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Sample records for anthropogenic lead distribution

  1. Anthropogenic lead distribution in rodent-affected and undisturbed soils in southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, J.E.; Graham, R.C.; Amrhein, C.

    1997-01-01

    Anthropogenic Pb is the world`s largest and most widespread heavy metal contamination. Inspired by recent evidence suggesting a faster redistribution of Pb through the mineral soil profile than was previously expected, we investigated the effects of rodent activity on Pb redistribution. Total Pb was analyzed at the 0-1, 1-4, and 4-7-cm depths in a rodent-affected soil and in an undisturbed soil, in the same proximity and with the same parent material, in the Box Springs Mountains near Riverside, California. Six replicate sites of each condition were sampled. Lead was recovered by a digest in 4 M HNO{sub 3} and measured using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Anthropotenic Pb content to a 7-cm depth averaged 19 mg kg{sup -1} in undisturbed soils and 10 mg kg{sup -1} in rodent-affected soils. In both soils, the highest concentrations of Pb were located in the top 4 cm of the profile. After accounting for an estimated native Pb ({approximately}3.3 mg kg{sup -1}), we determined that 20 to 38 kg ha{sup -1} Pb has been deposited on these soils, through air pollution. Our findings suggest rodents significantly modify the distribution of anthropogenic Pb in the rodent-affected soils of the box Springs Mountains primarily in two ways: (i) by reducing Pb concentration in surface soils, thereby decreasing the potential for erosional redistribution of Pb, and (ii) by decreasing Pb transport time through the soil profile as a result of physical mixing. This redistribution mechanism is likely applicable to other surface deposited anthropogenic contaminants that have similarly low soil mobility. 18 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  2. Distribution and sources of pre-anthropogenic lead isotopes in deep ocean water from Fe-Mn crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Von Blanckenburg, F.; O'Nions, R. K.; Hein, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    The lead isotope composition of ocean water is not well constrained due to contamination by anthropogenic lead. Here the global distribution of lead isotopes in deep ocean water is presented as derived from dated (ca. 100 ka) surface layers of hydrogenetic Fe-Mn crusts. The results indicate that the radiogenic lead in North Atlantic deep water is probably supplied from the continents by river particulates, and that lead in Pacific deep water is similar to that characteristic of island and continental volcanic arcs. Despite a short residence time in deep water (80-100 a), the isotopes of lead appear to be exceedingly well mixed in the Pacific basin. There is no evidence for the import of North Atlantic deep water-derived lead into the Pacific ocean, nor into the North Indian Ocean. This implies that the short residence time of lead in deep water prohibits advection over such long distances. Consequently, any climate-induced changes in deep-water flow are not expected to result in major changes in the seawater Pb-isotope record of the Pacific Ocean.

  3. Anthropogenic-driven rapid shifts in tree distribution lead to increased dominance of broadleaf species.

    PubMed

    Vayreda, Jordi; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi; Gracia, Marc; Canadell, Josep G; Retana, Javier

    2016-12-01

    Over the past century, major shifts in the geographic distribution of tree species have occurred in response to changes in land use and climate. We analyse species distribution and abundance from about 33 000 forest inventory plots in Spain sampled twice over a period of 10-12 years. We show a dominance of range contraction (extinction), and demographic decline over range expansion (colonization), with seven of 11 species exhibiting extinction downhill of their distribution. Contrary to expectations, these dynamics are not always consistent with climate warming over the study period, but result from legacies in forest structure due to past land use change and fire occurrence. We find that these changes have led to the expansion of broadleaf species (i.e. family Fagaceae) over areas formerly dominated by conifer species (i.e. family Pinaceae), due to the greater capacity of the former to respond to most disturbances and their higher competitive ability. This recent and rapid transition from conifers to broadleaves has important implications in forest dynamics and ecosystem services they provide. The finding raises the question as to whether the increasing dominance of relatively drought-sensitive broadleaf species will diminish resilience of Mediterranean forests to very likely drier conditions in the future.

  4. The urban environmental gradient: Anthropogenic influences on the spatial and temporal distributions of lead and zinc in sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Callender, E.; Rice, K.C.

    2000-01-15

    Urban settings are a focal point for environmental contamination due to emissions from industrial and municipal activities and the widespread use of motor vehicles. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the US Geological Survey, streamed-sediment and dated reservoir-sediment samples were collected from the Chattahoochee River Basin and analyzed for total lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The sampling transect extends from northern Georgia, through Atlanta, to the Gulf of Mexico and reflects a steep gradient in population density from nearly 1,000 people/km{sup 2} in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area to fewer than 50 people/km{sup 2} in rural areas of southern Georgia and northern Florida. Correlations among population density, traffic density, and total and anthropogenic Pb and Zn concentrations indicate that population density is strongly related to traffic density and is a predictor o Pb and Zn concentrations in the environment derived from anthropogenic activities. Differences in the distributions of total Pb and Zn concentrations along the urban-suburban-rural gradient from Atlanta to the Florida Panhandle are related to temporal and spatial processes. That is, with the removal of leaded gasoline starting in the late 1970s, peak Pb concentrations have decreased to the present. Conversely, increased vehicular usage has kept Zn concentrations elevated in runoff from populated centers, which is reflected in the continued enrichment of Zn in aquatic sediments. Sediments from rural areas also contain elevated concentrations of Zn, possibly in response to substantial power plant emissions for the region, as well as vehicular traffic.

  5. The urban environmental gradient: Anthropogenic influences on the spatial and temporal distributions of lead and zinc in sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Callender, Edward; Rice, Karen C.

    2000-01-01

    Urban settings are a focal point for environmental contamination due to emissions from industrial and municipal activities and the widespread use of motor vehicles. As part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey, streambed-sediment and dated reservoir-sediment samples were collected from the Chattahoochee River Basin and analyzed for total lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The sampling transect extends from northern Georgia, through Atlanta, to the Gulf of Mexico and reflects a steep gradient in population density from nearly 1000 people/km2 in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area to fewer than 50 people/km2 in rural areas of southern Georgia and northern Florida. Correlations among population density, traffic density, and total and anthropogenic Pb and Zn concentrations indicate that population density is strongly related to traffic density and is a predictor of Pb and Zn concentrations in the environment derived from anthropogenic activities. Differences in the distributions of total Pb and Zn concentrations along the urban−suburban−rural gradient from Atlanta to the Florida Panhandle are related to temporal and spatial processes. That is, with the removal of leaded gasoline starting in the late 1970s, peak Pb concentrations have decreased to the present. Conversely, increased vehicular usage has kept Zn concentrations elevated in runoff from population centers, which is reflected in the continued enrichment of Zn in aquatic sediments. Sediments from rural areas also contain elevated concentrations of Zn, possibly in response to substantial power plant emissions for the region, as well as vehicular traffic.

  6. Invasion of the abyssal North Atlantic by modern anthropogenic lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleman, L. Y.; Véron, A. J.; Church, T. M.; Flegal, A. R.; Hamelin, B.

    While anthropogenic emissions have dramatically elevated lead concentrations in the North Atlantic troposphere and surface waters by orders of magnitude above natural levels [Murozumi et al., 1969; Schaule and Patterson, 1983; Boyle et al., 1986], it has been assumed that the relatively low lead levels in North Atlantic abyssal waters are not yet contaminated [Schaule and Patterson, 1981; Flegal and Patterson, 1983]. That misperception is redressed by the following stable lead isotopic composition data which reveal the advective transport of industrial lead into those deep basin waters through the formation of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Additionally, spatial gradients in the isotopic signatures of anthropogenic lead within the North Atlantic abyss appear to serve as transient tracers of contaminant penetration rates.

  7. Stable lead isotopes evidence anthropogenic contamination in Alaskan sea otters

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.R.; Estes, J.A.; Flegal, A.R. ); Niemeyer, S. )

    1990-10-01

    Lead concentrations and stable isotopic compositions were measured in teeth of preindustrial and contemporary sea otters (Enhydra lutris) from Amchitka Island, AK, to determine if changes had occurred in the magnitude and source of assimilated lead. Although there was no significant difference in lead concentrations between the two groups of otters ({bar x} {plus minus} {sigma}Pb/Ca atomic = 3.6 {plus minus} 2.9 {times} 10{sup {minus}8}), differences in stable lead isotopic compositions revealed a pronounced change in the source of accumulated lead. Lead {bar x} {plus minus} 2{sigma}{sub {bar x}} in the preindustrial otters ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.828 {plus minus} 0.006) was derived from natural deposits in the Aleutian arc, while lead in the contemporary animals ({sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb = 0.856 {plus minus} 0.003) was primarily industrial lead from Asia and western Canada. The isotopic ratios demonstrate anthropogenic perturbations of the lead cycle in present-day coastal food webs and indicate that lead concentration measurements alone are inadequate in assessing the introduction and transport of contaminant lead in the environment.

  8. Tracing the transport of anthropogenic lead in the atmosphere and in soils using isotopic ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Erel, Y.; Veron, A.; Halicz, L.

    1997-11-01

    The isotopic composition of lead in aerosols and soils in Israel is used to characterize the sources of anthropogenic lead in the region, to ascertain the isotopic composition of natural, rock-derived lead in specific areas, and to determine rates of anthropogenic lead migration in soils. The isotopic composition of lead currently emitted from cars in Israel ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb = 1.115 {+-} 2) is controlled by alkyl-lead produced in France and Germany. In addition to petrol-lead, two more sources of anthropogenic lead can be detected in sampled aerosols; the first one has low concentrations of lead ({approximately} ng/m{sup 3}) and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb {approximately} 1.157, and is most likely lead, emitted in Turkey, that traveled across the eastern Mediterranean basin; the second type of aerosols contains a mixture of lead emitted in several countries including Turkey, Greece, and Ukraine ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb value of 1.155-1.160; [Pb] {approximately}20-30 ng/m{sup 3}). Anthropogenic lead is more accessible for acid leaching than natural lead, therefore, it is more labile in the soil. The isotopic composition of lead in the acid-leached fraction of near-road soil profiles records the history of alkyl-lead emission in the country. Based on changes in the isotopic composition of lead with soil depth, it is estimated that anthropogenic lead migrates into the soil at approximately 0.5 cm/y. A soil profile from a relatively remote area is less contaminated by anthropogenic lead and displays a different distribution of lead isotopic values with depth. The isotopic composition of lead suggests that natural lead in soils developed on carbonate bedrock is derived from clays, either from the rock-residue (the clay fraction in the carbonate bedrock), or from airborne clay, but not from lead released from the carbonate fraction in the rock. 44 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Tracing geogenic and anthropogenic sources in urban dusts: Insights from lead isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Rio-Salas, R.; Ruiz, J.; De la O-Villanueva, M.; Valencia-Moreno, M.; Moreno-Rodríguez, V.; Gómez-Alvarez, A.; Grijalva, T.; Mendivil, H.; Paz-Moreno, F.; Meza-Figueroa, D.

    2012-12-01

    Tracing the source of metals in the environment is critical to understanding their pollution level and fate. Geologic materials are an important source of airborne particulate matter, but the contribution of contaminated soil to concentrations of Pb in airborne dust is not yet widely documented. To examine the potential significance of this mechanism, surface soil samples were collected, as well as wind-transported dust trapped at 1 and 2 m height at seven different locations including residential, industrial, high-traffic and rural sites. Samples of dust deposited on roofs from 24 schools were also obtained and analyzed for Pb isotope ratios. Spatial distribution of Pb of airborne and sedimented dust suggests a process dominated by re-suspension/sedimentation, which was controlled by erosion, traffic and topography of the urban area. Anthropogenic lead input in the city grades outward the urban zone toward geogenic values. Our results shows that Pb-isotopic signatures of leaded gasoline are imprinted in dust sedimented on roofs. Considering that leaded-gasoline has not been in use in Mexico since two decades ago, this signature shows not only a Pb-legacy in soil, but also a re-suspension process affecting air column below 3 m in height. The combination of the 207Pb/206Pb data of the surrounding rocks and urban dust, reveal three well-defined zones with remarkable anthropogenic influence, which correspond to the oldest urban sectors. This work highlights the importance of spatial characterization of metals in particles suspended below a height of 3 m of the airborne column, a fact that should be considered to identify exposure paths to humans and the potential risks. Lead isotope signatures allowed the identification of geogenic and anthropogenic emission sources for dust, a matter that deserves consideration in the efforts to control airborne metal emissions.

  10. Anthropogenic impact and lead pollution throughout the Holocene in Southern Iberia.

    PubMed

    García-Alix, A; Jimenez-Espejo, F J; Lozano, J A; Jiménez-Moreno, G; Martinez-Ruiz, F; García Sanjuán, L; Aranda Jiménez, G; García Alfonso, E; Ruiz-Puertas, G; Anderson, R Scott

    2013-04-01

    Present day lead pollution is an environmental hazard of global proportions. A correct determination of natural lead levels is very important in order to evaluate anthropogenic lead contributions. In this paper, the anthropogenic signature of early metallurgy in Southern Iberia during the Holocene, more specifically during the Late Prehistory, was assessed by mean of a multiproxy approach: comparison of atmospheric lead pollution, fire regimes, deforestation, mass sediment transport, and archeological data. Although the onset of metallurgy in Southern Iberia is a matter of controversy, here we show the oldest lead pollution record from Western Europe in a continuous paleoenvironmental sequence, which suggests clear lead pollution caused by metallurgical activities since ~3900 cal BP (Early Bronze Age). This lead pollution was especially important during Late Bronze and Early Iron ages. At the same time, since ~4000 cal BP, an increase in fire activity is observed in this area, which is also coupled with deforestation and increased erosion rates. This study also shows that the lead pollution record locally reached near present-day values many times in the past, suggesting intensive use and manipulation of lead during those periods in this area.

  11. Dispersal of natural and anthropogenic lead through submarine canyons at the Portuguese margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, T. O.; de Stigter, H. C.; Boer, W.; Jesus, C. C.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2009-02-01

    Submarine canyons represent natural conduits for preferential transport of particulate material, including anthropogenic contaminants, from coastal zones directly to the deep sea. To assess related dispersal of natural and anthropogenic lead (Pb), we analyzed Pb concentrations and stable isotope ratios in surface sediments and sediment trap particulate material from the Portuguese margin Nazaré and Setúbal/Lisbon canyons. Geochemical data are integrated with previously obtained data on near-bottom hydrodynamics and processes and pathways of sediment transport. The two canyon systems are located in close geographic proximity to each other, but represent contrasting settings in terms of sediment input and down-canyon sediment transport processes. Concentration-isotope diagrams and three-isotope plots ( 206Pb/ 207Pb vs. 208Pb/ 206Pb) suggest binary mixing between natural and anthropogenic end members. The inferred isotopic signature of pollutant Pb ( 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.143 [1.134-1.149, 95% confidence interval]) is most consistent with industrial Pb; ongoing influence from gasoline Pb additives is at most of minor importance. Two proposed natural end members most likely bracket the isotopic signature of natural Pb. Accordingly, binary mixing calculations indicate that on average 20-45% vs. 35-55% of total Pb is derived from anthropogenic sources in the Nazaré and Setúbal-Lisbon canyon systems, respectively. Enhanced anthropogenic influence in the latter area is consistent with its proximity to heavily populated and industrialized areas and with sediment input from the Tagus and Sado rivers, potential major carriers of pollutant particles. In both canyon systems, the anthropogenic component generally decreases with increasing water depth. Isotopic signatures of sediment trap particulate material are generally consistent with surface sediment data at similar water depth, but show large variability in the upper Nazaré canyon and major deviations from surface sediments

  12. Lead isotopes in sediments of the Loire River (France): natural versus anthropogenic origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrel, Ph.; Petelet-Giraud, E.

    2012-04-01

    Sediments along the Loire River (central France) were investigated by means of lead isotopes determined on the labile sediment fraction, or acid-extractable matter (AEM). The combination of trace elements and lead isotopes allows deciphering the origin of the elements (i.e. natural or anthropogenic) and their history, both in the sediment and soil from two small watersheds (one draining basalt, the other one granite-gneiss gneiss in the upper part of the catchment), in present-day suspended matter in Loire River water, and in sediment from the Loire estuary. Fe-Mn oxides act as the main carrier phase of the elements in the AEM extracted by cold HBr, Th and Pb concentrations were determined by ICP-MS and lead isotopes by ICP-MS-MC Neptune. Thorium displays mostly insoluble behaviour in hydrosystems, but the small amount of dissolved Th shows a strong tendency to be adsorbed onto oxyhydroxides. Therefore, Mn and Th (as well as other trace elements) correlate well in AEM, the correlations of Mn, and Pb with Th as a typical indicator of crustal weathering points to their derivation from the silicate basement of the upstream part of the catchment. Crustal weathering, as confirmed by the Pb-isotope ratios for most sample points, is the main natural source of lead in the upstream part of the Loire River, as well as that transported in the middle part of the basin and up to the estuary. Among anthropogenic sources, the use of Pb-isotopic compositions shows an influence of agricultural lead-derived inputs and a large input from lead as a gasoline additive, particularly in the estuary due to harbour activities and for one downstream tributary river that is strongly marked by this type of lead input.

  13. Lead Isotopic Tracing of Coal-Based Anthropogenic Pollution in Agricultural Soils in Jianghan Plain, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J. N.; Ying, S.; Zhao, R.; Bu, J.; Gan, Y.; Wang, Y.; Weiss, D. J.; Fendorf, S. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese demand for energy is one of the greatest in the world, and the vast majority of it is generated through coal combustion - a process by which diverse pollutants are released into the atmosphere. Due to the relative proximity of croplands to power plants in much of China, these pollutants can be deposited onto agricultural soils via atmospheric transport. Relative amounts of lead (Pb) isotopes in airborne anthropogenic coal-based contaminants (fly ash) are currently understood. However, contaminants' effects on agricultural soil composition are less clear. We investigate the prevalence of anthropogenic contaminants in cropland soils using lead (Pb) isotope ratios as a tracer. Surface soil samples and deep core samples, taken from Chinese field sites in proximity to a coal combustion plant, undergo an acid extraction process and lead (Pb) isotope concentrations are measured. The results of this study illustrate the extent to which airborne contaminants have entered cropland soils and integrated themselves into the chemical processes at work. They further expand our understanding of the impacts of human coal combustion activities on the biogeochemistry of agricultural soils.

  14. Asian anthropogenic lead contamination in the North Pacific Ocean as evidenced by stable lead isotopic compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurbrick, Cheryl M.

    This dissertation work determined the changing scope of lead (Pb) contamination in the North Pacific Ocean since the phase-out of leaded gasoline in most of the world. Chapters 1 and 2 consisted of validating our method for determining Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions in seawater. Chapter 3 established a baseline of Pb isotopic compositions (PbICs) in the western and central North Pacific in 2002. This was an ideal time to establish such a baseline because China had recently (mid-2000) ceased their use of leaded gasoline and simultaneously began consuming increasingly large amounts of coal, known to have relatively high Pb concentrations. We found subsurface waters were contaminated with Asian industrial Pb, predominantly Chinese coal emissions. In contrast, the abyssal waters were a mix of Asian industrial Pb and background (i.e., natural) Pb. Chapter 4 revisited the western and central North Pacific in 2009 -- 2011 to determine what, if any, changes had occurred in this short time period. We found that Pb in subsurface and abyssal waters of the western North Pacific were similar to Chinese aerosols. Such a large change in the PbICs of abyssal water in 9 years was unanticipated and attributed to the relatively large flux of particle-bound Pb from the euphotic zone to the deep ocean, which was in isotopic equilibrium with the reservoir of dissolved Pb. In contrast, the central North Pacific abyssal water PbICs were similar to values previously reported because of the relatively lower particulate export. Based on comparisons to baseline PbIC data, we determined that abyssal waters in the western and central North Pacific would be isotopically indistinguishable from surface waters in the next three decades. Sources of Pb to coastal California waters were reevaluated in Chapter 5. Prior studies had found that surface waters of the California Current System (CCS) were isotopically consistent with both Asian industrial Pb and US leaded gasoline, still in use

  15. Sources and Evolution of Anthropogenic Lead in Northwestern Pacific Seawater: High Resolution Coral Pb Isotope Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; You, C.; Nohda, S.

    2008-12-01

    Lattice-bound Lead in scleractinian coral skeletons provides a potential tracer to investigate the historical anthropogenic disturbance in the surface ocean. In this study, a Porites coral core collected from an islet offshore southeastern Taiwan was used to reconstruct decadal lead variation in surface seawater at northwestern Pacific. Seasonal Pb/Ca peaks are in accordance with rainfall episodes, while the long-term trend shows high lead input before 1970s. This can be attributed to extensively use of alkyl-lead in the region. Moreover, temporal variations of lead isotope display a significant change of lead sources in mid-20 th, coinciding with the Australian Pb imported period. These isotopic signatures also indicate contribution from China/Japan pollutant through atmospheric circulation during 1962-1998. This preliminary study infers that Pb in surface seawater is dominantly transported by ocean current and aeolian deposition from adjacent urban area, while Pb concentration may not reflect entirely the source flux due to potential loss during transportation.

  16. Use of stable lead isotopes to characterize the sources of anthropogenic lead in North Atlantic surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Veron, A.J. Univ. of Delaware, Newark, DE ); Church, T.M. ); Patterson, C.C. ); Flegal, A.R. Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA )

    1994-08-01

    Stable lead isotopes are used to illustrate the impact of surface water circulation on dissolved lead distribution in North Atlantic surface waters during oligotrophic conditions. Using stable lead isotopic signatures from (1) the Sargasso Sea and (2) direct tropospheric deposition to the North Atlantic, the authors estimate that 10-40% of the lead accumulated in surface waters of the European Basin is transported from the western North Atlantic by the North Atlantic Current. South of 50[degrees]N, lead appears to be primarily distributed by the Subtropical North Atlantic Gyre that extends well beyond the western basins to 30[degrees]W in the North African Basin (at 30-40[degrees]N). There are different lead isotopic signatures between the subtropical gyre of the Guiana and western Guinea Basins, which suggests that the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone acts as an efficient barrier limiting chemical exchanges between the gyre and the equatorial currents.

  17. Anthropogenic Litter in Urban Freshwater Ecosystems: Distribution and Microbial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Hoellein, Timothy; Rojas, Miguel; Pink, Adam; Gasior, Joseph; Kelly, John

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of anthropogenic litter (i.e. garbage; AL) and its ecosystem effects in marine environments are well documented. Rivers receive AL from terrestrial habitats and represent a major source of AL to marine environments, but AL is rarely studied within freshwater ecosystems. Our objectives were to 1) quantify AL density in urban freshwaters, 2) compare AL abundance among freshwater, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems, and 3) characterize the activity and composition of AL biofilms in freshwater habitats. We quantified AL from the Chicago River and Chicago's Lake Michigan shoreline, and found that AL abundance in Chicago freshwater ecosystems was comparable to previously reported data for marine and terrestrial ecosystems, although AL density and composition differed among habitats. To assess microbial interactions with AL, we incubated AL and natural substrates in 3 freshwater ecosystems, quantified biofilm metabolism as gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR), and characterized biofilm bacterial community composition via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The main driver of biofilm community composition was incubation location (e.g., river vs pond), but there were some significant differences in biofilm composition and metabolism among substrates. For example, biofilms on organic substrates (cardboard and leaves) had lower GPP than hard substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum and tiles). In addition, bacterial communities on organic substrates were distinct in composition from those on hard substrates, with higher relative abundances of bacteria associated with cellulose decomposition. Finally, we used our results to develop a conceptual diagram designed to unite the study of AL in terrestrial and freshwater environments with the well-established field of marine debris research. We suggest this broad perspective will be useful for future studies which synthesize AL sources, ecosystem effects, and fate across multiple ecosystem

  18. Anthropogenic litter in urban freshwater ecosystems: distribution and microbial interactions.

    PubMed

    Hoellein, Timothy; Rojas, Miguel; Pink, Adam; Gasior, Joseph; Kelly, John

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of anthropogenic litter (i.e. garbage; AL) and its ecosystem effects in marine environments are well documented. Rivers receive AL from terrestrial habitats and represent a major source of AL to marine environments, but AL is rarely studied within freshwater ecosystems. Our objectives were to 1) quantify AL density in urban freshwaters, 2) compare AL abundance among freshwater, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems, and 3) characterize the activity and composition of AL biofilms in freshwater habitats. We quantified AL from the Chicago River and Chicago's Lake Michigan shoreline, and found that AL abundance in Chicago freshwater ecosystems was comparable to previously reported data for marine and terrestrial ecosystems, although AL density and composition differed among habitats. To assess microbial interactions with AL, we incubated AL and natural substrates in 3 freshwater ecosystems, quantified biofilm metabolism as gross primary production (GPP) and community respiration (CR), and characterized biofilm bacterial community composition via high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. The main driver of biofilm community composition was incubation location (e.g., river vs pond), but there were some significant differences in biofilm composition and metabolism among substrates. For example, biofilms on organic substrates (cardboard and leaves) had lower GPP than hard substrates (glass, plastic, aluminum and tiles). In addition, bacterial communities on organic substrates were distinct in composition from those on hard substrates, with higher relative abundances of bacteria associated with cellulose decomposition. Finally, we used our results to develop a conceptual diagram designed to unite the study of AL in terrestrial and freshwater environments with the well-established field of marine debris research. We suggest this broad perspective will be useful for future studies which synthesize AL sources, ecosystem effects, and fate across multiple ecosystem

  19. Distributed electrical leads for thermionic converter

    DOEpatents

    Fitzpatrick, Gary O.; Britt, Edward J.

    1979-01-01

    In a thermionic converter, means are provided for coupling an electrical lead to at least one of the electrodes thereof. The means include a bus bar and a plurality of distributed leads coupled to the bus bar each of which penetrates through one electrode and are then coupled to the other electrode of the converter in spaced apart relation.

  20. Recent transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait: estimation of anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.; von Appen, W.-J.

    2015-09-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced which allows for an application of the Inverse Gaussian - Transit Time Distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Current velocity measurements along the same section were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996 rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 μmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 μmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10-35 μmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net DIC and anthropogenic carbon fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a balanced exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, although with high uncertainties.

  1. Assessing the Spatial Scale Effect of Anthropogenic Factors on Species Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Mangiacotti, Marco; Scali, Stefano; Sacchi, Roberto; Bassu, Lara; Nulchis, Valeria; Corti, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    Patch context is a way to describe the effect that the surroundings exert on a landscape patch. Despite anthropogenic context alteration may affect species distributions by reducing the accessibility to suitable patches, species distribution modelling have rarely accounted for its effects explicitly. We propose a general framework to statistically detect the occurrence and the extent of such a factor, by combining presence-only data, spatial distribution models and information-theoretic model selection procedures. After having established the spatial resolution of the analysis on the basis of the species characteristics, a measure of anthropogenic alteration that can be quantified at increasing distance from each patch has to be defined. Then the distribution of the species is modelled under competing hypotheses: H0, assumes that the distribution is uninfluenced by the anthropogenic variables; H1, assumes the effect of alteration at the species scale (resolution); and H2, H3 … Hn add the effect of context alteration at increasing radii. Models are compared using the Akaike Information Criterion to establish the best hypothesis, and consequently the occurrence (if any) and the spatial scale of the anthropogenic effect. As a study case we analysed the distribution data of two insular lizards (one endemic and one naturalised) using four alternative hypotheses: no alteration (H0), alteration at the species scale (H1), alteration at two context scales (H2 and H3). H2 and H3 performed better than H0 and H1, highlighting the importance of context alteration. H2 performed better than H3, setting the spatial scale of the context at 1 km. The two species respond differently to context alteration, the introduced lizard being more tolerant than the endemic one. The proposed approach supplies reliably and interpretable results, uses easily available data on species distribution, and allows the assessing of the spatial scale at which human disturbance produces the heaviest

  2. Bayesian evaluation of groundwater age distribution using radioactive tracers and anthropogenic chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massoudieh, Arash; Sharifi, Soroosh; Solomon, D. Kip

    2012-09-01

    The development of a Bayesian modeling approach for estimation of the age distribution of groundwater using radioactive isotopes and anthropogenic chemicals is described. The model considers the uncertainties associated with the measured tracer concentrations as well as the parameters affecting the concentration of tracers in the groundwater, and it provides the posterior probability densities of the parameters defining the groundwater age distribution using a Markov chain Monte Carlo method. The model also incorporates the effect of dissolution of aquifer minerals on diluting the 14C signature and the uncertainties associated with this process on the inferred age distribution parameters. Two demonstration modeling cases have been performed. First, the method was applied to simulated tracer concentrations at a discharge point of a hypothetical 2-D vertical aquifer with two recharge zones, leading to a mixed groundwater age distribution under different presumed uncertainties. When the error variance of the observed tracer concentrations is considered unknown, the method can estimate the parameters of the fitted exponential-lognormal distribution with a relatively narrow credible interval when five hypothetical samples are assumed to be collected at the discharge point. However, when a single sample is assumed, the credible intervals become wider, and credible estimations of the parameters are not obtained. Second, the method was applied to the data collected at La Selva Biological Station in Costa Rica. In this demonstration application, nine different forms of presumed groundwater age distributions have been considered, including four single forms and five mixed forms, assuming the groundwater consists of distinct young and old fractions. For the medium geometrical standard deviationδc,i = 1.41, the model estimates a young groundwater age of between 0 and 350 years, with the largest odds being given to a mean age of approximately 100 years, and a fraction of young

  3. Mapping the spatial distribution of global anthropogenic mercury atmospheric emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Simon J.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.

    This paper describes the procedures employed to spatially distribute global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere, prepared by Pacyna, E.G., Pacyna, J.M., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S. [2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.041], and briefly discusses the results of this work. A new spatially distributed global emission inventory for the (nominal) year 2000, and a revised version of the 1995 inventory are presented. Emissions estimates for total mercury and major species groups are distributed within latitude/longitude-based grids with a resolution of 1×1 and 0.5×0.5°. A key component in the spatial distribution procedure is the use of population distribution as a surrogate parameter to distribute emissions from sources that cannot be accurately geographically located. In this connection, new gridded population datasets were prepared, based on the CEISIN GPW3 datasets (CIESIN, 2004. Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 3. Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). GPW3 data are available at http://beta.sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/index.jsp). The spatially distributed emissions inventories and population datasets prepared in the course of this work are available on the Internet at www.amap.no/Resources/HgEmissions/

  4. Anthropogenic rare earth elements and their spatial distributions in the Han River, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Song, Hyeongseok; Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Shin, Hyung Seon; Chung, Heesun; Lee, Kwang-Sik

    2017-04-01

    Rare earth elements (REE) consist of lanthanides (from La to Lu), together with yttrium and scandium, in which anthropogenic REE, such as gadolinium (Gd), lanthanum (La), and samarium (Sm), has emerged as micro-contaminants in natural waters in highly developed countries. Here, we collected water samples in the Han River (HR) and its tributaries flowing through Seoul Capital Area, the world's second largest metropolitan area in order to examine how and to what extent anthropogenic REE anomalies may occur. Water samples show higher light REE concentrations than heavy REE concentrations, while wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) samples display much higher heavy REE concentrations due to high Gd concentration. The PAAS-normalized REE patterns indicate that WWTP samples display the pronounced positive Gd anomalies, in which anthropogenic Gd from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) diagnostic system occurs as a form of Gd complexation with either Cl(-) or SO4(2-). Due to the WWTP, both the HR and tributaries show also positive Gd anomalies and the anthropogenic Gd concentrations increase as a function of the distance from the Paldang dam. This result indicates a positive correlation between populaton, number of MRI instruments, and positive Gd anomaly. Similarly, positive La and Sm anomalies exist in the HR, indicating that the HR is also affected by their point sources. Based on the discharge rate and anthropogenic REE concentrations, their fluxes are estimated to be 952 ± 319 kg/yr, suggesting that this amount of fluxes could disturb REE distribution in the Yellow Sea, and pose harmful effects on aquatic ecosystems.

  5. Transient tracer distributions in the Fram Strait in 2012 and inferred anthropogenic carbon content and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, Tim; Tanhua, Toste; Hoppema, Mario; von Appen, Wilken-Jon

    2016-02-01

    The storage of anthropogenic carbon in the ocean's interior is an important process which modulates the increasing carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere. The polar regions are expected to be net sinks for anthropogenic carbon. Transport estimates of dissolved inorganic carbon and the anthropogenic offset can thus provide information about the magnitude of the corresponding storage processes. Here we present a transient tracer, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA) data set along 78°50' N sampled in the Fram Strait in 2012. A theory on tracer relationships is introduced, which allows for an application of the inverse-Gaussian-transit-time distribution (IG-TTD) at high latitudes and the estimation of anthropogenic carbon concentrations. Mean current velocity measurements along the same section from 2002-2010 were used to estimate the net flux of DIC and anthropogenic carbon by the boundary currents above 840 m through the Fram Strait. The new theory explains the differences between the theoretical (IG-TTD-based) tracer age relationship and the specific tracer age relationship of the field data, by saturation effects during water mass formation and/or the deliberate release experiment of SF6 in the Greenland Sea in 1996, rather than by different mixing or ventilation processes. Based on this assumption, a maximum SF6 excess of 0.5-0.8 fmol kg-1 was determined in the Fram Strait at intermediate depths (500-1600 m). The anthropogenic carbon concentrations are 50-55 µmol kg-1 in the Atlantic Water/Recirculating Atlantic Water, 40-45 µmol kg-1 in the Polar Surface Water/warm Polar Surface Water and between 10 and 35 µmol kg-1 in the deeper water layers, with lowest concentrations in the bottom layer. The net fluxes through the Fram Strait indicate a net outflow of ˜ 0.4 DIC and ˜ 0.01 PgC yr-1 anthropogenic carbon from the Arctic Ocean into the North Atlantic, albeit with high uncertainties.

  6. Cascading impacts of anthropogenically driven habitat loss: deforestation, flooding, and possible lead poisoning in howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra).

    PubMed

    Serio-Silva, Juan Carlos; Olguín, Eugenia J; Garcia-Feria, Luis; Tapia-Fierro, Karla; Chapman, Colin A

    2015-01-01

    To construct informed conservation plans, researchers must go beyond understanding readily apparent threats such as habitat loss and bush-meat hunting. They must predict subtle and cascading effects of anthropogenic environmental modifications. This study considered a potential cascading effect of deforestation on the howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) of Balancán, Mexico. Deforestation intensifies flooding. Thus, we predicted that increased flooding of the Usumacinta River, which creates large bodies of water that slowly evaporate, would produce increased lead content in the soils and plants, resulting in lead exposure in the howler monkeys. The average lead levels were 18.18 ± 6.76 ppm in the soils and 5.85 ± 4.37 ppm in the plants. However, the average lead content of the hair of 13 captured howler monkeys was 24.12 ± 5.84 ppm. The lead levels in the animals were correlated with 2 of 15 blood traits (lactate dehydrogenase and total bilirubin) previously documented to be associated with exposure to lead. Our research illustrates the urgent need to set reference values indicating when adverse impacts of high environmental lead levels occur, whether anthropogenic or natural, and the need to evaluate possible cascading effects of deforestation on primates.

  7. Anthropogenic {sup 129}I in western New York: Distribution, sources and pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Fehn, U.; Rao, U.; Teng, R.T.D.

    1995-12-01

    The present {sup 129}I concentration at the surface of the earth is dominated by releases from anthropogenic sources such as atmospheric weapons tests and nuclear facilities. We report here {sup 129}I concentrations in waters, plants and soils from Western New York and the surrounding areas. Values found in waters and plants outside Western New York are approximately three orders of magnitude above natural levels. Concentrations in Western New York are another order of magnitude higher with a distinct pattern of concentration pointing to the source at West Valley, a former reprocessing facility, which continues to add significantly to the {sup 129}I budget in this region. Transport of anthropogenic {sup 129}I is clearly detectable in waters draining the West Valley area but the overall distribution of this isotope indicates also a significant component of aerial transport. The continued presence of bomb-related {sup 129}I demonstrates a long residence time of this isotope in biosphere and hydrosphere.

  8. Lead distribution in coastal and estuarine sediments around India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Sucharita; Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Nath, B Nagender

    2015-08-15

    This study describes the geochemical distribution of lead (Pb) and identifies the critical factors that significantly control Pb distribution and speciation in coastal and estuarine sediments around India by using published data from the literature. Crustal sources influence the abundance of Pb in coastal sediment from the south-east and central-west coast of India. Parts of north-east, north-west, and south-west coast of India were polluted by Pb. Distribution of Pb in sediments, from the north-east and north-west coasts of India, were controlled by Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide mineral phases of the sediments. However, organic carbon (OC) seemed to be a dominant factor in controlling the distribution of Pb in sediments from the central-east and south-west coasts of India. The outcome of this study may help in decision-making to predict the levels of Pb from natural and anthropogenic sources and to control Pb pollution in coastal and estuarine sediments around India.

  9. Statistical Detection of Anthropogenic Temporal Changes in the Distribution of Tropical Cyclones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannes-boyau, R.; Bodin, T.; Scheffers, A.; Sambridge, M.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies highlighting the potential impact of climate change on tropical cyclones have added fuel to the already controversial debates. The link between climate change and tropical cyclone intensity and frequency has been disputed, as both appear to remain in the natural variability. The difficulty lies in our ability to distinguish natural changes from anthropogenic-induced anomalies. The increased anthropogenic atmospheric carbon dioxide leads to environmental changes such as warmer Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) and thus could impact tropical cyclones intensities and frequencies. However, recent studies show that, against an increasing SST, no global trend in respect to cyclone frequency has yet emerged. Scientists have warned to consider the heterogeneity of the existing dataset; especially since the historical tropical cyclone record is frequently accused to be incomplete. Given the abundance of cyclone record data and its likely sensitivity to a number of environmental factors, the real limitation comes from our ability to understand the record as a whole. Thus, strong arguments against the impartiality of proposed models are often debated. We will present an impartial and independent statistical tool applicable to a wide variety of physical and biological phenomena such as processes described by power laws, to observe temporal variations in the tropical cyclone track record from 1842 to 2010. This methodology allows us to observe the impact of anthropogenic-induced modifications on climatic events, without being clustered in subjective parameterised models.

  10. Spatial Distribution of Lead in Sacramento, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Solt, Michael J.; Deocampo, Daniel M.; Norris, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exposure to lead remains a health concern in many urban areas; Sacramento, California is one example, with state surveillance data showing nearly 3% of screened children reported with blood lead levels over 4.5 μg/dL in 2009. To investigate the environmental exposure, 91 soil samples were collected and analyzed by ICP-AES and ICP-MS for 14 elements. An additional 28 samples were collected from areas of focus and analyzed by hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for Pb and Zn. Analysis of the metals data revealed non-normal distributions and positive skewness, consistent with anthropogenic input. In addition, high correlation coefficients (≥0.75) of metal concentrations in Cd-Pb, Cd-Zn, Pb-Zn, and Sb-Sn pairs suggest similarities in the input mechanisms. Semivariograms generated from Pb and associated metals reveal these metals to exhibit spatial correlation. A prediction map of lead concentrations in soil was generated by ordinary kriging, showing elevated concentrations in soil located in the central, older area of Sacramento where historic traffic density and industrial activity have been historically concentrated. XRF analysis of Pb and Zn from additional samples verifies elevated concentrations in the central areas of Sacramento as predicted. PMID:25789455

  11. Anthropogenic aerosols and the distribution of past large-scale precipitation change.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chien

    2015-12-28

    The climate response of precipitation to the effects of anthropogenic aerosols is a critical while not yet fully understood aspect in climate science. Results of selected models that participated the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and the data from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project suggest that, throughout the tropics and also in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere, aerosols have largely dominated the distribution of precipitation changes in reference to the preindustrial era in the second half of the last century. Aerosol-induced cooling has offset some of the warming caused by the greenhouse gases from the tropics to the Arctic and thus formed the gradients of surface temperature anomaly that enable the revealed precipitation change patterns to occur. Improved representation of aerosol-cloud interaction has been demonstrated as the key factor for models to reproduce consistent distributions of past precipitation change with the reanalysis data.

  12. Anthropogenic aerosols and the distribution of past large‐scale precipitation change

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The climate response of precipitation to the effects of anthropogenic aerosols is a critical while not yet fully understood aspect in climate science. Results of selected models that participated the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 and the data from the Twentieth Century Reanalysis Project suggest that, throughout the tropics and also in the extratropical Northern Hemisphere, aerosols have largely dominated the distribution of precipitation changes in reference to the preindustrial era in the second half of the last century. Aerosol‐induced cooling has offset some of the warming caused by the greenhouse gases from the tropics to the Arctic and thus formed the gradients of surface temperature anomaly that enable the revealed precipitation change patterns to occur. Improved representation of aerosol‐cloud interaction has been demonstrated as the key factor for models to reproduce consistent distributions of past precipitation change with the reanalysis data. PMID:27134319

  13. Landscape-scale distribution and density of raptor populations wintering in anthropogenic-dominated desert landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duerr, Adam E.; Miller, Tricia A.; Cornell Duerr, Kerri L; Lanzone, Michael J; Fesnock, Amy; Katzner, Todd E.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic development has great potential to affect fragile desert environments. Large-scale development of renewable energy infrastructure is planned for many desert ecosystems. Development plans should account for anthropogenic effects to distributions and abundance of rare or sensitive wildlife; however, baseline data on abundance and distribution of such wildlife are often lacking. We surveyed for predatory birds in the Sonoran and Mojave Deserts of southern California, USA, in an area designated for protection under the “Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan”, to determine how these birds are distributed across the landscape and how this distribution is affected by existing development. We developed species-specific models of resight probability to adjust estimates of abundance and density of each individual common species. Second, we developed combined-species models of resight probability for common and rare species so that we could make use of sparse data on the latter. We determined that many common species, such as red-tailed hawks, loggerhead shrikes, and especially common ravens, are associated with human development and likely subsidized by human activity. Species-specific and combined-species models of resight probability performed similarly, although the former model type provided higher quality information. Comparing abundance estimates with past surveys in the Mojave Desert suggests numbers of predatory birds associated with human development have increased while other sensitive species not associated with development have decreased. This approach gave us information beyond what we would have collected by focusing either on common or rare species, thus it provides a low-cost framework for others conducting surveys in similar desert environments outside of California.

  14. Vertical distribution of anthropogenic radionuclides in cores from contaminated floodplains of the Yenisey River.

    PubMed

    Standring, W J F; Brown, J E; Dowdall, M; Korobova, E M; Linnik, V G; Volosov, A G

    2009-12-01

    The Mining and Chemical Industrial Combine, Zheleznogorsk (MCIC, previously known as Krasnoyarsk-26) on the River Yenisey has contaminated the surrounding environment with anthropogenic radionuclides as a result of discharges of radioactive wastes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the vertical distribution of anthropogenic contamination ((137)Cs and plutonium) within floodplain areas at different distances from the discharge point. Sites were chosen that display different characteristics with respect to periodic inundation with river water. Cs-137 activity concentrations were in the range 23-3770 Bq/kg (dry weight, d.w.); Pu-239,240 activity concentrations were in the range <0.01-14.2 Bq/kg (d.w.). Numerous sample cores exhibited sub-surface maxima which may be related to the historical discharges from the MCIC. Possible evidence indicating the deposition of earlier discharges at MCIC in deeper core layers was observed in the (238)Pu:(239,240)Pu activity ratio data: a Pu signal discernible from global fallout could be observed in numerous samples. Cs-137 and Pu-239,240 activity concentrations were correlated with the silt fraction (% by mass <63 microm) though no significant correlation was observed between (grain-size) normalised (137)Cs activity concentrations and distance downstream from the MCIC.

  15. Ecological consequences of human niche construction: Examining long-term anthropogenic shaping of global species distributions

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Nicole L.; Zeder, Melinda A.; Fuller, Dorian Q.; Crowther, Alison; Larson, Greger; Erlandson, Jon M.; Denham, Tim; Petraglia, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    The exhibition of increasingly intensive and complex niche construction behaviors through time is a key feature of human evolution, culminating in the advanced capacity for ecosystem engineering exhibited by Homo sapiens. A crucial outcome of such behaviors has been the dramatic reshaping of the global biosphere, a transformation whose early origins are increasingly apparent from cumulative archaeological and paleoecological datasets. Such data suggest that, by the Late Pleistocene, humans had begun to engage in activities that have led to alterations in the distributions of a vast array of species across most, if not all, taxonomic groups. Changes to biodiversity have included extinctions, extirpations, and shifts in species composition, diversity, and community structure. We outline key examples of these changes, highlighting findings from the study of new datasets, like ancient DNA (aDNA), stable isotopes, and microfossils, as well as the application of new statistical and computational methods to datasets that have accumulated significantly in recent decades. We focus on four major phases that witnessed broad anthropogenic alterations to biodiversity—the Late Pleistocene global human expansion, the Neolithic spread of agriculture, the era of island colonization, and the emergence of early urbanized societies and commercial networks. Archaeological evidence documents millennia of anthropogenic transformations that have created novel ecosystems around the world. This record has implications for ecological and evolutionary research, conservation strategies, and the maintenance of ecosystem services, pointing to a significant need for broader cross-disciplinary engagement between archaeology and the biological and environmental sciences. PMID:27274046

  16. Immobilization of lead in anthropogenic contaminated soils using phosphates with/without oxalic acid.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaojuan; Zhu, Jun; Fu, Qingling; Zuo, Jichao; Liu, Yonghong; Hu, Hongqing

    2015-02-01

    Understanding the effects of oxalic acid (OA) on the immobilization of Pb(II) in contaminated soils by phosphate materials, has considerable benefits for risk assessment and remediation strategies for the soil. A series of phosphate amendments with/without oxalic acid were applied to two anthropogenic contaminated soils. We investigated the immobilization of Pb(II) by KH2PO4, phosphate rock (PR), activated phosphate rock (APR) and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) at different phosphate:Pb (P:Pb) molar ratios (0, 0.6, 2.0 and 4.0) in the presence/absence of 50 mmol oxalic acid/kg soil, respectively. The effects of treatments were evaluated using single extraction with deionized water or CaCl2, Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) methods. Our results showed that the concentration of water extractable, exchangeable and TCLP-Pb all decreased with incubation time. The concentration of water-extractable Pb after 120 days was reduced by 100% when soils were amended with APR, HAP and HAP+OA, and the TCLP-Pb was <5 mg/L for the red soil at P:Pb molar ratio 4.0. Water-soluble Pb could not be detected and the TCLP-Pb was <5 mg/L at all treatments applied to the yellow-brown soil. BCR results indicated that APR was most effective, although a slight enhancement of water-soluble phosphate was detected at the P:Pb molar ratio 4.0 at the beginning of incubation. Oxalic acid activated phosphates, and so mixing insoluble phosphates with oxalic acid may be a useful strategy to improve their effectiveness in reducing Pb bioavailability.

  17. The distributions of one invasive and two native crayfishes in relation to coarse-scale natural and anthropogenic factors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westhoff, Jacob T.; Rabeni, C.F.; Sowa, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    1. Native crayfishes are often extirpated from portions of their range because of interactions with invasive species, anthropogenic alterations to environmental conditions or a combination of these factors. Our goal was to identify coarse-scale natural and anthropogenic factors related to the current distributions of the invasive crayfish, Orconectes hylas, and two endemic crayfishes, Orconectes peruncus andOrconectes quadruncus in the St. Francis River drainage, Missouri, U.S.A. and to provide wider insights into the potential role of anthropogenic factors in facilitating species displacement. 2. We used classification trees to model coarse-scale natural and anthropogenic environmental factors and their relation to the presence or absence of each species. Model results were then used to predict probability of presence for each species within each stream segment throughout the entire St. Francis River drainage. 3. Factors related to geology and soils were the best predictors of species distributions. A dichotomy of these factors explained much of the discrete distributions of the two native species. Agricultural-related factors were identified as the most influential anthropogenic activity related to species distributions. All associations between the invasive species and anthropogenic factors were negative which suggested the invader was not likely to establish in heavily impacted areas. Overall, our models had high correct classification rates, and we were able to reliably predict the presence of the invader in the invaded drainage. 4. Given the negative associations of the invader with anthropogenic alterations at a coarse spatial scale, we believe other mechanisms are likely to be responsible for the widespread displacement of the two native species. These findings can be used to assist in conservation activities such as creation of refugia for native species and may direct future research to identify the mechanism(s) of species displacement.

  18. Uncertainty of spatial distributions of soil magnetic susceptibility in areas of different type of land cover and anthropogenic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzki, Jaroslaw; Fabijańczyk, Piotr

    2016-04-01

    There is still a high interest in the improvement of soil magnetometry procedures that would increase its accuracy. Soil magnetometry is usually used as a fast screening method that is used to assess the degree of soil pollution. As the magnetometric measurements do not provide the exact information about the concentration of elements in soil, it is very important to determine the uncertainty of the spatial distributions of soil magnetic susceptibility. The goal of this study was to analyze and present geostatistical methods of assessing the uncertainty of spatial distribution of soil magnetic susceptibility in areas of different land cover and anthropogenic pressure. In particular, spatial distributions of magnetic susceptibility measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device were calculated using indicator methods that make it possible to calculate the probability of exceeding the critical levels of soil magnetic susceptibility. Measurements were performed in areas located in the Upper Silesian Industrial Area in Poland, and in Norway. In these areas soil magnetic susceptibility was measured on the soil surface using a MS2D Bartington device. Additionally, soil samples were taken in order to perform chemical measurements that included the determination of a concentration of selected elements. Acknowledgment The research leading to these results has received funding from the Polish-Norwegian Research Programme operated by the National Centre for Research and Development underthe Norwegian Financial Mechanism 2009-2014 in the frame of Project IMPACT - Contract No Pol-Nor/199338/45/2013.

  19. Movement responses of caribou to human-induced habitat edges lead to their aggregation near anthropogenic features.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Daniel; Buono, Pietro-Luciano; Fortin, André; Courbin, Nicolas; Tye Gingras, Christian; Moorcroft, Paul R; Courtois, Réhaume; Dussault, Claude

    2013-06-01

    The assessment of disturbance effects on wildlife and resulting mitigation efforts are founded on edge-effect theory. According to the classical view, the abundance of animals affected by human disturbance should increase monotonically with distance from disturbed areas to reach a maximum at remote locations. Here we show that distance-dependent movement taxis can skew abundance distributions toward disturbed areas. We develop an advection-diffusion model based on basic movement behavior commonly observed in animal populations and parameterize the model from observations on radio-collared caribou in a boreal ecosystem. The model predicts maximum abundance at 3.7 km from cutovers and roads. Consistently, aerial surveys conducted over 161,920 km(2) showed that the relative probability of caribou occurrence displays nonmonotonic changes with the distance to anthropogenic features, with a peak occurring at 4.5 km away from these features. This aggregation near disturbed areas thus provides the predators of this top-down-controlled, threatened herbivore species with specific locations to concentrate their search. The edge-effect theory developed here thus predicts that human activities should alter animal distribution and food web properties differently than anticipated from the current paradigm. Consideration of such nonmonotonic response to habitat edges may become essential to successful wildlife conservation.

  20. A 500 year sediment lake record of anthropogenic and natural inputs to Windermere (English Lake District) using double-spike lead isotopes, radiochronology, and sediment microanalysis.

    PubMed

    Miller, Helen; Croudace, Ian W; Bull, Jonathan M; Cotterill, Carol J; Dix, Justin K; Taylor, Rex N

    2014-07-01

    A high-resolution record of pollution is preserved in recent sediments from Windermere, the largest lake in the English Lake District. Data derived from X-ray core scanning (validated against wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence), radiochronological techniques ((210)Pb and (137)Cs) and ultrahigh precision, double-spike mass spectrometry for lead isotopes are combined to decipher the anthropogenic inputs to the lake. The sediment record suggests that while most element concentrations have been stable, there has been a significant increase in lead, zinc, and copper concentrations since the 1930s. Lead isotope down-core variations identify three major contributory sources of anthropogenic (industrial) lead, comprising gasoline lead, coal combustion lead (most likely source is coal-fired steam ships), and lead derived from Carboniferous Pb-Zn mineralization (mining activities). Periods of metal workings do not correlate with peaks in heavy metals due to the trapping efficiency of up-system lakes in the catchment. Heavy metal increases could be due to flood-induced metal inwash after the cessation of mining and the weathering of bedrock in the catchment. The combination of sediment analysis techniques used provides new insights into the pollutant depositional history of Windermere and could be similarly applied to other lake systems to determine the timing and scale of anthropogenic inputs.

  1. Megafauna of vulnerable marine ecosystems in French mediterranean submarine canyons: Spatial distribution and anthropogenic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabri, M.-C.; Pedel, L.; Beuck, L.; Galgani, F.; Hebbeln, D.; Freiwald, A.

    2014-06-01

    Vulnerable Marine Ecosystems (VME) in the deep Mediterranean Sea have been identified by the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean as consisting of communities of Scleractinia (Lophelia pertusa and Madrepora oculata), Pennatulacea (Funiculina quadrangularis) and Alcyonacea (Isidella elongata). This paper deals with video data recorded in the heads of French Mediterranean canyons. Quantitative observations were extracted from 101 video films recorded during the MEDSEACAN cruise in 2009 (Aamp/Comex). Qualitative information was extracted from four other cruises (two Marum/Comex cruises in 2009 and 2011 and two Ifremer cruises in 1995 and 2010) to support the previous observations in the Cassidaigne and Lacaze-Duthiers canyons. All the species, fishing impacts and litter recognized in the video films recorded from 180 to 700 m depth were mapped using GIS. The abundances and distributions of benthic fishing resources (marketable fishes, Aristeidae, Octopodidae), Vulnerable Marine Species, trawling scars and litter of 17 canyons were calculated and compared, as was the open slope between the Stoechades and Toulon canyons. Funiculina quadrangularis was rarely observed, being confined for the most part to the Marti canyon and, I. elongata was abundant in three canyons (Bourcart, Marti, Petit-Rhône). These two cnidarians were encountered in relatively low abundances, and it may be that they have been swept away by repeated trawling. The Lacaze-Duthiers and Cassidaigne canyons comprised the highest densities and largest colony sizes of scleractinian cold-water corals, whose distribution was mapped in detail. These colonies were often seen to be entangled in fishing lines. The alcyonacean Callogorgia verticillata was observed to be highly abundant in the Bourcart canyon and less abundant in several other canyons. This alcyonacean was also severely affected by bottom fishing gears and is proposed as a Vulnerable Marine Species. Our studies on anthropogenic

  2. Seasonal variations in the sources of natural and anthropogenic lead deposited at the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Burn-Nunes, Laurie; Vallelonga, Paul; Lee, Khanghyun; Hong, Sungmin; Burton, Graeme; Hou, Shugui; Moy, Andrew; Edwards, Ross; Loss, Robert; Rosman, Kevin

    2014-07-15

    Lead (Pb) isotopic compositions and concentrations, and barium (Ba) and indium (In) concentrations have been analysed at sub-annual resolution in three sections from a <110 m ice core dated to the 18th and 20th centuries, as well as snow pit samples dated to 2004/2005, recovered from the East Rongbuk Glacier in the high-altitude Himalayas. Ice core sections indicate that atmospheric chemistry prior to ~1,953 was controlled by mineral dust inputs, with no discernible volcanic or anthropogenic contributions. Eighteenth century monsoon ice core chemistry is indicative of dominant contributions from local Himalayan sources; non-monsoon ice core chemistry is linked to contributions from local (Himalayan), regional (Indian/Thar Desert) and long-range (North Africa, Central Asia) sources. Twentieth century monsoon and non-monsoon ice core data demonstrate similar seasonal sources of mineral dust, however with a transition to less-radiogenic isotopic signatures that suggests local and regional climate/environmental change. The snow pit record demonstrates natural and anthropogenic contributions during both seasons, with increased anthropogenic influence during non-monsoon times. Monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to South/South-East Asia and/or India, whereas non-monsoon anthropogenic inputs are most likely sourced to India and Central Asia.

  3. Anthropogenic carbon estimates in the Weddell Sea using an optimized CFC based transit time distribution approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huhn, Oliver; Hauck, Judith; Hoppema, Mario; Rhein, Monika; Roether, Wolfgang

    2010-05-01

    We use a 20 year time series of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) observations along the Prime Meridian to determine the temporal evolution of anthropogenic carbon (Cant) in the two deep boundary currents which enter the Weddell Basin in the south and leave it in the north. The Cant is inferred from transit time distributions (TTDs), with parameters (mean transit time and dispersion) adjusted to the observed mean CFC histories in these recently ventilated deep boundary currents. We optimize that "classic" TTD approach by accounting for water exchange of the boundary currents with an old but not CFC and Cant free interior reservoir. This reservoir in turn, is replenished by the boundary currents, which we parameterize as first order mixing. Furthermore, we account for the time-dependence of the CFC and Cant source water saturation. A conceptual model of an ideal saturated mixed layer and exchange with adjacent water is adjusted to observed CFC saturations in the source regions. The time-dependence for the CFC saturation appears to be much weaker than for Cant. We find a mean transit time of 14 years and an advection/dispersion ratio of 5 for the deep southern boundary current. For the northern boundary current we find a mean transit time of 8 years and a much advection/dispersion ratio of 140. The fractions directly supplied by the boundary currents are in both cases in the order of 10%, while 90% are admixed from the interior reservoirs, which are replenished with a renewal time of about 14 years. We determine Cant ~ 11 umol/kg (reference year 2006) in the deep water entering the Weddell Sea in the south (~2.1 Sv), and 12 umol/kg for the deep water leaving the Weddell Sea in the north (~2.7 Sv). These Cant estimates are, however, upper limits, considering that the Cant source water saturation is likely to be lower than that for the CFCs. Comparison with Cant intrusion estimates based on extended multiple linear regression (using potential temperature, salinity, oxygen, and

  4. Distribution of polychaete assemblage in relation to natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zan, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Chongliang; Xu, Binduo; Xue, Ying; Ren, Yiping

    2015-08-01

    Polychaete are diverse species of the soft-bottom community, and are often used as indicators in environment monitoring programs. However, the effects of anthropogenic activities and natural environmental variation on polychaete assemblage are rarely addressed. The goals of this study are to identify the effects of natural environmental variation and anthropogenic stress on polychaete assemblage, and to explore the relationship between the polychaete assemblage structure and anthropogenic stress without considering the natural environmental variation. Based on the data collected from the surveys conducted in the tidal flat of Jiaozhou Bay, the relationship between polychaete assemblage structure and environmental variables was determined using multivariate statistical methods including hierarchical cluster analysis, multidimensional scaling (MDS) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results showed that the polychaete assemblage was dominated by two species, Amphictene japonica and Heteromastus filiformis, and could be divided into two subgroups characterized by high and low species abundance. CCA illustrated that the natural environmental variables including water temperature and the distance from coast had primary effects on the polychaete assemblage structure; while stress of contaminants, such as As and Hg, had the secondary influences; and stress from the aquacultured species, mainly Ruditapes philippinarum, had a limited effect. Colinearity between the natural environmental variables and anthropogenic stress variables caused a critical divergence in the interpretation of CCA results, which highlighted the risk of a lack of information in environment assessment. Glycinde gurjanovae, Sternaspis scutata and Eulalia bilineata may serve as the `contamination indicators', which need to be confirmed in future studies.

  5. Distribution of biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents as a proxy for sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay Coastal System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGann, Mary; Erikson, Li H.; Wan, Elmira; Powell, Charles L.; Maddocks, Rosalie F.

    2013-01-01

    Although conventional sediment parameters (mean grain size, sorting, and skewness) and provenance have typically been used to infer sediment transport pathways, most freshwater, brackish, and marine environments are also characterized by abundant sediment constituents of biological, and possibly anthropogenic and volcanic, origin that can provide additional insight into local sedimentary processes. The biota will be spatially distributed according to its response to environmental parameters such as water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, organic carbon content, grain size, and intensity of currents and tidal flow, whereas the presence of anthropogenic and volcanic constituents will reflect proximity to source areas and whether they are fluvially- or aerially-transported. Because each of these constituents have a unique environmental signature, they are a more precise proxy for that source area than the conventional sedimentary process indicators. This San Francisco Bay Coastal System study demonstrates that by applying a multi-proxy approach, the primary sites of sediment transport can be identified. Many of these sites are far from where the constituents originated, showing that sediment transport is widespread in the region. Although not often used, identifying and interpreting the distribution of naturally-occurring and allochthonous biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic sediment constituents is a powerful tool to aid in the investigation of sediment transport pathways in other coastal systems.

  6. Distribution of lead in human milk fractions: relationship with essential minerals and maternal blood lead.

    PubMed

    Anastácio, Alexandra da Silva; da Silveira, Carmem Lucia Porto; Miekeley, Norbert; Donangelo, Carmen Marino

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentration and distribution of lead, calcium, iron, zinc, and copper in major fractions (fat, casein, whey) of mature milk from 38 nursing adult women with low environmental lead exposure. The potential associations between milk lead and maternal blood lead and between milk and blood lead and essential mineral data (nutritional status, dietary intake, and milk concentration) were investigated. Maternal blood lead (geometric mean, 60 microg/L) was negatively associated, although modestly, with dietary calcium intake (r=-0.32, p=0.02). Lead in whole milk (geometric mean, 1.2 microg/L) was positively associated with calcium in whole milk (r=0.56, p=0.005). Distribution of lead in milk fractions was 63%, 28%, and 9%, in whey, fat, and casein, respectively. Milk distribution of essential minerals was 67-76%, 17-18%, and 7-17% in whey, fat, and casein, respectively. Lead in milk whey was positively associated with lead in maternal blood (r=0.49, p=0.02). However, milk lead was not affected by nutritional status, dietary intake, and milk composition of the essential minerals. The high percentage of lead in the milk whey fraction, as seen for the essential minerals, suggests that most lead in human milk is bioavailable to the infant.

  7. [Characterization of lead size distributions with different process in lead-zinc smelter].

    PubMed

    Liang, Jun-Ning; Li, Wen-Hui; Ge, Yi; Chen, Jie; Song, Li-Na; Liu, Jie

    2014-08-01

    Using a cascade impactor (Andersen Series NVA-800), the size-segregated atmospheric particulates were collected daily and characters of lead contents and size distribution in the particles were analyzed from melting preparation, blast furnace smelting and lead-cast processes within a lead-zinc smelter in Shaanxi province. The results showed that emissions of particulate matter were different in different processes, in which the emissions of blast furnace smelting process was 402.83 mg x h(-1), while melting preparation were 182.71 mg x h(-1) and 100.03 mg x h(-1) in lead-cast processes. Lead contents in different sizes of particles varied in different processes. The mass fraction of lead were 111.54 mg x kg(-1), 68.54 mg x kg(-1) and 10.5 mg x kg(-1) in melting preparation, blast furnace smelting and lead-cast respectively. For lead's size distribution, the melting preparation and blast furnace smelting were mainly concentrated in the coarse particles, and the lead proportion in coarse and fine particles was approximately in lead-cast processes. The proportions of lead in coarse particles were 43.42% and 47.48% in melting preparation and blast furnace smelting process respectively, while the proportion of lead in coarse and fine particles was 37.14% and was 45.72% in lead-cast processes. There had peaks in both coarse and fine particles of melting preparation and lead-cast process, but the lead peak appeared only in the coarse particles of blast furnace smelting. It also indicated that the lead's cumulative frequencies of all processes were conforming to lognormal distribution.

  8. Lead concentration distribution and source tracing of urban/suburban aquatic sediments in two typical famous tourist cities: Haikou and Sanya, China.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhicheng; Bao, Zhengyu; Wu, Guoai; Fu, Yangrong; Yang, Yi

    2010-11-01

    The content and spatial distribution of lead in the aquatic systems in two Chinese tropical cities in Hainan province (Haikou and Sanyan) show an unequal distribution of lead between the urban and the suburban areas. The lead content is significantly higher (72.3 mg/kg) in the urban area than the suburbs (15.0 mg/kg) in Haikou, but quite equal in Sanya (41.6 and 43.9 mg/kg). The frequency distribution histograms suggest that the lead in Haikou and in Sanya derives from different natural and/or anthropogenic sources. The isotopic compositions indicate that urban sediment lead in Haikou originates mainly from anthropogenic sources (automobile exhaust, atmospheric deposition, etc.) which contribute much more than the natural sources, while natural lead (basalt and sea sands) is still dominant in the suburban areas in Haikou. In Sanya, the primary source is natural (soils and sea sands).

  9. Spatial distribution and seasonality of ichthyoplankton and anthropogenic debris in a river delta in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Correa-Herrera, T; Barletta, M; Lima, A R A; Jiménez-Segura, L F; Arango-Sánchez, L B

    2017-01-31

    Temporal changes in larval fish species composition and abundance compared with other components of the seston are described in four estuarine habitats in the Atrato Delta, Colombia. In comparison with zooplankton, fish larvae and egg density and anthropogenic debris abundance were low in the South Atrato Delta. Transparency, water temperature and chlorophyll a were the major factors influencing the spatiotemporal distribution of ichthyoplankton in the delta. The most abundant fish larvae were Astyanax sp. 1, Anchovia clupeoides, Cetengraulis edentulus, Anchoa sp., Bathygbius curacao, Dormitator maculatus, Hyporhamphus sp., Atherinella blackburni, Gobiosoma sp. 1 and Menticirrhus americanus (92·8% of total abundance). Spatial temporal analysis shows that in this delta, shrub (arracachal) and grass (eneal) habitats are important for freshwater and estuarine species, whilst mudflat and mangrove are important for estuarine species and estuarine-marine species, since most flexion and post-flexion stages of these species were found there. Anthropogenic debris density never surpassed the total ichthyoplankton density, but was ubiquitous. Shrub and mangrove habitats had higher densities of anthropogenic debris, since these are flood-stem habitats that trap solids.

  10. Aerosol size distribution and radiative forcing response to anthropogenically driven historical changes in biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrea, S. D.; Acosta Navarro, J. C.; Farina, S. C.; Scott, C. E.; Rap, A.; Farmer, D. K.; Spracklen, D. V.; Riipinen, I.; Pierce, J. R.

    2015-03-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) have changed in the past millennium due to changes in land use, temperature, and CO2 concentrations. Recent reconstructions of BVOC emissions have predicted that global isoprene emissions have decreased, while monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions have increased; however, all three show regional variability due to competition between the various influencing factors. In this work, we use two modeled estimates of BVOC emissions from the years 1000 to 2000 to test the effect of anthropogenic changes to BVOC emissions on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation, global aerosol size distributions, and radiative effects using the GEOS-Chem-TOMAS (Goddard Earth Observing System; TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional) global aerosol microphysics model. With anthropogenic emissions (e.g., SO2, NOx, primary aerosols) turned off and BVOC emissions changed from year 1000 to year 2000 values, decreases in the number concentration of particles of size Dp > 80 nm (N80) of > 25% in year 2000 relative to year 1000 were predicted in regions with extensive land-use changes since year 1000 which led to regional increases in the combined aerosol radiative effect (direct and indirect) of > 0.5 W m-2 in these regions. We test the sensitivity of our results to BVOC emissions inventory, SOA yields, and the presence of anthropogenic emissions; however, the qualitative response of the model to historic BVOC changes remains the same in all cases. Accounting for these uncertainties, we estimate millennial changes in BVOC emissions cause a global mean direct effect of between +0.022 and +0.163 W m-2 and the global mean cloud-albedo aerosol indirect effect of between -0.008 and -0.056 W m-2. This change in aerosols, and the associated radiative forcing, could be a largely overlooked and important anthropogenic aerosol effect on regional climates.

  11. Mass of nonrelativistic meson from leading twist distribution amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braguta, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper distribution amplitudes of pseudoscalar and vector nonrelativistic mesons are considered. Using equations of motion for the distribution amplitudes, relations are derived which allow one to calculate the masses of nonrelativistic pseudoscalar and vector meson if the leading twist distribution amplitudes are known. These relations can be also rewritten as relations between the masses of nonrelativistic mesons and infinite series of QCD operators, what can be considered as an exact version of Gremm-Kapustin relation in NRQCD.

  12. Influence of Holocene environmental change and anthropogenic impact on the diversity and distribution of roe deer.

    PubMed

    Baker, K H; Hoelzel, A R

    2014-06-01

    Extant patterns of population structure and levels of diversity are a consequence of factors that vary in both space and time. Our objective in this study is to investigate a species that has responded to both natural and anthropogenic changes in ways that have shaped modern populations and provide insight into the key processes. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the two species of deer native to Britain. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the British habitat was largely under ice and there was a land bridge to mainland Europe. As the Earth warmed during the early Holocene, the land bridge was lost. Subsequent hunting on the British mainland left the southern region extirpated of roe deer, whereas a refugial population remained in the north. Later reintroductions from Europe led to population expansion, especially in southern United Kingdom. Here, we combine data from ancient and modern DNA to track population dynamics and patterns of connectivity, and test hypotheses about the influence of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. We find that past expansion and divergence events coincided with a warming environment and the subsequent closure of the land bridge between Europe and the United Kingdom. We also find turnover in British roe deer haplotypes between the late-Holocene and modern day that have likely resulted from recent human disturbance activities such as habitat perturbation, overhunting and restocking.

  13. Influence of Holocene environmental change and anthropogenic impact on the diversity and distribution of roe deer

    PubMed Central

    Baker, K H; Hoelzel, A R

    2014-01-01

    Extant patterns of population structure and levels of diversity are a consequence of factors that vary in both space and time. Our objective in this study is to investigate a species that has responded to both natural and anthropogenic changes in ways that have shaped modern populations and provide insight into the key processes. The roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) is one of the two species of deer native to Britain. During the last glacial maximum (LGM), the British habitat was largely under ice and there was a land bridge to mainland Europe. As the Earth warmed during the early Holocene, the land bridge was lost. Subsequent hunting on the British mainland left the southern region extirpated of roe deer, whereas a refugial population remained in the north. Later reintroductions from Europe led to population expansion, especially in southern United Kingdom. Here, we combine data from ancient and modern DNA to track population dynamics and patterns of connectivity, and test hypotheses about the influence of natural and anthropogenic environmental change. We find that past expansion and divergence events coincided with a warming environment and the subsequent closure of the land bridge between Europe and the United Kingdom. We also find turnover in British roe deer haplotypes between the late-Holocene and modern day that have likely resulted from recent human disturbance activities such as habitat perturbation, overhunting and restocking. PMID:24448563

  14. Natural and anthropogenic influences on the distribution of the threatened Neosho madtom in a midwestern warmwater stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildhaber, M.L.; Allert, A.L.; Schmitt, C.J.; Tabor, V.M.; Mulhern, D.; Powell, K.L.; Sowa, S.P.

    2000-01-01

    We attempted to discern the contributions of physical habitat, water chemistry, nutrients, and contaminants from historic lead-zinc mining activities on the riffle-dwelling benthic fish community of the Spring River, a midwestern warmwater stream that originates in Missouri and flows into Kansas and Oklahoma. The Spring River has a fish community that includes the Neosho madtom Noturus placidus, a species federally listed as threatened. Although anthropogenic factors such as contaminants limited populations and densities of fishes, an integrated assessment of natural and anthropogenic factors was necessary to effectively estimate the influence of the latter. Fish populations in the Spring River, especially Neosho madtoms, seem to be limited by the presence of cadmium, lead, and zinc in water and in benthic invertebrate food sources and by physical habitat. The population density and community structure of fish in the Spring River also seem to be related to water chemistry and nutrients. Concurrently, diminished food availability may be limiting fish populations at some sites where Neosho madtoms are not found. Many of the natural factors that may be limiting Neosho madtom and other riffle-dwelling fish populations in the Spring River probably are characteristic of the physiographic region drained by the upper reach and many of the tributaries of the Spring River. Our results indicate that competition between the Neosho madtom and other species within the riffle-dwelling fish community is an unlikely cause of Neosho madtom population limitation in the Spring River.

  15. Distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in heavy rainfall areas in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Ababneh, Anas M; Almomani, Ali M; Alyassin, Abdalmajeid M; Ababneh, Zaid Q

    2012-06-01

    Soil is the main reservoir of both natural and artificial radionuclides, which are transported to the human body through the food chain. Thus, assessment of the level of radioactivity in soil is of crucial importance. Artificial radionuclide concentrations in soil depend heavily on rainfall and weather conditions. In this study, the soil of the Ras Muneef area, which has the highest rainfall in Jordan, was investigated for its natural and anthropogenic radioactive content. The area was divided into four sectors and in each sector three locations were investigated depending on the land use: undisturbed, cultivated or residential. The depth profile of (137)Cs was investigated and found to depend on the land use. In the undisturbed soils, two types of depth profiles were identified: Gaussian and exponentially decreasing. The annual effective dose was found to range from 19.4 to 72.6 μSv, which falls within the worldwide ranges.

  16. Assessing anthropogenic impact on boreal lakes with historical fish species distribution data and hydrogeochemical modeling.

    PubMed

    Valinia, Salar; Englund, Göran; Moldan, Filip; Futter, Martyn N; Köhler, Stephan J; Bishop, Kevin; Fölster, Jens

    2014-09-01

    Quantifying the effects of human activity on the natural environment is dependent on credible estimates of reference conditions to define the state of the environment before the onset of adverse human impacts. In Europe, emission controls that aimed at restoring ecological status were based on hindcasts from process-based models or paleolimnological reconstructions. For instance, 1860 is used in Europe as the target for restoration from acidification concerning biological and chemical parameters. A more practical problem is that the historical states of ecosystems and their function cannot be observed directly. Therefore, we (i) compare estimates of acidification based on long-term observations of roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations with hindcast pH from the hydrogeochemical model MAGIC; (ii) discuss policy implications and possible scope for use of long-term archival data for assessing human impacts on the natural environment and (iii) present a novel conceptual model for interpreting the importance of physico-chemical and ecological deviations from reference conditions. Of the 85 lakes studied, 78 were coherently classified by both methods. In 1980, 28 lakes were classified as acidified with the MAGIC model, however, roach was present in 14 of these. In 2010, MAGIC predicted chemical recovery in 50% of the lakes, however roach only recolonized in five lakes after 1990, showing a lag between chemical and biological recovery. Our study is the first study of its kind to use long-term archival biological data in concert with hydrogeochemical modeling for regional assessments of anthropogenic acidification. Based on our results, we show how the conceptual model can be used to understand and prioritize management of physico-chemical and ecological effects of anthropogenic stressors on surface water quality.

  17. Isotopic identification of natural vs. anthropogenic lead sources in marine sediments from the inner Ría de Vigo (NW Spain).

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Iglesias, P; Rubio, B; Millos, J

    2012-10-15

    San Simón Bay, the inner part of the Ría de Vigo (NW Spain), an area previously identified as highly polluted by Pb, was selected for the application of Pb stable isotope ratios as a fingerprinting tool in subtidal and intertidal sediment cores. Lead isotopic ratios were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry on extracts from bulk samples after total acid digestion. Depth-wise profiles of (206)Pb/(207)Pb, (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (207)Pb/(204)Pb, (208)Pb/(204)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios showed, in general, an upward decrease for both intertidal and subtidal sediments as a consequence of the anthropogenic activities over the last century, or centuries. Waste channel samples from a nearby ceramic factory showed characteristic Pb stable isotope ratios different from those typical of coal and petrol. Natural isotope ratios from non-polluted samples were established for the study area, differentiating sediments from granitic or schist-gneiss sources. A binary mixing model employed on the polluted samples allowed estimating the anthropogenic inputs to the bay. These inputs represented between 25 and 98% of Pb inputs in intertidal samples, and 9-84% in subtidal samples, their contributions varying with time. Anthropogenic sources were apportioned according to a three-source model. Coal combustion-related emissions were the main anthropogenic source Pb to the bay (60-70%) before the establishment of the ceramic factory in the area (in the 1970s) which has since constituted the main source (95-100%), followed by petrol-related emissions. The Pb inputs history for the intertidal area was determined for the 20th century, and, for the subtidal area, the 19th and 20th centuries.

  18. Distribution of anthropogenic fill material within the Y-12 plant area, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Sutton, G.E. Jr. |; Field, S.M.

    1995-10-01

    Widespread groundwater contamination in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been documented through a variety of monitoring efforts since the late 1970s. Various contaminants, most notably volatile organic compounds (VOCs), have migrated through the subsurface and formed extensive contaminant plumes within the Knox Aquifer/Maynardville Limestone, the primary exit pathway for groundwater transport within the Bear Creek Valley. In 1991, an integrated, comprehensive effort (Upper East Fork Poplar Creek [UEFPC] Phase I monitoring network) was initiated in order to (1) identify contaminant source areas within the industrialized portions of the plant and (2) define contamination migration pathways existing between the source areas and the Knox Aquifer/Maynardville Limestone. Data obtained during previous studies have indicated that extensive zones of fill and buried utility trenches may serve as preferred migration pathways. In addition, portions of UEFPC were rerouted, with several of its tributaries being filled during the initial construction of the plant. These filled surface drainage features are also believed to serve as preferred migration pathways. The identification of preferred contaminant migration pathways within the Y-12 Plant area is essential and required to refine the current Bear Creek Valley groundwater conceptual model and to assist in the selection of technically feasible and cost effective remedial strategies. This report presents the results of an initial investigation of the occurrence of manmade (anthropogenic) fill and its effect upon groundwater movement within the plant area. These interpretations are subject to revision and improvement as further investigation of the effects of the fill upon contaminant migration progresses.

  19. Distribution and abundance of anthropogenic marine debris along the shelf and slope of the US West Coast.

    PubMed

    Keller, Aimee A; Fruh, Erica L; Johnson, Melanie M; Simon, Victor; McGourty, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    As marine debris levels continue to grow worldwide, defining sources, composition, and distribution of debris, as well as potential effects, becomes increasingly important. We investigated composition and abundance of man-made, benthic marine debris at 1347 randomly selected stations along the US West Coast during Groundfish Bottom Trawl Surveys in 2007 and 2008. Anthropogenic debris was observed in 469 tows at depths of 55-1280 m. Plastic and metallic debris occurred in the greatest number of hauls followed by fabric and glass. Mean density was 67.1 items km(-2) throughout the study area but was significantly higher south of 36 degrees 00'N latitude. Mean density significantly increased with depth, ranging from 30 items km(-2) in shallow (55-183 m) water to 128 items km(-2) in the deepest depth stratum (550-1280 m). Debris densities observed along the US West Coast were comparable to those seen elsewhere and provide a valuable backdrop for future comparisons.

  20. Spatial distribution of soil lead pollution in Milwaukee County, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkmann, R.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial distribution of lead pollution in soils of Milwaukee County, Wisconsin, was investigated to find the patterns and extent of health-threatening contamination. Samples were collected within three distinct land-use types: (i) lawns and gardens, (ii) major east-west arterials, and (iii) private properties at site-specific locations. Three-hundred and sixty-four soil samples were collected from lawns and gardens throughout the county; a total of 263 soil samples were collected along College Avenue, Oklahoma Avenue, Greenfield Avenue, Wisconsin Avenue, North Avenue, Capitol Drive, and Brown Deer Road, and a total of 55 soil samples were collected from three private properties. Several distinct patterns emerged from the mapped data. Broadly, soil lead pollution in lawns and gardens was highest in the central city and decreased north, south, and west toward the county lines and suburban fringe. Also, soil lead pollution along major arterials decreased away from busy intersections and was generally eliminated east of 42nd Street. At the three locations of intense sampling for site-specific examination, soil lead was concentrated within one meter of painted structures. Peripheral to the one meter zone, background levels of lead were found except in the central city where elevated soil lead levels were found in lawns. Health-threatening lead levels (>500 ppm) were found in soils collected using all three approaches: 24% of 11 soils collected from lawns and gardens; 43% of soils collected from major east-west arterials; and 27% of the soils collected from all three intensely examined properties. The sources of lead pollution in soil were more clearly suggested in intense sampling within small private properties. Lead-based paint caused contamination within one meter of painted structures and airborne lead from automobile exhaust outside that zone.

  1. The transfer of bomb radiocarbon and anthropogenic lead to the deep North Atlantic Ocean observed from a deep sea coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Mi; Eltgroth, Selene F.; Boyle, Edward A.; Adkins, Jess F.

    2017-01-01

    Deep-ocean, Δ14C, Pb concentrations, and Pb isotopes were reconstructed from a deep-sea coral Enallopsammia rostrata from 1410 m depth off of Bermuda. Our high-resolution time series is created from closely spaced radial cross sections, with samples taken from the center of concentric coral growth bands that we show to be the oldest portion of the section. Prebomb radiocarbon ages from the coral demonstrate that the vertical growth rate of the coral is linear, and the age of the coral is estimated to be 560-630 yr old based on the growth rate. Using this age model to reconstruct Δ14C in deep seawater, we first detect bomb radiocarbon at the coral growth site around 1980, and show that Δ14C increased from - 80 ± 1 ‰ (average 1930-1979) to a plateau at - 39 ± 3 ‰ (1999-2001). Pb/Ca of the coral ranges between 1.1-4.5 nmol/mol during the 16th and 17th centuries, and Pb isotope ratios (206Pb/207Pb = 1.21, 208Pb/207Pb = 2.495) in this period agree with pre-anthropogenic values found in the pelagic sediments of the North Atlantic Ocean basin. Coral Pb/Ca is slightly elevated to 6.2 ± 0.9 nmol /mol between the 1740s and the 1850s and then increases to 25.1 ± 0.2 nmol /mol in the 1990s. The increase in coral Pb/Ca is accompanied by a decrease in coral 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb, indicating that the increase was caused by the infiltration of anthropogenic Pb to the coral growth site. Comparing our data to the surface coral Δ14C and Pb records from Bermuda reveals a time scale of tracer transport from the surface ocean to the coral growth site. Some characteristic features, e.g., the bomb-derived Δ14C increase, appear in the deep ocean approximately 25 yr later than the surface, but the overall increase of Δ14C and Pb in the deep ocean is smaller and slower than the surface, showing the importance of mixing during the transport of these tracers.

  2. Anthropogenic impacts on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azrina, M Z; Yap, C K; Rahim Ismail, A; Ismail, A; Tan, S G

    2006-07-01

    A study of the impacts of anthropogenic activities on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River (Peninsular Malaysia) was conducted. Four pristine stations from the upstream and 4 stations at the downstream receiving anthropogenic impacts were selected along the river. For 4 consecutive months (March-June 1999), based on the Malaysian DOE (Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2000, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and Environment Malaysia. Maskha Sdn. Bhd. Kuala Lumpur, 86pp; Malaysia Environmental Quality Report 2001, Department of Environment, Ministry of Science, Technology and the Environment Malaysia) water quality index classes, the upstream stations recorded significantly (P<0.05) higher Biological Monitoring Working Party scores and better water quality indices than those of the downstream. The total number of macrobenthic taxa and their overall richness indices and diversity indices were significantly (P<0.05) higher at the upstream stations (54 taxa) than at the downstream stations (5 taxa). The upstream of the Langat River was dominated by Ephemeroptera and chironomid dipterans while other orders found in small quantities included Trichoptera, Diptera, Plecoptera, Odonata, Ephemeraptera, Coleoptera, and Gastropoda. On the other hand, the downstream of the river was mainly inhabited by the resistant Oligochaeta worms Limnodrilus spp. and Branchiodrilus sp. and Hirudinea in small numbers. The relationships between the physicochemical and the macrobenthic data were investigated by Pearson correlation analysis and multiple stepwise regression analysis. These statistical analyses showed that the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by the total suspended solids and the conductivity of the river water. This study also highlighted the impacts of anthropogenic land-based activities such as urban runoff on the distribution and species diversity of

  3. A century long sedimentary record of anthropogenic lead (Pb), Pb isotopes and other trace metals in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mengli; Boyle, Edward A; Switzer, Adam D; Gouramanis, Chris

    2016-06-01

    Reconstructing the history of metal deposition in Singapore lake sediments contributes to understanding the anthropogenic and natural metal deposition in the data-sparse Southeast Asia. To this end, we present a sedimentary record of Pb, Pb isotopes and eleven other metals (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Tl, U and Zn) from a well-dated sediment core collected near the depocenter of MacRitchie Reservoir in central Singapore. Before the 1900s, the sedimentary Pb concentration was less than 2 mg/kg for both soil and sediment, with a corresponding (206)Pb/(207)Pb of ∼1.20. The Pb concentration increased to 55 mg/kg in the 1990s, and correspondingly the (206)Pb/(207)Pb decreased to less than 1.14. The (206)Pb/(207)Pb in the core top sediment is concordant with the (206)Pb/(207)Pb signal of aerosols in Singapore and other Southeast Asian cities, suggesting that Pb in the reservoir sediment was mainly from atmospheric deposition. Using the Pb concentration in the topmost layer of sediment, the estimated atmospheric Pb flux in Singapore today is ∼1.6 × 10(-2) g/m(2) yr. The concentrations of eleven other metals preserved in the sediment were also determined. A principal component analysis showed that most of the metals exhibit an increasing trend towards 1990s with a local concentration peak in the mid-20(th) century.

  4. Mediated distribution pattern of organic compounds in estuarine sediment by anthropogenic debris.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Chou; Bao, Lian-Jun; Tao, Shu; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-09-15

    Natural organic matter and grain size are considered as important parameters dictating the transport and fate of organic compounds in sediment. However, increasing evidence suggested that manufactured debris may alter the underlying mechanisms for biogeochemical cycling of organic compounds. To examine this assumption, estuarine sediment and embedded debris were collected from a fishery base in Guangdong Province of South China and analyzed for organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs), phthalates (PAEs), organotin compounds (OTs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs). Coarse-size debris (>200μm) were heterogeneously distributed in sediment, and most abundant near the boat maintenance facilities, aquaculture zone and shipping channel. The median concentrations of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs in debris were 11, 0.2, 11 and 3.9μgg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively, 1 to 3 orders of magnitude greater than those in bulk sediment (19, 60, 240 and 570ngg(-1) dry sample weight(-1), respectively). Furthermore, OPFRs, OTs and PAEs were mostly (>99%) enriched in coarse-size (63-2000μm) sediment, and there was no significant correlation (p>0.05) between the concentrations of OPFRs, OTs and PAEs in bulk and size-fractioned sediment samples and total organic carbon or grain size, similar to the distribution pattern of DDTs reported previously. When distinct debris were removed from the light-density (<1.7gcm(-3)) fraction of coarse-size (200-2000μm) sediment, the concentration levels of OPFRs, OTs, PAEs and DDTs declined by 84%, 59%, 55% and 7%, respectively. Obviously, debris irregularly distributed in sediment can alter the sediment sorption capacity for OPFRs, OTs and PAEs, and thus may undermine the significance of organic matter and grain size to the distribution of organic chemicals in sediment. Finally, commonly used procedures for preparing sediment samples and screening of debris may disturb the grain size distribution or underestimate the abundance of

  5. Estimation of surface anthropogenic radioactivity concentrations from NaI(Tl) pulse-height distribution observed at monitoring station.

    PubMed

    Hirouchi, J; Yamazawa, H; Hirao, S; Moriizumi, J

    2015-04-01

    A method of estimating surface radioactivity concentrations of key anthropogenic radionuclides from NaI(Tl) pulse-height distribution observed at a monitoring station (MS) was discussed. In the estimation, a realistic assumption on geometric distribution of source and obstacles around the detector of the MS including the infiltration of radionuclides into the ground was used and the results were compared with ones with a commonly used assumption of a uniformly distributed plane source. The surface radioactivity concentration was determined by comparing the count rates at the full-energy peak ranges between observation and calculation with an electron-photon transport code EGS5. It was shown that the estimated absolute values of concentration differed by a factor of ∼1.5 depending on the assumption of infiltration depth. The estimated surface concentrations of (131)I, (134)Cs and (137)Cs were in good agreement with ones determined by the in situ measurements with an HPGe detector and the cumulative values of daily surface depositions.

  6. Factors affecting the distribution of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in the coastal Burullus Lake.

    PubMed

    El-Reefy, H I; Badran, H M; Sharshar, T; Hilal, M A; Elnimr, T

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, measurements of naturally occurring radioactive materials and (137)Cs activity in sediment were conducted for locations covering the entire Burullus Lake in order to gather information about radionuclides mobility and distribution. Low-background γ-spectrometry was employed to determine the activity concentrations of water and sediment samples. The activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th are close to uniform distribution in the lake environment. Among the different physical and chemical characteristics measured for water and sediment, only salinity and total organic matter content have the potential to affect the mobility of (137)Cs and (40)K. The results suggest that these two radionuclides are attached to different mobile particulates. Increasing salinity tends to strengthen the adsorption of (137)Cs and solubilization of (40)K in sediment. On the other hand, sediment with high organic matter content traps (137)Cs and (40)K associated particulates to bottom sediment.

  7. Determination of the provenance of cocoa by soil protolith ages and assessment of anthropogenic lead contamination by pb/nd and lead isotope ratios.

    PubMed

    Manton, William I

    2010-01-27

    The Pb contents of chocolate and the products it flavors are among the highest of all commonly consumed substances. Others have shown that this Pb is acquired by cocoa beans after harvesting and is concentrated in their shells, portions of which are ground up with the cotyledons during processing. It is shown here that the shells also contain the lanthanides Nd and Sm, which they appear to take up more slowly than Pb when dried on bare soil. Consideration of Pb/Nd ratios, model Sm-Nd ages and the isotope ratios of Pb and Sr indicates that, in the absence of contamination, the relationship between Pb and Nd in shells is y = 13.1x(-0.383), where x is the Nd concentration in microg/kg and y is the Pb/Nd ratio. For cocoa powders, the relationship is y = 114x(-0.988). Samples that plot above these curves are probably contaminated. Model ages indicate where the cocoa of cocoa powders is grown, and these same considerations point to African samples being uncontaminated but samples from Asia containing 50% anthropogenic Pb of Australian origin. No measurable Pb contamination occurs during the transport of beans and the manufacture of chocolate.

  8. Source and distribution of sedimentary thallium in the Bohai Sea: Implications for hydrodynamic forces and anthropogenic impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Ningjing; Liu, Jihua; Shi, Xuefa

    2015-04-01

    Source and distribution of sedimentary thallium in the Bohai Sea: Implications for hydrodynamic forces and anthropogenic impact Hu Ningjing, Liu Jihua, Shi Xuefa First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China Thallium (Tl), a non-essential and highly toxic trace metal, is listed as priority toxic pollutant by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (Keith and Telliard, 1979). However, its geochemical cycling in aquatic environment has received far less attention than that of many other trace metals. This has been attributed to relatively little commercial interest in Tl and, until recently, problems inherent in its detection at environmental concentrations (Meeravali and Jiang, 2008). In this study, we investigated the sources, distribution and fate of Tl in surface sediments of the Bohai Sea (BS), China, based on the datasets of total Tl and chemical speciation of Tl of 408 surface sediment samples in the total entire BS. The enrichment factors and chemical speciation of Tl indicated that Tl in BS was dominated by natural Tl, although anthropogenic Tl contamination was observed in the Liuguhe River mouth; the mud deposits are the sinks of Tl and the regional currents and tide systems play a key role on the accumulation of Tl in BS. The distribution of Tl consistent with that of MnO and Fe2O3 as well as the level of Fe-Mn fraction is relatively high, indicating MnO and Fe2O3 influence the geochemical behaviors of Tl in the BS. Although the positive correlation between Tl and TOC is observed for the samples in the BS, however, level of Tl in oxidizable faction could be neglected, suggesting TOC might not be a major factor affecting the concentration of Tl in BS. The low proportion of Tl in the non-residual fraction dominated by the Fe-Mn oxides suggested that the labile Tl was controlled by the Fe-Mn oxides and Tl has a low bioavailability and a minor potential threat to biota in BS. Acknowledgements: this work

  9. Anthropogenic and natural lead isotopes in Fe-hydroxides and Fe-sulphates in a watershed associated with arsenic-enriched groundwater, Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of the natural and anthropogenic sources of lead contributing to secondary minerals in sulphidic schists associated with arsenic-enriched groundwater in Coastal Maine shows that the most likely source is natural Pb, particularly from coexisting sulphide minerals. The secondary minerals also reflect notable contributions from anthropogenic Pb. The Pb isotopes establish pathways by which Pb, and by inference As, could have been transported from As-bearing minerals (arsenian pyrite, arsenopyrite, lollingite, orpiment, arsenic oxide and others), via sulphide oxidation or carbonation reactions into multiple generations of secondary minerals (goethite, hematite, jarosite, natrojarosite and others). Lead isotopic compositions of the sulphides and secondary minerals determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (n=53) range widely. Lead and As contents of the sulphides and secondary minerals overlap, and are generally positively correlated. Pyrite, the dominant sulphide in sulphidic schists associated with As-enriched groundwater in Coastal Maine, has values of 206Pb/204Pb from 18.186 to 18.391, 207Pb/204Pb from 15.617 to 15.657, 208Pb/204Pb from 38.052 to 38.210, 206Pb/207Pb from c. 1.1625 to 1.1760 and 208Pb/207Pb from c. 2.4276 to 2.4394. Mixtures of Fe-hydroxide and oxide minerals (predominantly goethite and hematite) and secondary Fe-sulphate minerals (jarosite, natrojarosite, rozenite and melanterite) in the sulphidic schists have overlapping but generally higher values of 206Pb/204Pb from 18.495 to 19.747 (one sample at 21.495), 207Pb/204Pb from 15.595 to 15.722 (one sample at 15.839), 208Pb/204Pb from 38.186 to 39.162,206Pb/207Pb from c.1.1860 to 1.2575 (one sample at 1.3855) and 208Pb/207Pb from c. 2.4441 to 2.4865 than the sulphides. Sulphides from Zn-Pb metal mines are somewhat less radiogenic than sulphides from the schists. Other sulphides (mostly pyrite) associated with pegmatites and granitic rocks are heterogeneous and more

  10. Estimating the in situ sediment-porewater distribution of PAHs and chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons in anthropogenic impacted sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Peter H. Arp; Gijs D. Breedveld; Gerard Cornelissen

    2009-08-15

    It has become increasingly apparent that the in situ sediment-porewater distribution behavior of organic compounds within anthropogenic impacted sediments is quite diverse, and challenging to generalize. Traditional models based on octanol-water partitioning generally overestimate native porewater concentrations, and modern approaches accounting for multiple carbon fractions, including black carbon, appear sediment specific. To assess the diversity of this sorption behavior, we collected all peer-reviewed total organic carbon (TOC)-normalized in situ sediment-porewater distribution coefficients, K{sub TOC}, for impacted sediments. This entailed several hundreds of data for PAHs, PCBs, PCDD/Fs, and chlorinated benzenes, covering a large variety of sediments, locations, and experimental methods. Compound-specific KTOC could range up to over 3 orders of magnitude. Output from various predictive models for individual carbonaceous phases found in impacted sediments, based on peer-reviewed polyparameter linear free energy relationships (PP-LFERs), Raoult's Law, and the SPARC online-calculator, were tested to see if any of the models could consistently predict literature K{sub TOC} values within a factor of 30 (i.e. about 1.5 orders of magnitude, or half the range of K{sub TOC} values). The Raoult's Law model and coal tar PP-LFER achieved the sought-after accuracy for all tested compound classes, and are recommended for general, regional-scale modeling purposes. As impacted sediment-porewater distribution models are unlikely to get more accurate than this, this review underpins that the only way to accurately obtain accurate porewater concentrations is to measure them directly, and not infer them from sediment concentrations. 86 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Anthropogenic landscapes and pesticides distribution in waters of the river Júcar, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Masià, Ana; Picó, Yolanda

    2014-05-01

    The quality of river flows may be affected by farming activities whenever dissolve substances persist as nonpoint source pollutants. Among contaminants, the group of pesticides is associated to farming activities. Their extended use depends on the dominant farming practice and the type of crop that, in turn, will be reflected on the specific pollutants and concentrations found. Their identifation in surface waters may also depend on the size and structure (to landscape scale) of the agriculture land. Thus, to understand surface waters transport and hydrological connectivity of contaminants in river flows research to large basin scale is needed. In this work it is assumed that at large geographical scale pesticides and herbicides are related to major landscape land use-cover types. The methodological framework developed consisted on the application of environmental forensic criteria combining laboratory analytical water samples and cartographic analysis using Geographical Information Systems (GIS). To the detection and quantification of pesticides, the sampling strategy consisted in the collection of 15 water samples distributed alongside the River Júcar and its two main tributaries (River Cabriel and Magro), located in the River Júcar drainage Basin, Spain. 50 pesticides were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Geographical analysis were performed after geo-location of sampling points analytical results and integration in the GIS environment using land use-cover digital layers, togeheter with soil, lithology and topography layers. Out of 50 pesticides 20 were identified and 18 presented concentrations higher than the Limits of Quantification. Values ranged from 0.04 ng/L (Terbuthylazine-2 Hydroxy) to 79.39 ng/L (Carbendazim), 150.75 ng/L (Thiabenzadole) and 222.45 ng/L (Imazalil). Contaminants identified more frequently were Chlorpyriphos, Ethion, Chlorfenvinphos and Imazalil, found in 15, 13, 12 and

  12. Characterization of anthropogenic impacts in a large urban center by examining the spatial distribution of halogenated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yan-Li; Bao, Lian-Jun; Wu, Chen-Chou; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-08-01

    Anthropogenic impacts have continuously intensified in mega urban centers with increasing urbanization and growing population. The spatial distribution pattern of such impacts can be assessed with soil halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) as HFRs are mostly derived from the production and use of various consumer products. In the present study, soil samples were collected from the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a large urbanized region in southern China, and its surrounding areas and analyzed for a group of HFRs, i.e., polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane, bis(hexachlorocyclopentadieno)cyclooctane (DP) and hexabromobenzene. The sum concentrations of HFRs and PBDEs were in the ranges of 0.66-6500 and 0.37-5700 (mean: 290 and 250) ng g(-1) dry weight, respectively, around the middle level of the global range. BDE-209 was the predominant compound likely due to the huge amounts of usage and its persistence. The concentrations of HFRs were greater in the land-use types of residency, industry and landfill than in agriculture, forestry and drinking water source, and were also greater in the central PRD than in its surrounding areas. The concentrations of HFRs were moderately significantly (r(2) = 0.32-0.57; p < 0.05) correlated with urbanization levels, population densities and gross domestic productions in fifteen administrative districts. The spatial distribution of DP isomers appeared to be stereoselective as indicated by the similarity in the spatial patterns for the ratio of anti-DP versus the sum of DP isomers (fanti-DP) and DP concentrations. Finally, the concentrations of HFRs sharply decreased with increasing distance from an e-waste recycling site, indicating that e-waste derived HFRs largely remained in local soil.

  13. Effects of natural and anthropogenic processes in the distribution of marine litter in the deep Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; De Mol, Ben; Company, Joan B.; Coll, Marta; Sardà, Francesc

    2013-11-01

    The distribution, type and quantity of marine litter accumulated on the bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean seafloor has been studied in the framework of the Spanish national projects PROMETEO and DOS MARES and the ESF-EuroDEEP project BIOFUN. Litter was collected with an otter trawl and Agassiz trawl while sampling for megafauna on the Blanes canyon and adjacent slope (Catalan margin, north-western Mediterranean) between 900 and 2700 m depth, and on the western, central and eastern Mediterranean basins at 1200, 2000 and 3000 m depth. All litter was sorted into 8 categories (hard plastic, soft plastic, glass, metal, clinker, fabric, longlines and fishing nets) and weighed. The distribution of litter was analysed in relation to depth, geographic area and natural (bathymetry, currents and rivers) and anthropogenic (population density and shipping routes) processes. The most abundant litter types were plastic, glass, metal and clinker. Lost or discarded fishing gear was also commonly found. On the Catalan margin, although the data indicated an accumulation of litter with increasing depth, mean weight was not significantly different between depths or between the open slope and the canyon. We propose that litter accumulated in the canyon, with high proportions of plastics, has predominantly a coastal origin, while litter collected on the open slope, dominated by heavy litter, is mostly ship-originated, especially at sites under major shipping routes. Along the trans-Mediterranean transect, although a higher amount of litter seemed to be found on the Western Mediterranean, differences of mean weight were not significant between the 3 geographic areas and the 3 depths. Here, the shallower sites, also closer to the coast, had a higher proportion of plastics than the deeper sites, which had a higher proportion of heavy litter and were often affected by shipping routes. The weight of litter was also compared to biomass of megafauna from the same samples. On the Blanes slope

  14. Geogenic and Anthropogenic Moss Responsiveness to Element Distribution Around a Pb-Zn Mine, Toranica, Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Angelovska, Svetlana; Stafilov, Trajče; Šajn, Robert; Balabanova, Biljana

    2016-04-01

    Moss species (Homalothecium lutescens, Hypnum cupressiforme, Brachythecium glareosum, and Campthotecium lutescens) were used as suitable sampling media for biomonitoring the origin of heavy-metal pollution in the lead-zinc (Pb-Zn) mine "Toranica" near the Kriva Palanka town, Eastern Macedonia. The contents of 20 elements-silver (Ag), aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), barium (Ba), calcium (Ca), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), potassium (K), lithium (Li), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), sodium (Na), nickel (Ni), Pb, strontium (Sr), vanadium (V), and (Zn) were determined by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. Data processing was applied with combinations of multivariate statistical methods: factor analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis. Moss' responsiveness to the atmospheric distribution of the selected elements was investigated in correlation to the specific geology of the region (soil dusting). Lithogenic distribution was characterized with the distribution of three dominant geochemical associations: F1: Al-Li-V-Cr-Ni-Co, F2: Ba-Ca-Sr, and F3: Cd-Zn-Pb-Cu. Spatial distribution was constructed for visualization of the factor deposition. Furthermore, air distribution (passive biomonitoring) versus soil geochemistry of the analyzed elements was examined. Significant correlations were singled out for Pb, Zn, and Cd and for Mg(moss)/Na(soil). Characteristic lithological anomaly characterized the presence of the oldest geological volcanic rocks. Zone 1 (Pb-Zn mine surrounding) presents a unique area with hydrothermal action of Pb-Zn mineralization leading to polymetallic enrichments in soil. This phenomenon strongly affects the environment, which is a natural geochemical imprint in this unique area (described with the strong dominance of the geochemical association Cd-Zn-Pb-Cu).

  15. Role of oceanic circulation on contaminant lead distribution in the South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleman, L. Y.; Church, T. M.; Ganguli, P.; Véron, A. J.; Hamelin, B.; Flegal, A. R.

    Both the relatively high lead concentrations and their characteristic anthropogenic isotopic compositions attest to the widespread contamination of industrial lead in the western Equatorial and South Atlantic Ocean. Spatial gradients in those isotopic signatures evidence the conservative lateral transport of lead in oceanic water masses, while the discrete isotopic signatures in deep oceanic waters substantiate the complementary hypothesis that the release of lead from settling particles is relatively small on a decadal time-scale. Specifically, the relatively low radiogenic lead (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.148±0.009) in the Lower-North Atlantic Deep Water (l-NADW) south of 10° North is primarily attributed to US industrial lead emitted in the Northern Hemisphere prior to 1965, and the more radiogenic lead (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.180±0.006) in the Upper-North Atlantic Deep Water (u-NADW) is primarily attributed to subsequent industrial lead emissions in that hemisphere. In contrast, the relatively radiogenic lead (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.186±0.007) in the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) seemingly reflects a mixture of natural and anthropogenic lead sources within the Southern Hemisphere; and its isotopic dissimilarity with that (e.g., 206Pb/ 207Pb=1.159±0.002) of Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) and the AABW may be due to differences in either their aeolian or water-mass inputs.

  16. Measurement of resuspended aerosol in the Chernobyl area. Part III. Size distribution and dry deposition velocity of radioactive particles during anthropogenic enhanced resuspension.

    PubMed

    Garger, E K; Paretzke, H G; Tschiersch, J

    1998-10-01

    During anthropogenic activities, such as agricultural soil management and traffic on unpaved roads, size distribution measurements were performed of atmospheric particulate radionuclides at a site in the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone. Analysis of cascade impactor measurements showed an increase of the total atmospheric radioactivity. In the cases of harrowing by a tractor and traffic on unpaved roads, a common shape of the size distribution was found with two maxima, the first in the 2-4 microm range, the second in the 12-20 microm range. The size distributions were compared to measurements during wind-driven resuspension. Particle number concentration measurements with an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer showed a dynamic dependence of the particle concentration in different size ranges on anthropogenic action. The increase of the mean concentration was for the large particles more than one order of magnitude higher than for fine particles during anthropogenic enhanced resuspension. From the measurement of the mass concentration, the radioactive loading could be estimated. An enrichment of radionuclides on resuspended particles (compared to soil particles) was found, with the highest enrichment for large particles. Micrometeorological considerations showed that large particles may frequently be subject to medium range transport. The dry deposition velocity was measured; the mean value of 0.026 m s(-1) +/- 0.016 m s(-1) is typical for 6-9 microm diameter particles.

  17. Dynamic anthropogenic edge effects on the distribution and diversity of fungi in fragmented old-growth forests.

    PubMed

    Ruete, Alejandro; Snäll, Tord; Jönsson, Mari

    2016-07-01

    Diversity patterns and dynamics at forest edges are not well understood. We disentangle the relative importance of edge-effect variables on spatio-temporal patterns in species richness and occupancy of deadwood-dwelling fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. We related richness and log occupancy by 10 old-growth forest indicator fungi and by two common fungi to log conditions in natural and anthropogenic edge habitats of 31 old-growth Picea abies forest stands in central Sweden. We compared edge-to-interior gradients (100 m) to the forest interior (beyond 100 m), and we analyzed stand-level changes after 10 yr. Both richness and occupancy of logs by indicator species was negatively related to adjacent young clear-cut edges, but this effect decreased with increasing clear-cut age. The occupancy of logs by indicator species also increased with increasing distance to the natural edges. In contrast, the occupancy of logs by common species was positively related or unrelated to distance to clear-cut edges regardless of the edge age, and this was partly explained by fungal specificity to substrate quality. Stand-level mean richness and mean occupancy of logs did not change for indicator or common species over a decade. By illustrating the importance of spatial and temporal dimensions of edge effects, we extend the general understanding of the distribution and diversity of substrate-confined fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. Our results highlight the importance of longer forest rotation times adjacent to small protected areas and forest set-asides, where it may take more than 50 yr for indicator species richness levels to recover to occupancy levels observed in the forest interior. Also, non-simultaneous clear-cutting of surrounding productive forests in a way that reduces the edge effect over time (i.e., dynamic buffers) may increase the effective core area of small forest set-asides and improve their performance on protecting species of special concern for

  18. The distribution of anthropogenic REE in the Dutch distributaries of the Rhine: the role of suspended matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roskam, Gerlinde; Verheul, Marc; Klaver, Gerard; Bakker, Ingrid

    2014-05-01

    In nature rare earth elements (REE) occur in fixed ratios; contamination with a single rare earth element causes a clear deviation from the natural NASC normalized REE-patterns: an anomaly. REE are progressively used in many high technology products and processes. For example, gadolinium-containing chelates have been used since the '80s as contrasting agent in MRI-imaging. The pertaining anomaly is currently used as a tracer for distinguishing waste water from water unaffected by anthropogenic contamination. In the Dutch monitoring program in the Rhine-Meuse distributaries, total (10% HNO3 digested) and dissolved (< 0.45 µm) fractions in surface water are routinely analysed, and with two-week intervals suspended matter samples are collected with a centrifuge. Since 2008, the set of analysed elements was extended with REE, enabling this study. Lobith, the entry point of the River Rhine in The Netherlands, shows an annual oscillation in the magnitude of the lanthanum (La) anomaly. This positive La-anomaly was reported by Kulaksiz and Bau in 2011; they identified the point source as a production plant for catalysts used in petroleum refining in the German city of Worms. Since the spring of 2011, samarium (Sm) is used in the same process, resulting in matching La- and Sm-anomalies. The anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are predominantly present in the total fraction, which suggests that the anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are associated with suspended matter. The anthropogenic La and Sm concentrations are lower in the suspended matter samples collected with the centrifuge, suggesting a bias of these La and Sm concentrations in the finer fraction of the suspended matter. The anthropogenic La en Sm concentrations remain relatively constant throughout the rivers, but close to Lake IJsselmeer and the North Sea, sedimentation causes a sharp decrease in the anthropogenic concentrations. Detailed sampling of sediments, suspended matter and water could give a

  19. Lead transfer in maternal milk, and the absorption, retention, distribution and excretion of lead in suckling mice

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, Charles Arthur

    1980-01-01

    Suckling mice were found to absorb and retain a greater fraction of an oral lead dose than did adult mice. Pinocytotic activity and lead uptake (in vivo) were found to be greatest in the distal small intestinal tissue. Cortisone pretreatment results in precocious cessation of pinocytotic activity in the intestine of suckling mice. Cortisone pretreatment of adult mice had no effect on whole body lead retention or intestinal tissue content of lead following an oral dose. The data indicate that the distal small intestine is the site of active pinocytosis of lead, and that pinocytosis is the major mechanism involved in lead absorption in suckling mice. Developmental differences were also observed in the percentage of lead retained in the whole body. Both groups exhibited dose-independent lead retention, indicating a first-order absorption process for each age group. Lead distribution and elimination from organs also differed between suckling and adult mice. Developmental differences were observed in organ lead concentration for kidneys and brain following oral doses. Relative distribution of lead to the brains of suckling mice were greater than to adult brains. Whole body and bone lead elimination rates were reduced in suckling compared to adult mice. Brain lead elimination rates did not differ in suckling and adult mice. A lactating mouse model was developed to study lead transfer to suckling offspring. Lead was transferred in milk to suckling offspring from mothers which had previously ingested lead in the drinking water. Relative lead transfer to suckled offspring during lactation greatly exceeded transfer to fetuses during gestation. Lactation resulted in an increased rate of maternal lead elimination. Lead concentration in milk exceeded plasma concentration by a factor of approximately 25. (ERB)

  20. Tissue lead distribution and hematologic effects in American kestrels (Falco sparverius) fed biologically incorporated lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Custer, T.W.; Franson, J.C.; Pattee, O.H.

    1984-01-01

    American kestrels were fed a diet containing 0.5, 120, 212, and 448 ppm (dry wt) biologically incorporated lead (Pb) for 60 days. The diet consisted of homogenized 4-wk-old cockerels raised on feed mixed with and without lead. No kestrels died and weights did not differ among treatment groups. The control group (0.5 ppm Pb) had the lowest mean concentration of lead and the high dietary group had the highest for the following tissues: Kidney, liver, femur, brain, and blood. Concentrations of lead were significantly correlated among tissues. There were no differences among treatment groups for packed cell volume, hemoglobin concentration, or erythrocyte count.

  1. PREDICTING LEAD DISSOLUTION IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ADDITIVES ON LEAD SOLUBILITY AND CORROSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many water systems have encountered difficulties in meeting the action levels established by the Lead and Copper Rule. Several chemical parameters contribute to the corrosion of lead plumbing and may influence the nature of the passivating films formed on distribution materials....

  2. Comparison between Synthesized Lead Particles and Lead Solids Formed on Surfaces in Real Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to compare the properties of lead solids formed during bench-scale precipitation experiments to solids found on lead pipe removed from real drinking water distribution systems and metal coupons used in pilot scale corrosion testing. Specifically, so...

  3. Lead isotopes and heavy minerals analyzed as tools to understand the distribution of lead and other potentially toxic elements in soils contaminated by Cu smelting (Legnica, Poland).

    PubMed

    Tyszka, Rafał; Pietranik, Anna; Kierczak, Jakub; Ettler, Vojtěch; Mihaljevič, Martin; Medyńska-Juraszek, Agnieszka

    2016-12-01

    Surroundings of the Legnica Cu smelter (Poland) offer insight into the behavior of Pb and other metal(oid)s in heavily contaminated soils in a relatively simple site, where lithogenic and anthropogenic Pb contributions have uniform Pb isotope composition over the time of smelter activity. Distribution of metal(oid)s decreases asymptotically with depth and below 30 cm reaches concentrations typical or lower than those of upper continental crust. Usually, such distribution is interpreted as the decrease in anthropogenic Pb contribution with depth. However, calculations based on Pb isotopes indicate that anthropogenic Pb is probably distributed both as Pb-rich particles of slags and fly ashes and Pb-poor soil solutions. Generally, anthropogenic Pb constitutes up to 100 % of Pb in the uppermost 10 cm of the soils and comes often from mechanical mixing with slag and fly ash particles as well as their weathering products. On the other hand, lower soil horizon contains anthropogenic Pb in various forms, and at depths below 30 cm, most of anthropogenic Pb comes from soil solutions and can constitute from 1 to 65 % of the Pb budget. This is consistent with secondary electron microscope (SEM) analyses of heavy mineral particles showing that, in upper horizons, Pb, Cu, and Zn are contained in various particles emitted from the smelter, which show different stages of weathering. Currently, large portion of these metals may reside in the secondary Fe-hydro-oxides. On the other hand, in deeper soil horizons, anthropogenic Pb is probably dominated by Pb coming from leaching of slag or fly ash particles. Overall, metal(oid) mobility is a dynamic process and is controlled by the soil type (cultivated versus forest) and the composition and the structure of the metal-rich particles emitted from the smelter. High proportions of anthropogenic Pb at depths below 30 cm in some soil profiles indicate that Pb (and probably other metal(oid)s) can be transported down the soil profile

  4. Getting the lead out: understanding risks in the distribution system

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation discusses the importance of the water distribution system as a component of the source-to-tap continuum in public health protection. Issues covered include: understanding source water quality changes and their impacts throughout the system; use of mitigation me...

  5. Trend analysis of carbon monoxide distributions for changes in fire vs. anthropogenic sources in diverse African regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, H. M.; Worden, J. R.; Bloom, A. A.; Bowman, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Satellite measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) provide a signature for biomass burning and anthropogenic combustion-related pollution emissions. CO plays an important role in both air quality and climate as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and as a major sink of OH, the atmospheric "detergent" that affects the lifetime of methane and other pollutants. Worden et al., [2013] showed decreasing global CO values in time series of satellite total column CO measurements over the past decade. All of the satellite instruments that measure CO in the thermal infrared showed consistent inter-annual variability due to fires and possibly the global recession in late 2008. Observed decreases in CO over N. America and Europe were consistent with expected decreases in CO emissions inventories [Granier et al., 2011], however, the decrease is not uniform globally. In particular, Africa shows regions with smaller negative trends and potentially increasing trends in CO concentration. Here we examine trends for surface and total column CO concentrations in Africa over 2002-2014 using MOPITT V5J data. Our hypothesis is that temporal changes in CO will have different signatures related to anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions. We use singular value decomposition (SVD) with time series from different regions based on vegetation type and population density to diagnose the dominant trends and their potential drivers.

  6. Modeling the crystal distribution of lead-sulfate in lead-acid batteries with 3D spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huck, Moritz; Badeda, Julia; Sauer, Dirk Uwe

    2015-04-01

    For the reliability of lead-acid batteries it is important to have an accurate prediction of its response to load profiles. A model for the lead-sulfate growth is presented, which is embedded in a physical-chemical model with 3D spatial resolution is presented which is used for analyzing the different mechanism influencing the cell response. One import factor is the chemical dissolution and precipitation of lead-sulfate, since its dissolution speed limits the charging reaction and the accumulation of indissolvable of lead-sulfate leads to capacity degradation. The cell performance/behavior is not only determined by the amount of the sulfate but also by the radii and distribution of the crystals. The presented model can be used to for an improved understanding of the interaction of the different mechanisms.

  7. Spatial Distribution of Lead Iodide and Local Passivation on Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sheng; Wen, Xiaoming; Yun, Jae S; Huang, Shujuan; Green, Martin; Jeon, Nam Joong; Yang, Woon Seok; Noh, Jun Hong; Seo, Jangwon; Seok, Sang Il; Ho-Baillie, Anita

    2017-02-22

    We identify nanoscale spatial distribution of PbI2 on the (FAPbI3)0.85(MAPbBr3)0.15 perovskite thin film and investigate the local passivation effect using confocal based optical microscopy of steady state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL). Different from a typical scanning electron microscope (SEM) morphology study, confocal based PL spectroscopy and microscopy allow researchers to map the morphologies of both perovskite and PbI2 grains simultaneously, by selectively detecting their characteristic fluorescent bands using band-pass filters. In this work, we compare the perovskite samples without and with excess PbI2 incorporation and unambiguously reveal PbI2 distribution for the PbI2-rich sample. In addition, using the nanoscale time-resolved PL technique we show that the PbI2-rich regions exhibit longer lifetime due to suppressed defect trapping, compared to the PbI2-poor regions. The measurement on the PbI2-rich sample indicates that the passivation effect of PbI2 in perovskite film is effective, especially in localized regions. Hence, this finding is important for further improvement of the solar cells by considering the strategy of excess PbI2 incorporation.

  8. Anthropogenic host plant expansion leads a nettle-feeding butterfly out of the forest: consequences for larval survival and developmental plasticity in adult morphology

    PubMed Central

    Merckx, Thomas; Serruys, Mélanie; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Recent anthropogenic eutrophication has meant that host plants of nettle-feeding insects became quasi-omnipresent in fertile regions of Western Europe. However, host plant resource quality – in terms of microclimate and nutritional value – may vary considerably between the ‘original’ forest habitat and ‘recent’ agricultural habitat. Here, we compared development in both environmental settings using a split-brood design, so as to explore to what extent larval survival and adult morphology in the nettle-feeding butterfly Aglais urticae are influenced by the anthropogenic environment. Nettles along field margins had higher C/N ratios and provided warmer microclimates to larvae. Larvae developed 20% faster and tended to improve their survival rates, on the agricultural land compared to woodland. Our split-brood approach indicated plastic responses within families, but also family effects in the phenotypic responses. Adult males and females had darker wing pigmentation in the drier and warmer agricultural environment, which contrasts with the thermal melanism hypothesis. Developmental plasticity in response to this microclimatically different and more variable habitat was associated with a broader phenotypic parameter space for the species. Both habitat expansion and developmental plasticity are likely contributors to the ecological and evolutionary success of these nettle-feeding insects in anthropogenic environments under high nitrogen load. PMID:25926881

  9. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... Worker, or other abatement discipline Lead in drinking water Lead air pollution Test your child Check and maintain your home Find a Lead-Safe Certified firm Before you renovate Before you buy or rent a home built before 1978 Test your home's drinking water Test for lead in paint, dust or soil ...

  10. Vertical Distribution of Lead and Mercury in the Wetland Argialbolls of the Sanjiang Plain in Northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunye; Li, Peizhong; Cheng, Hongguang; Ouyang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The wetland Argialbolls pedon was chosen to investigate the effects of pedogenic processes and anthropogenic activities on the vertical distribution of lead and mercury concentration and to assess the potential use of soil as an archive of atmospheric Pb and Hg pollution. The soil was sampled from 5 cm from the surface to a depth of 90 cm at two locations in the Sanjiang Plain in northeastern China. The soil was analyzed for pH, soil organic matter (SOM), Fe, Mn, and Al. The results indicate that the SOM concentration gradually decreased with depth, while Fe and Mn were reductively leached from the upper horizons and accumulated significantly in the lower argillic horizons. Atmospheric Pb and Hg deposition and their redistribution during the pedogenic process led to a unique vertical distribution in the wetland Argialbolls. Overall, Pb was leached from the upper horizons and then accumulated in the lower argillic horizons. However, the Hg concentration decreased with depth, following the SOM distribution. The Pb concentration was significantly correlated to the Fe and Mn concentrations in the Argialbolls profiles, while the Hg concentration was significantly correlated with SOM. Post-depositional mobility along the wetland Argialbolls profile is higher for Pb and low for Hg. Therefore, the Argialbolls profile does not provide an accurate reconstruction of atmospheric Pb deposition, but might provide an accurate reconstruction of net atmospheric Hg deposition. PMID:25894341

  11. Vertical Distribution of Lead and Mercury in the Wetland Argialbolls of the Sanjiang Plain in Northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chunye; Li, Peizhong; Cheng, Hongguang; Ouyang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The wetland Argialbolls pedon was chosen to investigate the effects of pedogenic processes and anthropogenic activities on the vertical distribution of lead and mercury concentration and to assess the potential use of soil as an archive of atmospheric Pb and Hg pollution. The soil was sampled from 5 cm from the surface to a depth of 90 cm at two locations in the Sanjiang Plain in northeastern China. The soil was analyzed for pH, soil organic matter (SOM), Fe, Mn, and Al. The results indicate that the SOM concentration gradually decreased with depth, while Fe and Mn were reductively leached from the upper horizons and accumulated significantly in the lower argillic horizons. Atmospheric Pb and Hg deposition and their redistribution during the pedogenic process led to a unique vertical distribution in the wetland Argialbolls. Overall, Pb was leached from the upper horizons and then accumulated in the lower argillic horizons. However, the Hg concentration decreased with depth, following the SOM distribution. The Pb concentration was significantly correlated to the Fe and Mn concentrations in the Argialbolls profiles, while the Hg concentration was significantly correlated with SOM. Post-depositional mobility along the wetland Argialbolls profile is higher for Pb and low for Hg. Therefore, the Argialbolls profile does not provide an accurate reconstruction of atmospheric Pb deposition, but might provide an accurate reconstruction of net atmospheric Hg deposition.

  12. Distribution and integrated assessment of lead in an abandoned lead-acid battery site in Southwest China before redevelopment.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Zhuo; Li, Fasheng; Guo, Guanlin

    2016-06-01

    Lead-acid battery sites have contributed enormous amounts of lead to the environment, significantly affecting its global biogeochemical cycle and leaving the potential risks to human health. An abandoned lead-acid battery site prepared for redevelopment was selected in order to study the distribution of lead in soils, plants, rhizosphere soils and soil solutions. In total, 197 samples from 77 boreholes were collected and analyzed. Single extractions by acetic acid (HOAc) were conducted to assess the bioavailability and speciation of lead in soils for comparison with the parts of the plants that are aboveground. Health risks for future residential development were evaluated by the integrated exposure uptake biokinetic (IEUBK) model. The results indicated that lead concentrations in 83% of the soil samples exceeded the Chinese Environmental Quality Standard for soil (350 mg/kg for Pb) and mainly occurred at depths between 0 and 1.5 m while accumulating at the surface of demolished construction waste and miscellaneous fill. Lead concentrations in soil solutions and HOAc extraction leachates were linked closely to the contents of aboveground Broussonetia papyrifera and Artemisia annua, two main types of local plants that were found at the site. The probability density of lead in blood (PbB) in excess of 10 µg/dL could overtake the 99% mark in the residential scenario. The findings provided a relatively integrated method to illustrate the onsite investigations and assessment for similar sites before remediation and future development from more comprehensive aspects.

  13. Distribution of chemical elements in attic dust as reflection of their geogenic and anthropogenic sources in the vicinity of the copper mine and flotation plant.

    PubMed

    Balabanova, Biljana; Stafilov, Trajče; Sajn, Robert; Bačeva, Katerina

    2011-08-01

    The main aim of this article was to assess the atmospheric pollution with heavy metals due to copper mining Bučim near Radoviš, the Republic of Macedonia. The open pit and mine waste and flotation tailings are continually exposed to open air, which leads to winds carrying the fine particles into the atmosphere. Samples of attic dust were examined as historical archives of mine emissions, with the aim of elucidating the pathways of pollution. Dust was collected from the attics of 29 houses, built between 1920 and 1970. Nineteen elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Sr, and Zn) were analyzed by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The obtained values of the investigated elements in attic dust samples were statistically processed using nonparametric and parametric analysis. Factor analysis revealed three factors governing the source of individual chemical elements. Two of them grouping Ca, Li, Mg, Mn, and Sr (Factor 1) and Co, Cr, and Ni (Factor 2) can be characterized as geogenic. The third factor grouping As, Cu, and Pb is anthropogenic and mirrors dust fallout from mining operation and from flotation tailings. Maps of areal deposition were prepared for this group of elements, from which correlation of these anthropogenic born elements was confirmed.

  14. Mineralogical and Molecular Microbial Characterization of a Lead Pipe Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Lead and Copper Rule established an action level for lead of 0.0 15 mg/L in a 1 liter first draw sample at the consumer's tap. Lead corrosion and solubility in drinking water distribution systems are largely controlled by the fo...

  15. Distribution and transport of selected anthropogenic lipophilic organic compounds associated with Mississippi River suspended sediment, 1989-1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1999-01-01

    In the first study on this scale, distribution and transport of selected hydrophobic halogenated organic compounds associated with suspended sediment from the lower Mississippi River and its principal tributaries were determined during two spring and two summer cruises. Lipophilic organic compounds identified on the suspended sediment included hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dacthal, chlordane (cis- and trans- ), nonachlor (trans-), chlorthalonil, and penta-, hexa-, hepta-, and octachlorobiphenyls. Most of these compounds come from nonpoint sources. Mass loadings of most of the compounds increased from upstream to downstream on the main stem of the Mississippi River. Of the tributaries studied, the Ohio River had the most significant effect on contaminant loads. Suspended sediment transport to the Gulf of Mexico of the most abundant, widely distributed compound class, PCBs, was estimated at 6,750 kg per year.

  16. Lead

    MedlinePlus

    ... ATSDR Board of Scientific Counselors Lead in the environment: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) Federal partner agencies: Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Data, ...

  17. Probable errors in width distributions of sea ice leads measured along a transect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Key, J.; Peckham, S.

    1991-01-01

    The degree of error expected in the measurement of widths of sea ice leads along a single transect are examined in a probabilistic sense under assumed orientation and width distributions, where both isotropic and anisotropic lead orientations are examined. Methods are developed for estimating the distribution of 'actual' widths (measured perpendicular to the local lead orientation) knowing the 'apparent' width distribution (measured along the transect), and vice versa. The distribution of errors, defined as the difference between the actual and apparent lead width, can be estimated from the two width distributions, and all moments of this distribution can be determined. The problem is illustrated with Landsat imagery and the procedure is applied to a submarine sonar transect. Results are determined for a range of geometries, and indicate the importance of orientation information if data sampled along a transect are to be used for the description of lead geometries. While the application here is to sea ice leads, the methodology can be applied to measurements of any linear feature.

  18. Recent distribution of lead in the Indian Ocean reflects the impact of regional emissions.

    PubMed

    Echegoyen, Yolanda; Boyle, Edward A; Lee, Jong-Mi; Gamo, Toshitaka; Obata, Hajime; Norisuye, Kazuhiro

    2014-10-28

    Humans have injected lead (Pb) massively into the earth surface environment in a temporally and spatially evolving pattern. A significant fraction is transported by the atmosphere into the surface ocean where we can observe its transport by ocean currents and sinking particles. This study of the Indian Ocean documents high Pb concentrations in the northern and tropical surface waters and extremely low Pb levels in the deep water. North of 20°S, dissolved Pb concentrations decrease from 42 to 82 pmol/kg in surface waters to 1.5-3.3 pmol/kg in deep waters. South of 20°S, surface water Pb concentrations decrease from 21 pmol/kg at 31°S to 7 pmol/kg at 62°S. This surface Pb concentration gradient reflects a southward decrease in anthropogenic Pb emissions. The upper waters of the north and central Indian Ocean have high Pb concentrations resulting from recent regional rapid industrialization and a late phase-out of leaded gasoline, and these concentrations are now higher than currently seen in the central North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans. The Antarctic sector of the Indian Ocean shows very low concentrations due to limited regional anthropogenic Pb emissions, high scavenging rates, and rapid vertical mixing, but Pb still occurs at higher levels than would have existed centuries ago. Penetration of Pb into the northern and central Indian Ocean thermocline waters is minimized by limited ventilation. Pb concentrations in the deep Indian Ocean are comparable to the other oceans at the same latitude, and deep waters of the central Indian Ocean match the lowest observed oceanic Pb concentrations.

  19. Microbial community profile of a lead service line removed from a drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A

    2011-08-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments.

  20. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corroded lead water pipe was removed from a drinking water distribution system and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rDNA techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of biofilm on a surface of a corroded lead drinking water pipe. The majority of ...

  1. Microbial Community Profile of a Lead Service Line Removed from a Drinking Water Distribution System▿

    PubMed Central

    White, Colin; Tancos, Matthew; Lytle, Darren A.

    2011-01-01

    A corroded lead service line was removed from a drinking water distribution system, and the microbial community was profiled using 16S rRNA gene techniques. This is the first report of the characterization of a biofilm on the surface of a corroded lead drinking water service line. The majority of phylotypes have been linked to heavy-metal-contaminated environments. PMID:21652741

  2. Anthropogenic (236)U and (129)I in the Mediterranean Sea: First comprehensive distribution and constrain of their sources.

    PubMed

    Castrillejo, M; Casacuberta, N; Christl, M; Garcia-Orellana, J; Vockenhuber, C; Synal, H-A; Masqué, P

    2017-03-29

    The first basin-wide distribution of (236)U/(238)U atom ratios and (129)I concentrations is presented for the Mediterranean Sea. During the GEOTRACES GA04S-MedSeA expedition in 2013 seawater was collected from 10 vertical profiles covering the principal sub-basins of the Mediterranean Sea. The main objective was to understand the distributions of (236)U and (129)I in relation to the water masses, and to constrain their sources in this region. The (236)U/(238)U atom ratios and the (129)I concentrations ranged from (710±40)×10(-12) to (2220±60)×10(-12) and from (4.0±0.1)×10(7) to (13.8±0.3)×10(7)at·kg(-1), respectively. The results show that radionuclide-poor Atlantic Water is entering at the surface through the Strait of Gibraltar whereas comparably radionuclide-enriched Levantine Intermediate Water is sinking in the Eastern Basin and flowing westward at intermediate depths. Low radionuclide levels were found in the oldest water masses at about 1000-2000m depth in the Eastern Basin. At greater depths, waters were relatively enriched in (236)U and (129)I due to dense water formation occurring in both, the Eastern and Western Basins. The inventories of (236)U and (129)I cannot be explained only by global fallout from atmospheric nuclear bomb testings carried out in the 1950s and 1960s. We estimate that the liquid input of (236)U from the nuclear reprocessing facility of Marcoule (France), via the Rhône river, was of the same order of magnitude than the contribution from global fallout, whereas liquid and gaseous releases of (129)I from Marcoule were up to two orders of magnitude higher than global fallout. For both radionuclides, the contribution from the Chernobyl accident is found to be minor.

  3. Effect of chronic lead intoxication on the distribution and elimination of amoxicillin in goats.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Ahmed M; Abu-Basha, Ehab A; Youssef, Salah A H; Amer, Aziza M; Murphy, Patricia A; Hauck, Catherine C; Gehring, Ronette; Hsu, Walter H

    2013-01-01

    A study of amoxicillin pharmacokinetics was conducted in healthy goats and goats with chronic lead intoxication. The intoxicated goats had increased serum concentrations of liver enzymes (alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase), blood urea nitrogen, and reactivated δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase compared to the controls. Following intravenous amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in control and lead-intoxicated goats, elimination half-lives were 4.14 and 1.26 h, respectively. The volumes of distribution based on the terminal phase were 1.19 and 0.38 L/kg, respectively, and those at steady-state were 0.54 and 0.18 L/kg, respectively. After intramuscular (IM) amoxicillin (10 mg/kg bw) in lead-intoxicated goats and control animals, the absorption, distribution, and elimination of the drug were more rapid in lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Peak serum concentrations of 21.89 and 12.19 μg/mL were achieved at 1 h and 2 h, respectively, in lead-intoxicated and control goats. Amoxicillin bioavailability in the lead-intoxicated goats decreased 20% compared to the controls. After amoxicillin, more of the drug was excreted in the urine from lead-intoxicated goats than the controls. Our results suggested that lead intoxication in goats increases the rate of amoxicillin absorption after IM administration and distribution and elimination. Thus, lead intoxication may impair the therapeutic effectiveness of amoxicillin.

  4. Temporal and vertical distributions of anthropogenic 236U in the Japan Sea using a coral core and seawater samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Aya; Nomura, Tomoya; Steier, Peter; Gloser, Robin; Sasaki, Keiichi; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Nakakuki, Tomoeki; Takahashi, Yoshio; Yamano, Hiroya

    2016-01-01

    The input history of 236U to the surface water of the Japan Sea was reconstructed through measurement of the 236U/238U atom ratio in annual bands of a coral skeleton which was collected at Iki Island in the Tsushima Strait, the main entrance to the Japan Sea. The 236U/238U atom ratios and concentrations of U isotopes were measured for the period 1935-2010 using AMS and ICP-MS. The 236U/238U atom ratios revealed three prominent peaks: 4.51 × 10-9 in 1955, 6.15 × 10-9 in 1959 and 4.14 × 10-9 in 1963; thereafter the isotope ratios gradually decreased over the next several decades, attaining a value of ca.1.3 × 10-9 for the present day. A simplified depth profile model for 236U in the Japan Sea, using the reconstructed 236U value for the surface water together with observed depth profiles for 236U in the water column in 2010, yielded diffusion coefficients of 3.4-5.6 cm2/s for 6 sampling points. The diffusion coefficient values obtained for the northern stations were relatively large, and fitting uncertainty was also larger for stations in the northern region. It may be presumed that the distribution of 236U in the water columns have been influenced not only by diffusion but also by subduction of the surface water in the Japan Sea.

  5. Spatial distribution of trace elements in the surface sediments of a major European estuary (Loire Estuary, France): Source identification and evaluation of anthropogenic contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coynel, Alexandra; Gorse, Laureline; Curti, Cécile; Schafer, Jörg; Grosbois, Cécile; Morelli, Guia; Ducassou, Emmanuelle; Blanc, Gérard; Maillet, Grégoire M.; Mojtahid, Meryem

    2016-12-01

    Assessing the extent of metal contamination in estuarine surface sediments is hampered by the high heterogeneity of sediment characteristics, the spatial variability of trace element sources, sedimentary dynamics and geochemical processes in addition to the need of accurate reference values for deciphering natural to anthropogenic contribution. Based on 285 surface sediment samples from the Loire Estuary, the first high-resolution spatial distributions are presented for grain-size, particulate organic carbon (POC) and the eight metals/metalloids identified as priority contaminants (Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu, As, Cr, Ni, Hg) plus Ag (an urban tracer). Grain-size and/or POC are major factors controlling the spatial distribution of trace element concentrations. The V-normalized trace metal concentrations divided by the V-normalized concentrations in the basin geochemical background showed the highest Enrichment Factors for Ag and Hg (EF; up to 34 and 140, respectively). These results suggest a severe contamination in the Loire Estuary for both elements. Intra-estuarine Ag and Hg anomalies were identified by comparison between respective normalized concentrations in the Loire Estuary surface sediments and those measured in the surface sediments at the outlet of the Loire River System (watershed-derived). Anthropogenic intra-estuarine Ag and Hg stocks in the uppermost centimetre of the sediment compared with rough annual fluvial flux estimates suggest that the overall strong Enrichment Factors for Ag (EFAg) and and Hg (EFHg) in the Loire Estuary sediments are mainly due to watershed-derived inputs, highlighting the need of high temporal hydro-geochemical monitoring to establish reliable incoming fluxes. Significant correlations obtained between EFCd and EFAg, EFCu and POC and EFHg and POC revealed common behavior and/or sources. Comparison of trace element concentrations with ecotoxicological indices (Sediment Quality Guidelines) provides first standardized information on the

  6. A lead isotope distribution study in swine tissue using ICP-MS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, T.W.; Wiedmeyer, Ray H.; Brown, L.D.; Casteel, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    In the United States lead is an ubiquitous environmental pollutant that is a serious human health hazard, especially for women of childbearing age, developing fetuses, and young children. Information concerning the uptake and distribution of lead to maternal and fetal tissues during pregnancy is poorly documented. A study was designed using domestic swine and lead isotope enrichment methodology to focus on maternal absorption and distribution of lead into bone and soft tissues, including the fetal compartment, under varying conditions of oral lead exposure and during altered physiological states (pregnant vs unbred). Total lead levels and Pb207/Pb206 ratios in bone (femur and vertebra), blood, and soft tissues (liver, kidney, brain) were determined by ICP-MS. Lead in fetal tissues derived from maternal bone could be differentiated from that derived from exogenous dosing. Unbred swine absorbed much less lead than pregnant females receiving the same dose. The accuracy and precision of ICP-MS at the instrumental level and for the entire method (sample collection, digestion, and analysis) were evaluated for both Pb207/Pb206 ratios and total lead. Several changes were suggested in method design to improve both instrumental and total method precision.

  7. Distribution of lead in urban roadway grit and its association with elevated steel structures.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Arlene L; Caravanos, Jack; Blaise, Marc J; Jaeger, Rudolph J

    2006-12-01

    In an effort to determine the source of exterior lead contamination, we investigated the concentration of lead in roadway grit along major thoroughfares in New York City and in certain areas under elevated steel structures supporting elevated rails. Such structures represent only one source of lead in roadway grit. While data revealed that the median lead concentration in roadway grit did not exceed the standard for a lead hazard in bare residential soil in any borough, the limit of 400 microg/g was exceeded 22%, 18%, 10.5%, and 7.7% of the time in Manhattan, Brooklyn, The Bronx, and Queens, respectively. The second part of the study revealed the presence of high concentrations of lead in roadway grit directly under elevated steel structures. The differences in the concentration of lead in roadway grit under steel structures in comparison to areas in NYC not near elevated rails was statistically significant. Of the eight sites studied from 225 total samples, the median roadway grit lead level was 340 ppm, while the level under steel structures was 1480 ppm. Preliminary efforts to determine particle size distribution revealed that 84% of the particles were in the range of 125-500 microm, but the highest concentration of lead was in the smallest fraction analyzed (<63 microm). Lead contamination of roadway grit from restoration of elevated painted steel structures is a public health problem as these lead particulates get re-suspended in the ambient environment and are wafted and tracked into residences.

  8. Influence of blade angle distribution along leading edge on cavitation performance of a centrifugal pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.; Tan, L.; Cao, S. L.; Wang, Y. C.; Meng, G.; Qu, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of blade angle distribution along leading edge on cavitation performance of centrifugal pumps is analysed in the present paper. Three sets of blade angle distribution along leading edge for three blade inlet angles are chosen to design nine centrifugal pump impellers. The RNG k-epsilon turbulence model and the Zwart-Gerber-Belamri cavitation model are employed to simulate the cavitation flows in centrifugal pumps with different impellers and the same volute. The numerical results are compared with the experimental data, and the comparison proves that the numerical simulation can accurately predict the cavitation performance of centrifugal pumps. On the basis of the numerical simulations, the pump head variations with pump inlet pressure, and the flow details in centrifugal pump are revealed to demonstrate the influence of blade angle distribution along leading edge on cavitation performances of centrifugal pumps.

  9. Anthropogenic dissolved and colloid/nanoparticle-bound samarium, lanthanum and gadolinium in the Rhine River and the impending destruction of the natural rare earth element distribution in rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulaksız, Serkan; Bau, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The strong increase in the consumption of rare earth elements (REE) in high-tech products and processes is accompanied by increasing amounts of REE released into the environment. Following the first report of Gd contamination of the hydrosphere in 1996, anthropogenic Gd originating from contrast agents has now been reported worldwide from river and estuarine waters, coastal seawater, groundwater and tap water. Recently, microcontamination with La, that is derived from a point source where catalysts for petroleum refining are produced, has been detected in the Rhine River in Germany and the Netherlands. Here we report the occurrence of yet another REE microcontamination of river water: in addition to anthropogenic Gd and La, the Rhine River now also shows significant amounts of anthropogenic Sm. The anthropogenic Sm, which enters the Rhine River north of Worms, Germany, with the same industrial wastewater that carries the anthropogenic La, can be traced through the Middle and Lower Rhine to the Netherlands. At Leverkusen, Germany, some 250 km downstream from the point source at Worms, anthropogenic Sm still contributes up to 87% of the total dissolved Sm concentration of the Rhine River. Results from ultrafiltration suggest that while the anthropogenic Gd is not particle-reactive and hence exclusively present in the truly dissolved REE pool (<10 kDa), the anthropogenic La and Sm are also present in the colloidal/nanoparticulate REE pool (between 10 kDa and 0.2 μm). Though difficult to quantify, our data suggest that the Rhine River may carry up to 5700 kg of anthropogenic La, up to 584 kg of anthropogenic Sm, and up to 730 kg of anthropogenic Gd per year toward the North Sea. There exist no regulatory limits for dissolved REE in natural waters, but total REE and Y (∑REY) concentrations of up to 0.14 mg/kg in the plume downstream of and 52.2 mg/kg at the head of an effluent pipe at Rhine-km 447.3 at Worms get close to and well-above, respectively, the levels at

  10. Distribution of biologic, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents as a proxy for sediment transport in the San Francisco Bay coastal system, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGann, M.; Erikson, L. H.; Wan, E.; Powell, C., II; Maddocks, R. F.

    2012-12-01

    The biological, anthropogenic, and volcanic constituents of more than 300 samples collected from 1995 to 2010 in San Francisco Bay and the nearby coastal area were analyzed to discern patterns of sediment transport and deposition. The biological constituents investigated include microfauna (benthic and planktic foraminifers, ostracods, radiolarians, diatoms, and thecamoebians), macrofauna (bivalve mollusks, gastropods, barnacles, bryozoa, worm tubes, echinoids, crabs, and fish fragments), and flora (woody stems, roots, spores, and seeds). The distributional pattern of the benthic foraminifers was further refined by Q-mode cluster analysis into four assemblages that reflect where the taxa reside: the Brackish Shallow Subtidal Assemblage, the Estuarine Shallow Subtidal Assemblage, the Estuarine Intermediate/Deep Subtidal Assemblage, and the Nearshore Marine Assemblage. The anthropogenic objects recovered in this study include welding slag and glass microspheres most likely used to increase roadway line reflectivity. The volcanic constituents are glass shards of the Pliocene (3.27 Ma) Nomlaki Tuff, and Miocene tephra mostly derived from the Great Central Valley (including from the 23-19 Ma Valley Springs Formation, among others) and from the Sonoma Volcanic Field of California. The presence of allochthonous sedimentological constituents in this study was used to identify pathways of sediment transport and deposition within the San Francisco Bay coastal system. Several patterns have been identified: 1) volcanic glass shards are transported from the Great Central Valley through the delta to all regions of the bay, including the extreme end of south bay, as well as along the coast outside the bay and southward to Pedro Point; 2) microorganisms (benthic and planktic foraminifers, ostracods, diatoms, and radiolaria) from the marine realm outside San Francisco Bay are found in the estuary at the southern end of south bay, commonly in the middle of San Pablo Bay, and

  11. Distribution and Sources of Lead in Urban Soil in El Paso, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Amaya, M. A.; Clague, J.

    2005-05-01

    The geographic distribution of lead in El Paso soils is presented in maps based on 500 composite soil samples collected in the region. Each composite sample comprises equal volumes of samples taken from the public space in front of individual houses or structures around a single municipal block. The use of such composites highlights the distribution of lead at the neighborhood level, and de-emphasizes any anomalous elevated level associated with an individual house or structure. Lead levels are highest in the downtown commercial district, in the adjacent area to the east, which comprises an old central business, transport, and light industry complex, and to the west in the area of a century-old smelter, placed on standby six years ago. The continuity of this zone, and the age of its structures, make it difficult to differentiate lead sources. Lead values decrease systematically away from this urban core zone, with the lowest levels generally encountered in the peripheral, lightly populated developments and communities. This geographic distribution of Pb in soil is consistent with Pb measurements reported on particulate matter taken from four air monitoring stations during the 1990s. Soil data thus can complement air studies by providing an essentially infinite geographic network of sampling sites that, with varying accuracy, record and integrate air conditions over years and decades. Research supported by NIEHS Grant 1RO1-ES11367.

  12. Colonization History, Host Distribution, Anthropogenic Influence and Landscape Features Shape Populations of White Pine Blister Rust, an Invasive Alien Tree Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Brar, Simren; Tsui, Clement K. M.; Dhillon, Braham; Bergeron, Marie-Josée; Joly, David L.; Zambino, P. J.; El-Kassaby, Yousry A.; Hamelin, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    White pine blister rust is caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales). This invasive alien pathogen was introduced into North America at the beginning of the 20th century on pine seedlings imported from Europe and has caused serious economic and ecological impacts. In this study, we applied a population and landscape genetics approach to understand the patterns of introduction and colonization as well as population structure and migration of C. ribicola. We characterized 1,292 samples of C. ribicola from 66 geographic locations in North America using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluated the effect of landscape features, host distribution, and colonization history on the structure of these pathogen populations. We identified eastern and western genetic populations in North America that are strongly differentiated. Genetic diversity is two to five times higher in eastern populations than in western ones, which can be explained by the repeated accidental introductions of the pathogen into northeastern North America compared with a single documented introduction into western North America. These distinct genetic populations are maintained by a barrier to gene flow that corresponds to a region where host connectivity is interrupted. Furthermore, additional cryptic spatial differentiation was identified in western populations. This differentiation corresponds to landscape features, such as mountain ranges, and also to host connectivity. We also detected genetic differentiation between the pathogen populations in natural stands and plantations, an indication that anthropogenic movement of this pathogen still takes place. These results highlight the importance of monitoring this invasive alien tree pathogen to prevent admixture of eastern and western populations where different pathogen races occur. PMID:26010250

  13. Next-to-Leading Order QCD Predictions for Z, gamma^* 3-Jet Distributions at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Cordero, F.Febres; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D.A.; Maitre, D.; /Durham U.

    2010-06-02

    Using BlackHat in conjunction with SHERPA, we have computed next-to-leading order QCD predictions for a variety of distributions in Z, {gamma}{sup {asterisk}}+ 1, 2, 3-jet production at the Tevatron, where the Z boson or off-shell photon decays into an electron-positron pair. We find good agreement between the NLO results for jet {sub pT} distributions and measurements by CDF and D0. We also present jetproduction ratios, or probabilities of finding one additional jet. As a function of vector-boson {sub pT} , the ratios have distinctive features which we describe in terms of a simple model capturing leading logarithms and phase-space and parton-distribution-function suppression.

  14. A new analytical approach to understanding nanoscale lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Trueman, Benjamin F; Gagnon, Graham A

    2016-07-05

    High levels of iron in distributed drinking water often accompany elevated lead release from lead service lines and other plumbing. Lead-iron interactions in drinking water distribution systems are hypothesized to be the result of adsorption and transport of lead by iron oxide particles. This mechanism was explored using point-of-use drinking water samples characterized by size exclusion chromatography with UV and multi-element (ICP-MS) detection. In separations on two different stationary phases, high apparent molecular weight (>669 kDa) elution profiles for (56)Fe and (208)Pb were strongly correlated (average R(2)=0.96, N=73 samples representing 23 single-unit residences). Moreover, (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas exhibited an apparent linear dependence (R(2)=0.82), consistent with mobilization of lead via adsorption to colloidal particles rich in iron. A UV254 absorbance peak, coincident with high molecular weight (56)Fe and (208)Pb, implied that natural organic matter was interacting with the hypothesized colloidal species. High molecular weight UV254 peak areas were correlated with both (56)Fe and (208)Pb peak areas (R(2)=0.87 and 0.58, respectively). On average, 45% (std. dev. 10%) of total lead occurred in the size range 0.05-0.45 μm.

  15. Distribution and possible immobilization of lead in a forest soil (Luvisol) profile.

    PubMed

    Sipos, Péter; Németh, Tibor; Mohai, Ilona

    2005-02-01

    Geochemical analyses using a sequential extraction method and lead adsorption studies were carried out in order to characterize the distribution and adsorption of lead on each genetic horizon of a Luvisol profile developed on a pelagic clayey aleurolite. Clay illuviation is the most important pedogenic process in the profile studied. Its clay mineralogy is characterized by chlorite/vermiculite species with increasing chlorite component downward. The amount of carbonate minerals strongly increases in the lower part of the profile resulting in an abrupt rise in soil pH within a small distance. The Pb content of the soil profile exceeds the natural geochemical background only in the Ao horizon, and its amount decreases with depth in the profile without correcting for differences in bulk density, suggesting the binding of Pb to soil organic matter. According to the sequential extraction analysis the organic matter and carbonate content of the soil have the most significant effect on lead distribution. This effect varies in the different soil horizons. Lead adsorption experiments were carried out on whole soil samples, soil clay fractions, as well as on their carbonate and organic matter free variant. The different soil horizons adsorb lead to different extents depending on their organic matter, clay mineral and carbonate content; and the mineralogical features of soil clays significantly affect their lead adsorption capacity. The clay fraction adsorbs 25% more lead than the whole soil, while in the calcareous subsoil a significant proportion of lead is precipitated due to the alkaline conditions. 10 and 5% of adsorbed Pb can be leached with distilled water in the organic matter and clay mineral dominated soil horizons, respectively. These results suggest that soil organic matter plays a decisive role in the adsorption of Pb, but the fixation by clay minerals is stronger.

  16. Climate forcing by anthropogenic aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charlson, R. J.; Schwartz, S. E.; Hales, J. M.; Cess, R. D.; Coakley, J. A., Jr.; Hansen, J. E.; Hofmann, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Although long considered to be of marginal importance to global climate change, tropospheric aerosol contributes substantially to radiative forcing, and anthropogenic sulfate aerosol, in particular, has imposed a major perturbation to this forcing. Both the direct scattering of short-wavelength solar radiation and the modification of the shortwave reflective properties of clouds by sulfate aerosol particles increase planetary albedo, thereby exerting a cooling influence on the planet. Current climate forcing due to anthropogenic sulfate is estimated to be -1 to -2 watts per square meter, globally averaged. This perturbation is comparable in magnitude to current anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing but opposite in sign. Thus, the aerosol forcing has likely offset global greenhouse warming to a substantial degree. However, differences in geographical and seasonal distributions of these forcings preclude any simple compensation. Aerosol effects must be taken into account in evaluating anthropogenic influences on past, current, and projected future climate and in formulating policy regarding controls on emission of greenhouse gases and sulfur dioxide. Resolution of such policy issues requires integrated research on the magnitude and geographical distribution of aerosol climate forcing and on the controlling chemical and physical processes.

  17. Distribution of lead, cadmium, and zinc in tissues of hens and chickens from Slovenia

    SciTech Connect

    Doganoc, D.Z.

    1996-12-01

    Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are environmental contaminants which are present in almost all living organisms and are non-essential for plants, animals and human beings. Zinc (Zn) is an essential element which occurs together with Cd and is linked with it. Little information exists about the contamination of tissues of hens and chickens with these elements. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of lead, cadmium, and zinc in different tissues of poultry and eggs in Slovenia. 10 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. Distribution of current in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries: a thermographic analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streza, M.; Nuţ, C.; Tudoran, C.; Bunea, V.; Calborean, A.; Morari, C.

    2016-02-01

    An experimental method for the investigation of the current distribution in the electrodes of lead-acid batteries has been developed. The information is extracted by analysing the heat dissipation in the electrode during the discharge by using a high-performance IR camera. The effect of the current in the metallic grid can be de-convoluted from the total heat produced in the electrode by numerical processing of the temperature distribution over the electrode surface. By its simplicity and effectiveness, the proposed method has the potential to become an important tool in optimising electrode geometry.

  19. Leading twist nuclear shadowing, nuclear generalized parton distributions and nuclear DVCS at small x

    SciTech Connect

    Guzey, Vadim; Goeke, Klaus; Siddikov, Marat

    2009-01-01

    We generalize the leading twist theory of nuclear shadowing and calculate quark and gluon generalized parton distributions (GPDs) of spinless nuclei. We predict very large nuclear shadowing for nuclear GPDs. In the limit of the purely transverse momentum transfer, our nuclear GPDs become impact parameter dependent nuclear parton distributions (PDFs). Nuclear shadowing induces non-trivial correlations between the impact parameter $b$ and the light-cone fraction $x$. We make predictions for the deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) amplitude and the DVCS cross section on $^{208}$Pb at high energies. We calculate the cross section of the Bethe-Heitler (BH) process and address the issue of the extraction of the DVCS signal from the $e A \\to e \\gamma A$ cross section. We find that the $e A \\to e \\gamma A$ differential cross section is dominated by DVCS at the momentum transfer $t$ near the minima of the nuclear form factor. We also find that nuclear shadowing leads

  20. Kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle growth; focusing and de-focusing of size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koolyk, Miriam; Amgar, Daniel; Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-03-01

    In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking their growth by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and size distribution analysis. As a result, we are able to provide a detailed model for the kinetics of their growth. It was observed that the CsPbI3 NPs exhibit focusing of the size distribution in the first 20 seconds of growth, followed by de-focusing over longer growth durations, while the CsPbBr3 NPs show de-focusing of the size distribution starting from the beginning of the growth. The monomer concentration is depleted faster in the case of CsPbBr3 than in the case of CsPbI3, due to faster diffusion of the monomers, which increases the critical radius and results in de-focusing of the population. Accordingly, focusing is not observed within 40 seconds of growth in the case of CsPbBr3. This study provides important knowledge on how to achieve a narrow size distribution of cesium lead halide perovskite NPs when generating large amounts of these promising, highly luminescent NPs.In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking

  1. Kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle growth; focusing and de-focusing of size distribution.

    PubMed

    Koolyk, Miriam; Amgar, Daniel; Aharon, Sigalit; Etgar, Lioz

    2016-03-28

    In this work we study the kinetics of cesium lead halide perovskite nanoparticle (NP) growth; the focusing and de-focusing of the NP size distribution. Cesium lead halide perovskite NPs are considered to be attractive materials for optoelectronic applications. Understanding the kinetics of the formation of these all-inorganic perovskite NPs is critical for reproducibly and reliably generating large amounts of uniformly sized NPs. Here we investigate different growth durations for CsPbI3 and CsPbBr3 NPs, tracking their growth by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and size distribution analysis. As a result, we are able to provide a detailed model for the kinetics of their growth. It was observed that the CsPbI3 NPs exhibit focusing of the size distribution in the first 20 seconds of growth, followed by de-focusing over longer growth durations, while the CsPbBr3 NPs show de-focusing of the size distribution starting from the beginning of the growth. The monomer concentration is depleted faster in the case of CsPbBr3 than in the case of CsPbI3, due to faster diffusion of the monomers, which increases the critical radius and results in de-focusing of the population. Accordingly, focusing is not observed within 40 seconds of growth in the case of CsPbBr3. This study provides important knowledge on how to achieve a narrow size distribution of cesium lead halide perovskite NPs when generating large amounts of these promising, highly luminescent NPs.

  2. The association between spatial distribution of common malignancies and soil lead concentration in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rashidi, Masoumeh; Rameshat, Mohammad Hossein; Gharib, Hadi; Rouzbahani, Reza; Ghias, Majid; Poursafa, Parinaz

    2012-01-01

    Background: Malignancies are primarily environmental diseases mostly attributed to environmental factors. By plotting the prevalence and spatial distribution maps, important differences can be observed in detail. This study aimed to determine the association between map distribution of malignancies and the geological phenomena of lead (Pb) accumulation in soil in the province of Isfahan, Iran. Methods: Spatial distribution maps of malignant diseases were plotted by using data recorded during 2007 to 2009 in the Isfahan Cancer Registry Program. Data on Pb accumulation in soil was obtained from the National Geological Survey and Mineral Exploration. Pb concentrations were documented in three parts of agricultural, non-agricultural, urban, and industrial land. The geographical mapping of cancers and soil Pb were then incorporated into a geographic information system (GIS) to create a spatial distribution model. Results: The spatial distributions of ten common malignant diseases in the province, i.e. skin cancers, hematological malignancies, and breast cancers, followed by other malignancies were scattered based on Pb distribution. In fact, common cancers were more prevalent in the parts of the province where soil Pb was more abundant. Conclusion: The findings of this study underscore the importance of preventing Pb exposure and controlling industrial production of Pb. The data is also important to establish further effects modeling for cancers. Moreover, physicians and health professionals should consider the impact of environmental factors on their patients’ health. PMID:23267396

  3. Lead tolerance and cellular distribution in Elsholtzia splendens using synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Tian, Shengke; Lu, Lingli; Shohag, M J I; Liao, Haibing; Yang, Xiaoe

    2011-12-15

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the tolerance and spatial distribution of lead (Pb) in Elsholtzia splendens-a copper (Cu) accumulator plant using synchrotron-based micro-X-ray fluorescence. According to chlorophyll concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, E. splendens displayed certain tolerance at 100 μM Pb treatment. Lead concentration in roots, stems and leaves of E. splendens reached 45,183.6, 1657.6, and 380.9 mg kg(-1), respectively. Pb was mostly accumulated in the roots, and there were also high concentrations of Pb been transported into stems and leaves. Micro-XRF analysis of the stem and leaf cross section revealed that Pb was mostly restricted in the vascular bundles and epidermis tissues of both stem and leaf of E. splendens. The correlation between distribution of K, Ca, Zn and Pb were analyzed. There were significant positive correlations (P<0.01) among Pb and Ca, K, Zn distribution both in stem and leaf of E. splendens. However, among the three elements, Ca shared the most similar distribution pattern and the highest correlation coefficients with Pb in both stem and leaf cross section of E. splendens. This suggests that Ca may play an important role in Pb accumulation in stem and leaf of E. splendens.

  4. Distribution of oceanic and continental leads in the Arabian-Nubian Shield

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stacey, J.S.; Stoeser, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    New common lead data for feldspar, whole-rock, and galena samples from the Arabian-Nubian Shield, together with data from previous work, can be divided into two main groups. Group I leads have oceanic (mantle) characteristics, whereas group II leads have incorporated a continental-crustal component of at least early Proterozoic age. The group I leads are found in rocks from the Red Sea Hills of Egypt and the western and southern parts of the Arabian Shield. Group II leads are found in rocks from the northeastern and eastern parts of the Arabian Shield, as well as from the southeastern Shield near Najran. They are also found in rocks to the south in Yemen, to the east in Oman, and to the west at Aswan, Egypt. This distribution of data suggests that the Arabian-Nubian Shield has an oceanic core flanked by rocks that have developed, at least in part, from older continental material. Two mechanisms are suggested by which this older lead component could have been incorporated into the late Proterozoic rocks, and each may have operated in different parts of the Shield. The older lead component either was derived directly from an underlying early Proterozoic basement or was incorporated from subducted pelagic sediments or sediments derived from an adjacent continent. New U-Pb zircon data indicate the presence of an early Proterozoic basement southeast of Jabal Dahul in the eastern Arabian Shield. These data, together with 2,000-Ma-old zircons from the Al Amar fault zone, verify the implication of the common lead data that at least a part of the eastern Arabian Shield has an older continental basement. Because continental margins are particularly favorable locations for development of ore deposits, these findings may have important economic implications, particularly for tin, tungsten, and molybdenum exploration. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  5. Distribution of toxic elements and transfer from the environment to humans traced by using lead isotopes. A case of study in the Sarno River basin, south Italy.

    PubMed

    Cicchella, Domenico; Hoogewerff, Jurian; Albanese, Stefano; Adamo, Paola; Lima, Annamaria; Taiani, Manuela V E; De Vivo, Benedetto

    2016-04-01

    The results of a large geochemical study on various environmental media (soil, stream sediment, groundwater, surface water, lettuce and human hair) of the Sarno River basin, which is one of the most polluted areas in Italy, are presented. Further, it aims to deepen our understanding of the distribution of Pb and its isotope composition for the differentiation between natural and anthropogenic metal sources. Our results show the environmental media to be significantly enriched in Cr, Cu, Pb, Hg, Zn, and to a lesser extent in Sb, Cd and Ni compared to the natural local background variation. The numerous industrial activities (mainly tanneries) have caused environmental pollution especially Cr and Hg in soils and sediment samples. Such contamination is also evident in lettuce and in the hair of the resident population, which shows particularly high values for both Cr and Hg. The unusually high As, Be and Sn concentrations arise mostly from natural sources due to the volcanic nature of the investigated area. Lead isotope measurements indicate a trend suggesting mixing between two end-members, one of clear natural origin (geogenic) and another related to human activities (anthropogenic). Lead isotope results demonstrate that Pb in hair of inhabitants is similar to those in the local topsoil and that gasoline is one of the main, but not the only source of metal pollution. The most important exposure risks within the study area are associated with toxic elements levels in topsoil and stream sediment, and the ingestion of locally grown lettuce. The high concentrations of these elements in hair are a further confirmation of this exposure pathway.

  6. Dispersal leads to spatial autocorrelation in species distributions: A simulation model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahn, V.; Krohn, W.B.; O'Connor, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Compared to population growth regulated by local conditions, dispersal has been underappreciated as a central process shaping the spatial distribution of populations. This paper asks: (a) which conditions increase the importance of dispersers relative to local recruits in determining population sizes? and (b) how does dispersal influence the spatial distribution patterns of abundances among connected populations? We approached these questions with a simulation model of populations on a coupled lattice with cells of continuously varying habitat quality expressed as carrying capacities. Each cell contained a population with the basic dynamics of density-regulated growth, and was connected to other populations by immigration and emigration. The degree to which dispersal influenced the distribution of population sizes depended most strongly on the absolute amount of dispersal, and then on the potential population growth rate. Dispersal decaying in intensity with distance left close neighbours more alike in population size than distant populations, leading to an increase in spatial autocorrelation. The spatial distribution of species with low potential growth rates is more dependent on dispersal than that of species with high growth rates; therefore, distribution modelling for species with low growth rates requires particular attention to autocorrelation, and conservation management of these species requires attention to factors curtailing dispersal, such as fragmentation and dispersal barriers. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Simulated big sagebrush regeneration supports predicted changes at the trailing and leading edges of distribution shifts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schlaepfer, Daniel R.; Taylor, Kyle A.; Pennington, Victoria E.; Nelson, Kellen N.; Martin, Trace E.; Rottler, Caitlin M.; Lauenroth, William K.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Many semi-arid plant communities in western North America are dominated by big sagebrush. These ecosystems are being reduced in extent and quality due to economic development, invasive species, and climate change. These pervasive modifications have generated concern about the long-term viability of sagebrush habitat and sagebrush-obligate wildlife species (notably greater sage-grouse), highlighting the need for better understanding of the future big sagebrush distribution, particularly at the species' range margins. These leading and trailing edges of potential climate-driven sagebrush distribution shifts are likely to be areas most sensitive to climate change. We used a process-based regeneration model for big sagebrush, which simulates potential germination and seedling survival in response to climatic and edaphic conditions and tested expectations about current and future regeneration responses at trailing and leading edges that were previously identified using traditional species distribution models. Our results confirmed expectations of increased probability of regeneration at the leading edge and decreased probability of regeneration at the trailing edge below current levels. Our simulations indicated that soil water dynamics at the leading edge became more similar to the typical seasonal ecohydrological conditions observed within the current range of big sagebrush ecosystems. At the trailing edge, an increased winter and spring dryness represented a departure from conditions typically supportive of big sagebrush. Our results highlighted that minimum and maximum daily temperatures as well as soil water recharge and summer dry periods are important constraints for big sagebrush regeneration. Overall, our results confirmed previous predictions, i.e., we see consistent changes in areas identified as trailing and leading edges; however, we also identified potential local refugia within the trailing edge, mostly at sites at higher elevation. Decreasing

  8. Pb-Sr isotopic and geochemical constraints on sources and processes of lead contamination in well waters and soil from former fruit orchards, Pennsylvania, USA: A legacy of anthropogenic activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic discrimination can be an effective tool in establishing a direct link between sources of Pb contamination and the presence of anomalously high concentrations of Pb in waters, soils, and organisms. Residential wells supplying water containing up to 1600 ppb Pb to houses built on the former Mohr orchards commercial site, near Allentown, PA, were evaluated to discern anthropogenic from geogenic sources. Pb (n = 144) and Sr (n = 40) isotopic data and REE (n = 29) data were determined for waters from residential wells, test wells (drilled for this study), and surface waters from pond and creeks. Local soils, sediments, bedrock, Zn-Pb mineralization and coal were also analyzed (n = 94), together with locally used Pb-As pesticide (n = 5). Waters from residential and test wells show overlapping values of 206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/207Pb and 87Sr/86Sr. Larger negative Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*) distinguish residential wells from test wells. Results show that residential and test well waters, sediments from residential water filters in water tanks, and surface waters display broad linear trends in Pb isotope plots. Pb isotope data for soils, bedrock, and pesticides have contrasting ranges and overlapping trends. Contributions of Pb from soils to residential well waters are limited and implicated primarily in wells having shallow water-bearing zones and carrying high sediment contents. Pb isotope data for residential wells, test wells, and surface waters show substantial overlap with Pb data reflecting anthropogenic actions (e.g., burning fossil fuels, industrial and urban processing activities). Limited contributions of Pb from bedrock, soils, and pesticides are evident. High Pb concentrations in the residential waters are likely related to sediment build up in residential water tanks. Redox reactions, triggered by influx of groundwater via wells into the residential water systems and leading to subtle changes in pH, are implicated in precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides

  9. Distribution and effects of intravenous lead in the fetoplacental unit of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P.L.; Hess, J.O.; Sikov, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Lead metabolism was studied in the fetoplacental unit (FPU) of Wistar rats during the genesis of developmental abnormalities and embryonic death. Female rats were injected iv with tracer /sup 210/Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, alone or in combination with 5 or 25 mg Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2//kg, at 9 or 15 days of gestation (dg). The distribution of lead and its effects were determined in the FPUs during the ensuing 30-h period and at 20 dg. Hemorrhage of the egg cylinder was noted as early as 6 h postinjection of 25 mg/kg at 9 dg. By 20 dg, fetuses exhibited characteristic stunting and external malformations (gastrochisis and severe skeletal defects). Administration of this dose at 15 dg produced petechial hemorrhage in fetal brain within 90 min; more massive hemorrhage was a consistent observation by 24 h. At 20 dg, embryo mortality was 44% in rats injected with 25 mg/kg at 9 dg and 100% in those injected at 15 dg. At 90 min after injection, lead content of 15-dg FPUs was 10 times that of the 9-dg FPUs, but the weights of the 15-dg FPUs were 16 times greater. Values remained relatively constant in 15-dg FPUs for 30 h, but early clearance was observed after injection at 9 dg, with a return to 90-min values by 20 dg. In the 15-dg FPUs, placental clearance was followed by fetal lead incorporation, which reached a maximum at 6 h. Fetal lead values were constant from 6 to 30 h after injection at tracer and 5-mg/kg dose levels, but values increased progressively at 25 mg/kg. Both temporal and quantitative relationships of fetal lead metabolism were disrupted by the 25-mg/kg dose, but the nature of the effect was determined by the stage of fetal development at exposure.

  10. Distribution and effects of intravenous lead in the fetoplacental unit of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, P.L.; Hess, J.O.; Sikov, M.R.

    1982-05-01

    Lead metabolism was studied in the fetoplacental unit (FPU) of Wistar rats during the genesis of developmental abnormalities and embryonic death. Female rats were injected iv with tracer /sup 210/Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, alone or in combination with 5 or 25 mg Pb(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2//kg, at 9 or 15 days of gestation (dg). The distribution of lead and its effects were determined in the FPUs during the ensuing 30-h period and at 20 dg. Hemorrhage of the egg cylinder was noted as early as 6 h postinjection of 25 mg/kg at 9 dg. By 20 dg, fetuses exhibited characteristic stunting and external malformations (gastroschisis and severe skeletal defects). Administration of this dose at 15 dg produced petechial hemorrhage in fetal brain within 90 min; more massive hemorrhage was a consistent observation by 24 h. At 20 dg, embryo mortality was 44% in rats injected with 25 mg/kg at 9 dg and 100% in those injected at 15 dg. At 90 min after injection, lead content of 15-dg FPUs were 16 times greater. Values remained relatively constant in 15-dg FPUs for 30 h, but early clearance was observed after injection at 9 dg, with a return to 90-min values by 20 dg. In the 15-dg FPUs, placental clearance was followed by fetal lead incorporation, which reached a maximum at 6 h. Fetal lead values were constant from 6 to 30 h after injection at tracer and 5-mg/kg dose levels, but values increased progressively at 25 mg/kg. Both temporal and quantitative relationships of fetal lead metabolism were disrupted by the 25-mg/kg dose, but the nature of the effect was determined by the stage of fetal development at exposure.

  11. A seller-buyer supply chain model with exponential distribution lead time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahri, Mehrab; Tarokh, Mohammad Jafar

    2012-08-01

    Supply chain is an accepted way of remaining in the competition in today's rapidly changing market. This paper presents a coordinated seller-buyer supply chain model in two stages, which is called Joint Economic Lot Sizing (JELS) in literature. The delivery activities in the supply chain consist of a single raw material. We assume that the delivery lead time is stochastic and follows an exponential distribution. Also, the shortage during the lead time is permitted and completely back-ordered for the buyer. With these assumptions, the annual cost function of JELS is minimized. At the end, a numerical example is presented to show that the integrated approach considerably improves the costs in comparison with the independent decisions by seller and buyer.

  12. Effect of lead in the laboratory mouse. 1. Influence of pregnancy upon absorption, retention, and tissue distribution of radiolabeled lead

    SciTech Connect

    Donald, J.M.; Cutler, M.G.; Moore, M.R.

    1986-12-01

    Whole-body retention and excretion following a single oral dose of radiolabeled lead (/sup 203/Pb) in chronically lead-exposed pregnant BK:W mice were examined over 10-13 days. This was compared with values in similarly treated nonpregnant females and in ip injected females. Whole-body and bone retention were greater in injected than in orally dosed nonpregnant females; gastrointestinal absorption was estimated from this difference. Whole-body retention in the pups was measured at birth and at the end of the experiment. Whole-body retentions in pregnant females and in their pups at birth were significantly raised after treatment at Gestational Day 17, but not after treatment at Gestational Day 11, 14, 20, 23, or 26. Pup body burdens at birth were significantly and positively correlated with maternal retention. Measurement of radioactivity in bone, kidney, brain, heart, and liver of adults at the end of the experiments showed significantly increased levels in bone and kidney from females treated at Gestational Day 17 and in bone from females treated at Gestational Day 11. Lead excretion did not differ significantly among the groups but the total lead content of the femur was significantly raised in females treated at Gestational Days 17 and 26. Thus, these experiments provide evidence that lead absorption and retention in mice are markedly increased in the latter stages of pregnancy.

  13. Next-to-Leading Order Predictions for W + 3-Jet Distributions at Hadron Colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C.F.; Bern, Z.; Dixon, L.J.; Febres Cordero, F.; Forde, D.; Gleisberg, T.; Ita, H.; Kosower, D.A.; Maitre, D.; /Durham U.

    2009-12-09

    We present next-to-leading order QCD predictions for a variety of distributions in W + 3-jet production at both the Tevatron and the Large Hadron Collider. We include all subprocesses and incorporate the decay of the W boson into leptons. Our results are in excellent agreement with existing Tevatron data and provide the first quantitatively precise next-to-leading order predictions for the LHC. We include all terms in an expansion in the number of colors, confirming that the specific leading-color approximation used in our previous study is accurate to within three percent. The dependence of the cross section on renormalization and factorization scales is reduced significantly with respect to a leading-order calculation. We study different dynamical scale choices, and find that the total transverse energy is significantly better than choices used in previous phenomenological studies. We compute the one-loop matrix elements using on-shell methods, as numerically implemented in the BlackHat code. The remaining parts of the calculation, including generation of the real-emission contributions and integration over phase space, are handled by the SHERPA package.

  14. Spanwise pressure distribution on delta wing with leading-edge vortex flap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, C. S.

    1987-01-01

    The aerodynamic characteristics of a highly swept planar delta wing employing conical leading edge flaps are numerically investigated, using a free vortex sheet method that is based on an advanced, three-dimensional inviscid flow panel method employing quadratic doublet distributions to represent the wing surface and the rolled-up vortex sheet and wake. Upward flap deflection shifts the negative pressure peak inboard of the basic wing and develops a significant suction pressure on the flap that then produces thrust component in the direction of flight; overall drag is thereby reduced.

  15. Occurrence of contaminant accumulation in lead pipe scales from domestic drinking-water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Schock, Michael R; Hyland, Robert N; Welch, Meghan M

    2008-06-15

    Previously, contaminants, such as AI, As, and Ra, have been shown to accumulate in drinking-water distribution system solids. Accumulated contaminants could be periodically released back into the water supply causing elevated levels at consumers taps, going undetected by most current regulatory monitoring practices and consequently constituting a hidden risk. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of over 40 major scale constituents, regulated metals, and other potential metallic inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution system Pb (lead) or Pb-lined service lines. The primary method of analysis was inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy, following complete decomposition of scale material. Contaminants and scale constituents were categorized by their average concentrations, and many metals of potential health concern were found to occur at levels sufficient to result in elevated levels at the consumer's taps if they were to be mobilized. The data indicate distinctly nonconservative behavior for many inorganic contaminants in drinking-water distribution systems. This finding suggests an imminent need for further research into the transport and fate of contaminants throughout drinking-water distribution system pipes, as well as a re-evaluation of monitoring protocols in order to more accurately determine the scope and levels of potential consumer exposure.

  16. Influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the composition, concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics: A case study of the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France).

    PubMed

    Frère, L; Paul-Pont, I; Rinnert, E; Petton, S; Jaffré, J; Bihannic, I; Soudant, P; Lambert, C; Huvet, A

    2017-03-31

    The concentration and spatial distribution of microplastics in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) was investigated in two surveys. Surface water and sediment were sampled at nine locations in areas characterized by contrasting anthropic pressures, riverine influences or water mixing. Microplastics were categorized by their polymer type and size class. Microplastic contamination in surface water and sediment was dominated by polyethylene fragments (PE, 53-67%) followed by polypropylene (PP, 16-30%) and polystyrene (PS, 16-17%) microparticles. The presence of buoyant microplastics (PE, PP and PS) in sediment suggests the existence of physical and/or biological processes leading to vertical transfer of lightweight microplastics in the bay. In sediment (upper 5 cm), the percentage of particles identified by Raman micro-spectroscopy was lower (41%) than in surface water (79%) and may explain the apparent low concentration observed in this matrix (0.97 ± 2.08 MP kg(-1) dry sediment). Mean microplastic concentration was 0.24 ± 0.35 MP m(-3) in surface water. We suggest that the observed spatial MP distribution is related to proximity to urbanized areas and to hydrodynamics in the bay. A particle dispersal model was used to study the influence of hydrodynamics on surface microplastic distribution. The outputs of the model showed the presence of a transitional convergence zone in the centre of the bay during flood tide, where floating debris coming from the northern and southern parts of the bay tends to accumulate before being expelled from the bay. Further modelling work and observations integrating (i) the complex vertical motion of microplastics, and (ii) their point sources is required to better understand the fate of microplastics in such a complex coastal ecosystem.

  17. Chemical oceanography. Increasing anthropogenic nitrogen in the North Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Nam; Lee, Kitack; Gruber, Nicolas; Karl, David M; Bullister, John L; Yang, Simon; Kim, Tae-Wook

    2014-11-28

    The recent increase in anthropogenic emissions of reactive nitrogen from northeastern Asia and the subsequent enhanced deposition over the extensive regions of the North Pacific Ocean (NPO) have led to a detectable increase in the nitrate (N) concentration of the upper ocean. The rate of increase of excess N relative to phosphate (P) was found to be highest (~0.24 micromoles per kilogram per year) in the vicinity of the Asian source continent, with rates decreasing eastward across the NPO, consistent with the magnitude and distribution of atmospheric nitrogen deposition. This anthropogenically driven increase in the N content of the upper NPO may enhance primary production in this N-limited region, potentially leading to a long-term change of the NPO from being N-limited to P-limited.

  18. Characteristics of lead corrosion scales formed during drinking water distribution and their potential influence on the release of lead and other contaminants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Jung; Herrera, Jose E

    2010-08-15

    Destabilization of the corrosion scale present in lead pipes used in drinking water distribution systems is currently considered a major problem for municipalities serviced in part by lead pipes. Although several lead corrosion strategies have been deployed with success, a clear understanding of the chemistry of corrosion products present in the scale is needed for an effective lead control. This contribution focuses on a comprehensive characterization of the layers present in the corrosion scale formed on the inner surfaces of lead pipes used in the drinking water distribution system of the City on London, ON, Canada. Solid corrosion products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Toxic elements accumulated in the corrosion scale were also identified using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry after acid digestion. Based on the XRD results, hydrocerussite was identified as the major lead crystalline corrosion phase in most of the pipes sampled, while cerussite was observed as the main crystalline component only in a few cases. Lead oxides including PbO(2) and Pb(3)O(4) were also observed in the inner layers of the corrosion scale. The presence of these highly oxidized lead species is rationalized in terms of the lead(II) carbonate phase transforming into lead(IV) oxide through an intermediate Pb(3)O(4) (2Pb(II)O x Pb(IV)O(2)) phase. In addition to lead corrosion products, an amorphous aluminosilicate phase was also identified in the corrosion scale. Its concentration is particularly high at the outer surface layers. Accumulation of toxic contaminants such as As, V, Sb, Cu, and Cr was observed in the corrosion scales, together with a strong correlation between arsenic accumulation and aluminum concentration.

  19. Mobilization and distribution of lead originating from roof dust and wet deposition in a roof runoff system.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jianghua; Yu, Haixia; Huang, Xiaogu

    2015-12-01

    In this research, the mobilization and distribution of lead originating in roof dust and wet deposition were investigated within a roof dust-rooftop-runoff system. The results indicated that lead from roof dust and wet deposition showed different transport dynamics in runoff system and that this process was significantly influenced by the rainfall intensity. Lead present in the roof dust could be easily washed off into the runoff, and nearly 60 % of the total lead content was present in particulate form. Most of the lead from the roof dust was transported during the late period of rainfall; however, the lead concentration was higher for several minutes at the rainfall beginning. Even though some of the lead from wet deposition, simulated with a standard isotope substance, was adsorbed onto adhered roof dust and/or retained on rooftop in runoff system, most of it (50-82 %) remained as dissolved lead in the runoff for rainfall events of varying intensity. Regarding the distribution of lead in the runoff system, the results indicated that it could be carried in the runoff in dissolved and particulate form, be adsorbed to adhered roof dust, or remain on the rooftop because of adsorption to the roof material. Lead from the different sources showed different distribution patterns that were also related to the rainfall intensity. Higher rainfall intensity resulted in a higher proportion of lead in the runoff and a lower proportion of lead remaining on the rooftop.

  20. Determination of Polarised Parton Distributions in the Nucleon --- Next to Leading Order QCD Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatur, Stanislaw; Bartelski, Jan; Kurzela, Miroslaw

    2000-03-01

    We have made next to leading order QCD fit to the deep inelastic spin asymmetries on nucleons and we have determined polarised quark and gluon densities. The functional form for such distributions was inspired by the Martin, Roberts and Stirling fit for unpolarised case. In addition to usually used data points (averaged over x and Q2) we have also considered the sample containing points with similar x and different Q2. It seems that splitting of quark densities into valence and sea contribution is strongly model dependent and only their sum (i.e. , Δ u and Δ d) can be precisely determined from the data. Integrated polarised gluon contribution, contrary to some expectations, is relatively small and the sign of it depends on the fact which sample of data points is used.

  1. ρ -meson longitudinal leading-twist distribution amplitude within QCD background field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hai-Bing; Wu, Xing-Gang; Cheng, Wei; Zhong, Tao

    2016-10-01

    We revisit the ρ -meson longitudinal leading-twist distribution amplitude (DA) ϕ2;ρ ∥ by using the QCD sum rules approach within the background field theory. To improve the accuracy of the sum rules for its moments ⟨ξn;ρ ∥⟩ , we include the next-to-leading order QCD correction to the perturbative part and keep all nonperturbative condensates up to dimension-six consistently within the background field theory. The first two moments read ⟨ξ2;ρ ∥⟩|1 GeV=0.241 (28 ) and ⟨ξ4;ρ ∥⟩|1 GeV=0.109 (10 ) , indicating a double humped behavior for ϕ2;ρ ∥ at small energy scale. As an application, we apply them to the B →ρ transition form factors within the QCD light-cone sum rules, which are key components for the decay width Γ (B →ρ ℓνℓ) . To compare with the world average of Γ (B →ρ ℓνℓ) issued by Particle Data Group, we predict |Vub|=3.1 9-0.62+0.65 , which agrees with the BABAR and Omnès parametrization prediction within errors.

  2. Are Electron Distributions Associated with Reconnection Electrostatically Unstable and do they lead to Electron Holes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Pritchett, P.

    2007-12-01

    Model electron distributions arising in the late stages of 2-D PIC simulations1 of magnetic reconnection with a guide field are used to initialize 1-D and 2-D electrostatic Vlasov simulations, which are oriented to include the direction parallel to the (local) magnetic field. Transient electron holes are found to develop near the separatrix through a electron-ion (e.g., Buneman) instability. Restriction of the destabilizing current to a narrow sheet perpendicular to \\mathbf{B} reduces the Buneman growth rate, possibly leading to more stable holes. Near the X-point, electron-electron two-stream instabilities can produce quasi-stable electron holes. These first-generation holes can modify the electron-ion interaction resulting in a second generation of holes, with a variety of subsequent hole-hole interactions that depend on the details of the initial distributions. When the holes are shallow and well-separated they can be analyzed using stationary solutions2 based on the condition eφ/Te \\ll 1. *Research supported by DOE, NASA, and NSF. 1P.~L.~Pritchett, Phys.~Plasmas, 12, 062301 (2005). 2M.~V.~Goldman, D.~L.~Newman, and A.~Mangeney, Phys.~Rev.~Lett., in press, (2007).

  3. Quantitative assessment of atmospheric emissions of toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources in China: historical trend, spatial variation distribution, uncertainties and control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. Z.; Zhu, C. Y.; Gao, J. J.; Cheng, K.; Hao, J. M.; Wang, K.; Hua, S. B.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. R.

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals have received worldwide concerns due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available representation of time-varying emission factors with S-shape curves, we established the multiyear comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in China for the period of 1949-2012 for the first time. Further, we allocated the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2010 at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Our results show that the historical emissions of Hg, As, Se, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu and Zn during the period of 1949-2012, have been increased by about 22-128 times at an annual average growth rate of 5.1-8.0%, amounting to about 79 570 t in 2012. Nonferrous metal smelting, coal combustion of industrial boilers, brake and tyre wear, and ferrous metals smelting represent the dominant sources for Hg / Cd, As / Se / Pb / Cr / Ni / Mn / Co, Sb / Cu, and Zn, respectively. In terms of spatial variation, the majority of emissions were concentrated in relatively developed regions, especially for the northern, eastern and southern coastal regions. In addition, because of the flourishing nonferrous metals smelting industry, several southwestern and central-southern provinces play a prominent role in some specific toxic heavy metals emissions, like Hg in Guizhou and As in Yunnan. Finally, integrated countermeasures are proposed to minimize the final toxic heavy metals discharge on accounting of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China.

  4. Quantitative assessment of atmospheric emissions of toxic heavy metals from anthropogenic sources in China: historical trend, spatial distribution, uncertainties, and control policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, H. Z.; Zhu, C. Y.; Gao, J. J.; Cheng, K.; Hao, J. M.; Wang, K.; Hua, S. B.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. R.

    2015-09-01

    Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of typical toxic heavy metals have caused worldwide concern due to their adverse effects on human health and the ecosystem. By determining the best available representation of time-varying emission factors with S-shape curves, we establish the multiyear comprehensive atmospheric emission inventories of 12 typical toxic heavy metals (Hg, As, Se, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn) from primary anthropogenic activities in China for the period of 1949-2012 for the first time. Further, we allocate the annual emissions of these heavy metals in 2010 at a high spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° grid with ArcGIS methodology and surrogate indexes, such as regional population and gross domestic product (GDP). Our results show that the historical emissions of Hg, As, Se, Cd, Cr, Ni, Sb, Mn, Co, Cu, and Zn, during the period of 1949-2012, increased by about 22-128 times at an annual average growth rate of 5.1-8.0 %, reaching about 526.9-22 319.6 t in 2012. Nonferrous metal smelting, coal combustion of industrial boilers, brake and tyre wear, and ferrous metal smelting represent the dominant sources of heavy metal emissions. In terms of spatial variation, the majority of emissions are concentrated in relatively developed regions, especially for the northern, eastern, and southern coastal regions. In addition, because of the flourishing nonferrous metal smelting industry, several southwestern and central-southern provinces play a prominent role in some specific toxic heavy metals emissions, like Hg in Guizhou and As in Yunnan. Finally, integrated countermeasures are proposed to minimize the final toxic heavy metals discharge on account of the current and future demand of energy-saving and pollution reduction in China.

  5. Anthropogenic impacts on the biogeochemistry and cycling of antimony.

    PubMed

    Shotyk, William; Krachler, Michael; Chen, Bin

    2005-01-01

    Antimony is a potentially toxic trace element with no known biological function. Antimony is commonly enriched in coals, and fossil fuel combustion appears to be the largest single source of anthropogenic Sb to the global atmosphere. Abundant in sulfide minerals, its emission to the atmosphere from anthropogenic activities is linked to the mining and metallurgy of non-ferrous metals, especially Pb, Cu, and Zn. In particular, the geochemical and mineralogical association of Sb with Pb minerals implies that, like Pb, Sb has been emitted to the environment for thousands of years because of Pb mining, smelting, and refining. In the US alone, there are more than 400 former secondary lead smelting operations and worldwide there are 133 Pb-Zn smelters in operation today. Antimony is used in creating and improving dozens of industrial and commercial materials including various alloys, ceramics, glasses, plastics, and synthetic fabrics, making waste incineration another important source of Sb to the environment. Enrichments of Sb in atmospheric aerosols, plants, soils, sediments, as well as alpine and polar snow and ice suggest that Sb contamination is extensive, but there are very few quantitative studies of the geographic extent, intensity, and chronology of this contamination. There is an urgent need to quantify the extent of human impacts and how these have changed with time. The decreasing inventories of anthropogenic Sb with time in peat cores from Switzerland and Scotland suggest that the atmospheric Sb flux may be declining, but there have been too few studies to make any general conclusions. In fact, some studies of sediments and biomonitors in central Europe show little decline in Sb concentrations during the past decades. There is an obvious need for reliable data from well dated archives such as polar snow and ice, peat bogs, and sediments. The air concentrations, extent of enrichment, particle size distribution, and rate of deposition of Sb in urban areas is

  6. Speciation and distribution of cadmium and lead in salinized horizons of antrosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulgariu, D.; Bulgariu, L.; Astefanei, D.

    2009-04-01

    The utilization of intensive technologies for the vegetable cultivation in glass houses by the administration of high doses of organic fertilizes, the supra-dimensional irrigation and the maintaining of soil at high humidity state, in special in case of vicious drainage have as result the rapid degradation of morphological, chemical and physical characteristics of soils, concretized by: (i) decrease of structural aggregates stability; (ii) more dense packing of soil; (iii) accumulation of easy soluble salts (in special at superior horizons level); (iv) limitation of organic compounds and micro-elements biodisponibility. All these determined a significant reduction of productivity and of exploitation duration of soils from glass houses. These phenomena modified continuously the dynamic of speciation processes and inter-phases distribution, of heavy metals in soils from glass houses, and can determined a non-controlled accumulation of heavy metals, in special as mobile forms with high biodisponibility. Ours studied have been performed using soil profiles drawing from Copou-glass house, Iasi (Romania). Has been followed the modification of distribution for speciation forms of cadmium and lead (two heavy metals with high toxicity degree), between hortic antrosol horizons, and between chemical-mineralogical components of this, with the progressive salinization of superior horizons, in 2007-2008 period. The separation, differentiation and determination of cadmium and lead speciation forms was done by combined solid-liquid sequential extraction (SPE) and extraction in aqueous polymer-inorganic salt two-phase systems (ABS) procedure, presented in some of ours previous studies. After extraction, the total contents of the two heavy metals and fractions from these differential bonded by mineral and organic components of hortic antrosol have been determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. The specific interaction mechanisms of Cd and Pb with organic-mineral components of

  7. Order-disorder transition in conflicting dynamics leading to rank-frequency generalized beta distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Martinez, R.; Martinez-Mekler, G.; Cocho, G.

    2011-01-01

    The behavior of rank-ordered distributions of phenomena present in a variety of fields such as biology, sociology, linguistics, finance and geophysics has been a matter of intense research. Often power laws have been encountered; however, their validity tends to hold mainly for an intermediate range of rank values. In a recent publication (Martínez-Mekler et al., 2009 [7]), a generalization of the functional form of the beta distribution has been shown to give excellent fits for many systems of very diverse nature, valid for the whole range of rank values, regardless of whether or not a power law behavior has been previously suggested. Here we give some insight on the significance of the two free parameters which appear as exponents in the functional form, by looking into discrete probabilistic branching processes with conflicting dynamics. We analyze a variety of realizations of these so-called expansion-modification models first introduced by Wentian Li (1989) [10]. We focus our attention on an order-disorder transition we encounter as we vary the modification probability p. We characterize this transition by means of the fitting parameters. Our numerical studies show that one of the fitting exponents is related to the presence of long-range correlations exhibited by power spectrum scale invariance, while the other registers the effect of disordering elements leading to a breakdown of these properties. In the absence of long-range correlations, this parameter is sensitive to the occurrence of unlikely events. We also introduce an approximate calculation scheme that relates this dynamics to multinomial multiplicative processes. A better understanding through these models of the meaning of the generalized beta-fitting exponents may contribute to their potential for identifying and characterizing universality classes.

  8. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76-98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44-1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28-14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11-99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb-phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08-80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22-77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36-39.37% and 27.35-46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb-phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars in root vegetable

  9. Transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of lead in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Shen, Hong; Xu, Liang; Zhu, Xianwen; Li, Chao; Zhang, Wei; Xie, Yang; Gong, Yiqin; Liu, Liwang

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb), a ubiquitous but highly toxic heavy metal (HM), is harmful to human health through various pathways including by ingestion of contaminated vegetables. Radish is a worldwide root vegetable crop with significant health and nutritional benefits. However, little is known about Pb translocation and distribution within radish plants after its uptake by the roots. In this study, Pb stress was induced using Pb(NO3)2 in hydroponic culture, aiming to characterize the transport, ultrastructural localization, and distribution of chemical forms of Pb in different tissues of radish. The results showed that the majority of Pb (85.76–98.72%) was retained in underground organs including lateral roots, root heads and taproot skins, while a small proportion of Pb was absorbed by root flesh (0.44–1.56%) or transported to the shoot (1.28–14.24%). A large proportion of Pb (74.11–99.30%) was integrated with undissolved Pb oxalate, protein and pectates forming Pb–phosphate complexes. Moreover, a low-Pb-accumulating line of radish showed a higher proportion of Pb in water-soluble form compared with a high-Pb-accumulating line. Subcellular distribution analysis showed that a large proportion of Pb was bound to cell wall fraction in lateral roots (71.08–80.40%) and taproot skin (46.22–77.94%), while the leaves and roots had 28.36–39.37% and 27.35–46.51% of Pb stored in the soluble fraction, respectively. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed Pb precipitates in intercellular space, cell wall, plasma lemma and vacuoles. Fractionation results also showed the accumulation of Pb on the cell wall, intercellular space and vacuole, and low uptake of undissolved Pb oxalate, protein, pectates and Pb–phosphate complexes, which might be due to low transport efficiency and Pb tolerance of radish. These findings would provide insight into molecular mechanism of Pb uptake and translocation in radish and facilitate development of low-Pb-content cultivars

  10. Lead distribution in the saliva and blood fractions of rats after intraperitoneal injections.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, N; P'an, A Y

    1984-07-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 1, 2 or 3 i.p. injections of lead acetate (100 mg/kg) and sacrificed 24 h, 3 days, 7 days, 14 days and 21 days after the last injection. Lead concentration was determined by flameless AAS technique in whole blood, plasma, plasma filtrate, saliva and submaxillary gland tissue. The concentration of lead in saliva was about 5% of whole blood lead concentration and around 61% of plasma filtrate lead level. Saliva lead concentration was significantly related both to whole blood lead concentration and plasma filtrate lead concentration (r = 0.78, P less than 0.001; r = 0.80, P = 0.001 respectively). Lead was present in the submaxillary gland tissue; the amount of lead increased with increasing amounts administered.

  11. Spatial distribution, health risk assessment, and isotopic composition of lead contamination of street dusts in different functional areas of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Lanfang; Gao, Bo; Wei, Xin; Xu, Dongyu; Gao, Li

    2016-02-01

    Street dusts from heavy density traffic area (HDTA), tourism area (TA), residential area (RA), and educational area (EA) in Beijing were collected to explore the distribution, health risk assessment, and source of lead (Pb). The average concentration of Pb in TA was the highest among the four areas. Compared with other cities, Pb concentrations in Beijing were generally at moderate or low levels. The average value (14.05) of ecological risk index (RI) indicated that Pb was at "low pollution risk" status. According to the calculation on hazard index (HI), the ingestion of dust particles of children and adults was the major route of exposure to street dusts in four studied areas, followed by dermal contact. The lower values of HI than 1 further suggested that non-carcinogenic risks of Pb in the street dusts were in the low range. Comparing (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(207)Pb ratios of street dusts with other environmental samples, it was found that atmospheric deposition of coal combustion dust might be the main pathway for anthropogenic Pb input to the street dusts in four functional areas.

  12. Distributions of selenium, iodine, lead, thorium and uranium in Japanese river waters

    SciTech Connect

    Tagami, K.; Uchida, S.

    2007-07-01

    Long-lived radionuclides released from nuclear facilities, such as deep underground disposal facilities, could reach humans through several transfer paths in the environment. Uses of ground water and river water for agricultural field irrigation and for drinking water are important paths. In order to understand behavior of long-lived radionuclides in the terrestrial water environment, we carried out a natural analogue study, that is, measurement of selenium (Se), iodine (I), lead (Pb), thorium (Th) and uranium (U) concentrations in 45 Japanese rivers at 10 sampling points from the upper stream to the river mouth for each river. Geometric mean concentrations for Se, I, Pb, Th and U were 0.057, 1.4, 0.039, 0.0055, 0.0109 ng/mL, respectively. Distribution patterns from upper stream to river mouth were different by elements, for instance, the concentrations of I, Th and U increased when the sampling points were nearer the river mouth, while that of Se were almost constant. For Pb, the highest value was observed in the middle part of each river in many cases. (authors)

  13. Derivation of soil thresholds for lead applying species sensitivity distribution: A case study for root vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changfeng; Ma, Yibing; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2016-02-13

    The combination of food quality standard and soil-plant transfer models can be used to derive critical limits of heavy metals for agricultural soils. In this paper, a robust methodology is presented, taking the variations of plant species and cultivars and soil properties into account to derive soil thresholds for lead (Pb) applying species sensitivity distribution (SSD). Three species of root vegetables (four cultivars each for radish, carrot, and potato) were selected to investigate their sensitivity differences for accumulating Pb through greenhouse experiment. Empirical soil-plant transfer model was developed from carrot New Kuroda grown in twenty-one soils covering a wide variation in physicochemical properties and was used to normalize the bioaccumulation data of non-model cultivars. The relationship was then validated to be reliable and would not cause over-protection using data from field experimental sites and published independent studies. The added hazardous concentration for protecting 95% of the cultivars not exceeding the food quality standard (HC5add) were then calculated from the Burr Type III function fitted SSD curves. The derived soil Pb thresholds based on the added risk approach (total soil concentration subtracting the natural background part) were presented as continuous or scenario criteria depending on the combination of soil pH and CEC.

  14. Anisotropic Charge Distribution and Anisotropic van der Waals Radius Leading to Intriguing Anisotropic Noncovalent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hahn; Van Dung Doan; Cho, Woo Jong; Madhav, Miriyala Vijay; Kim, Kwang S.

    2014-01-01

    Although group (IV–VII) nonmetallic elements do not favor interacting with anionic species, there are counterexamples including the halogen bond. Such binding is known to be related to the charge deficiency because of the adjacent atom's electron withdrawing effect, which creates σ/π-holes at the bond-ends. However, a completely opposite behavior is exhibited by N2 and O2, which have electrostatically positive/negative character around cylindrical-bond-surface/bond-ends. Inspired by this, here we elucidate the unusual features and origin of the anisotropic noncovalent interactions in the ground and excited states of the 2nd and 3rd row elements belonging to groups IV–VII. The anisotropy in charge distributions and van der Waals radii of atoms in such molecular systems are scrutinized. This provides an understanding of their unusual molecular configuration, binding and recognition modes involved in new types of molecular assembling and engineering. This work would lead to the design of intriguing molecular systems exploiting anisotropic noncovalent interactions. PMID:25059645

  15. Spatial distribution of the trace elements zinc, strontium and lead in human bone tissue☆

    PubMed Central

    Pemmer, B.; Roschger, A.; Wastl, A.; Hofstaetter, J.G.; Wobrauschek, P.; Simon, R.; Thaler, H.W.; Roschger, P.; Klaushofer, K.; Streli, C.

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements are chemical elements in minute quantities, which are known to accumulate in the bone. Cortical and trabecular bones consist of bone structural units (BSUs) such as osteons and bone packets of different mineral content and are separated by cement lines. Previous studies investigating trace elements in bone lacked resolution and therefore very little is known about the local concentration of zinc (Zn), strontium (Sr) and lead (Pb) in BSUs of human bone. We used synchrotron radiation induced micro X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR μ-XRF) in combination with quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) to determine the distribution and accumulation of Zn, Sr, and Pb in human bone tissue. Fourteen human bone samples (10 femoral necks and 4 femoral heads) from individuals with osteoporotic femoral neck fractures as well as from healthy individuals were analyzed. Fluorescence intensity maps were matched with BE images and correlated with calcium (Ca) content. We found that Zn and Pb had significantly increased levels in the cement lines of all samples compared to the surrounding mineralized bone matrix. Pb and Sr levels were found to be correlated with the degree of mineralization. Interestingly, Zn intensities had no correlation with Ca levels. We have shown for the first time that there is a differential accumulation of the trace elements Zn, Pb and Sr in BSUs of human bone indicating different mechanisms of accumulation. PMID:23932972

  16. Morphological Analysis and Solubility of Lead Particles: Effect of Phosphates and Implications to Drinking Water Distribution

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective • Describe lead synthesis experiments conduced to model the impact of water quality on lead particles and solubility • Develop a model system that can be used for lead solubility studies • Understand the how phosphates impact the morphology and solubility transfo...

  17. [Effect of silicon on translocation and morphology distribution of lead in soil-tobacco system].

    PubMed

    Yan, Yi-Hua; Zheng, Zi-Cheng; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Wang, Yong

    2014-10-01

    Taking tobacco as test material, a pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of silicon on translocation of lead (Pb) form soil to tobacco in order to explore effective measures for reducing Pb concentration in tobacco leaf. The results showed that silicon application promoted the transformation of exchangeable Pb into Fe-Mn oxide-bound Pb in non-rhizospheric soil, and into Fe-Mn oxide-bound Pb and residual Pb in rhizospheric soil, which decreased the availability and mobility of Pb in the soil. Silicon application significantly reduced the Pb uptake of tobacco, with the content of Pb being decreased by 6.5% to 44.0% in tobacco, and 3.1% to 60.4% in leaf. Silicon application promoted the transformation of ethanol-extractable, H2O-extractable Pb and NaCl-extractable Pb into HCl-extractable Pb and residual Pb in root, stem and leaf of tobacco, which reduced the toxicity and mobility of Pb in tobacco. Silicon restricted the transportation of Pb from soil to tobacco leaf by reducing the mobility index of Pb from soil to root and the mobility index of Pb from root to stem in soil-tobacco system. Meanwhile, the mobility index of Pb from stem to leaf in soil-tobacco system showed a rising-and-falling trend with the increase of Pb application. Silicon inhibited the Pb migration from soil to tobacco leaf by reducing availability of Pb, mitigating toxicity of Pb to tobacco, and changing the distribution of Pb forms in tobacco, consequently reducing Pb concentration of tobacco leaf. These results demonstrated silicon application could be effective in reducing translocation of Pb from soil to tobacco.

  18. Geomorphology of anthropogenic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Giulia; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The construction of urban areas and the development of road networks leave a significant signature on the Earth surface, providing a geomorphological evidence to support the idea that humans are nowadays a geomorphic agent having deep effects on the morphological organization of the landscape. The reconstruction or identification of anthropogenic topographies, therefore, provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to the landscape systems in the Anthropocene. Following this research line, the present study tests the effectiveness of a recently published topographic index, the Slope Local Length of Autocorrelation (SLLAC, Sofia et al. 2014) to portrait anthropogenic geomorphology, focusing in particular on road network density, and urban complexity (UCI). At first, the research considers the increasing of anthropic structures and the resulting changes in the SLLAC and in two derived parameters (mean SLLAC per km2 and SLLAC roughness, or Surface Peak Curvature -Spc). As a second step, considering the SLLAC derived indices, the anthropogenic geomorphology is automatically depicted using a k-means clustering algorithm. In general, the increasing of road network density or of the UCI is positively correlated to the mean SLLAC per km2, while the Spc is negatively correlated to the increasing of the anthropic structures. Areas presenting different road network organization are effectively captured considering multiple combinations of the defined parameters. Landscapes with small scattered towns, and a network with long roads in a dendritic shape (with hierarchical branching) are characterized simultaneously by high mean SLLAC and low Spc. Large and complex urban areas served by rectilinear networks with numerous short straight lines and right angles, have either a maximized mean SLLAC or a minimized Spc or both. In all cases, the anthropogenic landscape identified by the procedure is comparable to the ones identified manually from orthophoto, with the

  19. Next-to-leading order QCD predictions for Z,{gamma}*+3-jet distributions at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, C. F.; Bern, Z.; Ita, H.; Dixon, L. J.; Gleisberg, T.; Febres Cordero, F.; Forde, D.; Kosower, D. A.; Maitre, D.

    2010-10-01

    Using BlackHat in conjunction with SHERPA, we have computed next-to-leading order QCD predictions for a variety of distributions in Z,{gamma}*+1, 2, 3-jet production at the Tevatron, where the Z boson or off-shell photon decays into an electron-positron pair. We find good agreement between the next-to-leading order results for jet p{sub T} distributions and measurements by CDF and D0. We also present jet-production ratios, or probabilities of finding one additional jet. As a function of vector-boson p{sub T}, the ratios have distinctive features which we describe in terms of a simple model capturing leading logarithms and phase-space and parton-distribution-function suppression.

  20. Comparative Climate Responses of Anthropogenic Greenhouse Gases, All Major Aerosol Components, Black Carbon, and Methane, Accounting for the Evolution of the Aerosol Mixing State and of Clouds/Precipitation from Multiple Aerosol Size Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, M. Z.

    2005-12-01

    Several modeling studies to date have simulated the global climate response of anthropogenic greenhouse gases and bulk (non-size-resolved) sulfate or generic aerosol particles together, but no study has examined the climate response of greenhouse gases simultaneously with all major size- and composition resolved aerosol particle components. Such a study is important for improving our understanding of the effects of anthropogenic pollutants on climate. Here, the GATOR-GCMOM model is used to study the global climate response of (a) all major greenhouse gases and size-resolved aerosol components, (b) all major greenhouse gases alone, (c) fossil-fuel soot (black carbon, primary organic matter, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate), and (d) methane. Aerosol components treated in all simulations included water, black carbon, primary organic carbon, secondary organic carbon, sulfuric acid, bisulfate, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, hydrogen ion, soil dust, and pollen/spores. Fossil-fuel soot (FFS) was emitted into its own size distribution. All other components, including biofuel and biomass soot, sea-spray, soil dust, etc., were emitted into a second distribution (MIX). The FFS distribution grew by condensation of secondary organic matter and sulfuric acid, hydration of water, and dissolution of nitric acid, ammonia, and hydrochloric acid. It self-coagulated and heterocoagulated with the MIX distribution, which also grew by condensation, hydration, and dissolution. Treatment of separate distributions for FFS allowed FFS to evolve from an external mixture to an internal mixture. In both distributions, black carbon was treated as a core component for optical calculations. Both aerosol distributions served as CCN during explicit size-resolved cloud formation. The resulting clouds grew by coagulation and condensation, coagulated with interstitial aerosol particles, and fell to the surface as rain and snow, carrying aerosol constituents with them. Thus, cloud

  1. Experimental Pressure Distributions over Wing Tips at Mach Number 1.9 I : Wing Tip with Subsonic Leading Edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jagger, James M; Mirels, Harold

    1949-01-01

    An investigation was conducted at a Mach number of 1.91 to determine spanwise pressure distribution over a wing tip in a region influenced by a sharp subsonic leading edge swept back at 70 degrees. Except for pressure distribution on the top surface in the immediate vicinity of the subsonic leading edge, the maximum difference between linearized theory and experimental data was 2 1/2 percent (of free-stream dynamic pressure) for angles of attack up to 4 degrees and 7 percent for angles of attack up to 8 degrees. Pressures on the top surface nearest the subsonic edge indicated local expansions beyond values predicted by linearized theory.

  2. Transverse parton distribution functions at next-to-next-to-leading order: the quark-to-quark case.

    PubMed

    Gehrmann, Thomas; Lübbert, Thomas; Yang, Li Lin

    2012-12-14

    We present a calculation of the perturbative quark-to-quark transverse parton distribution function at next-to-next-to-leading order based on a gauge invariant operator definition. We demonstrate for the first time that such a definition works beyond the first nontrivial order. We extract from our calculation the coefficient functions relevant for a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading logarithmic Q(T) resummation in a large class of processes at hadron colliders.

  3. Effect of calcium on lead in soft-water distribution systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bisogni, J.J. Jr.; Nassar, I.S.; Menegaux, A.M.

    2000-05-01

    Meeting the lead rule action level for drinking water can be difficult for soft-water systems. One concern in these systems is the formation of particulate or colloidal lead that is difficult to remove from the aqueous phase. In this preliminary study, batch and pipe-loop systems are used to assess the effect of calcium addition on lowering the concentration of particulate or colloidal lead. The addition of calcium at levels as low as 5 mg/L reduced zeta potential of lead-bound colloids and in some cases resulted in a reduction of total Pb concentration.

  4. Pan-Arctic wintertime lead frequency and distribution from thermal infrared satellite imagery, 2003-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmes, S.; Heinemann, G.

    2015-12-01

    Polynyas and leads are key elements of the wintertime Arctic sea-ice cover. They play a crucial role in surface heat loss, potential ice formation and consequently in the seasonal sea-ice budget. We apply and evaluate lead segmentation techniques based on sea-ice surface temperatures as measured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). A fuzzy cloud artifact filter is implemented to mitigate cloud artifacts and the associated potential misclassification of leads. We present quasi-daily pan-Arctic lead maps and monthly lead frequencies for the months of January to April from 2003 to 2015 at a spatial resolution of less than 2 km². An investigation of the inter-annual regional lead dynamics reveals pronounced patterns with significant variability mainly in the marginal ice zone and in the Beaufort Sea and with an obvious impact of bathymetry in proximity to shelf breaks (Fig. 1). The quasi-daily lead product can be used to deduct the occurrence, structure and dynamics of wintertime sea-ice leads and to assess seasonal divergence patterns of the Arctic Ocean.

  5. Anthropogenic modification of the oceans.

    PubMed

    Tyrrell, Toby

    2011-03-13

    Human activities are altering the ocean in many different ways. The surface ocean is warming and, as a result, it is becoming more stratified and sea level is rising. There is no clear evidence yet of a slowing in ocean circulation, although this is predicted for the future. As anthropogenic CO(2) permeates into the ocean, it is making sea water more acidic, to the detriment of surface corals and probably many other calcifiers. Once acidification reaches the deep ocean, it will become more corrosive to CaCO(3), leading to a considerable reduction in the amount of CaCO(3) accumulating on the deep seafloor. There will be a several thousand-year-long interruption to CaCO(3) sedimentation at many points on the seafloor. A curious feedback in the ocean, carbonate compensation, makes it more likely that global warming and sea-level rise will continue for many millennia after CO(2) emissions cease.

  6. Distributed Leadership in Action: Leading High-Performing Leadership Teams in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Tony; Glover, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Heroic models of leadership based on the role of the principal have been supplemented by an emerging recognition of the value of "distributed leadership". The work of effective senior leadership teams (SLTs) is an important manifestation of distributed leadership, but there has been only limited research addressing the relationship…

  7. Fostering the Capacity for Distributed Leadership: A Post-Heroic Approach to Leading School Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klar, Hans W.; Huggins, Kristin Shawn; Hammonds, Hattie L.; Buskey, Frederick C.

    2016-01-01

    Principals are being encouraged to distribute leadership to increase schools' organizational capacities, and enhance student growth and learning. Extant research on distributed leadership practices provides an emerging basis for adopting such approaches. Yet, relatively less attention has been paid to examining the principal's role in fostering…

  8. LOW SUBSONIC PRESSURE DISTRIBUTIONS ON THREE RIGID WINGS SIMULATING PARAGLIDERS WITH VARIED CANOPY CURVATURE AND LEADING-EDGE SWEEP

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An investigation was made in the Langley 7- by 10-foot transonic tunnel to determine the subsonic pressure distribution of three paraglider models...through an angle-of-attack range from 0 to 74 degrees. Three rigid meta models simulated a 45 degrees basic flat planform paraglider with leading-edge

  9. The study of lead content distribution in Chinese seafood and its oral bioavailability in mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yongpeng; Zhu, Zhipeng; Hao, Xin; He, Long; He, Weibiao; Chen, Jianmin

    2016-01-01

    Using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), the lead concentrations and isotope ratios of 32 kinds of seafood collected from local markets of China were measured. Among these seafoods, the highest concentrations of lead were found in Patinopecten yessoensis and Mugil cephalus, which were 2.94 ± 0.40 and 2.02 ± 0.26 μg g(-1) of dry weight, respectively. Pb concentration was found to be higher in benthic fish than in other fish. The result indicated that lead concentrations in some seafood exceeded the maximum levels of Pb in foods proposed by European Commission (EC). Nine species of cooked seafood were chosen to feed mice (35-38 g). The result showed that Pb oral bioavailability of cooked seafood in vivo was below 10%. Furthermore, oral bioavailability of the same lead-containing seafood increased greatly in pregnant mice compared with non-pregnant mice.

  10. Distribution and transport of selected anthropogenic organic compounds on Mississippi River suspended sediment (U.S.A.), May/June 1988

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, C.E.; Pereira, W.E.; Leiker, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    The distribution and transport of selected hydrophobic halogenated organic compounds on suspended sediment from the lower Mississippi River were determined using discharge-weighted sampling with concurrent discharge measurements. Trends in compound concentration from upstream to downstream and the effects of selected tributaries were determined. The compounds identified on the suspended sediment include pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dacthal, chlordane (trans-), nonachlor (trans-), chlorthalonil, and penta-, hexa-, hepta- and octachlorobiphenyls. Loads of most of the compounds increased from upstream to downstream on the main stem of the Mississippi River. Of the tributaries studied, the Ohio River had the most significant effect on the loads.The distribution and transport of selected hydrophobic halogenated organic compounds on suspended sediment from the lower Mississippi River were determined using discharge-weighted sampling with concurrent discharge measurements. Trends in compound concentration from upstream to downstream and the effects of selected tributaries were determined. The compounds identified on the suspended sediment include pentachlorobenzene, hexachlorobenzene, pentachloroanisole, dacthal, chlordane (trans-), nonachlor (trans-), chlorthalonil, and penta-, hexa-, hepta- and octachlorobiphenyls. Loads of most of the compounds increased from upstream to downstream on the main stem of the Mississippi River. Of the tributaries studied, the Ohio River had the most significant effect on the loads.

  11. [Regularities of lateral distribution of uranium and thorium decay series radionuclides in the anthropogenically changed soils from the area of radium production waste storage].

    PubMed

    Evseeva, T I; Belykh, E S; Maĭstrenko, T A; Geras'kin, S A; Taskaev, A I; Vakhrusheva, O M

    2012-01-01

    Cartographical investigations of the territory of radium production waste storage has shown some changes in lateral differentiation of radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series to occur during 27 years (1981-2008). Those changes are caused mostly by flat denudation typical for fluvial terrace. At present radionuclides of uranium and thorium decay series are concentrated mostly in flood lands and relief depressions. At the same time, decrease in the radionuclide activity concentration in 0-20 cm soil layer is observed with changes in lateral distribution. Total stocks of 226Ra, 210Pb and 210Po within catena soils studied in the northern and southern parts of the waste storage decreased 3-6 times, 238U - 2 times, and did not significantly change in case of 232Th during 27 years. Nonetheless, most of the samples studied are referred to radioactive waste both according to Russian standards (SPORO-2002) and IAEA safety norms (IAEA, 2004).

  12. Revisiting the Benford law: When the Benford-like distribution of leading digits in sets of numerical data is expectable?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whyman, G.; Ohtori, N.; Shulzinger, E.; Bormashenko, Ed.

    2016-11-01

    The Benford law states that the frequencies of decimal digits at the first place of numbers corresponding to various kinds of statistical or experimental data are not equal changing from 0.3 for 1 to 0.04 for 9. The corresponding frequencies' distribution is described by the logarithmic function. As is shown in the present article, the Benford distribution is a particular case of a more general mathematical statement. Namely, if a function describing the dependence between two measurable quantities has a positive second derivative, then the mentioned above frequencies decrease for digits from 1 to 9. The exact Benford distribution is valid for the exponential function only. Explicit expressions for frequencies of leading digits are obtained and specified for the power, logarithmic, and tangent functions as examples. The kinematic experiment was performed to illustrate the above results. Also the tabulated data on thermal conductivities of liquids confirm the proposed formula for frequencies' distribution.

  13. Uptake of anthropogenic CO/sub 2/ by lateral transport models of the ocean based on the distribution of bomb-produced /sup 14/C

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, T.H.

    1986-01-01

    The pattern of global water column inventories of bomb-produced /sup 14/C suggests that a sizeable portion of bomb /sup 14/C that entered the Antarctic, northern Pacific, and tropical oceans has been transported to adjacent temperate regions. Models of lateral transport of surface water in the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans are based on this distribution pattern. Upwelling of bomb-/sup 14/C-free water from below takes place in the Antarctic, northern Pacific, and tropical regions; downwelling of surface water occurs in the temperate oceans and northern Atlantic. Uptake of excess CO/sub 2/ by these models is calculated using the observed Mauna Loa pCO/sub 2/ record as an input function. Results indicate that 35% of fossil fuel CO/sub 2/ is taken up by these model oceans during the period 1958-1980. Considering the observed airborne fraction of 0.55, it appears that ca 10% of the global fossil fuel CO/sub 2/ is still missing.

  14. Diagnosis and Design for School Improvement: Using a Distributed Perspective to Lead and Manage Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spillane, James P.; Coldren, Amy Franz

    2011-01-01

    This practical resource highlights the critical importance of diagnosis and design in the work of leading and managing for school improvement. The authors maintain that today's school leaders and managers, under intense pressure to improve student learning, cannot simply adopt and implement pre-packaged reforms manufactured outside the school.…

  15. Detection of anthropogenic dust using CALIPSO lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Chen, B.; Nasiri, S. L.

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic dusts are those produced by human activities on disturbed soils, which are mainly cropland, pasture, and urbanized regions and are a subset of the total dust load which includes natural sources from desert regions. Our knowledge of anthropogenic dusts is still very limited due to a lack of data on source distribution and magnitude, and on their effect on radiative forcing which may be comparable to other anthropogenic aerosols. To understand the contribution of anthropogenic dust to the total global dust load and its effect on radiative transfer and climate, it is important to identify them from total dust. In this study, a new technique for distinguishing anthropogenic dust from natural dust is proposed by using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) dust and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height retrievals along with a land use dataset. Using this technique, the global distribution of dust is analyzed and the relative contribution of anthropogenic and natural dust sources to regional and global emissions are estimated. Results reveal that local anthropogenic dust aerosol due to human activity, such as agriculture, industrial activity, transportation, and overgrazing, accounts for about 25% of the global continental dust load. Of these anthropogenic dust aerosols, more than 53% come from semi-arid and semi-wet regions. Annual mean anthropogenic dust column burden (DCB) values range from 0.42 g m-2 with a maximum in India to 0.12 g m-2 with a minimum in North America. A better understanding of anthropogenic dust emission will enable us to focus on human activities in these critical regions and with such knowledge we will be better able to improve global dust models and to explore the effects of anthropogenic emission on radiative forcing, climate change and air quality in the future.

  16. Lead in the environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pattee, O.H.; Pain, D.J.; Hoffman, David J.; Rattner, Barnett A.; Burton, G. Allen; Cairns, John=

    2003-01-01

    Anthropogenic uses of lead have probably altered its availability and environmental distribution more than any other toxic element. Consequently, lead concentrations in many living organisms may be approaching thresholds of toxicity for the adverse effects of lead. Such thresholds are difficult to define, as they vary with the chemical and physical form of lead, exposure regime, other elements present and also vary both within and between species. The technological capability to accurately quantify low lead concentrations has increased over the last decade, and physiological and behavioral effects have been measured in wildlife with tissue lead concentrations below those previously considered safe for humans.s.236 Consequently. lead criteria for the protection of wildlife and human health are frequently under review, and 'thresholds' of lead toxicity are being reconsidered. Proposed lead criteria for the protection of natural resources have been reviewed by Eisler. Uptake of lead by plants is limited by its generally low availability in soils and sediments, and toxicity may be limited by storage mechanisms and its apparently limited translocation within most plants. Lead does not generally accumulate within the foliar parts of plants, which limits its transfer to higher trophic levels. Although lead may concentrate in plant and animal tissues, no evidence of biomagnification exists. Acid deposition onto surface waters and soils with low buffering capacity may influence the availability of lead for uptake by plants and animals, and this may merit investigation at susceptible sites. The biological significance of chronic low-level lead exposure to wildlife is sometimes difficult to quantify. Animals living in urban environments or near point sources of lead emission are inevitably subject to greater exposure to lead and enhanced risk of lead poisoning. Increasingly strict controls on lead emissions in many countries have reduced exposure to lead from some sources

  17. THE OCCURRENCE OF CONTAMINANT ACCUMULATION IN LEAD PIPE SCALES FROM DOMESTIC DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants, such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could result in elevated levels at consumers’ taps, and current monitoring practices d...

  18. A Comparison of the Laplace Distribution with an Empirical Model of D062 Demand in Lead Time.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-01

    D062) are based on formu- las originally developed by Presutti and Trepp (1970). These authors consider the problem of determining order quantities and...Presutti and Trepp + -.. .5 Ayb*,OMl ; r4g that demand in a lead time is normally distrib- uted. Howeve;I they then utilize the Laplace distribution to A...i.e. k denotes the number of standard deviations that the demand value x exceeds the expected demand in a lead time. Given (1), - Presutti and Trepp

  19. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    PubMed

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-06

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system.

  20. Low Subsonic Pressure Distributions on Three Rigid Wings Simulating Paragliders with Varied Canopy Curvature and Leading-Edge Sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fournier, Paul G.; Bell, B. Ann

    1961-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley 7- by 10-foot transonic tunnel to determine the subsonic pressure distribution of three paraglider models through an angle-of-attack range from 0 deg to 74 deg. Three rigid metal models simulated a 45 deg basic flat planform paraglider with leading-edge sweep angles of 61.6 deg, 52.5 deg, and 48.6 deg. These configurations resulted in one-half-circle, one-third-circle, and one-quarter-circle semispan trailing-edge curvature when viewed from downstream. The results of the investigation are presented as curves of chordwise pressure distributions at four spanwise locations.

  1. Distribution of blood lead levels in a birth cohort of New Zealanders at age 21.

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, J P; Williams, S M; Heydon, J L; Walmsley, T A; Menkes, D B

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about lead exposure in the general population of young adults. In this study, whole blood lead concentration (PbB) was determined in a sample of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a well-documented birth cohort of New Zealanders aged 21 years in 1993-1994. PbB in those who consented to venipuncture at 21 years of age (n = 779; 411 males, 368 females) was compared to PbB for the same cohort at age 11 years. The PbB at age 21 ranged from 0.4 to 56 micrograms/dl with a geometric mean of 4.5 micrograms/dl (95% CI, 4.3-4.7 micrograms/dl). Only three individuals had a PbB above 30 micrograms/dl. Males had significantly higher PbB than females (geometric mean 6.0 vs. 3.2 micrograms/dl; p < 0.0001). The PbB at age 21 was 53% lower than in the same individuals at age 11 (geometric mean 4.8 vs. 10.2 micrograms/dl; p < 0.001; n = 480) and the correlation between corresponding values was weak (r = 0.19; p < 0.001). PbB at age 21 showed significant associations with high risk occupational activities, recreational exposure, domicile close to a main road, smoking, and male sex. Blood lead concentrations continue to fall in New Zealand, but occupational and recreational activities remain a significant source of lead exposure. Images Figure 1. PMID:9118875

  2. X7R Lead-Complex Perovskite Dielectrics with Inhomogeneous Compositional Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchikoba, Fumio; Ito, Takashi; Nakajima, Shigeyuki

    1995-05-01

    Excess- WO3 Pb(Mg1/2W1/2)O3-PbTiO3-Pb(Ni2/3Nb2/3)O3 polycrystalline dielectric material was investigated. This material met EIA X7R specifications (the change of the capacitance is less than 15% over the temperature range from -55° C to +125° C). The material showed inhomogeneous compositional distributions within grains that consisted of three main parts, each possessing a different temperature dependence of the dielectric constant. It was found that the flat-temperature dependence of the dielectric constant in this system could be attributed to this inhomogeneous compositional distribution. Using this material, multilayer ceramic capacitors were fabricated.

  3. The leading twist light-cone distribution amplitudes for the S-wave and P-wave Bc mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ji; Yang, Deshan

    2016-07-01

    The light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs) serve as important nonperturbative inputs for the study of hard exclusive processes. In this paper, we calculate ten LCDAs at twist-2 for the S-wave and P-wave B c mesons up to the next-to-leading order (NLO) of the strong coupling α s and leading order of the velocity expansion. Each one of these ten LCDAs is expressed as a product of a perturbatively calculable distribution and a universal NRQCD matrix-element. By use of the spin symmetry, only two NRQCD matrix-elements will be involved. The reduction of the number of non-perturbative inputs will improve the predictive power of collinear factorization.

  4. Embossed-grating lead chalcogenide buried-waveguide distributed-feedback lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Fach, M.A.; Boettner, H.; Schlereth, K.H.; Tacke, M. )

    1994-02-01

    The successful preparation and mode behavior analysis of buried double-heterostructure distributed-feedback (DFB) PbEuSe lasers using an embossing technique for the DFB submicrometer grating is reported here for the first time. The submicrometer grating was embossed with a silicon master grating. By the analysis of the mode spectra using a transfer matrix method, it was possible to distinguish precisely different positions of the laser facets due to the accidental cleaving relatively to the submicrometer grating.

  5. The Influence of Hydrothermal Plumes on the Distribution of Anthropogenic Radionuclides Between the Particulate and Dissolved Phases: Results from U.S. Geotraces Equatorial Pacific Zonal Transect GP16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenna, T. C.; Villa Alfageme, M.; Casacuberta Arola, N.; Masque, P.

    2014-12-01

    Here we present and discuss the results from the analysis of samples from selected stations collected on the US GEOTRACES Equatorial Pacific Zonal Transect (GP16) completed in 2013. The section, between Peru and Tahiti, encompasses a range of processes that influence the supply, removal, and internal cycling of trace metals and offers the opportunity to gain a better understanding of the drivers of the transport and fate of contaminants in the ocean. The capability to analyze water and filtered particulate samples in the quantities available, allows us to determine the partitioning of selected radionuclides among dissolved and particulate forms (Kd) and estimate Pu-particulate fluxes. The overarching objective of our work is to determine the concentrations of several anthropogenic radionuclides, including 239Pu, 240Pu, 237Np, and 137Cs with sufficient resolution to define their basin-wide distributions in the Pacific Ocean. Data collected in the East Pacific Rise hydrothermal plume allows a discussion on the partitioning behavior of plutonium and neptunium.

  6. Lead distribution and possible sources along vertical zone spectrum of typical ecosystems in the Gongga Mountain, eastern Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ji; Tang, Ronggui; Sun, Shouqin; Yang, Dandan; She, Jia; Yang, Peijun

    2015-08-01

    A total of 383 samples from soil, plant, litterfall and precipitation in four typical ecosystems of Gongga Mountain were collected. Pb concentrations of samples were measured and analyzed. The results showed mean Pb concentrations in different soil layers were in the order of O > A > C, and mean Pb concentrations of the aboveground parts of plant was 3.60 ± 2.54 mg kg-1, with the minimum value of 0.77 mg kg-1 and the maximum value of 10.90 mg kg-1. Pb concentrations in soil's O-horizon and A-horizon showed a downward trend with increasing elevation (the determination coefficient R2 was 0.9478, 0.7918 and 0.9759 respectively). In contrast to other soil layers, the level of Pb concentrations in O-horizon (incomplete decomposition) was significantly high. Litterfall decomposition, atmospheric deposition and the unique climate could be main factors leading high Pb accumulation in soil's O-horizon. What's more, significant correlation (R2 = 0.8126, P < 0.05) was found between Pb concentrations in fine roots and soil's A-horizon confirms that fine roots could adsorb and accumulate Pb materials in soil. In general, the fact that Pb inputted into the typical ecosystems in the Gongga Mountain via long-range transportation and deposition of the atmosphere from external Pb sources could be confirmed by the HYSPLIT model and the ratio of CPb/CAl in plants (leaves) and CPb/CAl in litterfall. The mining activities and increasing anthropogenic activities (tourism development) could be main sources of Pb in this area. In order to better understand Pb sources and eco-risks of these typical ecosystems, litterfall decomposition characteristics, biomass of productivity of forest ecosystem, Pb isotopic tracing among air mass, twigs, leaves, litterfall and O-horizon soil in this vertical belt should also be taken into consideration.

  7. Detecting anthropogenic footprints in sea level rise

    PubMed Central

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Marcos, Marta; Müller, Alfred; Zorita, Eduardo; Riva, Riccardo; Berk, Kevin; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    While there is scientific consensus that global and local mean sea level (GMSL and LMSL) has risen since the late nineteenth century, the relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic forcing remains unclear. Here we provide a probabilistic upper range of long-term persistent natural GMSL/LMSL variability (P=0.99), which in turn, determines the minimum/maximum anthropogenic contribution since 1900. To account for different spectral characteristics of various contributing processes, we separate LMSL into two components: a slowly varying volumetric component and a more rapidly changing atmospheric component. We find that the persistence of slow natural volumetric changes is underestimated in records where transient atmospheric processes dominate the spectrum. This leads to a local underestimation of possible natural trends of up to ∼1 mm per year erroneously enhancing the significance of anthropogenic footprints. The GMSL, however, remains unaffected by such biases. On the basis of a model assessment of the separate components, we conclude that it is virtually certain (P=0.99) that at least 45% of the observed increase in GMSL is of anthropogenic origin. PMID:26220773

  8. Discrete Step Sizes of Molecular Motors Lead to Bimodal Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions under Force.

    PubMed

    Vu, Huong T; Chakrabarti, Shaon; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D

    2016-08-12

    Fluctuations in the physical properties of biological machines are inextricably linked to their functions. Distributions of run lengths and velocities of processive molecular motors, like kinesin-1, are accessible through single-molecule techniques, but rigorous theoretical models for these probabilities are lacking. Here, we derive exact analytic results for a kinetic model to predict the resistive force (F)-dependent velocity [P(v)] and run length [P(n)] distribution functions of generic finitely processive molecular motors. Our theory quantitatively explains the zero force kinesin-1 data for both P(n) and P(v) using the detachment rate as the only parameter. In addition, we predict the F dependence of these quantities. At nonzero F, P(v) is non-Gaussian and is bimodal with peaks at positive and negative values of v, which is due to the discrete step size of kinesin-1. Although the predictions are based on analyses of kinesin-1 data, our results are general and should hold for any processive motor, which walks on a track by taking discrete steps.

  9. Discrete Step Sizes of Molecular Motors Lead to Bimodal Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions under Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Huong T.; Chakrabarti, Shaon; Hinczewski, Michael; Thirumalai, D.

    2016-08-01

    Fluctuations in the physical properties of biological machines are inextricably linked to their functions. Distributions of run lengths and velocities of processive molecular motors, like kinesin-1, are accessible through single-molecule techniques, but rigorous theoretical models for these probabilities are lacking. Here, we derive exact analytic results for a kinetic model to predict the resistive force (F )-dependent velocity [P (v )] and run length [P (n )] distribution functions of generic finitely processive molecular motors. Our theory quantitatively explains the zero force kinesin-1 data for both P (n ) and P (v ) using the detachment rate as the only parameter. In addition, we predict the F dependence of these quantities. At nonzero F , P (v ) is non-Gaussian and is bimodal with peaks at positive and negative values of v , which is due to the discrete step size of kinesin-1. Although the predictions are based on analyses of kinesin-1 data, our results are general and should hold for any processive motor, which walks on a track by taking discrete steps.

  10. Lead (Pb) and other metals in New York City community garden soils: factors influencing contaminant distributions

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Ribaudo, Lisa N.; Lopp, Donna M.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Lambert, Veronique T.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Stone, Edie B.; McBride, Murray B.

    2014-01-01

    Urban gardens provide affordable fresh produce to communities with limited access to healthy food but may also increase exposure to lead (Pb) and other soil contaminants. Metals analysis of 564 soil samples from 54 New York City (NYC) community gardens found at least one sample exceeding health-based guidance values in 70% of gardens. However, most samples (78%) did not exceed guidance values, and medians were generally below those reported in NYC soil and other urban gardening studies. Barium (Ba) and Pb most frequently exceeded guidance values and along with cadmium (Cd) were strongly correlated with zinc (Zn), a commonly measured nutrient. Principal component analysis suggested that contaminants varied independently from organic matter and geogenic metals. Contaminants were associated with visible debris and a lack of raised beds; management practices (e.g., importing uncontaminated soil) have likely reduced metals concentrations. Continued exposure reduction efforts would benefit communities already burdened by environmental exposures. PMID:24502997

  11. Lead (Pb) and other metals in New York City community garden soils: factors influencing contaminant distributions.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rebecca G; Spliethoff, Henry M; Ribaudo, Lisa N; Lopp, Donna M; Shayler, Hannah A; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Lambert, Veronique T; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Stone, Edie B; McBride, Murray B

    2014-04-01

    Urban gardens provide affordable fresh produce to communities with limited access to healthy food but may also increase exposure to lead (Pb) and other soil contaminants. Metals analysis of 564 soil samples from 54 New York City (NYC) community gardens found at least one sample exceeding health-based guidance values in 70% of gardens. However, most samples (78%) did not exceed guidance values, and medians were generally below those reported in NYC soil and other urban gardening studies. Barium (Ba) and Pb most frequently exceeded guidance values and along with cadmium (Cd) were strongly correlated with zinc (Zn), a commonly measured nutrient. Principal component analysis suggested that contaminants varied independently from organic matter and geogenic metals. Contaminants were associated with visible debris and a lack of raised beds; management practices (e.g., importing uncontaminated soil) have likely reduced metals concentrations. Continued exposure reduction efforts would benefit communities already burdened by environmental exposures.

  12. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2017-04-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  13. Distribution and residue level of mercury, cadmium and lead in Korean birds

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Doo Pyo; Honda, Katsuhisa; Tatsukawa, Ryo ); Won, Pyongoh )

    1989-10-01

    In Korea, some bird species have experienced a reduction in numbers since 1960's. This may be due to the destruction of habitats by industrialization, direct or indirect disturbance by people, and increase in the use of toxic contaminants such as organochlorine compounds and heavy metals. In particular, construction of heavy metals. In particular, construction of heavy industrial complexes during the last decade accelerated changes in the environmental quality, which might have influenced the wildlife populations in various ways. However, data on residue levels of contaminants such as organochlorine compounds and toxic metals in Korean birds are very scarce. The present investigation, which examines the tissue distribution of toxic metals (Hg, Cd and Pb) in 16 bird species in Korea, and the residue levels in relation to the feeding habits and habitats, was done in an attempt to learn the general levels of metal pollution in Korean birds.

  14. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2016-12-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  15. Altered Arachidonate Distribution in Macrophages from Caveolin-1 Null Mice Leading to Reduced Eicosanoid Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Astudillo, Alma M.; Pérez-Chacón, Gema; Meana, Clara; Balgoma, David; Pol, Albert; del Pozo, Miguel A.; Balboa, María A.; Balsinde, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    In this work we have studied the effect of caveolin-1 deficiency on the mechanisms that regulate free arachidonic acid (AA) availability. The results presented here demonstrate that macrophages from caveolin-1-deficient mice exhibit elevated fatty acid incorporation and remodeling and a constitutively increased CoA-independent transacylase activity. Mass spectrometry-based lipidomic analyses reveal stable alterations in the profile of AA distribution among phospholipids, manifested by reduced levels of AA in choline glycerophospholipids but elevated levels in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and phosphatidylinositol. Furthermore, macrophages from caveolin-1 null mice show decreased AA mobilization and prostaglandin E2 and LTB4 production upon cell stimulation. Collectively, these results provide insight into the role of caveolin-1 in AA homeostasis and suggest an important role for this protein in the eicosanoid biosynthetic response. PMID:21852231

  16. Supercube grains leading to a strong cube texture and a broad grain size distribution after recrystallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, F. X.; Zhang, Y. B.; Pantleon, W.; Jensen, D. Juul

    2015-08-01

    This work revisits the classical subject of recrystallization of cold-rolled copper. Two characterization techniques are combined: three-dimensional X-ray diffraction using synchrotron X-rays, which is used to measure the growth kinetics of individual grains in situ, and electron backscatter diffraction, which is used for statistical analysis of the microstructural evolution. As the most striking result, the strong cube texture after recrystallization is found to be related to a few super large cube grains, which were named supercube grains. These few supercube grains become large due to higher growth rates. However, most other cube grains do not grow preferentially. Because of the few supercube grains, the grain size distribution after recrystallization is broad. Reasons for the higher growth rates of supercube grains are discussed, and are related to the local deformed microstructure.

  17. Cultivar variations in cadmium and lead accumulation and distribution among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitao; Liang, Lichen; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution in agricultural soil in China has received public concern. The concept of low-accumulation cultivars (LACs) was proposed to minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain. Variations in Cd and Pb accumulation, distribution, and tolerance among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were studied in a hydroponic experiment to preliminary identify LACs of Cd or Pb for further field experiments. Of the 30 wheat cultivars tested, 27 and 26 wheat cultivars showed no effect of the Cd/Pb treatments on the shoot and root biomass, respectively. The results showed that the tested wheat cultivars had considerable tolerance to Cd and Pb toxicity. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in shoot Cd concentration were observed among the tested wheat cultivars under treatments Cd1.0 and Cd1.0Pb15, ranging from 0.91 to 6.74 and from 0.87 to 5.96, with the mean of 3.83 and 2.94 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in shoot Pb concentration were also observed among the tested wheat cultivars under treatments Pb15 and Cd1.0Pb15, ranging from 22.18 to 94.03 and from 18.30 to 76.88, with the mean of 50.38 and 41.20 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Low accumulation and internal distribution may both affect the cultivar differences in Cd and Pb accumulation in wheat shoots. Overall, wheat cultivars LF-13, LF-16, and LF-21 had lower Cd-accumulating abilities in their shoots. Wheat cultivars LF-13, LF-23, LF-26, and LF-27 showed low Pb accumulation characteristics in their shoots. An antagonistic interaction occurred between Cd and Pb in accumulation in wheat roots and shoots, which will be further studied in field experiments.

  18. A dynamic model for the global cycling of anthropogenic vanadium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hope, Bruce K.

    2008-12-01

    Vanadium is a major trace metal in fossil fuels. Combustion of residual fuel oils and coal in industrialized economies is recognized as the major source of anthropogenic vanadium. A dynamic mass balance model assessed the influence of anthropogenic inputs on the global distribution and cycling of vanadium between 1700 and 2400 assuming different fossil fuel consumption and V production (mining) scenarios. Anthropogenic V sources were divided into fossil fuel combustion, industrial, and domestic (nonindustrial human activity). By 2050, inputs of anthropogenic V could comprise ≈75-85% of those to the atmosphere, ≈21-33% to ocean dissolved, ≈9-13% to ocean particulate, and ≈28-43% of inputs to land; with between ≈61-64% of all anthropogenic inputs attributable to fossil fuel combustion. Contributions from combustion and industrial sources, although dominant relative to contributions from domestic sources between 1900 and 2100, were estimated to peak between 2000 and 2050. Accumulation of anthropogenic V on land and in the ocean apparently occurs because natural removal processes are unable to cope with increasing amounts and rates of anthropogenic contributions. Impacts or hazards associated with anthropogenic inputs are unlikely to be discernible or significant on a global scale, but may be measurable and meaningful at smaller scales (coastal waters, continental shelves, and bays), in the locality of specific sources, or given an unfavorable exposure scenario.

  19. Horizontal and vertical distribution of lead, cadmium, and zinc in farmlands around a lead-contaminated goldmine in Zamfara, northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Ibrahim; Abdu, Nafiu

    2014-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the vertical and horizontal distribution of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and zinc (Zn) in farmlands around a Pb-contaminated goldmine. Total concentrations of Pb and Cd recorded were at maximum values of 2,246.55 and 68.7 mg kg(-1), respectively; these are greater than the threshold values for Pb (300 mg kg(-1)) and Cd (3 mg kg(-1)). However, the concentration of Zn was within acceptable limits (300 mg kg(-1)). Down the soil profile, concentrations of Pb, Cd, and Zn showed two peaks; these were attributed to facilitated transport and ground-water enrichment. Incubation of the soil samples with glucose indicated low microbial process(es), which could be due to the increased levels of Pb and Cd. Factor analysis showed a close association of Pb and Cd with the soil-exchange complex with a possibility of these heavy metals replacing Ca and other divalent cations in the soil-exchange site. This will, however, increase the risk of Pb and Cd leaching and uptake by plants. Although the metals were more associated with resistant soil fraction (sand), which also indicates their geogenic origin, chemical weathering under the influence of pH could release these metals into the soil-exchange site.

  20. Investigation of air pollution and regional climate change due to anthropogenic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Makiko; Sano, Itaru; Mukai, Sonoyo

    2016-10-01

    Increased emissions of anthropogenic aerosols associated with economic growth can lead to increased concentrations of hazardous air pollutants. In particular, large cities in East Asia have experienced numerous heavy haze episodes. Atmospheric aerosol distributions in East Asia are complex, being influenced by both natural phenomena and human activity, with urban areas in particular being dominated by fine anthropogenic aerosols released from diesel-powered vehicles and industrial activity. In Japan, air pollution levels have been reduced; nevertheless, in recent years, there is increasing concern regarding air pollution caused by fine particulate matter. The origins of air pollution were examined, focusing on the comparison between aerosol properties observed from satellites and that on the ground. Because of their short life spans, concentrations of anthropogenic aerosols are highest over the source regions, and as a result, the climatic impacts of anthropogenic aerosols are also found to be most pronounced in these regions. In this study, aerosol impacts on climate are assessed by numerical model simulations. The direct effects of aerosols include reduced solar radiation, and hence a decrease in surface temperatures. In addition to these changes in the radiation budget, aerosols have a significant potential to change cloud and precipitation fields. These climatic responses to aerosols can manifest far from their source regions with high industrial activities.

  1. Researches on current distribution and plate conductivity of valve-regulated lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Tao; Ou, Wenjun; Feng, Bo; Huang, Binbin; Liu, Minyi; Zhao, Wenchao; Guo, Yonglang

    2012-07-01

    A cell with tall plates was simulated by two cells and the controlled voltage with time was successfully used to measure the response current-time curves. It indicates that the current in the upper part of the plate is much higher than that in the lower part in early stage of the discharge, but in late stage, it is reversed, especially at high discharge rates. The upper part of the plate has higher capacity and deeper depth of discharge (DOD) so that the active mass degrades and sheds more quickly in cyclic applications. In the initial discharge, the lead sulfate formed at positive plates produces the internal stress and enhances the electric connection among the active mass particles. But the positive active mass only contributes a little to the conductivity of plates. The negative active mass with a bit shrinking but no passivation has better conductivity than the expanded active mass. The higher ohmic polarization of the active mass appears at higher discharge rates, in the upper part of the plates, in the late stage of the discharge, in aged battery, especially for negative plates.

  2. Lead distributions and risks in New Orleans following Hurricanes Katrina and Rita.

    PubMed

    Abel, Michael T; Cobb, George P; Presley, Steven M; Ray, Gary L; Rainwater, Thomas R; Austin, Galen P; Cox, Stephen B; Anderson, Todd A; Leftwich, Blair D; Kendall, Ronald J; Suedel, Burton C

    2010-07-01

    During the last four years, significant effort has been devoted to understanding the effects that Hurricanes Katrina and Rita had on contaminant distribution and redistribution in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA, and the surrounding Gulf Coast area. Elevated concentrations were found for inorganic contaminants (including As, Fe, Pb, and V), several organic pollutants (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides, and volatiles) and high concentration of bioaerosols, particularly Aeromonas and Vibrio. Data from different research groups confirm that some contaminant concentrations are elevated, that existing concentrations are similar to historical data, and that contaminants such as Pb and As may pose human health risks. Two data sets have been compiled in this article to serve as the foundation for preliminary risk assessments within greater New Orleans. Research from the present study suggests that children in highly contaminated areas of New Orleans may experience Pb exposure from soil ranging from 1.37 microg/d to 102 microg/d. These data are critical in the evaluation of children's health.

  3. Distribution of cadmium, chromium, copper, lead and zinc in marine sediments in Hong Kong waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, S. C.; Wai, Onyx W. H.; Choi, Thomas W. H.; Li, X. D.; Tsang, C. W.

    2006-11-01

    Partitioning of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn) in marine sediments collected from various sites in Hong Kong waters were determined using sequential extraction method. Sediments from Kellette Bank, located in Victoria Harbour, had higher metal concentrations especially Cu and Zn than most other sites. Slightly over 20% of total Cu and Cr existed as readily available forms in Peng Chau and Kellette Bank. At most sampling sites, over 15% of the Cu existed as the exchangeable form indicating that Cu could be readily released into the aqueous phase from sediments. A significantly higher percentage of Pb and Zn was associated with the three non-residual fractions. Hence, there is a greater environmental concern for remobilization of Pb and Zn compared with Cr. The high amount of residual Cd (>50%) and the relatively lower Cd content indicate that little environmental concern is warranted for the remobilization of Cd. Distribution of metals in sediments collected from different depth at Kellette Bank shows that metal concentrations decreased with profile depth. The levels of Pb and Zn associated with the two readily available fractions increased sharply in the surface sediment. These metals represented the pollutants, which were introduced into the area in the mid-eighties through early nineties as a result of rapid economic and industrial development in the territory. As significant portions of these metals were bound to the readily available phases in the surface sediments, metal remobilization could be a concern.

  4. Assessment of Environmental Distribution of Lead in Some Municipalities of South-Eastern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere

    2010-01-01

    Lead (Pb) levels were measured in roadside surface soils, dust particles and rain water samples from the urban cities of Enugu, Awka, Onitsha, Nnewi, Aba, Port Harcourt and Warri in Southern Nigeria in 2007 and 2008. Samples were collected during the dry season, while rain water samples were collected during the early rain (April–June), mid rain (July–August) and late rain seasons (September–October) for the two years. Soil samples were collected from traffic congested roads, dust was collected by tying a plastic basin on a pole 1.5 m above ground level and leaving it for 45 days. Rain samples were collected from three equidistant points. Samples were analyzed by AAS. The highest soil Pb of 120.00 ± 0.00 and 80.36 ± 0.00 mg/kg were reported in Onitsha for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Nnewi showed 33.40 ± 0.01 and 4,238.29 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Aba had 22.56 ± 0.01 and 21.28 ± 0.00 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008. Higher concentrations were recorded for Nnewi and Port Harcourt in 2008 than in 2007. Enugu had more in 2007 while Awka had more in 2008. Dust Pb ranged from 0.13–0.49 mg/kg and 0.15–0.47 mg/kg for 2007 and 2008, respectively. Rain samples had the least Pb concentration, ranging from 0.103 ± 0.000 to 0.163 ± 0.046 mg/L. We may conclude that Nigerians are exposed to environmental Pb. PMID:20644686

  5. Forging the anthropogenic iron cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Müller, Daniel B; Graedel, T E

    2007-07-15

    Metallurgical iron cycles are characterized for four anthropogenic life stages: production, fabrication and manufacturing, use, and waste management and recycling. This analysis is conducted for year 2000 and at three spatial levels: 68 countries and territories, nine world regions, and the planet. Findings include the following: (1) contemporary iron cycles are basically open and substantially dependent on environmental sources and sinks; (2) Asia leads the world regions in iron production and use; Oceania, Latin America and the Caribbean, Africa, and the Commonwealth of Independent States present a highly production-biased iron cycle; (3) purchased scrap contributes a quarter of the global iron and steel production; (4) iron exiting use is three times less than that entering use; (5) about 45% of global iron entering use is devoted to construction, 24% is devoted to transport equipment, and 20% goes to industrial machinery; (6) with respect to international trade of iron ore, iron and steel products, and scrap, 54 out of the 68 countries are net iron importers, while only 14 are net exporters; (7) global iron discharges in tailings, slag, and landfill approximate one-third of the iron mined. Overall, these results provide a foundation for studies of iron-related resource policy, industrial development, and waste and environmental management.

  6. On the distribution of dissolved lead in the Loire estuary and the North Biscay continental shelf, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waeles, Matthieu; Riso, Ricardo D.; Maguer, Jean-François; Guillaud, Jean-François; Le Corre, Pierre

    2008-07-01

    The dissolved lead was studied in the whole salinity gradient of the system composed of the Loire estuary and the North Biscay continental shelf. About 130 samples were collected in winter 2001 and spring 2002 during Nutrigas and Gasprod campaigns (Programme PNEC-Golfe de Gascogne, RV Thalassa) and metal measurements were conducted on board by Potentiometric Stripping Analysis. In the Loire estuary, levels of dissolved lead ranged from 0.15 to 0.24 nM and from 0.04 to 0.26 nM in winter and spring, respectively. Compared to the concentrations reported in 1987 and 1990 (0.4-1.7 nM; Boutier, B., Chiffoleau, J.F., Auger, D., Truquet, I., 1993. Influence of the Loire river on dissolved lead and cadmium concentrations in coastal waters of Brittany. Estuar. Coast. Shelf S., 36:133-143, Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 36, 133-143) our study indicated much lower values. The fall in concentration in the estuary could be attributed to the stopping of activity of Octel, a big manufacturer of tetra alkyl lead. Discharge in dissolved metal to the continental shelf by the Loire river was assessed as 7.5 and 1.9 kg day - 1 for winter and spring, respectively. On the continental shelf, levels of dissolved lead varied within 0.06 and 0.27 nM in winter (0.15 ± 0.06 nM, sd = 1.96, n = 49), whereas concentrations measured in spring were in the range 0.06-0.17 nM (0.09 ± 0.03 nM, sd = 1.96, n = 60). This difference in metal concentration was related to the amounts of rainfall that have fallen over the continental shelf: estimations of inputs by this way (74 and 32 kg day - 1 in winter and spring, respectively) appeared to be significantly higher than inputs from the Loire river (7.5 and 1.9 kg day - 1 in winter and spring, respectively). The distributions of dissolved metal in the surface waters highlighted the role of suspended particular matter (SPM) for a rapid "trapping" of lead near the mouth of the estuary. The vertical distributions showed, in the stratified area, a

  7. Predicting Anthropogenic Noise Contributions to US Waters.

    PubMed

    Gedamke, Jason; Ferguson, Megan; Harrison, Jolie; Hatch, Leila; Henderson, Laurel; Porter, Michael B; Southall, Brandon L; Van Parijs, Sofie

    2016-01-01

    To increase understanding of the potential effects of chronic underwater noise in US waters, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) organized two working groups in 2011, collectively called "CetSound," to develop tools to map the density and distribution of cetaceans (CetMap) and predict the contribution of human activities to underwater noise (SoundMap). The SoundMap effort utilized data on density, distribution, acoustic signatures of dominant noise sources, and environmental descriptors to map estimated temporal, spatial, and spectral contributions to background noise. These predicted soundscapes are an initial step toward assessing chronic anthropogenic noise impacts on the ocean's varied acoustic habitats and the animals utilizing them.

  8. Development of a Peltier Current Lead for the 200-m-Class Superconducting Direct Current Transmission and Distribution System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Emoto, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hamabe, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Sataro; Hikichi, Yasuo; Minowa, Masahiro

    2013-07-01

    Reducing cryogenic heat leaks is critical for superconducting applications. Reduction of heat leak at the terminals is essential for uses with short-length applications, where cryogenic losses at the terminals dominate. We are developing a 200-m-class superconducting direct current (DC) transmission and distribution system (CASER-2), and have used a Peltier current lead (PCL) for heat insulation at the terminals. The PCL consists of thermoelectric elements and copper leads, which enhance the performance of superconducting systems. As DC flows through the current lead, thermoelectric elements on opposite terminations of a superconducting line can be used to decrease the heat ingress to the cryogenic environment ( n-type on one end, p-type on the opposite end). During the current feeding and cooling test, a large temperature difference was observed across thermoelectric elements in the PCL. This demonstrates that we have successfully insulated the heat leak at the current lead. During the fourth cooling test, we established a new PCL design with p-type elements at terminal B, and then compared the performance of the terminals. Several improvements were implemented, including balancing the resistances of the PCL to enhance the stability of the superconducting systems.

  9. Anthropogenic Aerosols and the Dust Bowl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cazavilan, E. J.; Leibensperger, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We use a general circulation model (GISS GCM ModelE) to study the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the 1930s Dust Bowl. The Dust Bowl was primarily forced by anomalous sea surface temperatures, but may have been partially shaped by the large amounts of black carbon emitted at that time. A simulation using observed 1932-1938 sea surface temperature and sea ice distributions reveal drier and warmer conditions in the central U.S. Adding the influence of 1930s anthropogenic aerosols exacerbates the drying and warm conditions (0.2 °C increase over mid-west continental US, and a decrease of -0.1 mm/day of precipitation). We find that these changes are concurrent with a weakening and shift of the Bermuda High.

  10. Detection of anthropogenic dust using CALIPSO lidar measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J. P.; Liu, J. J.; Chen, B.; Nasiri, S. L.

    2015-10-01

    Anthropogenic dusts are those produced by human activities on disturbed soils, which are mainly cropland, pastureland, and urbanized regions, and are a subset of the total dust load which includes natural sources from desert regions. Our knowledge of anthropogenic dusts is still very limited due to a lack of data. To understand the contribution of anthropogenic dust to the total global dust load, it is important to identify it apart from total dust. In this study, a new technique for distinguishing anthropogenic dust from natural dust is proposed by using Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) dust and planetary boundary layer (PBL) height retrievals along with a land use data set. Using this technique, the global distribution of dust is analyzed and the relative contribution of anthropogenic and natural dust sources to regional and global emissions are estimated. Results reveal that local anthropogenic dust aerosol due to human activity, such as agriculture, industrial activity, transportation, and overgrazing, accounts for about 25 % of the global continental dust load. Of these anthropogenic dust aerosols, more than 53 % come from semi-arid and semi-wet regions. Annual mean anthropogenic dust column burden (DCB) values range from 0.42 g m-2, with a maximum in India, to 0.12 g m-2, with a minimum in North America. A better understanding of anthropogenic dust emission will enable us to focus on human activities in these critical regions and with such knowledge we will be more able to improve global dust models and to explore the effects of anthropogenic emission on radiative forcing, climate change, and air quality in the future.

  11. Extending flood forecasting lead time in a large watershed by coupling WRF QPF with a distributed hydrological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji; Chen, Yangbo; Wang, Huanyu; Qin, Jianming; Li, Jie; Chiao, Sen

    2017-03-01

    Long lead time flood forecasting is very important for large watershed flood mitigation as it provides more time for flood warning and emergency responses. The latest numerical weather forecast model could provide 1-15-day quantitative precipitation forecasting products in grid format, and by coupling this product with a distributed hydrological model could produce long lead time watershed flood forecasting products. This paper studied the feasibility of coupling the Liuxihe model with the Weather Research and Forecasting quantitative precipitation forecast (WRF QPF) for large watershed flood forecasting in southern China. The QPF of WRF products has three lead times, including 24, 48 and 72 h, with the grid resolution being 20 km  × 20 km. The Liuxihe model is set up with freely downloaded terrain property; the model parameters were previously optimized with rain gauge observed precipitation, and re-optimized with the WRF QPF. Results show that the WRF QPF has bias with the rain gauge precipitation, and a post-processing method is proposed to post-process the WRF QPF products, which improves the flood forecasting capability. With model parameter re-optimization, the model's performance improves also. This suggests that the model parameters be optimized with QPF, not the rain gauge precipitation. With the increasing of lead time, the accuracy of the WRF QPF decreases, as does the flood forecasting capability. Flood forecasting products produced by coupling the Liuxihe model with the WRF QPF provide a good reference for large watershed flood warning due to its long lead time and rational results.

  12. Design optimization of tall tubular lead/acid cells based on an analysis of the reaction distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Kenji; Hatanaka, Teruhiro; Tsubota, Masaharu; Yonezu, Kunio; Ando, Koji

    In order to estimate the discharge performance of tall lead/acid cells (with tubular positives), changes in current and potential distributions with discharge progress were calculated with a computer on the basis of plate resistance and the current—potential—time relationship between small facing parts of positive and negative plates. The taller the cell, the larger the voltage drop along the plates. Thus, the discharge time became shorter despite a large amount of available active mass remaining in the bottom part of the plates. Various current-collector designs were evaluated, e.g., one with varying resistance at each height; a side conductor placed along the plates and connected to them at the top, centre and bottom, etc. Results revealed an optimum collector design with which the maximum discharge capacity could be obtained. Furthermore, it was shown that the side conductor markedly improved the discharge performance because the active mass near the connecting parts was appreciably used.

  13. Effects of 1,25-dihydroxicolecalciferol and dietary calcium-phosphate on distribution of lead to tissues during growth

    SciTech Connect

    Cortina-Ramirez, G.E.; Cerbon-Solorzano, J.; Calderon-Salinas, J.V. . E-mail: jcalder@cinvestav.mx

    2006-01-15

    The susceptibility to the toxic effects of lead (Pb) is mainly mediated by age and nutritional and hormonal status, and children are among the most vulnerable to them. During growth, an increase in calcium, phosphate and vitamin D in diet is recommended to enhance calcium and phosphate intestinal absorption and bone deposit. Calcium and phosphate reduce lead intestinal absorption, and 1,25-dihydroxicolecalciferol (1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}) (active metabolite of vitamin D) increases both lead and calcium intestinal absorption. However, the effects of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on lead bone deposit and redistribution to soft tissues are not well known. In this study, we examined the effects of calcium-phosphate diet supplementation and the administration of 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} on Pb distribution to soft tissue and bone in growing rats exposed to Pb. Rats (21 days old) were exposed for 28 days to 100 ppm of Pb solution in drinking water. Calcium and phosphate in diet were increased from 1 to 2.5% and from 0.65 to 1.8%, respectively, and 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} was administrated by intraperitoneal injection of 7.2 ng/kg every 7 days. Between 21 and 49 days, the body weight increased about 5 times. The results showed that high calcium-phosphate diet led to lower Pb concentration in blood and in bone, but Pb liver and kidney concentrations increased, which indicates that absorption and bone deposit redistribution of Pb decreased. On the other hand, no effect of this diet rich in calcium-phosphate in Pb concentration was observed in brain. Blood and bone Pb concentrations increased even more when the high calcium-phosphate diet included 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}. In the rats treated only with 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3}, blood and bone Pb concentrations were lower. Higher concentrations of lead in the soft organs were observed also in rats treated under a high calcium-phosphate diet plus 1,25(OH){sub 2}D{sub 3} administration. The above mentioned results suggested that 1,25(OH

  14. Diode-Pumped Organo-Lead Halide Perovskite Lasing in a Metal-Clad Distributed Feedback Resonator.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yufei; Kerner, Ross A; Grede, Alex J; Brigeman, Alyssa N; Rand, Barry P; Giebink, Noel C

    2016-07-13

    Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite semiconductors have recently reignited the prospect of a tunable, solution-processed diode laser, which has the potential to impact a wide range of optoelectronic applications. Here, we demonstrate a metal-clad, second-order distributed feedback methylammonium lead iodide perovskite laser that marks a significant step toward this goal. Optically pumping this device with an InGaN diode laser at low temperature, we achieve lasing above a threshold pump intensity of 5 kW/cm(2) for durations up to ∼25 ns at repetition rates exceeding 2 MHz. We show that the lasing duration is not limited by thermal runaway and propose instead that lasing ceases under continuous pumping due to a photoinduced structural change in the perovskite that reduces the gain on a submicrosecond time scale. Our results indicate that the architecture demonstrated here could provide the foundation for electrically pumped lasing with a threshold current density Jth < 5 kA/cm(2) under sub-20 ns pulsed drive.

  15. Clustered Distribution of Natural Product Leads of Drugs in the Chemical Space as Influenced by the Privileged Target-Sites

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Lin; Zhu, Feng; Qin, Chu; Zhang, Cheng; Chen, Shangying; Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Cunlong; Tan, Chunyan; Gao, Chunmei; Chen, Zhe; Jiang, Yuyang; Chen, Yu Zong

    2015-01-01

    Some natural product leads of drugs (NPLDs) have been found to congregate in the chemical space. The extent, detailed patterns, and mechanisms of this congregation phenomenon have not been fully investigated and their usefulness for NPLD discovery needs to be more extensively tested. In this work, we generated and evaluated the distribution patterns of 442 NPLDs of 749 pre-2013 approved and 263 clinical trial small molecule drugs in the chemical space represented by the molecular scaffold and fingerprint trees of 137,836 non-redundant natural products. In the molecular scaffold trees, 62.7% approved and 37.4% clinical trial NPLDs congregate in 62 drug-productive scaffolds/scaffold-branches. In the molecular fingerprint tree, 82.5% approved and 63.0% clinical trial NPLDs are clustered in 60 drug-productive clusters (DCs) partly due to their preferential binding to 45 privileged target-site classes. The distribution patterns of the NPLDs are distinguished from those of the bioactive natural products. 11.7% of the NPLDs in these DCs have remote-similarity relationship with the nearest NPLD in their own DC. The majority of the new NPLDs emerge from preexisting DCs. The usefulness of the derived knowledge for NPLD discovery was demonstrated by the recognition of the new NPLDs of 2013–2014 approved drugs. PMID:25790752

  16. Bringing home the trash: do colony-based differences in foraging distribution lead to increased plastic ingestion in Laysan albatrosses?

    PubMed

    Young, Lindsay C; Vanderlip, Cynthia; Duffy, David C; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Shaffer, Scott A

    2009-10-28

    When searching for prey, animals should maximize energetic gain, while minimizing energy expenditure by altering their movements relative to prey availability. However, with increasing amounts of marine debris, what once may have been 'optimal' foraging strategies for top marine predators, are leading to sub-optimal diets comprised in large part of plastic. Indeed, the highly vagile Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) which forages throughout the North Pacific, are well known for their tendency to ingest plastic. Here we examine whether Laysan albatrosses nesting on Kure Atoll and Oahu Island, 2,150 km apart, experience different levels of plastic ingestion. Twenty two geolocators were deployed on breeding adults for up to two years. Regurgitated boluses of undigestable material were also collected from chicks at each site to compare the amount of plastic vs. natural foods. Chicks from Kure Atoll were fed almost ten times the amount of plastic compared to chicks from Oahu despite boluses from both colonies having similar amounts of natural food. Tracking data indicated that adults from either colony did not have core overlapping distributions during the early half of the breeding period and that adults from Kure had a greater overlap with the putative range of the Western Garbage Patch corroborating our observation of higher plastic loads at this colony. At-sea distributions also varied throughout the year suggesting that Laysan albatrosses either adjusted their foraging behavior according to constraints on time away from the nest or to variation in resources. However, in the non-breeding season, distributional overlap was greater indicating that the energy required to reach the foraging grounds was less important than the total energy available. These results demonstrate how a marine predator that is not dispersal limited alters its foraging strategy throughout the reproductive cycle to maximize energetic gain and how this has led to differences in plastic

  17. Bringing Home the Trash: Do Colony-Based Differences in Foraging Distribution Lead to Increased Plastic Ingestion in Laysan Albatrosses?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Lindsay C.; Vanderlip, Cynthia; Duffy, David C.; Afanasyev, Vsevolod; Shaffer, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    When searching for prey, animals should maximize energetic gain, while minimizing energy expenditure by altering their movements relative to prey availability. However, with increasing amounts of marine debris, what once may have been ‘optimal’ foraging strategies for top marine predators, are leading to sub-optimal diets comprised in large part of plastic. Indeed, the highly vagile Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) which forages throughout the North Pacific, are well known for their tendency to ingest plastic. Here we examine whether Laysan albatrosses nesting on Kure Atoll and Oahu Island, 2,150 km apart, experience different levels of plastic ingestion. Twenty two geolocators were deployed on breeding adults for up to two years. Regurgitated boluses of undigestable material were also collected from chicks at each site to compare the amount of plastic vs. natural foods. Chicks from Kure Atoll were fed almost ten times the amount of plastic compared to chicks from Oahu despite boluses from both colonies having similar amounts of natural food. Tracking data indicated that adults from either colony did not have core overlapping distributions during the early half of the breeding period and that adults from Kure had a greater overlap with the putative range of the Western Garbage Patch corroborating our observation of higher plastic loads at this colony. At-sea distributions also varied throughout the year suggesting that Laysan albatrosses either adjusted their foraging behavior according to constraints on time away from the nest or to variation in resources. However, in the non-breeding season, distributional overlap was greater indicating that the energy required to reach the foraging grounds was less important than the total energy available. These results demonstrate how a marine predator that is not dispersal limited alters its foraging strategy throughout the reproductive cycle to maximize energetic gain and how this has led to differences in

  18. On the characterization of anthropogenic streamflow regime alterations: the case of the Piave river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botter, G.; Basso, S.; Porporato, A. M.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ecologists and hydrologists have long recognized that streamflow regimes are major drivers of river ecology, evidencing that the whole range of (intra-annual and inter-annual) variations of streamflows concurs to shape form and functions of riverine systems. Many engineered catchments throughout the world, however, and, in particular most river systems of the Alpine regions, have experienced major streamflow alterations induced by water resources exploitation for human needs, such as agricultural, hydropower, industrial and civil uses. A novel eco-hydrological method is proposed to estimate the natural streamflow regime of a river and to assess the extent of the alterations induced by anthropogenic controls in human impacted hydrologic systems. The method consists on the comparison between the seasonal probability distribution function (pdf) of observed streamflows and the purportedly natural streamflow pdf - estimated by a recently proposed and validated analytical probabilistic model. The model employs a minimum of geomorphologic and eco-hydrologic parameters, and allows for a separation of the effects related to anthropogenic regulations from those produced by hydro-climatic fluctuations. The approach is applied to evaluate the extent of the alterations of intra-annual streamflow variability in a highly regulated alpine catchment of north-eastern Italy (the Piave river basin, A=3900 km2), where the streamflows are impacted by 13 reservoirs and a number of weirs, diversions and hydrologic devices. Streamflow observed in various cross sections downstream of the regulation devices in the Piave catchment are found to have smaller means/modes, larger coefficient of variations and more pronounced peaks than the flows that would be observed in absence of anthropogenic regulation, suggesting that the anthropogenic disturbance leads to remarkable reductions of river flows, with an increase of the streamflow variability and of the frequency of preferential states far from

  19. Identification And Distribution Of Vanadinite (Pb5(V5+O4)3Cl) In Lead Pipe Corrosion By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study presents the first detailed look at vanadium (V) speciation in drinking water pipe corrosion scales. A pool of 34 scale layers from 15 lead or lead-lined pipes representing eight different municipal drinking water distribution systems in the Northeastern and Midwester...

  20. Anthropogenic Aerosols and the Evolution of U.S. Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leibensperger, E. M.; Cazavilan, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols interact with solar radiation to influence regional to global climate. Trends in aerosol concentrations have impacted the evolution of surface air temperatures and the hydrological cycle over the last 150 years, but the magnitude of influence and any role in shaping extreme events remains uncertain. We use a general circulation model (GISS GCM ModelE) to study the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on the formation of two potential U.S. droughts. Two periods are analyzed, the 1930s Dust Bowl and the 1970s "missed drought". Each period realized ocean conditions ripe for the formation of central U.S. drought, but experienced differing composition and amounts of anthropogenic aerosol forcing. Simulations forced solely by observed sea surface temperature and sea ice distributions reveal drier and warmer conditions in the central U.S. (annual decreases of up to 0.5 mm/day and warming of 0.5°C). We find that anthropogenic aerosols of the 1930s, containing a significant warming component from U.S. black carbon, exacerbated the warm conditions (0.2°C) and provided slightly drier conditions. In contrast, anthropogenic aerosols of the 1970s, containing a large cooling component from U.S. sulfate, reduced annual precipitation deficits and lowered temperatures by up to 0.4°C. Our results showcase the importance of anthropogenic aerosol forcing in the evolution of U.S. droughts.

  1. The lateral distributions of charged particles of energy greater than 0.3 E sub crit in electron-photon cascades in lead and air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasilewski, A.; Krys, E.

    1985-01-01

    In recent investigations, both theoretical and experimental, the agreement between cascade theory and experimental data is pointed out. The radial distributions obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation are compared ith the results of the analytical theory for all particles in cascades. The data on the mean radius of electron lateral distribution in air are compared with those in lead.

  2. Lead (Pb) Toxicity; Physio-Biochemical Mechanisms, Grain Yield, Quality, and Pb Distribution Proportions in Scented Rice

    PubMed Central

    Ashraf, Umair; Kanu, Adam S.; Deng, Quanquan; Mo, Zhaowen; Pan, Shenggang; Tian, Hua; Tang, Xiangru

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) caused interruptions with normal plant metabolism, crop yield losses and quality issues are of great concern. This study assessed the physio-biochemical responses, yield and grain quality traits and Pb distribution proportions in three different fragrant rice cultivars i.e., Meixiangzhan-2, Xinagyaxiangzhan and Basmati-385. Plants were exposed to 400, 800, and 1,200 ppm of Pb while pots without Pb were taken as control (0 ppm). Our results showed that Pb toxicity significantly (P < 0.05) reduced photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll contents and carotenoids) and inducted oxidative stress with increased production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malanodialdehyde (MDA) and leaves leachates; while such effects were more apparent in Xinagyaxiangzhan than other two rice cultivars. Pb stress differentially affected the production protein, proline and soluble sugars; however the production rates were higher at heading stage (HS) than maturity stage (MS). Furthermore, Pb stress altered superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD), catalases (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidases (APX) activities and glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) production in all rice cultivars at both HS and MS. All Pb levels reduced the yield and yield components of all rice cultivars; nonetheless such reductions were observed highest in Xinagyaxiangzhan (69.12%) than Meixiangzhan-2 (58.05%) and Basmati-385 (46.27%) and resulted in grain quality deterioration. Significant and positive correlations among rice yields with productive tillers/pot and grains per panicle while negative with sterility percentage were also observed. In addition, all rice cultivars readily taken up the Pb contents from soil to roots and transported upward in different proportions with maximum in roots followed by stemss, leaves, ears and grains. Higher proportions of Pb contents in above ground plant parts in Xinagyaxiangzhan possibly lead to maximum losses in this cultivar than other two cultivars; while less

  3. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space: results of the first phase of the URBANFLUXES project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Marconcini, Mattia; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, C. S. B.; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Landier, Lucas; Gabey, Andy; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-10-01

    H2020-Space project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of Copernicus Sentinels to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component of the Urban Energy Budget (UEB). URBANFLUXES advances the current knowledge of the impacts of UEB fluxes on urban heat island and consequently on energy consumption in cities. This will lead to the development of tools and strategies to mitigate these effects, improving thermal comfort and energy efficiency. In URBANFLUXES, the anthropogenic heat flux is estimated as a residual of UEB. Therefore, the rest UEB components, namely, the net all-wave radiation, the net change in heat storage and the turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes are independently estimated from Earth Observation (EO), whereas the advection term is included in the error of the anthropogenic heat flux estimation from the UEB closure. The project exploits Sentinels observations, which provide improved data quality, coverage and revisit times and increase the value of EO data for scientific work and future emerging applications. These observations can reveal novel scientific insights for the detection and monitoring of the spatial distribution of the urban energy budget fluxes in cities, thereby generating new EO opportunities. URBANFLUXES thus exploits the European capacity for space-borne observations to enable the development of operational services in the field of urban environmental monitoring and energy efficiency in cities.

  4. Lead in ancient Rome’s city waters

    PubMed Central

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-01-01

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system. PMID:24753588

  5. Lead in soil and agricultural products in the Huainan Coal Mining Area, Anhui, China: levels, distribution, and health implications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ting; Liu, Guijian; Zhou, Chuncai; Lu, Lanlan

    2015-03-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in agricultural soil is of great concern, as heavy metals can be finally transferred to the human body through the food chain. A field survey was conducted to investigate the lead (Pb) levels and distribution in soil, agricultural products (wheat, paddy, and soybean), and fish, in the Huainan Coal Mining Area (HCMA), Anhui Province, China, to provide reference information to local inhabitants. The daily intake and target hazard quotients of Pb through food consumption were assessed. Results showed that the mean Pb concentration in soil was higher than the Huainan soil background Pb value but lower than the maximum allowance Pb concentration for agricultural soil (GB 15618-2008). The elevated Pb in soil, especially in rainy months (June to August in Huainan), might be related to Pb leaching from ambient coal gangue piles. Excessive Pb concentration was found in the grains of food crops, which would pose a potential health risk to local inhabitants. Therein, wheat showed higher Pb bioaccumulation ability than other crops. With regard to the Pb levels in muscles, fishes were considered to be safe for consumption. The calculations on daily intake and tolerable hazard quotient of Pb suggest that the potential health hazard posed by Pb is currently insignificant for the inhabitants in the HCMA.

  6. National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS): distributions and associations of lead, arsenic and volatile organic compounds in EPA region 5.

    PubMed

    Clayton, C A; Pellizzari, E D; Whitmore, R W; Perritt, R L; Quackenboss, J J

    1999-01-01

    The National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Phase I field study conducted in EPA Region 5 provides extensive exposure data on approximately 250 study participants selected via probability sampling. Associated environmental media and biomarker (blood, urine) concentration data were also obtained to aid in the understanding of relationships of the exposures to both contaminant sources and doses. Distributional parameters for arsenic (As), lead (Pb), and four volatile organic compounds (VOCs)--benzene, chloroform, tetrachloroethylene, and trichloroethylene--were estimated for each of the relevant media using weighted data analysis techniques. Inter-media associations were investigated through correlation analysis, and longitudinal correlations and models were used to investigate longitudinal patterns. Solid food appeared to be a major contributor to urine As levels, while Pb levels in household (HH) dust, personal air, and beverages all were significantly associated with blood Pb levels. Relatively high (>0.50) longitudinal correlations were observed for tap water Pb and As, as compared to only moderate longitudinal correlations for the personal air VOCs.

  7. The effect of bioturbation by Lumbriculus variegatus on transport and distribution of lead in a freshwater microcosm.

    PubMed

    Blankson, Emmanuel R; Klerks, Paul L

    2016-05-01

    The present study investigated the effect of bioturbation by the oligochaete worm Lumbriculus variegatus on the transport and environmental distribution of lead (Pb). Experiments used L. variegatus at densities of 0 ind./m(2), 2093 ind./m(2), and 8372 ind./m(2), in freshwater microcosms with Pb-spiked sediment. At the end of the 14-d experiment, Pb levels in the water column, tissues of L. variegatus, and sediment were determined, and bioturbation was quantified using luminophores. The bioturbation by L. variegatus increased Pb transport from the sediment to the water column. However, it did not significantly affect Pb bioaccumulation by L. variegatus or Pb levels in the sediment. The biodiffusion coefficient (Db) was positively related to worm density, but did not differ between Pb-spiked sediment and uncontaminated sediment. The latter finding suggests that Pb at the 100 μg/g concentration used in the present study did not affect L. variegatus bioturbation. The present study shows that bioturbation can enhance Pb transfer across the sediment-water interface and thus enhance Pb availability to organisms in the water column.

  8. Cadmium, copper and lead in macroalgae from the Veracruz Reef System, Gulf of Mexico: spatial distribution and rainy season variability.

    PubMed

    Horta-Puga, Guillermo; Cházaro-Olvera, Sergio; Winfield, Ignacio; Avila-Romero, Marisol; Moreno-Ramírez, Margarita

    2013-03-15

    This study focused on the spatial distribution of trace metals in the Veracruz Reef System in the Southern Gulf of Mexico, and its variability in the early (July) and late (September) rainy season of 2008, by analyzing the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb in benthic macroalgae. Mean concentrations are lower (Pb 295 ± 347 ng g(-1), Cd 17.9 ± 15.0 ng g(-1)), or similar (Cu 3.4 ± 4.5 μg g(-1)) to those reported from other coastal areas. Cd and Pb concentrations are influenced by the discharge of the Jamapa River, evidencing a fluvial control on coastal trace metal levels. Also, Cd and Cu concentrations were lower in the late rainy season, when there is a high load of suspended sediments derived from fluvial discharge, which probably adsorb dissolved metals decreasing their bioavailability. Pb concentrations have been decreasing in the last two decades in the SGM, after the banning of leaded-gasoline in the late 20th century.

  9. Ring distributions leading to species formation: a global topographic analysis of geographic barriers associated with ring species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In the mid 20th century, Ernst Mayr and Theodosius Dobzhansky championed the significance of circular overlaps or ring species as the perfect demonstration of speciation, yet in the over 50 years since, only a handful of such taxa are known. We developed a topographic model to evaluate whether the geographic barriers that favor processes leading to ring species are common or rare, and to predict where other candidate ring barriers might be found. Results Of the 952,147 geographic barriers identified on the planet, only about 1% are topographically similar to barriers associated with known ring taxa, with most of the likely candidates occurring in under-studied parts of the world (for example, marine environments, tropical latitudes). Predicted barriers separate into two distinct categories: (i) single cohesive barriers (< 50,000 km2), associated with taxa that differentiate at smaller spatial scales (salamander: Ensatina eschscholtzii; tree: Acacia karroo); and (ii) composite barriers - formed by groups of barriers (each 184,000 to 1.7 million km2) in close geographic proximity (totaling 1.9 to 2.3 million km2) - associated with taxa that differentiate at larger spatial scales (birds: Phylloscopus trochiloides and Larus (sp. argentatus and fuscus)). When evaluated globally, we find a large number of cohesive barriers that are topographically similar to those associated with known ring taxa. Yet, compared to cohesive barriers, an order of magnitude fewer composite barriers are similar to those that favor ring divergence in species with higher dispersal. Conclusions While these findings confirm that the topographic conditions that favor evolutionary processes leading to ring speciation are, in fact, rare, they also suggest that many understudied natural systems could provide valuable demonstrations of continuous divergence towards the formation of new species. Distinct advantages of the model are that it (i) requires no a priori information on the relative

  10. Estimating animal mortality from anthropogenic hazards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcass searches are a common method for studying the risk of anthropogenic hazards to wildlife, including non-target poisoning and collisions with anthropogenic structures. Typically, numbers of carcasses found must be corrected for scavenging rates and imperfect detection. Para...

  11. Measurement of the centrality dependence of the charged particle pseudorapidity distribution in lead-lead collisions at √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Akiyama, A.; Alam, M. S.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amorim, A.; Amorós, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M.-L.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Archambault, J. P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avolio, G.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, M. D.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, D.; Bartsch, V.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P. K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. 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A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W. G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M. E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shank, J. T.; Shao, Q. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shichi, H.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M. J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M. A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinnari, L. A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T. J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B. C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K. M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snow, S. W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A. A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spanò, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R. D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R. W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, Hs.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Sviridov, Yu. M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sánchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G. P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timmermans, C. J. W. P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F. J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T. N.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J. M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D. G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Leeuw, R.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J. J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virchaux, M.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A. P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T. T.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J. C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Weydert, C.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S. J.; Whitaker, S. P.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, M. G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W.-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ybeles Smit, G. V.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V. G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo. K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A. V.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; Zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.; Atlas Collaboration

    2012-04-01

    The ATLAS experiment at the LHC has measured the centrality dependence of charged particle pseudorapidity distributions over | η | < 2 in lead-lead collisions at a nucleon-nucleon centre-of-mass energy of √{sNN} = 2.76 TeV. In order to include particles with transverse momentum as low as 30 MeV, the data were recorded with the central solenoid magnet off. Charged particles were reconstructed with two algorithms (2-point "tracklets" and full tracks) using information from the pixel detector only. The lead-lead collision centrality was characterized by the total transverse energy in the forward calorimeter in the range 3.2 < | η | < 4.9. Measurements are presented of the per-event charged particle pseudorapidity distribution, dNch / dη, and the average charged particle multiplicity in the pseudorapidity interval | η | < 0.5 in several intervals of collision centrality. The results are compared to previous mid-rapidity measurements at the LHC and RHIC. The variation of the mid-rapidity charged particle yield per colliding nucleon pair with the number of participants is consistent with lower √{sNN} results. The shape of the dNch / dη distribution is found to be independent of centrality within the systematic uncertainties of the measurement.

  12. Anthropogenic monoterpene pollution episodes in a forest environment in association with aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, L.; Taipale, R.; Dal Maso, M.; Ehn, M.; Junninen, H.; Nieminen, T.; Kerminen, V.; Kulmala, M. T.

    2010-12-01

    Monoterpenes (MT) present in troposphere affect atmospheric chemistry and air quality. The oxidation of monoterpenes leading to secondary organic aerosol formation can affect aerosol loadings, and further influence the climate system. Identified sources of MT include biogenic and anthropogenic origins. In this study, we present a four-year set observation of MT to examine: 1. the origin and the quantification of elevated MT concentrations. 2. The influence of enhanced MT emissions on local air chemistry and possible associated pollutants. 3. Possible influence of anthropogenic MT emissions on physical and chemical properties of enhanced aerosol particles. VOC observations were continuously con-ducted using a PTR-MS from Jun. 12 2006 to Sep. 24 2007 and from Jun. 1 2008 to Mar. 3 2009. As an example, MT observed on March 8, 2007 are plotted in Figure 1 along with DMPS. The DMPS spectra show simultaneous elevations of Aitken-mode particles seen as red colors when monoterpenes are dramatically elevated during six short periods on this day. Out of the four-year dataset amounting to 580 days in total, 27.4% of the days showed MT pollution episodes. The sum of the total episode durations is equal to 3.62% time of the whole PTR-MS measurement period. The average concentration of MT was increased from 0.205 to 0.270 ppbv, which roughly results in 32% overestimation of biogenic MT without considering the influence of these anthropogenic emissions. The origin of episodes is mainly from the Korkeakoski sawmill which is ca. 6 km away from the SMEAR II station and 130 degrees South East direction. VOCs are the main pollutants from sawmill. We did not see clear connections between MT and other gas pollutants during MT episodes. The case studies have shown that other associated pollutants may be occasionally emitted. The strong link between anthropogenic MT and aerosol particles suggest that sawmills could be a main source of anthropogenic VOCs, as well as aerosol loading at the

  13. Spatial Distribution of Lead Isotope Ratios and Inorganic Element Concentrations in Epiphytic Lichens from the Athabasca Oil Sands Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graney, J. R.; Landis, M. S.; Puckett, K.; Edgerton, E.; Krupa, S.; Percy, K.

    2013-12-01

    Coupled studies of inorganic element concentrations and lead (Pb) isotope ratios have been conducted on Hypogymnia physodes samples collected in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) in Alberta, Canada in 2002, 2008, and 2011. To investigate the spatial extent of air emissions, the lichens were collected from sites as far as 160 km from the mining and processing operations. 30 milligram sub-samples of the lichens were microwave digested, and the extracts were analyzed using DRC-ICPMS to determine elemental concentrations, and sector field ICPMS to measure Pb isotope ratios. Concentrations of elements in the lichens were found to reflect proximity to mining and oil processing sites as well as topography, ecosystem differences, and the metabolic biogeochemistry of the lichens. An exponential decrease in concentration of metals associated with fugitive dust (aluminum and others) versus distance from the mining sites, suggests elevated coarse particle emissions associated with mining operations. Near source concentrations of metals with an oil signature (vanadium and others) are less enhanced and more homogeneous than the metals in the fugitive dust, reflecting emission and deposition of smaller diameter particles at greater distances from oil processing sources. The mining and oil processing signatures are superimposed over elemental concentrations that reflect the nutrient needs of the lichens. These findings are being confirmed through ongoing studies using dichot samplers to collect coarse and fine particulate aerosol samples. The lichen samples collected beyond 50 km from the mining and processing sites cluster into a Pb isotope grouping with a 207Pb / 206Pb ratio of 0.8650 and a 208Pb / 206Pb ratio near 2.095. This grouping likely reflects the regional background Pb isotope ratio signature. 207Pb / 206Pb and 208Pb / 206Pb ratios decrease as one nears the mining and processing operations. This indicates that other Pb source(s), (e.g. Pb in the bitumen from the oil

  14. Map showing distribution of lead in stream-sediment samples, Richfield 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, William R.; Motooka, Jerry M.; McHugh, John B.

    1990-01-01

    This map of the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle, Utah, shows the regional distribution of lead in the less-than-0.180-mm (minus-80-mesh) fraction of stream sediments. It is part of a folio of maps of the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle, Utah, prepared under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program. Other published geochemical maps in this folio are listed in the references (this publication). The Richfield quadrangle is located in west-central Utah and includes the eastern part of the Pioche-Marysvale igneous and mineral belt, which extends from the vicinity of Pioche in southeastern Nevada, east-northeastward for 155 miles into central Utah. The western two-thirds of the Richfield quadrangle is part of the Basin and Range province, whereas the eastern third is part of the High Plateaus of Utah, a subprovince of the Colorado Plateau. Bedrock in the northern part of the Richfield quadrangle consists predominantly of Late Proterozoic and Paleozoic sedimentary strata that were thrust eastward during the Sevier orogeny in Cretaceous time onto an autochthon of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks located in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The southern part of the quadrangle is largely underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic rocks and related intrusions. Extensional tectonism in late Cenozoic time broke the bedrock terrain into a series of north-trending fault blocks; the uplifted mountain areas were eroded to various degrees and the resulting debris was deposited in adjacent basins. Most of the mineral deposits in the Pioche-Marysvale mineral belt were formed as a result of igneous activity in the middle and late Cenozoic time. A more complete description of the geology and a mineral-resource appraisal of the Richfield quadrangle appears in Steven and Morris (1984 and 1987). The regional sampling program was designed to define broad geochemical patterns and trends that can be utilized along with geological and geophysical data to assess the mineral

  15. Giant natural fluctuation models and anthropogenic warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovejoy, S.; Rio Amador, L.; Hébert, R.; Lima, I.

    2016-08-01

    Explanations for the industrial epoch warming are polarized around the hypotheses of anthropogenic warming (AW) and giant natural fluctuations (GNFs). While climate sceptics have systematically attacked AW, up until now they have only invoked GNFs. This has now changed with the publication by D. Keenan of a sample of 1000 series from stochastic processes purporting to emulate the global annual temperature since 1880. While Keenan's objective was to criticize the International Panel on Climate Change's trend uncertainty analysis (their assumption that residuals are only weakly correlated), for the first time it is possible to compare a stochastic GNF model with real data. Using Haar fluctuations, probability distributions, and other techniques of time series analysis, we show that his model has unrealistically strong low-frequency variability so that even mild extrapolations imply ice ages every ≈1000 years. Helped by statistics, the GNF model can easily be scientifically rejected.

  16. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S. J.; Van Aardenne, J.; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert Joseph; Volke, A.; Delgado Arias, S

    2011-01-01

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5 grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  17. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; van Aardenne, J.; Klimont, Z.; Andres, R.; Volke, A.; Delgado Arias, S.

    2010-06-01

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850-2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  18. Anthropogenic sulfur dioxide emissions: 1850-2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. J.; van Aardenne, J.; Klimont, Z.; Andres, R. J.; Volke, A.; Delgado Arias, S.

    2011-02-01

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850-2005 using a bottom-up mass balance method, calibrated to country-level inventory data. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties ranged up to 30%. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping. Emissions were distributed on a 0.5° grid by sector for use in coordinated climate model experiments.

  19. Anthropogenic influence on forest landscape in the Khumbu valley, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingua, Emanuele; Garbarino, Matteo; Urbinati, Carlo; Carrer, Marco

    2013-04-01

    High altitude Himalayan regions are geo-dynamically very active and very sensitive to natural and anthropogenic disturbances due to their steep slopes, variations of precipitations with elevation and short growing periods. Nonetheless, even in this remote region human pressure is often the most important factor affecting forest landscape. In the last decades the firewood demand has increased each year between September to December. The increase in the number of tourists, mountaineering, guides, porters, carpenters, lodges lead to a peak in the use of fuelwood. In order to understand anthropogenic impacts on forest, resources landscape and stand scale dynamics were analyzed in the Sagarmatha National Park (SNP) and its Buffer Zone in the Khumbu Valley (Nepal, Eastern Himalaya). Biological and historical data sources were employed, and a multi-scale approach was adopted to capture the influence of human activities on the distribution of tree species and forest structure. Stand structure and a range of environmental variables were sampled in 197 20x20 m square plots, and land use and anthropogenic variables were derived in a GIS environment (thematic maps and IKONOS, Landsat and Terra ASTER satellite images). We used multivariate statistical analyses to relate forest structure, anthropogenic influences, land uses, and topography. Fuel wood is the prime source of energy for cooking (1480-1880 Kg/person/year) and Quercus semecarpifolia, Rhododendron arboreum and Pinus wallichiana, among the others, are the most exploited species. Due to lack of sufficient energy sources deforestation is becoming a problem in the area. This might be a major threat causing soil erosion, landslides and other natural hazards. Among the 25 species of trees that were found in the Buffer Zone Community Forests of SNP, Pinus wallichiana, Lyonia ovalifolia, Quercus semecarpifolia and Rhododendron arboreum are the dominant species. The total stand density ranged from 228 to 379 tree/ha and the

  20. Anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Q; Weng, J; Wang, J

    2007-11-15

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview of anthropogenic radionuclide contamination in the environment, as well as the salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current development that contribute to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) commercial fuel reprocessing; (5) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes, and (6) nuclear accidents. Then, we summarize the geochemical behavior for radionuclides {sup 99}Tc, {sup 129}I, and {sup 237}Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment. Biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  1. Diagnosing Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to Colorado Floods in September 2013.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pall, P.; Patricola, C. M.; Wehner, M. F.; Stone, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Unusually heavy rainfall occurred over the Colorado Front Range during the second week of September 2013, with record or near-record totals recorded in several locations. It was associated predominantly with a stationary large-scale weather pattern (akin to the North American Monsoon, which occurs earlier in the year) that drove a strong plume of deep moisture inland from the Gulf of Mexico and eastern tropical Pacific towards the Front Range foothills. The resulting floods across the South Platte River basin impacted several thousands of people and many homes, roads, and businesses. A recent study using observational-based re-analysis to drive the regional WRF model finds that, given very little change in the large-scale weather pattern, there is an increase in atmospheric water vapour over northeast Colorado under anthropogenic climate warming, with a positive dynamical feedback drawing in moisture from further afield. This leads to a substantial increase in the magnitude and odds of heavy rainfall occurring over northeast Colorado during the rainy week of September 2013. Here we develop this work by including a hydrological modelling component in order to investigate any anthropogenic influence on the actual flood magnitude and occurrence across the South Platte basin during that time. We use WRF precipitation output from the aforementioned study - in both anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic configurations for September 2013 - to drive the recently developed high-resolution WRF-Hydro model over the basin and generate river runoff. Thus by comparing changes in runoff under the anthropogenic / non-anthropogenic driving conditions we assess any influence on the magnitude and odds of flood occurrence. Integral to this, we test the sensitivity of our results to hydrological parameters, such as infiltration, base flow, and land use/cover.

  2. Attributing Atmospheric Methane to Anthropogenic Emission Sources.

    PubMed

    Allen, David

    2016-07-19

    Methane is a greenhouse gas, and increases in atmospheric methane concentration over the past 250 years have driven increased radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Increases in atmospheric methane concentration since 1750 account for approximately 17% of increases in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, and that percentage increases by approximately a factor of 2 if the effects of the greenhouse gases produced by the atmospheric reactions of methane are included in the assessment. Because of the role of methane emissions in radiative forcing of the atmosphere, the identification and quantification of sources of methane emissions is receiving increased scientific attention. Methane emission sources include biogenic, geogenic, and anthropogenic sources; the largest anthropogenic sources are natural gas and petroleum systems, enteric fermentation (livestock), landfills, coal mining, and manure management. While these source categories are well-known, there is significant uncertainty in the relative magnitudes of methane emissions from the various source categories. Further, the overall magnitude of methane emissions from all anthropogenic sources is actively debated, with estimates based on source sampling extrapolated to regional or national scale ("bottom-up analyses") differing from estimates that infer emissions based on ambient data ("top-down analyses") by 50% or more. To address the important problem of attribution of methane to specific sources, a variety of new analytical methods are being employed, including high time resolution and highly sensitive measurements of methane, methane isotopes, and other chemical species frequently associated with methane emissions, such as ethane. This Account describes the use of some of these emerging measurements, in both top-down and bottom-up methane emission studies. In addition, this Account describes how data from these new analytical methods can be used in conjunction with chemical mass balance (CMB) methods for source

  3. Tidal salt marsh sediment in California, USA. Part 2: occurrence and anthropogenic input of trace metals.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Hyun-Min; Green, Peter G; Higashi, Richard M; Young, Thomas M

    2006-09-01

    Surface sediment samples (0-5 cm) from 5 tidal salt marshes along the coast in California, USA were analyzed to investigate the occurrence and anthropogenic input of trace metals. Among study areas, Stege Marsh located in the central San Francisco Bay was the most contaminated marsh. Concentrations of metals in Stege Marsh sediments were higher than San Francisco Bay ambient levels. Zinc (55.3-744 microg g(-1)) was the most abundant trace metal and was followed by lead (26.6-273 microg g(-1)). Aluminum normalized enrichment factors revealed that lead was the most anthropogenically impacted metal in all marshes. Enrichment factors of lead in Stege Marsh ranged from 8 to 49 (median=16). Sediments from reference marshes also had high enrichment factors (2-8) for lead, indicating that lead contamination is ubiquitous, possibly due to continuous input from atmospherically transported lead that was previously used as a gasoline additive. Copper, silver, and zinc in Stege Marsh were also enriched by anthropogenic input. Though nickel concentrations in Stege Marsh and reference marshes exceeded sediment quality guidelines, enrichment factors indicated nickel from anthropogenic input was negligible. Presence of nickel-rich source rock such as serpentinite in the San Francisco Bay watershed can explain high levels of nickel in this area. Coefficients of variation were significantly different between anthropogenically impacted and non-impacted metals and might be used as a less conservative indicator for anthropogenic input of metals when enrichment factors are not available.

  4. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  5. Conservation implications of anthropogenic impacts on visual communication and camouflage.

    PubMed

    Delhey, Kaspar; Peters, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Anthropogenic environmental impacts can disrupt the sensory environment of animals and affect important processes from mate choice to predator avoidance. Currently, these effects are best understood for auditory and chemosensory modalities, and recent reviews highlight their importance for conservation. We examined how anthropogenic changes to the visual environment (ambient light, transmission, and backgrounds) affect visual communication and camouflage and considered the implications of these effects for conservation. Human changes to the visual environment can increase predation risk by affecting camouflage effectiveness, lead to maladaptive patterns of mate choice, and disrupt mutualistic interactions between pollinators and plants. Implications for conservation are particularly evident for disrupted camouflage due to its tight links with survival. The conservation importance of impaired visual communication is less documented. The effects of anthropogenic changes on visual communication and camouflage may be severe when they affect critical processes such as pollination or species recognition. However, when impaired mate choice does not lead to hybridization, the conservation consequences are less clear. We suggest that the demographic effects of human impacts on visual communication and camouflage will be particularly strong when human-induced modifications to the visual environment are evolutionarily novel (i.e., very different from natural variation); affected species and populations have low levels of intraspecific (genotypic and phenotypic) variation and behavioral, sensory, or physiological plasticity; and the processes affected are directly related to survival (camouflage), species recognition, or number of offspring produced, rather than offspring quality or attractiveness. Our findings suggest that anthropogenic effects on the visual environment may be of similar importance relative to conservation as anthropogenic effects on other sensory modalities.

  6. The Occurrence of Contaminant Accumulation in Lead Pipe Scales from Domestic Drinking Water Distribution Systems-ABSTRACT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous work has shown that contaminants such as Al, As and Ra, can accumulate in drinking water distribution system solids. The release of accumulated contaminants back into the water supply could conceivably result in elevated levels at consumers’ taps. The current regulatory...

  7. Turbine Vane External Heat Transfer. Volume 1: Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of Surface Heat Transfer Distributions with Leading Edge Showerhead Film Cooling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, E. R.; Wilson, M. D.; Hylton, L. D.; Kaufman, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in predictive design capabilities for external heat transfer to turbine vanes was summarized. A two dimensional linear cascade (previously used to obtain vane surface heat transfer distributions on nonfilm cooled airfoils) was used to examine the effect of leading edge shower head film cooling on downstream heat transfer. The data were used to develop and evaluate analytical models. Modifications to the two dimensional boundary layer model are described. The results were used to formulate and test an effective viscosity model capable of predicting heat transfer phenomena downstream of the leading edge film cooling array on both the suction and pressure surfaces, with and without mass injection.

  8. The impact of EDTA on lead distribution and speciation in the accumulator Sedum alfredii by synchrotron X-ray investigation.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sheng-ke; Lu, Ling-li; Yang, Xiao-e; Huang, Hua-gang; Brown, Patrick; Labavitch, John; Liao, Hai-bing; He, Zhen-li

    2011-03-01

    The in vivo localization and speciation of lead (Pb) in tissues of the accumulator Sedum alfredii grown in EDTA-Pb and Pb(NO(3))(2) was studied by synchrotron X-ray investigation. The presence of EDTA-Pb in solution resulted in a significant reduction of Pb accumulation in S. alfredii. Lead was preferentially localized in the vascular bundles regardless of treatments but the intensities of Pb were lower in the plants treated with EDTA. Lead was predominantly presented as a Pb-cell wall complex in the plants regardless of its supply form. However, a relatively high proportion of Pb was observed as Pb-EDTA complex when the plant was treated with EDTA-Pb, but as a mixture of Pb(3)(PO(4))(2), Pb-malic, and Pb-GSH when cultured with ionic Pb. These results suggest that EDTA does not increase the internal mobility of Pb, although the soluble Pb-EDTA complex could be transported and accumulated within the plants of S. alfredii.

  9. Distribution of soil arsenic species, lead and arsenic bound to humic acid molar mass fractions in a contaminated apple orchard.

    PubMed

    Newton, Kimberly; Amarasiriwardena, Dulasiri; Xing, Baoshan

    2006-09-01

    Excessive application of lead arsenate pesticides in apple orchards during the early 1900s has led to the accumulation of lead and arsenic in these soils. Lead and arsenic bound to soil humic acids (HA) and soil arsenic species in a western Massachusetts apple orchard was investigated. The metal-humate binding profiles of Pb and As were analyzed with size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). It was observed that both Pb and As bind "tightly" to soil HA molar mass fractions. The surface soils of the apple orchard contained a ratio of about 14:1 of water soluble As (V) to As (III), while mono-methyl (MMA) and di-methyl arsenic (DMA) were not detectable. The control soil contained comparatively very low levels of As (III) and As (V). The analysis of soil core samples demonstrated that As (III) and As (V) species are confined to the top 20 cm of the soil.

  10. Non-parametric estimation of the post-lead-time survival distribution of screen-detected cancer cases.

    PubMed

    Xu, J L; Prorok, P C

    1995-12-30

    The goal of screening programmes for cancer is early detection and treatment with a consequent reduction in mortality from the disease. Screening programmes need to assess the true benefit of screening, that is, the length of time of extension of survival beyond the time of advancement of diagnosis (lead-time). This paper presents a non-parametric method to estimate the survival function of the post-lead-time survival (or extra survival time) of screen-detected cancer cases based on the observed total life time, namely, the sum of the lead-time and the extra survival time. We apply the method to the well-known data set of the HIP (Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York) breast cancer screening study. We make comparisons with the survival of other groups of cancer cases not detected by screening such as interval cases, cases among individuals who refused screening, and randomized control cases. As compared with Walter and Stitt's model, in which they made parametric assumptions for the extra survival time, our non-parametric method provides a better fit to HIP data in the sense that our estimator for the total survival time has a smaller sum of squares of residuals.

  11. Lead distribution and its potential risk to the environment: lesson learned from environmental monitoring of abandon mine.

    PubMed

    Nobuntou, Wanida; Parkpian, Preeda; Oanh, Nguyen Thi Kim; Noomhorm, Athapol; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, Aroon

    2010-11-01

    There are many abandon and existing mines (tin, lead and zinc) in the mountainous areas of Thailand. Toxic elements including heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) have been released and transported from the mining sites to the adjacent landscape. In Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand Pb contamination in the vicinity of the mine has occurred which could lead to potential health problems in downstream communities. To better understand current status of Pb contamination and accumulation in the surrounding environment and potential health impact, surface sediment, soil and plant samples were collected seasonally from representative monitoring sites along the aquatic track or flow regime. Potential health risk was determined using hazard quotient (HQ) as an index for local inhabitants who consume rice. Environmental monitoring illustrated that Pb concentrations in the surface sediment was as high as 869.4 mg kg(-1) dry weight and varied differently among stations sampled. Lead content in agricultural soil ranged between 137.8 to 613.5 mg kg(-1) dry weight and was inversely proportion to the distance from the point source. Moreover Pb was transported from the point source to down hill areas. At the highly polluted monitoring stations (S1, S2, and S3), concentrations of Pb exceeded the maximum allowable concentration for Pb in agricultural soil (300 mg kg(-1)) by 1.7-2 times. The Pb in soil was primarily associated with Fe/Mn oxides bound fraction (46-56%) followed by the organic bound fraction (25-30%). Lead uptake by plant varied and was species dependent. However root and tuber crops like cassava (19.92 mg Pb kg(-1) dry weight) and curcumin (3.25 mg Pb kg(-1) dry weight) could have removed Pb from the soil which suggest growing root crops in Pb contaminated soils should be avoided. However Cd, a co-contaminant at one of monitored stations (S4) yielded rice grain with Cd exceeding the maximum allowable concentration

  12. Enhanced shortwave cloud radiative forcing due to anthropogenic aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, S.E.; Slingo, A.

    1995-05-01

    It has been suggested that anthropogenic aerosols in the troposphere can influence the microphysical properties of clouds and in turn their reflectivity, thereby exerting a radiative influence on climate. This article presents the theoretical basis for of this so-called indirect forcing and reviews pertinent observational evidence and climate model calculations of its magnitude and geographical distribution. We restrict consideration to liquid-water clouds.

  13. Spatial distribution of lead in soils of Pb-Zn mining and smelting area of the Mitrovica Region, Republic of Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Aliu, Milihate; Šajn, Robert; Stafilov, Trajče

    2016-01-01

    An area of 301 km(2) in the Mitrovica region, Republic of Kosovo, was selected in order to evaluate the lead distribution in the soil. In total, 156 surface soil samples (0 to 5 cm) were collected. The lead content was determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It was found that the average content of lead in the surface soil is 450 mg/kg (with a range of 35-35000 mg/kg). For the entire study area 93% of the samples had lead levels above 100 mg/kg, eight samples below 100 mg/kg and only one sample had lead levels at 30 mg/kg. The effects of mining and metallurgical activities were further assessed using the enrichment factor (EF) value. The lead average exceeded the optimum value specified in the New Dutchlist by five times, while EU average value exceeded it up to 20 times. An area of 113 km(2) of the study area was enriched with Pb higher than the action value (530 mg/kg) while 287 km(2) had significant concentration levels with Pb (358 mg/kg) higher than the optimal value (85 mg/kg), according to New Dutchlist.

  14. Hadronic Single Inclusive k{sub perpendicular} Distributions inside One Jet Beyond the Modified-Leading-Log Approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Arleo, Francois; Perez-Ramos, Redamy; Machet, Bruno

    2008-02-08

    The hadronic k{sub perpendicular} spectrum inside one jet is determined including corrections of relative magnitude O({radical}({alpha}{sub s})) with respect to the modified-leading-logarithmic approximation (MLLA), at and beyond the limiting spectrum (assuming an infrared cutoff Q{sub 0}={lambda}{sub QCD} and Q{sub 0}{ne}{lambda}{sub QCD}). The agreement between our results and preliminary measurements by the CDF Collaboration is impressive, much better than at MLLA, pointing out very small overall nonperturbative contributions.

  15. Distribution of copper, lead, zinc, mercury, and arsenic in the surface sediments off the coast of northwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter; Leong, Kam W.

    1971-01-01

    Increasing interest in potentially harmful substances utilized and discarded by man has raised question about the normal distribution of chemical elements in the natural environment.  This interest prompted a baseline study of a pristine region off the northern coast of Alaska.  Information was gathered on currents, water clarity, nutrients, temperature and salinity, zooplakton, benthic communities, neritic fauna, bird and mammal population and pesticide residues, sediment composition and chemistry of the sediments and their interstitial waters.  This information will provide a base for ascertaining and evaluating future changes and for assessment of the potential hazard in this region and ecosystems elsewhere.

  16. Persistent Morbillivirus Infection Leads to Altered Cortactin Distribution in Histiocytic Sarcoma Cells with Decreased Cellular Migration Capacity.

    PubMed

    Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed; Contioso, Vanessa Bono; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Rohn, Karl; Ulrich, Reiner; Deschl, Ulrich; Kalkuhl, Arno; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Puff, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcomas represent rare but fatal neoplasms in humans. Based on the absence of a commercially available human histiocytic sarcoma cell line the frequently affected dog displays a suitable translational model. Canine distemper virus, closely related to measles virus, is a highly promising candidate for oncolytic virotherapy. Therapeutic failures in patients are mostly associated with tumour invasion and metastasis often induced by misdirected cytoskeletal protein activities. Thus, the impact of persistent canine distemper virus infection on the cytoskeletal protein cortactin, which is frequently overexpressed in human cancers with poor prognosis, was investigated in vitro in a canine histiocytic sarcoma cell line (DH82). Though phagocytic activity, proliferation and apoptotic rate were unaltered, a significantly reduced migration activity compared to controls (6 hours and 1 day after seeding) accompanied by a decreased number of cortactin mRNA transcripts (1 day) was detected. Furthermore, persistently canine distemper virus infected DH82 cells showed a predominant diffuse intracytoplasmic cortactin distribution at 6 hours and 1 day compared to controls with a prominent membranous expression pattern (p ≤ 0.05). Summarized, persistent canine distemper virus infection induces reduced tumour cell migration associated with an altered intracellular cortactin distribution, indicating cytoskeletal changes as one of the major pathways of virus-associated inhibition of tumour spread.

  17. Persistent Morbillivirus Infection Leads to Altered Cortactin Distribution in Histiocytic Sarcoma Cells with Decreased Cellular Migration Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohamed; Contioso, Vanessa Bono; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Rohn, Karl; Ulrich, Reiner; Deschl, Ulrich; Kalkuhl, Arno; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Puff, Christina

    2016-01-01

    Histiocytic sarcomas represent rare but fatal neoplasms in humans. Based on the absence of a commercially available human histiocytic sarcoma cell line the frequently affected dog displays a suitable translational model. Canine distemper virus, closely related to measles virus, is a highly promising candidate for oncolytic virotherapy. Therapeutic failures in patients are mostly associated with tumour invasion and metastasis often induced by misdirected cytoskeletal protein activities. Thus, the impact of persistent canine distemper virus infection on the cytoskeletal protein cortactin, which is frequently overexpressed in human cancers with poor prognosis, was investigated in vitro in a canine histiocytic sarcoma cell line (DH82). Though phagocytic activity, proliferation and apoptotic rate were unaltered, a significantly reduced migration activity compared to controls (6 hours and 1 day after seeding) accompanied by a decreased number of cortactin mRNA transcripts (1 day) was detected. Furthermore, persistently canine distemper virus infected DH82 cells showed a predominant diffuse intracytoplasmic cortactin distribution at 6 hours and 1 day compared to controls with a prominent membranous expression pattern (p ≤ 0.05). Summarized, persistent canine distemper virus infection induces reduced tumour cell migration associated with an altered intracellular cortactin distribution, indicating cytoskeletal changes as one of the major pathways of virus-associated inhibition of tumour spread. PMID:27911942

  18. Estimation of the Relationship Between Remotely Sensed Anthropogenic Heat Discharge and Building Energy Use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Weng, Qihao; Gurney, Kevin R.; Shuai, Yanmin; Hu, Xuefei

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between remotely sensed anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from residential and commercial buildings across multiple scales in the city of Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. The anthropogenic heat discharge was estimated with a remote sensing-based surface energy balance model, which was parameterized using land cover, land surface temperature, albedo, and meteorological data. The building energy use was estimated using a GIS-based building energy simulation model in conjunction with Department of Energy/Energy Information Administration survey data, the Assessor's parcel data, GIS floor areas data, and remote sensing-derived building height data. The spatial patterns of anthropogenic heat discharge and energy use from residential and commercial buildings were analyzed and compared. Quantitative relationships were evaluated across multiple scales from pixel aggregation to census block. The results indicate that anthropogenic heat discharge is consistent with building energy use in terms of the spatial pattern, and that building energy use accounts for a significant fraction of anthropogenic heat discharge. The research also implies that the relationship between anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use is scale-dependent. The simultaneous estimation of anthropogenic heat discharge and building energy use via two independent methods improves the understanding of the surface energy balance in an urban landscape. The anthropogenic heat discharge derived from remote sensing and meteorological data may be able to serve as a spatial distribution proxy for spatially-resolved building energy use, and even for fossil-fuel CO2 emissions if additional factors are considered.

  19. A dynamic model for the global cycling of anthropogenic vanadium - article no. GB4021

    SciTech Connect

    Hope, B.K.

    2008-12-15

    Vanadium is a major trace metal in fossil fuels. Combustion of residual fuel oils and coal in industrialized economies is recognized as the major source of anthropogenic vanadium. A dynamic mass balance model assessed the influence of anthropogenic inputs on the global distribution and cycling of vanadium between 1700 and 2100 assuming different fossil fuel consumption and V production (mining) scenarios. Anthropogenic V sources were divided into fossil fuel combustion, industrial, and domestic (nonindustrial human activity). By 2050, inputs of anthropogenic V could comprise approximate to 75-85% of those to the atmosphere, approximate to 21-33% to ocean dissolved, approximate to 9-13% to ocean particulate, and approximate to 28-43% of inputs to land; with between approximate to 61-64% of all anthropogenic inputs attributable to fossil fuel combustion. Contributions from combustion and industrial sources, although dominant relative to contributions from domestic sources between 1900 and 2100, were estimated to peak between 2000 and 2050. Accumulation of anthropogenic V on land and in the ocean apparently occurs because natural removal processes are unable to cope with increasing amounts and rates of anthropogenic contributions. Impacts or hazards associated with anthropogenic inputs are unlikely to be discernible or significant on a global scale, but may be measurable and meaningful at smaller scales (coastal waters, continental shelves, and bays), in the locality of specific sources, or given an unfavorable exposure scenario.

  20. Islands within islands: two montane palaeo-endemic birds impacted by recent anthropogenic fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Robin, V V; Gupta, Pooja; Thatte, Prachi; Ramakrishnan, Uma

    2015-07-01

    Anthropogenic habitat fragmentation of species that live in naturally patchy metapopulations such as mountaintops or sky islands experiences two levels of patchiness. Effects of such multilevel patchiness on species have rarely been examined. Metapopulation theory suggests that patchy habitats could have varied impacts on persistence, dependent on differential migration. It is not known whether montane endemic species, evolutionarily adapted to natural patchiness, are able to disperse between anthropogenic fragments at similar spatial scales as natural patches. We investigated historic and contemporary gene flow between natural and anthropogenic patches across the distribution range of a Western Ghats sky-island-endemic bird species complex. Data from 14 microsatellites for 218 individuals detected major genetic structuring by deep valleys, including one hitherto undescribed barrier. As expected, we found strong effects of historic genetic differentiation across natural patches, but not across anthropogenic fragments. Contrastingly, contemporary differentiation (D(PS)) was higher relative to historic differentiation (F(ST)) in anthropogenic fragments, despite the species' ability to historically traverse shallow valleys. Simulations of recent isolation resulted in high D(PS)/F(ST) values, confirming recent isolation in Western Ghats anthropogenic fragments and also suggesting that this ratio can be used to identifying recent fragmentation in the context of historic connectedness. We suggest that in this landscape, in addition to natural patchiness affecting population connectivity, anthropogenic fragmentation additionally impacts connectivity, making anthropogenic fragments akin to islands within natural islands of montane habitat, a pattern that may be recovered in other sky-island systems.

  1. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    SciTech Connect

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  2. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor ``foreshocks'', since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  3. How anthropogenic noise affects foraging.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhong; Siemers, Björn M; Koselj, Klemen

    2015-09-01

    The influence of human activity on the biosphere is increasing. While direct damage (e.g. habitat destruction) is relatively well understood, many activities affect wildlife in less apparent ways. Here, we investigate how anthropogenic noise impairs foraging, which has direct consequences for animal survival and reproductive success. Noise can disturb foraging via several mechanisms that may operate simultaneously, and thus, their effects could not be disentangled hitherto. We developed a diagnostic framework that can be applied to identify the potential mechanisms of disturbance in any species capable of detecting the noise. We tested this framework using Daubenton's bats, which find prey by echolocation. We found that traffic noise reduced foraging efficiency in most bats. Unexpectedly, this effect was present even if the playback noise did not overlap in frequency with the prey echoes. Neither overlapping noise nor nonoverlapping noise influenced the search effort required for a successful prey capture. Hence, noise did not mask prey echoes or reduce the attention of bats. Instead, noise acted as an aversive stimulus that caused avoidance response, thereby reducing foraging efficiency. We conclude that conservation policies may seriously underestimate numbers of species affected and the multilevel effects on animal fitness, if the mechanisms of disturbance are not considered.

  4. Anthropogenic noise affects vocal interactions.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Heather; Schmidt, Rouven; Kunc, Hansjoerg P

    2014-03-01

    Animal communication plays a crucial role in many species, and it involves a sender producing a signal and a receiver responding to that signal. The shape of a signal is determined by selection pressures acting upon it. One factor that exerts selection on acoustic signals is the acoustic environment through which the signal is transmitted. Recent experimental studies clearly show that senders adjust their signals in response to increased levels of anthropogenic noise. However, to understand how noise affects the whole process of communication, it is vital to know how noise affects the receiver's response during vocal interactions. Therefore, we experimentally manipulated ambient noise levels to expose male European robins (Erithacus rubecula) to two playback treatments consisting of the same song: one with noise and another one without noise. We found that males responding to a conspecific in a noise polluted environment increased minimum frequency and decreased song complexity and song duration. Thus, we show that the whole process of communication is affected by noise, not just the behaviour of the sender.

  5. Anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-08-26

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1-10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor "foreshocks", since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years.

  6. Anthropogenic Triggering of Large Earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Mulargia, Francesco; Bizzarri, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The physical mechanism of the anthropogenic triggering of large earthquakes on active faults is studied on the basis of experimental phenomenology, i.e., that earthquakes occur on active tectonic faults, that crustal stress values are those measured in situ and, on active faults, comply to the values of the stress drop measured for real earthquakes, that the static friction coefficients are those inferred on faults, and that the effective triggering stresses are those inferred for real earthquakes. Deriving the conditions for earthquake nucleation as a time-dependent solution of the Tresca-Von Mises criterion applied in the framework of poroelasticity yields that active faults can be triggered by fluid overpressures < 0.1 MPa. Comparing this with the deviatoric stresses at the depth of crustal hypocenters, which are of the order of 1–10 MPa, we find that injecting in the subsoil fluids at the pressures typical of oil and gas production and storage may trigger destructive earthquakes on active faults at a few tens of kilometers. Fluid pressure propagates as slow stress waves along geometric paths operating in a drained condition and can advance the natural occurrence of earthquakes by a substantial amount of time. Furthermore, it is illusory to control earthquake triggering by close monitoring of minor “foreshocks”, since the induction may occur with a delay up to several years. PMID:25156190

  7. Interruption of Infection Transmission in the Onchocerciasis Focus of Ecuador Leading to the Cessation of Ivermectin Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Lovato, Raquel; Guevara, Angel; Guderian, Ronald; Proaño, Roberto; Unnasch, Thomas; Criollo, Hipatia; Hassan, Hassan K.; Mackenzie, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A clinically significant endemic focus of onchocerciasis existing in Esmeraldas Province, coastal Ecuador has been under an ivermectin mass drug administration program since 1991. The main transmitting vector in this area is the voracious blackfly, Simulium exiguum. This paper describes the assessments made that support the decision to cease mass treatment. Methodology and Principle Findings: Thirty-five rounds of ivermectin treatment occurred between 1991–2009 with 29 of these carrying >85% coverage. Following the guidelines set by WHO for ceasing ivermectin distribution the impact on parasite transmission was measured in the two vector species by an O-150 PCR technique standard for assessing for the presence of Onchocerca volvulus. Up to seven collection sites in three major river systems were tested on four occasions between 1995 and 2008. The infectivity rates of 65.0 (CI 39–101) and 72.7 (CI 42–116) in 1995 dropped to zero at all seven collection sites by 2008. Assessment for the presence of antibodies against O. volvulus was made in 2001, 2006, 2007 and 2008 using standard ELISA assays for detecting anti-Ov16 antibodies. None of total of 1810 children aged 1–15 years (between 82 and 98% of children present in the surveyed villages) tested in the above years were found to be carrying antibodies to this antigen. These findings were the basis for the cessation of mass drug treatment with ivermectin in 2009. Significance: This fulfillment of the criteria for cessation of mass distribution of ivermectin in the only known endemic zone of onchocerciasis in Ecuador moves the country into the surveillance phase of official verification for national elimination of transmission of infection. These findings indicate that ivermectin given twice a year with greater than 85% of the community can move a program to the final stages of verification of transmission interruption. PMID:24853587

  8. Spatial distribution and the interdecadal change of leading modes of heat budget of the mixed-layer in the tropical Pacific and the association with ENSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Kumar, Arun; Huang, Bohua

    2016-03-01

    Using heat budget diagnosis of ocean mixed layer from the Global Ocean Data Assimilation System, the spatial distribution of the leading modes of the heat budget was examined. The analysis was for the tropical Pacific in 1979-2013 and was based on combined empirical orthogonal function (CEOF) analysis. The interdecadal changes of the leading modes and their associations with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) were also analyzed. The first leading CEOF mode (CEOF1) corresponds to the ENSO mature phase. The contribution from the zonal advection was relatively small along the equator, except the region near the Pacific coast of Central America. The vertical entrainment and diffusion (surface heat flux) had pronounced maxima with positive (negative) values along the equatorial central and eastern Pacific. The meridional advection displayed a different spatial pattern with large positive values on both sides of the equator and smaller values along the equator. The total meridional advection anomaly was mainly determined by advection of anomalous temperature by climatological current responsible for broadening of the ENSO SSTA pattern meridionally. The zonal advection varied almost simultaneously with the tendency of ocean temperature anomaly in the mixed layer. The second leading CEOF mode (CEOF2) included contribution to SSTA tendency during the ENSO developing phase. The distribution pattern and amplitude of the zonal advection in the eastern Pacific in CEOF2 was similar to but with opposite sign to that in CEOF1. The amplitudes of the other dynamical and thermodynamical terms were smaller than that in CEOF1 and spatial distributions displayed an opposite variation between the Pacific coast of Central America and central and eastern tropical Pacific in CEOF2. A comparison of two periods (1979-1999 and 2000-2013) suggested that coupling in the tropical Pacific weakened at ENSO time scales and shifted to a relatively higher frequency regime (from 2 to 4 years averaged

  9. B → ρ transition form factors and the ρ-meson transverse leading-twist distribution amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Hai-Bing; Wu, Xing-Gang; Han, Hua-Yong; Ma, Yang

    2015-05-01

    The QCD light-cone sum rules (LCSR) provide an effective way for dealing with heavy-to-light transition form factors (TFFs), in which the non-perturbative dynamics are parameterized into the light-meson’s light-cone distribution amplitudes (LCDAs). By taking the chiral correlator as the starting point, we derive new LCSRs for B\\to ρ TFFs up to twist-4 accuracy. In those LCSRs, the twist-2 transverse LCDA φ 2;ρ \\bot provides dominant contribution, while the twist-3 and twist-4 contributions are δ2-suppressed (δ ≃ {{m}ρ }/{{m}b}). Thus, they provide good platforms for testing φ 2;ρ \\bot behavior. For the purpose, we suggest a WH-model for φ 2;ρ \\bot , in which a single parameter B2;ρ \\bot ˜ a2\\bot dominantly controls its longitudinal distribution. When setting B2;ρ \\bot \\in [-0.20,+0.20], φ 2;ρ \\bot varies from the single-peak behavior to the double-humped behavior. We present a detailed comparison of the LCSR estimation for B\\to ρ TFFs with those predicted by pQCD and lattice QCD calculations. The TFFs become smaller with the increment of B2;ρ \\bot and a larger B2;ρ \\bot is not allowed by lattice QCD predictions. By using the extrapolated TFFs, we further predict the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM)-matrix element \\mid {{V}ub}\\mid with the help of two B\\to ρ semi-leptonic decays. The predicted \\mid {{V}ub}\\mid increases with the increment of B2;ρ \\bot , i.e. we have \\mid {{V}ub}\\mid =(2.91+/- 0.19)× {{10}-3} for B2;ρ \\bot =-0.20 and \\mid {{V}ub}\\mid =(3.11+/- 0.19)× {{10}-3} for B2;ρ \\bot =0.00. If treating the BABAR prediction on \\mid {{V}ub}\\mid as a criteria, we observe that B2;ρ \\bot should be within the region of [-0.20, +0.10], which indicates that the ρ-meson LCDA prefers a single-peak behavior rather than a double-humped behavior.

  10. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Sarmiento, J.L.

    1994-07-01

    This research focuses on improving the understanding of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide transient using observations and models of the past and present. In addition, an attempt is made to develop an ability to predict the future of the carbon cycle in response to continued anthropogenic perturbations and climate change. Three aspects of the anthropogenic carbon budget were investigated: (1) the globally integrated budget at the present time; (2) the time history of the carbon budget; and (3) the spatial distribution of carbon fluxes. One of the major activities of this study was the participation in the model comparison study of Enting, et al. [1994] carried out in preparation for the IPCC 1994 report.

  11. [Effects of Different Modifier Concentrations on Lead-Zinc Tolerance, Subcellular Distribution and Chemical Forms for Four Kinds of Woody Plants].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-hua; Zhang, Fu-yun; Wu, Xiao-fu; Liang, Xi; Yuan, Si-wen

    2015-10-01

    Four kinds of lead-zinc tolerant woody plants: Nerium oleander, Koelreuteria paniculata, Paulownia and Boehmeria were used as materials to estimate their enrichment and transferable capacity of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) and analyze the subcellular distribution and chemical speciation of Zn and Ph in different parts of plants, under different modifier concentrations (CK group: 100% lead-zinc slag plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved one: 85% of lead-zinc slag ± 10% peat ± 5% bacterial manure plus a small amount of phosphate fertilizer, improved two: 75% lead-zinc slag ± 20% peat ± 5% bacterial manure ± a small amount of phosphate). Results showed that: (1) The content of Pb, Zn in matrix after planting four kinds of plants was lower than before, no significant difference between improved one and improved two of Nerium oleander and Boehmeria was found, but improved two was better than improved one of Paulownia, while improved one was better than improved two of Koelreuteria paniculata; Four plants had relatively low aboveground enrichment coefficient of Pb and Zn, but had a high transfer coefficient, showed that the appropriate modifier concentration was able to improve the Pb and Zn enrichment and transfer ability of plants. (2) In subcellular distribution, most of Pb and Zn were distributed in plant cell wall components and soluble components while the distribution in cell organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts and nucleus component were less. Compared with CK group, two improved group made soluble components of the cell walls of Pb fixation and retention of zinc role in the enhancement. (3) As for the chemical forms of Pb and Zn in plants, the main chemical forms of Pb were hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and ethanol extractable forms, while other chemical form contents were few, the main chemical forms of Zn were different based on plant type. Compared with CK group, the proportion of the active Pb chemical form in different plant

  12. Yield and quality responses, plant metabolism and metal distribution pattern in aromatic rice under lead (Pb) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Umair; Tang, Xiangru

    2017-02-24

    Present study was planned to assess the yield and quality responses, plant physio-biochemical characters and Pb distribution pattern in two aromatic rice cultivars viz., Guixiangzhan (GXZ) and Nongxiang-18 (NX-18) under four different Pb-levels viz., control (0), low (400), medium (800) and high (1200) mg kg(-1)of soil. Results revealed that Pb toxicity increased H2O2, lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage while inhibited photosynthetic pigments production, but such increment was higher in NX-18 than GXZ. Furthermore, Pb toxicity variably affected protein, proline and soluble sugars and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidases (POD), catalases (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidases (APX) and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants viz., reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in both rice cultivars. The reductions in osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant activities were more severe in NX-18 than GXZ. Pb toxicity severely reduced yield and quality related attributes and plant biomass accumulation; however the reductions were more apparent NX-18 than GXZ. Furthermore, NX-18 accumulated less Pb proportions in roots (∼84%), and transferred more towards shoot, leaves, ears (at panicle heading (PH)) and grains (at maturity (MAT)) than GXZ (∼91% root Pb proportions). Hence, the ability of GXZ to retain higher Pb contents in roots and less towards upper plant parts, higher osmolyte accumulation and antioxidant activities and less yield reduction as compare to NX-18 might be an adaptive response of GXZ under Pb toxicity.

  13. Anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of cadmium in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiao; Cheng, Hongguang; Li, Qian; Lin, Chunye

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we estimated atmospheric Cd emissions from anthropogenic sources in China from 1990 to 2010 on the basis of consumption or output data and emission factors. China emitted approximately 2186 t Cd to the atmosphere in 2010, with approximately 77% and 14% of the emissions arising from non-ferrous metal smelting and coal combustion, respectively. Temporal changes in the total Cd emissions were characterized by two periods of increase (1990-2000 and 2001-2010) and a short period of decrease (2000-2001) due to application of energy-saving and cleaner production technologies. Overall, atmospheric Cd emissions increased from 474 t in 1990 to 2186 t in 2010 due to rapid economic growth, whereas energy-saving and cleaner production technologies have been in use since 2000. Spatial distribution of the atmospheric Cd emissions was dominated primarily by non-ferrous metal smelting and coal combustion. Emissions are high in Hunan and Yunnan Provinces because of high production non-ferrous metal smelting and in Shandong Province because of high coal consumption and moderate non-ferrous metal production.

  14. Possibility of a gas-cooled Peltier current lead in the 200 m-class superconducting direct current transmission and distribution system of CASER-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawahara, Toshio; Emoto, Masahiko; Watanabe, Hirofumi; Hamabe, Makoto; Yamaguchi, Sataro; Hikichi, Yasuo; Minowa, Masahiro

    Global energy problems should be solved quickly, and superconducting applications are highly demanded as energy saving technologies. Among them, long-distance superconducting transmission seems to be one of the most promising for energy saving by energy sharing. On the other hand, such large systems can be constructed from smaller network systems that can be enhanced by scaling up to the superconducting grid. Reducing heat leak to the low temperature end is the most important aspect of technology for practical superconducting applications, and heat leak reduction at the terminal is a key goal especially for small-length applications. At Chubu University, we have developed a 200 m-class superconducting direct current transmission and distribution system (CASER-2), in which we also used a Peltier current lead (PCL) as heat insulation at the terminal. PCL is composed of a thermoelectric material and a copper lead. In actual transmission and distribution applications, the cables are also cooled by the coolant. After the circulation, the coolant could also be used to cool the current lead. We will discuss the performance of such gas-cooled systems as the total performance of applied superconducting systems using the experimental parameters obtained in CASER-2.

  15. Background determination of element and anthropogenic compounds in soils of the Maryland coastal plain

    SciTech Connect

    Nemeth, G.R.; Romano, D.J.; Smegal, D.; Paul, J.

    1996-12-31

    Background concentrations of elements and anthropogenic compounds in soil were determined for the coastal plain region of the northern Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of a major military facility. Soils used to establish background are from off-site locations. Lead and octachlorodibenzodioxin were determined to be anthropogenic regional contaminants. The background concentrations of arsenic, beryllium, and manganese exceed Region III Environmental Protection Agency risk based criteria for residential soils.

  16. Disruptions in precipitation cycles: Attribution to anthropogenic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapiador, Francisco J.; Behrangi, Ali; Haddad, Ziad S.; Katsanos, Dimitris; Castro, Manuel

    2016-03-01

    Disruptions of the spatiotemporal distribution of surface precipitation that are induced by global warming may affect Earth's climate more significantly than changes in the total precipitation amount. Identifying such disruptions at global scales is not straightforward, as it requires disentangling a weak signal from comprehensive, gapless data in a 5-D configuration space whose dimensions are latitude, longitude, time, power, and period. Drawing on reliable, state-of-the-art climate model simulations from the fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) experiments and using well-tested analytical methods, clear changes in the global precipitation cycles have been found for the simulated period 1862-2003. It has also been found that the disruptions may be attributable to anthropogenic forcing. The disruptions are relevant enough to envision significant changes in precipitation timing if human greenhouse gas emissions continue to accumulate in the future. It is noteworthy that the effects of anthropogenic forcings have been found not predominantly in the intra-annual cycles, i.e., in the short-term weather patterns that would be indicative of local effects, but rather in the interannual planetary long-term variability of the atmosphere. This suggests a global, distributed effect of the anthropogenic forcings on precipitation, which in turn is indicative of changes in the precipitation patterns linked with changes in the thermodynamics of the precipitation microphysics and to a lesser extent with the dynamical aspects of the precipitation processes.

  17. Accumulation and distribution of iron, cadmium, lead and nickel in cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing two different chelated iron supplies.

    PubMed

    Csog, Árpád; Mihucz, Victor G; Tatár, Eniko; Fodor, Ferenc; Virág, István; Majdik, Cornelia; Záray, Gyula

    2011-07-01

    Cucumber plants grown in hydroponics containing 10 μM Cd(II), Ni(II) and Pb(II), and iron supplied as Fe(III) EDTA or Fe(III) citrate in identical concentrations, were investigated by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry with special emphasis on the determination of iron accumulation and distribution within the different plant compartments (root, stem, cotyledon and leaves). The extent of Cd, Ni and Pb accumulation and distribution were also determined. Generally, iron and heavy-metal contaminant accumulation was higher when Fe(III) citrate was used. The accumulation of nickel and lead was higher by about 20% and 100%, respectively, if the iron supply was Fe(III) citrate. The accumulation of Cd was similar. In the case of Fe(III) citrate, the total amounts of Fe taken up were similar in the control and heavy-metal-treated plants (27-31 μmol/plant). Further, the amounts of iron transported from the root towards the shoot of the control, lead- and nickel-contaminated plants were independent of the iron(III) form. Although Fe mobility could be characterized as being low, its distribution within the shoot was not significantly affected by the heavy metals investigated.

  18. Increased anthropogenic pressure decreases species richness in tropical intertidal reefs.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Adriana Brizon; Carvalho, Fabrício Lopes; de Macedo Carneiro, Pedro Bastos; Rossi, Sergio; de Oliveira Soares, Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    Multiple human stressors affect tropical intertidal sandstone reefs, but little is known about their biodiversity and the environmental impacts of these stressors. In the present study, multiple anthropogenic pressures were integrated using the relative environmental pressure index (REPI) and related to benthic community structure across an intertidal gradient in five sandstone reefs in the tropical South Atlantic coast. Greater species richness and diversity were noted in the low intertidal zones. There was a negative relationship between REPI and species richness, suggesting that increasing anthropogenic pressure has decreased benthic richness. The factors associated with the loss of richness were jetties built to control erosion, urban areas, beachfront kiosks and restaurants, fish markets, and storm sewers with illegal sewage connections. Our results highlight the need for better infrastructure planning and rigorous monitoring of coastal urban areas, since the large influence of multiple human pressures in these reefs leads to biodiversity losses.

  19. Changes in South Pacific anthropogenic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waters, Jason F.; Millero, Frank J.; Sabine, Christopher L.

    2011-12-01

    The changes in anthropogenic CO2 are evaluated in the South Pacific, along the meridional line P18 (110°W) and the zonal line P06 (32°S), using the extended multiple linear regression (eMLR) method. The structure of the column inventory of anthropogenic CO2 on P18 is similar to the southern section of P16 in the central South Pacific (150°W), but the overall increase is greater by approximately 5-10 μmol kg-1. The value of the anthropogenic CO2 inventory on P18 is in agreement at the crossover point of an earlier evaluation of P06. Subsequent changes in pH due to the increase in anthropogenic CO2 are also evaluated. The change in pH is determined from the changes in anthropogenic CO2 and do not reflect variability in other decadal signals. For both cruise tracks, the average annual change in pH is -0.0016 mol kg-1 yr-1. This value is in good agreement with the average decrease in pH in the North Pacific, at the Hawaii Times Series and the subtropical North Atlantic. The uptake rates of anthropogenic CO2 are within reasonable agreement with similar studies in the South Pacific. There is evidence for greater uptake of anthropogenic CO2 in the western South Pacific and is attributed to the formation of subtropical Mode Water in the region.

  20. Transboundary atmospheric lead pollution.

    PubMed

    Erel, Yigal; Axelrod, Tamar; Veron, Alain; Mahrer, Yitzak; Katsafados, Petros; Dayan, Uri

    2002-08-01

    A high-temporal resolution collection technique was applied to refine aerosol sampling in Jerusalem, Israel. Using stable lead isotopes, lead concentrations, synoptic data, and atmospheric modeling, we demonstrate that lead detected in the atmosphere of Jerusalem is not only anthropogenic lead of local origin but also lead emitted in other countries. Fifty-seven percent of the collected samples contained a nontrivial fraction of foreign atmospheric lead and had 206Pb/207Pb values which deviated from the local petrol-lead value (206Pb/207Pb = 1.113) by more than two standard deviations (0.016). Foreign 206Pb/207Pb values were recorded in Jerusalem on several occasions. The synoptic conditions on these dates and reported values of the isotopic composition of lead emitted in various countries around Israel suggest that the foreign lead was transported to Jerusalem from Egypt, Turkey, and East Europe. The average concentration of foreign atmospheric lead in Jerusalem was 23 +/- 17 ng/m3, similar to the average concentration of local atmospheric lead, 21 +/- 18 ng/ m3. Hence, the load of foreign atmospheric lead is similar to the load of local atmospheric lead in Jerusalem.

  1. Synoptic Weather Patterns Leading to Snowfall in the Northeastern United States and the Resulting Spatial Distribution of Snowfall Amounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmosky, C. C.

    2006-05-01

    Frozen precipitation results in hazardous conditions in the densely populated northeastern United States, yet little attention has been given to the important relationship between synoptic weather patterns and snowfall amounts. Recent increases in total seasonal snowfall amounts in some parts of the region have been attributed to increases in the frequency and/or intensity of certain weather patterns. Direct accounts of synoptic weather patterns are rarely recorded in conjunction with standard meteorological observations, and, as such, they must be diagnosed after the fact. Given the difficulty in isolating consistent synoptic weather patterns from standard meteorological datasets, to date there has been no quantitative study on the amount of snow that falls from each of the distinct synoptic systems that affect the region (nor' easters, lake-effect storms, overrunning events, etc.). This study isolates distinct synoptic types using four-times daily synoptic weather data, principal components analysis and clustering analysis for several cities in the region stretching from Maine to southwestern Virginia. The results of this synoptic typing are specific to the city for which the analysis was performed, and are not necessarily directly comparable to neighboring cities. The algorithm used to delineate synoptic types does, however, take into consideration the temporal progression of synoptic weather patterns over each city and isolates days that are transitional from one synoptic pattern to another. The calendar of daily synoptic types generated in this study is joined to a relatively high resolution, gridded snowfall dataset to isolate areas where a given synoptic pattern is responsible for a given percentage of snowfall. The final product is a series of monthly and seasonal maps of snowfall distributions resulting from each of the individual synoptic patterns.

  2. Maps showing distribution of lead in heavy-mineral concentrates, Richfield 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, William R.; Motooka, Jerry M.; McHugh, John B.

    1985-01-01

    These maps are part of a folio of maps of the Richfield 1° x 2 ° quadrangle, Utah, prepared under the Conterminuous United States Mineral Assessment Program. Other publications in this folio are listed in the selected references. Located in west-central Utah, the Richfield quadrangle covers the eastern part of the Plioche-Marysvale igneous and mineral belt, which extends from the vicinity of Plioche in southeastern Nevada east-northeastward for 250 km (155 mi) into central Utah. The western two-thirds of the Richfield quadrangle is in the Basin and Range province and the eastern third is in the High Plateaus of Utah, a subprovince of the Colorado Plateau. Bedrock in the northern part of the Richfield quadrangle consists predominantly of latest Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary strata that were thrust eastward during the Sevier orogeny in Cretaceous time onto an autochthon of Mesozoic sedimentary rocks in the eastern part of the quadrangle. The southern part of the quadrangle is largely underlain by Oligocene and younger volcanic rocks and related intrusions. Extensional tectonism in late Cenozoic time broke the bedrock terrane into a series of north-trending fault blocks; the uplifted mountain areas were deeply eroded and the resulting debris deposited in the adjacent basins. Most of the mineral deposits in the Pioche-Marysvale mineral belt were formed during igneous activity in middle and late Cenozoic time. The regional sampling program was designed to define broad geochemical patterns and trends which can be utilized along with geologic and geophysical data to assess the mineral resource potential for this quadrangle. These maps of the Richfield 1° x 2° quadrangle show the regional distributions of copper in two fractions of heavy-mineral concentrates of drainage sediments.

  3. The contemporary anthropogenic chromium cycle.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Schewel, Laura; Graedel, T E

    2006-11-15

    Chromium is an essential engineering metal used in stainless and alloy steels, chemicals, and refractory products. Using material flow analysis, all major anthropogenic chromium flows are characterized for the year 2000, from mining through discard, on three spatial levels: fifty-four countries, nine world regions, and the planet. Included is the first detailed quantification of chromium in internationally traded finished products and diverse waste streams. Findings include (1) 78% of chromium flow entering final use is added as a net addition to stock on the global level; most countries are close to this figure; (2) the majority of mining occurs in Africa (2400 Gg Cr/yr) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (1090 Gg Cr/yr), while the major end-users are Asia, Europe, and North America at 1150, 1140, and 751 Gg Cr/yr, respectively; (3) waste flows of chromium are the greatest in Europe (420 Gg Cr/yr), Asia (370 Gg Cr/yr), and North America (290 Gg Cr/yr), but the composition of these waste flows varies greatly among the world regions; (4) releases of chromium by the global system, which total 2630 Gg Cr/yr, are nearly evenly divided among tailings, ferrochromium slag, downgraded scrap, and post-consumer losses; (5) many countries have a heavy foreign dependence on chromium in the all forms, as is demonstrated for the United States. The findings relating to in-use stock changes and finished product trade are relevant to industry, allowing for more accurate planning for future scrap availability. The quantification of releases due to discards and dissipation hold environmental and human health relevance, while the full life cycle international trade assessment addresses local scarcity.

  4. Microbial DNA records historical delivery of anthropogenic mercury

    PubMed Central

    Poulain, Alexandre J; Aris-Brosou, Stéphane; Blais, Jules M; Brazeau, Michelle; Keller, Wendel (Bill); Paterson, Andrew M

    2015-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an anthropogenic pollutant that is toxic to wildlife and humans, but the response of remote ecosystems to globally distributed Hg is elusive. Here, we use DNA extracted from a dated sediment core to infer the response of microbes to historical Hg delivery. We observe a significant association between the mercuric reductase gene (merA) phylogeny and the timing of Hg deposition. Using relaxed molecular clock models, we show a significant increase in the scaled effective population size of the merA gene beginning ~200 years ago, coinciding with the Industrial Revolution and a coincident strong signal for positive selection acting on residues in the terminal region of the mercuric reductase. This rapid evolutionary response of microbes to changes in the delivery of anthropogenic Hg indicates that microbial genomes record ecosystem response to pollutant deposition in remote regions. PMID:26057844

  5. Mass Transport Separation via Grace: Anthropogenic and Natural Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickey, J. O.; de Viron, O.

    2011-12-01

    The GRACE satellite has been monitoring the change in the mass distribution at the Earth surface for nearly 10 years. This becomes enough to study long-term mass change, and to separate interannual variations from trends. Up to now, many studies have shown a fast (and non-linear) loss of mass in many glaciers and ice sheets. They all have been attributed to global warming, though part of the mass variation is also associated with the classical long-term climate variation. Using climatic data as well as the GRACE mascon solution, we can separate the part associated to the anthropogenic part from the non-anthropogenic part, in order to better estimate those contributions. Results and implications from our analyses will be presented.

  6. Multidisciplinary study on anthropogenic landslides in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puglia, Christopher; Derron, Marc-Henri; Nicolet, Pierrick; Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Devkota, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    Nepal is a country in which shallow landslide is a frequent phenomenon. Monsoon is the main triggering factor but anthropogenic influence is often significant too. Indeed, many infrastructures, such as roads or water pipes, are not built in a rigorous way because of a lack of funds and knowledge. In the present study we examine the technical, social and economic issues of landslide management for two sites in Nepal. The first site is located in Sanusiruwari VDC (Sindhupalchock district, central Nepal) and the second one in Namadi VDC (Ramecchap district, central Nepal). Both sites are affected by landslides induced by the construction of hydropower plants. These landslides may threaten the viability of the hydropower plants. At both sites the problems are quite similar, but the first site project is a private one and the second one is a public one implemented by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). For both sites, bioengineering methods using Vetiver (Vetyveria zizanioides) plantations is the main stabilization measure. To follow the progression of both landslides, fieldwork observations were conducted before and after the 2012 rainy season, including photogrammetric and distancemeter acquisitions. Main issues were discussed with communities and stakeholders of the hydropower projects through interviews and participatory risk mapping. Main issues include: lack of communication between the project managers and communities leading to conflict and the lack of maintenance of the bio-engineering sites, leading to less effective Vetiver growth and slope stabilization. Comparing the landslide management (technical, social and economic) of the two projects allows to point out some specific issues within an integrated risk perspective.

  7. Spatial distribution of cadmium and lead in the sediments of the western Anzali wetlands on the coast of the Caspian Sea (Iran).

    PubMed

    Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool; Esmaili-Sari, Abbas; Mohammadi, Jahangard; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Savabieasfahani, Mozhgan

    2013-09-15

    Spatial distribution patterns of total cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb), their bioavailable fractions and total organic matter in sediment from Anzali wetlands are provided. Total sediment Pb was higher than Cd (34.95 versus 0.024 μg/g dry weight). The geoaccumulation index indicated that the sediment was "uncontaminated", but some stations were categorized as "unpolluted" to "moderately polluted". Less than 0.01 of Pb existed in exchangeable and carbonate fractions. The sum of exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions of Cd was 42%, suggesting that Cd poses high risk to the aquatic ecosystems. Total Cd and Pb exhibited positive relationships with total organic matter. Considering spatial distribution maps of total and bioavailable fractions of metals suggested that high concentrations of metals does not necessarily indicate high bioavailable fraction. The methodologies we used in this study can be in more effective management of aquatic ecosystems, as well as ecological risk assessment of metals, and remediation programs.

  8. Interactions of microbial biofilms with toxic trace metals; 2: Prediction and verification of an integrated computer model of lead (II) distribution in the presence of microbial activity

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, K.M.; Murgel, G.A.; Lion, L.W.; Shuler, M.L. )

    1994-06-20

    The interfacial interactions of a toxic trace metal, Pb, with a surface modified by a marine film-forming bacterium, Pseudomonas atlantica, were predicted by a structured biofilm model used in conjunction with a chemical speciation model. The validity of the integrated model was tested for batch and continuous operations. Dynamic responses of the biophase due to transient lead concentration increases were also simulated. The reasonable predictions achieved by the model demonstrate its utility in describing trace metal distributions in complex systems where the adsorption properties of inorganic surfaces are modified by adherent bacteria and bacterial production of extracellular polymers.

  9. Fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy measured in a lead slowing-down spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Romano, C.; Danon, Y.; Block, R.; Thompson, J.; Blain, E.; Bond, E.

    2010-01-15

    A new method of measuring fission fragment mass and energy distributions as a function of incident neutron energy in the range from below 0.1 eV to 1 keV has been developed. The method involves placing a double-sided Frisch-gridded fission chamber in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's lead slowing-down spectrometer (LSDS). The high neutron flux of the LSDS allows for the measurement of the energy-dependent, neutron-induced fission cross sections simultaneously with the mass and kinetic energy of the fission fragments of various small samples. The samples may be isotopes that are not available in large quantities (submicrograms) or with small fission cross sections (microbarns). The fission chamber consists of two anodes shielded by Frisch grids on either side of a single cathode. The sample is located in the center of the cathode and is made by depositing small amounts of actinides on very thin films. The chamber was successfully tested and calibrated using 0.41+-0.04 ng of {sup 252}Cf and the resulting mass distributions were compared to those of previous work. As a proof of concept, the chamber was placed in the LSDS to measure the neutron-induced fission cross section and fragment mass and energy distributions of 25.3+-0.5 mug of {sup 235}U. Changes in the mass distributions as a function of incident neutron energy are evident and are examined using the multimodal fission mode model.

  10. Anthropogenic versus natural control on trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope stratigraphy in peat sediments of southeast Florida (USA), ˜1500 AD to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenov, George D.; Brenner, Mark; Tucker, Jaimie L.

    2009-06-01

    is oil combustion. The decline in V accumulation after 1970 in the BCM peat corresponds to the introduction of low-sulfur fuels and the change from heavy to distilled oils since the 1970s. After the 1920s, Pb distribution in the peat follows closely the history of alkyl lead consumption in the US, which peaked in the 1970s. Pb isotopes support this inference and furthermore, record changes in the ore sources used to produce leaded gasoline. Idaho ores dominated the peat Pb isotope record until the 1960s, followed by Pb from Mississippi Valley Type deposits from the 1960s to the 1980s. Enhanced fluxes of Cu, Zn, Cd, Sn, Sb, Bi, and to some extent Ni during the last century are likely also related to fossil fuel combustion. Local agricultural activities may also have influenced the geochemical cycles of Cu and Zn. The peat record shows enhanced U accumulation during the last century, possibly related to phosphate mining in western Florida. Sr isotopes in the peat core also reflect anthropogenic influence. The 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio decreases from natural background values in the basal part of the core to lower values in the upper part of the core. The Sr isotope shift is probably related to quarrying operations in Florida, and marks the first time an anthropogenic signal has been detected using the Sr isotope record in a peat core.

  11. Late Holocene climate: Natural or anthropogenic?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruddiman, W. F.; Fuller, D. Q.; Kutzbach, J. E.; Tzedakis, P. C.; Kaplan, J. O.; Ellis, E. C.; Vavrus, S. J.; Roberts, C. N.; Fyfe, R.; He, F.; Lemmen, C.; Woodbridge, J.

    2016-03-01

    For more than a decade, scientists have argued about the warmth of the current interglaciation. Was the warmth of the preindustrial late Holocene natural in origin, the result of orbital changes that had not yet driven the system into a new glacial state? Or was it in considerable degree the result of humans intervening in the climate system through greenhouse gas emissions from early agriculture? Here we summarize new evidence that moves this debate forward by testing both hypotheses. By comparing late Holocene responses to those that occurred during previous interglaciations (in section 2), we assess whether the late Holocene responses look different (and thus anthropogenic) or similar (and thus natural). This comparison reveals anomalous (anthropogenic) signals. In section 3, we review paleoecological and archaeological syntheses that provide ground truth evidence on early anthropogenic releases of greenhouse gases. The available data document large early anthropogenic emissions consistent with the anthropogenic ice core anomalies, but more information is needed to constrain their size. A final section compares natural and anthropogenic interpretations of the δ13C trend in ice core CO2.

  12. New classification of landslide-inducing anthropogenic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Derron, M.-H.; Nadim, F.; Leroi, E.

    2012-04-01

    Although landslides are usually considered typical examples of natural hazards, they can be influenced by human activities. Many examples can be found in the literature about slope instabilities induced by anthropogenic activities, ranging from small superficial landslides to rock avalanches. Research on this topic is of primary importance for understanding and mitigation of landslide risk. Indeed, slope stabilities influenced by human actions contribute significantly to the risk level because, by definition, they are located where elements at risk and people are present. Within the framework of the European project SafeLand "Living with Landslide Risk in Europe", the authors analyzed the landslides induced by anthropogenic factors in Europe and elsewhere (SafeLand deliverable D1.6). During the bibliographical research, it appeared that a complete and illustrated classification on human activities influencing slope stabilities does not yet exist. Therefore, a new classification was introduced by Michoud et al. (2011) about anthropogenic activities affecting slope stability conditions. This classification takes into account conceptual processes leading to landslides (Terzaghi, 1950; Jaboyedoff and Derron, 2005) and the distinction between destabilization factors and triggering factors (Vaunat et al., 1994; Leroueil et al., 1996). The classification was tested and improved through fifty-eight well-documented case studies, even lots of large landslides, such as Elm, Aberfan, Namsos and Rissa landslides, etc. Furthermore, the boundary between natural and "anthropogenic" landslide triggers (e.g. water run-off modified by new land-uses, creating landslides some km farther), and the time during which changes and reactions are to be considered as direct consequences of human activities were highlighted. Finally, anthropogenic influences can also be positive and examples of (non-voluntary) positive human impacts on slope stability are presented. Jaboyedoff, M. and Derron, M

  13. Marine anthropogenic litter on British beaches: A 10-year nationwide assessment using citizen science data.

    PubMed

    Nelms, S E; Coombes, C; Foster, L C; Galloway, T S; Godley, B J; Lindeque, P K; Witt, M J

    2017-02-01

    Growing evidence suggests that anthropogenic litter, particularly plastic, represents a highly pervasive and persistent threat to global marine ecosystems. Multinational research is progressing to characterise its sources, distribution and abundance so that interventions aimed at reducing future inputs and clearing extant litter can be developed. Citizen science projects, whereby members of the public gather information, offer a low-cost method of collecting large volumes of data with considerable temporal and spatial coverage. Furthermore, such projects raise awareness of environmental issues and can lead to positive changes in behaviours and attitudes. We present data collected over a decade (2005-2014 inclusive) by Marine Conservation Society (MCS) volunteers during beach litter surveys carried along the British coastline, with the aim of increasing knowledge on the composition, spatial distribution and temporal trends of coastal debris. Unlike many citizen science projects, the MCS beach litter survey programme gathers information on the number of volunteers, duration of surveys and distances covered. This comprehensive information provides an opportunity to standardise data for variation in sampling effort among surveys, enhancing the value of outputs and robustness of findings. We found that plastic is the main constituent of anthropogenic litter on British beaches and the majority of traceable items originate from land-based sources, such as public littering. We identify the coast of the Western English Channel and Celtic Sea as experiencing the highest relative litter levels. Increasing trends over the 10-year time period were detected for a number of individual item categories, yet no statistically significant change in total (effort-corrected) litter was detected. We discuss the limitations of the dataset and make recommendations for future work. The study demonstrates the value of citizen science data in providing insights that would otherwise not be

  14. Sinks as integrative elements of the anthropogenic metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kral, Ulrich; Brunner, Paul H.

    2015-04-01

    The anthropogenic metabolism is an open system requiring exchange of materials and energy between the anthroposphere and the environment. Material and energy flows are taken from nature and become utilized by men. After utilization, the materials either remain in the anthroposphere as recycling products, or they leave the anthroposphere as waste and emission flows. To accommodate these materials without jeopardizing human and environmental health, limited natural sinks are available; thus, man-made sinks have to be provided where natural sinks are missing or overloaded. The oral presentation (1) suggests a coherent definition of the term "sink", encompassing natural and man-made processes, (2) presents a framework to analyse and evaluate anthropogenic material flows to sinks, based on the tool substance flow analysis and impact assessment methodology, and (3) applies the framework in a case study approach for selected substances such as Copper and Lead in Vienna and Perfluorooctane sulfonate in Switzerland. Finally, the numeric results are aggregated in terms of a new indicator that specifies on a regional scale which fractions of anthropogenic material flows to sinks are acceptable. The following results are obtained: In Vienna, 99% of Cu flows to natural and man-made sinks are in accordance with accepted standards. However, the 0.7% of Cu entering urban soils and the 0.3% entering receiving waters surpass the acceptable level. In the case of Pb, 92% of all flows into sinks prove to be acceptable, but 8% are disposed of in local landfills with limited capacity. For PFOS, 96% of all flows into sinks are acceptable. 4% cannot be evaluated due to a lack of normative criteria, despite posing a risk for human health and the environment. The case studies corroborate the need and constraints of sinks to accommodate inevitable anthropogenic material flows.

  15. Hyperspectral observation of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution in coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Olga; Loupian, Evgeny; Mityagina, Marina; Uvarov, Ivan

    The work presents results of anthropogenic and biogenic pollution detection in coastal zones of the Black and Caspian Seas based on satellite hyperspetral data provided by the Hyperion and HICO instruments. Techniques developed on the basis of the analysis of spectral characteristics calculated in special points were employed to address the following problems: (a) assessment of the blooming intensity of cyanobacteria and their distribution in bays of western Crimea and discrimination between anthropogenic pollutant discharge events and algae bloom; (b) detection of anthropogenic pollution in Crimean lakes utilized as industrial liquid discharge reservoirs; (c) detection of oil pollution in areas of shelf oil production in the Caspian Sea. Information values of different spectral bands and their composites were estimated in connection with the retrieval of the main sea water components: phytoplankton, suspended matter and colored organic matter, and also various anthropogenic pollutants, including oil. Software tools for thematic hyperspectral data processing in application to the investigation of sea coastal zones and internal water bodies were developed on the basis of the See the Sea geoportal created by the Space Research Institute RAS. The geoportal is focused on the study of processes in the world ocean with the emphasis on the advantages of satellite systems of observation. The tools that were introduced into the portal allow joint analysis of quasi-simultaneous satellite data, in particular data from the Hyperion, HICO, OLI Landsat-8, ETM Landsat-7 and TM Landsat-5 instruments. Results of analysis attempts combining data from different sensors are discussed. Their strong and weak points are highlighted. The study was completed with partial financial support from The Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants # 14-05-00520-a and 13-07-12017.

  16. Modeling biogenic and anthropogenic secondary organic aerosol in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianlin; Wang, Peng; Ying, Qi; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Jianjun; Ge, Xinlei; Li, Xinghua; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yu; Zhang, Yingyi

    2017-01-01

    A revised Community Multi-scale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with updated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) yields and a more detailed description of SOA formation from isoprene oxidation was applied to study the spatial and temporal distribution of SOA in China in the entire year of 2013. Predicted organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon and volatile organic compounds agreed favorably with observations at several urban areas, although the high OC concentrations in wintertime in Beijing were under-predicted. Predicted summer SOA was generally higher (10-15 µg m-3) due to large contributions of isoprene (country average, 61 %), although the relative importance varies in different regions. Winter SOA was slightly lower and was mostly due to emissions of alkane and aromatic compounds (51 %). Contributions of monoterpene SOA was relatively constant (8-10 %). Overall, biogenic SOA accounted for approximately 75 % of total SOA in summer, 50-60 % in autumn and spring, and 24 % in winter. The Sichuan Basin had the highest predicted SOA concentrations in the country in all seasons, with hourly concentrations up to 50 µg m-3. Approximately half of the SOA in all seasons was due to the traditional equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile components followed by oligomerization, while the remaining SOA was mainly due to reactive surface uptake of isoprene epoxide (5-14 %), glyoxal (14-25 %) and methylglyoxal (23-28 %). Sensitivity analyses showed that formation of SOA from biogenic emissions was significantly enhanced due to anthropogenic emissions. Removing all anthropogenic emissions while keeping the biogenic emissions unchanged led to total SOA concentrations of less than 1 µg m-3, which suggests that manmade emissions facilitated biogenic SOA formation and controlling anthropogenic emissions would result in reduction of both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA.

  17. LEADING WITH LEADING INDICATORS

    SciTech Connect

    PREVETTE, S.S.

    2005-01-27

    This paper documents Fluor Hanford's use of Leading Indicators, management leadership, and statistical methodology in order to improve safe performance of work. By applying these methods, Fluor Hanford achieved a significant reduction in injury rates in 2003 and 2004, and the improvement continues today. The integration of data, leadership, and teamwork pays off with improved safety performance and credibility with the customer. The use of Statistical Process Control, Pareto Charts, and Systems Thinking and their effect on management decisions and employee involvement are discussed. Included are practical examples of choosing leading indicators. A statistically based color coded dashboard presentation system methodology is provided. These tools, management theories and methods, coupled with involved leadership and employee efforts, directly led to significant improvements in worker safety and health, and environmental protection and restoration at one of the nation's largest nuclear cleanup sites.

  18. A tiered observational system for anthropogenic methane emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duren, R. M.; Miller, C. E.; Hulley, G. C.; Hook, S. J.; Sander, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    Improved understanding of anthropogenic methane emissions is required for closing the global carbon budget and addressing priority challenges in climate policy. Several decades of top-down and bottom-up studies show that anthropogenic methane emissions are systematically underestimated in key regions and economic sectors. These uncertainties have been compounded by the dramatic rise of disruptive technologies (e.g., the transformation in the US energy system due to unconventional gas and oil production). Methane flux estimates derived from inverse analyses and aircraft-based mass balance approaches underscore the disagreement in nationally and regionally reported methane emissions as well as the possibility of a long-tail distribution in fugitive emissions spanning the US natural gas supply chain; i.e. a small number of super-emitters may be responsible for most of the observed anomalies. Other studies highlight the challenges of sectoral and spatial attribution of fugitive emissions - including the relative contributions of dairies vs oil and gas production or disentangling the contributions of natural gas transmission, distribution, and consumption or landfill emissions in complex urban environments. Limited observational data remains a foundational barrier to resolving these challenges. We present a tiered observing system strategy for persistent, high-frequency monitoring over large areas to provide remote detection, geolocation and quantification of significant anthropogenic methane emissions across cities, states, basins and continents. We describe how this would both improve confidence in methane emission estimates and expedite resolution of fugitive emissions and leaks. We summarize recent prototype field campaigns that employ multiple vantage points and measurement techniques (including NASA's CARVE and HyTES aircraft and PanFTS instrument on Mt Wilson). We share preliminary results of this tiered observational approach including examples of individual

  19. Distributions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Wayne A.

    This monograph was written for the Conference of the New Instructional Materials in Physics, held at the University of Washington in summer, 1965. It is intended for students who have had an introductory college physics course. It seeks to provide an introduction to the idea of distributions in general, and to some aspects of the subject in…

  20. Identification and Distribution of Vanadinite (Pb[subscript 5](V[superscript 5+]O[subscript 4])[subscript 3]Cl) in Lead Pipe Corrosion By-Products

    SciTech Connect

    Gerke, Tammie L.; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Schock, Michael R.

    2009-06-30

    This study presents the first detailed look at vanadium (V) speciation in drinking water pipe corrosion scales. A pool of 34 scale layers from 15 lead or lead-lined pipes representing eight different municipal drinking water distribution systems in the Northeastern and Midwestern portions of the United States were examined. Diverse synchrotron-based techniques, including bulk XANES (X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy), {mu}-XANES, {mu}-XRD (X-ray diffraction), and {mu}-XRF (X-ray fluorescence) mapping were employed along with traditional powder XRD, SEM-EDXA (scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray analysis), and ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) to evaluate vanadium speciation and distribution in these deposits. Vanadinite (Pb{sub 5}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}Cl) was positively identified, and occurred most frequently in the surface layers. Low V{sub tot} in these waters is likely the limiting factor in the abundance of vanadinite in the pipe scales, along with the existence of divalent lead. The occurrence of V in these samples as a discrete mineral is important because it is formed in the presence of very low concentrations of V in the finished water, it provides a mechanism to concentrate {mu}g{center_dot}L{sup -1} amounts of V from the water to near-percent levels in the pipe scales, and the robustness of V accumulation and release in response to water chemistry changes is likely different than it would be with a sorption accumulation mechanism. Extrapolation from limited existing water chemistry data in this study provides an estimate of {Delta}G{sub f}{sup o} for vanadinite as approximately -3443 kJ{center_dot}mol{sup -1}, or less, leading to a log K{sub s0} value of approximately -86 for the reaction Pb{sub 5}(VO{sub 4}){sub 3}CI{sub (s)}{r_reversible} {l_brace}Pb{sup 2+}{r_brace}{sup 5} + {l_brace}VO{sup 3-}{sub 4}{r_brace}{sup 3} + {l_brace}Cl{sup -}{r_brace}, in which {l_brace}{r_brace} denotes activity.

  1. Engineering paradigms and anthropogenic global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2016-04-01

    This essay discusses 'paradigms' as means to conceive anthropogenic global change. Humankind alters earth-systems because of the number of people, the patterns of consumption of resources, and the alterations of environments. This process of anthropogenic global change is a composite consisting of societal (in the 'noosphere') and natural (in the 'bio-geosphere') features. Engineering intercedes these features; e.g. observing stratospheric ozone depletion has led to understanding it as a collateral artefact of a particular set of engineering choices. Beyond any specific use-case, engineering works have a common function; e.g. civil-engineering intersects economic activity and geosphere. People conceive their actions in the noosphere including giving purpose to their engineering. The 'noosphere' is the ensemble of social, cultural or political concepts ('shared subjective mental insights') of people. Among people's concepts are the paradigms how to shape environments, production systems and consumption patterns given their societal preferences. In that context, engineering is a means to implement a given development path. Four paradigms currently are distinguishable how to make anthropogenic global change happening. Among the 'engineering paradigms' for anthropogenic global change, 'adaptation' is a paradigm for a business-as-usual scenario and steady development paths of societies. Applying this paradigm implies to forecast the change to come, to appropriately design engineering works, and to maintain as far as possible the current production and consumption patterns. An alternative would be to adjust incrementally development paths of societies, namely to 'dovetail' anthropogenic and natural fluxes of matter and energy. To apply that paradigm research has to identify 'natural boundaries', how to modify production and consumption patterns, and how to tackle process in the noosphere to render alterations of common development paths acceptable. A further alternative

  2. Anthropogenic noise affects behavior across sensory modalities.

    PubMed

    Kunc, Hansjoerg P; Lyons, Gillian N; Sigwart, Julia D; McLaughlin, Kirsty E; Houghton, Jonathan D R

    2014-10-01

    Many species are currently experiencing anthropogenically driven environmental changes. Among these changes, increasing noise levels are specifically a problem for species using acoustic signals (i.e., species relying on signals that use the same sensory modality as anthropogenic noise). Yet many species use other sensory modalities, such as visual and olfactory signals, to communicate. However, we have only little understanding of whether changes in the acoustic environment affect species that use sensory modalities other than acoustic signals. We studied the impact of anthropogenic noise on the common cuttlefish Sepia officinalis, which uses highly complex visual signals. We showed that cuttlefish adjusted their visual displays by changing their color more frequently during a playback of anthropogenic noise, compared with before and after the playback. Our results provide experimental evidence that anthropogenic noise has a marked effect on the behavior of species that are not reliant on acoustic communication. Thus, interference in one sensory channel, in this case the acoustic one, affects signaling in other sensory channels. By considering sensory channels in isolation, we risk overlooking the broader implications of environmental changes for the behavior of animals.

  3. Natural and anthropogenic multi-type hazards for loess territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mavlyanova, Nadira; Zakirova, Zulfiya

    2013-04-01

    Central Asia (CA) is an extremely large region of varied geography from plains to high, rugged mountains (the region belongs to the Tien-Shan and Pamirs mountain system), vast deserts (Kara Kum, Kyzyl Kum, Taklamakan). The area of the CA region is including the territories of following countries: of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. CA is particularly exposed to natural hazards like earthquakes, landslide, rockfalls, avalanches, mudflows, flooding, high mountains lakes, sub flooding, and debris flow. This region is one of the most seismically active in the world. In XX century almost in each of five countries have occurred strong earthquakes with magnitude more than 7, led to human victims. Loess soils are widespread in this region in foothills, foothill plains and intermountain depressions. Loess can cause a number of engineering problems because loess undergoes structural collapse and subsidence due to saturation when both the initial dry density and initial water content are low. By comparison of the map of seismic zoning to a map of distribution of loess soils it is easy to be convinced that the territory of the majority of seismic areas are covering by collapsible loess soils with significant thickness (50-150 m). The natural hazards leads to a disaster, if it develops in an urbanized or industrial areas and directly affects people and economic objects. In this case, risk takes place with all its consequences especially on loess soil. In the past a formation of natural hazards was connected generally with two main groups of factors: geological structure and climatic conditions. Now to them the third factor - of human made influence was added. Intensive influence of human activity to the loess territories in CA for last 60 years is destruction of nature balance and changing in environment of loess land in zone with high seismic hazard. This processes primarily associated with following: 1) irrigation of new lands; 2) the

  4. Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2014-05-01

    Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. We apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic warming by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability from the observed temperature. We find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic warming of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.

  5. Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic warming

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; Klett, James D.; Humlum, Ole; Wyatt, Marcia; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2014-05-28

    Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. Here, we apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic warming by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variability from the observed temperature. We also find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Finally, our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic warming of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.

  6. Isolating the anthropogenic component of Arctic warming

    DOE PAGES

    Chylek, Petr; Hengartner, Nicholas; Lesins, Glen; ...

    2014-05-28

    Structural equation modeling is used in statistical applications as both confirmatory and exploratory modeling to test models and to suggest the most plausible explanation for a relationship between the independent and the dependent variables. Although structural analysis cannot prove causation, it can suggest the most plausible set of factors that influence the observed variable. Here, we apply structural model analysis to the annual mean Arctic surface air temperature from 1900 to 2012 to find the most effective set of predictors and to isolate the anthropogenic component of the recent Arctic warming by subtracting the effects of natural forcing and variabilitymore » from the observed temperature. We also find that anthropogenic greenhouse gases and aerosols radiative forcing and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation internal mode dominate Arctic temperature variability. Finally, our structural model analysis of observational data suggests that about half of the recent Arctic warming of 0.64 K/decade may have anthropogenic causes.« less

  7. Distribution, chemical speciation, and mobility of lead and antimony originating from small arms ammunition in a coarse-grained unsaturated surface sand.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jeffrey; Sjöström, Jan; Skyllberg, Ulf; Hägglund, Lars

    2010-01-01

    This study quantified the heavy metal contamination caused by firing 500 high-velocity 7.62-mm jacketed Swedish military rounds. Contamination of solid and aqueous phases was studied, with Pb and Sb being the two contaminants of primary interest. The distribution of the Pb and Sb were measured in terms of depth of penetration in sand and grain size distribution of the bullet particles. The Pb- and Sb-contaminated sand was then used as a source material in two bench-scale unsaturated lysimeters to measure the transport of Pb and Sb through two coarse-grained sands, which were taken from the berms on two Swedish military small arms ranges. The lysimeters were subjected to an infiltration cycle that reproduced spring snowmelt, which is the most significant infiltration event of the year in northern climates. The levels of mobile Pb and Sb were monitored in the effluent from the lysimeters. Extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy analysis was performed on the contaminated sands to determine Pb speciation before and after leaching. Ninety-three percent of the mass of bullets was found in the top 30 cm of sand. Lead oxide was the predominant species of Pb before and after leaching. Transport of Pb was small, with aqueous concentrations remaining stable at <2 microg L(-1). Antimony was far more mobile, with solute breakthrough occurring between 5 and 14 d and concentrations rising to over 125 microg L(-1) within 1 month.

  8. Reconstruction of pollutant lead transport and input in the western north atlantic area during the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desenfant, F.; Camoin, G. F.; Veron, A.

    2003-04-01

    There are only few available proxies for marine transport of continental aerosols. Although pelagic sediments can record past deposition, they are not suitable for seasonal and/or interannual detailed records due to low sedimentation rates. We have studied trace metal deposition and associated air mass circulation based on coral records. Indeed, the skeleton of zooxanthellate scleractinian corals represents a potentially important database for the record of environmental parameters. It is used more frequently for paleoenvirronment reconstruction so far in tropical zones, for which only a few sources of information are available. Shen et al (1988 -- Chemical Geology) have demonstrated the capability of these coral skeletons to record anthropogenic lead transport and deposition to the North American basin, in Bermuda. We have collected massive corals from the Caribbean in order to determine the anthropogenic impact of industrial emissions in the western North Atlantic during the past century. Sources and atmospheric circulation are considered at regional and basin scale depending on the location of the sampling sites in the northern (Puerto Rico) and western (Martinique, Guadeloupe) Caribbean. Here we use the capability of lead and its stable isotopes to trace the continental origin of anthropogenic sources and its transport within the North Atlantic troposphere. Measurements of lattice bound lead in sequential coral bands have revealed temporal changes in lead concentration and lead isotope ratios. Anthropogenic perturbations are clearly evidenced at all sites of the Caribbean area, linked to increase of industrial activities and the use of leaded gasoline in the US and Western Europe. Specific variations are related to regional inputs and seasonal changes in air mass circulation. The latter are determined and coupled to lead variations using stable isotope records (O) and meteorological index (North Atlantic Oscillation). Such coral records also provide reliable

  9. The oceanic sink for anthropogenic CO2.

    PubMed

    Sabine, Christopher L; Feely, Richard A; Gruber, Nicolas; Key, Robert M; Lee, Kitack; Bullister, John L; Wanninkhof, Rik; Wong, C S; Wallace, Douglas W R; Tilbrook, Bronte; Millero, Frank J; Peng, Tsung-Hung; Kozyr, Alexander; Ono, Tsueno; Rios, Aida F

    2004-07-16

    Using inorganic carbon measurements from an international survey effort in the 1990s and a tracer-based separation technique, we estimate a global oceanic anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) sink for the period from 1800 to 1994 of 118 +/- 19 petagrams of carbon. The oceanic sink accounts for approximately 48% of the total fossil-fuel and cement-manufacturing emissions, implying that the terrestrial biosphere was a net source of CO2 to the atmosphere of about 39 +/- 28 petagrams of carbon for this period. The current fraction of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions stored in the ocean appears to be about one-third of the long-term potential.

  10. An improved method for detecting anthropogenic CO2 in the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruber, Nicolas; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Stocker, Thomas F.

    1996-12-01

    An improved method has been developed for the separation of the anthropogenic CO2 from the large natural background variability of dissolved inorganic carbon (C) in the ocean. This technique employs a new quasi-conservative carbon tracer ΔC*, which reflects the uptake of anthropogenic CO2 and the air-sea disequilibrium when a water parcel loses contact with the atmosphere. The air-sea disequilibrium component can be discriminated from the anthropogenic signal using either information about the water age or the distribution of ΔC* in regions not affected by the anthropogenic transient. This technique has been applied to data from the North Atlantic sampled during the Transient Tracers in the Ocean North Atlantic (TTO NAS) and Tropical Atlantic study (TTO TAS) cruises in 1981-1983. The highest anthropogenic CO2 concentrations and specific inventories (inventory per square meter) are found in the subtropical convergence zone. In the North Atlantic, anthropogenic CO2 has already invaded deeply into the interior of the ocean, north of 50°N it has even reached the bottom. Only waters below 3000 m and south of 30°N are not yet affected. We estimate an anthropogenic CO2 inventory of 20 ± 4 Gt C in the North Atlantic between 10°N and 80°N. The 2.5-dimensional ocean circulation model of Stocker et al. [1994] and the three-dimensional ocean general circulation biogeochemistry model of Sarmiento et al. [1995] predict anthropogenic CO2 inventories of 18.7 Gt C and 18.4 Gt C, respectively, in good agreement with the observed inventory. Important differences exist on a more regional scale, associated with known deficiencies of the models.

  11. Studying the anthropogenic radionuclides in Puerto Rico: Preliminary Result

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ithier-Guzmán, W.; Pyrtle, A. J.; Smoak, J.

    2004-12-01

    Local introduction of anthropogenic radionuclides to Puerto Rico's terrestrial and aquatic environments began in 1962 as a result of US government-sponsored research activities. Some of the earlier experiments examined the effects of radiation in tropical rainforests and the potential of superheated boiling nuclear reactor technology. More recent activities involved the use of depleted uranium during military exercises on Vieques. While the presence of radionuclides in Puerto Rico is documented, little research has been done to assess the environmental impact of this anthropogenic material. After entering Puerto Rico's environment, it is likely that some radionuclides are transported away from initial introduction sites. It is important that the distributions and behavior of radionuclides in Puerto Rico be determined. As such an investigation of this material throughout Puerto Rico was initiated. Sediment Cs-137 and Pb-210 activities, as well as ancillary geochemistry data are presented. These preliminary findings will be utilized as part of an ongoing study to determine radionuclide distributions and behaviors, with respect to aquatic geochemistry and dominant transport processes.

  12. Global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, Qamar; Hardesty, Britta Denise; Wilcox, Chris; Townsend, Kathy

    2014-02-01

    Ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. Although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. Thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. Specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevalence has changed over time, what types of debris are most commonly ingested, the geographic distribution of debris ingestion by marine turtles relative to global debris distribution, and which species and life-history stages are most likely to ingest debris. The probability of green (Chelonia mydas) and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) ingesting debris increased significantly over time, and plastic was the most commonly ingested debris. Turtles in nearly all regions studied ingest debris, but the probability of ingestion was not related to modeled debris densities. Furthermore, smaller, oceanic-stage turtles were more likely to ingest debris than coastal foragers, whereas carnivorous species were less likely to ingest debris than herbivores or gelatinovores. Our results indicate oceanic leatherback turtles and green turtles are at the greatest risk of both lethal and sublethal effects from ingested marine debris. To reduce this risk, anthropogenic debris must be managed at a global level.

  13. Transport pathway and depocenter of anthropogenic heavy metals off the Shandong Peninsula, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gang; Liu, Jian; Pei, Shaofeng; Gao, Maosheng; Kong, Xianghuai

    2016-10-01

    Surface sediment grain size as well as the spatial distribution, sources and geochemical baseline levels of heavy metals in the south Shandong Peninsula clinoform were analyzed to determine the transport pathway and main depocenter of anthropogenic heavy metals off the peninsula. Results showed that the surface sediments were primarily silt-sized components, and the fine grain matter mainly originated from the Yellow River and rivers around Laizhou Bay. Heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cd were predominantly from natural sources and their spatial distributions were controlled by grain size; conversely, anthropogenic As (concentration above geochemical baseline level 10.9 mg/kg) was principally derived from human activities, and its transportation from the Yellow River and Laizhou Bay was controlled by the Shandong Coastal Current off the Shandong Peninsula. Furthermore, the anthropogenic As was deposited in three main areas, that is, the Yellow River estuary, Laizhou Bay, and south Shandong Peninsula clinoform.

  14. Acid lakes from natural and anthropogenic causes

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick, R.; Binetti, V.P.; Halterman, S.G.

    1981-01-30

    Lakes may be acid because of natural ecological conditions or because of anthropogenic activities. Apparently there has been a recent increase in acidity of many lakes in the northeastern United States. Factors that may be contributing to this increase include the use by utilities of precipitators, sulfur scrubbers, and tall stacks; the use of petroleum; and methods of combustion of fossil fuels.

  15. Soilscape evolution of aeolian-dominated hillslopes during the Holocene: investigation of sediment transport mechanisms and climatic-anthropogenic drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Sagy; Svoray, Tal; Sela, Shai; Hancock, Greg; Willgoose, Garry

    2017-01-01

    Here we study the soilscape (soil-landscape) evolution of a field site in the semiarid zone of Israel. This region, like similar regions around the world, was subject to intensive loess accumulation during the Pleistocene and early Holocene. Today, hillslopes in this region are dominated by exposed bedrock with deep loess depositions in the valleys and floodplains. The drivers and mechanism that led to this soilscape are unclear. Within this context, we use a soilscape evolution model (mARM5D) to study the potential mechanisms that led to this soilscape. We focus on advancing our conceptual understanding of the processes at the core of this soilscape evolution by studying the effects of fluvial and diffusive sediment transport mechanisms, and the potential effects of climatic and anthropogenic drivers. Our results show that, in our field site, dominated by aeolian soil development, hillslope fluvial sediment transport (e.g., surface wash and gullies) led to downslope thinning in soil, while diffusive transport (e.g., soil creep) led to deeper and more localized soil features at the lower sections of the hillslopes. The results suggest that, in this semiarid, aeolian-dominated and soil-depleted landscape, the top section of the hillslopes is dominated by diffusive transport and the bottom by fluvial transport. Temporal variability in environmental drivers had a considerable effect on soilscape evolution. Short but intensive changes during the late Holocene, imitating anthropogenic land use alterations, rapidly changed the site's soil distribution. This leads us to assume that this region's soil-depleted hillslopes are, at least in part, the result of anthropogenic drivers.

  16. Global Climate Responses to Anthropogenic Groundwater Exploitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y.; Xie, Z.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, a groundwater exploitation scheme is incorporated into the earth system model, Community Earth System Model 1.2.0 (CESM1.2.0), which is called CESM1.2_GW, and the climatic responses to anthropogenic groundwater withdrawal are then investigated on global scale. The scheme models anthropogenic groundwater exploitation and consumption, which are then divided into agricultural irrigation, industrial use and domestic use. A group of 41-year ensemble groundwater exploitation simulations with six different initial conditions, and a group of ensemble control simulations without exploitation are conducted using the developed model CESM1.2_GW with water supplies and demands estimated. The results reveal that the groundwater exploitation and water consumption cause drying effects on soil moisture in deep layers and wetting effects in upper layers, along with a rapidly declining groundwater table in Central US, Haihe River Basin in China and Northern India and Pakistan where groundwater extraction are most severe in the world. The atmosphere also responds to anthropogenic groundwater exploitation. Cooling effects on lower troposphere appear in large areas of North China Plain and of Northern India and Pakistan. Increased precipitation occurs in Haihe River Basin due to increased evapotranspiration from irrigation. Decreased precipitation occurs in Northern India because water vapor here is taken away by monsoon anomalies induced by anthropogenic alteration of groundwater. The local reducing effects of anthropogenic groundwater exploitation on total terrestrial water storage evinces that water resource is unsustainable with the current high exploitation rate. Therefore, a balance between slow groundwater withdrawal and rapid human economic development must be achieved to maintain a sustainable water resource, especially in over-exploitation regions such as Central US, Northern China, India and Pakistan.

  17. Anthropogenic refugia ameliorate the severe climate-related decline of a montane mammal along its trailing edge.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Toni Lyn; Smith, Adam B; Kastely, Christina R; Mastroserio, Ilaria; Moritz, Craig; Beissinger, Steven R

    2012-10-22

    We conducted detailed resurveys of a montane mammal, Urocitellus beldingi, to examine the effects of climate change on persistence along the trailing edge of its range. Of 74 California sites where U. beldingi were historically recorded (1902-1966), 42 per cent were extirpated, with no evidence for colonization of previously unoccupied sites. Increases in both precipitation and temperature predicted site extirpations, potentially owing to snowcover loss. Surprisingly, human land-use change buffered climate change impacts, leading to increased persistence and abundance. Excluding human-modified sites, U. beldingi has shown an upslope range retraction of 255 m. Generalized additive models of past distribution were predictive of modern range contractions (AUC = 0.76) and projected extreme reductions (52% and 99%, respectively) of U. beldingi's southwestern range to 2080 climates (Hadley and CCCMA A2). Our study suggests the strong impacts of climate change on montane species at their trailing edge and how anthropogenic refugia may mitigate these effects.

  18. Anthropogenic carbon dioxide and trends in the western South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, A. F.; Velo, A.; Hoppema, M.; Pérez, F. F.

    2010-12-01

    Anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CANT) was calculated using four independent approaches in the western South Atlantic basin. The methods considered are the CFC-based Transit Time Distribution method and the φCT°, TrOCA and ΔC* carbon-system-based back-calculation methods. All four methods have produced CANT distribution patterns that are generally in good agreement. The main difference between the methods was found in the relative CANT maximum associated with the lower limb of the North Atlantic Deep Water. In agreement with other intercomparison studies of CANT, the specific inventories are significantly higher (~45%) than those reported using data and methods of the GLODAP database. This suggests that the South Atlantic stores more CANT than initially expected, particularly towards the Southern Ocean. The temporal evolution of the integrated CANT was calculated using the CLODAP and CARINA databases at different water masses levels, showing different annual rates of the CANT increase.

  19. Climate Response of Direct Radiative Forcing of Anthropogenic Black Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chung, Serena H.; Seinfeld,John H.

    2008-01-01

    The equilibrium climate effect of direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) is examined by 100-year simulations in the Goddard Institute for Space Studies General Circulation Model II-prime coupled to a mixed-layer ocean model. Anthropogenic BC is predicted to raise globally and annually averaged equilibrium surface air temperature by 0.20 K if BC is assumed to be externally mixed. The predicted increase is significantly greater in the Northern Hemisphere (0.29 K) than in the Southern Hemisphere (0.11 K). If BC is assumed to be internally mixed with the present day level of sulfate aerosol, the predicted annual mean surface temperature increase rises to 0.37 K globally, 0.54 K for the Northern Hemisphere, and 0.20 K for the Southern Hemisphere. The climate sensitivity of BC direct radiative forcing is calculated to be 0.6 K W (sup -1) square meters, which is about 70% of that of CO2, independent of the assumption of BC mixing state. The largest surface temperature response occurs over the northern high latitudes during winter and early spring. In the tropics and midlatitudes, the largest temperature increase is predicted to occur in the upper troposphere. Direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic BC is also predicted to lead to a change of precipitation patterns in the tropics; precipitation is predicted to increase between 0 and 20 N and decrease between 0 and 20 S, shifting the intertropical convergence zone northward. If BC is assumed to be internally mixed with sulfate instead of externally mixed, the change in precipitation pattern is enhanced. The change in precipitation pattern is not predicted to alter the global burden of BC significantly because the change occurs predominantly in regions removed from BC sources.

  20. Bacterioplankton Dynamics within a Large Anthropogenically Impacted Urban Estuary

    PubMed Central

    Jeffries, Thomas C.; Schmitz Fontes, Maria L.; Harrison, Daniel P.; Van-Dongen-Vogels, Virginie; Eyre, Bradley D.; Ralph, Peter J.; Seymour, Justin R.

    2016-01-01

    The abundant and diverse microorganisms that inhabit aquatic systems are both determinants and indicators of aquatic health, providing essential ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling but also causing harmful blooms and disease in impacted habitats. Estuaries are among the most urbanized coastal ecosystems and as a consequence experience substantial environmental pressures, providing ideal systems to study the influence of anthropogenic inputs on microbial ecology. Here we use the highly urbanized Sydney Harbor, Australia, as a model system to investigate shifts in microbial community composition and function along natural and anthopogenic physicochemical gradients, driven by stormwater inflows, tidal flushing and the input of contaminants and both naturally and anthropogenically derived nutrients. Using a combination of amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomics, we observed strong patterns in microbial biogeography across the estuary during two periods: one of high and another of low rainfall. These patterns were driven by shifts in nutrient concentration and dissolved oxygen leading to a partitioning of microbial community composition in different areas of the harbor with different nutrient regimes. Patterns in bacterial composition were related to shifts in the abundance of Rhodobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Microbacteriaceae, Halomonadaceae, Acidomicrobiales, and Synechococcus, coupled to an enrichment of total microbial metabolic pathways including phosphorus and nitrogen metabolism, sulfate reduction, virulence, and the degradation of hydrocarbons. Additionally, community beta-diversity was partitioned between the two sampling periods. This potentially reflected the influence of shifting allochtonous nutrient inputs on microbial communities and highlighted the temporally dynamic nature of the system. Combined, our results provide insights into the simultaneous influence of natural and anthropogenic drivers on the structure and

  1. Anthropogenic disturbances jeopardize biodiversity conservation within tropical rainforest reserves.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Iván A; Piñero, Daniel; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Sarukhán, José

    2016-05-10

    Anthropogenic disturbances affecting tropical forest reserves have been documented, but their ecological long-term cumulative effects are poorly understood. Habitat fragmentation and defaunation are two major anthropogenic threats to the integrity of tropical reserves. Based on a long-term (four decades) study, we document how these disturbances synergistically disrupt ecological processes and imperil biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning at Los Tuxtlas, the northernmost tropical rainforest reserve in the Americas. Deforestation around this reserve has reduced the reserve to a medium-sized fragment (640 ha), leading to an increased frequency of canopy-gap formation. In addition, hunting and habitat loss have caused the decline or local extinction of medium and large herbivores. Combining empirical, experimental, and modeling approaches, we support the hypothesis that such disturbances produced a demographic explosion of the long-lived (≈120 y old, maximum height of 7 m) understory palm Astrocaryum mexicanum, whose population has increased from 1,243-4,058 adult individuals per hectare in only 39 y (annual growth rate of ca 3%). Faster gap formation increased understory light availability, enhancing seed production and the growth of immature palms, whereas release from mammalian herbivory and trampling increased survival of seedlings and juveniles. In turn, the palm's demographic explosion was followed by a reduction of tree species diversity, changing forest composition, altering the relative contribution of trees to forest biomass, and disrupting litterfall dynamics. We highlight how indirect anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., palm proliferation) on otherwise protected areas threaten tropical conservation, a phenomenon that is currently eroding the planet's richest repositories of biodiversity.

  2. Anthropogenic disturbances jeopardize biodiversity conservation within tropical rainforest reserves

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Ortiz-Rodríguez, Iván A.; Piñero, Daniel; Dirzo, Rodolfo; Sarukhán, José

    2016-01-01

    Anthropogenic disturbances affecting tropical forest reserves have been documented, but their ecological long-term cumulative effects are poorly understood. Habitat fragmentation and defaunation are two major anthropogenic threats to the integrity of tropical reserves. Based on a long-term (four decades) study, we document how these disturbances synergistically disrupt ecological processes and imperil biodiversity conservation and ecosystem functioning at Los Tuxtlas, the northernmost tropical rainforest reserve in the Americas. Deforestation around this reserve has reduced the reserve to a medium-sized fragment (640 ha), leading to an increased frequency of canopy-gap formation. In addition, hunting and habitat loss have caused the decline or local extinction of medium and large herbivores. Combining empirical, experimental, and modeling approaches, we support the hypothesis that such disturbances produced a demographic explosion of the long-lived (≈120 y old, maximum height of 7 m) understory palm Astrocaryum mexicanum, whose population has increased from 1,243–4,058 adult individuals per hectare in only 39 y (annual growth rate of ca. 3%). Faster gap formation increased understory light availability, enhancing seed production and the growth of immature palms, whereas release from mammalian herbivory and trampling increased survival of seedlings and juveniles. In turn, the palm’s demographic explosion was followed by a reduction of tree species diversity, changing forest composition, altering the relative contribution of trees to forest biomass, and disrupting litterfall dynamics. We highlight how indirect anthropogenic disturbances (e.g., palm proliferation) on otherwise protected areas threaten tropical conservation, a phenomenon that is currently eroding the planet’s richest repositories of biodiversity. PMID:27071122

  3. Anthropogenic heat flux estimation from space: first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chrysoulakis, Nektarios; Heldens, Wieke; Gastellu-Etchegorry, Jean-Philippe; Grimmond, Sue; Feigenwinter, Christian; Lindberg, Fredrik; Del Frate, Fabio; Klostermann, Judith; Mitraka, Zina; Esch, Thomas; Albitar, Ahmad; Gabey, Andrew; Parlow, Eberhard; Olofson, Frans

    2016-04-01

    While Earth Observation (EO) has made significant advances in the study of urban areas, there are several unanswered science and policy questions to which it could contribute. To this aim the recently launched Horizon 2020 project URBANFLUXES (URBan ANthrpogenic heat FLUX from Earth observation Satellites) investigates the potential of EO to retrieve anthropogenic heat flux, as a key component in the urban energy budget. The anthropogenic heat flux is the heat flux resulting from vehicular emissions, space heating and cooling of buildings, industrial processing and the metabolic heat release by people. Optical, thermal and SAR data from existing satellite sensors are used to improve the accuracy of the radiation balance spatial distribution calculation, using also in-situ reflectance measurements of urban materials are for calibration. EO-based methods are developed for estimating turbulent sensible and latent heat fluxes, as well as urban heat storage flux and anthropogenic heat flux spatial patterns at city scale and local scale by employing an energy budget closure approach. Independent methods and models are engaged to evaluate the derived products and statistical analyses provide uncertainty measures as well. Ultimate goal of the URBANFLUXES is to develop a highly automated method for estimating urban energy budget components to use with Copernicus Sentinel data, enabling its integration into applications and operational services. Thus, URBANFLUXES prepares the ground for further innovative exploitation of European space data in scientific activities (i.e. Earth system modelling and climate change studies in cities) and future and emerging applications (i.e. sustainable urban planning) by exploiting the improved data quality, coverage and revisit times of the Copernicus data. The URBANFLUXES products will therefore have the potential to support both sustainable planning strategies to improve the quality of life in cities, as well as Earth system models to

  4. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... be exposed to lead by Eating food or drinking water that contains lead. Water pipes in older homes ... herbs or foods that contain lead Breathing air, drinking water, eating food, or swallowing or touching dirt that ...

  5. Hidden Markov models for estimating animal mortality from anthropogenic hazards

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carcasses searches are a common method for studying the risk of anthropogenic hazards to wildlife, including non-target poisoning and collisions with anthropogenic structures. Typically, numbers of carcasses found must be corrected for scavenging rates and imperfect detection. ...

  6. Sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment: a review.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qin-Hong; Weng, Jian-Qing; Wang, Jin-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Studies of radionuclides in the environment have entered a new era with the renaissance of nuclear energy and associated fuel reprocessing, geological disposal of high-level nuclear wastes, and concerns about national security with respect to nuclear non-proliferation. This work presents an overview on sources of anthropogenic radionuclides in the environment, as well as a brief discussion of salient geochemical behavior of important radionuclides. We first discuss the following major anthropogenic sources and current developments that have lead, or could potentially contribute, to the radionuclide contamination of the environment: (1) nuclear weapons program; (2) nuclear weapons testing; (3) nuclear power plants; (4) uranium mining and milling; (5) commercial fuel reprocessing; (6) geological repository of high-level nuclear wastes that include radionuclides might be released in the future, and (7) nuclear accidents. Then, we briefly summarize the inventory of radionuclides (99)Tc and (129)I, as well as geochemical behavior for radionuclides (99)Tc, (129)I, and (237)Np, because of their complex geochemical behavior, long half-lives, and presumably high mobility in the environment; biogeochemical cycling and environment risk assessment must take into account speciation of these redox-sensitive radionuclides.

  7. Quantifying the Anthropogenic Footprint in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Chunlei; Dou, Youjun

    2016-04-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one of the most focuses in urban climate study. The parameterization of the anthropogenic heat (AH) is crucial important in UHI study, but universal method to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH is lacking now. This paper uses the NOAA DMSP/OLS nighttime light data to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH. Two experiments were designed and performed to quantify the influences of the AH to land surface temperature (LST) in eastern China and 24 big cities. The annual mean heating caused by AH is up to 1 K in eastern China. This paper uses the relative LST differences rather than the absolute LST differences between the control run and contrast run of common land model (CoLM) to find the drivers. The heating effect of the anthropogenic footprint has less influence on relatively warm and wet cities.

  8. Quantifying the Anthropogenic Footprint in Eastern China

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Chunlei; Dou, Youjun

    2016-01-01

    Urban heat island (UHI) is one of the most focuses in urban climate study. The parameterization of the anthropogenic heat (AH) is crucial important in UHI study, but universal method to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH is lacking now. This paper uses the NOAA DMSP/OLS nighttime light data to parameterize the spatial pattern of the AH. Two experiments were designed and performed to quantify the influences of the AH to land surface temperature (LST) in eastern China and 24 big cities. The annual mean heating caused by AH is up to 1 K in eastern China. This paper uses the relative LST differences rather than the absolute LST differences between the control run and contrast run of common land model (CoLM) to find the drivers. The heating effect of the anthropogenic footprint has less influence on relatively warm and wet cities. PMID:27067132

  9. Anthropogenic Sulfate, Clouds, and Climate Forcing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghan, Steven J.

    1997-01-01

    This research work is a joint effort between research groups at the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Virginia Tech University, Georgia Institute of Technology, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Texas A&M University. It has been jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. In this research, a detailed tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model that predicts oxidant concentrations as well as concentrations of sulfur dioxide and sulfate aerosols has been coupled to a general circulation model that distinguishes between cloud water mass and cloud droplet number. The coupled model system has been first validated and then used to estimate the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfur emissions. Both the direct radiative impact of the aerosols and their indirect impact through their influence on cloud droplet number are represented by distinguishing between sulfuric acid vapor and fresh and aged sulfate aerosols, and by parameterizing cloud droplet nucleation in terms of vertical velocity and the number concentration of aged sulfur aerosols. Natural sulfate aerosols, dust, and carbonaceous and nitrate aerosols and their influence on the radiative impact of anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, through competition as cloud condensation nuclei, will also be simulated. Parallel simulations with and without anthropogenic sulfur emissions are performed for a global domain. The objectives of the research are: To couple a state-of-the-art tropospheric aerosol-chemistry model with a global climate model. To use field and satellite measurements to evaluate the treatment of tropospheric chemistry and aerosol physics in the coupled model. To use the coupled model to simulate the radiative (and ultimately climatic) impacts of anthropogenic sulfur emissions.

  10. The topographic signature of anthropogenic geomorphic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, P.; Sofia, G.

    2014-12-01

    Within an abiotic-dominated context, geomorphologic patterns and dynamics are single expressions of trade-offs between the physical resistance forces, and the mechanical and chemical forces related to climate and erosion. Recently, however, it has become essential for the geomorphological community to take into account also biota as a fundamental geomorphologic agent acting from local to regional scales. However, while there is a recent flourishing literature about the impacts of vegetation on geomorphic processes, the study of anthropogenic pressure on geomorphology is still at its early stages. Humans are indeed among the most prominent geomorphic agents, redistributing land surface, and causing drastic changes to the geomorphic organization of the landscape (e.g. intensive agriculture, urbanization), with direct consequences on land degradation and watershed response. The reconstruction or identification of artificial or anthropogenic topographies, therefore, provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to the landscape systems in the context of the Anthropocene epoch. High-resolution topographic data derived from the recent remote sensing technologies (e.g. lidar, SAR, SfM), offer now new opportunities to recognize better understand geomorphic processes from topographic signatures, especially in engineered landscapes where the direct anthropic alteration of processes is significant. It is possible indeed to better recognize human-induced geomorphic and anthropogenic features (e.g. road networks, agricultural terraces), and the connected erosion. The study presented here may allow improved understanding and targeted mitigation of the processes driving geomorphic changes during urban development and help guide future research directions for development-based watershed studies. Human society is deeply affecting the environment with consequences on the landscape. It is therefore fundamental to establish greater management control over the Earth

  11. Atmospheric black carbon in the Russian Arctic: anthropogenic inputs in comparison with average or extremal wood fires' ones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, Anna A.; Smirnov, Nikolay S.; Korotkov, Vladimir N.

    2016-04-01

    Model estimates of atmospheric black carbon concentrations were made for different points of the Russian Arctic. Anthropogenic BC emissions and wood fires' ones were calculated from Russian official statistics for the 2000s. We used the data of Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment of RF on anthropogenic air emissions of pollution in Russian cities and regions [1], as well as the data of Federal Forestry Agency of RF (Rosleshoz) [2] on wood fires. We considered the area within (50-72)N and (20-180)E, which covers about 94% of the Russian territory, where both anthropogenic and fire BC emissions have been arranged through grid cells (1×1) deg. Anthropogenic BC emissions are estimated as annual values based on the data for 54 regions and more than 100 cities. Total emission is estimated as (220 ± 30) Gg BC in 2010 [3], including emissions from open flares associated with gas/oil extractive industry which are about (25 ± 8) Gg/yr. We analyzed the data on wood fires (detailing crown, ground and underground fires in forests and fires on non-forest lands) with their spatial and seasonal variations during 15 years (2000-2014). Different combustion factors [4] and BC emission coefficients [5] were used in calculations for different types of burning. Russian total average annual BC emission from fires, occurring mainly in summertime, was estimated as 30 Gg with large variations (4-100 Gg/yr) from year to year. Asian territory emits about 90% of this value. We estimated anthropogenic (BC_A) and fires' (BC_F) contributions to BC air concentrations at different Russian Arctic points using the approach [6] - decadal back-trajectory analysis combined with spatial distribution of sensitivity pollution emission function (SPEF). Extraordinary atmospheric circulation causing, to a great extent, abnormally intensive fires in the middle latitudes often leads to a decrease in SPEF values for these territories. As a result, fires are not so dangerous for the whole Arctic, as

  12. Distinguishing Between Natural and Anthropogenic Part of Sea Level Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, M.; Karpytchev, M.; Lennartz-Sassinek, S.

    2014-12-01

    Detection and attribution of human influence on sea level rise are important topics that have not yet been explored in depth. From the perspective of assessing the contribution of human activities to climate changes, the sea level drivers can be partitioned in anthropogenic and natural forcing. In this study we try to answer the following two questions: (1) How large a sea level trend could be expected as result of natural internal variability? (2) Whether the sea level changes observed over the past century were natural in origin. We suppose that natural behavior of sea level consists of increases and decreases occurring with frequencies following a power law distribution and the monthly sea level records are power law long-term correlated time series. Then we search for the presence of unnatural external sea level trend by applying statistics of Lennartz and Bunde [2009]. We estimate the minimum anthropogenic sea level trend as a lower bound of statistically significant external sea level trend in the longest tide-gauge records worldwide. We apply this new method to distinguish between the trend-like natural oscillations and the external trends in the longest available sea level records and in global mean sea level reconstructions. The results show that the long-term persistence impacts strongly on sea level rise estimation. We provide statistical evidences that the observed sea level changes, at global and regional scales, are beyond its natural internal variability and cannot be explained without human influence. We found that sea level change during the past century contains an external component at 99% significance level in two thirds of the available longest tidal records worldwide. The anthropogenic sea level trend is about 1 mm/yr in global sea level reconstructions that is more than half of the total observed sea level trend during the XXth century, which is about 1.7 mm/yr. This work provides the first estimate of the minimal anthropogenic contribution

  13. Blue whales respond to anthropogenic noise.

    PubMed

    Melcón, Mariana L; Cummins, Amanda J; Kerosky, Sara M; Roche, Lauren K; Wiggins, Sean M; Hildebrand, John A

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood.

  14. Are torpid bats immune to anthropogenic noise?

    PubMed

    Luo, Jinhong; Clarin, B-Markus; Borissov, Ivailo M; Siemers, Björn M

    2014-04-01

    Anthropogenic noise has a negative impact on a variety of animals. However, many bat species roost in places with high levels of anthropogenic noise. Here, we tested the hypothesis that torpid bats are insensitive to anthropogenic noise. In a laboratory experiment, we recorded skin temperature (Tsk) of bats roosting individually that were subjected to playbacks of different types of noise. We found that torpid bats with Tsk ~10°C lower than their active Tsk responded to all types of noise by elevating Tsk. Bats responded most strongly to colony and vegetation noise, and most weakly to traffic noise. The time of day when torpid bats were exposed to noise had a pronounced effect on responses. Torpid bats showed increasing responses from morning towards evening, i.e. towards the onset of the active phase. Skin temperature at the onset of noise exposure (Tsk,start, 17-29°C) was not related to the response. Moreover, we found evidence that torpid bats rapidly habituated to repeated and prolonged noise exposure.

  15. Exploring the engine of anthropogenic iron cycles

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Daniel B.; Wang, Tao; Duval, Benjamin; Graedel, T. E.

    2006-01-01

    Stocks of products in use are the pivotal engines that drive anthropogenic metal cycles: They support the lives of people by providing services to them; they are sources for future secondary resources (scrap); and demand for in-use stocks generates demand for metals. Despite their great importance and their impacts on other parts of the metal cycles and the environment, the study of in-use stocks has heretofore been widely neglected. Here we investigate anthropogenic and geogenic iron stocks in the United States (U.S.) by analyzing the iron cycle over the period 1900–2004. Our results show the following. (i) Over the last century, the U.S. iron stock in use increased to 3,200 Tg (million metric tons), which is the same order of magnitude as the remaining U.S. iron stock in identified ores. On a global scale, anthropogenic iron stocks are less significant compared with natural ores, but their relative importance is increasing. (ii) With a perfect recycling system, the U.S. could substitute scrap utilization for domestic mining. (iii) The per-capita in-use iron stock reached saturation at 11–12 metric tons in ≈1980. This last finding, if applicable to other economies as well, could allow a significant improvement of long-term forecasting of steel demand and scrap availability in emerging market economies and therefore has major implications for resource sustainability, recycling technology, and industrial and governmental policy. PMID:17053079

  16. Seasonal variability in anthropogenic halocarbon emissions.

    PubMed

    Gentner, Drew R; Miller, Angela M; Goldstein, Allen H

    2010-07-15

    Ambient concentrations of eight predominantly anthropogenic halocarbons were measured via in situ gas chromatography in California's South Coast air basin for both summer and fall during the 2005 Study of Organic Aerosols at Riverside (SOAR). Ongoing emissions of the banned halocarbons methylchloroform and CFC-11 were observed in the South Coast air basin, whereas CFC-113 emissions have effectively ceased. We estimate anthropogenic emissions in the South Coast air basin for methylchloroform, CFC-11, HCFC-141b, chloroform, tetrachloroethene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and dichloromethane based on regressions of halocarbon to carbon monoxide mixing ratios and carbon monoxide emission inventories. We estimate per capita methylchloroform and chloroform emissions in the South Coast air basin for the year 2005 to be 6.6 +/- 0.4 g/(person.year) and 19 +/- 1 g/(person.year), respectively. We compare our results to national emission estimates calculated from previous work; for several compounds, emissions in the South Coast air basin are significantly lower than national per capita emissions. We observed strong seasonal differences in anthropogenic emissions of methylchloroform and chloroform; emissions were 4.5 and 2.5 times greater in summer than in fall, respectively. Possible seasonal sources include landfills and water chlorination. We conclude that seasonal variability in methylchloroform emissions has not been included in previous inventories and may cause errors in methylchloroform emission estimates after the year 2000 and seasonally resolved inversion calculations of hydroxyl radical abundance.

  17. Blue Whales Respond to Anthropogenic Noise

    PubMed Central

    Melcón, Mariana L.; Cummins, Amanda J.; Kerosky, Sara M.; Roche, Lauren K.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise may significantly impact exposed marine mammals. This work studied the vocalization response of endangered blue whales to anthropogenic noise sources in the mid-frequency range using passive acoustic monitoring in the Southern California Bight. Blue whales were less likely to produce calls when mid-frequency active sonar was present. This reduction was more pronounced when the sonar source was closer to the animal, at higher sound levels. The animals were equally likely to stop calling at any time of day, showing no diel pattern in their sensitivity to sonar. Conversely, the likelihood of whales emitting calls increased when ship sounds were nearby. Whales did not show a differential response to ship noise as a function of the time of the day either. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic noise, even at frequencies well above the blue whales' sound production range, has a strong probability of eliciting changes in vocal behavior. The long-term implications of disruption in call production to blue whale foraging and other behaviors are currently not well understood. PMID:22393434

  18. Anthropogenic greenhouse gas contribution to UK autumn flood risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pall, Pardeep; Aina, Tolu; Stone, Dáithí; Stott, Peter; Nozawa, Toru; Hilberts, Arno; Lohmann, Dag; Allen, Myles

    2010-05-01

    Interest in attributing the risk of damaging weather-related events to anthropogenic climate change is increasing[1]. Yet climate models typically used for studying the attribution problem do not resolve weather at scales causing damage[2]. Here we present the first multi-step study that attributes increasing risk of a damaging regional weather-related event to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The event was the UK flooding of October and November 2000, occurring during the wettest autumn in England & Wales since records began in 1766[3] and inundating several river catchments[4]. Nearly 10,000 properties were flooded and transport services and power supplies severely disrupted, with insured losses estimated at £1.3bn[5,6]. Though the floods were deemed a ‘wake up call' to the impacts of climate change[7], anthropogenic drivers cannot be blamed for this individual event: but they could be blamed for changing its risk[8,9]. Indeed, typically quoted thermodynamic arguments do suggest increased probability of precipitation extremes under anthropogenic warming[10]. But these arguments are too simple[11,12,13] to fully account for the complex weather[4,14] associated with the flooding. Instead we use a Probabilistic Event Attribution framework, to rigorously estimate the contribution of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions to England & Wales Autumn 2000 flood risk. This involves comparing an unprecedented number of daily river runoff realisations for the region, under Autumn 2000 scenarios both with and without the emissions. These realisations are produced using publicly volunteered distributed computing power to generate several thousand seasonal forecast resolution climate model simulations[15,16] that are then fed into a precipitation-runoff model[17,18]. Autumn 2000 flooding is characterised by realisations exceeding the highest daily river runoff for that period, derived from the observational-based ERA-40 re-anaylsis[19]. We find that our

  19. Effects of anthropogenic heat release upon the urban climate in a Japanese megacity.

    PubMed

    Narumi, Daisuke; Kondo, Akira; Shimoda, Yoshiyuki

    2009-05-01

    This report presents results of investigations of the influence of anthropogenic heat release in Japanese megacity (Keihanshin district) upon the urban climate, using the energy database [Shimoda et al., 1999. Estimation and evaluation of artificial waste heat in urban area. Selected Papers from the Conference ICB-ICUC'99 WCASP-50 WMO/TD no. 1026] as a part of the land-surface boundary conditions of a mesoscale meteorological simulation model. The calculated results related to atmospheric temperature distribution were similar to observed values not only for daily averages but also for amplitudes and phases of diurnal change. To reproduce accurately, it is essential to reproduce urban characteristics such as an urban canopy and anthropogenic heat release in a fine resolution mesh. We attempted an analysis using current data for anthropogenic heat and under uniform heat release conditions, to investigate temporal and spatial characteristics in relation to the influence of anthropogenic heat release on the urban climate. The results of investigation into the influence of anthropogenic heat release on atmospheric temperature using current data indicate that the amount of heat released is lower at night than during the day, but the temperature rise is nearly 3 times greater. Results of investigation into the influence of anthropogenic heat release on wind systems using current data indicate that the onset of land breezes is delayed, particularly in a coastal area. Investigation into the temporal characteristics related to the influence of anthropogenic heat release under uniform heat release conditions showed a maximum influence on temperature during the predawn period.

  20. Modulation of snow reflectance and snowmelt from Central Asian glaciers by anthropogenic black carbon

    PubMed Central

    Schmale, Julia; Flanner, Mark; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Li, Yang; Schwikowski, Margit; Farinotti, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Deposited mineral dust and black carbon are known to reduce the albedo of snow and enhance melt. Here we estimate the contribution of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) to snowmelt in glacier accumulation zones of Central Asia based on in-situ measurements and modelling. Source apportionment suggests that more than 94% of the BC is emitted from mostly regional anthropogenic sources while the remaining contribution comes from natural biomass burning. Even though the annual deposition flux of mineral dust can be up to 20 times higher than that of BC, we find that anthropogenic BC causes the majority (60% on average) of snow darkening. This leads to summer snowmelt rate increases of up to 6.3% (7 cm a−1) on glaciers in three different mountain environments in Kyrgyzstan, based on albedo reduction and snowmelt models. PMID:28079148

  1. Modulation of snow reflectance and snowmelt from Central Asian glaciers by anthropogenic black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmale, Julia; Flanner, Mark; Kang, Shichang; Sprenger, Michael; Zhang, Qianggong; Guo, Junming; Li, Yang; Schwikowski, Margit; Farinotti, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Deposited mineral dust and black carbon are known to reduce the albedo of snow and enhance melt. Here we estimate the contribution of anthropogenic black carbon (BC) to snowmelt in glacier accumulation zones of Central Asia based on in-situ measurements and modelling. Source apportionment suggests that more than 94% of the BC is emitted from mostly regional anthropogenic sources while the remaining contribution comes from natural biomass burning. Even though the annual deposition flux of mineral dust can be up to 20 times higher than that of BC, we find that anthropogenic BC causes the majority (60% on average) of snow darkening. This leads to summer snowmelt rate increases of up to 6.3% (7 cm a‑1) on glaciers in three different mountain environments in Kyrgyzstan, based on albedo reduction and snowmelt models.

  2. Lead Toxicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... including some imported jewelry. What are the health effects of lead? • More commonly, lower levels of lead in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or behavioral issues. • Lead also affects other ...

  3. Lead poisoning

    SciTech Connect

    Rekus, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    Construction workers who weld, cut or blast structural steel coated with lead-based paint are at significant risk of lead poisoning. Although technology to control these exposures may not have existed when the lead standard was promulgated, it is available today. Employers who do not take steps to protect their employees from lead exposure may be cited and fined severely for their failure.

  4. Anthropogenic features and hillslope processes interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarolli, Paolo; Sofia, Giulia

    2016-04-01

    Topography emerges as a result of natural driving forces, but some human activities (such as mining, agricultural practices and the construction of road networks) directly or indirectly move large quantities of soil, which leave clear topographic signatures embedded on the Earth's morphology. These signatures can cause drastic changes to the geomorphological organization of the landscape, with direct consequences on Earth surface processes (Tarolli and Sofia, 2016). To this point, the present research investigates few case studies highlighting the influences of anthropogenic topographic signatures on hillslope processes, and it shows the effectiveness of High-Resolution Topography (HRT) derived from the recent remote sensing technologies (e.g. lidar, satellite, structure from motion photogrammetry), to better understand this interaction. The first example is related to agricultural terraces. In recent times, terraced areas acquired a new relevance to modern concerns about erosion and land instability, being the agricultural land mostly threatened by abandonment or intensification and specialization of agriculture, resulting in more landslide-prone bench terraces, or heavy land levelling with increased erosion. The second case study discusses about the role of agricultural and forest roads on surface erosion and landslides. The third case study investigates geomorphic processes in an open pit mine. In all case studies, HRT served as the basis for the development of new methodologies able to recognize and analyze changes on Earth surface processes along hillslopes. The results show how anthropogenic elements have crucial effects on sediment production and sediment delivery, also influencing the landscape connectivity. The availability of HRT can improve our ability to actually model anthropogenic morphologies, quantify them, and analyse the links between anthropogenic elements and geomorphic processes. The results presented here, and the creation and dissemination of

  5. Anthropogenic impacts on mosquito populations in North America over the past century

    PubMed Central

    Rochlin, Ilia; Faraji, Ary; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Barker, Christopher M.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2016-01-01

    The recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including Zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. However, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. Here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (DDT; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito populations over the last eight decades in areas on both coasts of North America. Mosquito populations have increased as much as tenfold, and mosquito communities have become two- to fourfold richer over the last five decades. These increases are correlated with the decay in residual environmental DDT concentrations and growing human populations, but not with temperature. These results illustrate the far-reaching impacts of multiple anthropogenic disturbances on animal communities and suggest that interactions between land use and chemical use may have unforeseen consequences on ecosystems. PMID:27922001

  6. Anthropogenic impacts on mosquito populations in North America over the past century.

    PubMed

    Rochlin, Ilia; Faraji, Ary; Ninivaggi, Dominick V; Barker, Christopher M; Kilpatrick, A Marm

    2016-12-06

    The recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including Zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. However, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. Here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (DDT; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito populations over the last eight decades in areas on both coasts of North America. Mosquito populations have increased as much as tenfold, and mosquito communities have become two- to fourfold richer over the last five decades. These increases are correlated with the decay in residual environmental DDT concentrations and growing human populations, but not with temperature. These results illustrate the far-reaching impacts of multiple anthropogenic disturbances on animal communities and suggest that interactions between land use and chemical use may have unforeseen consequences on ecosystems.

  7. Anthropogenic impacts on mosquito populations in North America over the past century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochlin, Ilia; Faraji, Ary; Ninivaggi, Dominick V.; Barker, Christopher M.; Kilpatrick, A. Marm

    2016-12-01

    The recent emergence and spread of vector-borne viruses including Zika, chikungunya and dengue has raised concerns that climate change may cause mosquito vectors of these diseases to expand into more temperate regions. However, the long-term impact of other anthropogenic factors on mosquito abundance and distributions is less studied. Here, we show that anthropogenic chemical use (DDT; dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and increasing urbanization were the strongest drivers of changes in mosquito populations over the last eight decades in areas on both coasts of North America. Mosquito populations have increased as much as tenfold, and mosquito communities have become two- to fourfold richer over the last five decades. These increases are correlated with the decay in residual environmental DDT concentrations and growing human populations, but not with temperature. These results illustrate the far-reaching impacts of multiple anthropogenic disturbances on animal communities and suggest that interactions between land use and chemical use may have unforeseen consequences on ecosystems.

  8. Future Climate Impacts of Direct Radiative Forcing Anthropogenic Aerosols, Tropospheric Ozone, and Long-lived Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Liao, Hong; Seinfeld, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Long-lived greenhouse gases (GHGs) are the most important driver of climate change over the next century. Aerosols and tropospheric ozone (O3) are expected to induce significant perturbations to the GHG-forced climate. To distinguish the equilibrium climate responses to changes in direct radiative forcing of anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG between present day and year 2100, four 80-year equilibrium climates are simulated using a unified tropospheric chemistry-aerosol model within the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) 110. Concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, primary organic (POA) carbon, secondary organic (SOA) carbon, black carbon (BC) aerosols, and tropospheric ozone for present day and year 2100 are obtained a priori by coupled chemistry-aerosol GCM simulations, with emissions of aerosols, ozone, and precursors based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Special Report on Emissions Scenario (SRES) A2. Changing anthropogenic aerosols, tropospheric ozone, and GHG from present day to year 2100 is predicted to perturb the global annual mean radiative forcing by +0.18 (considering aerosol direct effects only), +0.65, and +6.54 W m(sup -2) at the tropopause, and to induce an equilibrium global annual mean surface temperature change of +0.14, +0.32, and +5.31 K, respectively, with the largest temperature response occurring at northern high latitudes. Anthropogenic aerosols, through their direct effect, are predicted to alter the Hadley circulation owing to an increasing interhemispheric temperature gradient, leading to changes in tropical precipitation. When changes in both aerosols and tropospheric ozone are considered, the predicted patterns of change in global circulation and the hydrological cycle are similar to those induced by aerosols alone. GHG-induced climate changes, such as amplified warming over high latitudes, weakened Hadley circulation, and increasing precipitation over the

  9. High spatiotemporal variability in meiofaunal assemblages in Blanes Canyon (NW Mediterranean) subject to anthropogenic and natural disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Román, Sara; Vanreusel, Ann; Romano, Chiara; Ingels, Jeroen; Puig, Pere; Company, Joan B.; Martin, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    We investigated the natural and anthropogenic drivers controlling the spatiotemporal distribution of the meiofauna in the submarine Blanes Canyon, and its adjacent western slope (NW Mediterranean margin of the Iberian Peninsula). We analyzed the relationships between the main sedimentary environmental variables (i.e. grain size, Chl-a, Chl-a: phaeopigments, CPE, organic carbon and total nitrogen) and the density and structure of the meiofaunal assemblages along a bathymetric gradient (from 500 to 2000 m depth) in spring and autumn of 2012 and 2013. Twenty-one and 16 major taxa were identified for respectively the canyon and slope, where the assemblages were always dominated by nematodes. The gradual decreasing meiofaunal densities with increasing depth at the slope showed little variability among stations and corresponded with a uniform pattern of food availability. The canyon was environmentally much more variable and sediments contained greater amounts of food resources (Chl-a and CPE) throughout, leading not only to increased meiofaunal densities compared to the slope, but also different assemblages in terms of composition and structure. This variability in the canyon is only partly explained by seasonal food inputs. The high densities found at 900 m and 1200 m depth coincided with significant increases in food availability compared to shallower and deeper stations in the canyon. Our results suggest that the disruption in expected bathymetric decrease in densities at 900-1200 m water depth coincided with noticeable changes in the environmental variables typical for disturbance and deposition events (e.g., higher sand content and CPE), evoking the hypothesis of an anthropogenic effect at these depths in the canyon. The increased downward particle fluxes at 900-1200 m depth caused by bottom trawling along canyon flanks, as reported in previous studies, support our hypothesis and allude to a substantial anthropogenic factor influencing benthic assemblages at these

  10. Anthropogenic Aerosol Effects on Sea Surface Temperatures: Mixed-Layer Ocean Experiments with Explicit Aerosol Representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallafior, Tanja; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Knutti, Reto

    2014-05-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols affect the Earth's radiative balance both through direct and indirect effects. These effects can lead to a reduction of the incoming solar radiation at the surface, i.e. dimming, which may lead to a change in sea surface temperatures (SST) or SST pattern. This, in turn, may affect precipitation patterns. The goal of the present work is to achieve an estimate of the equilibrium SST changes under anthropogenic aerosol forcing since industrialisation. We show preliminary results from mixed-layer ocean (MLO) experiments with explicit aerosol representation performed with ECHAM6-HAM. The (fixed) MLO heat flux into the deep ocean was derived from atmosphere only runs with fixed climatological SSTs (1961-1990 average) and present day (year 2000) aerosols and GHG burdens. Some experiments we repeated with an alternative MLO deep ocean heat flux (based on pre-industrial conditions) to test the robustness of our results with regard to this boundary condition. The maximum surface temperature responses towards anthropogenic aerosol and GHG forcing (separately and combined) were derived on a global and regional scale. The same set of experiments was performed with aerosol and GHG forcings representative of different decades over the past one and a half centuries. This allows to assess how SST patterns at equilibrium changed with changing aerosol (and GHG) forcing. Correlating SST responses with the change in downward clear-sky and all-sky shortwave radiation provides a first estimate of the response to anthropogenic aerosols. Our results show a clear contrast in hemispheric surface temperature response, as expected from the inter-hemispheric asymmetry of aerosol forcing The presented work is part of a project aiming at quantifying the effect of anthropogenic aerosol forcing on SSTs and the consequences for global precipitation patterns. Results from this study will serve as a starting point for further experiments involving a dynamic ocean model, which

  11. Possible Influence of Anthropogenic Aerosols on Cirrus Clouds and Anthropogenic Forcing

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Joyce E.; Chen, Yang; Wang, Minghuai; Liu, Xiaohong

    2009-02-03

    Cirrus clouds have a net warming effect on the atmosphere and cover about 30% of the Earth’s area. Aerosol particles initiate ice formation in the upper troposphere through modes of action that include homogeneous freezing of solution droplets, heterogeneous nucleation on solid particles immersed in a solution, and deposition nucleation of vapor onto solid particles. Here, we examine the possible change in ice number concentration from anthropogenic soot originating from surface sources of fossil fuel and biomass burning, from anthropogenic sulfate aerosols, and from aircraft that deposit their aerosols directly in the upper troposphere. We find that fossil fuel and biomass burning soot aerosols exert a radiative forcing of -0.68 to 0.01 Wm-2 while anthropogenic sulfate aerosols exert a forcing of -0.01 to 0.18 Wm-2. Our calculations show that the sign of the forcing by aircraft soot depends on the model configuration and can be both positive or negative, ranging from -0.16 to 0.02 Wm-2. The magnitude of the forcing in cirrus clouds can be comparable to the forcing exerted by anthropogenic aerosols on warm clouds, but this forcing has not been included in past assessments of the total anthropogenic radiative forcing of climate.

  12. Rarity Value and Species Extinction: The Anthropogenic Allee Effect

    PubMed Central

    Courchamp, Franck; Signoret, Laetitia; Bull, Leigh; Meinard, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Standard economic theory predicts that exploitation alone is unlikely to result in species extinction because of the escalating costs of finding the last individuals of a declining species. We argue that the human predisposition to place exaggerated value on rarity fuels disproportionate exploitation of rare species, rendering them even rarer and thus more desirable, ultimately leading them into an extinction vortex. Here we present a simple mathematical model and various empirical examples to show how the value attributed to rarity in some human activities could precipitate the extinction of rare species—a concept that we term the anthropogenic Allee effect. The alarming finding that human perception of rarity can precipitate species extinction has serious implications for the conservation of species that are rare or that may become so, be they charismatic and emblematic or simply likely to become fashionable for certain activities. PMID:17132047

  13. Plant ecology. Anthropogenic environmental changes affect ecosystem stability via biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Hautier, Yann; Tilman, David; Isbell, Forest; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Reich, Peter B

    2015-04-17

    Human-driven environmental changes may simultaneously affect the biodiversity, productivity, and stability of Earth's ecosystems, but there is no consensus on the causal relationships linking these variables. Data from 12 multiyear experiments that manipulate important anthropogenic drivers, including plant diversity, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, fire, herbivory, and water, show that each driver influences ecosystem productivity. However, the stability of ecosystem productivity is only changed by those drivers that alter biodiversity, with a given decrease in plant species numbers leading to a quantitatively similar decrease in ecosystem stability regardless of which driver caused the biodiversity loss. These results suggest that changes in biodiversity caused by drivers of environmental change may be a major factor determining how global environmental changes affect ecosystem stability.

  14. Measurement of the distributions of event-by-event flow harmonics in lead-lead collisions at = 2.76 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abajyan, T.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Abdelalim, A. A.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Addy, T. N.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Agustoni, M.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alam, M. A.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allison, L. J.; Allport, P. P.; Allwood-Spiers, S. E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V. V.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Anduaga, X. S.; Angelidakis, S.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ask, S.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Astbury, A.; Atkinson, M.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M. A.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A. M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Backus Mayes, J.; Badescu, E.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D. C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baker, S.; Balek, P.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S. P.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D. Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartsch, V.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beale, S.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K. H.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bedikian, S.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P. J.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Beloborodova, O.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Bertella, C.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Bierwagen, K.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Bittner, B.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Boddy, C. 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A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Strong, J. A.; Stroynowski, R.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Subramania, HS.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tamsett, M. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teinturier, M.; Teischinger, F. A.; Castanheira, M. Teixeira Dias; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J. P.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thong, W. M.; Thun, R. P.; Tian, F.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Y. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N. D.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Tran, H. L.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.-W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuggle, J. M.; Tuna, A. N.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Cakir, I. Turk; Turra, R.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urquijo, P.; Usai, G.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Gallego, E. Valladolid; Vallecorsa, S.; Ferrer, J. A. Valls; Van Berg, R.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van der Ster, D.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veloso, F.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Boeriu, O. E. Vickey; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Perez, M. Villaplana; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Virzi, J.; Vitells, O.; Viti, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Milosavljevic, M. Vranjes; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Anh, T. Vu; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Walsh, B.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watanabe, I.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A. T.; Waugh, B. M.; Weber, M. S.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weigell, P.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wendland, D.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whitehead, S. R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wijeratne, P. A.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M. A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H. G.; Will, J. Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J. A.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wittig, T.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wong, W. C.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wraight, K.; Wright, M.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xiao, M.; Xie, S.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, U. K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, L.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Wong, K. H. Yau; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zaytsev, A.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; della Porta, G. Zevi; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimin, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Živković, L.; Zmouchko, V. V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2013-11-01

    The distributions of event-by-event harmonic flow coefficients v n for n = 2- 4 are measured in = 2 .76 TeV Pb + Pb collisions using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The measurements are performed using charged particles with transverse momentum p T > 0 .5 GeV and in the pseudorapidity range | η| < 2 .5 in a dataset of approximately 7 μb-1 recorded in 2010. The shapes of the v n distributions suggest that the associated flow vectors are described by a two-dimensional Gaussian function in central collisions for v 2 and over most of the measured centrality range for v 3 and v 4. Significant deviations from this function are observed for v 2 in mid-central and peripheral collisions, and a small deviation is observed for v 3 in mid-central collisions. In order to be sensitive to these deviations, it is shown that the commonly used multi-particle cumulants, involving four particles or more, need to be measured with a precision better than a few percent. The v n distributions are also measured independently for charged particles with 0 .5 < p T < 1 GeV and p T > 1 GeV. When these distributions are rescaled to the same mean values, the adjusted shapes are found to be nearly the same for these two p T ranges. The v n distributions are compared with the eccentricity distributions from two models for the initial collision geometry: a Glauber model and a model that includes corrections to the initial geometry due to gluon saturation effects. Both models fail to describe the experimental data consistently over most of the measured centrality range. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  15. Changes in expression and distribution of claudin 2, 5 and 8 lead to discontinuous tight junctions and barrier dysfunction in active Crohn's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zeissig, S; Bürgel, N; Günzel, D; Richter, J; Mankertz, J; Wahnschaffe, U; Kroesen, A J; Zeitz, M; Fromm, M; Schulzke, J‐D

    2007-01-01

    Background Epithelial barrier function is impaired in Crohn's disease. Aim To define the underlying cellular mechanisms with special attention to tight junctions. Methods Biopsy specimens from the sigmoid colon of patients with mild to moderately active or inactive Crohn's disease were studied in Ussing chambers, and barrier function was determined by impedance analysis and conductance scanning. Tight junction structure was analysed by freeze fracture electron microscopy, and tight junction proteins were investigated immunohistochemically by confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantified in immunoblots. Epithelial apoptosis was analysed in terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‐mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick‐end labelling and 4′,6‐diamidino‐2‐phenylindole staining. Results Patients with active Crohn's disease showed an impaired intestinal barrier function as indicated by a distinct reduction in epithelial resistance. As distribution of conductivity was even, focal epithelial lesions (eg, microerosions) did not contribute to barrier dysfunction. Instead, freeze fracture electron microscopy analysis showed reduced and discontinuous tight junction strands. Occludin and the sealing tight junction proteins claudin 5 and claudin 8 were downregulated and redistributed off the tight junction, whereas the pore‐forming tight junctions protein claudin 2 was strongly upregulated, which constitute the molecular basis of tight junction changes. Other claudins were unchanged (claudins 1, 4 and 7) or not detectable in sigmoid colon (claudins 11, 12, 14, 15 and 16). Claudin 2 upregulation was less pronounced in active Crohn's disease compared with active ulcerative colitis and was inducible by tumour necrosis factor α. As a second source of impaired barrier function, epithelial apoptosis was distinctly increased in active Crohn's disease (mean (SD) 5.2 (0.5)% v 1.9 (0.2)% in control). By contrast, barrier function, tight junction proteins and apoptosis

  16. Predicting woodrat (Neotoma) responses to anthropogenic warming from studies of the palaeomidden record

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Felisa A.; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2006-01-01

    Aim The influence of anthropogenic climate change on organisms is an area of great scientific concern. Increasingly there is recognition that abrupt climate transitions have occurred over the late Quaternary; studies of these shifts may yield insights into likely biotic responses to contemporary warming. Here, we review research undertaken over the past decade investigating the response of Neotoma (woodrats) body size and distribution to climate change over the late Quaternary (the last 40,000 years). By integrating information from woodrat palaeomiddens, historical museum specimens and field studies of modern populations, we identify potential evolutionary responses to climate change occurring over a variety of temporal and spatial scales. Specifically, we characterize climatic thresholds in the past that led to local species extirpation and/or range alterations rather than in situ adaptation, and apply them to anticipate potential biotic responses to anthropogenic climate change. Location Middens were collected at about 55 sites scattered across the western United States, ranging from about 34 to 46° N and about 104 to 116° W, respectively. Data for modern populations were drawn from studies conducted in Death Valley, California, Missoula, Montana and the Sevilleta LTER site in central New Mexico. Methods We analysed faecal pellets from midden series collected at numerous cave sites across the western United States. From these we estimated body mass using techniques validated in earlier studies. We compared body size fluctuations at different elevations in different regions and integrated these results with studies investigating temperature–body size tradeoffs in modern animals. We also quantify the rapidity of the size changes over the late Quaternary to estimate the evolutionary capacity of woodrats to deal with predicted rates of anthropogenic climate change over the next century. Results We find remarkable similarities across the geographical range to

  17. Lead Poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... from lead poisoning in New Hampshire and in Alabama. Lead poisoning has also been associated with juvenile ... for decades—after it first enters the blood stream. (The same process can occur with the onset ...

  18. Lead poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... Failure at school Hearing problems Kidney damage Reduced IQ Slowed body growth The symptoms of lead poisoning ... can have a permanent impact on attention and IQ. People with higher lead levels have a greater ...

  19. Lead concentration and isotope chronology in two coastal environments in Western and South East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco, G. G.; Chen, M.; Boyle, E. A.; Zhao, N.; Nurhati, I. S.; Gevao, B.; al Ghadban, A.; Switzer, A.; Lee, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    Lead is a trace metal that is closely related to anthropogenic activity, mainly via leaded gasoline and coal combustion. The study of lead concentrations and isotopes in seawater, sediments, corals and aerosols allows for a systematic look at its sources and their time evolution in a natural environment. We will discuss results from two projects in Western and South East Asia, regions that have seen dramatic socio-economical changes over the past half-century that may have left environmental signals. These results highlight the usefulness of the method, indicate the degree of complexity of these systems, and point to the need for a continuous monitoring of anthropogenic trace metals in the small-medium coastal scale to be able to asses the larger scale effects of human activity. On the one hand, coastal Kuwait is heavily influenced by the Shat al-Arab river and shows a clear anthropogenic signature from Kuwait city. A mix of two sources can be tracked through the coral and sediment chronological records, with Pb206/Pb207 ratios (1.202 and 1.151) that approach the suspected source values (1.21 and 1.12) and eliminate the possibility of other sources. Through a wide sediment geographic distribution, the strength of the anthropogenic signature is modulated. On the other hand, Singapore offers a more complex system, where an apparent mix of two sources (extreme isotope ratios 1.215 and ~1.14) occurs also, but where either an unresolved potentially important third source (isotope ratio ~1.18), or an isotope exchange process should be invoked. The sediment and coral records allows us to track the changes through time; however, there seems to be incongruence with the aerosol isotope record. Further potential sources are being explored currently and will be discussed.

  20. Anthropogenic Elevation Change in the Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prush, V. B.; Lohman, R. B.

    2013-12-01

    Over the past few decades, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) has emerged as a valuable tool for studying crustal deformation signals. Its applications to studies of tectonic and non-tectonic sources are varied, including earthquakes and fault-related processes, volcanic deformation, vegetation structure, and anthropogenic signals. In addition to studies of crustal deformation, the sensitivity of interferometric phase to topography makes InSAR a superb tool for the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). While much of the focus of InSAR research in recent years has been on deformation, changes in the elevation of the ground surface can be of great scientific or societal interest as well. Examples include elevation and volume change due to anthropogenic processes such as landfill and open-pit mining operations, and natural processes such as glacier thinning or terrain alteration resulting from effusive volcanic eruptions. Our study describes two elevation change signals observed in the Pacific Northwest that are of anthropogenic origin. Using the baseline-dependent nature of the topographic component of interferometric phase, we have determined a proxy for canopy height using coherent interferometric phase differences between adjacent logged and forested regions, as well as a means for determining estimates of the amount and time history of material displaced during mining operations at the Centralia Coal Mine in Centralia, Washington. Quantifying the amount of surface change due to anthropogenic activities is not only critical for tracking the altering landscape of the Pacific Northwest and reducing the observed error in interferograms attributable to elevation change. Deforestation is one of the most significant contributors to global carbon emissions, and quantifying changes in vegetation structure can assist in efforts to monitor and mitigate the effects of deforestation on climate change. Similarly, mining operations can have a lasting

  1. MULTI-SCALE REMOTE SENSING MAPPING OF ANTHROPOGENIC IMPERVIOUS SURFACES: SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL SCALING ISSUES RELATED TO ECOLOGICAL AND HYDROLOGICAL LANDSCAPE ANALYSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic impervious surfaces are leading contributors to non-point-source water pollution in urban watersheds. These human-created surfaces include such features as roads, parking lots, rooftops, sideways, and driveways. Aerial photography provides a historical vehicle for...

  2. Spatial variability of cadmium and lead in natural soils of a humid Mediterranean environment: La Rioja, Spain.

    PubMed

    Iñigo, V; Andrades, M S; Alonso-Martirena, J I; Marín, A; Jiménez-Ballesta, R

    2013-05-01

    The concentration levels of cadmium and lead in 250 horizon samples from 125 different soil profiles of undisturbed soils of La Rioja, Spain, were determined. Knowledge of regional contents as well as the variability and background values of trace elements in soils is of critical importance to assess human impact on the soil environment and to determine baseline values and quality standards. Heavy-metal horizontal distribution was mainly affected by the nature of the bedrock and, to a smaller extent, anthropogenic activity. Vertical distributions were mainly of a natural origin depending first on the bedrock and second on the result of soil processes.

  3. The anthropogenic environment lessens the intensity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Balinese long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Lane, Kelly E; Holley, Concerta; Hollocher, Hope; Fuentes, Agustin

    2011-04-01

    The distribution of wildlife parasites in a landscape is intimately tied to the spatial distribution of hosts. In parasite species, including many gastrointestinal parasites, with obligate or common environmental life stages, the dynamics of the parasite can also be strongly affected by geophysical components of the environment. This is especially salient in host species, for example humans and macaques, which thrive across a wide variety of habitat types and quality and so are exposed to a wealth of environmentally resilient parasites. Here, we examine the effect of environmental and anthropogenic components of the landscape on the prevalence, intensity, and species diversity of gastrointestinal parasites across a metapopulation of long-tailed macaques on the island of Bali, Indonesia. Using principal-components analysis, we identified significant interaction effects between specific environmental and anthropogenic components of the landscape, parsing the Balinese landscape into anthropogenic (PC1), mixed environment (PC2), and non-anthropogenic (PC3) components. Further, we determined that the anthropogenic environment can mitigate the prevalence and intensity of specific gut parasites and the intensity of the overall community of gut parasites, but that non-anthropogenically driven landscape components have no significant effect in increasing or reducing the intensity or prevalence of the community of gut parasites in Balinese macaques.

  4. Anthropogenic forcings on the surficial osmium cycle.

    PubMed

    Rauch, Sebastien; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, Bernhard; Kylander, Malin E; Weiss, Dominik J; Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio; Heslop, David; Olid, Carolina; Mighall, Tim M; Hemond, Harold F

    2010-02-01

    Osmium is among the least abundant elements in the Earth's continental crust. Recent anthropogenic Os contamination of the environment from mining and smelting activities, automotive catalytic converter use, and hospital discharges has been documented. Here we present evidence for anthropogenic overprinting of the natural Os cycle using a ca. 7000-year record of atmospheric Os deposition and isotopic composition from an ombrotrophic peat bog in NW Spain. Preanthropogenic Os accumulation in this area is 0.10 +/- 0.04 ng m(-2) y(-1). The oldest strata showing human influence correspond to early metal mining and processing on the Iberian Peninsula (ca. 4700-2500 cal. BP). Elevated Os accumulation rates are found thereafter with a local maximum of 1.1 ng m(-2) y(-1) during the Roman occupation of the Iberian Peninsula (ca. 1930 cal. BP) and a further increase starting in 1750 AD with Os accumulation reaching 30 ng m(-2) y(-1) in the most recent samples. Osmium isotopic composition ((187)Os/(188)Os) indicates that recent elevated Os accumulation results from increased input of unradiogenic Os from industrial and automotive sources as well as from enhanced deposition of radiogenic Os through increased fossil fuel combustion and soil erosion. We posit that the rapid increase in catalyst-equipped vehicles, increased fossil fuel combustion, and changes in land-use make the changes observed in NW Spain globally relevant.

  5. Anthropogenic perturbations in marine microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Nogales, Balbina; Lanfranconi, Mariana P; Piña-Villalonga, Juana M; Bosch, Rafael

    2011-03-01

    Human activities impact marine ecosystems at a global scale and all levels of complexity of life. Despite their importance as key players in ecosystem processes, the stress caused to microorganisms has been greatly neglected. This fact is aggravated by difficulties in the analysis of microbial communities and their high diversity, making the definition of patterns difficult. In this review, we discuss the effects of nutrient increase, pollution by organic chemicals and heavy metals and the introduction of antibiotics and pathogens into the environment. Microbial communities respond positively to nutrients and chemical pollution by increasing cell numbers. There are also significant changes in community composition, increases in diversity and high temporal variability. These changes, which evidence the modification of the environmental conditions due to anthropogenic stress, usually alter community functionality, although this aspect has not been explored in depth. Altered microbial communities in human-impacted marine environments can in turn have detrimental effects on human health (i.e. spread of pathogens and antibiotic resistance). New threats to marine ecosystems, i.e. related to climate change, could also have an impact on microbial communities. Therefore, an effort dedicated to analyse the microbial compartment in detail should be made when studying the impact of anthropogenic activities on marine ecosystems.

  6. Observations of anthropogenic cloud condensation nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, James G.

    1990-01-01

    Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN) concentrations and spectral measurements obtained with the DRI instantaneous CCN spectrometer (Hudson, 1989) over the last few years are presented. The climatic importance of cloud microphysics has been pointed out. The particles which affect cloud microphysics are cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The commonly-observed order of magnitude difference in cloud droplet concentrations between maritime and continental air masses (i.e., Squires, 1958) was determined to be caused by systematic differences in the concentrations of CCN between continental and maritime air masses (e.g., Twomey and Wojciechowski, 1969). Twomey (1977) first pointed out that cloud microphysics also affects the radiative properties of clouds. Thus continental and anthropogenic CCN could affect global temperature. Resolution of this Twomey effect requires answers to two questions - whether antropogenic CCN are a significant contribution to atmospheric CCN, and whether they are actually affecting cloud microphysics to an extent which is of climatic importance. The reasons for the contrast between continental and maritime CCN concentration are not understood. The question of the relative importance of anthropogenic CCN is addressed. These observations should shed light on this complex question although further research is being conducted in order to produce more quantitative answers. Accompanying CN measurements made with a TSI 3020 condensation nucleus (CN) counter are also presented.

  7. Violations of Gutenberg-Richter Relation in Anthropogenic Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Pawel; Lasocki, Stanislaw; Blascheck, Patrick; do Nascimento, Aderson Farias; Van Giang, Nguyen; Kwiatek, Grzegorz

    2016-05-01

    Anthropogenic seismicity (AS) is the undesired dynamic rockmass response to technological processes. AS environments are shallow hence their heterogeneities have important impact on AS. Moreover, AS is controlled by complex and changeable technological factors. This complicated origin of AS explains why models used in tectonic seismicity may be not suitable for AS. We study here four cases of AS, testing statistically whether the magnitudes follow the Gutenberg-Richter relation or not. The considered cases include the data from Mponeng gold mine in South Africa, the data observed during stimulation of geothermal well Basel 1 in Switzerland, the data from Acu water reservoir region in Brazil and the data from Song Tranh 2 hydropower plant region in Vietnam. The cases differ in inducing technologies, in the duration of periods in which they were recorded, and in the ranges of magnitudes. In all four cases the observed frequency-magnitude distributions statistically significantly differ from the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Although in all cases the Gutenberg-Richter b value changed in time, this factor turns out to be not responsible for the discovered deviations from the Gutenberg-Richter-born exponential distribution model. Though the deviations from Gutenberg-Richter law are not big, they substantially diminish the accuracy of assessment of seismic hazard parameters. It is demonstrated that the use of non-parametric kernel estimators of magnitude distribution functions improves significantly the accuracy of hazard estimates and, therefore, these estimators are recommended to be used in probabilistic analyses of seismic hazard caused by AS.

  8. Lead isotopic compositions of common arsenical pesticides used in New England

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert; Foley, Nora; Robinson, Gilpin; Wandless, Gregory; Dillingham, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    The three most important arsenical pesticides and herbicides that were extensively used on apple, blueberry, and potato crops in New England from mid-1800s to recent times are lead arsenate, calcium arsenate, and sodium arsenate. Lead arsenate was probably the most heavily used of the arsenical pesticides until it was banned in 1988. Other metal-arsenic pesticides were also used but in lesser amounts. A recent report identified areas in New England where arsenical pesticides were used extensively (Robinson and Ayuso, 2004). On the basis of factor analysis of metal concentrations in stream sediment samples, a positive correlation with pesticide use was shown in regions having stream sediment sample populations that contained concentrations of high arsenic and lead. Lead isotope compositions of stream sediments from areas with heavy use of the pesticides could not be entirely explained by lead originating from rock sulfides and their weathering products. An industrial lead contribution (mostly from atmospheric deposition of lead) was suggested in general to explain the lead isotopic distributions of the stream sediments that could not be accounted for by the natural lead in the environment. We concluded that when agricultural land previously contaminated with arsenical pesticides is urbanized, pesticide residues in the soils and stream sediments could be released into the groundwater. No lead isotopic data characterizing the compositions of pesticides were available for comparison. We have determined the lead isotopic compositions of commonly used pesticides in New England, such as lead arsenate, sodium metaarsenite, and calcium arsenate, in order to assist in future isotopic comparisons and to better establish anthropogenic sources of Pb and As. New data are also presented for copper acetoarsenite (or Paris green), methyl arsonic acid and methane arsonic acid, as well as for arsanilic acid, all of which are used as feed additives to promote swine and poultry growth

  9. Lead isotopes in the western North Atlantic: transient tracers of pollutant lead inputs.

    PubMed

    Véron, A J; Church, T M; Flegal, A R

    1998-08-01

    In the early 1980s, Patterson and colleagues demonstrated that most lead in oceanic surface waters had an anthropogenic origin. Their discovery occurred during the phasing out of leaded gasoline in North America initiated in the previous decade. The corresponding decrease in the anthropogenic lead emissions, verified by Pb/210Pb ratios, accounted for the systematic decline in lead concentrations in surface waters of the western Sargasso Sea. Subsequent changes in anthropogenic lead inputs to the western Sargasso Sea surface waters have been documented by measurements of lead concentrations, isotopic compositions (206Pb/207Pb, 208Pb/206Pb), and Pb/210Pb ratios in precipitation and seawater for the period of 1981 to 1994. These data indicate the easterly trade winds are now the primary source of atmospheric lead in Bermuda, and they confirm that the decline of lead concentrations in the North Atlantic is associated with the phasing out of leaded gasoline in North America and western Europe over the past decade. Moreover, temporal variations in the relative contribution of industrial lead inputs from the two sides of the North Atlantic over that period can be quantified based on differences in their isotopic composition. The transient character of those isotopic signatures also allows calculations of pollutant lead penetration rates into the mixed layer and upper thermocline of the western Sargasso Sea.

  10. Lead isotopes in the western North Atlantic: Transient tracers of pollutant lead inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Veron, A.J. |; Church, T.M.; Flegal, A.R.

    1998-08-01

    In the early 1980s, Patterson and colleagues demonstrated that most lead in oceanic surface waters had an anthropogenic origin. Their discovery occurred during the phasing out of leaded gasoline in North America initiated in the previous decade. The corresponding decrease in anthropogenic lead emissions, verified by Pb/{sup 210}Pb ratios, accounted for the systematic decline in lead concentrations in surface waters of the western Sargasso Sea. Subsequent changes in anthropogenic lead inputs to the western Sargasso Sea surface waters have been documented by measurements of lead concentrations, isotopic compositions ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb), and Pb/{sup 210}Pb ratios in precipitation and seawater for the period of 1981 to 1994. These data indicate the easterly trade winds are now the primary source of atmospheric lead in Bermuda, and they confirm that the decline of lead concentrations in the North Atlantic is associated with the phasing out of leaded gasoline in North America and western Europe over the past decade. Moreover, temporal variations in the relative contribution of industrial lead inputs from the two sides of the North Atlantic over that period can be quantified based on differences in their isotopic composition. The transient character of those isotopic signatures also allows calculations of pollutant lead penetration rates into the mixed layer and upper thermocline of the western Sargasso Sea.

  11. Simulations of the global carbon cycle and anthropogenic CO{sub 2} transient. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Joos, F.; Stocker, T.

    1996-11-01

    The major emphasis of our DOE funded research was to study the redistribution of anthropogenic carbon in the climate system and to constrain the global budgets of anthropogenic carbon and the carbon isotopes {sup 13}C and {sup 14}C for the historical period. We have continued the development of box models of the ocean carbon cycle (HILDA model) and the land biota. The coupled model (Bern model) was chosen as the reference model for scenario calculations and the calculations of global warming potential by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. These models were applied (1) to estimate the uptake of anthropogenic carbon by the ocean and the land biosphere for the last 200 years; (2) to investigate uncertainties in deconvolved fertilization fluxes into the land biota due to uncertainties in ice core CO{sub 2} data; (3) to study the relationship between future atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels and carbon emissions; (4) to investigate the budgets of bomb-produced radiocarbon and fossil {sup 13}C. We assessed the utility of bomb-produced and natural {sup 13}C observations to validate ocean models of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} uptake and tested the eddy diffusion parameterization of large-scale vertical transport in ocean box models. For this, vertical tracer transport in box-diffusion models and the 3-D ocean general circulation model from GFDL/Princeton was compared. We analyzed the distribution of the conservative property {Delta}C* to obtain a direct estimate based on marine measurements of the uptake of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} by the North Atlantic. We contribute to the missing sink debate by using atmospheric CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}C levels to disentangle the net carbon fluxes into the land biota and the ocean. A simplified representation for 4 different ocean models of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} uptake based on mixed-layer pulse response functions was developed.

  12. Spatial resolution of subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes in cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Susanne; Bayer, Peter; Menberg, Kathrin; Blum, Philipp

    2015-04-01

    Urban heat islands in the subsurface contain large quantities of energy in the form of elevated groundwater temperatures caused by anthropogenic heat fluxes (AHFS) into the subsurface. Hence, the objective of this study is to exemplarily quantify these AHFS and the generated thermal powers in two German cities, Karlsruhe and Cologne. A two-dimensional (2D) statistical analytical model of the vertical subsurface anthropogenic heat fluxes across the unsaturated zone was developed. The model consists of a so-called Local Monte Carlo approach that introduces a spatial representation of the following sources of AHFS: (1) elevated ground surface temperatures, (2) basements, (3) sewage systems, (4) sewage leakage, (5) subway tunnels, and (6) district heating networks. The results show that district heating networks induce the largest local AHFS with values larger than 60 W/m2 and one order of magnitude higher than the other evaluated heat sources. Only sewage pipes and basements reaching into the groundwater cause equally high heat fluxes, with maximal values of 40.37 W/m2 and 13.60 W/m2, respectively. While dominating locally, the district heating network is rather insignificant for the citywide energy budget in both urban subsurfaces. Heat from buildings (1.51 ± 1.36 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.31 ± 0.14 PJ/a in Cologne) and elevated GST (0.34 ± 0.10 PJ/a in Karlsruhe; 0.42 ± 0.13 PJ/a in Cologne) are dominant contributors to the anthropogenic thermal power of the urban aquifer. In Karlsruhe, buildings are the source of 70% of the annual heat transported into the groundwater, which is mainly caused by basements reaching into the groundwater. A variance analysis confirms these findings: basement depth is the most influential factor to citywide thermal power in the studied cities with high groundwater levels. The spatial distribution of fluxes, however, is mostly influenced by the prevailing thermal gradient across the unsaturated zone. A relatively cold groundwater

  13. Leading Democratically

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookfield, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Democracy is the most venerated of American ideas, the one for which wars are fought and people die. So most people would probably agree that leaders should be able to lead well in a democratic society. Yet, genuinely democratic leadership is a relative rarity. Leading democratically means viewing leadership as a function or process, rather than…

  14. Mapping of the thermal neutron distribution in the lead block assembly of the PS-211 experiment at CERN, using thermoluminescence and nuclear track detectors.

    PubMed

    Savvidis, E; Eleftheriadis, C A; Kitis, G

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of the TARC (Transmutation by Adiabatic Resonance Crossing) experiment (PS-211), was to demonstrate the possibility to destroy efficiently Long-Lived Fission Fragments (LLFF) in Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS). The experimental set-up which consisted of a lead block with dimensions 3.3 x 3.3 x 3 m3, was installed in a CERN Proton Synchrotron (PS) beam line. The proton beam at 2.5 GeV/c and 3.5 GeV/c, was incident in the centre of the lead block assembly producing neutrons via spallation reactions. In this study, neutron flux measurements are presented in the lead block assembly using thermoluminescence and nuclear track detectors. The results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo calculations as well as with the results of the other methods used in the framework of the TARC experiment.

  15. Anthropogenic noise increases fish mortality by predation.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Stephen D; Radford, Andrew N; Nedelec, Sophie L; Ferrari, Maud C O; Chivers, Douglas P; McCormick, Mark I; Meekan, Mark G

    2016-02-05

    Noise-generating human activities affect hearing, communication and movement in terrestrial and aquatic animals, but direct evidence for impacts on survival is rare. We examined effects of motorboat noise on post-settlement survival and physiology of a prey fish species and its performance when exposed to predators. Both playback of motorboat noise and direct disturbance by motorboats elevated metabolic rate in Ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis), which when stressed by motorboat noise responded less often and less rapidly to simulated predatory strikes. Prey were captured more readily by their natural predator (dusky dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus) during exposure to motorboat noise compared with ambient conditions, and more than twice as many prey were consumed by the predator in field experiments when motorboats were passing. Our study suggests that a common source of noise in the marine environment has the potential to impact fish demography, highlighting the need to include anthropogenic noise in management plans.

  16. Anthropogenic noise increases fish mortality by predation

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Stephen D.; Radford, Andrew N.; Nedelec, Sophie L.; Ferrari, Maud C. O.; Chivers, Douglas P.; McCormick, Mark I.; Meekan, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    Noise-generating human activities affect hearing, communication and movement in terrestrial and aquatic animals, but direct evidence for impacts on survival is rare. We examined effects of motorboat noise on post-settlement survival and physiology of a prey fish species and its performance when exposed to predators. Both playback of motorboat noise and direct disturbance by motorboats elevated metabolic rate in Ambon damselfish (Pomacentrus amboinensis), which when stressed by motorboat noise responded less often and less rapidly to simulated predatory strikes. Prey were captured more readily by their natural predator (dusky dottyback, Pseudochromis fuscus) during exposure to motorboat noise compared with ambient conditions, and more than twice as many prey were consumed by the predator in field experiments when motorboats were passing. Our study suggests that a common source of noise in the marine environment has the potential to impact fish demography, highlighting the need to include anthropogenic noise in management plans. PMID:26847493

  17. Anthropogenic Sulfur Dioxide Emissions: 1850-2005

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Steven J.; van Aardenne, John; Klimont, Z.; Andres, Robert; Volke, April C.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina

    2011-01-02

    Sulfur aerosols impact human health, ecosystems, agriculture, and global and regional climate. A new annual estimate of anthropogenic global and regional sulfur dioxide emissions has been constructed spanning the period 1850 - 2005. A combination of mass balance and best available inventory data was used in order to achieve the most accurate estimate possible. Global emissions peaked in the early 1970s and decreased until 2000, with an increase in recent years due to increased emissions in China, international shipping, and developing countries in general. An uncertainty analysis was conducted including both random and systemic uncertainties. The overall global uncertainty in sulfur dioxide emissions is relatively small, but regional uncertainties of up to 30% were found. The largest contributors to uncertainty at present are emissions from China and international shipping.

  18. Anthropogenic disturbances are key to maintaining the biodiversity of grasslands.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Z Y; Jiao, F; Li, Y H; Kallenbach, Robert L

    2016-02-23

    Although anthropogenic disturbances are often perceived as detrimental to plant biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance remains unclear. Opinions diverge on how natural diversity is generated and maintained. We conducted a large-scale investigation of a temperate grassland system in Inner Mongolia and assessed the richness-disturbance relationship using grazing intensity, the primary anthropogenic disturbance in the region. Vascular plant-species richness peaked at an intermediate level of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results support the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which provides a valid and useful measure of biodiversity at a metacommunity scale, indicating that anthropogenic disturbances are necessary to conserve the biodiversity of grassland systems.

  19. Anthropogenic disturbances are key to maintaining the biodiversity of grasslands

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Z. Y.; Jiao, F.; Li, Y. H.; Kallenbach, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Although anthropogenic disturbances are often perceived as detrimental to plant biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance remains unclear. Opinions diverge on how natural diversity is generated and maintained. We conducted a large-scale investigation of a temperate grassland system in Inner Mongolia and assessed the richness-disturbance relationship using grazing intensity, the primary anthropogenic disturbance in the region. Vascular plant-species richness peaked at an intermediate level of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results support the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which provides a valid and useful measure of biodiversity at a metacommunity scale, indicating that anthropogenic disturbances are necessary to conserve the biodiversity of grassland systems. PMID:26903041

  20. Anthropogenic disturbances are key to maintaining the biodiversity of grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Z. Y.; Jiao, F.; Li, Y. H.; Kallenbach, Robert L.

    2016-02-01

    Although anthropogenic disturbances are often perceived as detrimental to plant biodiversity, the relationship between biodiversity and disturbance remains unclear. Opinions diverge on how natural diversity is generated and maintained. We conducted a large-scale investigation of a temperate grassland system in Inner Mongolia and assessed the richness-disturbance relationship using grazing intensity, the primary anthropogenic disturbance in the region. Vascular plant-species richness peaked at an intermediate level of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results support the Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis, which provides a valid and useful measure of biodiversity at a metacommunity scale, indicating that anthropogenic disturbances are necessary to conserve the biodiversity of grassland systems.

  1. Anthropogenic Carbon Pump in an Urbanized Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J. H.; Yoon, T. K.; Jin, H.; Begum, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The importance of estuaries as a carbon source has been increasingly recognized over the recent decades. However, constraining sources of CO2 evasion from urbanized estuaries remains incomplete, particularly in densely populated river systems receiving high loads of organic carbon from anthropogenic sources. To account for major factors regulating carbon fluxes the tidal reach of the Han River estuary along the metropolitan Seoul, characterization of organic carbon in the main stem and major urban tributaries were combined with continuous, submersible sensor measurements of pCO2 at a mid-channel location over a year and continuous underway measurements using a submersible sensor and two equilibrator sytems across the estuarine section receiving urban streams. Single-site continuous measurements exhibited large seasonal and diurnal variations in pCO2, ranging from sub-ambient air levels to exceptionally high values approaching 10,000 ppm. Diurnal variations of pCO2 were pronounced in summer and had an inverse relationship with dissolved oxygen, pointing to a potential role of day-time algal consumption of CO2. Cruise measurements displayed sharp pCO2 pulses along the confluences of urban streams as compared with relatively low values along the upper estuary receiving low-CO2 outflows from upstream dams. Large downstream increases in pCO2, concurrent with increases in DOC concentrations and fluorescence intensities indicative of microbially processed organic components, imply a translocation and subsequent dilution of CO2 carried by urban streams and/or fast transformations of labile C during transit along downstream reaches. The unique combination of spatial and temporal continuous measurements of pCO2 provide insights on estuarine CO2 pulses that might have resulted from the interplay between high loads of CO2 and organic C of anthropogenic origin and their priming effects on estuarine microbial processing of terrigenous and algal organic matter.

  2. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Lawrence C; Hartter, Joel; Lemcke-Stampone, Mary; Moore, David W; Safford, Thomas G

    2015-01-01

    A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews) yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40%) concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15%) say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire) finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010-2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state's time series-suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus.

  3. Tracking Public Beliefs About Anthropogenic Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Lawrence C.; Hartter, Joel; Lemcke-Stampone, Mary; Moore, David W.; Safford, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    A simple question about climate change, with one choice designed to match consensus statements by scientists, was asked on 35 US nationwide, single-state or regional surveys from 2010 to 2015. Analysis of these data (over 28,000 interviews) yields robust and exceptionally well replicated findings on public beliefs about anthropogenic climate change, including regional variations, change over time, demographic bases, and the interacting effects of respondent education and political views. We find that more than half of the US public accepts the scientific consensus that climate change is happening now, caused mainly by human activities. A sizable, politically opposite minority (about 30 to 40%) concede the fact of climate change, but believe it has mainly natural causes. Few (about 10 to 15%) say they believe climate is not changing, or express no opinion. The overall proportions appear relatively stable nationwide, but exhibit place-to-place variations. Detailed analysis of 21 consecutive surveys within one fairly representative state (New Hampshire) finds a mild but statistically significant rise in agreement with the scientific consensus over 2010–2015. Effects from daily temperature are detectable but minor. Hurricane Sandy, which brushed New Hampshire but caused no disaster there, shows no lasting impact on that state’s time series—suggesting that non-immediate weather disasters have limited effects. In all datasets political orientation dominates among individual-level predictors of climate beliefs, moderating the otherwise positive effects from education. Acceptance of anthropogenic climate change rises with education among Democrats and Independents, but not so among Republicans. The continuing series of surveys provides a baseline for tracking how future scientific, political, socioeconomic or climate developments impact public acceptance of the scientific consensus. PMID:26422694

  4. Probing the leading-twist transverse-momentum-dependent parton distribution function h1T⊥ via the polarized proton-antiproton Drell-Yan process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiacai; Ma, Bo-Qiang

    2010-12-01

    We show that the polarized proton-antiproton Drell-Yan process is ideal to probe the pretzelosity distribution (h1T⊥), which is one of the new transverse-momentum-dependent parton distributions of the nucleon. We present predictions of the cos⁡(2ϕ+ϕa-ϕb) asymmetry in the transversely polarized proton-antiproton Drell-Yan process at PAX kinematics and find that the results are significantly larger compared with those of the sin⁡(3ϕh-ϕS) asymmetry in the semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering process at HERMES, COMPASS, and JLab kinematics. We conclude that the cos⁡(2ϕ+ϕa-ϕb) asymmetry in the PAX experiment can probe the new physical quantity of the pretzelosity distribution.

  5. Characterizing ultrafine particle growth at a pine forest site influenced by anthropogenic pollution during BEACHON-RoMBAS-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Hodzic, A.; Smith, J. N.; Ortega, J. V.; de Foy, B.

    2013-12-01

    Representing the formation and growth of ultrafine particles in chemistry and climate models is challenging due to the complexity of processes involved, which leads to uncertainties in aerosol size distributions and their effects on Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN). The Rocky Mountain Biogenic Aerosol Study (RoMBAS) was an intensive measurement campaign as part of the broader BEACHON (Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen) project. This took place during July - August 2011 at the Manitou Experimental Forest Observatory. The location is situated in the rural-urban interface along the Colorado Front Range and allows us to study the effects of aerosol formation and other atmospheric chemistry phenomenon in a forested region with periodic urban influences. Surface measurements of gases, aerosols and meteorological parameters from this campaign were used to examine the formation and growth processes leading to observed Aiken-mode Particle burst Events (APEs), and to quantify their effects on aerosol properties and cloud condensation nuclei CCN concentrations. Results suggest that APEs were observed at the forest site in the early afternoon associated with the arrival of anthropogenic plumes from Denver and Colorado Springs. Mean number concentrations of ultrafine particles (4-30nm) typically exceeded 5000 cm-3 during APEs and these elevated concentrations were correlated with elevated SO2. The Weather Research and Forecasting model with on-line Chemistry (WRF-Chem) was used to model APEs during BEACHON-RoMBAS. The model was updated to include an activation nucleation (AN) scheme with an empirical representation of aerosol nucleation rate, and subsequent growth due to the condensation of organic and inorganic vapors. Comparisons with ground measurements show that the updated model reasonably captures aerosol number concentrations and size distribution during APEs, as well as CN and CCN concentrations. Model results

  6. Modeling ultrafine particle growth at a pine forest site influenced by anthropogenic pollution during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y. Y.; Hodzic, A.; Smith, J. N.; Ortega, J.; Brioude, J.; Matsui, H.; Turnipseed, A.; Winkler, P.; de Foy, B.

    2014-03-01

    Formation and growth of ultrafine particles is crudely represented in chemistry-climate models, which contributes to uncertainties in aerosol composition, size distribution, and aerosol effects on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Measurements of ultrafine particles, their precursor gases, and meteorological parameters were performed in a ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Front Range in July-August 2011, and were analyzed to study processes leading to Aitken-mode Particle burst Events (APEs). These measurements suggest that APEs were associated with the arrival at the site of anthropogenic pollution plumes around noon or in the early afternoon. Number concentrations of ultrafine (4 to 30 nm diameter) particles typically exceeded 10 000 cm-3 during APEs, and these elevated concentrations coincided with increased SO2 and monoterpene concentrations, and led to a factor of two increase in CCN concentrations at 0.5% supersaturation. The APEs were simulated using the regional WRF-Chem model, which was extended to account for ultrafine particle sizes starting at 1 nm in diameter, to include an empirical activation nucleation scheme in the planetary boundary layer, and to explicitly simulate the subsequent growth of Aitken particles by condensation of organic and inorganic vapors. Comparisons with aerosol size distribution measurements showed that simulations using the activation nucleation parameterization reasonably captured aerosol number concentrations and size distribution during APEs, as well as ground level CCN concentrations. Results suggest that sulfuric acid from anthropogenic SO2 triggers APEs, and that the condensation of monoterpene oxidation products onto freshly nucleated particles drives their growth. The simulated growth rate of 3.4 nm h-1 for small particles (4-30 nm in diameter) was comparable to the measured average value of 2.3 nm h-1. Model results also suggest that the presence of APEs tends to modify the composition of sub-100 nm

  7. Response of SOM Decomposition to Anthropogenic N Deposition: Simulations From the PnET-SOM Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonitto, C.; Goodale, C. L.; Ollinger, S. V.; Jenkins, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    -values were varied did not drastically alter the predicted SOC pool distribution throughout the soil profile, but did significantly alter the Oi SOC pool. These results suggest that describing soil response to N deposition via alteration of the limit value alone, or as a combined alteration of limit value and the initial decomposition rate, can lead to significant variation in predicted long-term C storage.

  8. Comparison of the Distributions of Bromine, Lead and Zinc in Tooth and Bone from an Ancient Peruvian Burial site by X-ray Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Martin,R.; Naftel, S.; Nelson, A.; Sapp, W.

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron micro X-ray fluorescence was used to study the distribution of selected trace elements (Zn, Pb, and Br) in tooth and bone samples obtained from an individual from a pre-Columbian archaeological site (Cabur) located on the north coast of Peru. The results show that Zn, Pb, and Br are present in both the teeth and bone samples and that the Zn and Pb seem to be confined to similar regions (cementum and periostium), while Br shows a novel distribution with enrichment close to the Haversian canals and (or) in regions that appear to be Ca deficient.

  9. Using isotopic ratios for discrimination of environmental anthropogenic radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Robert B; Akbarzadeh, Mansour

    2014-10-01

    When air is pulled into the WIPP repository for ventilation purposes, this air is unfiltered and contains all the components of ubiquitous anthropogenic radionuclides from global nuclear fallout (including Cs and Pu isotopes). Although the NORM in aeolian sand and dust contribute to the gross alpha beta activity on effluent air filters, there remains a need to discriminate effluent TRU generated in the disposal process at WIPP from TRU being pulled into the repository with the unfiltered surface air. This is only evaluated using ratios of Cs and Pu activity found through radioassay of air filters taken from the mine effluent. By characterizing both the credible range of Cs/Pu ratios from the environment and those known to exist in the waste, a rigorous test criteria is attained. The use of HPGE to assay Cs in the intake dust plated out in the mine allowed a gross assay of total TRU radioactivity pulled into the mine over time from global fallout. Radiochemistry of samples from deposition in the mine's air intake shaft was also carried out. The use of net activity ratios at background levels is also shown to follow a Cauchy distribution in terms of their expected statistical distributions.

  10. Anthropogenic carbon in the ocean—Surface to interior connections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groeskamp, Sjoerd; Lenton, Andrew; Matear, Richard; Sloyan, Bernadette M.; Langlais, Clothilde

    2016-11-01

    Quantifying the surface to interior transport of anthropogenic carbon (CA) is critical for projecting future carbon uptake and for improved understanding of the role of the oceans in the global carbon cycle. Here we develop and apply a diagnostic tool that provides a volumetric stream function in (CA,σ0) coordinates to calculate the total diapycnal CA transport in the ocean, where σ0 is the surface referenced potential density anomaly. We combine this with air-sea fluxes of CA to infer the internal ocean mixing of CA to obtain a closed globally integrated budget analyses of the ocean's CA transport. This diagnostic separates the contribution from the mean flow, seasonal cycles, trend, surface fluxes, and mixing in the distribution and the accumulation of CA in the ocean. We find that the redistribution of CA from the surface to the interior of the ocean is due to an interplay between circulation and mixing. The circulation component is dominated by the mean flow; however, effects due to seasonal cycles are significant for the CA redistribution. The two most important pathways for CA subduction are through the transformation of thermocline water (TW) into subantarctic mode water and by transformation of Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) into lighter Antarctic Intermediate Water. The results suggest that an accurate representation of intermediate and mode water formation, deep water formation, and spatial and temporal distribution of ocean mixing in ocean models is essential to simulate and project the oceanic uptake of CA.

  11. Lead Speciation in remote Mountain Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plöger, A.; van den Berg, C. M. G.

    2003-04-01

    In natural waters trace metals can become complexed by organic matter. This complexation can change the geochemistry of the metals by preventing them being scavenged, thereby increasing their residence time in the water column. The chemical speciation of trace metals also affects the bioavalability and their toxicological impact on organisms. It is therefore important to determine the chemical speciation of trace metals as well as their concentrations. Mountain lakes have been less studied in the past than other lakes- partly because of their remoteness and partly because they were perceived to be unpolluted and undisturbed. But work so far on mountain lakes has shown that most sites are affected and threatened, for example by transboundary air pollutants like trace metals. One of the important features that distinguishes these lakes from lowland lakes at similar latitudes is the fact that they may be isolated from the atmosphere for six months or more during the winter by a thick ice cover. Also, as these lakes are remote from direct anthropogenic influences, they reflect the regional distribution of pollutants transferred via the atmosphere. For this work, under the framework of the EMERGE (European Mountain lake Ecosystems: Regionalisation, diaGnostic and socio-economic Evaluation) programme, two remote mountain lakes have been studied in detail, with water sampling taking place at different times of the year to investigate possible seasonal differences in lead concentrations and speciation. Results so far have shown that lead-complexing ligand concentrations are in excess to dissolved lead concentrations, indicating that dissolved lead probably occurs fully complexed in these lakes. Therefore the toxic fraction is likely to be less than the dissolved lead concentration. Also, lead concentrations at the time of the spring thaw are higher than autumn concentrations just before ice cover, indicating that a significant proportion of fallout onto the lake catchment

  12. Effects of anthropogenic developments on common raven nesting biology in the West Mojave Desert.

    PubMed

    Kristan, William B; Boarman, William I

    2007-09-01

    Subsidized predators may affect prey abundance, distribution, and demography. Common Ravens (Corvus corax) are anthropogenically subsidized throughout their range and, in the Mojave Desert, have increased in number dramatically over the last 3-4 decades. Human-provided food resources are thought to be important drivers of raven population growth, but human developments add other features as well, such as nesting platforms. From 1996 to 2000, we examined the nesting ecology of ravens in the Mojave Desert, relative to anthropogenic developrhent. Ravens nested disproportionately near point sources of food and water subsidies (such as towns, landfills, and ponds) but not near roads (sources of road-killed carrion), even though both sources of subsidy enhanced fledging success. Initiation of breeding activity was more likely when a nest from the previous year was present at the start of a breeding season but was not affected by access to food. The relative effect of environmental modifications on fledging success varied from year to year, but the effect of access to human-provided resources was comparatively consistent, suggesting that humans provide consistently high-quality breeding habitat for ravens. Anthropogenic land cover types in the desert are expected to promote raven population growth and to allow ravens to occupy parts of the desert that otherwise would not support them. Predatory impacts of ravens in the Mojave Desert can therefore be considered indirect effects of anthropogenic development.

  13. Assessing anthropogenic sources of mercury in soil in Wanshan Hg mining area, Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhihui; Feng, Xinbin; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Jingfu; Jiang, Taiming; Xiao, Houjun; Li, Yu; Wang, Xun; Qiu, Guangle

    2013-11-01

    Long-term mining and smelting activities brought a series of environmental issues into soils in Wanshan mercury (Hg) mining area (WMMA), Guizhou, China. Several studies have been published on the concentrations of Hg in local soils, but a comprehensive assessment of the mass of Hg in soil induced by anthropogenic activities, as presented in this paper, has not been previously conducted. Three districts of WMMA were chosen as the study areas. We summarized previous published data and sampled 14 typical soil profiles to analyze the spatial and vertical distributions of Hg in soil in the study areas. The regional geologic background, direct and indirect Hg deposition, and Hg-polluted irrigation water were considered as the main sources of Hg contaminations in local soils. Furthermore, the enrichment factor (EF) method was applied to assess the extent of anthropogenic input of Hg to soil. Titanium (Ti) was chosen to be the reference element to calculate the EF. Generally, the elevated values of EF were observed in the upper soil layers and close to mine wastes. The total budget of Hg in soil contributed from anthropogenic sources was estimated to be 1,227 t in arable soil and 75 t in natural soil. Our data showed that arable soil was the major sink of anthropogenic Hg in the study area.

  14. Effects of anthropogenic developments on common Raven nesting biology in the west Mojave Desert

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kristan, W. B.; Boarman, W.I.

    2007-01-01

    Subsidized predators may affect prey abundance, distribution, and demography. Common Ravens (Corvus corax) are anthropogenically subsidized throughout their range and, in the Mojave Desert, have increased in number dramatically over the last 3-4 decades. Human-provided food resources are thought to be important drivers of raven population growth, but human developments add other features as well, such as nesting platforms. From 1996 to 2000, we examined the nesting ecology of ravens in the Mojave Desert, relative to anthropogenic development. Ravens nested disproportionately near point sources of food and water subsidies (such as towns, landfills, and ponds) but not near roads (sources of road-killed carrion), even though both sources of subsidy enhanced fledging success. Initiation of breeding activity was more likely when a nest from the previous year was present at the start of a breeding season but was not affected by access to food. The relative effect of environmental modifications on fledging success varied from year to year, but the effect of access to humanprovided resources was comparatively consistent, suggesting that humans provide consistently high-quality breeding habitat for ravens. Anthropogenic land cover types in the desert are expected to promote raven population growth and to allow ravens to occupy parts of the desert that otherwise would not support them. Predatory impacts of ravens in the Mojave Desert can therefore be considered indirect effects of anthropogenic development. ?? 2007 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Emissions of biogenic VOC from forest ecosystems in central Europe: estimation and comparison with anthropogenic emission inventory.

    PubMed

    Zemankova, Katerina; Brechler, Josef

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a method of estimating emission fluxes of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) based on the approach proposed by Guenther et al. (1995) and the high-resolution Corine land-cover 2000 database (1x1km resolution). The computed emission fluxes for the Czech Republic (selected for analysis as being representative of a heavily cultivated, central European country) are compared with anthropogenic emissions, both for the entire country and for individual administrative regions. In some regions, BVOC emissions are as high as anthropogenic emissions; however, in most regions the BVOC emissions are approximately 50% of the anthropogenic emissions. The yearly course of BVOC emissions (represented by monoterpenes and isoprene) is presented, along with the spatial distribution of annual mean values. Differences in emission distributions during winter (January) and summer (June) are also considered.

  16. Global and Regional Surface Albedo Changes due to Land Use Transformation: an Anthropogenic Source for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monier, E.; Wharton, S.; Laabs, B.; Reck, R.

    2005-12-01

    For the past decades, cropland area has been slowly increasing while forests and woodlands diminished, leading to consequent changes in land use resulting from human behavior. Besides, desertification directly affects millions of people around the world and not a single year goes by without new reports of ice melting. More than being an economic issue, land use transformation can prove to have altered the energy balance, and therefore the climate, through surface albedo changes over the past decades. Each land category has its own surface albedo, defined as its solar back scatter and being only a function of the radiation field incident on it and the properties of the land category itself. Using a global surface albedo model (Hummel and Reck, 1979), involving 49 different types of surfaces for each quarter of the year, January-March, April-June, July-September and October-December, surface albedo maps are computed from land usage maps for the 1970s and 1990s. Regional changes in the surface albedo can cause variation in the energy budget of the earth-atmosphere system, specifically in the tropospheric distribution of temperature, and therefore can be an anthropogenic source for climate change at a global scale. Many feedbacks and teleconnections can be found between surface albedo, cloud coverage and CO2 fluxes leading to a potentially unstable energy budget system. In order to fully comprehend climate change, a extensive review on that system and its foundations is expected to be released in 2006.

  17. Differential mitochondrial distribution in human pronuclear embryos leads to disproportionate inheritance between blastomeres: relationship to microtubular organization, ATP content and competence.

    PubMed

    Van Blerkom, J; Davis, P; Alexander, S

    2000-12-01

    It has been suggested that mitochondrial DNA defects that effect metabolic capacity may be a proximal cause of failures in oocyte maturation, fertilization, or early embryonic development. Here, the distribution of mitochondria was examined by scanning laser confocal microscopy in living human pronuclear oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, followed either by measurements of the net ATP content of individual blastomeres or anti-tubulin immunofluorescence to determine the relationship between mitochondrial distribution and microtubular organization. The results indicate that specific patterns of perinuclear mitochondrial aggregation and microtubular organization are related, and that asymmetrical mitochondrial distributions at the pronuclear stage can result in some proportion of blastomeres with reduced mitochondrial inheritance and diminished ATP generating capacity. While the inability to divide appears to be a development consequence for an affected blastomere, for the embryo, reduced competence may occur during cleavage if several blastomeres inherit a mitochondrial complement inadequate to support normal cellular functions. The findings provide a possible epigenetic explanation for the variable developmental ability expressed within cohorts of morphologically normal early cleavage stage human embryos obtained by in-vitro fertilization.

  18. African anthropogenic combustion emission inventory: specificities and uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekou, K.; Liousse, C.; Eric-michel, A.; Veronique, Y.; Thierno, D.; Roblou, L.; Toure, E. N.; Julien, B.

    2015-12-01

    Fossil fuel and biofuel emissions of gases and particles in Africa are expected to significantly increase in the near future, particularly due to the growth of African cities. In addition, African large savannah fires occur each year during the dry season, mainly for socio-economical purposes. In this study, we will present the most recent developments of African anthropogenic combustion emission inventories, stressing African specificities. (1)A regional fossil fuel and biofuel inventory for gases and particulates will be presented for Africa at a resolution of 0.25° x 0.25° from 1990 to 2012. For this purpose, the original database of Liousse et al. (2014) has been used after modification for emission factors and for updated regional fuel consumption including new emitter categories (waste burning, flaring) and new activity sectors (i.e. disaggregation of transport into sub-sectors including two wheel ). In terms of emission factors, new measured values will be presented and compared to litterature with a focus on aerosols. They result from measurement campaigns organized in the frame of DACCIWA European program for each kind of African specific anthropogenic sources in 2015, in Abidjan (Ivory Coast), Cotonou (Benin) and in Laboratoire d'Aérologie combustion chamber. Finally, a more detailed spatial distribution of emissions will be proposed at a country level to better take into account road distributions and population densities. (2) Large uncertainties still remain in biomass burning emission inventories estimates, especially over Africa between different datasets such as GFED and AMMABB. Sensitivity tests will be presented to investigate uncertainties in the emission inventories, applying methodologies used for AMMABB and GFED inventories respectively. Then, the relative importance of each sources (fossil fuel, biofuel and biomass burning inventories) on the budgets of carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, black and organic carbon, and volatile

  19. Anthropogenic nutrients and harmful algae in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Keith; Gowen, Richard J; Harrison, Paul J; Fleming, Lora E; Hoagland, Porter; Moschonas, Grigorios

    2014-12-15

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) are thought to be increasing in coastal waters worldwide. Anthropogenic nutrient enrichment has been proposed as a principal causative factor of this increase through elevated inorganic and/or organic nutrient concentrations and modified nutrient ratios. We assess: 1) the level of understanding of the link between the amount, form and ratio of anthropogenic nutrients and HABs; 2) the evidence for a link between anthropogenically generated HABs and negative impacts on human health; and 3) the economic implications of anthropogenic nutrient/HAB interactions. We demonstrate that an anthropogenic nutrient-HAB link is far from universal, and where it has been demonstrated, it is most frequently associated with high biomass rather than low biomass (biotoxin producing) HABs. While organic nutrients have been shown to support the growth of a range of HAB species, insufficient evidence exists to clearly establish if these nutrients specifically promote the growth of harmful species in preference to benign ones, or if/how they influence toxicity of harmful species. We conclude that the role of anthropogenic nutrients in promoting HABs is site-specific, with hydrodynamic processes often determining whether blooms occur. We also find a lack of evidence of widespread significant adverse health impacts from anthropogenic nutrient-generated HABs, although this may be partly due to a lack of human/animal health and HAB monitoring. Detailed economic evaluation and cost/benefit analysis of the impact of anthropogenically generated HABs, or nutrient reduction schemes to alleviate them, is also frequently lacking.

  20. Anthropogenic Cycles of Rare Earth Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X.; Graedel, T. E.

    2009-12-01

    This research will develop quantitatively resolved anthropogenic cycles and in-use stocks for the rare earth metals specifically cerium, lanthanum and dysprosium in Japan, China, and the U.S. for the year of 2007. Rare earth elements (REE) is a group of 17 scare metals widely used in a growing number of emerging technologies and have been in high demand for emerging technologies as raw materials during past the three decades. New market participants from newly industrializing countries, primarily China, have had strong impacts on the demand of share. Consequently, the importance to sustain a reliable, steady, uninterrupted supply on global market triggered comprehensive research to recognize and understand the life cycles of rare earths. Moreover, because China plays a dominant role in mining production since 1990, it requires the assessment for the countries, which are almost completely dependent on imports from China with respect to rare earth resources. The study aims to analyze the flows and stocks of rare earth elements individually as elemental form in spite of their natural geological co-occurrence and mixed composition in applications. By applying the method of Material Flow Analysis (MFA) work has been done on evaluating current and historical flows of specific technologically significant materials, for example, copper, zinc, nickel, etc., determining the stocks available in different types of reservoirs (e.g., lithosphere, in-use) and the flows among the reservoirs, developing scenarios of possible futures of metal use, and assessing the environmental and policy implications of the results. Therefore, REE as a new target deserves inclusion because of its potential demand-supply conflict and importance to secure the competitive advantage of technical innovation in future. This work will generate a quantitatively resolved anthropogenic life cycle and in-use stocks for REE for the main target countries for a chosen year, 2007, providing flows and stocks from

  1. An Ecological and Evolutionary Framework for Commensalism in Anthropogenic Environments.

    PubMed

    Hulme-Beaman, Ardern; Dobney, Keith; Cucchi, Thomas; Searle, Jeremy B

    2016-08-01

    Commensalism within anthropogenic environments has not been extensively discussed, despite its impact on humans, and there is no formal framework for assessing this ecological relationship in its varied forms. Here, we examine commensalism in anthropogenic environments in detail, considering both ecological and evolutionary drivers. The many assumptions about commensalism and the nature of anthropogenic environments are discussed and we highlight dependency as a key attribute of anthropogenic commensals (anthrodependent taxa). We primarily focus on mammalian species in the anthropogenic-commensal niche, but the traits described and selective pressures presented are likely fundamental to many species engaged in intense commensal relationships with humans. Furthermore, we demonstrate that this largely understudied interaction represents an important opportunity to investigate evolutionary processes in rapidly changing environments.

  2. Assessing the observed impact of anthropogenic climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Gerrit; Stone, Dáithí

    2016-05-01

    Impacts of recent regional changes in climate on natural and human systems are documented across the globe, yet studies explicitly linking these observations to anthropogenic forcing of the climate are scarce. Here we provide a systematic assessment of the role of anthropogenic climate change for the range of impacts of regional climate trends reported in the IPCC’s Fifth Assessment Report. We find that almost two-thirds of the impacts related to atmospheric and ocean temperature can be confidently attributed to anthropogenic forcing. In contrast, evidence connecting changes in precipitation and their respective impacts to human influence is still weak. Moreover, anthropogenic climate change has been a major influence for approximately three-quarters of the impacts observed on continental scales. Hence the effects of anthropogenic emissions can now be discerned not only globally, but also at more regional and local scales for a variety of natural and human systems.

  3. Ecotoxicology: Lead

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scheuhammer, A.M.; Beyer, W.N.; Schmitt, C.J.; Jorgensen, Sven Erik; Fath, Brian D.

    2008-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a naturally occurring metallic element; trace concentrations are found in all environmental media and in all living things. However, certain human activities, especially base metal mining and smelting; combustion of leaded gasoline; the use of Pb in hunting, target shooting, and recreational angling; the use of Pb-based paints; and the uncontrolled disposal of Pb-containing products such as old vehicle batteries and electronic devices have resulted in increased environmental levels of Pb, and have created risks for Pb exposure and toxicity in invertebrates, fish, and wildlife in some ecosystems.

  4. Artificial breakwaters as garbage bins: Structural complexity enhances anthropogenic litter accumulation in marine intertidal habitats.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Moisés A; Broitman, Bernardo R; Thiel, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Coastal urban infrastructures are proliferating across the world, but knowledge about their emergent impacts is still limited. Here, we provide evidence that urban artificial reefs have a high potential to accumulate the diverse forms of litter originating from anthropogenic activities around cities. We test the hypothesis that the structural complexity of urban breakwaters, when compared with adjacent natural rocky intertidal habitats, is a driver of anthropogenic litter accumulation. We determined litter abundances at seven sites (cities) and estimated the structural complexity in both urban breakwaters and adjacent natural habitats from northern to central Chile, spanning a latitudinal gradient of ∼15° (18°S to 33°S). Anthropogenic litter density was significantly higher in coastal breakwaters when compared to natural habitats (∼15.1 items m(-2) on artificial reefs versus 7.4 items m(-2) in natural habitats) at all study sites, a pattern that was temporally persistent. Different litter categories were more abundant on the artificial reefs than in natural habitats, with local human population density and breakwater extension contributing to increase the probabilities of litter occurrence by ∼10%. In addition, structural complexity was about two-fold higher on artificial reefs, with anthropogenic litter density being highest at intermediate levels of structural complexity. Therefore, the spatial structure characteristic of artificial reefs seems to enhance anthropogenic litter accumulation, also leading to higher residence time and degradation potential. Our study highlights the interaction between coastal urban habitat modification by establishment of artificial reefs, and pollution. This emergent phenomenon is an important issue to be considered in future management plans and the engineering of coastal ecosystems.

  5. Anthropogenic warming of Earth's climate system.

    PubMed

    Levitus, S; Antonov, J I; Wang, J; Delworth, T L; Dixon, K W; Broccoli, A J

    2001-04-13

    We compared the temporal variability of the heat content of the world ocean, of the global atmosphere, and of components of Earth's cryosphere during the latter half of the 20th century. Each component has increased its heat content (the atmosphere and the ocean) or exhibited melting (the cryosphere). The estimated increase of observed global ocean heat content (over the depth range from 0 to 3000 meters) between the 1950s and 1990s is at least one order of magnitude larger than the increase in heat content of any other component. Simulation results using an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model that includes estimates of the radiative effects of observed temporal variations in greenhouse gases, sulfate aerosols, solar irradiance, and volcanic aerosols over the past century agree with our observation-based estimate of the increase in ocean heat content. The results we present suggest that the observed increase in ocean heat content may largely be due to the increase of anthropogenic gases in Earth's atmosphere.

  6. Anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance and the recovery debt.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Mateos, David; Barbier, Edward B; Jones, Peter C; Jones, Holly P; Aronson, James; López-López, José A; McCrackin, Michelle L; Meli, Paula; Montoya, Daniel; Rey Benayas, José M

    2017-01-20

    Ecosystem recovery from anthropogenic disturbances, either without human intervention or assisted by ecological restoration, is increasingly occurring worldwide. As ecosystems progress through recovery, it is important to estimate any resulting deficit in biodiversity and functions. Here we use data from 3,035 sampling plots worldwide, to quantify the interim reduction of biodiversity and functions occurring during the recovery process (that is, the 'recovery debt'). Compared with reference levels, recovering ecosystems run annual deficits of 46-51% for organism abundance, 27-33% for species diversity, 32-42% for carbon cycling and 31-41% for nitrogen cycling. Our results are consistent across biomes but not across degrading factors. Our results suggest that recovering and restored ecosystems have less abundance, diversity and cycling of carbon and nitrogen than 'undisturbed' ecosystems, and that even if complete recovery is reached, an interim recovery debt will accumulate. Under such circumstances, increasing the quantity of less-functional ecosystems through ecological restoration and offsetting are inadequate alternatives to ecosystem protection.

  7. Modeling fallout of anthropogenic 129I.

    PubMed

    Englund, Edvard; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Haltia-Hovi, Eeva; Hou, Xiaolin; Renberg, Ingmar; Saarinen, Timo

    2008-12-15

    Despite the relatively well-recognized emission rates of the anthropogenic 129I, there is little knowledge about the temporal fallout patterns and magnitude of fluxes since the start of the atomic era atthe early 1940s. We here present measurements of annual 129I concentrations in sediment archives from Sweden and Finland covering the period 1942-2006. The results revealed impression of 129I emissions from the nuclear reprocessing facility at Sellafield and La Hague and a clear Chernobyl fallout enhancement during 1986. In order to estimate relative contributions from the different sources, a numerical model approach was used taking into accountthe emission rates/estimated fallout, transport pathways, and the sediment system. The model outcomes suggest a relatively dominating marine source of 129I to north Europe compared to direct gaseous releases. A transfer rate of 129I from sea to atmosphere is derived for pertinent sea areas (English Channel, Irish Sea, and North Sea), which is estimated at 0.04 to 0.21 y(-1).

  8. Anthropogenic ecosystem disturbance and the recovery debt

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Mateos, David; Barbier, Edward B.; Jones, Peter C.; Jones, Holly P.; Aronson, James; López-López, José A.; McCrackin, Michelle L.; Meli, Paula; Montoya, Daniel; Rey Benayas, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Ecosystem recovery from anthropogenic disturbances, either without human intervention or assisted by ecological restoration, is increasingly occurring worldwide. As ecosystems progress through recovery, it is important to estimate any resulting deficit in biodiversity and functions. Here we use data from 3,035 sampling plots worldwide, to quantify the interim reduction of biodiversity and functions occurring during the recovery process (that is, the ‘recovery debt'). Compared with reference levels, recovering ecosystems run annual deficits of 46–51% for organism abundance, 27–33% for species diversity, 32–42% for carbon cycling and 31–41% for nitrogen cycling. Our results are consistent across biomes but not across degrading factors. Our results suggest that recovering and restored ecosystems have less abundance, diversity and cycling of carbon and nitrogen than ‘undisturbed' ecosystems, and that even if complete recovery is reached, an interim recovery debt will accumulate. Under such circumstances, increasing the quantity of less-functional ecosystems through ecological restoration and offsetting are inadequate alternatives to ecosystem protection. PMID:28106039

  9. An improved method for the prediction of completely three-dimensional aerodynamic load distributions of configurations with leading edge vortex separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubbert, p. E.; Lu, P.; Brune, G. W.; Weber, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    The application of a higher-order subsonic potential flow panel method to the solution of three-dimensional flow about wing and wing-body combinations with leading-edge vortex separation is presented. The governing equations are the linear flow differential equation and nonlinear boundary conditions which require that the flow be parallel to the wing and body surfaces and that the free vortex sheet, springing from the leading and trailing edges, be aligned with the local flow and support no pressure jump. The vortex core is modeled as a simple line vortex which receives vorticity from the free sheet through a connecting sheet. The Kutta condition is imposed on all appropriate edges of the wing. This set of nonlinear equations is solved by an iterative procedure. The Goethert rule accounts for compressibility. The method has been programmed for the CDC 6600. Delta wings, gothic wings, arrow wings, cambered wings, and wing with body have been analyzed. Initial studies involving variations of panel density, vortex sheet sizing, Jacobian update, and initial geometry demonstrate that the present method generally exhibits good convergence characteristics.

  10. Tetraethyl lead

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Tetraethyl lead ; CASRN 78 - 00 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  11. Modeling ultrafine particle growth at a pine forest site influenced by anthropogenic pollution during BEACHON-RoMBAS 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y. Y.; Hodzic, A.; Smith, J. N.; Ortega, J.; Brioude, J.; Matsui, H.; Levin, E. J. T.; Turnipseed, A.; Winkler, P.; de Foy, B.

    2014-10-01

    Formation and growth of ultrafine particles is crudely represented in chemistry-climate models, contributing to uncertainties in aerosol composition, size distribution, and aerosol effects on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations. Measurements of ultrafine particles, their precursor gases, and meteorological parameters were performed in a ponderosa pine forest in the Colorado Front Range in July-August 2011, and were analyzed to study processes leading to small particle burst events (PBEs) which were characterized by an increase in the number concentrations of ultrafine 4-30 nm diameter size particles. These measurements suggest that PBEs were associated with the arrival at the site of anthropogenic pollution plumes midday to early afternoon. During PBEs, number concentrations of 4-30 nm diameter particles typically exceeded 104 cm-3, and these elevated concentrations coincided with increased SO2 and monoterpene concentrations, and led to a factor-of-2 increase in CCN concentrations at 0.5% supersaturation. The PBEs were simulated using the regional WRF-Chem model, which was extended to account for ultrafine particle sizes starting at 1 nm in diameter, to include an empirical activation nucleation scheme in the planetary boundary layer, and to explicitly simulate the subsequent growth of Aitken particles (10-100 nm) by condensation of organic and inorganic vapors. The updated model reasonably captured measured aerosol number concentrations and size distribution during PBEs, as well as ground-level CCN concentrations. Model results suggest that sulfuric acid originating from anthropogenic SO2 triggered PBEs, and that the condensation of monoterpene oxidation products onto freshly nucleated particles contributes to their growth. The simulated growth rate of ~ 3.4 nm h-1 for 4-40 nm diameter particles was comparable to the measured average value of 2.3 nm h-1. Results also suggest that the presence of PBEs tends to modify the composition of sub-20 nm diameter

  12. Anthropogenic contribution to the geological and geomorphological record: A case study from Great Yarmouth, Norfolk, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Hannah; Hamilton, Ken; Lawley, Russell; Price, Simon James

    2016-01-01

    Reconstruction of artificial or anthropogenic topographies, sediment thicknesses and volumes provides a mechanism for quantifying anthropogenic changes to sedimentary systems in the context of the proposed Anthropocene epoch. We present a methodology for determining the volumetric contribution of anthropogenic deposits to the geological and geomorphological record and apply it to the Great Yarmouth area of Norfolk, UK. 115 boreholes, drilled to a maximum depth of 6 m below ground level, were used to determine the thickness and distribution of seven geo-archaeological units comprising natural and anthropogenic deposits in the central Great Yarmouth area. This was supplemented by additional depth information derived from 467 existing ground investigation boreholes and published 1:50 000 scale geological maps. The top and base of each geo-archaeological unit were modelled from elevations recorded in the borehole data. Grids were produced using a natural neighbour analysis with a 25 m cell size using MapInfo 8.0 Vertical Mapper 3.1 to produce palaeotopographical surfaces. Maximum, minimum and average elevations for each geo-archaeological unit generally increase with decreasing age with the exception of the Early-Medieval palaeotopographical surface which locally occurs at higher elevations than that of the younger Late-Medieval unit. The total sediment volume for the combined Modern, Post-Medieval, Late-Medieval and Early-Medieval geo-archaeological units is 10.91 × 105 m3. The total sediment volume for the Aeolian, River Terrace and Marine geo-archaeological units combined is 65.58 × 105 m3. Anthropogenic sedimentation rates were calculated to increase from ~ 590 m3/yr during the Early-Medieval period, ~ 1500 m3/yr during the Post-Medieval period and ~ 2300 m3/yr during the Modern period. It is estimated that the combined anthropogenic geo-archaeological units contribute approximately 15% of the total volume of sediments that would have been traditionally

  13. Anthropogenic CO 2 fluxes in the Otranto Strait (E. Mediterranean) in February 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasakopoulou, Evangelia; Souvermezoglou, Ekaterini; Goyet, Catherine

    2011-11-01

    This study presents the distribution and fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (C T), total alkalinity ( AT) and anthropogenic carbon (C ant) along the Otranto strait, during February 1995. Based on a limited number of properties (temperature, dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon), the composite tracer TrOCA was used to estimate the concentration of anthropogenic CO 2 in the Otranto strait. Total alkalinity exhibits high values and weak variability throughout the water column of the strait, probably associated with the dense water formation processes in the Adriatic basin that induce a rapid transport of the coastal alkalinity to the deep waters. Elevated C ant concentrations and high anthropogenic pH variations are observed in the bottom layer of the strait, associated with the presence of Adriatic Deep Water (ADW). The study shows that large amounts of C ant have penetrated the highly alkaline Eastern Mediterranean waters, thereby causing a significant pH reduction since the pre-industrial era. Estimates of the transports of C T and C ant through the strait indicate that during February 1995, the Adriatic Sea imports through the Otranto strait natural and anthropogenic carbon and acts as a net sink of carbon for the Ionian Sea. The anthropogenic carbon that is imported to the Adriatic Sea represents less than 1% of the net C T inflow. The Levantine Intermediate Water (LIW) contributes to about one-third of the total C T and C ant inflow. Although the amounts of C ant annually transported by LIW and ADW are almost equal, the contribution of C ant to the C T transported by each water mass is slightly higher in ADW (3.1%) than in LIW (2.6%), as a result of its higher mean C ant concentration. The ADW, despite its weak contribution to the total outflow of C ant, has a vital role for the sequestration and storage of the anthropogenic carbon, as this water mass is the main component of the Eastern Mediterranean Deep Waters and, thus, the

  14. Anthropogenic Chromium Emissions in China from 1990 to 2009

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Hongguang; Zhou, Tan; Li, Qian; Lu, Lu; Lin, Chunye

    2014-01-01

    An inventory of chromium emission into the atmosphere and water from anthropogenic activities in China was compiled for 1990 through to 2009. We estimate that the total emission of chromium to the atmosphere is about 1.92×105t. Coal and oil combustion were the two leading sources of chromium emission to the atmosphere in China, while the contribution of them showed opposite annual growth trend. In total, nearly 1.34×104t of chromium was discharged to water, mainly from six industrial categories in 20 years. Among them, the metal fabrication industry and the leather tanning sector were the dominant sources of chromium emissions, accounting for approximately 68.0% and 20.0% of the total emissions and representing increases of15.6% and 10.3% annually, respectively. The spatial trends of Cr emissions show significant variation based on emissions from 2005 to 2009. The emission to the atmosphere was heaviest in Hebei, Shandong, Guangdong, Zhejiang and Shanxi, whose annual emissions reached more than 1000t for the high level of coal and oil consumption. In terms of emission to water, the largest contributors were Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong and Zhejiang, where most of the leather production and metal manufacturing occur and these four regions accounted for nearly 47.4% of the total emission to water. PMID:24505309

  15. Formation of nanoparticles of blue haze enhanced by anthropogenic pollution.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Renyi; Wang, Lin; Khalizov, Alexei F; Zhao, Jun; Zheng, Jun; McGraw, Robert L; Molina, Luisa T

    2009-10-20

    The molecular processes leading to formation of nanoparticles of blue haze over forested areas are highly complex and not fully understood. We show that the interaction between biogenic organic acids and sulfuric acid enhances nucleation and initial growth of those nanoparticles. With one cis-pinonic acid and three to five sulfuric acid molecules in the critical nucleus, the hydrophobic organic acid part enhances the stability and growth on the hydrophilic sulfuric acid counterpart. Dimers or heterodimers of biogenic organic acids alone are unfavorable for new particle formation and growth because of their hydrophobicity. Condensation of low-volatility organic acids is hindered on nano-sized particles, whereas ammonia contributes negligibly to particle growth in the size range of 3-30 nm. The results suggest that initial growth from the critical nucleus to the detectable size of 2-3 nm most likely occurs by condensation of sulfuric acid and water, implying that anthropogenic sulfur emissions (mainly from power plants) strongly influence formation of terrestrial biogenic particles and exert larger direct and indirect climate forcing than previously recognized.

  16. Impact of Anthropogenic Disturbance on Native and Invasive Trypanosomes of Rodents in Forested Uganda.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Johanna S; Pinto, C Miguel; Grippi, Dylan C; Williams-Newkirk, Amanda Jo; Peterhans, Julian Kerbis; Rwego, Innocent B; Carroll, Darin S; Gillespie, Thomas R

    2016-12-01

    Habitat disturbance and anthropogenic change are globally associated with extinctions and invasive species introductions. Less understood is the impact of environmental change on the parasites harbored by endangered, extinct, and introduced species. To improve our understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic disturbance on such host-parasite interactions, we investigated an invasive trypanosome (Trypanosoma lewisi). We screened 348 individual small mammals, representing 26 species, from both forested and non-forested habitats in rural Uganda. Using microscopy and PCR, we identified 18% of individuals (order Rodentia) as positive for trypanosomes. Further phylogenetic analyses revealed two trypanosomes circulating-T. lewisi and T. varani. T. lewisi was found in seven species both native and invasive, while T. varani was identified in only three native forest species. The lack of T. varani in non-forested habitats suggests that it is a natural parasite of forest-dwelling rodents. Our findings suggest that anthropogenic disturbance may lead to spillover of an invasive parasite (T. lewisi) from non-native to native species, and lead to local co-extinction of a native parasite (T. varani) and native forest-dwelling hosts.

  17. Next-to-modified leading logarithmic approximation corrections to single inclusive k{sub perpendicular} distributions and two-particle correlations in a jet

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Ramos, Redamy; Arleo, Francois; Machet, Bruno

    2008-07-01

    The hadronic k{sub perpendicular}-spectrum inside a high-energy jet is determined including corrections of relative magnitude O({radical}({alpha}{sub s})) with respect to the Modified Leading Logarithmic Approximation (MLLA) in the limiting spectrum approximation (assuming an infrared cutoff Q{sub 0}={lambda}{sub QCD}) and beyond (Q{sub 0}{ne}{lambda}{sub QCD}). The results in the limiting spectrum approximation are found to be, after normalization, in impressive agreement with preliminary measurements by the CDF Collaboration, unlike what occurs at MLLA, pointing out small overall nonperturbative contributions. Within the same framework, 2-particle correlations inside a jet are also predicted at next-to-MLLA and compared to previous MLLA calculations.

  18. Population declines lead to replicate patterns of internal range structure at the tips of the distribution of the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Jonathan Q.; Backlin, Adam R.; Tatarian, Patricia J.; Solvesky, Ben G.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2014-01-01

    Demographic declines and increased isolation of peripheral populations of the threatened California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) have led to the formation of internal range boundaries at opposite ends of the species’ distribution. While the population genetics of the southern internal boundary has been studied in some detail, similar information is lacking for the northern part of the range. In this study, we used microsatellite and mtDNA data to examine the genetic structuring and diversity of some of the last remaining R. draytonii populations in the northern Sierra Nevada, which collectively form the northern external range boundary. We compared these data to coastal populations in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the species is notably more abundant and still exists throughout much of its historic range. We show that ‘external’ Sierra Nevada populations have lower genetic diversity and are more differentiated from one another than their ‘internal’ Bay Area counterparts. This same pattern was mirrored across the distribution in California, where Sierra Nevada and Bay Area populations had lower allelic variability compared to those previously studied in coastal southern California. This genetic signature of northward range expansion was mirrored in the phylogeography of mtDNA haplotypes; northern Sierra Nevada haplotypes showed greater similarity to haplotypes from the south Coast Ranges than to the more geographically proximate populations in the Bay Area. These data cast new light on the geographic origins of Sierra Nevada R. draytonii populations and highlight the importance of distinguishing the genetic effects of contemporary demographic declines from underlying signatures of historic range expansion when addressing the most immediate threats to population persistence. Because there is no evidence of contemporary gene flow between any of the Sierra Nevada R. draytonii populations, we suggest that management activities should focus on

  19. Physical behaviour of anthropogenic light propagation into the nocturnal environment

    PubMed Central

    Aubé, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Propagation of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on fauna, flora and human health. These consequences depend on light levels and their spectral power distributions, which in turn rely on the efficiency of various physical processes involved in the radiative transfer of this light into the atmosphere and its interactions with the built and natural environment. ALAN can affect the living organisms by direct lighting and indirect lighting (scattered by the sky and clouds and/or reflected by local surfaces). This paper mainly focuses on the behaviour of the indirect light scattered under clear sky conditions. Various interaction processes between anthropogenic light sources and the natural environment are discussed. This work mostly relies on a sensitivity analysis conducted with the light pollution radiative transfer model, Illumina (Aubé et al. 2005 Light pollution modelling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night-time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. In Proc. SPIE 2005, vol. 5890, San Diego, California, USA). More specifically, the impact of (i) the molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption, (ii) the second order of scattering, (iii) the topography and obstacle blocking, (iv) the ground reflectance and (v) the spectrum of light devices and their angular emission functions are examined. This analysis considers different behaviour as a function of the distance from the city centre, along with different zenith viewing angles in the principal plane. PMID:25780231

  20. Physical behaviour of anthropogenic light propagation into the nocturnal environment.

    PubMed

    Aubé, Martin

    2015-05-05

    Propagation of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the environment is now known to have non negligible consequences on fauna, flora and human health. These consequences depend on light levels and their spectral power distributions, which in turn rely on the efficiency of various physical processes involved in the radiative transfer of this light into the atmosphere and its interactions with the built and natural environment. ALAN can affect the living organisms by direct lighting and indirect lighting (scattered by the sky and clouds and/or reflected by local surfaces). This paper mainly focuses on the behaviour of the indirect light scattered under clear sky conditions. Various interaction processes between anthropogenic light sources and the natural environment are discussed. This work mostly relies on a sensitivity analysis conducted with the light pollution radiative transfer model, Illumina (Aubé et al. 2005 Light pollution modelling and detection in a heterogeneous environment: toward a night-time aerosol optical depth retrieval method. In Proc. SPIE 2005, vol. 5890, San Diego, California, USA). More specifically, the impact of (i) the molecular and aerosol scattering and absorption, (ii) the second order of scattering, (iii) the topography and obstacle blocking, (iv) the ground reflectance and (v) the spectrum of light devices and their angular emission functions are examined. This analysis considers different behaviour as a function of the distance from the city centre, along with different zenith viewing angles in the principal plane.