.; Oprean, C.; Cardona-Huerta, S.; Lorusso, V.; Karthaus, M.; Schwartzberg, L.; Grunberg, S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiemetic guidelines recommend co-administration of agents that target multiple molecular pathways involved in emesis to maximize prevention and control of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). NEPA is a new oral fixed-dose combination of 300 mg netupitant, a highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA) and 0.50 mg palonosetron (PALO), a pharmacologically and clinically distinct 5-HT3 RA, which targets dual antiemetic pathways. Patients and methods This multinational, randomized, double-blind, parallel group phase III study (NCT01339260) in 1455 chemotherapy-naïve patients receiving moderately emetogenic (anthracycline–cyclophosphamide) chemotherapy evaluated the efficacy and safety of a single oral dose of NEPA versus a single oral dose (0.50 mg) of PALO. All patients also received oral dexamethasone (DEX) on day 1 only (12 mg in the NEPA arm and 20 mg in the PALO arm). The primary efficacy end point was complete response (CR: no emesis, no rescue medication) during the delayed (25–120 h) phase in cycle 1. Results The percentage of patients with CR during the delayed phase was significantly higher in the NEPA group compared with the PALO group (76.9% versus 69.5%; P = 0.001), as were the percentages in the overall (0–120 h) (74.3% versus 66.6%; P = 0.001) and acute (0–24 h) (88.4% versus 85.0%; P = 0.047) phases. NEPA was also superior to PALO during the delayed and overall phases for all secondary efficacy end points of no emesis, no significant nausea and complete protection (CR plus no significant nausea). NEPA was well tolerated with a similar safety profile as PALO. Conclusions NEPA plus a single dose of DEX was superior to PALO plus DEX in preventing CINV following moderately emetogenic chemotherapy in acute, delayed and overall phases of observation. As a fixed-dose antiemetic drug combination, NEPA along with a single dose of DEX on day 1 offers guideline-based prophylaxis with a convenient, single-day treatment. PMID

  14. [Evaluation of combination chemotherapy with 5-FU, CDDP and CPT-11 for human gastric carcinoma transplanted into nude mice - comparative study of in vivo chemosensitivity test].

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Noriaki; Fujii, Masashi; Kochi, Mitsugu; Kaiga, Teruo; Takahashi, Tohru; Takayama, Tadatoshi

    2007-06-01

    We performed in vivo chemosensitivity tests on human gastric carcinoma. To evaluate the efficacy of some combined chemotherapy for human gastric carcinoma maintained in the subcutaneous space in nude mice, we designed the following six experimental groups: 1) 5-FU group, 2) CDDP group, 3) CPT-11 group, 4) combined therapy group of 5-FU and CDDP, 5) combined therapy group of 5-FU and CPT-11, and 6) combined therapy group of CPT-11 and CDDP. An in vivo nude mice assay was performed. Histopathological changes of the tumors in nude mice, treated with anti-cancer agents,were also evaluated and compared to the results of the nude mice assay. Based on histopathological grading,the true positive rate of the nude mice assay was 0%, the true negative rate was 83.3%, and the accuracy rate was 83.3%. CPT-11 appeared to be highly efficacious when given in combination with CDDP in human gastric cancer cell lines. These results suggest that combination chemotherapy with CPT-11 and CDDP is clinically effective for gastric cancer patients.

  15. EndoPredict predicts for the response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, François; Finetti, Pascal; Viens, Patrice; Birnbaum, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    The EndoPredict (EP) signature is a prognostic 11-gene expression signature specifically developed in ER+/HER2- node-negative/positive breast cancer. It is associated with relapse-free survival in patients treated with adjuvant hormone therapy, suggesting that EP low-risk patients could be treated with adjuvant hormone therapy alone whereas high-risk patients would deserve addition of adjuvant chemotherapy. Thus, it is important to determine whether EP high-risk patients are or are not more sensitive to chemotherapy than low-risk patients. Here, we have assessed the EP predictive value for pathological complete response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in ER+/HER2- breast cancer. We gathered gene expression and histoclinical data of 553 pre-treatment ER+/HER2- breast carcinomas treated with anthracycline-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We searched for correlation between the pathological complete response (pCR) and the EP score-based classification. The overall pCR rate was 12%. Fifty-one percent of samples were classified as low-risk according to the EP score and 49% as high-risk. EP classification was associated with a pCR rate of 7% in the low-risk group and 17% in the high-risk group (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the EP score remained significantly associated with pCR. Many genes upregulated in the high-risk tumours were involved in cell proliferation, whereas many genes upregulated in the low-risk tumours were involved in ER-signalling and stroma. Despite higher chemosensitivity, the high-risk group was associated with worse disease-free survival. In conclusion, EP high-risk ER+/HER2- breast cancers are more likely to respond to anthracycline-based chemotherapy.

  16. Epidemiology and prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis in Spanish patients with head and neck tumors undergoing radiotherapy treatment alone or in combination with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Mañas, Ana; Cerezo, Laura; de la Torre, Alejandro; García, Mariola; Alburquerque, Héctor; Ludeña, Blanca; Ruiz, Ana; Pérez, Ana; Escribano, Ana; Manso, Aurea; Glaria, Luis Alberto

    2012-10-01

    To describe the oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) prevalence in Spanish patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy, alone or combined with chemotherapy. Secondary objectives were to determine the prevalence of Candida species colonization, and to explore whether different Candida species colonizing the oral cavity and the treatment were associated with a higher prevalence of OPC. This is an observational, cross-sectional, multicentre study, conducted in Spanish radiation oncology units. Patients were diagnosed with head and neck cancer and started a radiotherapy treatment alone or combined with chemotherapy at the moment of their inclusion (N = 92). The OPC prevalence was 26 %. The identification of colonizing pathogens was performed in 49 patients, and Candida albicans was the dominant yeast (69 %), while non-albicans Candida was only found in 15 patients (31 %). Patients with C. albicans colonization had a significant higher prevalence of OPC compared to patients colonized by non-albicans Candida (p = 0.0273), but no difference was found regarding the OPC prevalence in patients receiving only radiotherapy compared to patients with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy treatments. Our data represent a step further in the knowledge of Candida species present in Spanish patients with head and neck tumors under radiation therapy. This is an essential step to manage the prophylaxis and treatment of OPC, since it might lead to severe clinical complications causing treatment interruption and, thus, representing a reduction in anti-tumor efficacy.

  17. L-PROBe: A Novel Non-anthracycline Combination Chemotherapy Regimen for Aggressive B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma in Elderly Patients.

    PubMed

    Law, Arjun Datt; Prakash, Gaurav; Khadwal, Alka; Das, Ashim; Varma, Subhash; Malhotra, Pankaj

    2017-03-01

    The management of aggressive B cell lymphomas in elderly patients is associated with poor tolerability of commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. The safety and tolerability of a novel combination chemotherapy regimen utilizing rituximab, lenalidomide, bendamustine, vincristine and prednisolone was assessed in a series of elderly patients with new onset or relapsed/refractory aggressive B cell lymphoma and inability to receive conventional chemotherapy due to poor performance status and/or significant comorbidities. Ten patients (7 male, 3 female) with a median age of 72 years (range 58-79 years) received therapy with lenalidomide (10 mg/day on days 1-14), rituximab (375 mg/m(2) on day 1), bendamustine (90 mg/m(2) on days 1 and 2), vincristine (1.4 mg/m(2) on day 1) and prednisolone (60 mg/m(2)/day on days 1-5) with cycles repeated every 28 days. Grade 3/4 hematological toxicities included neutropenia (30 %), anemia (30 %) and thrombocytopenia (10 %). An overall response rate of 40 % was observed with a median survival of 120 days (range 14-286 days). Three of the patients who responded achieved complete remission at the end of six cycles of therapy. This combination chemotherapy appears to be well tolerated and effective in elderly patients with poor performance status. Larger controlled studies are indicated to clearly demonstrate applicability of this novel regimen.

  18. Efficacy and safety of single agent or combination adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with colon cancer: a Canadian cancer institute experience.

    PubMed

    Kim, Christina A K; Spratlin, Jennifer L; Armstrong, Dawn E; Ghosh, Sunita; Mulder, Karen E

    2014-09-01

    The pattern of adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) use, toxicity profile, and survival benefit in elderly patients with colon cancer (CC) is unclear. We sought to (1) determine whether patients ≥ 65 years with stage III CC were offered single-agent or combination AC, (2) evaluate the reason for selecting single-agent versus combination AC, (3) evaluate the toxicity profile of single-agent and combination AC in the elderly, and (4) determine whether a survival benefit exists for elderly patients receiving combination AC. A retrospective analysis of records of patients ≥ 65 years diagnosed with stage III CC from 2004 to 2010 was performed to identify baseline characteristics, AC protocols, toxicity, dose intensity, and survival. Two hundred sixty-eight patients ≥ 65 years were diagnosed and treated with AC from 2004 to 2010. Of these patients, 178 were treated with single-agent AC and 90 were treated with combination AC. The most common reasons for choosing single-agent AC were patient preference, comorbidities, and lack of drug coverage. For each year over 65 years, the odds of receiving combination over single-agent AC decreased by 22%. There were more dose delays, dose reductions, and early chemotherapy discontinuation in the combination AC group because of hematologic toxicity. The 5-year overall survival (OS) was 73% in patients who received single-agent AC compared with 84% in those who received combination AC. There was no difference in cancer-related deaths between the groups. In elderly patients treated with AC for stage III CC, single-agent AC is used more frequently than combination AC, based on age, comorbidities, and patient choice. Toxicity with combination AC in elderly patients is high. No survival benefit was seen with combination AC over single-agent AC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Serial intense chemotherapy combining topotecan, etoposide, carboplatin and cyclophosphamide (TECC) followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell support in patients with high risk soft tissue sarcoma (STS).

    PubMed

    Bernbeck, B; Bahci, S; Meisel, R; Troeger, A; Schönberger, S; Laws, H-J; Kramm, C; Wessalowski, R; Koscielniak, E; Dilloo, D; Göbel, U

    2007-01-01

    In nine patients (pts) with soft tissue sarcoma refractory to conventional therapy (incomplete response or relapse) intensified chemotherapy was administered combining 0.75 mg/m (2) topotecan, 100 mg/m (2) etoposide, 100 mg/m (2) carboplatin and 200 mg/m (2) cyclophosphamide on day 1-5 (TECC). To avoid prolonged intervals between the serial TECC courses autologous hematopoietic stem cell supports (median 1.0 x 10(6) CD34+ cells per kg body weight (bw), range 0.5-2.8 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg bw, SD 0.6 x 10(6) CD34+ cells/kg bw) were given on day 7. All pts received granulocyte colony stimulating factor (GCSF) from day 8 in addition. All together 39 TECC courses (minimum 2 courses, maximum 6 courses per pt) were administered, with a median interval of 32 (range 21-52) days until recovery. Leukopenia (<1000/microl) occurred 9 days (range 3-13 days; SD 2.4 days) after end of chemotherapy and persisted for 9 (range 3-15 days; SD 3 days) days. In 31/39 TECC courses readmission to hospital was required for supportive therapy mainly due to neutropenic fever. In this period pts received 0.83 (range 0-1) red blood cell units and 2.35 (range 1-4) platelet units. C-reactive protein in neutropenic pts as an indicator for infection after TECC chemotherapy was detectable after 36 of 39 chemotherapy courses leading to further supportive therapy (median 10.4 mg/dl, range 1.1-28.3 mg/dl; SD 6.67 mg/dl). Duration of total inpatient treatment per TECC course including supportive therapy was in median 13.5 days (range 7-53 days; SD 4.3 days). Only two children had a prolonged infection (77 and 100 days). Clinical and objective tumor responses, defined as complete remission, very good partial response and partial response were observed in 9/9 pts at eight weeks after the last TECC course and were maintained at six months in 7/9 pts. Median time to progression and median overall survival time after TECC chemotherapy were 20.3 months and 25.2 months, respectively. These data provide

  20. Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy Combined with Venous Embolization in a Patient with Hepatic Metastases with an Arteriovenous Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiofuku, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Sakaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Kiyosei; Inoue, Masayoshi; Sueyoshi, Satoru; Shinnkai, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Masatoshi; Kichikawa, Kimihiko

    2009-07-15

    We describe herein a patient who had hepatic metastases with an arteriovenous shunt and was treated by hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. The arteriovenous shunt was diagnosed by {sup 99m}Tc-macroaggregated albumin scintigraphy and hepatic venous embolization was performed to reduce shunt flow.

  1. Successful treatment of pulmonary artery sarcoma by a two-drug combination chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide and epirubicin.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Akiko; Tabata, Masahiro; Kiura, Katsuyuki; Tanimoto, Yasushi; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Aoe, Motoi; Ohohara, Nobuya; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2005-07-01

    We describe a case of 63-year-old woman with pulmonary artery sarcoma successfully treated with chemotherapy. She developed acute shortness of breath, and left chest and shoulder pain. Although a diagnosis of acute pulmonary embolism was made at a local hospital and she received anticoagulation and thrombolysis therapy, no improvement was achieved. Thereafter, she underwent a pulmonary thromboectomy in our hospital, and the histological diagnosis was intimal sarcoma of the pulmonary artery. Since post-operative computed tomography (CT) scans of the chest showed obvious persistence of an intraluminal hypoattenuated area in the left main pulmonary artery, the patient was treated with four cycles of a doublet chemotherapy consisting of ifosfamide (2.5 g/m(2)/day) on days 1-5 and epirubicin (45 mg/m(2)/day) on days 2 and 3. CT scans of the chest after four cycles showed marked regression of the intraluminal hypoattenuated area in the left main pulmonary artery. This is the first case of pulmonary artery sarcoma responding to chemotherapy. Surgical resection is currently the most hopeful treatment for pulmonary artery sarcoma. However, intensive chemotherapy is worth trying in unresectable patients.

  2. [Sequential combination chemotherapy consisting of vincristine, peplomycin, methotrexate, cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) and adriamycin in urothelial cancer].

    PubMed

    Konami, T; Wakabayashi, Y; Kim, T; Ishida, A; Arai, Y; Konishi, T; Pak, K; Takeuchi, H; Tomoyoshi, T; Watanabe, J

    1989-02-01

    The VPM-CisA (vincristine (VCR), peplomycin (PLM), methotrexate (MTX), cisplatin (CDDP) and doxorubicin (ADM), regimen was used to treat 33 patients with urothelial tract tumors. Twenty-two patients had bi-dimensionally measurable disease parameters and 11 patients with locally advanced tumors were given postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy. The protocol consisted of 0.6 mg/m2 VCR on days 1 and 3, 3 mg/m2 PLM on days 1 to 4, 3 mg/m2 MTX on days 2 and 4, 35 mg/m2 CDDP on day 4, and 20 mg/m2 ADM on day 5. These doses were adjusted for each case: the above mentioned dose x [(80/(40+Age]2 +[(Karnofsky's performance status/100)2]. Of these patients, 28 (86 percent) were treated adequately, including 8 (36 per cent) who achieved a complete (2) or partial (6) remission. The mean duration of survival was 65.2 weeks for complete and partial responders, and 48.8 weeks for non-responders, which was not a statistically significant difference. Of 11, who were given post-operative adjuvant chemotherapy (mean observation period: 83.5 weeks) 9 were alive without evidence of disease, 1 had a recurrence 8 months after first chemotherapy, 1 died due to pulmonary and liver metastasis 2 years after the chemotherapy. Toxicity included mild myelosupression, moderate anorexia, vomiting, and severe gastric ulcer, pulmonary fibrosis.

  3. Cancer Chemotherapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... controlled way. Cancer cells keep growing without control. Chemotherapy is drug therapy for cancer. It works by killing the cancer ... It depends on the type and amount of chemotherapy you get and how your body reacts. Some ...

  4. Intra-arterial infusion of radiosensitizer (BUdR) combined with hypofractionated irradiation and chemotherapy for primary treatment of osteogenic sarcoma

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.; Goffinet, D.R.; Donaldson, S.S.; Bagshaw, M.A.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1985-01-01

    Combined modality treatment was given in nine patients of osteogenic sarcoma wherein the tumor was unresectable because of location or amputation was refused. This alternative to massive surgery comprised hypofractionated irradiation, intra-arterial infusion of the radiosensitizer 5'-bromodeoxyuridine (BUdR) and adjuvant systemic chemotherapy. Local control was achieved in seven of the nine patients. Four survived, all without evidence of disease at 6, 7.1, 8.8, and 10.5 years after completion of irradiation. Pulmonary metastases developed in six patients - of whom one survives, following high-dose pulmonary irradiation and additional chemotherapy. Significant soft-tissue injury occurred in five patients. On the basis of our experience, the authors believe that new approaches using modifications of external beam irradiation with different fractionation schedules or better radiosensitizing compounds may hold promise for patients with non-resectable osteosarcoma.

  5. [A Case of Advanced Rectal Cancer in Which Combined Prostate Removal and ISR Using the da Vinci Surgical System with Preoperative Chemotherapy Allowed Curative Resection].

    PubMed

    Kawakita, Hideaki; Katsumata, Kenji; Kasahara, Kenta; Kuwabara, Hiroshi; Shigoka, Masatoshi; Matsudo, Takaaki; Enomoto, Masanobu; Ishizaki, Tetsuo; Hisada, Masayuki; Kasuya, Kazuhiko; Tsuchida, Akihiko

    2016-11-01

    A 53-year-old male presented with a chief complaint of dyschezia.Lower gastrointestinal endoscopy confirmed the presence of a type II tumor in the lower part of the rectum, and a biopsy detected a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma.As invasion of the prostate and levator muscle of the anus was suspected on diagnostic imaging, surgery was performed after preoperative chemotherapy.With no clear postoperative complications, the patient was discharged 26 days after surgery. After 24 months, the number of urination ranged from 1 to 6, with a Wexner score of 6 and a mild desire to urinate in the absence of incontinence.At present, the patient is alive without recurrence.When combined with chemotherapy, robotassisted surgery allows the curative resection of extensive rectal cancer involving the suspected invasion of other organs.In this respect, it is likely to be a useful method to conserve anal and bladder function.

  6. Changes in the relative risk and sites of central nervous system metastasis with effective combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy for small cell carcinoma of the lung

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, R.; Cox, J.D.; Holoye, P.Y.; Byhardt, R.W.

    1983-10-01

    Prolongation of survival of patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung with current effective systemic therapy has been accompanied by a marked increase in the frequency of relapse in the central nervous system (CNS). Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was shown to reduce the frequency of brain metastasis, but there was no increased short-term survival. Therefore, the necessity for PCI early in the course of treatment has been questioned, especially for patients with extensive disease. From January 1974 through March 1982, 205 patients with small cell carcinoma of the lung were treated at the Medical College of Wisconsin Affiliated Hospitals. None had clinical, radioisotopic, or computed tomographic evidence of brain metastasis. Eighty-two patients received radiotherapy and chemotherapy, but no PCI; 123 patients received combination chemotherapy and radiation therapy with PCI. The cumulative probability of brain metastasis without PCI was 36% at 12 months and 47% at 24 months; the probabilities were 6 and 10%, respectively with PCI. The 24-month probability of brain metastasis in patients with limited disease and no PCI was 45%; for those with extensive disease, it was 47%. No patient presented with extracranial central nervous system (ECNS) metastasis and no one without PCI developed it. Twelve patients who received PCI developed ECNS metastasis; the cumulative probabilities rose to 14% at 12 months and 22% at 24 months. The increased frequency of ECNS involvement has led to a phase I trial of PCI followed by six cycles of combination chemotherapy, without maintenance chemotherapy, followed by irradiation of the chest and spinal cord for patients with complete response.

  7. A Review of NEPA, a Novel Fixed Antiemetic Combination with the Potential for Enhancing Guideline Adherence and Improving Control of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting.

    PubMed

    Hesketh, Paul J; Aapro, Matti; Jordan, Karin; Schwartzberg, Lee; Bosnjak, Snezana; Rugo, Hope

    2015-01-01

    Combination antiemetic regimens targeting multiple molecular pathways associated with emesis have become the standard of care for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) related to highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapies. Antiemetic consensus guidelines from several professional societies are widely available and updated regularly as new data emerges. Unfortunately, despite substantial research supporting the notion that guideline conformity improves CINV control, adherence to antiemetic guidelines is unsatisfactory. While studies are needed to identify specific barriers to guideline use and explore measures to enhance adherence, a novel approach has been taken to improve clinician adherence and patient compliance, with the development of a new combination antiemetic. NEPA is an oral fixed combination of a new highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), netupitant, and the pharmacologically and clinically distinct 5-HT3 RA, palonosetron. This convenient antiemetic combination offers guideline-consistent prophylaxis by targeting two critical pathways associated with CINV in a single oral dose administered only once per cycle. This paper will review and discuss the NEPA data in the context of how this first combination antiemetic may overcome some of the barriers interfering with adherence to antiemetic guidelines, enhance patient compliance, and offer a possible advance in the prevention of CINV for patients.

  8. A Review of NEPA, a Novel Fixed Antiemetic Combination with the Potential for Enhancing Guideline Adherence and Improving Control of Chemotherapy-Induced Nausea and Vomiting

    PubMed Central

    Schwartzberg, Lee; Rugo, Hope

    2015-01-01

    Combination antiemetic regimens targeting multiple molecular pathways associated with emesis have become the standard of care for prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) related to highly and moderately emetogenic chemotherapies. Antiemetic consensus guidelines from several professional societies are widely available and updated regularly as new data emerges. Unfortunately, despite substantial research supporting the notion that guideline conformity improves CINV control, adherence to antiemetic guidelines is unsatisfactory. While studies are needed to identify specific barriers to guideline use and explore measures to enhance adherence, a novel approach has been taken to improve clinician adherence and patient compliance, with the development of a new combination antiemetic. NEPA is an oral fixed combination of a new highly selective NK1 receptor antagonist (RA), netupitant, and the pharmacologically and clinically distinct 5-HT3 RA, palonosetron. This convenient antiemetic combination offers guideline-consistent prophylaxis by targeting two critical pathways associated with CINV in a single oral dose administered only once per cycle. This paper will review and discuss the NEPA data in the context of how this first combination antiemetic may overcome some of the barriers interfering with adherence to antiemetic guidelines, enhance patient compliance, and offer a possible advance in the prevention of CINV for patients. PMID:26421300

  9. A recommended practical approach to the management of anthracycline-based chemotherapy cardiotoxicity: an opinion paper of the working group on drug cardiotoxicity and cardioprotection, Italian Society of Cardiology

    PubMed Central

    Spallarossa, Paolo; Maurea, Nicola; Cadeddu, Christian; Madonna, Rosalinda; Mele, Donato; Monte, Ines; Novo, Giuseppina; Pagliaro, Pasquale; Pepe, Alessia; Tocchetti, Carlo G.; Zito, Concetta; Mercuro, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Anthracyclines are the mainstay of treatment of a variety of haematological malignancies and solid tumours. Unfortunately, the clinical use of these drugs is limited by cumulative, dose-related cardiotoxicity which may ultimately lead to a severe and irreversible form of cardiomyopathy. Thus, there is an increasing need for close cooperation among cardiologists, oncologists and haemato-oncologists. As anthracyclines save lives, the logical goal of this cooperation, besides preventing or mitigating cardiotoxicity, is to promote an acceptable balance between the potential cardiac side effects and the vital benefit of anticancer treatment. This manuscript, which is specifically addressed to the cardiologist who has not accumulated much experience in the field of cancer therapy, focuses on several topics, that is old and new mechanisms of cardiac toxicity, late cardiac toxicity, the importance of overall risk assessment, the key role of a cardiology consult before starting cancer therapy, and the pros and cons of primary and secondary prevention programmes. PMID:27183529

  10. Efficacy and safety of trabectedin or dacarbazine in patients with advanced uterine leiomyosarcoma after failure of anthracycline-based chemotherapy: Subgroup analysis of a phase 3, randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Martee L; Patel, Shreyaskumar R; von Mehren, Margaret; Ganjoo, Kristen; Jones, Robin L; Staddon, Arthur; Rushing, Daniel; Milhem, Mohammed; Monk, Bradley; Wang, George; McCarthy, Sharon; Knoblauch, Roland E; Parekh, Trilok V; Maki, Robert G; Demetri, George D

    2017-09-01

    Trabectedin demonstrated significantly improved disease control in leiomyosarcoma and liposarcoma patients in a global phase 3 trial (NCT01343277). A post hoc analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of trabectedin or dacarbazine in women with uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS), the largest subgroup of enrolled patients (40%). Of 577 patients randomized 2:1 to receive trabectedin 1.5mg/m(2) by 24-hour IV infusion or dacarbazine 1g/m(2) by 20-120-minute IV infusion once every three weeks, 232 had uLMS (trabectedin: 144; dacarbazine: 88). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR: complete responses+partial responses+stable disease [SD] for at least 18weeks), duration of response (DOR), and safety. PFS for trabectedin was 4.0months compared with 1.5months for dacarbazine (hazard ratio [HR]=0.57; 95% CI 0.41-0.81; P=0.0012). OS was similar (trabectedin 13.4months vs. dacarbazine 12.9months, HR=0.89; 95% CI 0.65-1.24; P=0.51) between groups. ORR was 11% with trabectedin vs. 9% with dacarbazine (P=0.82). CBR for trabectedin was 31% vs. 18% with dacarbazine (P=0.05); median DOR was 6.5months for trabectedin vs. 4.1months for dacarbazine (P=0.32). Grade 3/4 treatment-emergent adverse events observed in ≥10% of patients in the trabectedin group included transient aminotransferase (aspartate/alanine) elevations, anemia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia. In this post hoc subset analysis of patients with uLMS who had received prior anthracycline therapy, trabectedin treatment resulted in significantly longer PFS versus dacarbazine, with an acceptable safety profile. There was no difference in OS. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. TP53 hotspot mutations are predictive of survival in primary central nervous system lymphoma patients treated with combination chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Munch-Petersen, Helga D; Asmar, Fazila; Dimopoulos, Konstantinos; Areškevičiūtė, Aušrinė; Brown, Peter; Girkov, Mia Seremet; Pedersen, Anja; Sjö, Lene D; Heegaard, Steffen; Broholm, Helle; Kristensen, Lasse S; Ralfkiaer, Elisabeth; Grønbæk, Kirsten

    2016-04-22

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an aggressive variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) confined to the CNS. TP53 mutations (MUT-TP53) were investigated in the context of MIR34A/B/C- and DAPK promoter methylation status, and associated with clinical outcomes in PCNSL patients. In a total of 107 PCNSL patients clinical data were recorded, histopathology reassessed, and genetic and epigenetic aberrations of the p53-miR34-DAPK network studied. TP53 mutational status (exon 5-8), with structural classification of single nucleotide variations according to the IARC-TP53-Database, methylation status of MIR34A/B/C and DAPK, and p53-protein expression were assessed. The 57/107 (53.2 %) patients that were treated with combination chemotherapy +/- rituximab (CCT-treated) had a significantly better median overall survival (OS) (31.3 months) than patients treated with other regimens (high-dose methotrexate/whole brain radiation therapy, 6.0 months, or no therapy, 0.83 months), P < 0.0001. TP53 mutations were identified in 32/86 (37.2 %), among which 12 patients had hotspot/direct DNA contact mutations. CCT-treated patients with PCNSL harboring a hotspot/direct DNA contact MUT-TP53 (n = 9) had a significantly worse OS and progression free survival (PFS) compared to patients with non-hotspot/non-direct DNA contact MUT-TP53 or wild-type TP53 (median PFS 4.6 versus 18.2 or 45.7 months), P = 0.041 and P = 0.00076, respectively. Multivariate Cox regression analysis confirmed that hotspot/direct DNA contact MUT-TP53 was predictive of poor outcome in CCT-treated PCNSL patients, P = 0.012 and P = 0.008; HR: 1.86 and 1.95, for OS and PFS, respectively. MIR34A, MIR34B/C, and DAPK promoter methylation were detected in 53/93 (57.0 %), 80/84 (95.2 %), and 70/75 (93.3 %) of the PCNSL patients with no influence on survival. Combined MUT-TP53 and MIR34A methylation was associated with poor PFS (median 6.4 versus 38.0 months), P = 0

  12. Intermittent versus continuous oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine combination chemotherapy for first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: results of the randomised phase 3 MRC COIN trial.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard A; Meade, Angela M; Seymour, Matthew T; Wilson, Richard H; Madi, Ayman; Fisher, David; Kenny, Sarah L; Kay, Edward; Hodgkinson, Elizabeth; Pope, Malcolm; Rogers, Penny; Wasan, Harpreet; Falk, Stephen; Gollins, Simon; Hickish, Tamas; Bessell, Eric M; Propper, David; Kennedy, M John; Kaplan, Richard; Maughan, Timothy S

    2011-07-01

    When cure is impossible, cancer treatment should focus on both length and quality of life. Maximisation of time without toxic effects could be one effective strategy to achieve both of these goals. The COIN trial assessed preplanned treatment holidays in advanced colorectal cancer to achieve this aim. COIN was a randomised controlled trial in patients with previously untreated advanced colorectal cancer. Patients received either continuous oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine combination (arm A), continuous chemotherapy plus cetuximab (arm B), or intermittent (arm C) chemotherapy. In arms A and B, treatment continued until development of progressive disease, cumulative toxic effects, or the patient chose to stop. In arm C, patients who had not progressed at their 12-week scan started a chemotherapy-free interval until evidence of disease progression, when the same treatment was restarted. Randomisation was done centrally (via telephone) by the MRC Clinical Trials Unit using minimisation. Treatment allocation was not masked. The comparison of arms A and B is described in a companion paper. Here, we compare arms A and C, with the primary objective of establishing whether overall survival on intermittent therapy was non-inferior to that on continuous therapy, with a predefined non-inferiority boundary of 1.162. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol analyses were done. This trial is registered, ISRCTN27286448. 1630 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (815 to continuous and 815 to intermittent therapy). Median survival in the ITT population (n=815 in both groups) was 15.8 months (IQR 9.4-26.1) in arm A and 14.4 months (8.0-24.7) in arm C (hazard ratio [HR] 1.084, 80% CI 1.008-1.165). In the per-protocol population (arm A, n=467; arm C, n=511), median survival was 19.6 months (13.0-28.1) in arm A and 18.0 months (12.1-29.3) in arm C (HR 1.087, 0.986-1.198). The upper limits of CIs for HRs in both analyses were greater than the predefined non

  13. Intermittent versus continuous oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine combination chemotherapy for first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: results of the randomised phase 3 MRC COIN trial

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Richard A; Meade, Angela M; Seymour, Matthew T; Wilson, Richard H; Madi, Ayman; Fisher, David; Kenny, Sarah L; Kay, Edward; Hodgkinson, Elizabeth; Pope, Malcolm; Rogers, Penny; Wasan, Harpreet; Falk, Stephen; Gollins, Simon; Hickish, Tamas; Bessell, Eric M; Propper, David; Kennedy, M John; Kaplan, Richard; Maughan, Timothy S

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background When cure is impossible, cancer treatment should focus on both length and quality of life. Maximisation of time without toxic effects could be one effective strategy to achieve both of these goals. The COIN trial assessed preplanned treatment holidays in advanced colorectal cancer to achieve this aim. Methods COIN was a randomised controlled trial in patients with previously untreated advanced colorectal cancer. Patients received either continuous oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine combination (arm A), continuous chemotherapy plus cetuximab (arm B), or intermittent (arm C) chemotherapy. In arms A and B, treatment continued until development of progressive disease, cumulative toxic effects, or the patient chose to stop. In arm C, patients who had not progressed at their 12-week scan started a chemotherapy-free interval until evidence of disease progression, when the same treatment was restarted. Randomisation was done centrally (via telephone) by the MRC Clinical Trials Unit using minimisation. Treatment allocation was not masked. The comparison of arms A and B is described in a companion paper. Here, we compare arms A and C, with the primary objective of establishing whether overall survival on intermittent therapy was non-inferior to that on continuous therapy, with a predefined non-inferiority boundary of 1·162. Intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol analyses were done. This trial is registered, ISRCTN27286448. Findings 1630 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (815 to continuous and 815 to intermittent therapy). Median survival in the ITT population (n=815 in both groups) was 15·8 months (IQR 9·4–26·1) in arm A and 14·4 months (8·0–24·7) in arm C (hazard ratio [HR] 1·084, 80% CI 1·008–1·165). In the per-protocol population (arm A, n=467; arm C, n=511), median survival was 19·6 months (13·0–28·1) in arm A and 18·0 months (12·1–29·3) in arm C (HR 1·087, 0·986–1·198). The upper limits of CIs for HRs

  14. A randomized trial comparing combination electron-beam radiation and chemotherapy with topical therapy in the initial treatment of mycosis fungoides

    SciTech Connect

    Kaye, F.J.; Bunn, P.A. Jr.; Steinberg, S.M.; Stocker, J.L.; Ihde, D.C.; Fischmann, A.B.; Glatstein, E.J.; Schechter, G.P.; Phelps, R.M.; Foss, F.M.; )

    1989-12-28

    Mycosis fungoides is a T-cell lymphoma that arises in the skin and progresses at highly variable rates. Nonradomized studies have suggested that early aggressive therapy may improve the prognosis in this usually fatal disease. We studied 103 patients with mycosis fungoides, who, after complete staging, were randomly assigned to receive either combination therapy, consisting of 3000 cGy of electron-beam radiation to the skin combined with parenteral chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, etoposide, and vincristine (n = 52) or sequential topical treatment (n = 51). The prognostic factors were well balanced in the two groups. Combined therapy produced considerable toxicity: 12 patients required hospitalization for fever and transient neutropenia, 5 had congestive heart failure, and 2 were later found to have acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Patients receiving combined therapy had a significantly higher rate of complete response, documented by biopsy, than patients receiving conservative therapy (38 percent vs. 18 percent; P = 0.032). After a median follow-up of 75 months, however, there was no significant difference between the treatment groups in disease-free or overall survival. We conclude that early aggressive therapy with radiation and chemotherapy does not improve the prognosis for patients with mycosis fungoides as compared with conservative treatment beginning with sequential topical therapies.

  15. Desmoplastic small round cell tumor: report of 2 cases treated with chemotherapy alone or in combination with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Rogério Agenor; Araújo, Breno Jeha

    2014-01-01

    Here, we present 2 case reports of patients with desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT), a very rare and aggressive mesenchymal cancer, and we discuss 2therapeutic options for this sarcoma. This report focuses on men aged 22 and 37 years, respectively. The first patient presented with an abdominopelvic mass which was not suitable for surgery. He underwent chemotherapy (adriblastina and cisplatin) with a brief partial remission and survival time of 13 months. The second patient presented with an abdominal mass and underwent partial resection. He received chemotherapy and bevacizumab, resulting in a partial remission and a survival time of 34 months. The extent of surgery and monoclonal antibody use probably had a positive impact on survival. It is necessary to include specific targeted therapies in an attempt to improve survival. Surprisingly, positron emission tomography was not effective in restaging of the second patient, emphasizing the importance of computed tomography or magnetic resonance in DSRCT.

  16. [Combined Chemotherapy with Radiation was Tolerable and Effective Treatment in Female Octogenarian Patients with Urethral Cancer -Two Case Reports].

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kazumasa; Nagi, Shoji; Hagiwara, Masahiro; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Tsumura, Hideyasu; Yoshida, Kazunari; Iwamura, Masatsugu

    2016-07-01

    We report two octogenarian patients with primary urethral cancer treated with chemotherapy and external beam radiation therapy. An 85-year-old female presented with perineal bleeding. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a locally advanced tumor in the urethra. Biopsy was performed and pathologic findings demonstrated squamous cell carcinoma. After receiving one cycle of a half dose of gemcitabine and nedaplatin, the patient received external beam radiation therapy with gemcitabine and nedaplatin treatment followed by two more cycles of chemotherapy. Complete response was achieved. An 87-year-old female presented with vaginal bleeding. MRIrevealed locally advanced urethral tumor with bilateral inguinal lymph node metastases. Scratch and urine cytology of tumor demonstrated squamous cell carcinoma. After the same treatment as in case 1, primary cancer and lymph node metastases were significantly decreased. There have been no signs of recurrence or progression after treatment, and no severe adverse events in either patient during 53 and 26 months'follow up, respectively.

  17. Combination Chemotherapy of Mitomycin C and Methotrexate Was Effective on Metastatic Breast Cancer Resistant to Eribulin, Vinorelbine, and Bevacizumab after Anthracycline, Taxane, and Capecitabine

    PubMed Central

    Tanabe, Masahiko

    2016-01-01

    Complete cure of metastatic breast cancer (MBC) is still considered difficult even after the development of new drugs. While new drugs have been continuously developed, conventional drugs such as mitomycin C (MMC) and methotrexate (MTX) have become less used. Combination chemotherapy with MMC and MTX (MMC/MTX) was reported to be effective for 9.7–19.4% of 31 patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-negative MBC who were aggressively treated with anthracycline, taxane, capecitabine, and vinorelbine. However, its efficacy, when it is used after newly developed drugs such as eribulin and bevacizumab, is yet to be evaluated. We here introduce one case in which MMC/MTX was effective for MBC that was resistant to chemotherapy with eribulin, vinorelbine, and bevacizumab with paclitaxel after sequential treatment with anthracycline, taxane, capecitabine, and several hormonal therapies. Lung metastasis was newly observed after sequential treatment of MBC for 6 years. Although the disease was resistant to chemotherapy of eribulin, vinorelbine, and bevacizumab with paclitaxel, it responded well to the treatment of MMC/MTX, which continued for 7 months. This case suggests that MMC/MTX could be an effective treatment for MBC patients when the disease progressively develops even after aggressive treatment with multiple regimens. PMID:27721762

  18. Combination chemotherapy of alternating etoposide and carboplatin with weekly administration of irinotecan and cisplatin in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Akinobu; Noro, Rintaro; Miyanaga, Akihiko; Mizutani, Hideaki; Kosaihira, Seiji; Minegishi, Yuji; Seike, Masahiro; Hino, Mitsunori; Ando, Masahiro; Nomura, Koichiro; Okano, Tetsuya; Kobayashi, Kunihiko; Gemma, Akihiko

    2012-10-01

    A phase II study was conducted to determine the tumor efficacy and tolerance of alternating chemotherapy in extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ED-SCLC). Thirty-six patients with previously untreated ED-SCLC were enrolled in the study. At least four courses of chemotherapy consisting of alternation of two drug combinations were given: alternating cycles of etoposide and carboplatin (EC) with weekly administration of irinotecan and cisplatin (IP) at 3- or 4-week intervals. The overall response rate was 81.8%. The median duration of survival and progression-free survival were 314 days and 144 days, respectively. Hematological toxicity was the main adverse event. Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia were observed in 69.2, 25.6 and 23.1% of the patients, respectively. Severe diarrhea (10.8%) was remarkable during the IP regimen. This novel alternating chemotherapy for patients with ED-SCLC showed moderate tumor efficacy and an acceptable safety profile.

  19. Efficacy of Compound Kushen Injection in Combination with Induction Chemotherapy for Treating Adult Patients Newly Diagnosed with Acute Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Honglei; Lei, Bo; Meng, Shan; Liu, Hailing; Wei, Yongchang; He, Aili; Zhang, Wanggang

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the clinical effectiveness and safety of CKI (compound Kushen injection) plus standard induction chemotherapy for treating adult acute leukemia (AL). We randomly assigned 332 patients with newly diagnosed AL to control (n = 165, receiving DA (daunorubicin and cytarabine) or hyper-CVAD (fractionated cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and dexamethasone)) or treatment (n = 167, receiving CKI and DA or hyper-CVAD) groups. Posttreatment, treatment group CD3+, CD4+, CD4+/CD8+, natural killer (NK) cell, and immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, and IgM) levels were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05), and CD8+ levels were lower in the treatment group than in the control group (p < 0.05). Treatment group interleukin- (IL-) 4 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher compared to the control posttreatment (both p < 0.05) as were complete remission, overall response, and quality of life (QoL) improvement rates (p < 0.05). The control group had more incidences of grade 3/4 hematologic and nonhematologic toxicity (p < 0.05). Responses to induction chemotherapy, QoL improvement, and adverse events incidence between control group patients with acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia were not significantly different. CKI plus standard induction chemotherapy is effective and safe for treating AL, possibly by increasing immunologic function. PMID:27738441

  20. Study protocol of the TRICOLORE trial: a randomized phase III study of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy versus combination chemotherapy with S-1, irinotecan, and bevacizumab as first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Yoshito; Ishioka, Chikashi; Shimada, Ken; Yamada, Yasuhide; Gamoh, Makio; Sato, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Yuki, Satoshi; Morita, Satoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Goto, Rei; Kurihara, Minoru

    2015-09-09

    Metastatic colorectal cancer carries a poor prognosis and cannot be cured by currently available therapy. Chemotherapy designed to prolong survival and improve the quality of life (QOL) of patients is the mainstay of treatment. Standard regimens of FOLFOX/bevacizumab and CapeOX/bevacizumab can cause neurotoxicity, potentially disrupting treatment. The results of 3 phase II studies of combination therapy with S-1, irinotecan, and bevacizumab showed comparable efficacy to mFOLFOX6/bevacizumab and CapeOX/bevacizumab, without severe neurotoxicity. Therefore, the establishment and evaluation of S-1-containing irinotecan-based regimens for first-line treatment are expected to become more important. The TRICOLORE trial is a multicenter, randomized, open-label, controlled phase III study which aims to evaluate the non-inferiority of combination therapy with S-1/irinotecan/bevacizumab (a 3-week regimen [SIRB] or 4-week regimen [IRIS/bevacizumab]) to oxaliplatin-based standard treatment (mFOLFOX6/bevacizumab or CapeOX/bevacizumab) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer who had not previously received chemotherapy. Patients will be randomly assigned to either the control group (mFOLFOX6/bevacizumab or CapeOX/bevacizumab) or study group (SIRB or IRIS/bevacizumab). The target sample size is 450 patients. The primary endpoint is progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints are overall survival (OS), response rate (RR), time to treatment failure (TTF), relative dose intensity (RDI), the incidence and severity of adverse events, quality of life (QOL), quality-adjusted life years (QALY), health care costs, and relations between biomarkers and treatment response (translational research, TR). The results of this study will provide important information that will help to improve the therapeutic strategy for metastatic colorectal cancer, and we believe that this study is very meaningful from the perspective of comparative effectiveness research. UMIN000007834.

  1. [Nimotuzumab Combined with Chemotherapy as Second- or Later-line 
in the Treatment of Advanced Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yang; Li, Junling; Wang, Yan; Hao, Xuezhi; Qu, Fenglian

    2016-10-20

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is commonly overexpressed in lung squamous cell carcinoma and has been associated with impaired prognosis. The aim of this study was to observe the efficacy and safety of nimotuzumab, a anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, combined with chemotherapy as second- or later-line in the treatment of advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma. A retrospective analysis of clinical data was conducted in 13 patients with advanced lung squamous cell carcinoma, who were administered with nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy as second-line or later-line treatment. The efficacy of therapy was evaluated according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 and safety by National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) 4.0. Of the 13 advanced squamous-cell lung cancer patients, one patient had complete response (CR), 2 patients had partial response (PR), 4 cases had stable disease (SD), and 6 patients had progressive disease. The overall response rate (ORR) was 23.1% and clinical benefit rate (CBR) was 53.8%. EGFR expression were detected by immunohistochemistry in 6 patients and the results showed 5 patients were EGFR 3+ and the other was EGFR 2+. Of these 6 EGFR positive patients, 1 case had CR, 1 case had PR and 4 cases had SD; ORR was 33.3% and CBR was 100.0%. Grade 3/4 hematological toxicities were observed in 3 (23.1%) patients, and non-hametological toxicities were mild. Nimotuzumab-associated skin rash was found in 2 (15.4%) patients. Nimotuzumab combined with chemotherapy as second- or later-line therapy for advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma was active and well-tolerated, especially for those patients with EGFR positive.

  2. Triple Negative Breast Cancer Patients Treated at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Phase I Trials: Improved Outcomes with Combination Chemotherapy and Targeted Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ganesan, Prasanth; Moulder, Stacy; Lee, J. Jack; Janku, Filip; Valero, Vicente; Zinner, Ralph G.; Naing, Aung; Fu, Siqing; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Hong, David; Stephen, Bettzy; Stephens, Philip; Yelensky, Roman; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Wheler, Jennifer J.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with metastatic triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) have poor treatment outcomes. We reviewed the electronic records of consecutive patients with metastatic TNBC treated in phase I clinic at MD Anderson between August 2005 and May 2012. One hundred and six patients received at least 1 phase I trial. Twelve of 98 evaluable patients (12%) had either complete response (n=1); partial response (n=7); or, stable disease ≥6 months (n=4). Patients treated on matched therapy (n=16) compared to those on non-matched therapy (n=90) had improved SD≥6 months/PR/CR (33% vs 8%; p=0.018) and longer PFS (median, 6.4 vs 1.9 months; p=0.001). Eleven of 57 evaluable patients (19%) treated with combination chemotherapy and targeted therapy had SD≥ 6 months/PR/CR versus 1 of 41 evaluable patients (2%) treated on other phase I trials (p=0.013); and longer PFS (3.0 vs 1.6 months; p<0.0001). Patients with molecular alterations in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway treated on matched therapy (n=16) had improved PFS compared to those with and without molecular alterations treated on non-matched therapy (n=27) (6.4 vs 3.2 months; p= 0.036). On multivariate analysis, improved PFS was associated with treatment with combined chemotherapy and targeted agents (p=0.0002); ≤2 metastatic sites (p=0.003); therapy with PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors for those with cognate pathway abnormalities (p=0.018); and, treatment with anti-angiogenic agents (p=0.023). In summary, combinations of chemotherapy and angiogenesis and/or PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibitors demonstrated improved outcomes in metastatic TNBC patients. PMID:25253784

  3. Safety and efficacy of nivolumab and standard chemotherapy drug combination in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer: a four arms phase Ib study

    PubMed Central

    Kanda, S.; Goto, K.; Shiraishi, H.; Kubo, E.; Tanaka, A.; Utsumi, H.; Sunami, K.; Kitazono, S.; Mizugaki, H.; Horinouchi, H.; Fujiwara, Y.; Nokihara, H.; Yamamoto, N.; Hozumi, H.; Tamura, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background The human IgG4 monoclonal antibody nivolumab targets programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) and promotes antitumor response by blocking the interaction of PD-1 with its ligands. This single-center phase Ib study investigated the tolerability, safety, and pharmacokinetics of nivolumab combined with standard chemotherapy in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and methods Patients who had stage IIIB without indication for definitive radiotherapy, stage IV, or recurrent NSCLC were eligible. Regimens were nivolumab 10 mg/kg + gemcitabine/cisplatin (arm A), pemetrexed/cisplatin (arm B), paclitaxel/carboplatin/bevacizumab (arm C), or docetaxel (arm D). Regimens A, B, and D were repeated every 3 weeks for up to four cycles and regimen C was repeated for up to six cycles; nivolumab alone (arm A), with pemetrexed (arm B), bevacizumab (arm C), or docetaxel (arm D) was continued every 3 weeks as maintenance therapy until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was evaluated during the first treatment cycle. Results As of March 2014, six patients were enrolled in each arm. The combination of nivolumab 10 mg/kg and chemotherapy was well tolerated. DLT was observed in only one patient in arm A (alanine aminotransferase increased). Select adverse events (those with a potential immunologic cause) of any grade were observed in six, four, six, and five patients in arms A, B, C, and D, respectively. Three, three, six, and one patient achieved partial response while median progression-free survival was 6.28, 9.63 months, not reached, and 3.15 months in arms A, B, C, and D, respectively. Conclusions Combination of nivolumab 10 mg/kg and chemotherapy showed an acceptable toxicity profile and encouraging antitumor activity in patients with advanced NSCLC. Clinical trials number Japanese Pharmaceutical Information Center Clinical Trials Information (JapicCTI)-132071. PMID:27765756

  4. Anti-tumor activity of TRA-8 anti-death receptor 5 (DR5) monoclonal antibody in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy in a cervical cancer model.

    PubMed

    Straughn, J Michael; Oliver, Patsy G; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Wenquan; Alvarez, Ronald D; Grizzle, William E; Buchsbaum, Donald J

    2006-04-01

    There is substantial evidence that tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) causes apoptosis via activation of death receptors 4 and 5 (DR4 and DR5). We sought to determine the therapeutic potential of TRA-8 (anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody) in combination with chemotherapy and radiation therapy in a cervical cancer model. DR5 expression in 7 human cervical cancer cell lines was analyzed by indirect immunofluorescence using murine TRA-8 in combination with flow cytometry. Cell lines were treated with TRA-8 alone or in combination with cisplatin, topotecan, or radiation, and cytotoxicity assays were performed. Mice were inoculated with ME-180 cancer cells and treated with different combinations of therapy. Animals receiving antibody were injected intraperitoneally with 200 microg of TRA-8. Animals received 9 Gy 60Co radiation divided into 3 fractions and 3 intraperitoneal doses of cisplatin (6 mg/kg) 1 h before radiation. A similar experiment was performed using topotecan (2 mg/kg) as the chemotherapeutic agent. DR5 was expressed to a varying degree on the cervical cancer cell lines. Combination treatment with TRA-8 and chemotherapy or radiation resulted in synergistic cytotoxicity in vitro. In vivo, combination therapy with TRA-8, cisplatin, and radiation produced tumor growth inhibition that was significantly greater than the other groups. Similar results were seen in combination studies with topotecan. These data suggest that DR5 is a good target for activation of the apoptotic pathway. Monoclonal antibodies such as TRA-8 may play an important role in the development of an effective treatment strategy for patients with advanced cervical cancer.

  5. Combination of Palonosetron, Aprepitant, and Dexamethasone Effectively Controls Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in Patients Treated with Concomitant Temozolomide and Radiotherapy: Results of a Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    MATSUDA, Masahide; YAMAMOTO, Tetsuya; ISHIKAWA, Eiichi; AKUTSU, Hiroyoshi; TAKANO, Shingo; MATSUMURA, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Concomitant use of temozolomide (TMZ) and radiotherapy, which is the standard therapy for patients with high-grade glioma, involves a unique regimen with multiple-day, long-term administration. In a previous study, we showed not only higher incidence rates of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) during the overall study period, but also substantially higher incidence rates of moderate/severe nausea and particularly severe appetite suppression during the late phase of the treatment. Here, we prospectively evaluated the efficacy of a combination of palonosetron, aprepitant, and dexamethasone for CINV in patients treated with concomitant TMZ and radiotherapy. Twenty-one consecutive patients with newly diagnosed high-grade glioma were enrolled. CINV was recorded using a daily diary and included nausea assessment, emetic episodes, degree of appetite suppression, and use of antiemetic medication. The percentage of patients with a complete response in the overall period was 76.2%. The percentages of patients with no moderate/severe nausea were 90.5, 100, and 90.5% in the early phase, late phase, and overall period, respectively. Severe appetite suppression throughout the overall period completely disappeared. The combination of palonosetron, aprepitant, and dexamethasone was highly effective and well tolerated in patients treated with concomitant TMZ and radiotherapy. This combination of antiemetic therapy focused on delayed as well as acute CINV and may have the potential to overcome CINV associated with a multiple-day, long-term chemotherapy regimen. PMID:27666343

  6. Treatment complications after sequential combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy with or without surgery in previously untreated squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    SciTech Connect

    Posner, M.R.; Weichselbaum, R.R.; Fitzgerald, T.J.; Clark, J.R.; Rose, C.; Fabian, R.L.; Norris, C.M. Jr.; Miller, D.; Tuttle, S.A.; Ervin, T.J.

    1985-11-01

    One hundred consecutive patients with previously untreated advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck were treated with induction combination chemotherapy followed by definitive surgery and/or radiotherapy, and were evaluated for radiotherapy related toxicity. The induction regimen consisted of cisplatin, bleomycin and methotrexate/leucovorin. Acute toxicity consisted predominantly of mucositis and weight loss, and was mild or moderate by degree in 94% of patients. Six percent of patients experienced severe or life threatening acute toxicities. Two acute toxic deaths were noted in this series, one from a combination of mucositis, weight loss and infection and one from hypoglycemia of unknown origin. Thirty-five percent of patients had radiation treatment interrupted briefly because of acute toxicity. Radiotherapy dose, surgical intervention and age did not have an impact on the presence or degree of acute toxicity. Late toxicities included: hypothyroidism in 32% of patients tested: osteoradionecrosis in 5% of patients, associated primarily with a composite resection (4 of 5 cases); and soft tissue ulcerations in 3%. Taken together, these data indicate that induction combination chemotherapy did not significantly increase the toxicity of subsequent radiotherapy with or without surgery.

  7. Treatment of advanced stage ovarian carcinoma with a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and radiosensitizer: report of a pilot study from the National Cancer Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Lichter, A.S.; Ozols, R.F.; Myers, C.C.; Ostechega, Y.; Young, R.C.

    1987-08-01

    Twenty-eight patients with Stage III or IV ovarian carcinoma were treated with combined chemotherapy-radiotherapy employing a unique protocol. Four cycles of cyclophosphamide and hexamethylmelamine alternated with four cycles of concurrent cisplatin, whole abdominal radiotherapy, and intraperitoneal misonidazole. The entire treatment program lasted six months. Clinical complete responses were seen in 50% of the patients with an overall response rate of 61%. Pathologic complete response (PCR) confirmed at second look surgery occurred in 18% of the group (5 patients). Median survival of the entire group was 15.2 months with all PCR's alive NED. This outcome was no different than our previous experience with combination chemotherapy alone. Toxicities seen included leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. However, these side effects were manageable. Two non-tumor deaths occurred. This study demonstrates the feasibility of combining drug and radiation therapy concurrently in the treatment of ovarian cancer; further research is needed to explore different sequencing and dose levels that could improve the outcome.

  8. Curative effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin combined chemotherapy on cervical cancer and its relation with tissue micro vascular and lymphatic vessels density.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Qian-Qing

    2015-09-01

    This study was to discuss the curative effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin combined chemotherapy on cervical cancer and its relation with tissue micro vascular and lymphatic vessels density. The combined chemotherapy of paclitaxel 135 mg/m² and cisplatin 25mg/m² were taken to observe the clinical curative effect. The postoperative paraffin tissue had been collected, had performed the LYVE-1 (lymphatic endothelium specific hyaluronan receptor-1) and CD31 immunohistochemical staining. The complete remission rate of high micro lymphatic vessels density group (was or more 6.0) and high micro vascular density group were obviously higher than in low micro lymphatic vessels density group and low micro vascular density group, the difference was statistically significance (P<0.05). This study further analyzed the relation of MVD and LVD with clinical pathological parameters. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.01). The curative effect of paclitaxel and cisplatin combined therapy was promising, positive and was closely related with cervical cancer tissue LVD and MVD. The LVD and MVD could be one of the predictors of early cervical CIN and early cervical cancer development.

  9. Addition of cetuximab to oxaliplatin-based first-line combination chemotherapy for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: results of the randomised phase 3 MRC COIN trial.

    PubMed

    Maughan, Timothy S; Adams, Richard A; Smith, Christopher G; Meade, Angela M; Seymour, Matthew T; Wilson, Richard H; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Harris, Rebecca; Fisher, David; Kenny, Sarah L; Kay, Edward; Mitchell, Jenna K; Madi, Ayman; Jasani, Bharat; James, Michelle D; Bridgewater, John; Kennedy, M John; Claes, Bart; Lambrechts, Diether; Kaplan, Richard; Cheadle, Jeremy P

    2011-06-18

    In the Medical Research Council (MRC) COIN trial, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted antibody cetuximab was added to standard chemotherapy in first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with the aim of assessing effect on overall survival. In this randomised controlled trial, patients who were fit for but had not received previous chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy (arm A), the same combination plus cetuximab (arm B), or intermittent chemotherapy (arm C). The choice of fluoropyrimidine therapy (capecitabine or infused fluouroracil plus leucovorin) was decided before randomisation. Randomisation was done centrally (via telephone) by the MRC Clinical Trials Unit using minimisation. Treatment allocation was not masked. The comparison of arms A and C is described in a companion paper. Here, we present the comparison of arm A and B, for which the primary outcome was overall survival in patients with KRAS wild-type tumours. Analysis was by intention to treat. Further analyses with respect to NRAS, BRAF, and EGFR status were done. The trial is registered, ISRCTN27286448. 1630 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (815 to standard therapy and 815 to addition of cetuximab). Tumour samples from 1316 (81%) patients were used for somatic molecular analyses; 565 (43%) had KRAS mutations. In patients with KRAS wild-type tumours (arm A, n=367; arm B, n=362), overall survival did not differ between treatment groups (median survival 17·9 months [IQR 10·3-29·2] in the control group vs 17·0 months [9·4-30·1] in the cetuximab group; HR 1·04, 95% CI 0·87-1·23, p=0·67). Similarly, there was no effect on progression-free survival (8·6 months [IQR 5·0-12·5] in the control group vs 8·6 months [5·1-13·8] in the cetuximab group; HR 0·96, 0·82-1·12, p=0·60). Overall response rate increased from 57% (n=209) with chemotherapy alone to 64% (n=232) with

  10. Addition of cetuximab to oxaliplatin-based first-line combination chemotherapy for treatment of advanced colorectal cancer: results of the randomised phase 3 MRC COIN trial

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, Timothy S; Adams, Richard A; Smith, Christopher G; Meade, Angela M; Seymour, Matthew T; Wilson, Richard H; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Harris, Rebecca; Fisher, David; Kenny, Sarah L; Kay, Edward; Mitchell, Jenna K; Madi, Ayman; Jasani, Bharat; James, Michelle D; Bridgewater, John; Kennedy, M John; Claes, Bart; Lambrechts, Diether; Kaplan, Richard; Cheadle, Jeremy P

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background In the Medical Research Council (MRC) COIN trial, the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted antibody cetuximab was added to standard chemotherapy in first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer with the aim of assessing effect on overall survival. Methods In this randomised controlled trial, patients who were fit for but had not received previous chemotherapy for advanced colorectal cancer were randomly assigned to oxaliplatin and fluoropyrimidine chemotherapy (arm A), the same combination plus cetuximab (arm B), or intermittent chemotherapy (arm C). The choice of fluoropyrimidine therapy (capecitabine or infused fluouroracil plus leucovorin) was decided before randomisation. Randomisation was done centrally (via telephone) by the MRC Clinical Trials Unit using minimisation. Treatment allocation was not masked. The comparison of arms A and C is described in a companion paper. Here, we present the comparison of arm A and B, for which the primary outcome was overall survival in patients with KRAS wild-type tumours. Analysis was by intention to treat. Further analyses with respect to NRAS, BRAF, and EGFR status were done. The trial is registered, ISRCTN27286448. Findings 1630 patients were randomly assigned to treatment groups (815 to standard therapy and 815 to addition of cetuximab). Tumour samples from 1316 (81%) patients were used for somatic molecular analyses; 565 (43%) had KRAS mutations. In patients with KRAS wild-type tumours (arm A, n=367; arm B, n=362), overall survival did not differ between treatment groups (median survival 17·9 months [IQR 10·3–29·2] in the control group vs 17·0 months [9·4–30·1] in the cetuximab group; HR 1·04, 95% CI 0·87–1·23, p=0·67). Similarly, there was no effect on progression-free survival (8·6 months [IQR 5·0–12·5] in the control group vs 8·6 months [5·1–13·8] in the cetuximab group; HR 0·96, 0·82–1·12, p=0·60). Overall response rate increased from 57% (n=209

  11. Increasing the rate of heating: a potential therapeutic approach for achieving synergistic tumour killing in combined hyperthermia and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yuan; McGoron, Anthony J

    2013-01-01

    A synergistic cancer cell killing effect of sub-lethal hyperthermia and chemotherapy has been reported extensively. In this study, in vitro cell culture experiments with a uterine cancer cell line (MES-SA) and its multidrug resistant (MDR) variant MES-SA/Dx5 were conducted in order to investigate the role of heating rate in achieving a synergistic effect. The mode of cell death, induction of thermal tolerance and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated MDR following two different rates of heating were studied. Doxorubicin (DOX) was used as the chemotherapy drug. A rapid rate hyperthermia was achieved by near infrared laser (NIR) excited indocyanine green (ICG) dye (absorption maximum at 808 nm, ideal for tissue penetration). A slow rate hyperthermia was provided by a cell culture incubator. The potentiating effect of hyperthermia to chemotherapy can be maximised by increasing the rate of heating. When delivered at the same thermal dose, a rapid increase in temperature from 37°C to 43°C caused more cell membrane damage than gradually heating the cells from 37°C to 43°C and thus allowed for more intracellular accumulation of DOX. Meanwhile, the rapid rate laser-ICG hyperthermia at 43°C caused cell necrosis whereas the slow rate incubator hyperthermia at 43°C induced mild apoptosis. At 43°C a positive correlation between thermal tolerance and the length of hyperthermia exposure is identified. This study shows that by increasing the rate of heating, less thermal dose is needed in order to overcome P-gp mediated MDR.

  12. Changes in aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 expression during neoadjuvant chemotherapy predict outcome in locally advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced breast cancer can improve operability and local disease control, there is a lack of reliable biomarkers that predict response to chemotherapy or long-term survival. Since expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 (ALDH1) is associated with the stem-like properties of self-renewal and innate chemoresistance in breast cancer, we asked whether expression in serial tumor samples treated with NAC could identify women more likely to benefit from this therapy. Methods Women with locally advanced breast cancer were randomly assigned to receive four cycles of anthracycline-based chemotherapy, followed by four cycles of taxane therapy (Arm A), or the same regimen in reverse order (Arm B). Tumor specimens were collected at baseline, after four cycles, and then at surgical resection. ALDH1 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry and correlated with tumor response using Fisher’s exact test while Kaplan-Meier method was used to calculate survival. Results A hundred and nineteen women were enrolled into the study. Fifty seven (48%) were randomized to Arm A and 62 (52%) to Arm B. Most of the women (90%) had ductal carcinoma and 10% had lobular carcinoma. Of these, 26 (22%) achieved a pathological complete response (pCR) after NAC. There was no correlation between baseline ALDH1 expression and tumor grade, stage, hormone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and Ki67 index. ALDH1 negativity at baseline was significantly associated with pCR (P = 0.004). The presence of ALDH1(+) cells in the residual tumor cells in non-responding women was strongly predictive of worse overall survival (P = 0.024). Moreover, serial analysis of specimens from non-responders showed a marked increase in tumor-specific ALDH1 expression (P = 0.028). Overall, there was no survival difference according to the chemotherapy sequence. However, poorly responding tumours from women receiving

  13. Combination of Iodine-125 brachytherapy and chemotherapy for locally recurrent stage III non-small cell lung cancer after concurrent chemoradiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaojuan; Li, Jin; Zhong, Xiaoming; He, Jingdong

    2015-10-06

    Locally recurrent non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) poses a great challenge to physicians. This study aimed to explore the efficacy and safety of the combination of brachytherapy and docetaxel and cisplatin for the treatment of locally recurrent stage III NSCLC. Fifty two patients with locally recurrent stage III NSCLC after concurrent chemoradiotherapy were randomly divided into two groups (n = 26). The patients in experimental group were treated with implantation of radioactive (125)I seeds and DP regimen (docetaxel 60 mg/m(2)/cisplatin 75 mg/m(2)). Patients in control group received DP chemotherapy. The local control rate (LCR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall response rate (ORR) were defined according to the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST). With a median follow-up time of 11 months, PFS and LCR was 8 months (95 % CI: 6.99-9.01 months) vs. 5.5 months (95 % CI: 4.43-6.57 months) (P < 0.05) and 10 months (95 % CI: 8.72-11.28 months) vs. 6.2 months (95 % CI: 5.27-7.13 months) (P < 0.05) in the experimental and control groups, respectively. The ORR did not differ between treatment groups and was noted to be 69.2 % and 57.7 %, respectively (P >0.05). There was no occurrence of severe complications in experimental and control groups. The combination of (125)I brachytherapy and second-line chemotherapy is superior to chemotherapy alone and is an effective and safe therapy for this disease. ChiCTR-IOR-15006560.

  14. Phase II Feasibility Study on the Combination of Two Different Regional Treatment Approaches in Patients with Colorectal 'Liver-Only' Metastases: Hepatic Interstitial Brachytherapy Plus Regional Chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wieners, Gero Pech, Maciej; Hildebrandt, Bert; Peters, Nils; Nicolaou, Annett; Mohnike, Konrad; Seidensticker, Max; Sawicki, Marcin; Wust, Peter; Ricke, Jens

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of combined treatment with hepatic interstitial brachytherapy (HIB) and hepatic arterial infusion (HAI) of chemotherapy after interventional implantation of port catheter systems. Thirty-three patients with unresectable 'liver-only' metastases of colorectal cancer were treated with both HIB and HAI during the course of their disease. All 33 patients had recurrent disease and 27 had received previous chemotherapy. Of these, 15 received HAI first and were then consolidated with HIB, 9 started with HIB and were continued with HAI, and 9 received first HIB and subsequently HAI after hepatic disease progression. Patients were evaluated for treatment characteristics, side effects, and efficacy. Comparisons between treatment groups were also performed. The median tumor diameter of metastases treated with brachytherapy was 4.6 cm (range: 1-12 cm). The median minimal irradiation dose inside the tumor margin was 18 Gy administered to a mean of two metastases in 69 interventions. Minor (n = 4) and major (n = 3) complications occurred in 10% of interventions. WHO grade III adverse events of the regional chemotherapy were observed in seven patients; grade IV, in one patient. At a median follow-up of 28 months (range: 7-74 months), the median time to disease progression after first treatment was 10.5 months (range: 1-35 months). Of 138 metastases treated by brachytherapy, 16 local recurrences were seen (mean, 12.3 months; range, 3-45 months). No signs of hepatic failure were observed in any of our patients. In conclusion, combinations of two minimally invasive therapeutic methods are feasible, with acceptable complication rates, and provide promising results in colorectal cancer patients with unresectable hepatic metastases.

  15. Effects of Dietary Honey andArdehCombination on Chemotherapy- Induced Gastrointestinal and Infectious Complications in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Double-Blind Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Mahmoud; Allahyari, Abolghasem; Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Hesam, Hesam; Hosseini, Golkoo; Karimi, Mohammad; Rezaiean, Amin; Kazemi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of dietary combination of honey and Ardeh on chemotherapy-induced complications in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A total of 107 AML patients who underwent chemotherapy for at least 30 consecutive dayswere recruited to this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical-trial which was conducted in the Imam Reza and Ghaem teaching hospitals (Mashhad, Iran). They weredivided into two age and sex-matched groups: 58 treated and 49 untreated patients. A combination of 50 grams of honey and 150 grams of Ardehwas added to the treated group’s diet for 30consecutive days, three times each day; while the untreated group received their regular diet.Both groups received their standard medication for AML as well. After one month, they were all examined and lab tests were done on them by an internist and laboratory technicians who were blinded to the subject allocations. Mean value of WBC count in treated group was significantly lower than that of untreated group. Duration of fever and admission in the hospital due to fever were both significantly lower in the treated group (P=0.014, P=0.032 respectively). Total gastrointestinal complications were significantly less in the treated group one month after therapy with the special honey and Ardeh compound.No unusual or unexpected side effects were observed. Honey and Ardehare easily accessible materials that can be helpfully administered in AML patientsreceiving chemotherapy, since their useful effects in ameliorating gastrointestinal complications and reducingfever and neutropenia in AML patients have been shown. PMID:27642340

  16. Chemotherapy Effects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Falling Fatigue Fertility and Sexual Side Effects Fever Hair ... Cancers Caused by Cancer Treatment Some cancer treatments such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy may increase a person's risk ...

  17. Balancing activity and tolerability of neoadjuvant paclitaxel- and docetaxel-based chemotherapy for HER2-positive early stage breast cancer: sensitivity analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Nortilli, Rolando; Brunelli, Matteo; Vicentini, Cecilia; Pellini, Francesca; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Giannarelli, Diana; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2015-03-01

    Paclitaxel and docetaxel represent the most adopted taxanes in the neoadjuvant treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. Questions still remain with regard to their difference in terms of activity and tolerability. Events for pathological complete response (pCR), severe and febrile neutropenia (FN), and severe neurotoxicity were pooled by adopting a fixed- and random-effect model. A sensitivity analysis to test for the interaction between paclitaxel and docetaxel was accomplished. Absolute differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the number of patients needed to treat/harm (NNT/NNH) were calculated to derive the Likelihood of being Helped or Harmed (LHH). Data from 15 trials (3601 patients) were included. Paclitaxel significantly increases pCR rate by 6.8% in comparison with docetaxel (43.4%, 95% CI 41.1-45.7% versus 36.6%, 95% CI 34.3-39.0%, p=0.0001), regardless of the chemotherapy backbone, with an absolute difference of 9% and 9.2% for anthracycline-based or free-regimens. Paclitaxel significantly improves pCR versus docetaxel with a single HER2-inhibition by 6.7% (p=0.0012), with no difference if combined with a dual HER2-inhibition. Severe neutropenia and FN are significantly lower with paclitaxel, with an absolute difference of 32.4% (p<0.0001) and 2.5% (p=0.0059), respectively. Conversely, severe neurotoxicity is slightly higher with paclitaxel (3%, p=0.0001). The LHH ratio calculated for pCR and severe neutropenia is 2.0 and 0.7 for paclitaxel and docetaxel. Although the activity of neoadjuvant paclitaxel and docetaxel HER2-positive breast cancer is considered similar, the slight advantage in pCR, the significantly lower neutropenia and FN, do favor paclitaxel (in the weekly fashion) over docetaxel, despite the slightly worst neurotoxicity.

  18. Advanced interstitial chemotherapy combined with targeted treatment of malignant glioma in rats by using drug-loaded nanofibrous membranes

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Yuan-Yun; Su, Chen-Hsing; Yang, Shun-Tai; Huang, Yin-Chen; Lee, Wei-Hwa; Wang, Yi-Chuan; Liu, Shou-Cheng; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most prevalent and malignant form of a primary brain tumour, is resistant to chemotherapy. In this study, we concurrently loaded three chemotherapeutic agents [bis-chloroethylnitrosourea, irinotecan, and cisplatin; BIC] into 50:50 poly[(d,l)-lactide-co-glycolide] (PLGA) nanofibres and an antiangiogenic agent (combretastatin) into 75:25 PLGA nanofibres [BIC and combretastatin (BICC)/PLGA]. The BICC/PLGA nanofibrous membranes were surgically implanted onto the brain surfaces of healthy rats for conducting pharmacodynamic studies and onto C6 glioma-bearing rats for estimating the therapeutic efficacy. The chemotherapeutic agents were rapidly released from the 50:50 PLGA nanofibres after implantation, followed by the release of combretastatin (approximately 2 weeks later) from the 75:25 PLGA nanofibres. All drug concentrations remained higher in brain tissues than in the blood for more than 8 weeks. The experimental results, including attenuated malignancy, retarded tumour growth, and prolonged survival in tumour-bearing rats, demonstrated the efficacy of the BICC/PLGA nanofibrous membranes. Furthermore, the efficacy of BIC/PLGA and BICC/PLGA nanofibrous membranes was compared. The BICC/PLGA nanofibrous membranes more efficiently retarded the tumour growth and attenuated the malignancy of C6 glioma-bearing rats. Moreover, the addition of combretastatin did not significantly change the drug release behaviour of the BIC/PLGA nanofibrous membranes. The present advanced and novel interstitial chemotherapy and targeted treatment provide a potential strategy and regimen for treating GBM. PMID:27494894

  19. Sequential Combination Chemotherapy of Dacarbazine (DTIC) with Carboplatin and Paclitaxel for Patients with Metastatic Mucosal Melanoma of Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses

    PubMed Central

    Omata, W.; Tsutsumida, A.; Namikawa, K.; Takahashi, A.; Oashi, K.; Yamazaki, N.

    2017-01-01

    By the recent introduction of molecular targeting drugs against BRAF mutation and immune checkpoint inhibitors, the prognosis of patients with melanoma in advanced stage is now improving, but still in the minority. Mucosal melanoma lacks the BRAF mutations, and hence conventional chemotherapeutic regimens must be improved. We have conventionally used dacarbazine (DTIC) for patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma. However, the efficacy of DTIC in patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma has been limited. Therefore, we explored other possibilities to improve the prognosis of patients suffering from metastatic mucosal melanoma. In this communication, we present a retrospective analysis of the sequential combination chemotherapy of DTIC with carboplatin and paclitaxel (CP) for metastatic mucosal melanoma of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The objective response rate of seven patients is 14.3% by RECIST 1.1 and the overall survival (OS) is 12.5 months. These data indicate that the sequential combination chemotherapy of DTIC with CP could be an option for patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who are currently ending into dismal prognosis. PMID:28096700

  20. Sequential Combination Chemotherapy of Dacarbazine (DTIC) with Carboplatin and Paclitaxel for Patients with Metastatic Mucosal Melanoma of Nasal Cavity and Paranasal Sinuses.

    PubMed

    Omata, W; Tsutsumida, A; Namikawa, K; Takahashi, A; Oashi, K; Yamazaki, N

    2017-01-01

    By the recent introduction of molecular targeting drugs against BRAF mutation and immune checkpoint inhibitors, the prognosis of patients with melanoma in advanced stage is now improving, but still in the minority. Mucosal melanoma lacks the BRAF mutations, and hence conventional chemotherapeutic regimens must be improved. We have conventionally used dacarbazine (DTIC) for patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma. However, the efficacy of DTIC in patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma has been limited. Therefore, we explored other possibilities to improve the prognosis of patients suffering from metastatic mucosal melanoma. In this communication, we present a retrospective analysis of the sequential combination chemotherapy of DTIC with carboplatin and paclitaxel (CP) for metastatic mucosal melanoma of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. The objective response rate of seven patients is 14.3% by RECIST 1.1 and the overall survival (OS) is 12.5 months. These data indicate that the sequential combination chemotherapy of DTIC with CP could be an option for patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma of nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses who are currently ending into dismal prognosis.

  1. Factors influencing the response to high dose methotrexate-based vincristine and procarbazine combination chemotherapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kang Hyun; Lee, Eun Hee; Kim, Young Zoon

    2011-04-01

    The authors investigated objective response rate to high dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based combination chemotherapy in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), and sought to identify factors that influence response to HDMTX-based combination therapy. Prospective observational analysis was performed on 52 PCNSL patients. All patients received HDMTX (3.5 g/m(2)) and vincristine (1.4 mg/m(2)/day) for one day during weeks 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, and procarbazine (100 mg/m(2)/day) for one week during weeks 1, 5, and 9. Forty-one patients (78.8%) achieved complete or partial remission. Higher objective response rates were observed for patients with: 1) age < 60 yr; 2) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score of < 2; 3) low risk status as defined by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group; 4) p53 positivity; 5) XBP-1 negativity; 6) MUM-1 negativity; and 7) homogenous gadolinium enhancement in MR images. Multivariate analysis showed that ECOG performance score of < 2, low risk, negativity for XBP-1, homogenous gadolinium enhancement by MRI, and response to chemotherapy were associated with longer overall survival. In particular, it is interesting to note that patients with a PCNSL that is homogeneously enhanced by gadolinium have a higher objective response rate, and a longer progression-free survival and overall survival.

  2. Histological complete response in a patient with advanced biliary tract cancer treated by gemcitabine/cisplatin/S-1 combination chemotherapy: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, Tokuhiro; Nishida, Tsutomu; Tomimaru, Yoshito; Yamamoto, Masashi; Hayashi, Shiro; Nakajima, Sachiko; Fukui, Koji; Dono, Keizo; Adachi, Shiro; Ioka, Tatsuya; Kanai, Masashi; Inada, Masami

    2016-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman was referred to our hospital with increased levels of biliary enzymes. On imaging, the patient was diagnosed with unresectable intrahepatic biliary tract cancer (BTC) with invasion of the portal vein and para-aortic lymph node metastasis (cT3N1M1, cStage IVb) and underwent endoscopic biliary drainage for the biliary stricture prior to therapy. The patient was subsequently enrolled in a phase III randomized trial (UMIN000014371/NCT02182778) and randomly assigned to receive gemcitabine/cisplatin/S-1 (GCS) combination therapy intravenously at doses of 1,000 or 25 mg/m2 on day 1 and orally twice daily at a dose of 80 mg/m2 on days 1–7 every 2 weeks. After 12 cycles of scheduled therapy without uncontrollable adverse effects, the patient achieved a good partial response with chemotherapy. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a marked reduction of the primary and metastatic lesions. In addition,18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/CT revealed diminishing abnormal uptake and no macroscopic evidence of factors adversely affecting tumor resectability. Therefore, the patient underwent extended right hepatic lobectomy, lymph node dissection and left hepaticojejunostomy. Finally, histological examination of the resected tissues revealed no residual cancer cells, suggesting a pathologically complete response. We herein present the case of a patient with intrahepatic BTC who achieved a pathologically complete response following combination chemotherapy with GCS. PMID:28101354

  3. Factors Influencing the Response to High Dose Methotrexate-based Vincristine and Procarbazine Combination Chemotherapy for Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Kang Hyun; Lee, Eun Hee

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated objective response rate to high dose methotrexate (HDMTX)-based combination chemotherapy in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), and sought to identify factors that influence response to HDMTX-based combination therapy. Prospective observational analysis was performed on 52 PCNSL patients. All patients received HDMTX (3.5 g/m2) and vincristine (1.4 mg/m2/day) for one day during weeks 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9, and procarbazine (100 mg/m2/day) for one week during weeks 1, 5, and 9. Forty-one patients (78.8%) achieved complete or partial remission. Higher objective response rates were observed for patients with: 1) age < 60 yr; 2) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance score of < 2; 3) low risk status as defined by the International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group; 4) p53 positivity; 5) XBP-1 negativity; 6) MUM-1 negativity; and 7) homogenous gadolinium enhancement in MR images. Multivariate analysis showed that ECOG performance score of < 2, low risk, negativity for XBP-1, homogenous gadolinium enhancement by MRI, and response to chemotherapy were associated with longer overall survival. In particular, it is interesting to note that patients with a PCNSL that is homogenously enhanced by gadolinium have a higher objective response rate, and a longer progression-free survival and overall survival. PMID:21468264

  4. Surgical therapy of radiation-induced small-bowel lesions. Report of 34 cases with a high share of patients with combined chemotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Miholic, J.; Schlappack, O.; Klepetko, W.; Koelbl, H.S.; Szepesi, T.; Moeschl, P.

    1987-08-01

    Operations on irradiation-injured bowel are rare, bear a high postoperative mortality, and the procedure of choice (resection vs bypass) is still controversial. Thirty-seven operations on small bowel for late effects of irradiation in 16 years were analyzed retrospectively. Fifty-one percent of the operations were performed in the last four years. Ovarian cancer treated by a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy was the most frequent underlying disease of 20 patients (58%) followed by carcinoma of the cervix (eight (24%) of the patients). The median latent period between irradiation and surgery was eight months after the combined radiotherapy/chemotherapy, and 12 months after radiotherapy alone. Thirty operations (81%) were done for small-bowel stricture, four for fistula, and three for perforation. Bypass was performed in 17 patients and resection in 16. Complications (fistula, peritonitis, perforation) occurred after 13 operations (35%). All three patients who developed peritonitis died (mortality, 8.1%): two after resection and one after bypass. Suture-associated complications occurred in three (23%) of 13 cases after single-layer and in three (35%) of 17 cases after two-layer anastomoses. Ten patients are still alive two to 76 months (median, 32 months) after operation, six of them free of tumor. All are underweight and suffer from diarrhea (four to 12 stools per day). Pernicious anemia developed in all six patients surviving more than two years.

  5. [A case report-advanced pancreas cancer with liver and lung metastases well controlled over one year by combination therapy with systemic chemotherapy, radiation and hepatic arterial infusion in an outpatient setting].

    PubMed

    Hasuike, Yasunori; Tanigawa, Takahiko; Yamada, Masaharu; Minami, Yukiko; Ezumi, Koji; Kashiwazaki, Masaki; Fujimoto, Takayoshi

    2008-11-01

    We report a case of advanced pancreatic cancer with liver and lung metastases that was well controlled over one year by combination therapy with systemic chemotherapy, radiation and hepatic arterial infusion in an outpatient setting. The patient was a 74-year-old woman. Chief complaints were back pain and anorexia. She was diagnosed with pancreas cancer with liver and lung metastases at the time of first visit. We started systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine 1 g/body and 5-FU 1 g/body alternately every other week on an outpatient basis. At 1.5 months (M) after initiation of chemotherapy, we started radiation therapy to the main tumor at a total dose of 40 Gy. After radiation, chemotherapy was resumed. As a result, the size of the main tumor decreased but metastatic liver tumors got larger. Then we changed to combination therapy with systemic chemotherapy (gemcitabine and 5-FU) and hepatic arterial infusion (5-FU weekly). Liver metastases almost disappeared after 7.5 M. Despite all these treatments, however, the number of metastatic lung tumors increased. The patient was hospitalized for 15 M and died after 17 M. We focused on and succeeded in the prolongation of lifetime and maintenance of QOL by combination therapy with systemic chemotherapy, radiation and hepatic arterial infusion therapy.

  6. Far-Red Light-Activatable Prodrug of Paclitaxel for the Combined Effects of Photodynamic Therapy and Site-Specific Paclitaxel Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Thapa, Pritam; Li, Mengjie; Bio, Moses; Rajaputra, Pallavi; Nkepang, Gregory; Sun, Yajing; Woo, Sukyung; You, Youngjae

    2016-04-14

    Paclitaxel (PTX) is one of the most useful chemotherapeutic agents approved for several cancers, including ovarian, breast, pancreatic, and nonsmall cell lung cancer. However, it causes systemic side effects when administered parenterally. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new strategy for treating local cancers using light and photosensitizer. Unfortunately, PDT is often followed by recurrence due to incomplete ablation of tumors. To overcome these problems, we prepared the far-red light-activatable prodrug of PTX by conjugating photosensitizer via singlet oxygen-cleavable aminoacrylate linker. Tubulin polymerization enhancement and cytotoxicity of prodrugs were dramatically reduced. However, once illuminated with far-red light, the prodrug effectively killed SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cells through the combined effects of PDT and locally released PTX. Ours is the first PTX prodrug that can be activated by singlet oxygen using tissue penetrable and clinically useful far-red light, which kills the cancer cells through the combined effects of PDT and site-specific PTX chemotherapy.

  7. Capecitabine and cisplatin chemotherapy (XP) alone or sequentially combined chemoradiotherapy containing XP regimen in patients with three different settings of stage IV esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Sook; Kim, Sung-Bae; Park, Seung-Il; Kim, Yong Hee; Ryu, Jin-Sook; Song, Ho-Yong; Shin, Ji Hoon; Jung, Hwoon Yong; Lee, Gin Hyug; Choi, Kee Don; Cho, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2007-11-01

    The 1997 staging system for esophageal carcinoma subdivided distant metastatic disease (M1) into nonregional lymph node metastases (M1a) and other metastases (M1b). To determine the relevance of this classification system, we investigated the efficacy and toxicity of capecitabine/cisplatin (XP) chemotherapy alone or in combination with radiotherapy. We identified 74 patients with M1 disease treated at Asan Medical Center from January 2003 to December 2005. Of these patients, 19 (25.7%) were classified as M1a, 29 (39.2%) as M1b (nonvisceral lymph node metastases), and 26 (35.1%) as M1b (visceral metastases). All patients were treated with first two cycles of XP induction chemotherapy, consisting of capecitabine 1000 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1-14, and i.v. cisplatin 60 mg/m(2) on day 1, every 3 weeks. Patients classified as M1a and M1b (nonvisceral lymph node metastases) were treated with 54 Gy of radiotherapy, concurrently with weekly capecitabine 800 mg/m(2) twice daily on days 1-5 and i.v. cisplatin 30 mg/m(2) on day 1 during radiation. Patients classified as M1b (visceral metastases) were treated with chemotherapy only until disease progression or intolerance to chemotherapy. In response to the first two cycles of chemotherapy, 3/18 (16.7%) M1a nonregional lymph node (LN), 4/27 (14.8%) M1b nonvisceral LN metastases and 5/25 (20%) M1b visceral metastases patients attained partial responses. After definitive chemoradiation in the setting of M1a, M1b nonvisceral LN metastases and maximum cycles of chemotherapy in the M1b visceral metastases setting, the response rates were 77.8, 62.9 and 36.0% respectively. With median follow-up of 12.5 months (range 0.5-22.8), 50 of 74 patients (67.5%) died. The median time to progression (TTP) was 7.8 months (95% CI, 6.0-9.5 months) and the median overall survival (OS) was 12.0 months (95% CI, 9.0-15.0 months). Median TTP in the M1a, M1b nonvisceral LN metastases and M1b visceral metastases were 10.3, 6.5 and 5.9 months

  8. Chemotherapy in metastatic retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kingston, J E; Hungerford, J L; Plowman, P N

    1987-03-01

    Eleven children with metastatic retinoblastoma diagnosed during the period 1970-1984 were treated with chemotherapy. Short-term complete responses were observed in three children treated with a four-drug combination which included cisplatinum, and in one child treated with vincristine and cyclophosphamide. The median duration of survival of the 11 children receiving chemotherapy was nine months, whilst the median survival of 13 children with metastatic retinoblastoma who were not given chemotherapy was only 2.3 months (p = 0.06). This suggests that retinoblastoma is a chemosensitive tumour and therefore adjuvant chemotherapy may have a role in children with retinoblastoma who at diagnosis are thought to be at high risk of developing metastatic disease.

  9. [A Case of Advanced Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Dissemination Effectively Treated with S-1 and Docetaxel Combination Chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroyuki; Suematsu, Yuki; Hiratsuka, Miyuki; Suda, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Miyuki; Omori, Keita; Ishibashi, Yuji; Morita, Akihiko; Wakabayashi, Kazuhiko; Ito, Yutaka

    2015-11-01

    A 72-year-old man underwent surgery for advanced gastric cancer. Systemic chemotherapy was started, using a regimen of S-1/CDDP for 4 courses, followed by 8 courses of S-1. Three years and 8 months after the surgery, abdominal CT demonstrated ascites, and the serum CA19-9 level was abnormally high (1,165.1 U/mL). Adenocarcinoma cells were found in the ascites. Treatment with S-1/docetaxel (DOC) was started. After 10 courses, the ascites disappeared and the serum CA19-9 value returned to normal. Four years and 7 months after the operation, the patient has been in good health, with no signs of recurrence.

  10. Thalidomide Combined with Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Angiosarcoma of the Breast with Complete Pathologic Response: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Alvarado-Miranda, Alberto; Bacon-Fonseca, Ludwing; Ulises Lara-Medina, Fernando; Maldonado-Martínez, Hector; Arce-Salinas, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is a rare malignancy. Case Report We report on a 41-year-old female patient who initially presented with locally advanced disease. Core biopsy showed angiosarcoma of the breast, grade 1, CD31-positive. The patient was treated with neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy based on cisplatin, doxorubicin, and paclitaxel, given concurrently with thalidomide. After treatment completion, the patient underwent radical mastectomy. Pathologic complete response in the breast and axillary lymph nodes was achieved. The patient has no evidence of disease recurrence 6 months after her initial diagnosis. Conclusion Anti-angiogenic therapy may be considered as part of the management of primary angiosarcoma of the breast. PMID:24715848

  11. [Chemotherapy in advanced malignant melanoma. Results of a controlled trial comparing a combination of dacarbazine (DTIC) and detorubicin with dacarbazine alone].

    PubMed

    Chauvergne, J; Bui, N B; Cappelaere, P; Gary-Bobo, J; Guerrin, J; Armand, J P; Durand, M

    1982-12-16

    51 patients with malignant melanomas who had not previously received chemotherapy were studied in a phase III trial. They were all advanced cases, either in relapse or showing metastatic spread and with one or several measurable tumor sites. They were judged to be too advanced for surgery or radiotherapy. They were split at random into two groups. Both groups received DTIC (250 mg/m2, IV, over 4 days every three weeks) and one group received detorubicin (120 mg/m2, IV every three weeks) as well. Detorubicin is a new anthracyclin drug which has shown promise in the treatment of these tumors in a previous trial. The combination of the two drugs produced better results than dacarbazine alone. Eight 50% regressions were obtained out of 22 cases studied (36%) with the combination, as opposed to 4 out of 26 (15%) with the single drug. The average length of response was also longer for the combination, i.e. 6 months opposed to 5 for the single drug. The differences were not, however, statistically significant (X2 = 2.09). Toxic reactions were also more frequent with the combination therapy (65%) than with DTIC alone (40%) (X2 = 0.42), as well as more serious because of the myocardial toxicity of the anthracyclin drug. This trial showed that a combination of dacarbazine with detorubicin improves the therapeutic outcome. Whether this represents a real benefit will need statistical confirmation from trials of combinations using other anthracyclins.

  12. Post-therapeutic response evaluation by a combination of endoscopy and CT scan in esophagogastric adenocarcinoma after chemotherapy: better than its reputation.

    PubMed

    Blank, Susanne; Lordick, Florian; Bader, Franz; Burian, Maria; Dobritz, Martin; Grenacher, Lars; Becker, Karen; Weichert, Wilko; Langer, Rupert; Sisic, Leila; Stange, Annika; Jäger, Dirk; Büchler, Markus; Bruckner, Thomas; Siewert, Jörg; Ott, Katja

    2015-04-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is an accepted standard of care for locally advanced esophagogastric cancer. As only a subgroup benefits, a response-based tailored treatment would be of interest. The aim of our study was the evaluation of the prognostic and predictive value of clinical response in esophagogastric adenocarcinomas. Clinical response based on a combination of endoscopy and computed tomography (CT) scan was evaluated retrospectively within a prospective database in center A and then transferred to center B. A total of 686/740 (A) and 184/210 (B) patients, staged cT3/4, cN0/1 underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and were then re-staged by endoscopy and CT before undergoing tumor resection. Of 184 patients, 118 (B) additionally had an interim response assessment 4-6 weeks after the start of chemotherapy. In A, 479 patients (70%) were defined as clinical nonresponders, 207 (30%) as responders. Median survival was 38 months (nonresponders: 27 months, responders: 108 months, log-rank, p < 0.001). Clinical and histopathological response correlated significantly (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, clinical response was an independent prognostic factor (HR for death 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.8, p = 0.032). In B, 140 patients (76%) were nonresponders and 44 (24%) responded. Median survival was 33 months, (nonresponders: 27 months, responders: not reached, p = 0.003). Interim clinical response evaluation (118 patients) also had prognostic impact (p = 0.008). Interim, preoperative clinical response and histopathological response correlated strongly (p < 0.001). Preoperative clinical response was an independent prognostic factor in center A, while in center B its prognostic value could only be confirmed in univariate analysis. The accordance with histopathological response was good in both centers, and interim clinical response evaluation showed comparable results to preoperative evaluation.

  13. Effects of single-agent and combination chemotherapy for gestational trophoblastic tumors on risks of second malignancy and early menopause.

    PubMed

    Savage, Philip; Cooke, Rosie; O'Nions, Jenny; Krell, Jon; Kwan, Amy; Camarata, Michelle; Dancy, Gairin; Short, Dee; Seckl, Michael J; Swerdlow, Anthony

    2015-02-10

    To assess the risks of second malignancy and early menopause in a large cohort of patients with gestational trophoblastic tumor who were treated with chemotherapy. A survey of patients treated at Charing Cross Hospital between 1958 and 2000 was performed in 2006 to assemble incidence data for subsequent malignancies and the age at menopause. Treatment records were reviewed for the regimens and durations, and the incidence of subsequent malignancies was compared with that in the national age-matched population. Data were obtained for 1,903 patients, with a mean follow-up of 16.9 years. Eighty-six patients developed a subsequent malignancy compared with an expected number of 79 (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 1.1; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.3). The overall risk was low for patients treated with single-agent methotrexate and folinic acid (MTX-FA; SIR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5 to 1.1) and also for patients treated with etoposide, methotrexate, and dactinomycin followed by cyclophosphamide and vincristine on alternating weeks (EMA-CO) with an SIR of 0.9 (95% CI, 0.4 to 2.2), but there were significantly increased risks of oral cancer, melanoma, meningioma, and leukemia. The cumulative risk of early menopause was low after MTX-FA but was substantial after EMA-CO, reaching 13% by age 40 years and 36% by age 45 years. Subsequent cancer risks for patients cured of gestational trophoblastic tumors with modern chemotherapy appear similar to those of the normal population with no overall increased risk of malignancy after MTX-FA or EMA-CO. However, there was evidence of an increased risk of leukemia after EMA-CO and some evidence of other site-specific increased risks based on small patient numbers. All major treatments except MTX-FA increased the risk of early menopause. © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  14. Conformal Therapy Improves the Therapeutic Index of Patients with Anal Canal Cancer Treated with Combined Chemotherapy and External Beam Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Vuong, Te . E-mail: te.vuong@muhc.mcgill.ca; Kopek, Neil; Ducruet, Thierry; Portelance, Lorraine; Faria, Sergio; Bahoric, Boris; Devic, Slobodan

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the clinical outcomes of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) in patients with anal canal cancer, in terms of local control (LC), freedom from relapse (FFR), and overall survival (OS) rates, and to estimate long-term toxicity data. Methods and Materials: Sixty historical patients, treated with conventional radiation techniques (C-RT), were used as controls, and 62 consecutive patients were treated with 3D-CRT. Patients treated with 3D-CRT received 54 Gy in 30 fractions delivered continuously, compared with 45-58.9 Gy (median dose, 54 Gy) in a split course in patients treated with C-RT. Chemotherapy consisted of 5-fluorouracil with either mitomycin-C or cis-platinum given concurrently with radiation. Survival curves were performed using the Kaplan-Meier model, and the Cox proportional hazards model was used for multivariate analysis of risk factors. Results: No differences in stage and age distribution were observed between the two groups. Patients treated with 3D-CRT and C-RT had an actuarial 5-year LC rate of 85.1% and 61.1%, respectively (p = 0.0056); the FFR rate was 70.2% and 46.1% (p = 0.0166), and the OS rate was 80.7% and 53.9% (p = 0.0171). In multivariate analysis, factors of significance for LC were nodal (N) status (p < 0.001); for OS, 3D-CRT (p = 0.038), N status (p 0.011), and T status (p = 0.012); and for FFR, 3D-CRT (p = 0.024) and N status (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The use of 3D-CRT allows patients with anal canal cancer to complete radiation and chemotherapy without interruption for toxicity, with significant improvements in LC, FFR, and OS.

  15. Antitumor efficacy of TRA-8 anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy in a human breast cancer model.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Donald J; Zhou, Tong; Grizzle, William E; Oliver, Patsy G; Hammond, Charlotte J; Zhang, Sijian; Carpenter, Mark; LoBuglio, Albert F

    2003-09-01

    A monoclonal antibody (TRA-8) has been developed that binds to death receptor 5 (DR5), one of two death receptors bound by tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand. The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the binding and cytotoxicity of TRA-8 to human breast cancer cell lines. The antitumor efficacy of TRA-8 was evaluated in a xenograft human breast cancer murine model, as a single agent and in combination with chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Anti: The binding of TRA-8 to a panel of nine human breast cancer cell lines was evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometry. Cytotoxicity of TRA-8 alone and in the presence of Adriamycin or paclitaxel was measured in vitro using the ATP-lite assay. Antitumor efficacy was determined by treatment of nude mice bearing well-established s.c. DR5-positive 2LMP human breast cancer xenografts with TRA-8 alone or in combination with Adriamycin or paclitaxel. Tumor size and regression rates were determined. In addition, a study was carried out with TRA-8 and Adriamycin in combination with 3 Gy (60)Co irradiation of 2LMP xenografts on days 9 and 17. All nine human breast cancer cell lines expressed DR5 with TRA-8 reactivity varying from strongly to weakly positive. Four cell lines were sensitive to TRA-8 cytotoxicity with IC(50) of 17-299 ng/ml, whereas other cell lines had weak cytotoxicity or were resistant. In vivo studies demonstrated significant inhibition of growth of 2LMP xenografts by TRA-8 treatment alone. The combination of TRA-8 + Adriamycin or paclitaxel produced significant inhibition of tumor growth as compared with controls or either agent alone. An aggregate analysis of all 166 animals studied demonstrated that TRA-8 alone or in combination with Adriamycin, paclitaxel, or radiation produced a significant increase in tumor doubling time compared with any modality alone with mean doubling time in days of 12 (untreated), 14 (radiation), 17 (Adriamycin), 25 (paclitaxel), 39

  16. Mathematical modelling predicts synergistic anti-tumor effects of combining a macrophage-based, hypoxia-targeted, gene therapy with chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Markus R; Stamper, I Johanna; Muthana, Munitta; Richardson, Giles W; Dobson, Jon; Lewis, Claire E; Byrne, Helen M

    2011-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with low rates of cell proliferation and poor drug delivery, limiting the efficacy of many conventional therapies such as chemotherapy. Since many macrophages accumulate in hypoxic regions of tumors, one way to target tumor cells in these regions could be to use genetically engineered macrophages that express therapeutic genes when exposed to hypoxia. We describe here our use of a new mathematical model to simulate and compare the effects of conventional cyclophosphamide therapy with those induced when macrophages are used to deliver hypoxia-inducible cytochrome P450 to locally activate cyclophosphamide. Our mathematical model describes the spatio-temporal dynamics of vascular tumor growth and treats cells as distinct entities, each with its own cell cycle and subcellular signalling machinery. Moreover, the model simulates the delivery of systemically-applied therapies by a dynamic vascular network. We used this model to determine both the impact on tumors of combining conventional chemotherapy with macrophage-based gene delivery, and how the efficacy of macrophage-based therapies may be enhanced by pre-loading the cells with magnetic nanoparticles and applying a magnetic field to the tumor site. Major Findings Our results predict that combining conventional and macrophage-based therapies would be synergistic, producing greater anti-tumor effects than the additive effects of each form of therapy. Moreover, we found that timing is crucial in this combined approach with efficacy being greatest when the macrophage-based therapy is administered shortly before or concurrent with chemotherapy. Lastly, we show not only that macrophage delivery of therapeutic genes is markedly enhanced using the magnetic approach described above, but also that the disorganised nature of tumor blood vessels means that this enhancement depends mainly on the strength of the applied field, rather than its direction. This may be important in the treatment of non

  17. Practical considerations in ovarian cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cristea, Mihaela; Han, Ernest; Salmon, Lennie; Morgan, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer remains the most lethal gynecologic malignancy despite advances in treatment. The standard management generally involves a combination of surgical tumor debulking and chemotherapy. Over the decades, chemotherapy for ovarian cancer has evolved and currently involves a combination of intravenous platinum and taxane chemotherapy. Over the past decade, three randomized phase III trials have been reported, and all have demonstrated a significant survival advantage for intraperitoneal compared with intravenous chemotherapy. However, there are potential barriers and controversies related to the administration of intraperitoneal chemotherapy in ovarian cancer patients. In this review, we discuss the evolution and current management considerations of chemotherapy for the treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:21789133

  18. Anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody-mediated DTIC-loaded nanoparticles combining chemotherapy and immunotherapy for malignant melanoma: target formulation development and in vitro anticancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Baoyue; Wu, Xin; Fan, Wei; Wu, Zhaoyong; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Lulu; Xiang, Wang; Zhu, Quangang; Liu, Jiyong; Ding, Xueying; Gao, Shen

    2011-01-01

    Background The increased incidence of malignant melanoma in recent decades, along with its high mortality rate and pronounced resistance to therapy pose an enormous challenge. Novel therapeutic strategies, such as immunotherapy and targeted therapy, are urgently needed for melanoma. In this study, a new active targeting drug delivery system was constructed to combine chemotherapy and active specific immunotherapy. Methods The chemotherapeutic drug, dacarbazine (DTIC), that induces apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway which typically responds to severe DNA damage, was used as a model drug to prepare DTIC-loaded polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles (DTIC-NPs), which were covalently conjugated to a highly specific targeting functional TRAIL-receptor 2 (DR5) monoclonal antibody (mAb) that can contribute directly to cancer cell apoptosis or growth inhibition through the extrinsic pathway. Results Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that DTIC-PLA-DR5 mAb nanoparticles (DTIC-NPs-DR5 mAb) are an active targeting drug delivery system which can specifically target DR5-overexpressing malignant melanoma cells and become efficiently internalized. Most strikingly, compared with conventional DTIC-NPs, DTIC-NPs-DR5 mAb showed significantly enhanced cytotoxicity and increased cell apoptosis in DR5-positive malignant melanoma cells. Conclusion The DTIC-NPs-DR5 mAb described in this paper might be a potential formulation for targeting chemotherapy and immunotherapy to DR5-overexpressing metastatic melanoma. PMID:21976975

  19. Anti-DR5 monoclonal antibody-mediated DTIC-loaded nanoparticles combining chemotherapy and immunotherapy for malignant melanoma: target formulation development and in vitro anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Ding, Baoyue; Wu, Xin; Fan, Wei; Wu, Zhaoyong; Gao, Jing; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Lulu; Xiang, Wang; Zhu, Quangang; Liu, Jiyong; Ding, Xueying; Gao, Shen

    2011-01-01

    The increased incidence of malignant melanoma in recent decades, along with its high mortality rate and pronounced resistance to therapy pose an enormous challenge. Novel therapeutic strategies, such as immunotherapy and targeted therapy, are urgently needed for melanoma. In this study, a new active targeting drug delivery system was constructed to combine chemotherapy and active specific immunotherapy. The chemotherapeutic drug, dacarbazine (DTIC), that induces apoptosis through the intrinsic pathway which typically responds to severe DNA damage, was used as a model drug to prepare DTIC-loaded polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles (DTIC-NPs), which were covalently conjugated to a highly specific targeting functional TRAIL-receptor 2 (DR5) monoclonal antibody (mAb) that can contribute directly to cancer cell apoptosis or growth inhibition through the extrinsic pathway. Our in vitro experiments demonstrated that DTIC-PLA-DR5 mAb nanoparticles (DTIC-NPs-DR5 mAb) are an active targeting drug delivery system which can specifically target DR5-overexpressing malignant melanoma cells and become efficiently internalized. Most strikingly, compared with conventional DTIC-NPs, DTIC-NPs-DR5 mAb showed significantly enhanced cytotoxicity and increased cell apoptosis in DR5-positive malignant melanoma cells. The DTIC-NPs-DR5 mAb described in this paper might be a potential formulation for targeting chemotherapy and immunotherapy to DR5-overexpressing metastatic melanoma.

  20. Combination chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil causes trabecular bone loss, bone marrow cell depletion and marrow adiposity in female rats.

    PubMed

    Fan, Chiaming; Georgiou, Kristen R; McKinnon, Ross A; Keefe, Dorothy M K; Howe, Peter R C; Xian, Cory J

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of anthracyclines to adjuvant chemotherapy has increased survival rates among breast cancer patients. Cyclophosphamide, epirubicin and 5-fluorouracil (CEF) combination therapy is now one of the preferred regimens for treating node-positive breast cancer due to better survival with less toxicity involved. Despite the increasing use of CEF, its potential in causing adverse skeletal effects remains unclear. Using a mature female rat model mimicking the clinical setting, this study examined the effects of CEF treatment on bone and bone marrow in long bones. Following six cycles of CEF treatment (weekly intravenous injections of cyclophosphamide at 10 mg/kg, epirubicin at 2.5 mg/kg and 5-flurouracil at 10 mg/kg), a significant reduction in trabecular bone volume was observed at the metaphysis, which was associated with a reduced serum level of bone formation marker alkaline phosphatase (ALP), increased trends of osteoclast density and osteoclast area at the metaphysis, as well as an increased size of osteoclasts being formed from the bone marrow cells ex vivo. Moreover, a severe reduction of bone marrow cellularity was observed following CEF treatment, which was accompanied by an increase in marrow adipose tissue volume. This increase in marrow adiposity was associated with an expansion in adipocyte size but not in marrow adipocyte density. Overall, this study indicates that six cycles of CEF chemotherapy may induce some bone loss and severe bone marrow damage. Mechanisms for CEF-induced bone/bone marrow pathologies and potential preventive strategies warrant further investigation.

  1. Immune-based mechanisms of cytotoxic chemotherapy: implications for the design of novel and rationale-based combined treatments against cancer.

    PubMed

    Bracci, L; Schiavoni, G; Sistigu, A; Belardelli, F

    2014-01-01

    Conventional anticancer chemotherapy has been historically thought to act through direct killing of tumor cells. This concept stems from the fact that cytotoxic drugs interfere with DNA synthesis and replication. Accumulating evidence, however, indicates that the antitumor activities of chemotherapy also rely on several off-target effects, especially directed to the host immune system, that cooperate for successful tumor eradication. Chemotherapeutic agents stimulate both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system through several modalities: (i) by promoting specific rearrangements on dying tumor cells, which render them visible to the immune system; (ii) by influencing the homeostasis of the hematopoietic compartment through transient lymphodepletion followed by rebound replenishment of immune cell pools; (iii) by subverting tumor-induced immunosuppressive mechanisms and (iv) by exerting direct or indirect stimulatory effects on immune effectors. Among the indirect ways of immune cell stimulation, some cytotoxic drugs have been shown to induce an immunogenic type of cell death in tumor cells, resulting in the emission of specific signals that trigger phagocytosis of cell debris and promote the maturation of dendritic cells, ultimately resulting in the induction of potent antitumor responses. Here, we provide an extensive overview of the multiple immune-based mechanisms exploited by the most commonly employed cytotoxic drugs, with the final aim of identifying prerequisites for optimal combination with immunotherapy strategies for the development of more effective treatments against cancer.

  2. Clinical Presentation and Management of Hand–Foot Skin Reaction Associated with Sorafenib in Combination with Cytotoxic Chemotherapy: Experience in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lacouture, Mario E.

    2011-01-01

    Current combination therapies for advanced breast cancer provide a modest survival benefit but with greater toxicity than with monotherapies. New combinations are needed that improve the efficacy of current treatments and have acceptable tolerability profiles. Recent clinical trials have assessed the efficacy and safety of the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib in combination with common treatments for advanced breast cancer. Sorafenib has both antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activities and is indicated for patients with unresectable hepatocellular and advanced renal cell carcinoma. Generally, sorafenib is associated with manageable, non–life-threatening adverse events. One of the more common adverse events seen with sorafenib is hand–foot skin reaction, a dermatologic toxicity usually localized to the pressure points of the palms and soles. Although hand–foot skin reaction is reversible and not life threatening, it can have a significant impact on a patient's quality of life and may necessitate dose modification. Moreover, sorafenib is being evaluated in combination with breast cancer treatments that are associated with a similar dermatologic toxicity (e.g., capecitabine-induced hand–foot syndrome). This review looks at the use of sorafenib in combination with selected chemotherapies in patients with advanced breast cancer and considers the incidence, prevention, and management of hand–foot skin reaction. PMID:22016478

  3. Decrease in pulmonary function during bleomycin-containing combination chemotherapy for testicular cancer: not only a bleomycin effect.

    PubMed Central

    Sleijfer, S.; van der Mark, T. W.; Schraffordt Koops, H.; Mulder, N. H.

    1995-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the changes in pulmonary function in patients randomised to receive treatment with four cycles of bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin (BEP) (27 patients) or with four cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP) (27 patients) for disseminated non-seminomatous testicular cancer. This enabled us to establish whether effects other than those due to bleomycin determined the detrimental effects of BEP on lung function assessments. Slow inspiratory vital capacity (VC), the transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide (TLCO), the diffusing capacity of the alveolo-capillary membrane (Dm), the pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and the transfer factor of the lungs for carbon monoxide per unit alveolar volume (KCO) were determined before and at 3 week intervals during chemotherapy. Both groups, similar in terms of factors that may influence pulmonary function, showed during therapy a significant decrease in TLCO compared with the pretreatment value. Only at the end of the therapy was a significant difference in TLCO between both groups observed. Dm diminished also significantly in both groups during treatment, but differences between both groups were not seen. VC and Vc decreased in patients receiving BEP but remained constant during treatment with EP. It can be concluded that the Dm, KCO, and the widely used TLCO are not suitable parameters to monitor specifically pulmonary toxicity induced by bleomycin as part of a multidrug regimen. However, VC and Vc appear to be proper lung function assessments which reflect specifically alterations induced by bleomycin. PMID:7529523

  4. Case of a miniature dachshund with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor confined to the forebrain region treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Yuya; Yamada, Akihiko; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Matsunaga, Satoru; Ozawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-12-01

    A miniature dachshund aged 9 years and 7 months with a history of polyuria/polydipsia and depression was referred. General physical and neurological examinations revealed no obvious abnormalities. MRI of the brain revealed a large space-occupying lesion in the left frontal lobe. This was surgically removed and pathologically diagnosed as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Although the clinical signs had been improved, follow-up MRI revealed recurrence of the tumor. Lomustine was administered, but 1 year after surgery, the dog exhibited cluster seizures and died. This is the first reported case of a dog with PNET confined to the forebrain region treated by surgical resection in combination with chemotherapy, as observed by repeated follow-up MRI.

  5. Case of a miniature dachshund with a primitive neuroectodermal tumor confined to the forebrain region treated with a combination of surgery and chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    NAKAMOTO, Yuya; YAMADA, Akihiko; UCHIDA, Kazuyuki; MATSUNAGA, Satoru; OZAWA, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    A miniature dachshund aged 9 years and 7 months with a history of polyuria/polydipsia and depression was referred. General physical and neurological examinations revealed no obvious abnormalities. MRI of the brain revealed a large space-occupying lesion in the left frontal lobe. This was surgically removed and pathologically diagnosed as a primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). Although the clinical signs had been improved, follow-up MRI revealed recurrence of the tumor. Lomustine was administered, but 1 year after surgery, the dog exhibited cluster seizures and died. This is the first reported case of a dog with PNET confined to the forebrain region treated by surgical resection in combination with chemotherapy, as observed by repeated follow-up MRI. PMID:27430318

  6. [The effect of combination chemotherapy to adapted to chronotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, mitomycin C and cisplatin in patients with gastric or colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Kamoshita, N; Yokomori, T; Iesato, H; Ohya, T; Nagaoka, H; Okabe, T; Kato, Y; Takeyoshi, I; Ohwada, S; Morishita, Y

    2000-05-01

    We performed combination chemotherapy adapted to chronotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, mitomycin C and cisplatin in 11 patients with gastric cancer and 7 with colorectal cancer. Treatment consisted of a 5-day course of continuous arterial or intravenous infusion of 5-FU (500 mg/body/day), arterial or intravenous infusion of leucovorin (20 mg/body/day) at 6:00 p.m. on days 1-5, arterial or intravenous infusion of mitomycin C (2 mg/body) at 9:00 a. m. on day 5, and arterial or intravenous infusion of cisplatin (20-80 mg/body) at 6:00 p.m. on day 5. The effective rate against gastric cancer was 73%; however, the effective rate against colorectal cancer was 29%. During and after this therapy, there was only a little appetite loss, nausea and stomatitis.

  7. Successful Intrathecal Chemotherapy Combined with Radiotherapy Followed by Pomalidomide and Low-Dose Dexamethasone Maintenance Therapy for a Primary Plasma Cell Leukemia Patient

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Yusuke; Tamura, Shinobu; Oiwa, Takehiro; Kobata, Hiroshi; Kuriyama, Kodai; Mushino, Toshiki; Murata, Shogo; Hosoi, Hiroki; Nishikawa, Akinori; Hanaoka, Nobuyoshi; Sonoki, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    Primary plasma cell leukemia (PPCL) is a rare aggressive variant of plasma cell disorder and frequently presents with extramedullary disease. Central nervous system (CNS) involvement with PPCL has an extremely poor prognosis. We describe a 46-year-old man with PPCL treated with a combination of lenalidomide, bortezomib, and dexamethasone as induction therapy following upfront allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). Despite achieving a very good partial response, the patient suffered from an isolated CNS relapse 12 months after allo-SCT. He was immediately started on concurrent intrathecal chemotherapy (IT) and cranial irradiation (RT). Subsequently, pomalidomide and low-dose dexamethasone (Pd) were given as maintenance therapy. He has been without CNS recurrence for more than 18 months. Our case suggests that concurrent IT and RT followed by Pd maintenance therapy may be an effective option to control CNS relapse of PPCL after allo-SCT. PMID:28286633

  8. Meta-Analysis of Oxaliplatin-Based Chemotherapy Combined With Traditional Medicines for Colorectal Cancer: Contributions of Specific Plants to Tumor Response.

    PubMed

    Chen, Menghua; May, Brian H; Zhou, Iris W; Xue, Charlie C L; Zhang, Anthony L

    2016-03-01

    This meta-analysis evaluates the clinical evidence for the addition of traditional medicines (TMs) to oxaliplatin-based regimens for colorectal cancer (CRC) in terms of tumor response rate (TRR). Eight electronic databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy combined with TMs compared to the same oxaliplatin-based regimen. Data on TRR from 42 randomized controlled trials were analyzed using Review Manager 5.1. Studies were conducted in China or Japan. Publication bias was not evident. The meta-analyses suggest that the combination of the TMs with oxaliplatin-based regimens increased TRR in the palliative treatment of CRC (risk ratio [RR] 1.31 [1.20-1.42], I(2) = 0%). Benefits were evident for both injection products (RR 1.36 [1.18-1.57], I(2) = 0%) and orally administered TMs (RR 1.27 [1.15-1.41], I(2) = 0%). Further sensitivity analysis of specific plant-based TMs found that Paeonia, Curcuma, and Sophora produced consistently higher contributions to the RR results. Compounds in each of these TMs have shown growth-inhibitory effects in CRC cell-line studies. Specific combinations of TMs appeared to produce higher contributions to TRR than the TMs individually. Notable among these was the combination of Hedyotis, Astragalus, and Scutellaria.

  9. The Efficacy of Combining Antiangiogenic Agents with Chemotherapy for Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Who Failed First-Line Chemotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bijun; Zhang, Yaxiong; Kang, Shiyang; Zhou, Ting; Hong, Shaodong; Qin, Tao; Hu, Zhihuang; Fang, Wenfeng; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical outcomes of patients with NSCLC who progressed after first-line treatments remain poor. The purpose of this study was to assess the advantage of antiangiogenic therapy plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone for this population of patients. Methods We conducted a rigorous search using electronic databases for eligible studies reporting antiangiogenic therapy combined with standard second-line chemotherapy versus standard second-line treatment for patient who progressed after front-line treatment. Pooled risk ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using proper statistical method. Predefined subgroup analyses were conducted to identify the potential proper patients. Results Thirteen phase II/III RCTs which involved a total of 8358 participants were included. Overall, there was significant improvement in OS (HR 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89-0.99, p=0.03), PFS (HR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.76-0.84, p<0.00001), ORR (RR 1.75, 95%CI: 1.55-1.98, p<0.00001) and DCR (RR 1.23, 95%CI: 1.18-1.28, p<0.00001) in the group with antiangiogenic therapy plus standard treatment versus the group with standard treatment alone. Subgroup analysis showed that OS benefit was presented only in patients treated with docetaxel plus antiangiogenic agents (HR 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86-0.99, p=0.02) and patients with non-squamous NSCLC (HR for OS 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86-0.99, p=0.02). Conclusions This study revealed that the addition of antiangiogenic agents to the standard treatments could provide clinical benefit to NSCLC patients who failed their first-line therapy. Furthermore, proper selection of the combined standard cytotoxic agent, as well as the patient population by tumor histology, is warranted for future studies and clinical application of antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26034985

  10. The Effect of ShenQi FuZheng Injection in Combination with Chemotherapy versus Chemotherapy Alone on the Improvement of Efficacy and Immune Function in Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    dedong, Cao; huilin, Xu; Anbing, He; Ximing, Xu; wei, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of ShenQi FuZheng Injection (SFI) on cellular immunity and clinical efficacy in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer(NSCLC) when combined with chemotherapy. Methods Electronic databases including EMBASE, PUBMED, the conference proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), Cochrane, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biological Medical disc(CBM) were searched, until July, 2015. The randomized controlled clinical studies reporting results of efficacy and immune function were collected according to the inclusion criteria. Cochrane handbook 5.1.0 was applied to assess the quality of included trials and Revman 5 software was used for data analysis. Results Fifteen studies including 1006 cases of advanced NSCLC were included based on the inclusion criteria. The results of meta-analysis showed that there were significant differences in percentages of CD3+ cells (SMD = 13.48; 95%CI: 8.11–18.85; p<0.01), CD4+ cells (SMD = 10.78; 95%CI, 6.38–15.18; p<0.01), NK [WMD = 8.59, 95% CI(3.97, 13.21), p = 0.003], and ratio of CD4+/ CD8+ (SMD = 0.32; 95%: 0.28–0.36; p<0.01) between SFI combination group and control group, whereas the difference was not significant in CD8+ (SMD = -1.44; 95%CI, -4.53–1.65; p = 0.36). Funnel plot, Begg's rank correlation test and Egger's linear regression analysis indicated that there was significant publication bias across studies. Conclusion SFI is effective to improve the efficacy of chemotherpay and function of cellular immunity in NSCLC patients, however, high quality RCTs are needed to further confirm the findings. PMID:27015629