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Sample records for anthropologist didier fassin

  1. Global Public Health through the Eyes of Medical Anthropologist Didier Fassin

    PubMed Central

    Hysolli, Eriona

    2009-01-01

    At the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference at Yale University, anthropologist Didier Fassin discussed social inequality and the politicization of health in the context of global public health. PMID:20027286

  2. [Contributions of the thought of Didier Fassin to a critical analysis of healthcare policies for vulnerable population groups].

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Ana Cecília Andrade de Moraes; Costa, Maria da Penha Vasconcellos

    2013-01-01

    This is a reflection on the contributions made over the last 14 years by Didier Fassin, in his analysis of issues raised by the phenomenon of migration in contemporary times, especially in France. He regards it as fundamental to comprehend the political uses behind the advent of 'humanitarian reason' and the 'empire of trauma', which underpin society today, in order to understand the suffering caused by large and small crises and the way social forces related to them act. Drawing on Foucault's concepts of biopolitics and biopower, Fassin makes a critical appraisal of the aid and assistance provided for society's 'unwanted' and their lifestyles, marked by social inclusion and exclusion via the body and trauma.

  3. Cognitive anthropologists: who needs them?

    PubMed

    Rothe, Annelie

    2012-07-01

    During the last decades, the cognitive sciences and cognitive anthropology have increasingly veered away from each other. Cognitive anthropologists have become so rare within the cognitive sciences that Beller, Bender, and Medin (this issue) even propose a division of the cognitive sciences and cognitive anthropology. However, such a divorce might be premature. This commentary tries to illustrate the benefits that cognitive anthropologists have to offer, not despite, but because of their combination of humanistic and scientific elements. It argues that the cognitive sciences (among others) profit from these benefits, as culture will become crucial for cognitive research. At the same time, problems within cognitive anthropology are discussed, including, for example, the responsibility of cognitive anthropologists to promote young academics. Finally, ideas are presented that might support future interdisciplinary collaboration. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. An Anthropologist in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Nancy Fried Foster was an anthropologist hired by University of Rochester's library to study its undergraduates, to help shed light on how they do their research and write papers, and how they spend their days. The results of the study helped guide a library renovation, influenced a Web-site redesign, led to changes in the way the library markets…

  5. Anthropologists in the Looking Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bernice A.

    A historical and anthropological analysis of the nature of conventions held by the American Anthropological Association (AAA) is presented. The author, who is an anthropologist, plays the role of participant observer in studying the phenomenon of meetings of the AAA. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, AAA meetings were very small and…

  6. An Anthropologist in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Nancy Fried Foster was an anthropologist hired by University of Rochester's library to study its undergraduates, to help shed light on how they do their research and write papers, and how they spend their days. The results of the study helped guide a library renovation, influenced a Web-site redesign, led to changes in the way the library markets…

  7. New Ethical Challenges for Anthropologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    The first code of ethics by the American Anthropological Association, adopted in 1971, was forged during the Vietnam War, years after revelations that anthropologists had engaged in counterinsurgency research in Southeast Asia. Now, in response to issues raised by the war in Iraq, the author advocates that it is time for a new code. Members of the…

  8. Anthropologists' views on race, ancestry, and genetics.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Jennifer K; Yu, Joon-Ho; Ifekwunigwe, Jayne O; Harrell, Tanya M; Bamshad, Michael J; Royal, Charmaine D

    2017-02-01

    Controversies over race conceptualizations have been ongoing for centuries and have been shaped, in part, by anthropologists. To assess anthropologists' views on race, genetics, and ancestry. In 2012 a broad national survey of anthropologists examined prevailing views on race, ancestry, and genetics. Results demonstrate consensus that there are no human biological races and recognition that race exists as lived social experiences that can have important effects on health. Racial privilege affects anthropologists' views on race, underscoring the importance that anthropologists be vigilant of biases in the profession and practice. Anthropologists must mitigate racial biases in society wherever they might be lurking and quash any sociopolitical attempts to normalize or promote racist rhetoric, sentiment, and behavior. © 2016 The Authors American Journal of Physical Anthropology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Anthropologists' views on race, ancestry, and genetics

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Joon‐Ho; Ifekwunigwe, Jayne O.; Harrell, Tanya M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Royal, Charmaine D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controversies over race conceptualizations have been ongoing for centuries and have been shaped, in part, by anthropologists. Objective To assess anthropologists' views on race, genetics, and ancestry. Methods In 2012 a broad national survey of anthropologists examined prevailing views on race, ancestry, and genetics. Results Results demonstrate consensus that there are no human biological races and recognition that race exists as lived social experiences that can have important effects on health. Discussion Racial privilege affects anthropologists' views on race, underscoring the importance that anthropologists be vigilant of biases in the profession and practice. Anthropologists must mitigate racial biases in society wherever they might be lurking and quash any sociopolitical attempts to normalize or promote racist rhetoric, sentiment, and behavior. PMID:27874171

  10. Anthropologists in Global Health Experiments.

    PubMed

    Hardon, Anita; Pool, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Can global health experiments be part of more flexible systems of knowledge generation, where different bodies of knowledge come together to provide understanding not only of the outcomes of new interventions but also of the mechanisms through which they affect people's well-being and health? Building past work in which they tried to transform how global health experiments are carried out and inspired by the articles in this special issue, the authors of this commentary argue that strategic collaboration is needed to break the hegemony of randomized controlled trials in designing global health technologies. More open-ended experiments are possible if anthropologists team up with innovative researchers in biomedicine to develop new conceptual models and to adopt novel observational techniques and 'smart' trials that incorporate ethnography to unravel complex interactions between local biologies, attributes of health systems, social infrastructures, and users' everyday lives.

  11. The Anthropologist as Essayist: Clifford Geertz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Miriam Dempsey

    Based on the premise that the most viable form of discovery for the ethnographer is the personal essay--which has been called "the expression of the self thinking" (Alfred Kazin) or writing as learning and thinking--this paper examines the work of anthropologist Clifford Geertz in the light of that definition. Particular attention is…

  12. Media Anthropologist Newsletter. Volume 1, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, C. A., Ed.

    The aim of media anthropologists is to provide the general public with entertaining, relevant anthropological background information through the public media. This quarterly newsletter disseminates information, promotes awareness of present physical and social issues, and offers a means of intercommunication on the topic of Media Anthropology.…

  13. Epigenetics for anthropologists: An introduction to methods.

    PubMed

    Non, Amy L; Thayer, Zaneta M

    2015-01-01

    The study of epigenetics, or chemical modifications to the genome that may alter gene expression, is a growing area of interest for social scientists. Anthropologists and human biologists are interested in epigenetics specifically, as it provides a potential link between the environment and the genome, as well as a new layer of complexity for the study of human biological variation. In pace with the rapid increase in interest in epigenetic research, the range of methods has greatly expanded over the past decade. The primary objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current methods for assaying DNA methylation, the most commonly studied epigenetic modification. We will address considerations for all steps required to plan and conduct an analysis of DNA methylation, from appropriate sample collection, to the most commonly used methods for laboratory analyses of locus-specific and genome-wide approaches, and recommendations for statistical analyses. Key challenges in the study of DNA methylation are also discussed, including tissue specificity, the stability of measures, timing of sample collection, statistical considerations, batch effects, and challenges related to analysis and interpretation of data. Our hope is that this review serves as a primer for anthropologists and human biologists interested in incorporating epigenetic data into their research programs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anthropologists and Policy-Relevant Research: The Case for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Milton M. R.

    Anthropology research should be relevant to public policy formation. If anthropologists continue to produce research which reflects a "detached observer" perspective, their studies will not enjoy widespread credibility. The use of policy-relevant anthropology (applied anthropology) will depend in large part on the efforts of anthropologists toward…

  15. Medical humanitarianism: anthropologists speak out on policy and practice.

    PubMed

    Abramowitz, Sharon; Marten, Meredith; Panter-Brick, Catherine

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, anthropologists have become increasingly present in medical humanitarian situations as scholars, consultants, and humanitarian practitioners and have acquired insight into medical humanitarian policy and practice. In 2012, we implemented a poll on anthropology, health, and humanitarian practice in which 75 anthropologists discussed their experiences in medical humanitarianism. Our goal was to move beyond the existing anarchy of individual voices in anthropological writing and gain an aggregate view of the perspective of anthropologists working in medical humanitarian contexts. Responses lead to six inductively derived thematic priorities. The findings illustrate how anthropologists perceive medical humanitarian practice; which aspects of medical humanitarianism should be seen as priorities for anthropological research; and how anthropologists use ethnography in humanitarian contexts. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  16. Perspective on Minority Education: An Interview with Anthropologist John Ogbu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Kathryn R.

    1981-01-01

    Nigerian anthropologist John Ogbu examines the academic failure of minority groups within the context of American society and draws comparisons to minority group education in five other cultures. (MKM)

  17. Making Strangers at Home: Anthropologists Studying Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumar, Wesley

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to isolate one major strand of work in American cultural anthropology together with its implications for the study of higher education. While the number of anthropologists who do research on higher education is fairly small, the importance of the field's theoretical and methodological contributions is significant. This article…

  18. Anthropology with an Agenda: Four Forgotten Dance Anthropologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    In response to postcolonial, feminist and subaltern critiques of anthropology, this article seeks to answer the question, "For whom should research be conducted, and by whom should it be used?" by examining the lives and works of four female dance anthropologists. Franziska Boas, Zora Neale Hurston, Katherine Dunham and Pearl Primus used…

  19. Anthropology with an Agenda: Four Forgotten Dance Anthropologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    In response to postcolonial, feminist and subaltern critiques of anthropology, this article seeks to answer the question, "For whom should research be conducted, and by whom should it be used?" by examining the lives and works of four female dance anthropologists. Franziska Boas, Zora Neale Hurston, Katherine Dunham and Pearl Primus used…

  20. Making Strangers at Home: Anthropologists Studying Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumar, Wesley

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to isolate one major strand of work in American cultural anthropology together with its implications for the study of higher education. While the number of anthropologists who do research on higher education is fairly small, the importance of the field's theoretical and methodological contributions is significant. This article…

  1. Quantifying characters: polygenist anthropologists and the hardening of heredity.

    PubMed

    Hume, Brad D

    2008-01-01

    Scholars studying the history of heredity suggest that during the 19th-century biologists and anthropologists viewed characteristics as a collection of blended qualities passed on from the parents. Many argued that those characteristics could be very much affected by environmental circumstances, which scholars call the inheritance of acquired characteristics or "soft" heredity. According to these accounts, Gregor Mendel reconceived heredity--seeing distinct hereditary units that remain unchanged by the environment. This resulted in particular traits that breed true in succeeding generations, or "hard" heredity. The author argues that polygenist anthropology (an argument that humanity consisted of many species) and anthropometry in general should be seen as a hardening of heredity. Using a debate between Philadelphia anthropologist and physician, Samuel G. Morton, and Charleston naturalist and reverend, John Bachman, as a springboard, the author contends that polygenist anthropologists hardened heredity by conceiving of durable traits that might reappear even after a race has been eliminated. Polygenists saw anthropometry (the measurement of humans) as one method of quantifying hereditary qualities. These statistical ranges were ostensibly characteristics that bred true and that defined racial groups. Further, Morton's interest in hybridity and racial mixing demonstrates that the polygenists focused as much on the transmission and recognition of "amalgamations" of characters as they did on racial categories themselves. The author suggests that seeing race science as the study of heritable, statistical characteristics rather than broad categories helps explain why "race" is such a persistent cultural phenomenon.

  2. Anthropologists address health equity: recognizing barriers to care

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Systems change is necessary for improving health care in the United States, especially for populations suffering from health disparities. Theoretical and methodological contributions of anthropology to health care design and delivery can inform systems change by providing a window into provider and patient perceptions and practices. Our community-engaged research teams conduct in-depth investigations of provider perceptions of patients, often uncovering gaps between patient and provider perceptions resulting in the degradation of health equity. We present examples of projects where collaborations between anthropologists and health professionals resulted in actionable data on functioning and malfunctioning systemic momentum toward efforts to eliminate disparities and support wellness. PMID:27158189

  3. How conservative are evolutionary anthropologists?: a survey of political attitudes.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Henry F; Smith, Eric A

    2012-09-01

    The application of evolutionary theory to human behavior has elicited a variety of critiques, some of which charge that this approach expresses or encourages conservative or reactionary political agendas. In a survey of graduate students in psychology, Tybur, Miller, and Gangestad (Human Nature, 18, 313-328, 2007) found that the political attitudes of those who use an evolutionary approach did not differ from those of other psychology grad students. Here, we present results from a directed online survey of a broad sample of graduate students in anthropology that assays political views. We found that evolutionary anthropology graduate students were very liberal in their political beliefs, overwhelmingly voted for a liberal U.S. presidential candidate in the 2008 election, and identified with liberal political parties; in this, they were almost indistinguishable from non-evolutionary anthropology students. Our results contradict the view that evolutionary anthropologists hold conservative or reactionary political views. We discuss some possible reasons for the persistence of this view in terms of the sociology of science.

  4. Missionaries, Anthropologists, and Cultural Change [Part I]. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Twenty-Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Darrell L., Ed.

    The topics of anthropologist-missionary relationships, theology and missiology, research methods and missionary contributions to ethnology, and missionary training and methods, along with specific case studies are presented. The 13 essays are: (1) "Prospects for a Better Understanding and Closer Cooperation between Anthropologists and…

  5. Constructing Anthropologists: Culture Learning and Culture Making in U.S. Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathurst, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In the tradition of anthropological reflexivity, this article examines how the structure of early doctoral training contributes to the construction of particular kinds of anthropologists. Based on research conducted in an anthropology department in the U.S.A. during the late 1990s, the experience of the transition from undergraduate to doctoral…

  6. Becoming a Researcher: Forms of Capital Associated with "Research Capacity" Trajectories of Young British Social Anthropologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The paper privileges the "voices" of British social anthropologists examining their perceptions of how their research expertise was acquired. Reference is made to the case of education research in Britain, which, by comparison with social anthropology, reveals limited capacity as measured through performance audits of scientific research…

  7. ’Huts and Nuts’ or ’Hearts and Minds?’ -- Anthropologists and Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-06

    military. During World War I, a leading cultural anthropologist Franz Boas publicly criticized four of his contemporaries for using their profession as...Ku Klux Klan. Ruth Benedict’s mentor Franz Boas was the first to introduce “scientific antiracism” which Benedict faithfully fleshed out in her 1934

  8. Constructing Anthropologists: Culture Learning and Culture Making in U.S. Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathurst, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In the tradition of anthropological reflexivity, this article examines how the structure of early doctoral training contributes to the construction of particular kinds of anthropologists. Based on research conducted in an anthropology department in the U.S.A. during the late 1990s, the experience of the transition from undergraduate to doctoral…

  9. Nineteenth-Century Racism: The Anthropologist Who First Defined the Negro's Place in Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents excerpts from an 1863 address by British anthropologist James Hunt to the Anthropological Society of London. Hunt's paper, "The Negro's Place in Nature," has been called the most important document in an era that laid the foundation for scientific racism. In it, Hunt suggested that physical characteristics of the Negro race were related…

  10. Anthropologists and Missionaries. Part II. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Twenty-Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamone, Frank A., Ed.

    The topics of anthropologist-missionary relationships, theology and missiology, research methods and missionary contributions to ethnology, missionary training and methods, and specific case studies are presented. The ten essays are: (1) "An Ethnoethnography of Missionaries in Kalingaland" (Robert Lawless); (2) "Missionization and…

  11. Nineteenth-Century Racism: The Anthropologist Who First Defined the Negro's Place in Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents excerpts from an 1863 address by British anthropologist James Hunt to the Anthropological Society of London. Hunt's paper, "The Negro's Place in Nature," has been called the most important document in an era that laid the foundation for scientific racism. In it, Hunt suggested that physical characteristics of the Negro race were related…

  12. Becoming a Researcher: Forms of Capital Associated with "Research Capacity" Trajectories of Young British Social Anthropologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The paper privileges the "voices" of British social anthropologists examining their perceptions of how their research expertise was acquired. Reference is made to the case of education research in Britain, which, by comparison with social anthropology, reveals limited capacity as measured through performance audits of scientific research…

  13. The Upper Skagit Indians of Western Washington. Two Reviews: An Anthropologists' View; An Indians' Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoss, Pamela T.; Hilbert, Vi

    1976-01-01

    The anthropologist notes that the book is flawed by awkward writing and careless recording of native terms, while the Indian observes that the book presents a colorless account of a vibrant people whose adjustment to an invading Caucasian culture still left them with a sense of humor. (Author/AM)

  14. Chronic alcoholism and bone remodeling processes: Caveats and considerations for the forensic anthropologist.

    PubMed

    Michael, Amy R; Bengtson, Jennifer D

    2016-02-01

    Clinical literature provides substantial information on the effects of chronic alcohol abuse on bone remodeling and related skeletal disease processes. This biomedical information is seldom considered in detail by forensic anthropologists, who often rely on normative macroscopic models of bone remodeling and traditional macroscopic age estimation methods in the creation of biological profiles. The case study presented here considers the ways that alcoholism disrupts normal bone remodeling processes, thus skewing estimations of age-at-death. Alcoholism affects bone macroscopically, resulting in a porous appearance and an older estimation of age, while simultaneously inhibiting osteoblastic activity and resulting in a younger microscopic appearance. Forensic anthropologists must also be cognizant of pathological remodeling stemming from alcoholism in cases where trauma analysis is critical to the reconstruction of events leading up to death, as fracture healing rates can be affected. Beyond the case study, we also consider how forensic anthropologists and practitioners can recognize and account for osteological signatures of alcoholism in medico-legal contexts. In order to best estimate age at death, a combined macroscopic and microscopic approach should be employed whenever possible alcohol and drug abuse is known or suspected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  15. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968).

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. An Engineer, an Architect, and an Anthropologist Walk into a Conference Room...

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are urged to "be there", in the field, in order to gain insight about a particular culture. When the field is unreachable, or does not yet exist, the applied anthropologist must adapt their methods accordingly while maintaining the integrity of their research. The space industry presents a unique case study for such a dilemma. Drawing on Bourdieu's 1977 reflection on the structural constraints and the forming of unconscious schemes of thought imposed by the material world on the body, this paper considers the effect of the presence and absence of place in applied, collaborative anthropological work.

  17. Wandering anatomists and itinerant anthropologists: the antipodean sciences of race in Britain between the wars.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ross L; Anderson, Warwick

    2015-03-01

    While the British Empire conventionally is recognized as a source of research subjects and objects in anthropology, and a site where anthropological expertise might inform public administration, the settler-colonial affiliations and experiences of many leading physical anthropologists could also directly shape theories of human variation, both physical and cultural. Antipodean anthropologists like Grafton Elliot Smith were pre-adapted to diffusionist models that explained cultural achievement in terms of the migration, contact and mixing of peoples. Trained in comparative methods, these fractious cosmopolitans also favoured a dynamic human biology, often emphasizing the heterogeneity and environmental plasticity of body form and function, and viewing fixed, static racial typologies and hierarchies sceptically. By following leading representatives of empire anatomy and physical anthropology, such as Elliot Smith and Frederic Wood Jones, around the globe, it is possible to recover the colonial entanglements and biases of interwar British anthropology, moving beyond a simple inventory of imperial sources, and crediting human biology and social anthropology not just as colonial sciences but as the sciences of itinerant colonials.

  18. Accuracy Rates of Ancestry Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists Using Identified Forensic Cases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H

    2017-01-30

    A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the ancestry of a decedent by comparing their skeletal morphology and measurements to skeletons of individuals from known geographic groups. However, the accuracy rates of ancestry estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses 99 forensic cases with identified skeletal remains to develop accuracy rates for ancestry estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct ancestry estimation from these cases is 90.9%, which is comparable to most research-derived rates and those reported by individual practitioners. Statistical tests showed no significant difference in accuracy rates depending on examiner education level or on the estimated or identified ancestry. More recent cases showed a significantly higher accuracy rate. The incorporation of metric analyses into the ancestry estimate in these cases led to a higher accuracy rate.

  19. The Mother of Microloans (and Obama): A Q&A with Anthropologist and Author, Alice G. Dewey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Alice G. Dewey, professor emeritus at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa and granddaughter of the renowned American philosopher John Dewey. She is an economic anthropologist who did ground-breaking research on local markets in Indonesia in the 1950s. She recently co-edited "Surviving Against the Odds:…

  20. The Mother of Microloans (and Obama): A Q&A with Anthropologist and Author, Alice G. Dewey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Alice G. Dewey, professor emeritus at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa and granddaughter of the renowned American philosopher John Dewey. She is an economic anthropologist who did ground-breaking research on local markets in Indonesia in the 1950s. She recently co-edited "Surviving Against the Odds:…

  1. Food and nutrition policy: a biological anthropologist's experiences from an academic platform.

    PubMed

    Pelletier, David

    2015-01-01

    Biological anthropologists within academia and in other sectors are increasingly engaged in a variety of problem-oriented research and in the design, implementation, or evaluation of policies and programs, domestically and abroad. Such work can have distinctive requirements in terms of disciplinary background, professional orientation, and professional development. This article explores these issues through the author's autobiographical account of a career in food and nutrition policy from within an academic nutrition department. The article is guided by an analytical framework that compares eight projects in terms of their mode of knowledge production, academic impact, public impacts, and personal rewards. The projects range from village-based surveys in Samoa and Malawi to food security planning in upstate New York communities, US policies on genetically engineered (GE) foods, and participant-observer research on nutrition policy development in low-income countries. The cumulative experience reveals the importance of a commitment to problem-solving, a transdisciplinary orientation, intellectual and methodological dexterity, ongoing engagement with policy actors and openness to emergent research questions, new research settings, and nontraditional funding sources. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Who needs 'pukka anthropologists'? A study of the perceptions of the use of anthropology in tropical public health research.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Dora A; Jones, Caroline O H

    2006-08-01

    Over the past 50 years, there have been considerable changes both in how medical anthropologists view their relationship to tropical public health and in how tropical public health professionals view the role of anthropologists. In particular, in recent decades critical currents have emerged from an anthropology of medicine, calling for an examination of biomedicine and its conceptualisation of public health. There are parallel debates in public health about a narrow disease-focused or broader socio-cultural approach to improving population health. Based on a review of the literature and a qualitative study of the views of public health professionals and anthropologists working in tropical public health, the data presented in this paper suggest that public health professionals remain unaware of many of the contributions anthropology could make to tropical public health theory and practice. However, the objectives of a critical social science are not dissimilar to those of the broader concept of public health. We suggest that there are grounds for optimism. For those of us concerned not just with disease but also with inequities in health, the challenge is to work towards a critical tropical public health which draws as much from social science as from biomedicine, in theory and practice.

  3. Leveraging the psychology of the salesperson. A conversation with psychologist and anthropologist G. Clotaire Rapaille.

    PubMed

    Rapaille, G Clotaire

    2006-01-01

    We have to admire salespeople's resilience in the face of endless rejection, their certainty that things will work out in the end. At the same time, we're repelled by what their job can do to them. (Think Death of a Salesman and Glengarry Glen Ross, dramatic portraits of hollowness and moral capitulation.) Just what type of person goes into sales, and how do salespeople cope with their jobs? For insight into these questions, HBR approached G. Clotaire Rapaille, a psychologist, anthropologist, and marketing guru who researches the impact of culture on business and markets. In particular, he studies archetypes--the underlying patterns in psychology that illuminate the human condition--and shows organizations how to use those patterns to sharpen their sales and marketing efforts. He points out, for instance, that a keen understanding of the Great Mother archetype has helped Procter & Gamble achieve great success with Pantene hair products. By promoting nutrition--and reminding consumers that hair must be nurtured--the Pantene brand appeals to the maternal instinct. Rapaille says that salespeople have their own archetype: They are Happy Losers who relish rejection and actually seek out jobs that provide opportunities to be turned down. That, of course, has implications for how they should be managed. Rapaille's research shows that the leading motivator in sales is not money; it's the thrill of the chase. "Hold huge company meetings where you give a salesperson the gold medal of rejection," he advises. "Jonathan sold 500,000 computers last month, but he was rejected 5 million times! It may sound ludicrous, but this is the way to get fire in the belly of your sales force--particularly in America, where beating the odds is highly prized".

  4. A new definition of health? An open letter of autochthonous peoples and medical anthropologists to the WHO.

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Coppens, Y; Malaurie, J; Brun, L; Kepanga, M; Hoang-Opermann, V; Correa Calfin, J A; Nuku, G; Ushiga, M; Schor, X E; Deo, S; Hassin, J; Hervé, C

    2017-01-01

    Currently, for many practitioners (hospital and liberals) and researchers (including public health), the WHO definition of health is outdated: first it seems more utopian than pragmatic; then, it proves unsuitable for a large part of the world population. There is clearly a need to refine this definition or propose additional criteria to be more relevant or discriminating. In this perspective, what can indigenous people offer in the elaboration of a new definition of health? In this article, leaders or representatives of autochthonous peoples, anthropologists and physicians from many cultural origins (Amazonia, Patagonia, Papua New-Guinea, Inuit, North-American Indian, sub-Saharan Africa, India, China, Melanesia and Polynesia) have tried to identify and explain several key concepts that WHO should reintegrate into its new definition of health: human equilibrium in nature, accepted spirituality and adaptation. On the sidelines of the application of COP21 decisions that should give back to man his place into the environment, autochthonous people leaders, anthropologists and MDs explain why these three concepts are fundamental and universal health determinants, and need to be included in a new WHO definition of health. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. [Social anthropology and anthropologists of the past and present: from exoticism and the imagined reciprocity to everyday inequalities].

    PubMed

    Neufeld, María Rosa

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine two moments in anthropology. First we characterize anthropology as a subject specialized in the study of "the others", which developed in those countries that led the European and North American colonial expansion. We underline the links that existed between this historical context, the features of ethnography -the theoretic-methodological approach developed by anthropologistsand the concept of culture, that became the core of this discipline. Secondly, we intend to further the understanding of some trends of contemporary anthropology: the fact that nowadays anthropologists work on the societies they belong to, their operations (documenting the undocumented, unveiling dayliness, de-naturalizing), which find their roots in earlier anthropology. It also highlights the shift of focus from reciprocity relations to power and inequity relations. Finally it sheds light on some original developments in Latin American anthropology, considering some cases in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.

  6. Accuracy Rates of Sex Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists through Comparison with DNA Typing Results in Forensic Casework.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H

    2016-09-01

    A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the biological sex of a decedent by exploiting the sexual dimorphism between males and females. Estimation methods are often based on analysis of skeletal collections of known sex and most include a research-based accuracy rate. However, the accuracy rates of sex estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses sex determinations based on DNA results from 360 forensic cases to develop accuracy rates for sex estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct sex estimation from these cases is 94.7% with increasing accuracy rates as more skeletal material is available for analysis and as the education level and certification of the examiner increases. Nine of 19 incorrect assessments resulted from cases in which one skeletal element was available, suggesting that the use of an "undetermined" result may be more appropriate for these cases.

  7. How should forensic anthropologists correct national weather service temperature data for use in estimating the postmortem interval?

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the correlation between site-specific and retrospectively collected temperature data from the National Weather Service (NWS) over an extended time period. Using iButtonLink thermochrons (model DS1921G), hourly temperature readings were collected at 15 sites (1 validation; 14 experimental) from December 2010 to January 2012. Comparison between the site-specific temperature data and data retrieved from an official reporter of NWS temperature data shows statistically significant differences between the two in 71.4% (10/14) of cases. The difference ranged between 0.04 and 2.81°C. Examination of both regression and simple adjustment of the mean difference over extended periods (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 9 months) suggests that on the timescale typical in forensic anthropology cases neither method of correction is consistent or reliable and that forensic anthropologists would be better suited using uncorrected NWS temperature data when the postmortem interval is extended.

  8. New Directions in U.S. Foreign Assistance and New Roles for Anthropologists. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Forty-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John P., Ed.; Clark, Mari H., Ed.

    Given recent developments throughout the world, the status of U.S. foreign assistance policies is uncertain. This document is a collection of papers whose authors, all anthropologists concerned with developing nations, critically examine new directions in development assistance in the 1990s. The papers include an introduction (M. Clark; J. Mason);…

  9. What Does It Mean to Be an Activist Scholar? Re-imagining Our Responses as Anthropologists of Education to Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    In this address, I ask: What do we bring as anthropologists and educators to our work? Two projects frame my arguments: my work with teachers in Aceh, Indonesia after the 2004 tsunami and my term on a school board in an impoverished U.S. city. I conclude that at a time when challenges are simultaneously local and global, immediate and long term,…

  10. What Does It Mean to Be an Activist Scholar? Re-imagining Our Responses as Anthropologists of Education to Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    In this address, I ask: What do we bring as anthropologists and educators to our work? Two projects frame my arguments: my work with teachers in Aceh, Indonesia after the 2004 tsunami and my term on a school board in an impoverished U.S. city. I conclude that at a time when challenges are simultaneously local and global, immediate and long term,…

  11. An Anthropologist Bridges Two Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois, who has spent his career studying some of America's roughest neighborhoods and subcultures, got an unusually harsh welcome to his new hometown: Last May, during a trip to North Philly to make contact with some drug dealers, he got caught up in a police raid. The arrest was Bourgois's first, though hardly his first brush with…

  12. An Anthropologist Bridges Two Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois, who has spent his career studying some of America's roughest neighborhoods and subcultures, got an unusually harsh welcome to his new hometown: Last May, during a trip to North Philly to make contact with some drug dealers, he got caught up in a police raid. The arrest was Bourgois's first, though hardly his first brush with…

  13. An anthropologist in unexpected places

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Johan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Much contemporary anthropology has turned away from exclusive focus on so-called “primitive” tribes in far-away places. The study of urban people has become more prominent, and some researchers have also turned their gaze towards marginalized minorities in their communities. Philippe Bourgois is an example of this. He is well known for studying crack dealers in East Harlem, New York ( In Search of Respect) and homeless heroin addicts in San Francisco (Righteous Dopefiend). Kula Kula was lucky enough to catch him in his office, and had a chat via skype. PMID:25436019

  14. Approaching School Change: An Anthropologist's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopate, Carol

    1974-01-01

    A reexamination of the functionalist interpretation of education by revisionist historians that posits an innate, biological need for freedom and autonomy in order to explain and analyze possible sources for educational change. (EH)

  15. Workshop Report: Early-Career Anthropologists: Vocation and Occupation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follis, Karolina S.; Rogler, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Casualisation takes different forms in different academic contexts, from the "adjunctification" of teaching in the U.S.A. to precarious grant-funded postdoc positions common in Europe and the U.K. and the efforts to introduce other forms of temporary academic employment in New Zealand (Shore and Davidson 2014) and Australia (Barcan…

  16. Workshop Report: Early-Career Anthropologists: Vocation and Occupation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follis, Karolina S.; Rogler, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Casualisation takes different forms in different academic contexts, from the "adjunctification" of teaching in the U.S.A. to precarious grant-funded postdoc positions common in Europe and the U.K. and the efforts to introduce other forms of temporary academic employment in New Zealand (Shore and Davidson 2014) and Australia (Barcan…

  17. Cesare Lombroso: an anthropologist between evolution and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mazzarello, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) was a prominent Italian medical doctor and intellectual in the second half of the nineteenth century. He became world famous for his theory that criminality, madness and genius were all sides of the same psychobiological condition: an expression of degeneration, a sort of regression along the phylogenetic scale, and an arrest at an early stage of evolution. Degeneration affected criminals especially, in particular the "born delinquent" whose development had stopped at an early stage, making them the most "atavistic" types of human being. Lombroso also advocated the theory that genius was closely linked with madness. A man of genius was a degenerate, an example of retrograde evolution in whom madness was a form of "biological compensation" for excessive intellectual development. To confirm this theory, in August 1897, Lombroso, while attending the Twelfth International Medical Congress in Moscow, decided to meet the great Russian writer Lev Tolstoy in order to directly verify, in him, his theory of degeneration in the genius. Lombroso's anthropological ideas fuelled a heated debate on the biological determinism of human behaviour.

  18. Cesare Lombroso: an anthropologist between evolution and degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarello, Paolo

    Summary Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909) was a prominent Italian medical doctor and intellectual in the second half of the nineteenth century. He became world famous for his theory that criminality, madness and genius were all sides of the same psychobiological condition: an expression of degeneration , a sort of regression along the phylogenetic scale, and an arrest at an early stage of evolution. Degeneration affected criminals especially, in particular the “born delinquent” whose development had stopped at an early stage, making them the most “atavistic” types of human being. Lombroso also advocated the theory that genius was closely linked with madness. A man of genius was a degenerate, an example of retrograde evolution in whom madness was a form of “biological compensation” for excessive intellectual development. To confirm this theory, in August 1897, Lombroso, while attending the Twelfth International Medical Congress in Moscow, decided to meet the great Russian writer Lev Tolstoy in order to directly verify, in him, his theory of degeneration in the genius. Lombroso’s anthropological ideas fuelled a heated debate on the biological determinism of human behaviour. PMID:21729591

  19. Poor Suffering Bastards. An Anthropologist Looks at Illegitimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, David W.

    1994-01-01

    Explains how the growing trend toward having children but failing to marry is a sign of impending disaster for U.S. society. It argues that, although cultures differ, those that survive do so by being built on a foundation of marriage and examines why this is so. (GLR)

  20. An Anthropologist Explores the Culture of Video Blogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Michael L. Wesch, an assistant professor of cultural anthropology at Kansas State University, was writing a paper about social networking and other interactive tools, which are collectively referred to as Web 2.0, when he decided to make use of the technology to spread his message. So he put together a short video with examples of Web 2.0…

  1. Sir Richard Francis Burton: explorer, anthropologist, irregular physician.

    PubMed

    Pollock, D K; Lee, R V

    1995-05-01

    Travellers to remote areas seem to have a magical aura. Indigenous folk often seek them out asking for medical treatment. It does not matter whether or not the traveller is in fact a doctor. Non-medical travellers have rendered good care, and by so doing ensured the success of their expedition. Nevertheless, there are reservations about 'playing doctor' and many travellers shun the role. Others, however, have purposefully impersonated doctors and capitalized on their medical fraud.

  2. An Anthropologist Examines the Navy’s Recruiting Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Florida, New York, Illinois, New Mexico and California. Special emphasis is placed on regions of the United States in which a major portion of the...articulate a specific training interest, or clearly envision its significance later in their life. Several prospectives indicated that machismo is not...Recruiters, particularly in south Texas, New Mexico , and Miami, stressed that very of-ten fully half of their recruiting efforts are directed at the

  3. An Anthropologist's Reflections on Defining Quality in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In the USA there is a contemporary discourse of crisis about the state of education and a parallel discourse that lays a large portion of the blame onto the poor quality of educational research. The solution offered is "scientific research." This article presents critiques of the core assumptions of the scientific research as secure argument.…

  4. An anthropologist in unexpected places: An Interview with Philippe Bourgois.

    PubMed

    Knutsen, Johan Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Much contemporary anthropology has turned away from exclusive focus on so-called "primitive" tribes in far-away places. The study of urban people has become more prominent, and some researchers have also turned their gaze towards marginalized minorities in their communities. Philippe Bourgois is an example of this. He is well known for studying crack dealers in East Harlem, New York ( In Search of Respect) and homeless heroin addicts in San Francisco (Righteous Dopefiend). Kula Kula was lucky enough to catch him in his office, and had a chat via skype.

  5. Sir Richard Francis Burton: explorer, anthropologist, irregular physician.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, D K; Lee, R V

    1995-01-01

    Travellers to remote areas seem to have a magical aura. Indigenous folk often seek them out asking for medical treatment. It does not matter whether or not the traveller is in fact a doctor. Non-medical travellers have rendered good care, and by so doing ensured the success of their expedition. Nevertheless, there are reservations about 'playing doctor' and many travellers shun the role. Others, however, have purposefully impersonated doctors and capitalized on their medical fraud. PMID:7636816

  6. To Fairly Tell: Social Mobility, Life Histories, and the Anthropologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benei, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on social agents' own understandings of socio-economic mobility and social achievement, exploring the possibilities offered by the tool of "family" life history in the context of formerly Untouchable communities in western India, Maharashtra. While arguing in favour of family life histories as both resource and…

  7. To Fairly Tell: Social Mobility, Life Histories, and the Anthropologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benei, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on social agents' own understandings of socio-economic mobility and social achievement, exploring the possibilities offered by the tool of "family" life history in the context of formerly Untouchable communities in western India, Maharashtra. While arguing in favour of family life histories as both resource and…

  8. [Toulouse, an "urban figure of public health". Dealing with public local struggles against health social differences].

    PubMed

    Basson, J-C; Haschar-Noé, N; Honta, M

    2013-06-01

    When drawing up the portrait of "urban figures of public health", in 1998, Didier Fassin considered Toulouse to be one of the worthy "local experiments". Fifteen years after his precursory work, the recently developed local public policy against health social differences gives an opportunity to question ourselves about the effectiveness of such a quality then associated to the city. A cognitive analysis of the elaboration of the Toulousian health public policy meaning enables to notice that the process of health legitimization on a local scale takes the following forms. On the one hand, renaming health as a legitimate object of public policies sets it up as a common wealth. On the other hand, local public policy puts the emphasis on health education and tries to increase the standing of social appraisal coming from associative experiments and abilities of the inhabitants themselves. Finally, it calls for citizens' mobilization and solidarity in order to promote a "health democracy" able to struggle efficiently against health social differences.

  9. How to make stone soup: Is the "Paleo diet" a missed opportunity for anthropologists?

    PubMed

    Chang, Melanie L; Nowell, April

    2016-09-01

    For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years.(2) Consumers can wear Paleo clothing, download Paleo shopping and exercise apps to their smartphones, order prepackaged Paleo food, prepare it using Paleo cooking implements, or expediently buy Paleo convenience foods from Paleodiet™ vending machines(3) and "Cultured Caveman" food trucks.(4) The Paleo diet is touted by movie stars, reality TV personalities, and professional athletes, including LeBron James and the entire Miami Dolphins NFL team.(5,6) Books with titles such as The Primal Blueprint,(7) Cavewomen Don't Get Fat,(8) and Paleo Perfected(9) (the latter by the stodgy America's Test Kitchen) are legion, and many are bestsellers.

  10. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: A medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, R.T. II )

    1990-11-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources; food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models.

  11. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: a medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, R T

    1990-01-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources: food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models. PMID:2088759

  12. A Mind for All Seasons: Astronomer, Anthropologist, Reformer Tony Aveni Is Professor of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anne Lowrey

    1982-01-01

    A profile of Tony Aveni, the 1982 Professor of the Year, is presented. A popular teacher who has also played a central role in founding the discipline for archeoastronomy, he has organized three seminal conferences in the field and has been at the center of curriculum reform at Colgate University. (MLW)

  13. Empowering Teachers and Parents: School Restructuring through the Eyes of Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, G. Alfred, Jr., Ed.

    Elmore (1990) has presented two contrasting models of school restructuring, each with different views about who is empowered--teachers or parents. This book examines what happens when schools and school districts attempt to implement either of these models. Following the introduction, "Examining School Restructuring Efforts," by G.…

  14. Empowering Teachers and Parents: School Restructuring through the Eyes of Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, G. Alfred, Jr., Ed.

    Elmore (1990) has presented two contrasting models of school restructuring, each with different views about who is empowered--teachers or parents. This book examines what happens when schools and school districts attempt to implement either of these models. Following the introduction, "Examining School Restructuring Efforts," by G.…

  15. Studying Unfamiliar Populations on Familiar Ground Causes Serious Conflicts for Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coughlin, Ellen K.

    1987-01-01

    Research on refugees in the United States accentuates the normal problems of anthropological field work, such as blurred roles and role conflict, the degree of familiarity of the research environment, and cultural shifts made in changing environments. (MSE)

  16. An Anthropologist among the Psychometricians: Assessment Events, Ethnography, and Differential Item Functioning in the Mongolian Gobi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Tay-Lim, Brenda; Qu, Demin

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the potential for ethnographic observations to inform the analysis of test item performance. In 2010, a standardized, large-scale adult literacy assessment took place in Mongolia as part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP). In a novel form…

  17. The Review of and Reaction to Selected Anthropology Projects by Professional Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.; Taylor, Bob L.

    The main concern of this paper is to determine the accuracy and representativeness of anthropology material from: Anthropology Curriculum Project (ACP); Education Development Center's Man A Course of Study (MACOS); Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH); University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies; Anthropology Curriculum…

  18. A Mind for All Seasons: Astronomer, Anthropologist, Reformer Tony Aveni Is Professor of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anne Lowrey

    1982-01-01

    A profile of Tony Aveni, the 1982 Professor of the Year, is presented. A popular teacher who has also played a central role in founding the discipline for archeoastronomy, he has organized three seminal conferences in the field and has been at the center of curriculum reform at Colgate University. (MLW)

  19. An Anthropologist among the Psychometricians: Assessment Events, Ethnography, and Differential Item Functioning in the Mongolian Gobi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Tay-Lim, Brenda; Qu, Demin

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the potential for ethnographic observations to inform the analysis of test item performance. In 2010, a standardized, large-scale adult literacy assessment took place in Mongolia as part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP). In a novel form…

  20. T. Dale Stewart's perspective on his career as a forensic anthropologist at the Smithsonian.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, D H

    2000-03-01

    T. D. Stewart (1901-1997) is internationally recognized as an early leader in forensic anthropology. In a series of taped interviews in 1975 and in 1986, Stewart discusses his professional development. The interviews document his early education in Delta, Pennsylvania, his long career at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC and aspects of his many contributions to forensic anthropology. His well-known careful editorial work and exhaustive, problem-oriented research approach may have been influenced by his early training in his hometown bank and his many years of apprenticeship under Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943). Stewart describes aspects of the difficulties of working for Hrdlicka, yet credits the work ethic established by him as a formative factor in his own prodigious productivity.

  1. THE PUERTO RICAN FAMILY AND THE ANTHROPOLOGIST--OSCAR LEWIS, "LA VIDA," AND THE CULTURE OF POVERTY. REVIEW ARTICLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORDASCO, FRANK M.

    QUESTIONS ARE RAISED IN THIS BOOK REVIEW OF "LA VIDA" ABOUT OSCAR LEWIS'S CONCEPT OF THE "CULTURE OF POVERTY" AND ABOUT THE TYPICALITY OF THE RIOS FAMILY, AN ISSUE CENTRAL TO THE VALIDITY OF THE BOOK'S CONCLUSIONS. FEARS ARE EXPRESSED ABOUT THE POPULARIZATION OF THE BOOK'S FINDINGS AND THEIR WIDESPREAD APPLICATION. THIS ARTICLE IS PUBLISHED IN…

  2. The quest for an absolute chronology in human prehistory: anthropologists, chemists and the fluorine dating method in palaeoanthropology.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, Matthew R; Olson, Cora

    2009-03-01

    By the early twentieth century there was a growing need within palaeoanthropology and prehistoric archaeology to find a way of dating fossils and artefacts in order to know the age of specific specimens, but more importantly to establish an absolute chronology for human prehistory. The radiocarbon and potassium-argon dating methods revolutionized palaeoanthropology during the last half of the twentieth century. However, prior to the invention of these methods there were attempts to devise chemical means of dating fossil bone. Collaborations between Emile Rivière and Adolphe Carnot in the 1890s led to the development of the fluorine dating method, but it was not until the 1940s that this method was improved and widely implemented by Kenneth Oakley to resolve a number of problems in palaeoanthropology, including the Piltdown Man controversy. The invention of the fluorine dating method marked a significant advance in the quest for absolute dating in palaeoanthropology, but it also highlights interesting problems and issues relating to the ability of palaeoanthropologists and chemists to bring together different skills and bodies of knowledge in order successfully to develop and apply the fluorine dating method.

  3. THE PUERTO RICAN FAMILY AND THE ANTHROPOLOGIST--OSCAR LEWIS, "LA VIDA," AND THE CULTURE OF POVERTY. REVIEW ARTICLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORDASCO, FRANK M.

    QUESTIONS ARE RAISED IN THIS BOOK REVIEW OF "LA VIDA" ABOUT OSCAR LEWIS'S CONCEPT OF THE "CULTURE OF POVERTY" AND ABOUT THE TYPICALITY OF THE RIOS FAMILY, AN ISSUE CENTRAL TO THE VALIDITY OF THE BOOK'S CONCLUSIONS. FEARS ARE EXPRESSED ABOUT THE POPULARIZATION OF THE BOOK'S FINDINGS AND THEIR WIDESPREAD APPLICATION. THIS ARTICLE IS PUBLISHED IN…

  4. Anthropology for the Schools: An Analysis of Selected Anthropology Curriculum Projects and Units with Content Ratings by Professional Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    This thesis examines anthropology teaching materials for public schools in light of their characteristics -- subject content, rationale and objectives, antecedent conditions, evaluation, background of materials development -- and the determination of their accuracy and representation. The study also serves as a guide to types of anthropology…

  5. An Anthropologist Who Studies Music and Poetics in a Rain Forest in Papua New Guinea Worries about the Future of the Natives There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1991-01-01

    Living with the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea and completing his anthropology dissertation, Steven Feld saw ceremonial life begin to die and the sounds of helicopters and drill rigs compete with birds and waterfalls. Feld's sophisticated recordings preserve some ways in which the people act and blend with their environment. (MSE)

  6. An Anthropologist Who Studies Music and Poetics in a Rain Forest in Papua New Guinea Worries about the Future of the Natives There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1991-01-01

    Living with the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea and completing his anthropology dissertation, Steven Feld saw ceremonial life begin to die and the sounds of helicopters and drill rigs compete with birds and waterfalls. Feld's sophisticated recordings preserve some ways in which the people act and blend with their environment. (MSE)

  7. The Elephant in the Living Room that No One Wants to Talk about: Why U.S. Anthropologists Are Unable to Acknowledge the End of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanaka, Greg

    2009-01-01

    Findings from a four-year action research project at a highly diverse, West Coast U.S. university reveal that a large percentage of white students cannot trace their identities to a particular nation in Europe and are, as a result, unable to name the shared meanings of a particular ethnic culture. Each time Latino, Asian American, and African…

  8. The Expanded Responsibilities of Long Term Informant Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanchard, Kendall

    1977-01-01

    The case of Chavez Antonio (a man labeled "a well trained Indian") illustrates the possible ill effects of the relationship between anthropologists and their informants wherein the informant essentially lives up to the stereotypic expectations of the anthropologist. (JC)

  9. Link Analysis Workbench

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    109, 2000. [18] Didier Dubois and Henri Prade. An introduction to possibilistic and fuzzy logics. In Didier Dubois, Henri Prade, and P. Smets...data, where the notion of “match” is very broad and gives the ana- lyst a large amount of flexibility. By broad we mean to encompass both exact and...3By cardinality, we mean specifying information about the number of links, nodes, or sub- graphs, e.g. “three or more meetings.” 5 Figure 1

  10. Source Fingerprinting in Adobe PDF Files

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    todo.com/tools/peepdf-pdf-analysis-tool [22] G. Delugré and F. Raynal, “ Origami - Sogeti ESEC lab,” Sogeti, 24 May 2011. [Online]. Available: http://esec...lab.sogeti.com/pages/ Origami 39 [23] D. Stevens, “Quickpost: About the physical and logical structure of PDF files | Didier Stevens,” 9

  11. Echanges, interventions et actes de langage dans la structure de la conversation (Exchanges, Turns at Talk and Speech Acts in the Structure of Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulet, Eddy

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to show how the surface structure of conversation can be described by means of a few principles and simple categories, regardless of its level of complexity. Accordingly, proposes a model that emphasizes the pragmatic functions of certain connectors and markers in the context of conversation exchanges. Societe Nouvelle Didier Erudition,…

  12. A Literature and Records Search on the Cultural Resources of the Portage, Wisconsin Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    The Wisconsin River originates on the Wisconsin-Michigan border at Lac Vieux Desert. It flows south to Portage and then flows west to the Mississippi...the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Vol. 7 (Reprinted 1908). Pg. 345-365. Madison. Didier, Mary Ellen. 1967 A Distributional Study of the

  13. ["There can be no unnecessary risks"].

    PubMed

    Ledesma, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    The psychoanalytical point of view regarding the notion of risks helps us to understand the concept of transference and counter transference. Practice analysis groups provide an opportunity for collective discussion and the sharing of experience of clinical situations. Interview with Didier Gauchy, a psychiatrist-psychoanalyst in Lyon. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Discours polemique, refutation et resolution des sequences conversationnelles (Argumentative Discourse, Refutation and Outcome of Conversational Sequences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeschler, Jacques

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the strategies employed in terminating conversational exchanges, with particular attention to argumentative sequences. Examines the features that distinguish these sequences from those that have a transactional character, and discusses the patterns of verbal interaction attendant to negative responses. Societe Nouvelle Didier Erudition,…

  15. L'E.A.P. ou l'anglais enseigne dans les etudes superieures. Un guide pour le debutant (E.A.P. or English for Academic Purposes: A Guide for the Beginner).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Peter J.

    1981-01-01

    Addresses those readers who are not familiar with EAP, offering an introductory discussion of its objectives and methods, in two parts. Devotes the first part to the needs that justify an EAP approach, and the second to its methodology, with particular attention to interdisciplinary, task-oriented instruction. Societe Nouvelle Didier Erudition, 40…

  16. "The Good Child": Anthropological Perspectives on Morality and Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fechter, Anne-Meike

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no clearly delineated field that could be described as "the anthropology of morality". There exists, however, an increasingly visible and vocal interest in issues of morality among anthropologists. Although there has been a lack of explicit study, it has become clear that anthropologists have, in fact, been concerned…

  17. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish. Copyright © 2012 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. "The Good Child": Anthropological Perspectives on Morality and Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fechter, Anne-Meike

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no clearly delineated field that could be described as "the anthropology of morality". There exists, however, an increasingly visible and vocal interest in issues of morality among anthropologists. Although there has been a lack of explicit study, it has become clear that anthropologists have, in fact, been concerned…

  19. Some Issues Concerning Aggression and Violence in Human Beings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    Examines aggression and violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. Humanistic psychologist Rollo May sees violence as the end product of power deprivation. Anthropologists Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey regard aggression as an innate biological drive. Anthropologist Richard Leakey views it as a learned, culturally determined response.…

  20. Some Issues Concerning Aggression and Violence in Human Beings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    Examines aggression and violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. Humanistic psychologist Rollo May sees violence as the end product of power deprivation. Anthropologists Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey regard aggression as an innate biological drive. Anthropologist Richard Leakey views it as a learned, culturally determined response.…

  1. American Indian Reader: Anthropology. Book One of a Series in Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jeannette, Ed.

    The anthropological reader about American Indians presents 28 articles dated from 1968 to 1971. It is divided into 4 parts: the anthropologist: the man and the discipline; a giant step between 2 worlds; scientific investigation: archaeology; and early agricultural and economy: 3 studies. Also included are (1) discussion: an anthropologist as…

  2. American Indian Reader: Anthropology. Book One of a Series in Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jeannette, Ed.

    The anthropological reader about American Indians presents 28 articles dated from 1968 to 1971. It is divided into 4 parts: the anthropologist: the man and the discipline; a giant step between 2 worlds; scientific investigation: archaeology; and early agricultural and economy: 3 studies. Also included are (1) discussion: an anthropologist as…

  3. 78 FR 65370 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner, Tucson, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    .... ADDRESSES: Dr. Bruce Anderson, Forensic Anthropologist, PCOME, Tucson, AZ 85714, telephone (520) 243-8600... Office for forensic analysis. The Pinal County Medical Examiner, Dr Rebecca Hsu, transferred the remains to the Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner for examination by a forensic anthropologist. Dr...

  4. Experiences with Poetry, Pedagogy and Participant Observation: Writing with Students in a Study Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Many anthropologists have turned to creative writing as they struggle to represent experiences/encounters with other cultures. Study abroad students, while not necessarily anthropologists-in-the-making, are also representers (and representees) of exotic cultures while abroad. This paper explores creative writing as a strategy to help study abroad…

  5. Cancer and the Comics: Graphic Narratives and Biolegitimate Lives.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Juliet

    2016-06-01

    Cancer graphic narratives, I argue, are part of a medical imaginary that includes representations of difference and biomedical technology that engage Fassin's (2009) concept of biolegitimacy. Framed in three parts, the argument first draws on discourses about cancer graphic narratives from graphic medicine scholars and authors to demonstrate a construction of universal suffering. Second, I examine tropes of hope and difference as a biotechnical embrace. Finally, I consider biosociality within the context of this imaginary and the construction of a meaningful life. Autobiographical graphic narrative as a creative genre that seeks to give voice to individual illness experiences in the context of biomedicine raises anthropological questions about the interplay between the ordinary and biolegitmate. Cancer graphic narratives deconstruct the big events to demonstrate the ordinary ways that a life constructed as different becomes valued through access to medical technologies. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  6. Nanomaterials and the environmental risk: is there some room left for ethics and law?

    PubMed

    Byk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    How legitimate may be the concern posed by the nanotechnologies for health and environment,this effort for reaching a better knowledge of the biotoxicity of nanomaterials is not enough. As Pr Didier Sicard noted, we believe that the ethical reflection should not be the good conscience that may help science in getting rid of social fears. But the ethical reflection is there also to discuss taboo issues in the perspective of a better societal understanding.

  7. Evaluation of Expert Systems in Decisionmaking Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-07-01

    Classification) Evaluation of Expert Systems in Decisionmaking Organizatioo 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR( S ) Didier M . Perdu and Alexander H. Levis 13a. TYPE OF...more a token of the class P, pl and the token of the class S has the costly in time and memory storage than in systems using marking M (A): Boolean logic...The problem is that little improvement in performance is obtained, if extra computation is avoided only in M (A) = pl + S the case of complete truth

  8. Reflections on the future of anthropology.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Richard

    2009-12-01

    In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference's theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline.

  9. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National..., Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from... physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the remains...

  10. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the human remains. The...

  11. Biological anthropology of aging--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ice, Gillian H

    2003-06-01

    Biological anthropologists have a strong tradition of studying growth and development and research on aging has been limited. This paper explores the past and current contribution of biological anthropologists to the field of aging through an examination of the American Journal of Physical Anthropology (AJPA) and the American Journal of Human Biology (AJHB). It is clear from this survey that biological anthropologists and human biologists have predominantly studied growth and developmental processes relative to aging. However, there is a trend of increasing interest in aging over time. In the AJHB, papers discussing chronic disease were predominant, followed by reproductive aging (19%), bone aging (15%) and body composition (10%). Within the AJPA, the majority of articles were in the field of human biology (43%) and bioarchaelogy (42%) with a lesser contribution from primatology (14%) and dermatogliphics (1%). Biological anthropologists still have great potential to make contributions to gerontology with our evolutionary and holistic perspectives and focus on cross-cultural research.

  12. Evolving to the Beat of a Different Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents arguments against the recent "punctuated equilibrium" point of view expressed by evolutionists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge. Reviews evidence for continuous and gradual change, as recently cited by four anthropologists in the July 9 issue of "Nature." (CS)

  13. Chillihuani's Culture of Respect and the Circle of Courage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Inge

    2010-01-01

    A Canadian anthropologist describes how "rituals of respect" permeate the indigenous culture of a remote mountainous village in Peru. When children's needs for belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity are met, they thrive and achieve their full potential.

  14. Cable Television: Applied Anthropology in a New Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topper, Martin D.; Wilson, W. Leigh

    1976-01-01

    The anthropologist's role in using cable television as a tool of applied anthropology in a new town was examined. The project's purpose was to give a group of people a new usage for a communications medium. (Author/NQ)

  15. The Physical Scientist in an Interdisciplinary Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    1973-01-01

    Describes interdisciplinary team teaching of an environmental studies course at Dickinson College which involves a physicist, a philosopher, an anthropologist, a theologian, and 15 community members. Physical scientist's roles and students' responses to the course are discussed. (CC)

  16. 75 FR 58428 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Athens County Historical Society and Museum, Athens, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Coe Family Farm on Armitage Road, in Athens County, OH. On January 4, 2010, the human skull was found... forensic anthropologist from Ohio University, the wear and coloration of the skull indicated that it was...

  17. Filming The Man Hunters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockings, Paul

    1976-01-01

    "The Man Hunters" is a film about paleoanthropology. This article is a personal account of how the film was put together using anthropological knowledge and numerous anthropologists and how the film was received by the American public. (Author)

  18. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  19. Chillihuani's Culture of Respect and the Circle of Courage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Inge

    2010-01-01

    A Canadian anthropologist describes how "rituals of respect" permeate the indigenous culture of a remote mountainous village in Peru. When children's needs for belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity are met, they thrive and achieve their full potential.

  20. [Paul Broca: 1824-1880].

    PubMed

    Monod-Broca, P

    2001-10-01

    Paul Broca was very gifted: a hospital surgeon and professor of surgery by the age of 29, anatomist, neurologist, anthropologist, he was interested in medicine as a whole. He remains famous for describing the first brain localisation.

  1. "My Idea of Education."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montagu, Ashley

    1980-01-01

    An anthropologist identifies educability as the distinguishing factor of the human species, and insists that a loving attitude toward students is the element most essential in effective educators. (LH)

  2. 76 FR 14052 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Sabine River Authority of Texas, Quitman, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... fragments. Dr. Harrell Gill-King, Anthropologist, University of North Texas, performed an examination of the human and non-human remains at the request of the Hunt County Sheriff's Department. Dr....

  3. Evolving to the Beat of a Different Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents arguments against the recent "punctuated equilibrium" point of view expressed by evolutionists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge. Reviews evidence for continuous and gradual change, as recently cited by four anthropologists in the July 9 issue of "Nature." (CS)

  4. Culture, Meaning, and Interstellar Message Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traphagan, J. W.

    2010-04-01

    This presentation explores the concept of culture as it is used in anthropology and instances of contact between anthropologists and terrestrial "alien" civilizations and considers how these can inform thinking about potential contact with ETI.

  5. Anthropology: The Long Lives of Fairy Tales.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Mark

    2016-04-04

    Anthropologists, borrowing techniques from evolutionary biology, have demonstrated that some common fairy tales can be traced back 5,000 years, or more, long before the development of written traditions.

  6. Early perceptions of an epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Warwick H.

    2008-01-01

    This article surveys some descriptions of the Fore people made on early contact in the 1950s by patrol officers, social anthropologists and medical doctors. Sorcery accusations and cannibalism initially impressed these outside observers, though gradually they came to realize that a strange and fatal condition called kuru was a major affliction of the Fore, especially women and children. Fore attributed kuru to sorcery, anthropologists speculated on psychosomatic causes and medical officers began to wonder if it was a mysterious encephalitis. PMID:18849281

  7. Early perceptions of an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warwick H

    2008-11-27

    This article surveys some descriptions of the Fore people made on early contact in the 1950s by patrol officers, social anthropologists and medical doctors. Sorcery accusations and cannibalism initially impressed these outside observers, though gradually they came to realize that a strange and fatal condition called kuru was a major affliction of the Fore, especially women and children. Fore attributed kuru to sorcery, anthropologists speculated on psychosomatic causes and medical officers began to wonder if it was a mysterious encephalitis.

  8. [Frontiers of anthropological research: ethics, autonomy, and trafficking in human organs. A commentary on The Global Traffic in Human Organs, by Nancy Scheper-Hughes].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D

    2001-01-01

    The bioethical debate over the commercialization of the human body has intensified in recent years. This article discusses the principles of ethics and autonomy in the most important ethnography on international traffic in human organs, coordinated by anthropologist Nancy Scheper-Hughes. The author discusses how defending the ethics of non-commercialization of the human body entails absolute ethical principles pertaining to human life, a political premise whose legitimacy is not recognized by relativist anthropologists.

  9. The repatriation of anthropology: Some observations on Endo-ethnography.

    PubMed

    Van Ginkel, R

    1998-12-01

    For a few decades, anthropologists have increasingly turned to the study of their own society and culture. This article addresses the problems and the relative advantages and disadvantages of endogenous ethnography. It devotes special attention to the experiences of medical anthropologists who have conducted fieldwork at home. It is concluded that anthropology at home has no special epistemological position compared with anthropological research abroad, though there may be differences at the practical level of fieldwork and publishing.

  10. Integrating forensic anthropology into Disaster Victim Identification.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z

    2012-06-01

    This paper will provide mass fatality emergency planners, police, medical examiners, coroners and other Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) personnel ways to integrate forensic anthropologists into DVI operations and demonstrate how anthropological contributions have improved DVI projects. In mass disaster situations, anthropologists have traditionally been limited to developing biological profiles from skeletal remains. Over the past decade, however, anthropologists' involvement in DVI has extended well beyond this traditional role as they have taken on increasingly diverse tasks and responsibilities. Anthropological involvement in DVI operations is often dictated by an incident's specific characteristics, particularly events involving extensive fragmentation, commingling, or other forms of compromised remains. This paper will provide examples from recent DVI incidents to illustrate the operational utility of anthropologists in the DVI context. The points where it is most beneficial to integrate anthropologists into the DVI process include: (1) during recovery at the disaster scene; (2) at the triage station as remains are brought into the mortuary; and (3) in conducting the reconciliation process. Particular attention will be paid to quality control and quality assurance measures anthropologists have developed and implemented for DVI projects. Overall, this paper will explain how anthropological expertise can be used to increase accuracy in DVI while reducing the project's cost and duration.

  11. Thermal energy storage technologies for heating and cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, John J.

    1990-12-01

    Recent results from selected thermal energy storage (TES) research activities in Germany and Sweden are discussed. In addition, several new technologies for heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles were reviewed and found to benefit similar efforts in the United states. Details of a meeting with Didier-Werke AG, a leading German ceramics manufacturer who will provide TES media necessary for the United States to complete field tests of an advanced high temperature latent heat storage material, are presented. Finally, an overview of the December 1990 International Energy Agency (IEA) Executive Committee deliberations on TES is presented.

  12. From Europe to the United States, Rousseau Takes on the Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarter, Tricia

    2014-06-01

    Denis-Didier Rousseau smiles shyly when discussing his new role as the chair of AGU's Fall Meeting Program Committee. "I'm not used to giving interviews," he says. Nonetheless, he becomes very passionate as he begins to talk about his views on transdisciplinary science and its role in AGU meetings, on including more young scientists in planning meetings, and on the importance of virtual meetings. Rousseau, who is currently a visiting professor at Columbia University, sat with Eos to share his excitement about working with AGU.

  13. (Thermal energy storage technologies for heating and cooling applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.

    1990-12-19

    Recent results from selected TES research activities in Germany and Sweden under an associated IEA annex are discussed. In addition, several new technologies for heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles were reviewed and found to benefit similar efforts in the United states. Details of a meeting with Didier-Werke AG, a leading German ceramics manufacturer who will provide TES media necessary for the United States to complete field tests of an advanced high temperature latent heat storage material, are presented. Finally, an overview of the December 1990 IEA Executive Committee deliberations on TES is presented.

  14. Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Henzl, Vladimir; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-07-13

    Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

  15. Modern outline for a recuperator coke oven

    SciTech Connect

    Flockenhaus, C.; Proetzl, M.; Rohde, W.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a demonstration plant, and the results obtained in this, for the testing of Didier Engineering's 2-stage recuperative system. The two stages are: (I) partial recuperation using a metallic heat exchanger and making special use of radiation; (II) direct heat exchange between coke oven waste gas and coking coal for thermal treatment making special use of convection. It is concluded that this type of oven meets the requirements for economic production of coke in chamber-type ovens even after the year 2000. 4 references.

  16. Anthropology in Agricultural Health and Safety Research and Intervention.

    PubMed

    Arcury, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture remains a dangerous industry, even as agricultural science and technology continue to advance. Research that goes beyond technological changes to address safety culture and policy are needed to improve health and safety in agriculture. In this commentary, I consider the potential for anthropology to contribute to agricultural health and safety research by addressing three aims: (1) I briefly consider what the articles in this issue of the Journal of Agromedicine say about anthropologists in agricultural health and safety; (2) I discuss what anthropologists can add to agricultural health and safety research; and (3) I examine ways in which anthropologists can participate in agricultural health and safety research. In using their traditions of rigorous field research to understand how those working in agriculture perceive and interpret factors affecting occupational health and safety (their "emic" perspective), and translating this perspective to improve the understanding of occupational health professionals and policy makers (an "etic" perspective), anthropologists can expose myths that limit improvements in agricultural health and safety. Addressing significant questions, working with the most vulnerable agricultural communities, and being outside establishment agriculture provide anthropologists with the opportunity to improve health and safety policy and regulation in agriculture.

  17. INTRODUCTION: SUSTAINING THE LIFE OF THE POLIS.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P Wenzel; Kelly, Ann H; Manton, John; Prince, Ruth J; Tousignant, Noémi

    2013-11-01

    How are publics of protection and care defined in African cities today? The effects of globalization and neo-liberal policies on urban space are well documented. From London to São Paulo, denationalization, privatization, offshoring and cuts in state expenditure are creating enclaves and exclusions, resulting in fragmented, stratified social geographies (see Caldeira 2000; Ong 2006; Harvey 2006; Murray 2011). 'Networked archipelagoes', islands connected by transnational circulations of capital, displace other spatial relations and imaginaries. Spaces of encompassment, especially, such as 'the nation' or simply 'society' as defined by inclusion within a whole, lose practical value and intellectual purchase as referents of citizenship (Gupta and Ferguson 2002; Ferguson 2005). In African cities, where humanitarian, experimental or market logics dominate the distribution of sanitation and healthcare, this fragmentation is particularly stark (see, for example, Redfield 2006, 2012; Fassin 2007; Bredeloup et al. 2008; Nguyen 2012). Privilege and crisis interrupt older contiguities, delineating spaces and times of exception. The 'public' of health is defined by survival or consumption, obscuring the human as bearer of civic rights and responsibilities, as inhabitants of 'objective' material worlds 'common to all of us' (Arendt 1958: 52). Is it possible, under these conditions, to enact and imagine public health as a project of citizens, animated in civic space?

  18. The ambiguities of disciplinary professionalization: The state and cultural dynamics of Canadian inter-war anthropology.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The professionalization of Canadian anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century was tied closely to the matrix of the federal state, first though the Anthropology Division of the Geological Survey of Canada and then the National Museum. State anthropologists occupied an ambiguous professional status as both civil servants and anthropologists committed to the methodological and disciplinary imperatives of modern social science but bounded and guided by the operation of the civil service. Their position within the state served to both advance disciplinary development but also compromised disciplinary autonomy. To address the boundaries the state imposed on its support for anthropology, state anthropologists cultivated cultural, intellectual, and commercially-oriented networks that served to sustain new developments in their field, particularly in folklore. This essay examines these dynamics and suggests that anthropology's disciplinary development did not create a disjuncture between professionalized scholarship and civil society.

  19. Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this volume were presented at a conference entitled, 'Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology,' held November 28, 1990, at NASA's Science and Technology Laboratory. One reason for this conference was to facilitate information exchange among a diverse group of anthropologists. Much of the research in anthropology that has made use of satellite image processing, geographical information systems, and global positioning systems has been known to only a small group of practitioners. A second reason for this conference was to promote scientific dialogue between anthropologists and professionals outside of anthropology. It is certain that both the development and proper application of new technologies will only result from greater cooperation between technicians and 'end-users.' Anthropologists can provide many useful applications to justify the costs of new technological development.

  20. 'We know the aborigines are dying out': Aboriginal people and the quest to ensure their survival, Wave Hill Station, 1944.

    PubMed

    Gray, Geoffrey

    2014-01-01

    In 1939 an Australian anthropologist, W.E.H Stanner, believed that the nation needed to examine the question of biological and cultural preservation of the Aboriginal peoples. In an attempt to address the issue a range of proposals were suggested, most concentrating on the provision of adequate nutrition, proper medical supervision, good conditions of employment, appropriately trained field staff with sufficient financial resources, and the creation of inviolable reserves. This paper is a case study of a northwest Northern Territory cattle station, Wave Hill, where a survey conducted by two anthropologists aimed to reveal the causes of population decline on Vestey owned cattle stations. Could these anthropologists devise a way that would see an increase in station labour without having to seek new labour from marginal areas--'bush' people as they were called? Could they provide an answer to the wider challenge of stemming population decline through improving Aboriginal health?

  1. Welcome home, Descartes! rethinking the anthropology of the body.

    PubMed

    Ecks, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    For many scholars, the Cartesian mind/body split is one of the fundamental mistakes of the Western scientific tradition. Anthropologists who study notions of the body in cultures around the world regularly take Descartes as their point of departure. Many also suggest that breaking free from Descartes is politically liberating: if the mindful body could be rediscovered, society could move away from its materialist, positivist, and commodity-fetishizing ways. Beyond the Body Proper is anthropology's best and most comprehensive anti-Cartesian manifesto to date. This volume brings together some of the finest studies on the cultural and historical diversity of bodies and minds. Yet anthropologists' blanket rejection of the mind/body dualism seems politically self-defeating. If anthropologists want to criticize racism, gender hierarchies, or discrimination against disabled people, they need to believe that the mind is independent from the body. In other words, they need to uphold the Cartesian split.

  2. Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Gibbon, Sahra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We introduce this special issue of Medial Anthropology Quarterly on public health genomics by exploring both the unique contribution of ethnographic sensibility that medical anthropologists bring to the study of genomics and some of the key insights offered by the essays in this collection. As anthropologists, we are concerned with the power dynamics and larger cultural commitments embedded in practices associated with public health. We seek to understand, first, the broad significance of genomics as a cultural object and, second, the social action set into motion as researchers seek to translate genomic knowledge and technology into public health benefits. PMID:24214906

  3. Science and miscegenation in the early twentieth century: Edgard Roquette-Pinto's debates and controversies with US physical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião de

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes Brazilian anthropologist Edgard Roquette-Pinto's participation in the international debate that involved the field of physical anthropology and discussions on miscegenation in the first decades of the twentieth century. Special focus is on his readings and interpretations of a group of US anthropologists and eugenicists and his controversies with them, including Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, and Franz Boas. The article explores the various ways in which Roquette-Pinto interpreted and incorporated their ideas and how his anthropological interpretations took on new meanings when they moved beyond Brazil's borders.

  4. RACE RELATIONSHIPS: COLLEGIALITY AND DEMARCATION IN PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Sachs Collopy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In 1962, anthropologist Carleton Coon argued in The Origin of Races that some human races had evolved further than others. Among his most vocal critics were geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky and anthropologist Ashley Montagu, each of whom had known Coon for decades. I use this episode, and the long relationships between scientists that preceded it, to argue that scientific research on race was intertwined not only with political projects to conserve or reform race relations, but also with the relationships scientists shared as colleagues. Demarcation between science and pseudoscience, between legitimate research and scientific racism, involved emotional as well as intellectual labor. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Experiments with Image Theatre: Accessing and Giving Meaning to Sensory Experiences in Social Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Annika

    This article puts forward an experiential teaching method for becoming aware of, getting access to, and giving meaning to the sensory experiences that constitute and shape learning processes during social anthropological fieldwork. While social anthropologists use all their senses in the field, the preparation and processing of fieldwork are…

  6. Healing Circles: An Ethnographic Study of the Interactions Among Health and Healing Practitioners From Multiple Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    “Healing circle” is a term that has been employed by a group of Northern California integrative medicine researchers as we embarked on an 8-year ethnographic study. As a clinical medical anthropologist and registered nurse specializing in integrative practice and behavioral health, I undertook this study with colleagues from various health disciplines. PMID:25105070

  7. Motivations of North American Indians in Athletic Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the motives of North American Indians in holding their athletic games. Data were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology" published between 1881 and 1933. Anthropologists, artifact collectors, artist-writers, and historians provided primary evidential sources for athletic game motivation.…

  8. Concept of Culture. Teacher's Guide, Grade One. Publication No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Anne; And Others

    Part of the Anthropology Curriculum Project, this teaching guide presents lesson plans introducing basic anthropological concepts to students in the first grade. The objective is to aid teachers in helping young children acquire an understanding of the concepts anthropologists use to observe, describe, and report social phenomena. This guide…

  9. Preliminary GIS analysis of the agricultural landscape of Cuyo Cuyo, Department of Puno, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalder, Bruce; Evans, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Computerized analysis of a geographic database (GIS) for Cuyo Cuyo, (Dept. Puno, Peru) is used to correlate the agricultural production zones of two adjacent communities to altitude, slope, aspect, and other geomorphological features of the high-altitude eastern escarpment landscape. The techniques exemplified will allow ecological anthropologists to analyze spatial patterns at regional scales with much greater control over the data.

  10. Margaret Mead: Anthropological Perspective on Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Suzanne S.

    Anthropologist Margaret Mead focused much of her thinking, speaking, and writing on education and the impact of rapid change on educational theory and practice. The history of Mead's writings shows sensitivity to both tradition and change. A selection of 12 of Mead's publications provides insight into Mead's innovative and thought-provoking ideas.…

  11. A Century of Margaret Mead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes Margaret Mead's contributions, focusing on Mead as an anthropologist and educator. It discusses contradictions in her ethnographies and in her work on learning. The paper also discusses her beliefs about the problems of the contemporary United States, particularly her rarely noticed contributions to a theory of learning. (SM)

  12. Training for the Quality Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Edward G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of data contributed for use in industrial training by the sociologist and anthropologist, the interrelationship between culture and technology, and the implications of culture's relationship to change and/or learning are discussed. Some principles for gaining acceptance of change are listed. Concern with quality products implies…

  13. The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI).

    PubMed

    Blau, Soren; Briggs, Christopher A

    2011-02-25

    This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss of life and public and private property. Within 48h of the disaster, forensic teams including pathologists, odontologists and anthropologists assembled at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne to begin the task of identifying the deceased. This paper reviews the part played by forensic anthropologists in the identification process and outlines the important contribution anthropologists can make to DVI, especially at the scene, in the mortuary and in the reconciliation process. The anthropologist's experience with differentially preserved human remains meant they played an important role identifying and recovering heavily fragmentary human skeletal remains, differentiating human from non-human remains, establishing basic biological information such as the sex and age of the individuals and confirming or denying the possibility of re-associating body parts for release to families.

  14. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  15. Life beyond earth and the mind of man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berendzen, R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A symposium is reported on the implications of the possibility of extraterrestrial life for social, philosophical, and humanistic impacts. The viewpoints from astronomers, biologists, physicists, anthropologists, and theologians are given. Costs involved for finding this life are discussed along with the possible benefits to society. The direct implications from radio telescopes, the Pioneer 10 plaque, and discussions between the panelists are also reported.

  16. Towards a Discovery-Oriented Ethnography in Researching the Professional Context of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Today anthropologists seem to be increasingly studying phenomena in their own societies. Many have a focus on policies in organizations and an interest in explicating cultural phenomena constituted by power and governance. Consequently, a recent interest has emerged in Michel Foucault's philosophy, especially as an inspiration for ethnographic…

  17. CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION, REPORT OF THE FIRST ALL-INDIAN STATEWIDE CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORBES, JACK D.

    A CONFERENCE ON CALIFORNIA INDIAN EDUCATION WAS HELD IN MARCH, 1967, AT STANISLAUS STATE COLLEGE. THE CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS INCLUDE ADMINISTRATORS AND TEACHERS FROM REPRESENTATIVE SCHOOLS WITH A HIGH PROPORTION OF INDIAN STUDENTS IN CALIFORNIA, ANTHROPOLOGISTS AND SOCIAL SCIENTISTS FROM VARIOUS COLLEGES, AND INDIANS FROM REPRESENTATIVE AREAS…

  18. "There's a Surfeit of Java in Rio: Coffee Songs As Teaching Resources".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, B. Lee; Schurk, William L.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the use of daily habits or common social activities by anthropologists and sociology teachers to illustrate the power of popular culture focuses on the role of coffee. Provides a list of more than 60 specific songs and albums that could be used for classroom discussion. (Author/LRW)

  19. Conceptualizing the Role of Culture in Political Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronoff, Myron J.

    Using as a point of departure anthropologist Clifford Geertz's study of culture with special emphasis on political change, the paper develops a theoretical framework for studying the relationship between culture and political change. A major objective of this anthropological approach to the study of political culture is to help political…

  20. Preliminary GIS analysis of the agricultural landscape of Cuyo Cuyo, Department of Puno, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalder, Bruce; Evans, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Computerized analysis of a geographic database (GIS) for Cuyo Cuyo, (Dept. Puno, Peru) is used to correlate the agricultural production zones of two adjacent communities to altitude, slope, aspect, and other geomorphological features of the high-altitude eastern escarpment landscape. The techniques exemplified will allow ecological anthropologists to analyze spatial patterns at regional scales with much greater control over the data.

  1. Literacy Campaigns and the Indigenization of Modernity: Rearticulations of Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialostok, Steve; Whitman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many current literacy campaigns intended for indigenous peoples in Third World countries are reconceptualizations of earlier colonial projects and conform to the needs of late-modern capitalism. Early anthropology may have influenced the discourses surrounding literacy, but current anthropologists have charted important cultural and linguistic…

  2. Dell H. Hymes: His Scholarship and Legacy in Anthropology and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Dell Hathaway Hymes, linguistic anthropologist and educational visionary extraordinaire, passed away in November 2009, leaving behind a voluminous scholarship and inspirational legacy in the study of language and inequality, ethnography, sociolinguistics, Native American ethnopoetics, and education. This essay provides a brief account of Hymes's…

  3. Culture, Education, Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the anthropology of education must focus on what people do to educate themselves outside the constraints constituting the problematics of schooling. Anthropologists must do this precisely to fulfill their public role as legitimate participants in the conversations about understanding and transforming schooling. When…

  4. AnthroNotes: Museum of Natural History Publications for Educators, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Ruth O., Ed.; Brooks, Alison S., Ed.; Lanouette, JoAnne, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The journal is intended for anthropologists, archaeologists, teachers, museum and other professionals interested in the wider dissemination of anthropology, particularly in schools. It offers in-depth articles on current anthropological research, teaching activities, and reviews of new resources. The winter/spring issue contains four sections: (1)…

  5. Working with Child Prostitutes in Thailand: Problems of Practice and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Conducting anthropological fieldwork on the emotive issue of child prostitution raises difficult issues for anthropologists and other researchers. This article examines the ethical dilemmas of working with these extremely vulnerable children, focusing on the difference between the researcher's own interpretations and those given by the children…

  6. Reflections on the Future of Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference’s theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline. PMID:20027285

  7. Culture, Education, Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the anthropology of education must focus on what people do to educate themselves outside the constraints constituting the problematics of schooling. Anthropologists must do this precisely to fulfill their public role as legitimate participants in the conversations about understanding and transforming schooling. When…

  8. New Directions in the Study of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenneberg, Eric H., Ed.

    A cross-section of language research at mid-century from the viewpoint of the psychologist, biologist, and anthropologist is offered in this book bearing on problems of (1) maturation, (2) social anthropology, (3) human biology, (4) experimental psychology, and (5) primary acquisition of speech and language. Five papers delivered at a symposium on…

  9. How Real Is Race? Using Anthropology To Make Sense of Human Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukhopadhyay, Carol; Henze, Rosemary C.

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on work of contemporary biological anthropologists and other scientists, argues that biologically based racial differences are not scientifically valid, but are instead socially constructed categories. Draws implications for teachers, students, and society. Provides suggestions and resources for teachers and students to learn more about…

  10. Race and Anthropology: A Core Concept without Consensus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Leonard; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Race is no longer considered to be a core anthropological concept by a majority of anthropologists. This article proposes that the dual notions of ethnicity, to account for cultural variation, and "cline," or geographic variation, to account for biological variation, are appropriate alternatives to the race concept for classroom…

  11. Reliable and Valid Stories?--Turning Ethnographic Data into Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Wendy

    Ethnographic research projects have surged in recent years and are well represented in Research in the Teaching of English (RTE) bibliographies. However, methods texts were written for social scientists and anthropologists, not for writing researchers. Methods texts and rhetoric programs' general grounding in positivistic research imply that…

  12. Conceptualizing the Role of Culture in Political Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronoff, Myron J.

    Using as a point of departure anthropologist Clifford Geertz's study of culture with special emphasis on political change, the paper develops a theoretical framework for studying the relationship between culture and political change. A major objective of this anthropological approach to the study of political culture is to help political…

  13. Mayan Morality: An Exploration of Permissible Harms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abarbanell, Linda; Hauser, Marc D.

    2010-01-01

    Anthropologists have provided rich field descriptions of the norms and conventions governing behavior and interactions in small-scale societies. Here, we add a further dimension to this work by presenting hypothetical moral dilemmas involving harm, to a small-scale, agrarian Mayan population, with the specific goal of exploring the hypothesis that…

  14. Little Choice for the Chumash: Colonialism, Cattle, and Coercion in Mission Period California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dartt-Newton, Deana; Erlandson, Jon M.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the Chumash people, their history, as well as colonization and coercion during the mission period in California. In this article, the authors examine a complex paper on the missionization of the Chumash Indians of the California Coast published in American Anthropologist by Daniel O. Larson, John R. Johnson, and Joel C.…

  15. Cooperative Competition: Possibly Oxymoronic But Definitely Smart

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    competition and warfare. 56 Anthropologist Agustin Fuentes writes “There is no doubt that the potential for aggressive conflict in a variety of forms...Studies, 27 March 2002. Fuentes, Agustin . “It‟s Not All Sex and Violence: Integrated Anthropology and the Role of Cooperation and Social Complexity

  16. Memory, Trauma, and Phantasmagoria in Claudia Llosa's "La Teta Asustada"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The film "La teta asustada" (Claudia Llosa, 2009) was inspired by the text titled "Entre prójimos: El conflicto armado interno y la política de la reconciliación en el Perú" by the medical anthropologist Kimberly Theidon. In this study, Theidon compiles the testimonies of a group of indigenous women who were sexually assaulted…

  17. Lexical Retention and Cultural Significance in Tzeltal-Tzotzil Comparative Ethnobotany. Working Papers of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory, No. 29.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Brent; And Others

    Attempts have been made by linguists and anthropologists to reconstruct aspects of culture history by using synchronically derived lexical data. Related to this concern with culture history is one which attempts to explore the diachronic processes of lexical change over time. As a result of a comparative survey of Tzeltal and Tzotzil…

  18. American Indian Literature Appropriate for Secondary and Middle-Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Jim

    American Indian literature deserves a more prominent place in the English language arts curriculum. Oral literature of American Indians includes didactic stories, told to maintain tribal mores and value systems; it also includes humorous and entertaining stories, as well as histories of various American Indian peoples. Anthropologists and…

  19. Straight Talk and Sweet Talk: Political Discourse in a Community of Equals. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics, No. 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneis, Donald

    Anthropologists have indicated that the need to act politically and to avoid the appearance of such action is marked in egalitarian societies. The perils of confrontation in such societies often foster indirect and highly allusive speech. This paper invesitgates the relationship between direct and indirect speech in an Indo-Fijian community which…

  20. Educational Anthropology: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modiano, Nancy

    This paper attempts to summarize the state of the field of educational anthropology, as it relates to studies of educational institutions and processes. Major research done by anthropologists in three areas--school ethnographies, school-community contacts with ethnic minorities, and cognitive and linguistic development--is reviewed. Topics covered…

  1. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  2. Gender Bias in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Gregory Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The philosophical anthropologist Dorothy Dinnerstein, in her 1976 work "The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise," argued that in order for us to address the excesses of male-dominated rule in society (militarism, rapacious consumerism), we must attack the root cause of patriarchy--women's domination of early…

  3. Language Death: A Freirean Solution in the Heart of the Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Alex

    2013-01-01

    "Language death" is an undeniable phenomenon of our modern times as languages have started to disappear at an alarming rate. This has led linguists, anthropologists, philosophers and educationists to engage with this issue at various levels in an attempt to try to understand the decline in this rich area of human communication and…

  4. Tenacious Southern Progressives: Confounding Mencken's Myth of Mediocrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louise; Reynolds, Katherine

    After H.L. Mencken in a 1920 essay labeled the American South "the Sahara of the Bozart," the journalist Gerald Johnson debated with him the merits of southern intellectual life primarily as indicated in southern literature. There were noteworthy southern artists, journalists, social anthropologists, and educators, ranging from the…

  5. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: Assessment of the Personnel of the Forensic Sciences Profession. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    A state-of-the-art assessment is presented of the number, training, and experience of scientific and paraprofessional personnel serving the criminal justice system as expert witnesses. The study concentrated on the following disciplines: criminalists, coroner/medical examiner personnel (especially forensic pathologists), forensic anthropologists,…

  6. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  7. The Island Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Margaret

    1970-01-01

    Dr. Mead, the world-renowned anthropologist and expert behavioral scientist, is associated with the American Museum of Natural History, which acts as her headquarters as she documents her observations on Man, society and technology. She discusses the need to develop specialists with concern for saving the endangered planet earth. (Editor/GR)

  8. Contact and Connection: A Cross-Cultural Look at Parenting Styles in Bali and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestenberg-Amighi, Janet

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that a culturally approved style of nonverbal parent-infant interaction influences the unfolding parent-child relationship and the child's social development. The author, an anthropologist, compares parenting styles in the "low-contact" culture of the United States with parenting in the "high-contact"…

  9. The Role of the State Educational Agency in the Development of Innovative Programs in Student Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelfelt, Roy A., Ed.

    In the introduction to this collection of papers, William Drummond summarizes the national conference proceedings and personal reactions to them. Chapter 1, "The Revolution Explosion," is a talk by Frankie Beth Nelson about the way an anthropologist looks at the school and its purposes. Chapter 2 (SP 002 631), "Student Teaching: The State of the…

  10. Becoming Maya? Appropriation of the White Shaman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montejo, Victor D.

    1999-01-01

    The history of anthropology among the Maya consists of both the literal exploitation of archaeological finds and the appropriation of Maya culture and history by the Western academic world to construct distorted theories of the Maya past. In the ultimate disgrace, some Mayan priests are training White anthropologists to become shamans themselves…

  11. Barriers and Opportunities for America's Young Black Men. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document discusses a hearing which concerns the needs of America's young black men who live in city neighborhoods with little or no opportunity for meaningful employment or educational success. Economists, educators, psychologists, anthropologists, and community activists testified on both the structural barriers that restrict young black…

  12. Listening to Girls Talk about Their Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi

    2000-01-01

    This article, written by an anthropologist who has studied the culture of teenage girls, explores influences on their sense of self, including those of peers, parents, and the media. Educators and parents can play important roles in helping young people navigate successfully through adolescence. (Author/MKA)

  13. A World of Babies: Imagined Childcare Guides for Seven Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoache, Judy S., Ed.; Gottlieb, Alma, Ed.

    People living in different parts of the world hold diverse beliefs about the nature and the nurturing of infants. Celebrating that diversity and based on the research of anthropologists, psychologists, and historians, this book presents information on child care from seven societies around the world, past and present, illustrating how the…

  14. American and Japanese Principals: A Comparative Analysis of Excellence in Instructional Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.; Willis, David B.

    Guided by interpretive ethnographic methods and by instructional leadership concepts, this comparative study of secondary principals in Japan and America discovers characteristics of excellent principals and examines their values in relation to dominant cultural themes. The investigation applies anthropologist Clifford Goertz's assumptions (1973,…

  15. Folk Literature of the Warao Indians; Narrative Material and Motif Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Johannes

    The Latin American Center, University of California at Los Angeles, presents a collection of the folk literature of the "boat people," the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela and Guyana. According to Professor Johannes Wilbert and other anthropologists, "the inaccessibility of their habitat has preserved their tribal…

  16. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  17. 76 FR 14059 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Bureau of Land Management, Casper Field Office, Casper, WY, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    .... Subsequently in 1963, a skull from an adult male was given to Dr. Mulloy by Ted Miller of Gering, NE, which had...), in Goshen County, WY. The remains, which consist of a skull, were found and collected by Grant... gave the skull to Dr. George Gill, ] University of Wyoming Anthropologist, who brought it to...

  18. The Globalizing Labor Market in Education: Teachers as Cultural Ambassadors or Agents of Institutional Isomorphism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara D.; Stevick, Doyle

    2014-01-01

    Institutional isomorphists and other proponents of world culture theory argue that schools around the world are converging in many ways, whereas anthropologists and others question this conclusion, often arguing that local cultural differences belie superficial similarities. These viewpoints are not merely academic explanations of the spread and…

  19. Nisaidie Nif Anye Mwenyewe, Pomogi Mne Eto Sdelat' Samomu: A Comparative Case Study of the Implementation of Montessori Pedagogy in the United Republic of Tanzania and the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepf, Candy A.

    2010-01-01

    The system of education developed by Maria Montessori, noted Italian feminist, anthropologist and physician, is the single largest pedagogy in the world with over 22,000 public, private, parochial, and charter schools on six continents, enduring even as other teaching methods have waxed and waned. Despite its international diffusion and longevity,…

  20. School & Society. Learning Content through Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueba, Henry T., Ed.; Delgado-Gaitan, Concha, Ed.

    Over the last 30 years, educational anthropologists have been exploring the organizational structure of schools and their relationship to society in order to shed light on the complex processes of acquisition, organization, and transmission of cultural knowledge. This volume covers the need to provide a field-based, well-documented cultural…

  1. A Drama of Learning: Mantle of the Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathcote, Dorothy; Herbert, Phyl

    1985-01-01

    When the "mantle of the expert" system of teaching is used in drama, the teacher assumes a fictional role which places the student in the position of being the expert. In this project, students were historians/anthropologists charged with the responsibility of creating a Bronze Age community. (MT)

  2. Are There National Patterns of Teaching? Evidence from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hiebert, James; Jacobs, Jennifer K.; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Gallimore, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve teaching, it is important to understand why teaching looks the way that it now does and how its general form can be explained. One way to address this question is at the classroom level. This approach has been found in the ethnographic work of anthropologists and has been skillfully applied in the recent work of such…

  3. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  4. Professor Avatar: In the Digital Universe of Second Life, Classroom Instruction Also Takes on a New Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    Since its unveiling in 2003, professors and college students have flocked to the virtual world of Second Life. Professors use Second Life to hold distance-education classes, saying that communication among students becomes livelier when they assume digital personae. Anthropologists and sociologists see the virtual world as a laboratory for…

  5. Clifford Geertz and Beyond: The Interpretive Interview/Essay and Reflexive Ethnography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Miriam Dempsey

    In "The Uses of Diversity," the interpretive anthropologist, Clifford Geertz, says that it is impossible to completely get inside the point of view of another culture. Geertz contends, however, that despite multiple voices in the growing body of reflexive ethnographies there is still an author composing the work. Besides Geertz,…

  6. Nisaidie Nif Anye Mwenyewe, Pomogi Mne Eto Sdelat' Samomu: A Comparative Case Study of the Implementation of Montessori Pedagogy in the United Republic of Tanzania and the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepf, Candy A.

    2010-01-01

    The system of education developed by Maria Montessori, noted Italian feminist, anthropologist and physician, is the single largest pedagogy in the world with over 22,000 public, private, parochial, and charter schools on six continents, enduring even as other teaching methods have waxed and waned. Despite its international diffusion and longevity,…

  7. Native America in the Twentieth Century: An Encyclopedia. Garland Reference Library of Social Science, Vol. 452.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Mary B., Ed.; And Others

    This encyclopedia contains articles reviewing important aspects of Native American life in the United States during the 20th century. Articles are arranged alphabetically by subject and were written by Native Americans, historians, anthropologists, and other specialists. Overview articles cover subjects such as art, economic conditions,…

  8. Japan's High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

  9. Inside Intuition: What We Know About Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Flora

    Information gathered from one and a half years of interviews with anthropologists, psychologists, ethologists, sociologists, and psychiatrists provides the source of answers for the questions this book addresses: How much do we communicate with words, and how much with gestures, postures, and movement? What can we learn from the study of nonverbal…

  10. Old Ponape. Pohnpei Ni Mwehin Kawa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Pensile, Comp.; And Others

    This book presents English and Ponape versions of the stories, legends, and histories originally transcribed by anthropologists attached to the Thilenius South Sea Expedition of 1908-1910. The natives of the Marshall Islands in Micronesia who related these stories are identified, but the material is much older and represents the cultural heritage…

  11. The Indian Liberation and Social Rights Movement in Kollasuyu (Bolivia). IWGIA Document 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apaza, Julio Tumiri, Ed.

    For some time the Aymara and Quechua Indians have been adopting resolutions and submitting them to the relevant authorities. Compiled by the Centro de Coordinacion y Promocion Campesina "Mink'A" for consideration by the "First Meeting of Anthropologists in the Andean Region" held in September 1975, this document gives a general…

  12. Teachers' and Learners' Attitudes towards Culture and Culture Learning in a Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    In the field of ELT, the undeniable relationship between language and culture has always been a focus of attention from a variety of perspectives. Sociologists, anthropologists and naturally applied linguists have tried to understand whether cultural aspects of L2 scaffold or interfere in much the way where other types of contrasting linguistic…

  13. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Alease

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  14. 78 FR 19296 - Notice of Inventory Completion: History Colorado, formerly Colorado Historical Society, Denver, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... levels of benzene in the soil. The Adams County Coroner initially believed this was a forensic case and removed the remains with the assistance of a Metro State College forensic anthropologist. The burial... Native American ancestry found in a secondary burial and of no forensic interest. The remains were then...

  15. Last Words: The Dying of Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampat, Payal

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the problem of language extinction as cultural homogeneity spreads over the earth. Just 600 of the world's 6,800 languages are safe from extinction meaning that they are still being learned by children. Many anthropologists see the decline as analogous to biodiversity loss: it is a form of cultural impoverishment and a loss of our…

  16. Is an Inuit Literary History Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Keavy

    2010-01-01

    In 1921, the Greenlandic anthropologist Knud Rasmussen set out to travel twenty thousand miles by dog team across Inuit Nunaat--the Inuit homeland. During this three-year journey--the famous Fifth Thule Expedition--Rasmussen was struck by the similarities in the language and culture of Inuit communities across the entire Arctic. Considering the…

  17. American Homelands: Classroom Approaches towards a Complex Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Chris W.

    2008-01-01

    Geographers, along with anthropologists and sociologists, have been debating the homeland concept as it applies in North America for decades. In recent years, the political ideology of the war on terror has added another dimension to this discussion. If the attention given to the concept by introductory textbooks is any indication, homelands are…

  18. The Liminality of New Foundation Phase Teachers: Transitioning from University into the Teaching Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Nadine

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores novice foundation phase teachers' descriptions of their experiences in the liminal stage between being a student teacher and entering the professional world of the early grade classroom. The term "liminality" was popularised by anthropologist Turner (1969), building on the early work of Van Gennep (1960), in his work…

  19. Rites of Passage in Initial Teacher Training: Ritual, Performance, Ordeal, and Numeracy Skills Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamara, Olwen; Roberts, Lorna; Basit, Tehmina N.; Brown, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Explains transition was identified by early 20th century anthropologists as the liminal stage of a rite of passage. Identifies transition, applying a contemporary anthropological lens to initial teacher training, not as a linear progression but as a complex process of extended and ambiguous in betweenness that involves play, performance, and…

  20. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  1. Language Death: A Freirean Solution in the Heart of the Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Alex

    2013-01-01

    "Language death" is an undeniable phenomenon of our modern times as languages have started to disappear at an alarming rate. This has led linguists, anthropologists, philosophers and educationists to engage with this issue at various levels in an attempt to try to understand the decline in this rich area of human communication and…

  2. The Modernization of Colonialism and the Educability of the "Native": Transpacific Knowledge Networks and Education in the Interwar Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Julie; Paisley, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a seminar-conference held in Hawaii in 1936 on the "educability" of native peoples. The seminar-conference was convened by New Zealand anthropologist Felix Keesing and Yale education professor Charles Loram and supported by the Carnegie Corporation, among other organizations. Conference delegates--who came from…

  3. A burning problem: social dynamics of disaster risk reduction through wildfire mitigation

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; Melissa R. Poe; Alan A. Ager; Thomas A. Spies; Emily K. Platt; Keith A. Olsen

    2015-01-01

    Disasters result from hazards affecting vulnerable people. Most disasters research by anthropologists focuses on vulnerability; this article focuses on natural hazards. We use the case of wildfire mitigation on United States Forest Service lands in the northwestern United States to examine social, political, and economic variables at multiple scales that influence fire...

  4. Technologies and Levels of Learning: A Gregory Bateson Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Steven; Cummings, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the effective use of instructional technology and examines the use of instructional technology within the framework of anthropologist Gregory Bateson's theory of learning, which views learning as a function of expectation and engagement of the student within the context of the learning experience. (Author/LRW)

  5. Case Western U. Scholar Collects Tales of Tibetans Facing Tumultuous Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasgreen, Allie

    2008-01-01

    Melvyn C. Goldstein, an anthropologist at Case Western Reserve University, has spent 40 years, off and on, collecting oral histories from Tibet. As rural Tibetans who have endured decades of tumult approach old age, Goldstein, who is also a director of the university's Center for Research on Tibet, has preserved their stories. He has interviewed…

  6. Case Western U. Scholar Collects Tales of Tibetans Facing Tumultuous Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasgreen, Allie

    2008-01-01

    Melvyn C. Goldstein, an anthropologist at Case Western Reserve University, has spent 40 years, off and on, collecting oral histories from Tibet. As rural Tibetans who have endured decades of tumult approach old age, Goldstein, who is also a director of the university's Center for Research on Tibet, has preserved their stories. He has interviewed…

  7. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Alease

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  8. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  9. Little Choice for the Chumash: Colonialism, Cattle, and Coercion in Mission Period California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dartt-Newton, Deana; Erlandson, Jon M.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the Chumash people, their history, as well as colonization and coercion during the mission period in California. In this article, the authors examine a complex paper on the missionization of the Chumash Indians of the California Coast published in American Anthropologist by Daniel O. Larson, John R. Johnson, and Joel C.…

  10. The Native American Woman: A Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medicine, Bea

    Presenting varied perspectives describing the Native American woman, this book is divided into six chapters as follows: (1) Native Americans and Anthropology (this chapter illustrates the way in which anthropologists have helped stereotype American Indian women); (2) The Native American Woman in Ethnographic Perspective (emphasizing role…

  11. Communication as an Organizing Principle in the National Standards: Sociolinguistic Aspects of Spanish Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klee, Carol A.

    1998-01-01

    The Standards for Foreign Language Learning present a definition of language teaching that includes the sociolinguistic and cultural aspects of language. The article analyzes the concept of communicative competence as used by sociolinguists and anthropologists and examines some of the components of communication (interpersonal, interpretive, and…

  12. On Teaching Ethnographic Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarfield, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…

  13. Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that peoples' encoded historical understandings are significant and therefore central to research. Delineates intellectual currents, such as an interest in the subjective world of humans, that have brought historians and anthropologists into a dialogue that has promoted cross-fertilization. Notes the impact of literary theory on that…

  14. Difficult Collective Deliberations: Anthropological Notes toward a Theory of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: In the 1970s, Lawrence Cremin urged researchers to remember that education is more than schooling. Few heeded this call, perhaps because of the absence of the theoretical framework needed to make this more than a platitude. As a cultural anthropologist, I argue that education is a fundamental human activity that is infinitely…

  15. The Indian Liberation and Social Rights Movement in Kollasuyu (Bolivia). IWGIA Document 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apaza, Julio Tumiri, Ed.

    For some time the Aymara and Quechua Indians have been adopting resolutions and submitting them to the relevant authorities. Compiled by the Centro de Coordinacion y Promocion Campesina "Mink'A" for consideration by the "First Meeting of Anthropologists in the Andean Region" held in September 1975, this document gives a general…

  16. Sociolinguistic Implications of Academic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1992-01-01

    The technical complexity of the language of academic journals is discussed in terms of graduate students' needs for information, especially in developing countries. An examination of problems in two articles in "Language" and one in "American Anthropologist" points out the nature of the difficulties and some of the solutions. (Author/LB)

  17. Toward an Educational Protocracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Margaret

    1975-01-01

    The interdisciplinary studies during the progressive education era are chosen by anthropologist Margaret Mead as a most significant educational development in the last half century. She describes the interaction of persons in the forefront of change, the protocracy, and suggests reasons for the present anonymity of their team efforts. (Editor)

  18. The Evolution from Generation to Post-XX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Young people represent the future, and youth is an eternal topic. In the 1970s when the American anthropologist Margaret Mead published her famous work "Generation Gap," research on generations gained sudden popularity worldwide, and ever since the 1980s when "Generation Gap" was brought to China, research by scholars in this…

  19. Playing with Knives: The Socialization of Self-Initiated Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancy, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Since Margaret Mead's field studies in the South Pacific a century ago, there has been the tacit understanding that as culture varies, so too must the socialization of children to become competent culture users and bearers. More recently, the work of anthropologists has been mined to find broader patterns that may be common to childhood across a…

  20. The Island Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Margaret

    1970-01-01

    Dr. Mead, the world-renowned anthropologist and expert behavioral scientist, is associated with the American Museum of Natural History, which acts as her headquarters as she documents her observations on Man, society and technology. She discusses the need to develop specialists with concern for saving the endangered planet earth. (Editor/GR)

  1. A Century of Margaret Mead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes Margaret Mead's contributions, focusing on Mead as an anthropologist and educator. It discusses contradictions in her ethnographies and in her work on learning. The paper also discusses her beliefs about the problems of the contemporary United States, particularly her rarely noticed contributions to a theory of learning. (SM)

  2. Memory, Trauma, and Phantasmagoria in Claudia Llosa's "La Teta Asustada"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The film "La teta asustada" (Claudia Llosa, 2009) was inspired by the text titled "Entre prójimos: El conflicto armado interno y la política de la reconciliación en el Perú" by the medical anthropologist Kimberly Theidon. In this study, Theidon compiles the testimonies of a group of indigenous women who were sexually assaulted…

  3. A New Tradition: A Reflection on Collaboration and Contact Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford-Napoleone, Amber R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropologist James Clifford published his influential essay "Museums as Contact Zones" in 1997. He explored the aspects and limits of museums as contact zones in the globalized world, and focused on the museum's role in cross-cultural dialogue in the twentieth century. In "A New Tradition: A Reflection on Collaboration and Contact…

  4. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  5. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 4: the professionalization of orthodontics (concluded).

    PubMed

    Wahl, Norman

    2005-08-01

    Angle's legacy was assured when his disciples, both in the United States and abroad, boarded the joiners' bandwagon. The first 2 cornerstones of the professional pyramid were laid (education and organization), and the specialty began to pour the third cornerstone: orthodontic literature. Anthropologists, anatomists, histologists, and health professionals laid the foundation for the study of craniofacial growth.

  6. Beatrice Medicine and the Anthropology of Education: Legacy and Vision for Critical Race/Critical Language Research and Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyhle, Donna; McCarty, Teresa L.

    2007-01-01

    Over a 50-year professional career, Dr. Beatrice Medicine never failed to assert the importance of Indigenous language rights or to challenge racism in the academy, public schools, and society. She urged educational anthropologists to confront racism in our research with Indigenous peoples. She challenged linguicism and urged the teaching of…

  7. Women in History--Maria Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierdt, Ginger L.

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Maria Montessori, an international ambassador for children who became known for her theories and methods of pedagogy, called the "Montessori Method." Montessori developed an educational theory, which combined ideas of scholar Froebel, anthropologists Giuseooe Serge, French physicians Jean Itard and Edouard Sequin,…

  8. Essential Skills for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

  9. The Flagbearers: Israeli Druze Women Challenge Traditional Gender Roles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner-Levy, Naomi

    2006-01-01

    This ethnographic study expands educational anthropologists' knowledge of the relationship between higher education and personal and social change in so-called traditional societies. It describes transitions in the status of Druze women in Israel brought about by the first women from the community to obtain higher education, granting new insights…

  10. Exploring Careers in the Humanities. A Student Guidebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workman, Jean; Hansen, Mary Lewis

    One of six student guidebooks in a series of 11 arts and humanities career exploration guides for grade 7-12 teachers, counselors, and students, this student book on exploration of humanities careers presents career information on 13 specific occupational areas: (1) Educators, (2) Historians and Archivists, (3) Anthropologists, (4) Economists, (5)…

  11. Appalachian Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Susan Emley, Ed.

    In this book, 17 psychologists, anthropologists, social workers and others explore important theoretical and applied issues concerning the mental health of Appalachian people. Rejecting the view of Appalachia as an area dominated by a culture of poverty, these papers portray a strong regional culture based on family, community, and religion. This…

  12. Imaginaries of "East and West": Slippery Curricular Signifiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Ted T.

    The labels "East and West," suggest two distinct cultural wholes. "East and West" is understood as a binary of two separate preexisting entities, which can be bridged or brought together to conjoin in an "and." This image has dominated Western modernist thought in the works of historians, anthropologists, and others. Educators, like tourists or…

  13. Beatrice Medicine and the Anthropology of Education: Legacy and Vision for Critical Race/Critical Language Research and Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyhle, Donna; McCarty, Teresa L.

    2007-01-01

    Over a 50-year professional career, Dr. Beatrice Medicine never failed to assert the importance of Indigenous language rights or to challenge racism in the academy, public schools, and society. She urged educational anthropologists to confront racism in our research with Indigenous peoples. She challenged linguicism and urged the teaching of…

  14. Who Got to Decide on Nadia Abu El-Haj's Tenure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Dan; Shamir, Ronen

    2008-01-01

    The tension surrounding Barnard College's determination of whether to grant tenure to anthropologist Nadia Abu El-Haj was resolved this fall. Barnard reached a positive decision. The affair, however, leaves a number of important issues open. At the center of this controversy stands Abu El-Haj's first book, "Facts on the Ground: Archaeological…

  15. Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that peoples' encoded historical understandings are significant and therefore central to research. Delineates intellectual currents, such as an interest in the subjective world of humans, that have brought historians and anthropologists into a dialogue that has promoted cross-fertilization. Notes the impact of literary theory on that…

  16. Speculations on the Growth of Ethnobotanical Nomenclature. Working Papers of the Language Behavior Research Laboratory, No. 39.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berlin, Brent

    A general observation about the vocabularies of most languages is that they tend to increase in size over time. Little is known about the causal mechanisms involved in this lexical expansion, but most anthropologists and linguists are in agreement that it probably mirrors general cultural evolution. The study of lexical growth becomes important if…

  17. Complicating the Concept of Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues against a simple, reified view of culture as a set of ideas and norms belonging to a group or nation, and considers the implications of a more complicated concept for discussion of world culture and the global/local nexus. Most anthropologists define culture as the making of meaning, with an emphasis on the process itself as…

  18. A Drama of Learning: Mantle of the Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathcote, Dorothy; Herbert, Phyl

    1985-01-01

    When the "mantle of the expert" system of teaching is used in drama, the teacher assumes a fictional role which places the student in the position of being the expert. In this project, students were historians/anthropologists charged with the responsibility of creating a Bronze Age community. (MT)

  19. [Alcoholism: indictment or diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Neves, Delma Pessanha

    2004-01-01

    This article presents reflections on how alcohol consumption is conceived as a sociological object, including proscribed forms linked to the definition of diseases or disregard for moral norms. Through considerations on the accumulated investment in a research process currently under way, the author highlights the ethical and epistemological dilemmas faced by anthropologists who focus on this issue.

  20. Nonverbal Communication in Across-Race Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Virginia C.; Powell, Evan R.

    This is one of a series of proxemic studies of dyadic communication behavior made by the authors in natural, academic and laboratory settings with the use of the DIAD. Based on the theory of anthropologists Hall (1966) and Birdwhistell (1970) and developed empirically as initial observations of dyadic interaction were made, the Dennis…

  1. Regarding Chilcott's "Structural Functionalism as a Heuristic Device" Heuristically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blot, Richard K.

    1998-01-01

    The heuristic value of Chilcott's essay lies less in its support for structural functionalism and more in its concern to reexamine theory in the work of earlier educational anthropologists for what earlier theories and practices can add to current research. (SLD)

  2. Statistical basis for positive identification in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe; Adams, Bradley J; Konigsberg, Lyle W

    2006-09-01

    Forensic scientists are often expected to present the likelihood of DNA identifications in US courts based on comparative population data, yet forensic anthropologists tend not to quantify the strength of an osteological identification. Because forensic anthropologists are trained first and foremost as physical anthropologists, they emphasize estimation problems at the expense of evidentiary problems, but this approach must be reexamined. In this paper, the statistical bases for presenting osteological and dental evidence are outlined, using a forensic case as a motivating example. A brief overview of Bayesian statistics is provided, and methods to calculate likelihood ratios for five aspects of the biological profile are demonstrated. This paper emphasizes the definition of appropriate reference samples and of the "population at large," and points out the conceptual differences between them. Several databases are introduced for both reference information and to characterize the "population at large," and new data are compiled to calculate the frequency of specific characters, such as age or fractures, within the "population at large." Despite small individual likelihood ratios for age, sex, and stature in the case example, the power of this approach is that, assuming each likelihood ratio is independent, the product rule can be applied. In this particular example, it is over three million times more likely to obtain the observed osteological and dental data if the identification is correct than if the identification is incorrect. This likelihood ratio is a convincing statistic that can support the forensic anthropologist's opinion on personal identity in court. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Women in History--Maria Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierdt, Ginger L.

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Maria Montessori, an international ambassador for children who became known for her theories and methods of pedagogy, called the "Montessori Method." Montessori developed an educational theory, which combined ideas of scholar Froebel, anthropologists Giuseooe Serge, French physicians Jean Itard and Edouard Sequin,…

  4. The Contemporary City as Backbone: Museum Rotterdam Meets the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Laar, Paul Th.

    2013-01-01

    Changes at Museum Rotterdam illustrate how history museums can rethink their relationship to history and community. Recognizing that its residents are increasingly transnational, without ties to the Rotterdam of the past, Museum Rotterdam is using the tools of urban anthropologists to involve residents in exploring contemporary heritage. Museum…

  5. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: Assessment of the Personnel of the Forensic Sciences Profession. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    A state-of-the-art assessment is presented of the number, training, and experience of scientific and paraprofessional personnel serving the criminal justice system as expert witnesses. The study concentrated on the following disciplines: criminalists, coroner/medical examiner personnel (especially forensic pathologists), forensic anthropologists,…

  6. Anthropology of Education and Educational Research: CAE Presidential Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David M.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses distinctions between the anthropology of education and educational research. Although the educationist generally has a technocist view of the reality of schooling (how to do it more efficiently), the anthropologist deals with the relational reality of schooling (what events mean to participants). (SLD)

  7. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  8. Interculturalism and Non-Formal Education in Brazil: A Buberian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Alexandre; Morgan, W. J.; Freire, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Gilberto Freyre, the great Brazilian historian and sociologist, described Brazil as a "racial paradise", a place where different races and nationalities have come to live together in a sort of "racial democracy". The literature on this topic has become extensive as anthropologists, social scientists and historians felt the need…

  9. Ethnography by Design: On Goals and Mediating Artefacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segelström, Fabian; Holmlid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Design ethnography is the appropriation of ethnography for the purposes of informing design. This paper investigates the effects of these appropriations, through a comparative study of how designers and anthropologists approach the same field site and by a review of new techniques introduced by designers to do ethnography. The techniques reviewed…

  10. Some Ways to Endanger an Endangered Language Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Lindsay J.

    2011-01-01

    The success of programs that are focused on revitalizing an endangered language depends on careful implementation. This paper examines four common mistakes that are made when linguists and anthropologists get involved with documenting endangered languages or participating in revitalization efforts: a failure to appreciate the complexity of the…

  11. Chapter Two: Foundations for the Study of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the historical roots of contemporary Practice Theory are unearthed in the work of semioticians, philosophers, and anthropologists. Saussure's semiotic theory is contrasted with that of Peirce, and the importance of Peirce's work for understanding the context of signs is stressed. The philosophy of language in the writings of…

  12. Dell H. Hymes: His Scholarship and Legacy in Anthropology and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Dell Hathaway Hymes, linguistic anthropologist and educational visionary extraordinaire, passed away in November 2009, leaving behind a voluminous scholarship and inspirational legacy in the study of language and inequality, ethnography, sociolinguistics, Native American ethnopoetics, and education. This essay provides a brief account of Hymes's…

  13. AIDS as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  14. Professor Avatar: In the Digital Universe of Second Life, Classroom Instruction Also Takes on a New Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    Since its unveiling in 2003, professors and college students have flocked to the virtual world of Second Life. Professors use Second Life to hold distance-education classes, saying that communication among students becomes livelier when they assume digital personae. Anthropologists and sociologists see the virtual world as a laboratory for…

  15. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  16. Propriospect and the Acquisition of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolcott, Harry F.

    1991-01-01

    It is argued that the term "propriospect" is needed to define the private and subjective view of the world and its contents that each person develops through personal experience. The term can serve anthropologists for the constellation of cultural competencies a person achieves. (SLD)

  17. SOME SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF VERBAL BEHAVIOR. WORKING PAPER NUMBER 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLOM, JAN-PETTER; GUMPERZ, JOHN J.

    IN RECENT DISCUSSIONS OF THE PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY, BERNSTEIN (1961, 1964) EXPLORES THE HYPOTHESIS THAT SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS ACT AS INTERVENING VARIABLES BETWEEN LINGUISTIC STRUCTURES AND THEIR REALIZATION IN SPEECH. HIS FORMULATION SUGGESTS THAT THE ANTHROPOLOGISTS' ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS GOVERNING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS…

  18. Ethnography and Ethics: A Critique of Gregory Bateson (1904-1980)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This essay about the work of a famous anthropologist is an attempt to illuminate one way that researchers could apply their findings about the behavior of people in particular groups to ethical considerations of social relations. I argue that Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) is a good example because he applied a few seminal ideas to a wide range of…

  19. Interculturalism and Non-Formal Education in Brazil: A Buberian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Alexandre; Morgan, W. J.; Freire, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Gilberto Freyre, the great Brazilian historian and sociologist, described Brazil as a "racial paradise", a place where different races and nationalities have come to live together in a sort of "racial democracy". The literature on this topic has become extensive as anthropologists, social scientists and historians felt the need…

  20. Body Language in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Patrick W.

    2005-01-01

    Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mae West would seem to have little in common, but there is one thing they both understood--the importance of body language. Educators, psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists define body language or nonverbal communication as communication without words. It includes overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye…

  1. Genetics and Genomics as an Anthropological Subject: Approaching with Caution

    PubMed Central

    Fendos, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Speaking at the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference, cultural anthropologist Margaret Lock pointed out that the advent of the genomic revolution brings with it important societal, political, and social issues that have the potential to radically change both human life and interaction. PMID:20027283

  2. More Clever than the Devil: "Ujanja" as Schooling Strategy in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of "cleverness" as it is employed by Tanzanian youth to improve their likelihood of succeeding in school. It analyzes the Swahili term "ujanja," which combines cleverness, opportunism, and deception, while it also illustrates an educational anthropologist's ongoing process of familiarization…

  3. Contact and Connection: A Cross-Cultural Look at Parenting Styles in Bali and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestenberg-Amighi, Janet

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that a culturally approved style of nonverbal parent-infant interaction influences the unfolding parent-child relationship and the child's social development. The author, an anthropologist, compares parenting styles in the "low-contact" culture of the United States with parenting in the "high-contact"…

  4. A World of Babies: Imagined Childcare Guides for Seven Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoache, Judy S., Ed.; Gottlieb, Alma, Ed.

    People living in different parts of the world hold diverse beliefs about the nature and the nurturing of infants. Celebrating that diversity and based on the research of anthropologists, psychologists, and historians, this book presents information on child care from seven societies around the world, past and present, illustrating how the…

  5. Anthropology and International Business. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Twenty-Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrie, Hendrick, Ed.

    The range and possibilities of "business anthropology" are explored in fourteen papers. The papers are presented in an order designed to illustrate five major roles for anthropologists interested in working with business: (1) conducting cross-cultural orientation programs for business personnel working in foreign countries or with different…

  6. Japan's High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

  7. Journey to the 'New Normal' and Beyond: Reflections on Learning in a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann

    2005-01-01

    Through poetry and strips of narrative, this paper discusses the embodied experience of chemical sensitivity and the anthropologist author's and other patients' journey through altered perception towards knowledge, community and transformation in the context of a medical clinic. The narratives are situated in several strands of relevant theory,…

  8. Ethnography and Ethics: A Critique of Gregory Bateson (1904-1980)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This essay about the work of a famous anthropologist is an attempt to illuminate one way that researchers could apply their findings about the behavior of people in particular groups to ethical considerations of social relations. I argue that Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) is a good example because he applied a few seminal ideas to a wide range of…

  9. Technologies and Levels of Learning: A Gregory Bateson Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Steven; Cummings, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the effective use of instructional technology and examines the use of instructional technology within the framework of anthropologist Gregory Bateson's theory of learning, which views learning as a function of expectation and engagement of the student within the context of the learning experience. (Author/LRW)

  10. Body Language in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Patrick W.

    2005-01-01

    Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mae West would seem to have little in common, but there is one thing they both understood--the importance of body language. Educators, psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists define body language or nonverbal communication as communication without words. It includes overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye…

  11. Perspectives on the Organization of Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    In the 1950s, under the aegis of such leading sociologists as Talcott Parsons, anthropologists like Clyde Kluckhohn of Harvard and Alfred Kroeber of the University of California at Berkeley, as well as political scientists Gabriel Almond and Lucien Pye, of Yale and MIT, respectively, the analysis of societal and political culture came to play a…

  12. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  13. New Directions in the Study of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenneberg, Eric H., Ed.

    A cross-section of language research at mid-century from the viewpoint of the psychologist, biologist, and anthropologist is offered in this book bearing on problems of (1) maturation, (2) social anthropology, (3) human biology, (4) experimental psychology, and (5) primary acquisition of speech and language. Five papers delivered at a symposium on…

  14. Last Words: The Dying of Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampat, Payal

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the problem of language extinction as cultural homogeneity spreads over the earth. Just 600 of the world's 6,800 languages are safe from extinction meaning that they are still being learned by children. Many anthropologists see the decline as analogous to biodiversity loss: it is a form of cultural impoverishment and a loss of our…

  15. The Globalizing Labor Market in Education: Teachers as Cultural Ambassadors or Agents of Institutional Isomorphism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara D.; Stevick, Doyle

    2014-01-01

    Institutional isomorphists and other proponents of world culture theory argue that schools around the world are converging in many ways, whereas anthropologists and others question this conclusion, often arguing that local cultural differences belie superficial similarities. These viewpoints are not merely academic explanations of the spread and…

  16. Phonetics and Other Disciplines: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Arthur J.; Raphael, Lawrence J.

    Phonetic science is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Phoneticians rely on, or at least collaborate with, sociologists, psychologists, biologists, poets, physicists, anthropologists, neurologists and others. A look at the history of phonetics reveals that this seemingly recent trend has deep roots. In fact, it is possible to draw parallels…

  17. HBCUs and Writing Programs: Critical Hip Hop Language Pedagogy and First-Year Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian J.; Stewart, Shawanda

    2016-01-01

    In the 2015-16 school year, the authors of this article developed an innovative research and assessment project on a new first year composition curriculum based on a pedagogy they call Critical Hip Hop Rhetoric Pedagogy (CHHRP), an educational approach built upon the classroom-based research of linguistic anthropologist H. Samy Alim…

  18. Waiting for the Masculists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Dudley

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article looks back at television advertising from the last 50 years. He observes the position of women in American society as creatures who served at men's pleasure and for men's pleasure. When future anthropologists examine today's television advertising, one significant change they will note is that the culture is more…

  19. Postrace: Every Good-bye Ain't Gone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Iris Carter

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary, anthropologist Iris Carter Ford reflects on the preceding pieces by Carmen Kynard and Signithia Fordham. She identifies parallels among the two essays and her own life, drawing out themes that emerge from the narratives. Integrating ideas about "talking black" and "talking back," Ford notes that both phenomena have roots in…

  20. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  1. From Shallow to Deep: Toward a Thorough Cultural Analysis of School Achievement Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Mica

    2008-01-01

    What do anthropologists of education do? Many observers think that we provide quick glosses on what various "cultures"--typically racialized, ethnic, and national-origin groups--"do" in schools. Herve Varenne and I each name an alternative form of analysis that we think should be central to the subfield. Varenne argues that…

  2. Batavia Reservoir Compound. Phase 1 Archaeological Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-10-01

    the area is categorized as a glacial outwash plain. The glacial outwash is deposited mainly by streams of glacial meltwater and in kames. and occurs...American Anthropologist 75 (6):1501-1504. 1972 Climate and Culture in Greenlandic Prehistory: An Explicitly Scientific Approach. Paper presented at the

  3. Essential Skills for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

  4. From Hometown to Nontown: Rural Community Effects of Suburbanization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamon, Sonya

    2003-01-01

    Regional suburbanization processes are transforming rural America socially and physically, threatening the uniqueness of small towns whose diversity is a national resource. This article reviews existing holistic descriptions of American rural communities since post-World War II by rural sociologists and anthropologists. Three new community case…

  5. Language Diversity and Cognitive Representations. Human Cognitive Processing, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Catherine, Ed.; Robert, Stephane, Ed.

    This book brings together the contributions of individual language scholars, linguists, anthropologists, psychologists, and neurophysicians. Each chapter focuses on the human cognitive processes involved in language activity and the impact of language diversity on them. The basic issue is how to correlate language diversity with the universality…

  6. Culture in Animals: The Case of a Non-human Primate Culture of Low Aggression and High Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Philosophers often consider what it is that makes individuals human. For biologists considering the same, the answer is often framed in the context of what are the key differences between humans and other animals. One vestige of human uniqueness still often cited by anthropologists is culture. However, this notion has been challenged in recent…

  7. All Intimate Grammars Leak: Reflections on "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroskrity, Paul V.

    2011-01-01

    In this discussion of a set of studies that fits the trope of "Indian Languages in Unexpected Places," I explore the obvious necessity of developing a relevant notion of linguistic "leakage" following a famous image from the writings of the linguistic anthropologist Edward Sapir. Though in its original use, the concept applied more to the order of…

  8. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  9. Culture in Animals: The Case of a Non-human Primate Culture of Low Aggression and High Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Philosophers often consider what it is that makes individuals human. For biologists considering the same, the answer is often framed in the context of what are the key differences between humans and other animals. One vestige of human uniqueness still often cited by anthropologists is culture. However, this notion has been challenged in recent…

  10. Eleven Propositions for Innovative Research in the Social Studies: An Anthropological Approach to Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Social studies educators are encouraged to investigate propositions that have been extracted from anthropological literature in order to determine their value in shedding new light on learning and teaching. For example, anthropologists believe that learning and teaching are processes associated with cultural transmission and that social…

  11. Working with Child Prostitutes in Thailand: Problems of Practice and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Conducting anthropological fieldwork on the emotive issue of child prostitution raises difficult issues for anthropologists and other researchers. This article examines the ethical dilemmas of working with these extremely vulnerable children, focusing on the difference between the researcher's own interpretations and those given by the children…

  12. "Dem Wod Mo Saf": Materials for Reading Creole English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kephart, Ronald

    As part of a study that sought ways to improve the language arts educational experience for Grenadian children, an anthropologist investigated how Carriacou Creole English (CCE) reading materials could be provided and how these children would react to them. CCE is the native language of the inhabitants of Carriacou, a sister island of Grenada. The…

  13. Difficult Collective Deliberations: Anthropological Notes toward a Theory of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: In the 1970s, Lawrence Cremin urged researchers to remember that education is more than schooling. Few heeded this call, perhaps because of the absence of the theoretical framework needed to make this more than a platitude. As a cultural anthropologist, I argue that education is a fundamental human activity that is infinitely…

  14. Playing with Knives: The Socialization of Self-Initiated Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancy, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Since Margaret Mead's field studies in the South Pacific a century ago, there has been the tacit understanding that as culture varies, so too must the socialization of children to become competent culture users and bearers. More recently, the work of anthropologists has been mined to find broader patterns that may be common to childhood across a…

  15. Phonetics and Other Disciplines: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Arthur J.; Raphael, Lawrence J.

    Phonetic science is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Phoneticians rely on, or at least collaborate with, sociologists, psychologists, biologists, poets, physicists, anthropologists, neurologists and others. A look at the history of phonetics reveals that this seemingly recent trend has deep roots. In fact, it is possible to draw parallels…

  16. Columbia University's Franz Boas: He Led the Undoing of Scientific Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lee D.

    1999-01-01

    As early as 1887, the anthropologist Franz Boas began to combat scientific racism and the insistence that blacks were of lower intelligence than whites. Throughout his career, Boas guided anthropology to a consensus that people of color were not racially inferior and that they possessed unique and historically specific cultures. (SLD)

  17. Color in the Classroom: How American Schools Taught Race, 1900-1954

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Between the turn of the twentieth century and the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision in 1954, the way that American schools taught about "race" changed dramatically. This transformation was engineered by the nation's most prominent anthropologists, including Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and Margaret Mead, during World War II.…

  18. More Clever than the Devil: "Ujanja" as Schooling Strategy in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of "cleverness" as it is employed by Tanzanian youth to improve their likelihood of succeeding in school. It analyzes the Swahili term "ujanja," which combines cleverness, opportunism, and deception, while it also illustrates an educational anthropologist's ongoing process of familiarization…

  19. Subdisciplines of Anthropology: A Modular Approach. Cultural Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassebaum, Peter

    Designed for use as supplementary instructional material in a cultural anthropology course, this learning module introduces the idea that anthropology is composed of a number of subdisciplines and that cultural anthropology has numerous subfields which are the specialty areas for many practicing anthropologists. Beginning with a general discussion…

  20. Literacy Campaigns and the Indigenization of Modernity: Rearticulations of Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialostok, Steve; Whitman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many current literacy campaigns intended for indigenous peoples in Third World countries are reconceptualizations of earlier colonial projects and conform to the needs of late-modern capitalism. Early anthropology may have influenced the discourses surrounding literacy, but current anthropologists have charted important cultural and linguistic…

  1. Strengthening Pedagogy and Praxis in Cultural Anthropology and Service-Learning: Insights from Postcolonialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Maryann

    2004-01-01

    This article argues cultural anthropology would make a good partner to service-learning pedagogy because it offers students a theoretical approach for understanding community life and its power structures. Anthropologists have been dealing with power vis-a-vis the people they study using concepts relevant to the reflection process in…

  2. Toward a Cultural Anthropology of Disability and Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershenson, David B.

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the degree to which cultural anthropology's concepts, theories, and methods have been applied to the understanding and conceptualization of disability and rehabilitation as a cultural phenomenon. Reviews the literature of anthropology and the literature of disability and rehabilitation. Results revealed that a lot of anthropologists'…

  3. The Cultural Structuring of Mealtime Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Elinor; Shohet, Merav

    2006-01-01

    Two anthropologists treat mealtimes as cultural sites for socializing children into commensality, communicative expectations, and the symbolic, moral, and sentimental meanings of food and eating. Using ethnographic evidence, they indicate how mealtime comportment is embedded in practices and ideologies relevant to children's competent membership…

  4. Stirring the American Cultural Stew: Developing and Implementing Ethnic Curricula in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weibust, Patricia S.

    This paper identifies issues which arose during the development of an ethnic studies curriculum project in Connecticut. It also defines the author's role as an educational anthropologist involved in the project. Initiated in 1974, the "Peoples of Connecticut" project involved research on ethnic groups in the state and promotion of curricula to…

  5. Educational Ethnology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, Dell H.

    1980-01-01

    The term "educational ethnology" suggests an anthropological approach to schools. This research approach would be cumulative with regard to individual schools, would compare similarities and differences among schools, would entail the mutual participation of anthropologists and members of the schools studied, and could remedy limitations of much…

  6. The Nature of Sociolinguistic Inquiry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sah, P. P.

    Dissatisfied with the linguist's concentration on structure, sociolinguistically inclined linguists turned to anthropology to give an empirical orientation to linguistics. Almost at the same time anthropologists were trying to give a more theoretical orientation to their subject of study, and the structural methods was being sought as the remedy.…

  7. What is Ethnography?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymes, Dell H.

    Ethnography is coming to be much discussed in education. A definition of ethnography is, however, an elusive and complicated question. Anthropologists do not themselves have a unified conception of ethnography, especially of ethnography in relation to the study of institutions of our own society, such as education. One difficulty with the notion…

  8. Chapter Two: Foundations for the Study of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the historical roots of contemporary Practice Theory are unearthed in the work of semioticians, philosophers, and anthropologists. Saussure's semiotic theory is contrasted with that of Peirce, and the importance of Peirce's work for understanding the context of signs is stressed. The philosophy of language in the writings of…

  9. The Contemporary City as Backbone: Museum Rotterdam Meets the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Laar, Paul Th.

    2013-01-01

    Changes at Museum Rotterdam illustrate how history museums can rethink their relationship to history and community. Recognizing that its residents are increasingly transnational, without ties to the Rotterdam of the past, Museum Rotterdam is using the tools of urban anthropologists to involve residents in exploring contemporary heritage. Museum…

  10. The Evolution from Generation to Post-XX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Young people represent the future, and youth is an eternal topic. In the 1970s when the American anthropologist Margaret Mead published her famous work "Generation Gap," research on generations gained sudden popularity worldwide, and ever since the 1980s when "Generation Gap" was brought to China, research by scholars in this…

  11. Waiting for the Masculists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Dudley

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article looks back at television advertising from the last 50 years. He observes the position of women in American society as creatures who served at men's pleasure and for men's pleasure. When future anthropologists examine today's television advertising, one significant change they will note is that the culture is more…

  12. Tuff above “Lucy” Older than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A poster paper presented at the AGU Spring Meeting offers evidence that the fossil specimen of Australopithecus afarensis known as “Lucy” may be older than had been previously thought. Many anthropologists consider “Lucy” a pivotal find in tracing the evolution of our species.

  13. Mongolian Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kevin C., Comp.; Grimme, Holger K., Ed.

    What Hans Christian Andersen and the Grimm brothers achieved by collecting stories from the common people that had been handed down orally from generation to generation is also achieved in this collection of folktales consisting of 45 fables and 65 tales and short stories. This publication, addressed to educators, anthropologists, and specialists…

  14. Anthropology and America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Walter

    1976-01-01

    Traces anthropology as a discipline from its origins in the 19th century to the present, defines the areas of interest of physical and cultural anthropologists, reviews major anthropological works, and identifies contributions made to American anthropology by sociology, psychology, and economics. (Author/DB)

  15. Using Video Production in Political Science Courses as an Instructional Strategy for Engaging Students in Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez-Morris, Mauricio; Tafur, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Video production has come into widespread use in various fields of social science. Visual anthropologists (Pink 2006), psychologists (Webster and Sell 2007), historians (Ferro 2000), and visual sociologists (Newman 2006) have used films and videos to document, to preserve, and to analyze social data. There is no reason to think that the use of…

  16. HBCUs and Writing Programs: Critical Hip Hop Language Pedagogy and First-Year Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian J.; Stewart, Shawanda

    2016-01-01

    In the 2015-16 school year, the authors of this article developed an innovative research and assessment project on a new first year composition curriculum based on a pedagogy they call Critical Hip Hop Rhetoric Pedagogy (CHHRP), an educational approach built upon the classroom-based research of linguistic anthropologist H. Samy Alim…

  17. Perspectives on the Organization of Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    In the 1950s, under the aegis of such leading sociologists as Talcott Parsons, anthropologists like Clyde Kluckhohn of Harvard and Alfred Kroeber of the University of California at Berkeley, as well as political scientists Gabriel Almond and Lucien Pye, of Yale and MIT, respectively, the analysis of societal and political culture came to play a…

  18. The Importance of Treating Culture as a System: Lessons on Counter-Insurgency Strategy from the British Iraqi Mandate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    However, culture consists of far more than customs and courtesies.[1] In this respect, the best working definition of culture uses Franz Boas as a...starting point ( Boas was an early 20th century German cultural anthropologist): “The system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviours, and

  19. The Effect of Alien Cultures on Local Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, P. G.

    There are often many problems, as well as many benefits, in the incorporation of non-local (alien) cultures into an existing cultural framework. This paper explores this process; it consists of five parts, beginning with a detailed definition and discussion of the meaning of culture as seen by psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, and…

  20. Scholars Prescribe Freud's "Talking Cure" for Problems of Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Karen J.

    1986-01-01

    While Freud's reputation is in decline among psychiatrists and psychologists, it is on the rise among literary and film critics, historians, anthropologists, and political scientists, where it is being adopted as a tool to help analyze historical movements, literary works and films, cultural patterns, and political theories. (MSE)

  1. Religious Studies: The Shaping of a Field and a Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippy, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of religious studies as an academic discipline. Examines the work of leading thinkers in the field, including anthropologists Sir James Fraser and Edward Burnett Taylor, sociologist Max Weber, and psychologist Erik Erikson. Identifies some of the many reference works that deal with religious studies. (SG)

  2. Toys: Universal Tools for Learning, Communication and Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The toys children use during play are extremely important in their development. Anthropologists have found evidence of toys dating back as far as the first record of human life and among all cultures. Toys can be an entertaining and educational way for children to learn and respond to social situations, and they give children the opportunity to…

  3. Religious Studies: The Shaping of a Field and a Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippy, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of religious studies as an academic discipline. Examines the work of leading thinkers in the field, including anthropologists Sir James Fraser and Edward Burnett Taylor, sociologist Max Weber, and psychologist Erik Erikson. Identifies some of the many reference works that deal with religious studies. (SG)

  4. Culture Shock and Anthropological Fieldwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, David Read

    The document reviews literature on the effects of culture shock and suggests reasons that anthropological writings seldom deal with the subject. Definitions of culture shock begin with the writings of anthropologist Kalvero Oberg, who first introduced the term in the mid 1950s. Oberg wrote that culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that…

  5. Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  6. Columbia University's Franz Boas: He Led the Undoing of Scientific Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lee D.

    1999-01-01

    As early as 1887, the anthropologist Franz Boas began to combat scientific racism and the insistence that blacks were of lower intelligence than whites. Throughout his career, Boas guided anthropology to a consensus that people of color were not racially inferior and that they possessed unique and historically specific cultures. (SLD)

  7. Color in the Classroom: How American Schools Taught Race, 1900-1954

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Between the turn of the twentieth century and the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision in 1954, the way that American schools taught about "race" changed dramatically. This transformation was engineered by the nation's most prominent anthropologists, including Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and Margaret Mead, during World War II.…

  8. A New Tradition: A Reflection on Collaboration and Contact Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford-Napoleone, Amber R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropologist James Clifford published his influential essay "Museums as Contact Zones" in 1997. He explored the aspects and limits of museums as contact zones in the globalized world, and focused on the museum's role in cross-cultural dialogue in the twentieth century. In "A New Tradition: A Reflection on Collaboration and Contact…

  9. Listening to Girls Talk about Their Bodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichter, Mimi

    2000-01-01

    This article, written by an anthropologist who has studied the culture of teenage girls, explores influences on their sense of self, including those of peers, parents, and the media. Educators and parents can play important roles in helping young people navigate successfully through adolescence. (Author/MKA)

  10. Is the Great American Teacher Dead? Principles to Resurrect Meaningful, Effective, and Consciousness Raising Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivers, John J.

    2012-01-01

    A couple of decades ago, a visiting anthropologist agreed with some U.S. authors that the American intellectual on university campuses is basically dead and his/her demise is reflected in the superficial, boring, and uninspiring content to which students are exposed. More recent evidence indicates that things have not changed very much. In this…

  11. Seeing Speech Production through the Window of Complex Interactions: Introduction to the Supplement of Select Papers from the 10th International Seminar on Speech Production (ISSP) in Cologne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Susanne; Lancia, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As the famous linguist and anthropologist C. Hockett noted about 30 years ago, "What one sees of language, as of anything, depends on the angle of view, and different explorers approach from different directions. Unfortunately, sometimes they become so enamored of their particular approach that they incline to scoff at any other, so…

  12. Using Sociology: The Application of Concepts. A Paper for the Pennsylvania Sociological Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry; Sumodi, Veronica

    The interrelatedness of the fields of nursing and sociology is discussed in this paper in an effort to encourage a sympathetic symbiosis between these two fields and between technical and general education. First, an overview is provided of recent trends in sociology, citing the influences of anthropologists and cultural historians on current…

  13. Anthropology and environmental policy: What counts?

    Treesearch

    Susan Charnley; William H. Durham

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we call for enhanced quantitative and environmental analysis in the work of environmental anthropologists who wish to influence policy. Using a database of 77 leading monographs published between 1967 and 2006, 147 articles by the same authors, and a separate sample of 137 articles from the journal Human Organization, we document a...

  14. Using Video Production in Political Science Courses as an Instructional Strategy for Engaging Students in Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez-Morris, Mauricio; Tafur, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Video production has come into widespread use in various fields of social science. Visual anthropologists (Pink 2006), psychologists (Webster and Sell 2007), historians (Ferro 2000), and visual sociologists (Newman 2006) have used films and videos to document, to preserve, and to analyze social data. There is no reason to think that the use of…

  15. In Search of Housing: Urban Families in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson Clark, Sherri

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have been following a trend posited by the renowned anthropologist Janet Fitchen, which examines the increasing movement of low-income people to rural communities drawn not necessarily by labor market forces, but by the characteristics and amenities found in rural towns. This study adds to that literature by focusing on the ways in…

  16. Chicana/o Studies and Anthropology: The Dialogue That Never Was.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davalos, KarenMary

    1998-01-01

    Argues that, by initiating a critique of the misrepresentations of Mexican Americans by established anthropologists, Chicana/o scholars anticipated a new anthropology and the problems of an apolitical postmodernism. Examines the challenges offered by Chicana feminists. Suggests that all these dialogues developed because of inequalities within the…

  17. Lost and Found in Translation: An Education in Narrative in Fieldwork and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, William

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important questions I ask as both a cultural anthropologist and a university teacher is: How do people come to know what they think they know? In this article, I adopt a narrative approach to processes of learning and discovery in two very different locales, an indigenous society in the South Pacific, and a senior seminar on…

  18. Community-Based Research and Student Development: An Interview with Trisha Thorme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of universities have implemented community-based research pedagogy into their undergraduate education. Integrating academic training with community engagement has the potential to engage students in a way volunteering may not. This interview with Trisha Thorme, an anthropologist and assistant director of Princeton University's…

  19. Conflict and the Common Good. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Twenty-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Robert S., Ed.; Willner, Dorothy, Ed.

    The fundamental theme of these papers is what constitutes the common good and the issues and problems related to the understanding of that common good. Several anthropologists and a political scientist explore this theme in various geographic settings and from many theoretical and methodological perspectives. Among the countries and cultures…

  20. Cultures and Conflict in Local School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Margaret A.

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that conflict, change, and deviance in school board behavior can be effectively studied and examined within generalized models of culture. In the first section, problems in studying educational cultures are identified and the biased views of educational anthropologists are discussed. Section II presents…

  1. The Study of Small Groups and Microevolution: A Project for Physical Anthropology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Patricia C.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a hands-on project in which anthropology students play the role of professional physical anthropologist in collecting and analyzing data on a small group of contemporary humans. Use of simulated data to represent ancestral populations results in an analysis of microevolution. (KH)

  2. Patterns of Sophistication and Naivety: Some Features of Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Education. Occasional Paper No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Frederick

    The limits and boundaries of anthropology are briefly discussed, along with a general description of lay attitudes towards the field. A research case is given to illustrate the way in which anthropological study methods can contribute to educational research. Noted among these contributions is an informed distrust that anthropologists exhibit…

  3. Folk Literature of the Warao Indians; Narrative Material and Motif Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Johannes

    The Latin American Center, University of California at Los Angeles, presents a collection of the folk literature of the "boat people," the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela and Guyana. According to Professor Johannes Wilbert and other anthropologists, "the inaccessibility of their habitat has preserved their tribal…

  4. William Golding's Iconoclastic Views about the Neanderthal Man in "The Inheritors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Sayed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    William Golding has been identified as a nonconformist whose opinions always go contrary to what is customarily accepted or established. This is shown in all his novels, more specifically "The Inheritors", in which he defies long established opinions held by anthropologists, historians, archaeologists as well as many others about the…

  5. An Observation: Historical Review of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ruby D.

    Presenting an historical review of American Indian education, this document includes the following: (1) Introduction (identifies the educational anthropologist as one who investigates the learner's and the educator's cultural orientation to better facilitate the continuity of educational content and method); (2) Definition of Terms (culture,…

  6. The Modernization of Colonialism and the Educability of the "Native": Transpacific Knowledge Networks and Education in the Interwar Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Julie; Paisley, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a seminar-conference held in Hawaii in 1936 on the "educability" of native peoples. The seminar-conference was convened by New Zealand anthropologist Felix Keesing and Yale education professor Charles Loram and supported by the Carnegie Corporation, among other organizations. Conference delegates--who came from…

  7. Lessons in Communication: Three Contract Ethnographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, Nick; And Others

    Ethnography, the preferred method of inquiry of the cultural anthropologist, is currently the most widely recognized qualitative method for research. Defined as the "art and science of describing a group or culture," it provides a means of studying and understanding other groups, their values and culture. This study documents the use of…

  8. Stirring the American Cultural Stew: Developing and Implementing Ethnic Curricula in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weibust, Patricia S.

    This paper identifies issues which arose during the development of an ethnic studies curriculum project in Connecticut. It also defines the author's role as an educational anthropologist involved in the project. Initiated in 1974, the "Peoples of Connecticut" project involved research on ethnic groups in the state and promotion of curricula to…

  9. Mesa Verde: A Study of Man in an Agricultural Setting. Library Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This collection of secondary readings contains general information about the ecology of living space, and specific information about the prehistory ecology of Mesa Verde, Colorado. There is also a section on how anthropologists use trees to date artifacts. A related document is indexed as ED 001 721. (AWW)

  10. Notes from the Melting Pot: 463 Years after Cherokees Met DeSoto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hausman, Blake M.

    2003-01-01

    In this essay, Hausman states that, for centuries, Indians were only important to academia if they were dead. From missionary ethnographers to cultural anthropologists, he claims, North America has been thoroughly raked by academics seeking an authentic representation of traditional life in this space. Yet many historians, who have shaped the…

  11. School & Society. Learning Content through Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueba, Henry T., Ed.; Delgado-Gaitan, Concha, Ed.

    Over the last 30 years, educational anthropologists have been exploring the organizational structure of schools and their relationship to society in order to shed light on the complex processes of acquisition, organization, and transmission of cultural knowledge. This volume covers the need to provide a field-based, well-documented cultural…

  12. Cultural Challenges to Education: The Influences of Cultural Factors in School Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brembeck, Cole S., Ed.; Hill, Walker H., Ed.

    The larger environment in which individuals live has become the arena for exploring the influence and uses of cultural values in school learning and educational decision making. The aim of this book is to explore this arena. Anthropologist Henry G. Burger, in Part I, discusses the assimilation of all groups into a single average Yankee, and…

  13. Towards a Discovery-Oriented Ethnography in Researching the Professional Context of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Today anthropologists seem to be increasingly studying phenomena in their own societies. Many have a focus on policies in organizations and an interest in explicating cultural phenomena constituted by power and governance. Consequently, a recent interest has emerged in Michel Foucault's philosophy, especially as an inspiration for ethnographic…

  14. Seeing Speech Production through the Window of Complex Interactions: Introduction to the Supplement of Select Papers from the 10th International Seminar on Speech Production (ISSP) in Cologne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Susanne; Lancia, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As the famous linguist and anthropologist C. Hockett noted about 30 years ago, "What one sees of language, as of anything, depends on the angle of view, and different explorers approach from different directions. Unfortunately, sometimes they become so enamored of their particular approach that they incline to scoff at any other, so…

  15. Is the Great American Teacher Dead? Principles to Resurrect Meaningful, Effective, and Consciousness Raising Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivers, John J.

    2012-01-01

    A couple of decades ago, a visiting anthropologist agreed with some U.S. authors that the American intellectual on university campuses is basically dead and his/her demise is reflected in the superficial, boring, and uninspiring content to which students are exposed. More recent evidence indicates that things have not changed very much. In this…

  16. Anthropology: For Whom and What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remy, Anselm

    1976-01-01

    Suggests that anthropology has been an instrument of imperialist intervention and control in the Third World as it has been used against the oppressed and colonized people of the world. It becomes the responsibility of the revolutionary and socialist anthropologists to make the discipline a tool of liberation. (Author/AM)

  17. Becoming Maya? Appropriation of the White Shaman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montejo, Victor D.

    1999-01-01

    The history of anthropology among the Maya consists of both the literal exploitation of archaeological finds and the appropriation of Maya culture and history by the Western academic world to construct distorted theories of the Maya past. In the ultimate disgrace, some Mayan priests are training White anthropologists to become shamans themselves…

  18. Culture Shock and Anthropological Fieldwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, David Read

    The document reviews literature on the effects of culture shock and suggests reasons that anthropological writings seldom deal with the subject. Definitions of culture shock begin with the writings of anthropologist Kalvero Oberg, who first introduced the term in the mid 1950s. Oberg wrote that culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that…

  19. Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  20. Human Images: A Communications Approach to Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    The premise of this 14 week anthropology course is that endeavors by the mass media should be understood as cultural enterprises. Students will examine the means by which anthropologists, photographers, filmmakers, writers, new reporters or other observers translate their observations of another culture to members of their own culture. The Eskimo…

  1. John Rae (1813-93): explorer of the Canadian Arctic, the great pedestrian.

    PubMed

    Loosmore, Brian

    2009-11-01

    Born and raised in the Orkney Islands, Dr John Rae joined the Hudson's Bay Company and rose to be Chief Factor. Unusually tough and intelligent, he explored much of northern Canada, mapping the north eastern shore and finding controversial evidence of the lost Franklin expedition of 1845. A talented botanist, geologist, anthropologist and cartographer, he was northern Canada's most distinguished explorer.

  2. Non-verbal Behavior Cross-Cultural Contact, and the Urban Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Cornelius Lee

    1976-01-01

    The anthropologist sees specific human non-verbal behavior as the medium through which relationships are maintained, regulated, and guided within culturally prescribed patterns. The spoken language, the use of space, eye-contact, smiling, and the use of the hand constitute unique patterns of behavior that are culturally specific and have wide…

  3. Child's Play: Myth, Mimesis and Make-Believe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, L. R.

    This book addresses the need for anthropologists to produce in-depth ethnographies of children's play. In examining the subject from a cross-cultural perspective, the book argues that understanding the way children transform their environment to create make-believe is enhanced by viewing their creations as oral poetry. The result is a richly…

  4. A Current Appraisal of the Behavioral Sciences, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Rollo; Harwood, E. C.

    This book discusses modern scientific inquiry and examines the procedures of inquiry into human behavior used in the behavioral science disciplines. Psychologists look at the individual's adjustive procedures and the evolution of those adjustments within a species. Anthropologists inquire into the behavioral similarities and differences of human…

  5. Is an Inuit Literary History Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Keavy

    2010-01-01

    In 1921, the Greenlandic anthropologist Knud Rasmussen set out to travel twenty thousand miles by dog team across Inuit Nunaat--the Inuit homeland. During this three-year journey--the famous Fifth Thule Expedition--Rasmussen was struck by the similarities in the language and culture of Inuit communities across the entire Arctic. Considering the…

  6. Who Got to Decide on Nadia Abu El-Haj's Tenure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Dan; Shamir, Ronen

    2008-01-01

    The tension surrounding Barnard College's determination of whether to grant tenure to anthropologist Nadia Abu El-Haj was resolved this fall. Barnard reached a positive decision. The affair, however, leaves a number of important issues open. At the center of this controversy stands Abu El-Haj's first book, "Facts on the Ground: Archaeological…

  7. A Matter of Scale: Multi-Scale Ethnographic Research on Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenhart, Margaret

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, cultural anthropologists conducting educational ethnographies in the US have pursued some new methodological approaches. These new approaches can be attributed to advances in cultural theory, evolving norms of research practice, and the affordances of new technologies. In this article, I review three such approaches under the…

  8. [Blood transfusion and ethics: new questions].

    PubMed

    Sicard, D

    2006-09-01

    Chairman to the French Institutional Review Board, Professor Didier Sicard raises blood donation issues from an ethical standpoint. The contaminated blood scandal focused on the necessity of reducing transfusion risks and regarded blood safety as an ethical mandatory requirement, a debatable subject to deal with. The author proposes to reconsider the nature of unpaid blood donations while advising not to scorn the remunerated gift when such is the case. As for the use of blood, he questions the solutions based on a zero risk perspective, in particular an excessive auto-transfusional practice or a restrictive use of blood, lately regarded as essential. Starting from the blood donation concern this article leads us to think over both our society's fears and the precautionary principle abuses.

  9. Chronic Q Fever Diagnosis—Consensus Guideline versus Expert Opinion

    PubMed Central

    Wegdam-Blans, Marjolijn C.A.; Wever, Peter C.; Renders, Nicole H.M.; Delsing, Corine E.; Sprong, Tom; van Kasteren, Marjo E.E.; Bijlmer, Henk; Notermans, Daan; Oosterheert, Jan Jelrik; Stals, Frans S.; Nabuurs-Franssen, Marrigje H.; Bleeker-Rovers, Chantal P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Q fever, caused by Coxiella burnetii, has high mortality and morbidity rates if left untreated. Controversy about the diagnosis of this complex disease has emerged recently. We applied the guideline from the Dutch Q Fever Consensus Group and a set of diagnostic criteria proposed by Didier Raoult to all 284 chronic Q fever patients included in the Dutch National Chronic Q Fever Database during 2006–2012. Of the patients who had proven cases of chronic Q fever by the Dutch guideline, 46 (30.5%) would not have received a diagnosis by the alternative criteria designed by Raoult, and 14 (4.9%) would have been considered to have possible chronic Q fever. Six patients with proven chronic Q fever died of related causes. Until results from future studies are available, by which current guidelines can be modified, we believe that the Dutch literature-based consensus guideline is more sensitive and easier to use in clinical practice. PMID:26277798

  10. European Stroke Science Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Mattle, Heinrich P.; Brainin, Michael; Chamorro, Angel; Diener, Hans Christoph; Hacke, Werner; Leys, Didier; Norrving, Bo; Ward, Nick

    2012-01-01

    The European Stroke Organisation (ESO) held its first European Stroke Science Workshop in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Germany (15-17 December 2011). Stroke experts based in Europe were invited to present and discuss their current research. The scope of the workshop was to review the most recent findings of selected topics in stroke, to exchange ideas, to stimulate new research and to enhance collaboration between European stroke research groups. Seven scientific sessions were held, each starting with a keynote lecture to review the state of the art of the given topic, followed by 4 or 5 short presentations by experts. They were asked to limit their presentations to 10 slides containing only recent information. The meeting was organized by the executive committee of the ESO (Heinrich Mattle, chairman, Michael Brainin, Angel Chamorro, Werner Hacke, Didier Leys) and supported by the European Stroke Conference (Michael Hennerici). In this article we summarize the main contents of this successful workshop. PMID:22836350

  11. Why 400 Years to Discover Countless Planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Paul H.

    2011-04-01

    In 1584, Dominican monk Giordano Bruno envisioned the stars as "countless suns with countless earths, all rotating around their suns." Searching for intellectual freedom, he fled his native Italy to Protestant Switzerland and Germany, but in 1600 the Roman Inquisition condemned him for heresy. He was burned at the stake. Fast-forwarding to 1995, the Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced the discovery of a planet orbiting a star similar to our sun (51 Pegasi). In 2010, 500 planets had been found orbiting 421 stars. On Feb 2, 2011, NASA announced 1200 planet candidates. It took 400 years for telescope technology to advance and for Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Bradley, and Foucault to make major contributions, culminating in today's astrophysics with digital imaging and processing. Contrasting with Bruno, in 2010 Dominican Francisco Ayala, who had been president of the Sigma Xi and AAAS, won the 1.6M Templeton Prize for affirming life's spiritual dimension.

  12. [Anthropology and synthetic Darwinism in the Third Reich: The Evolution of Organisms (1943)].

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Junker, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    This essay will analyse early attempts to base anthropology on the theoretical model provided by the emerging synthetic Darwinism of the 1940s. In the first section we will investigate the historical context of the publication of one of the central documents of synthetic Darwinism in Germany: Gerhard Heberer's Die Evolution der Organismen (1943). Anthropology was covered extensively in this book. The second section will give an impression of the live and work of the five anthropologists represented in Heberer's book: Christian von Krogh, Wilhelm Gieseler, Otto Reche, Hans Weinert, and Gerhard Heberer. The third part of our paper will clarify whether these anthropologists shared a common theoretical outlook with the founders of synthetic Darwinism, and to what degree they were committed to the racial ideas of the Third Reich.

  13. Historical Trends in Graduate Research and Training of Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Bethard, Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115). Doctoral dissertation titles were queried to discern broad patterns of research foci. A total of 39 doctoral granting institutions have trained diplomates and 77.3% of board-certified forensic anthropologists wrote dissertations involving skeletal biology, bioarchaeology, or forensic anthropology. Board-certified forensic anthropologists are a broadly trained group of professionals with far-reaching anthropological interests and expertise.

  14. Alien origins: xenophilia and the rise of medical anthropology in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Sjaak

    2012-04-01

    The beginnings of medical anthropology in the Netherlands have a 'xenophile' character in two respects. First, those who started to call themselves medical anthropologists in the 1970s and 1980s were influenced and inspired not so much by anthropological colleagues, but by medical doctors working in tropical countries who had shown an interest in the role of culture during their medical work. Secondly, what was seen as medical anthropology in those early days almost always took place in 'foreign' countries and cultures. One can hardly overestimate the exoticist character of medical anthropology up to the 1980s. It was almost automatic for anthropologists to take an interest in medical issues occurring in another cultural setting, while overlooking the same issues at home. Medical anthropology 'at home' started only around 1990. At present, medical anthropology in the Netherlands is gradually overcoming its xenophile predilection.

  15. The new biological anthropology: bringing Washburn's new physical anthropology into 2010 and beyond--the 2008 AAPA luncheon lecture.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Agustin

    2010-01-01

    Nearly 60 years ago, Sherwood Washburn issued a call for a "New Physical Anthropology," a transition from measurement and classification toward a focus on the processes and mechanisms of evolutionary change. He advocated multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary approaches to the understanding of human behavior, biology, and history. Many interpret this as a call for a practice that is both biological and anthropological. Is this what we do? Are we biological anthropologists yet? In this essay, I explore what we, Physical Anthropologists, as a discipline are doing in the context of a New Physical Anthropology, where we might be headed, and why this discussion is crucial to our relevance. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. "Monkeys, babies, idiots" and "primitives": nature-nurture debates and philanthropic foundation support for American anthropology in the 1920s and 1930s.

    PubMed

    Biehn, Kersten Jacobson

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long discussion among historians about the impact that foundation policies had on the development of the social sciences during the interwar era. This discussion has centered on the degree to which foundation officers, particularly from the Rockefeller boards, exercised a hegemonic influence on research. In this essay, I argue that the field of American cultural anthropology has been neglected and must be reconsidered as a window into foundation intervention in nature-nurture debates. Despite foundation efforts to craft an anthropology policy that privileged hereditarian explanations, I contend that cultural anthropologists were committed to proving the primacy of "nurture," even when that commitment cost them valuable research dollars. It was this commitment that provided an essential bulwark for the discipline. Ironically, it was the need to negotiate with foundations about the purpose of their research that helped cultural anthropologists to articulate their unique, and thus intrinsically valuable, approach to nature-nurture debates.

  17. Navigating Diagnoses: Understanding Mind–Body Relations, Mental Health, and Stigma in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Anthropologists and psychiatrists traditionally have used the salience of a mind–body dichotomy to distinguish Western from non-Western ethnopsychologies. However, despite claims of mind–body holism in non-Western cultures, mind–body divisions are prominent in non-Western groups. In this article, we discuss three issues: the ethnopsychology of mind–body dichotomies in Nepal, the relationship between mind–body dichotomies and the hierarchy of resort in a medical pluralistic context, and, lastly, the role of mind–body dichotomies in public health interventions (biomedical and psychosocial) aimed toward decreasing the stigmatization of mental illness. We assert that, by understanding mind–body relations in non-Western settings, their implications, and ways in which to reconstitute these relations in a less stigmatizing manner, medical anthropologists and mental health workers can contribute to the reduction of stigma in global mental healthcare. PMID:18784989

  18. Measuring material wealth in low-income settings: A conceptual and how-to guide.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Bonnie N; Hruschka, Daniel; Hadley, Craig

    2017-07-08

    Although wealth is consistently found to be an important predictor of health and well-being, there remains debate as to the best way to conceptualize and operationalize wealth. In this article, we focus on the measurement of economic resources, which is one among many forms of wealth. We provide an overview of the process of measuring material wealth, including theoretical and conceptual considerations, a how-to guide based on the most common approach to measurement, and a review of important theoretical and empirical questions that remain to be resolved. Throughout, we emphasize considerations particular to the settings in which anthropologists work, and we include variations on common approaches to measuring material wealth that might be better suited to anthropologists' theoretical questions, methodological approaches, and fieldwork settings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Genomic anthropology: coming in from the cold?

    PubMed

    Pálsson, Gísli

    2008-08-01

    By rendering obsolete the theoretical opposition of nature and culture, the study of the human genome has given rise to fresh networks among anthropologists and other scholars. These developments, in turn, invite a refashioning of anthropology. Because genomic studies are directly concerned with the constitution of personhood, they must engage with local notions of personhood and belonging, thus undermining the distinction between experts and laypersons and demonstrating the need for new frameworks for collaboration between anthropologists and their subjects. These trends are illustrated by research in Nunavut (Canada) and Greenland, in particular an examination of the similarities and differences between modern gene talk about the constitution of the individual and "Inuit epigenetics"--local notions of naming, subjectivity, and relatedness.

  20. The role of forensic anthropology in the examination of the Daegu subway disaster (2003, Korea).

    PubMed

    Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Yi-Suk; Chung, Nak-Eun; Ahn, Yong-Woo; Han, Seung-Ho

    2009-05-01

    Meticulous recovery of victims in the Daegu subway disaster was possible, because charred and fragmented victims were left in situ. Because bodies were piled one over another within the train, appropriate methodology during the recovery was critical to identifying the victims. The disaster area was thoroughly documented with notes, photographs, and schematic drawings of the various locations. The recovery team, comprising two medical examiners and one forensic anthropologist, decided when charred body parts and cremated bones were linked to the same individual based on the anatomy and forensic anthropological examination. Without these recovery procedures, it would not have been possible to efficiently harvest representative DNA sample from most of the victims' body parts. After the entire process of identification, 136 victims were positively identified, and six victims remained unidentified. This study supports the crucial role of forensic anthropologists in the recovery of victims, especially in fire scenes.

  1. Biological Discourses on Human Races and Scientific Racism in Brazil (1832-1911).

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Juanma Sánchez

    2017-05-01

    This paper analyzes biological and scientific discourses about the racial composition of the Brazilian population, between 1832 and 1911. The first of these dates represents Darwin's first arrival in the South-American country during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. The study ends in 1911, with the celebration of the First universal Races congress in London, where the Brazilian physical anthropologist J.B. Lacerda predicted the complete extinction of black Brazilians by the year 2012. Contemporary European and North-American racial theories had a profound influence in Brazilian scientific debates on race and miscegenation. These debates also reflected a wider political and cultural concern, shared by most Brazilian scholars, about the future of the Nation. With few known exceptions, Brazilian evolutionists, medical doctors, physical anthropologists, and naturalists, considered that the racial composition of the population was a handicap to the commonly shared nationalistic goal of creating a modern and progressive Brazilian Republic.

  2. Seeing (and Doing) Conservation Through Cultural Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Richard B.; Russell, Diane; West, Paige; Brosius, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss various vantage points gained through the authors’ experience of approaching conservation through a “cultural lens.” We then draw out more general concerns that many anthropologists hold with respect to conservation, summarizing and commenting on the work of the Conservation and Community Working Group within the Anthropology and Environment Section of the American Anthropological Association. Here we focus on both critiques and contributions the discipline of anthropology makes with regard to conservation, and show how anthropologists are moving beyond conservation critiques to engage actively with conservation practice and policy. We conclude with reflections on the possibilities for enhancing transdisciplinary dialogue and practice through reflexive questioning, the adoption of disciplinary humility, and the realization that “cross-border” collaboration among conservation scholars and practitioners can strengthen the political will necessary to stem the growing commoditization and ensuing degradation of the earth’s ecosystems.

  3. Bridging Psychiatric and Anthropological Approaches: The Case of “Nerves” in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Britt; Barg, Frances K.; Gallo, Joseph J.; Wittink, Marsha N.

    2010-01-01

    Psychiatrists and anthropologists have taken distinct analytic approaches when confronted with differences between emic and etic models for distress: psychiatrists have translated folk models into diagnostic categories whereas anthropologists have emphasized culture-specific meanings of illness. The rift between psychiatric and anthropological research keeps “individual disease” and “culture” disconnected and thus hinders the study of interrelationships between mental health and culture. In this article we bridge psychiatric and anthropological approaches by using cultural models to explore the experience of nerves among 27 older primary care patients from Baltimore, Maryland. We suggest that cultural models of distress arise in response to personal experiences, and in turn, shape those experiences. Shifting research from a focus on comparing content of emic and etic concepts, to examining how these social realities and concepts are coconstructed, may resolve epistemological and ontological debates surrounding differences between emic and etic concepts, and improve understanding of the interrelationships between culture and health. PMID:20428332

  4. Traumatic injury pattern analysis in a light rail transit death: a retrospective case study.

    PubMed

    Kendell, Ashley E; Fleischman, Julie M; Fulginiti, Laura C

    2015-05-01

    Within the context of medical examiner's offices, forensic anthropologists are increasingly being asked to assist with the interpretation of traumatic skeletal injury. This case study presents an example of trauma analysis performed by forensic anthropologists at the Maricopa County Forensic Science Center in Phoenix, Arizona. The primary goal of this study is to document an uncommon pattern of traumatic injury-severe grinding abrasions of the lower appendage that macroscopically resemble sharp force trauma, especially as observed in dismemberment cases-resulting from an individual being dragged beneath a Light Rail train for c. 1.7 miles. The abraded skeletal elements include a femoral shaft fragment, a femoral head portion, and the right foot. Second, this study aims to illustrate the efficacy of forensic anthropological analysis of patterned skeletal trauma. Finally, this study demonstrates the critical importance of analyzing scene information before drawing conclusions as to the etiology of a traumatic injury pattern. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Navigating diagnoses: understanding mind-body relations, mental health, and stigma in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Harper, Ian

    2008-12-01

    Anthropologists and psychiatrists traditionally have used the salience of a mind-body dichotomy to distinguish Western from non-Western ethnopsychologies. However, despite claims of mind-body holism in non-Western cultures, mind-body divisions are prominent in non-Western groups. In this article, we discuss three issues: the ethnopsychology of mind-body dichotomies in Nepal, the relationship between mind-body dichotomies and the hierarchy of resort in a medical pluralistic context, and, finally, the role of mind-body dichotomies in public health interventions (biomedical and psychosocial) aimed toward decreasing the stigmatization of mental illness. We assert that, by understanding mind-body relations in non-Western settings, their implications, and ways in which to reconstitute these relations in a less stigmatizing manner, medical anthropologists and mental health workers can contribute to the reduction of stigma in global mental health care.

  6. Somalia: IGAD’s Attempt to Restore Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Somalis are thought to have migrated into northern Kenya and southern Somalia from the lake regions of the southern Ethiopian highlands. The proto...Sam, as they are called by anthropologists, migrated further into the Ogaden region of Ethiopia and northern Somalia in 6 search of water and...interriverine areas became herders, raising camels, sheep, and goats: they migrated as necessary to keep their herds near water and good pasture lands

  7. New technology and regional studies in human ecology: A Papua New Guinea example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, George E. B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two key issues in using technologies such as digital image processing and geographic information systems are a conceptually and methodologically valid research design and the exploitation of varied sources of data. With this realized, the new technologies offer anthropologists the opportunity to test hypotheses about spatial and temporal variations in the features of interest within a regionally coherent mosaic of social groups and landscapes. Current research on the Mountain OK of Papua New Guinea is described with reference to these issues.

  8. Cultural Dimensions of Strategy and Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    that he himself has spun. The American anthropologist Clifford Geertz (1926-2007) extended this notion by equating culture with Weber’s “webs of...the dominant variant of cultural anthropology that approaches culture as a symbolic system. Clifford Geertz , The Interpretation of Cultures, New York...Nationalism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983, pp. 101-109. 4. Clifford Geertz , Chapter 1, “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive

  9. Anthropometry and Its Use in Respirator Design: A Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    are also the rarest. Clay models were made up under the supervision of the anthropologist who madc most of the actual measurements so that the surface...helmet. But in 1942, a seven- size program was set up and headforms sculpted on the basis of 50 dimensions from data obtained in a facial survey of 1454...and four headforms sculpted to the mean values of 18 dimensions. This system was used for sizing the M- 1 Army helmets. Despite the success in sizing

  10. Analysis of Archaeological, Geological and Historical Artifacts and Documents Pertaining to the Midden Excavation at ’Woodville’ - Unit 4, James G. Fulton, Flood Protection Project, Chartiers Creek, Pennsylvania,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    produced by those who were born, raised, lived and, in some cases, died at Woodville Farm. The economic and social history aspects of this previously...from the kinds of luestions which archaeologists (i.e., social scientists who are trained as anthropologists with a specialty in archaeological...economic, political and social development of what is today southwestern Pennsylvania. Thus, much of what we now know about the "Neville house- has developed

  11. [Interests of applied anthropology to oncology].

    PubMed

    Soum-Pouyalet, Fanny; Hubert, Annie; Dilhuydy, Jean-Marie

    2008-01-01

    From now on the introduction of social and human sciences studies in the field of oncology has not always been conclusive. This article aims to analyze the bounds that border the meeting and the understanding between physicians, patients and anthropologists. It also treats the problems due to the introduction of applied anthropology in the field of oncology and points up the interests and practical contributions that this disciplinary bring and could bring.

  12. [Social and anthropology considerations on the composite tissues allotransplantations (CTA). Excerpts from reading and analysis of a surgeon].

    PubMed

    Cariou, J-L

    2007-10-01

    The author is neither anthropologist nor invested in social activities. He has learned some reviews of anthropology and some social and philosophical books since seven years. He describe not a general review but an analysis of these lectures according to the composite tissues allotransplantations (CTA). The discussion concerns anthropology and symbols, philosophical and social aspects. There is a natural umbilicus between the anthropological science and the surgical art according to CTA.

  13. [Participatory observation in the 1995 count of population and housing. An anthropological experience].

    PubMed

    Mindek, D

    1996-01-01

    "The experience of an anthropologist who participated as enumerator in [Mexico's] Conteo de Poblacion y Vivienda 1995 is analyzed in this paper. The author describes briefly the methodology...for each stage of the enumeration; she systematically points [out] the circumstances and reasons that determine why the different groups involved in the process do not follow the rules. She [examines] the questions that the informers usually avoid answering, or the ones they answer hardly and imprecisely." (EXCERPT)

  14. Organizational Friction: Urban Crime Control Diminish Effect Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-10

    Belize” by social violence anthropologist Dr. Herbert Gayle and Nelma Mortis along with Jamuna Vasquez ; Raymond J. Mossiah, Melvin Hewlett, and Alindy...analysis New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc. Gayle, Herbert, and Nelma Mortis, with Jamuna Vasquez , Raymond Mossiah, Melvin Hewlett, Alindy Amaya. 2010. Male...Longman Inc. 125 News 5. 2010. Crime control council looks at rogue cops and Crooks report. Michael Young interview by Jose Sanchez . 12 March

  15. The Indoctrination Division: A Model for Effective Integration of First-Term Enlisted Personnel into the Aircraft Carrier Organization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    1920 *s Margaret Mead , a cultural anthropologist, discovered that adolescents in Samoa experienced no period of storm and stress, but simply underwent...7, July, 1975, pp. 956-972. Mead , Margaret , Coming of Age in Samoa , Morrow, New York, 1928. Mead , Margaret , From the South Seas, Studies of...biological changes en route to adulthood. Mead contrasted the Samoan and American cultures and concluded that the differences in the adolescent’s

  16. [T. Shevchenko in biography of physician, ethnographer and traveller M. Myklukho-Maklaĭ].

    PubMed

    Martsinkovs'kyĭ, I B

    2007-01-01

    The biography of the doctor, N. Miklukho-Maklay, a world scientist, anthropologist, ethnographer and travaller has Ukrainian roots. N. Miklukho-Maklay himself and his father knew and was interested in work of T. Shevchenko. N. Miklukho-Maklay and T. Shevchenko spoke out against colonial policy and social inequality: N. Miklukho-Maklay against racism and T. Shevchenko against the serfdom as a form of slavery.

  17. [Disability, for a revolution of thought and action].

    PubMed

    Gardou, Charles

    2014-05-01

    While considerable progress has been made, disabled people are still perceived as "separate" beings in our society. For them to be integrated, it is necessary to accept their difference and favour their autonomy. The respect of the rights of disabled people thereby enables professionals to position themselves within an ethical support approach. An interview with Charles Gardou, an anthropologist and university professor at Lumière-Lyon 2 University.

  18. Behavioral Criteria in Research and the Study of Racism: Performing the Jackal Function. Part III.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    either anthrop -luogy or mental health. The two anthropologists wrote their re7or , as detailed ethnographies: the clinicians’ reports wure more like...statements and questions plus statements of social science which have been traditionally used to legitimize the inequality. - altered states of...know¢n to group, is very difficult to answer. - Altered composition of group in afternoon. This is mistake for the zroap now ha to idjust not only to

  19. The Hidden Dimension of Strategic Planning: Explorations in the Formation of Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    commerce, warfare, and even sleep, is based on presuppositions. -- Gregory Bateson By education most have been misled; So they believe, because they so...sensory input but actually supplied from our memory. Anthropologist\\Philosopher Gregory Bateson tells us: "All experience is subjective, . . our brains...to radio waves and to magnetic fields. Certain fish emit 38 Press and Arian, 1966, 156. 𔄃 Bateson , Greogory, Mind and Nature, A Necessary Unity

  20. The family name as socio-cultural feature and genetic metaphor: from concepts to methods.

    PubMed

    Darlu, Pierre; Bloothooft, Gerrit; Boattini, Alessio; Brouwer, Leendert; Brouwer, Matthijs; Brunet, Guy; Chareille, Pascal; Cheshire, James; Coates, Richard; Dräger, Kathrin; Desjardins, Bertrand; Hanks, Patrick; Longley, Paul; Mandemakers, Kees; Mateos, Pablo; Pettener, Davide; Useli, Antonella; Manni, Franz

    2012-04-01

    A recent workshop entitled "The Family Name as Socio-Cultural Feature and Genetic Metaphor: From Concepts to Methods" was held in Paris in December 2010, sponsored by the French National Centre for Scientific Research (CNRS) and by the journal Human Biology. This workshop was intended to foster a debate on questions related to the family names and to compare different multidisciplinary approaches involving geneticists, historians, geographers, sociologists and social anthropologists. This collective paper presents a collection of selected communications.

  1. Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: Why the New UCMJ Rape Law Missed the Mark, and How an Affirmative Consent Statute Will Put it Back on Target

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    in the workplace, and gender based discrimination. Through various approaches, feminists have identified gendered components and gendered ...Anthropologists and sociologists have conducted extensive research into the cultural history of rape and rape laws.12 Feminist jurisprudence1 on the crime of...is on what is in the best interest of the U.S. Armed Forces and those who serve, rather than the sociological or feminist perspective. Indeed, the

  2. [Blood donation in the light of anthropology].

    PubMed

    Pottier, R

    2017-07-24

    In his well-known Essai sur le don, French anthropologist Marcel Mauss has shown that in all societies, donation and exchange of gifts are part of people's commitments. Although systematically denied, that obligation is one of the main sources of sociability. In this respect, blood donation can be considered as a very common act, except that, since blood comes from human body, that act is, at the same time, very special and meaningful. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Keeping the feet of the gods and the saints warm: mundane pragmatics in times of suffering and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Els

    2008-12-01

    In this article the author writes about mundane pragmatics, or everyday deeds, in times of suffering and uncertainty. Such pragmatics differ from cultural practices such as biomedical therapies or individual health-seeking behaviour patterns. Medical anthropologists and others working in the field of health and illness often overlook such pragmatics. However, these actions are of great social value and express the connectedness and bonds between people. They also express our deep beliefs, hopes, powerlessness and vulnerability.

  4. Amateur versus professional: the search for Bigfoot.

    PubMed

    Regal, Brian

    2008-06-01

    Those who would seek monsters not as metaphors, but as flesh and blood organisms have gone largely overlooked by the history of science. Starting in the 1950s and 1960s a group of amateur monster hunters and physical anthropologists began to pursue such creatures as Sasquatch, Bigfoot and the Yeti as living species. Whether or not such creatures exist, the monster hunters themselves are fascinating subjects for study, illustrating the tensions that are all too common between amateur naturalists and professional scientists.

  5. Airpower and the Environment: The Ecological Implications of Modern Air Warfare

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Dan Henk, a social anthropologist, is the director of the US Air Force Culture and Language Center. He is a former US Army officer with combat...graphic theory, and origins of religion. Victor W. Sidel, MD, is a distinguished university professor of social medicine at Montefiore Medical Center...American Public Health Association, Physicians for Social Responsibility, and International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War. He is co- editor

  6. In search of racial types: soldiers and the anthropological mapping of the Romanian nation, 1914–44

    PubMed Central

    TURDA, MARIUS

    2013-01-01

    Turda’s article explores the diverse ways in which racial research conducted on prisoners-of-war (POWs) and soldiers contributed to the emergence of anthropological narratives of national identity in Romania between 1914 and 1944. It first discusses racial typologies produced by Austrian, German, Italian and Polish anthropologists investigating POWs during the First World War, and then examines how Romanian physicians and anthropologists engaged with these typologies while refining their own scientific and nationalist agendas. An essential corollary to this development was a strong commitment to the cultivation of distinct Romanian racial types. The interwar and Second World War periods witnessed the full flowering of a Romanian race science that accommodated a racial hierarchy as the basis for national difference. Moreover, by identifying the racial types purportedly constituting the Romanian nation, anthropologists not only hoped to develop a systematic racial inventory of Romania’s ethnic communities, but also to reinforce the myth of ethnogenesis, which described the Romanians as worthy of their noble European origins and legitimized their territorial claims. PMID:24363459

  7. Forensic anthropology in Europe: an assessment of current status and application.

    PubMed

    Kranioti, Elena; Paine, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Forensic anthropology is the discipline that traditionally deals with the examination of human remains for legal purposes and it derives from the fields of anatomy, physical anthropology and forensic medicine. For more than a century, forensic anthropologists in the United States have been offering their services in the court of law complementing the medico-legal investigation of other forensic professionals. The current status in European countries is presented here. The development of forensic anthropology varies significantly among the countries of Europe. Whereas some countries show a long history of research activity in the forensic sciences, including forensic anthropology (i.e. France, Germany and Spain), others are exhibiting a recent, rapid development (i.e. United Kingdom). In some cases, forensic anthropologists are employed within the academic realm (i.e. U.K., Denmark, Portugal, Turkey), forensic institutions (Netherlands) or government organizations (Spain, Hungary), although the vast majority of them remain limited to freelance activities on a sporadic basis. Often, European scientists that deal with skeletal remains come from nonphysical anthropology disciplines such as archaeology, forensic medicine and biology. In many cases they do not have adequate training equivalent to the forensic anthropologists in the USA. Naturally, without common training and a common legal system, an accreditation system for Europe will be difficult to implement.

  8. [Anthropology at the heart of medicine].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Laurent

    2008-10-01

    Anthropology and medicine share many concerns, but have had trouble collaborating in the past. The anthropologist has had to plead both with his colleagues and physicians to move beyond a < culturalist > vision that would confine him to the study of traditional or alternative medicines and representations of populations and the sick. The anthropologist's approach perceived as intrusive has also raised fears in the medical world. These reciprocal misunderstandings and stereotypes need to be overcome by an anthropology that studies the practices and knowledge of modern medicine as they are elaborated daily. Anthropology will dialogue with medicine without judging it. In its turn, medicine will open its sites of healing and teaching to the anthropologist. Anthropology at the heart of medicine is organized around the idea that the paths and expectations of health professionals reflect the specicifities of the local system of health. The individual dimensions of practices cannot be divorced from the functioning of structures of health and decision. Finally, like any other kind of anthropology, medical anthropology must scrutinize its own methods and ethics in a critical way.

  9. "Doctor, Why Didn't You Adopt My Baby?" Observant Participation, Care, and the Simultaneous Practice of Medicine and Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Sufrin, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Medical anthropology has long appreciated the clinical encounter as a rich source of data and a key site for critical inquiry. It is no surprise, then, that a number of physician-anthropologists have used their clinical insights to make important contributions to the field. How does this duality challenge and enhance the moral practice and ethics of care inherent both to ethnography and to medicine? How do bureaucratic and professional obligations of HIPAA and the IRB intersect with aspirations of anthropology to understand human experience and of medicine to heal with compassion? In this paper, I describe my simultaneous fieldwork and clinical practice at an urban women's jail in the United States. In this setting, being a physician facilitates privileged access to people and spaces within, garners easy trust, and enables an insider perspective more akin to observant participation than participant observation. Through experiences of delivering the infants of incarcerated pregnant women and of being with the mothers as they navigate drug addiction, child custody battles, and re-incarceration, the roles of doctor and anthropologist become mutually constitutive and transformative. Moreover, the dual practice reveals congruities and cracks in each discipline's ethics of care. Being an anthropologist among informants who may have been patients reworks expectations of care and necessitates ethical practice informed by the dual roles.

  10. What makes us human? Answers from evolutionary anthropology.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, James M; Fuentes, Agustín

    2012-01-01

    Today, scholars from numerous and highly diverse fields are not only addressing the question of what makes us human, but also seeking input from other disciplines to inform their answers to this fundamental issue. However, for the most part, evolutionary anthropologists are not particularly prominent in this discussion, or at least not acknowledged to be. Why is this the case? One reason may be that although evolutionary anthropologists are uniquely positioned to provide valuable insight on this subject, the responses from any one of us are likely to be as different as the research specializations and intellectual experiences that we bring to the table. Indeed, one would anticipate that a paleoanthropologist would not only have different views than a primatologist, geneticist, or behavioral ecologist, but from other paleoanthropologists as well. Yet if asked by a theologian, psychologist, or political scientist, and perhaps most importantly, by any curious person outside the walls of academia, do we have a response that most evolutionary anthropologists could agree on as reflecting our contributions to the understanding of being and becoming human? Our introductory textbooks usually begin with this fundamental question, yet seldom produce a concise answer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Reconciling "stress" and "health" in physical anthropology: what can bioarchaeologists learn from the other subdisciplines?

    PubMed

    Reitsema, Laurie J; McIlvaine, Britney Kyle

    2014-10-01

    The concepts of "stress" and "health" are foundational in physical anthropology as guidelines for interpreting human behavior and biocultural adaptation in the past and present. Though related, stress and health are not coterminous, and while the term "health" encompasses some aspects of "stress," health refers to a more holistic condition beyond just physiological disruption, and is of considerable significance in contributing to anthropologists' understanding of humanity's lived experiences. Bioarchaeological interpretations of human health generally are made from datasets consisting of skeletal markers of stress, markers that result from (chronic) physiological disruption (e.g., porotic hyperostosis; linear enamel hypoplasia). Non-specific indicators of stress may measure episodes of stress and indicate that infection, disease, or nutritional deficiencies were present in a population, but in assessing these markers, bioarchaeologists are not measuring "health" in the same way as are human biologists, medical anthropologists, or primatologists. Rather than continue to diverge on separate (albeit parallel) trajectories, bioarchaeologists are advised to pursue interlinkages with other subfields within physical anthropology toward bridging "stress" and "health." The papers in this special symposium set include bioarchaeologists, human biologists, molecular anthropologists, and primatologists whose research develops this link between the concepts of "stress" and "health," encouraging new avenues for bioarchaeologists to consider and reconsider health in past human populations. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. In search of racial types: soldiers and the anthropological mapping of the Romanian nation, 1914-44.

    PubMed

    Turda, Marius

    2013-02-01

    Turda's article explores the diverse ways in which racial research conducted on prisoners-of-war (POWs) and soldiers contributed to the emergence of anthropological narratives of national identity in Romania between 1914 and 1944. It first discusses racial typologies produced by Austrian, German, Italian and Polish anthropologists investigating POWs during the First World War, and then examines how Romanian physicians and anthropologists engaged with these typologies while refining their own scientific and nationalist agendas. An essential corollary to this development was a strong commitment to the cultivation of distinct Romanian racial types. The interwar and Second World War periods witnessed the full flowering of a Romanian race science that accommodated a racial hierarchy as the basis for national difference. Moreover, by identifying the racial types purportedly constituting the Romanian nation, anthropologists not only hoped to develop a systematic racial inventory of Romania's ethnic communities, but also to reinforce the myth of ethnogenesis, which described the Romanians as worthy of their noble European origins and legitimized their territorial claims.

  13. Contribution of forensic anthropology to identification process in Croatia: examples of victims recovered in wells.

    PubMed

    Slaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Petrovecki, Vedrana; Vyroubal, Vlasta

    2007-08-01

    To describe the contribution of forensic anthropology to the recovery, analysis, and identification of victims from the 1991-1995 war in Croatia recovered in wells. From 1996 to the present, human remains of a total of 61 individuals have been recovered from 13 wells. Six wells contained the remains of a single individual, one well contained the remains of 2 individuals, and 6 wells contained the remains 3 or more individuals. The majority of wells, containing 90.2% (55/61) of recovered individuals, were located within a 4 km radius of the Croatian-Serbian border. Forensic anthropologists re-individualized 26/61 (42.6%) individuals out of skeletonized and commingled remains, provided basic biological data on sex, age-at-death, and stature in all identifications (n=37), as well as established positive identification by recognizing unique skeletal features (antemortem fractures and skeletal evidence of antemortem surgical interventions) in 3/37 (8.1%) cases. Trauma analyses carried out by forensic anthropologists contributed to the determination of the cause of death in 38/61 (62.3%) individuals and to the probable cause of death in an additional 18/61 (29.5%) individuals. The most frequent (27/38, 71.0%) type of trauma causing death in individuals recovered from wells was a single gunshot wound. Forensic anthropologists, collaborating closely with forensic pathologists, forensic odontologists, forensic radiologists, criminologists, and molecular biologists contributed significantly to trauma analysis and identification of war victims recovered from wells.

  14. Acculturation and Its Discontents: A Case for Bringing Anthropology Back into the Conversation.

    PubMed

    Guarnaccia, Peter J; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina

    2016-02-01

    Anthropologists' contribution to the study of cultural change is urgent in light of the increasing number of people of different backgrounds who are migrating around the globe and settling in new communities, and the opportunities and challenges that come along with that process. By examining the anthropological literature on acculturation going back to the 1936 Memorandum by Redfield, Linton and Herskovits, this paper reviews and assesses the discipline's perspective on acculturation, and lays out the case for why it is critical for anthropologists to re-engage the concept. Although other disciplines, particularly psychology and sociology, have dominated the field of acculturation research more recently, they mostly have done so with a narrow focus. While it is important to acknowledge the pitfalls of anthropology's past study of acculturation, there are important features of the acculturation construct that continue to be relevant. Among these are the study of acculturation as a process that is multidimensional; the investigation of how different kinds of power affect the acculturation process; the impacts of attitudes, actions and policies of the receiving group on how acculturation proceeds; the role of "real history" in understanding processes of acculturation; and the global perspective on these processes. We suggest ways in which anthropologists can reignite the field of acculturation research by engaging with Redfield, Linton and Herskovits' framework and subsequent anthropological literature.

  15. Crafting a new science: defining paleoanthropology and its relationship to prehistoric archaeology, 1860-1890.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2014-12-01

    Paleoanthropology emerged as a science during the late nineteenth century. The discovery of prehistoric artifacts in Pleistocene deposits soon led to the excavation of fossilized human bones. The archaeologists and geologists who unearthed them were primarily concerned with determining whether the human fossils and the artifacts found with them actually dated from the Pleistocene, thus offering evidence for the geological antiquity of humans. Prehistoric archaeologists reconstructed the way of life of prehistoric peoples through the artifacts found, while anthropologists examined the human fossils. They wanted primarily to identify the races of prehistoric humans. It was within this context that French anthropologists began to use the term "paléo-anthropologie" to refer to a new scientific discipline devoted to the study of prehistoric human races and human paleontology. This essay examines how paleoanthropology was defined as a science during the 1870s and 1880s. It shows that a tension existed between the objectives and methods of archaeologists and anthropologists. Paul Topinard criticized archaeologists and argued that a new type of scientist; the paleoanthropologist trained in anatomy or zoology, was needed to study human fossils properly.

  16. Age of metamorphic events : petrochronology and hygrochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosse, Valerie; Villa, Igor M.

    2017-04-01

    Geodynamic models of the lithosphere require quantitative data from natural samples. Time is a key parameter: it allows to calculate rates and duration of geological processes and provides informations about the involved physical processes (Vance et al. 2003). Large-scale orogenic models require linking geochronological data with other parameters: structures, kinematics, magmatic and metamorphic petrology (P-T-A-X conditions), thermobarometric evolution of the lithosphere, chemical dynamics (Muller, 2003). This requires geochronometers that are both powerful chemical and petrological tracers. In-situ techniques allow dating a mineral in its petrological-microstructural environment. Getting a "date" has become quite easy... But what do we date in the end ? What is the link between the numbers obtained from the mass spectrometer and the age of the metamorphic event we are trying to date ? How can we transform the date into a geological meaningful age ? What do we learn about the behavior of the geochronometer minerals? Now that we can perform precise dating on very small samples directly in the studied rock, it is important to improve the way we interpret the ages to give them more pertinence in the geodynamic context. We propose to discuss the Th/U/Pb system isotopic closure in various metamorphic contexts using our published examples of in situ dating on monazite and zircon (Bosse et al. 2009; Didier et al. 2014, 2015). The studied examples show that (i) fluid assisted dissolution-precipitation processes rather than temperature-dependent solid diffusion predominantly govern the closure of the Th/U/Pb system (ii) monazite and zircon are sensitive to the interaction with fluids of specific composition (F, CO2, K ...), even at low temperature (iii) in the absence of fluids, monazite is able to record HT events and to retain this information in poly-orogenic contexts or during partial melting events (iv) complex chemical and isotopic zonations, well known in monazite

  17. Cholera ante portas – The re-emergence of cholera in Kinshasa after a ten-year hiatus

    PubMed Central

    Bompangue, Didier; Vesenbeckh, Silvan Manuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; Castro, Marcia; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Kebela Ilunga, Benoît; Murray, Megan

    2012-01-01

    alert. Didier Bompangue and Silvan Vesenbeckh contributed equally to this work. *corresponding author: Silvan Vesenbeckh, Harvard School of Public Health (vesenbeckh@gmail.com) Didier Bompangue is Associate Professor in the Department of Microbiology (University of Kinshasa) and Epidemiologist in the DRC Ministry of Health. He was involved in the investigations of the described outbreak since February 2011. PMID:22453903

  18. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-three AGU members are among the newly elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, announced on 25 November 2013. They are Lance F. Bosart, University at Albany, State University of New York; William Henry Brune III, Pennsylvania State University; Robert H. Byrne, University of South Florida; Walter K. Dodds, Kansas State University; Sherilyn Claire Fritz, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Kevin P. Furlong, Pennsylvania State University; Arnold L. Gordon, Columbia University; Thomas A. Herring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Malcolm Hughes, University of Arizona; Thomas C. Johnson, University of Minnesota Duluth; Jack A. Kaye, NASA; Samuel P. Kounaves, Tufts University; Klaus S. Lackner, Columbia University; Yiqi Luo, University of Oklahoma; Jean-Bernard Minster, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (UCSD); Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California; Walter Clarkson Pitman III, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; James E. Quick, Southern Methodist University; Ross J. Salawitch, University of Maryland, College Park; Didier Sornette, ETH Zürich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology); Michael Stein, University of Chicago; Bradley M. Tebo, Oregon Health and Science University; and Mark H. Thiemens, UCSD.

  19. Dofasco`s No. 6 coke battery door emissions -- Task Force

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchison, W.; Rhamey, R.

    1996-12-31

    The Cokemaking Business Unit of Dofasco Inc. is comprised of Six Batteries. The No. 6 Didier Battery is the newest and was commissioned in August of 1978. The Ovens are sealed with a Rigid Fabricated Koppers Door complete with a spring loaded Knife Edge. The Knife Edge seats against a Jamb which is fastened to the Face Plate by means of J Bolt Fasteners. The Faceplates are retained in place by Buckstays. The Door Plugs, Knife Edges and Jambs are mechanically cleaned with Hartung, Kuhn and Co. Oven Machinery on both sides of the Battery. It was recognized in 1992 that Door Emissions from the Battery were far from acceptable, in excess of 25%. The problem was that the interface between the Knife Edge and the Jamb Face had not proven to provide a gas tight seal. There were a number of contributing factors which will be dealt with in the course of this paper. In July of 1992 a Task Force was organized with a Mandate of ``Reduce Door Emissions to 0% Leakage and Improving Door/Jamb Maintenance.`` The main focus of the task force is cross trade communications and problem solving. The importance of this approach is in the decision making process which was now being transferred from the Supervisor level to the Floor level.

  20. International Congress on Transposable Elements (ICTE) 2012 in Saint Malo and the sea of TE stories.

    PubMed

    Ainouche, Abdelkader; Bétermier, Mireille; Chandler, Mick; Cordaux, Richard; Cristofari, Gaël; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Pascale; Panaud, Olivier; Quesneville, Hadi; Vaury, Chantal; Vieira, Cristina; Vitte, Clémentine

    2012-10-30

    An international conference on Transposable Elements (TEs) was held 21-24 April 2012 in Saint Malo, France. Organized by the French Transposition Community (GDR Elements Génétiques Mobiles et Génomes, CNRS) and the French Society of Genetics (SFG), the conference's goal was to bring together researchers from around the world who study transposition in diverse organisms using multiple experimental approaches. The meeting drew more than 217 attendees and most contributed through poster presentations (117), invited talks and short talks selected from poster abstracts (48 in total). The talks were organized into four scientific sessions, focused on: impact of TEs on genomes, control of transposition, evolution of TEs and mechanisms of transposition. Here, we present highlights from the talks given during the platform sessions. The conference was sponsored by Alliance pour les sciences de la vie et de la santé (Aviesan), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Université de Perpignan, Université de Rennes 1, Région Bretagne and Mobile DNA. CHAIR OF THE ORGANIZATION COMMITTEE: Jean-Marc Deragon ORGANIZERS: Abdelkader Ainouche, Mireille Bétermier, Mick Chandler, Richard Cordaux, Gaël Cristofari, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pascale Lesage, Didier Mazel, Olivier Panaud, Hadi Quesneville, Chantal Vaury, Cristina Vieira and Clémentine Vitte.

  1. Effects of eating frequency, snacking, and breakfast skipping on energy regulation: symposium overview.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    The ASN hosted a symposium entitled "Eating Patterns and Energy Balance: A Look at Eating Frequency, Snacking, and Breakfast Omission" at the Experimental Biology 2009 annual meeting on April 19, 2009, in New Orleans, LA. The symposium was chaired by Megan McCrory and co-chaired by Wayne Campbell, both from Purdue University. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts to provide an overview of research on the potential role of eating patterns in the development of overweight and obesity. Studies on eating frequency, snacking, and breakfast skipping were highlighted. In particular, evidence both for and against their roles were discussed, methodological issues that underlie controversies were addressed, and suggested future directions for research were outlined. Appetite regulation and hormonal effects were also reviewed. Megan McCrory introduced the session then discussed studies on eating frequency and energy regulation in free-living adults consuming self-selected diets. Heather Leidy summarized the state of the research on eating frequency and energy regulation in adults from controlled feedings studies. Didier Chapelot discussed various usages of "snack" and argued for a physiological basis to distinguish snacks from meals. Mark Pereira presented information on the effects of breakfast skipping and the macronutrient composition of breakfast in energy regulation and mood. A panel discussion/question and answer session ended the symposium. The symposium was videotaped and can be viewed at www.nutrition.org.

  2. Youth plus experience: the discovery of 51 Pegasi b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenadelli, Davide; Bernagozzi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In 1995, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced they discovered 51 Pegasi b, the first planet ever found around a star other than the Sun. This discovery turned out to be a milestone of recent astronomy, as it opened up a new field of research that is growing impressively these days. However, 51 Pegasi b has surprising properties as compared to the planets of the Solar System, as it is a giant planet on a very close-in orbit around its parent star. Hence, its discovery was unexpected and its actual existence did not go unchallenged. In the following years, a passionate debate sprang up, and finally astronomers accepted it, but at the price of a deep revision of our understanding of how planetary systems are formed and evolve. In the present paper, we reconstruct the dynamics of the discovery of 51 Pegasi b and the first exoplanets, the quarrel that arose among astronomers and the final acceptance of the existence of planets with unexpected characteristics. This remarkable story is recounted by means of published literature as well as interviews with several of its main protagonists.

  3. Conductor-like screening model for relaxed excited states: Implementation in the semiempirical method MSINDO.

    PubMed

    Krause, Katharina; Bredow, Thomas

    2014-03-15

    Two approaches to treat solvent polarization and reorientation effects for excited states of molecules and surfaces have been implemented in the recently developed MSINDO-sCIS method (Gadaczek, Krause, Hintze, Bredow, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2011, 7, 3675). They allow for an efficient calculation of analytical energy gradients and hence open the opportunity to investigate fluorescence effects or photochemical reactions in solution for large molecules that are difficult to treat with high-level methods. Both approaches are based on the conductor-like screening model (COSMO) (Klamt and Schüürmann, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1993, 2, 799) in combination with the configuration interaction singles (CIS) method (Foresman, Head-Gordon, Pople, and Frisch, J. Phys. Chem. 1992, 96, 135). The paper gives a brief outline of the theoretical background. As a first application, solvent shifts of three well-studied, environment-sensitive fluorescent dyes (Kucherak, Didier, Mély, and Klymchenko, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 616) have been calculated and compared with experimental results and standard time-dependent density functional theory. A statistical evaluation of MSINDO-COSMO-sCIS is provided for a set of 39 molecules suggested recently by Jacquemin et al. (Jacquemin, Planchat, Adamo, and Mennucci, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 2359). Calculated vertical and adiabatic excitation energies and fluorescence energies are compared to experimental data.

  4. The joke envelope: a neglected precursor of the psychic envelope concept in Freud's writing.

    PubMed

    Spero, Moshe Halevi

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of the primeval skin ego, psychic envelope, and related pre-ego containing and wrapping functions elaborated respectively by Esther Bick, Didier Anzieu, and Francis Tustin occupy an important position in contemporary psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice. The psychic envelope begins as a virtual mental protostructure ("proto" because it is not yet based on fully symbolized representations) that holds the budding mind together pending further developments. With maturity, the enveloping functions adopt symbolized, metaphoric form (for example, the aesthetic use of cloth, the analytic framework), but can regress to more concrete and pathological forms. The aforementioned authors based their ideas on a cluster of specific allusions to the idea of a psychic covering, barrier, or envelope in Freud's work. Yet they neglected one reference, hidden in Freud's analysis of the structure ofjokes and humor: the 'joke envelope"--die witzige Einkleidung. The present essay explores Freud's use of the term Einkleidung, including his intriguing idea that a joke requires three people whereas a dream does not and the fact that Freud nowhere speaks of a "dream envelope. "I take the "joke envelope" beyond its original context and posit a relationship between laughter and the early, normative traumas of breathing, crying, and loss, and the dawn of rhythmic envelopes that enable mentalization. Jokes and joking symbolically repeat the early rupture and rapture of breathing and self-other differentiation and the internalization of maternal containing and envelopment.

  5. The Skin-Ego: Dyadic Sensuality, Trauma in Infancy, and Adult Narcissistic Issues.

    PubMed

    Anzieu-Premmereur, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The skin-ego is a metaphor created by the French psychoanalyst Didier Anzieu to describe the process by which the infant's emerging ego develops a container for psychic contents and achieves a secure feeling of well-being. The ego encloses the psychic apparatus as the skin encloses the body. The ego becomes able to fix barriers protecting the internal world and to screen exchanges with the id, the superego, and the outside world. The skin-ego is an envelope that contains thoughts and gives to thinking activity some limits, continuity, and a protection against the instincts. The functions of the skin-ego are to maintain thoughts, to contain ideas and affects, to provide a protective shield, to register traces of primary communication with the outside world, to manage inter-sensorial correspondences, to individuate, to support sexual excitation, and to recharge the libido. The skin-ego is the foundation of the container-contained relationship. An important part of psychoanalytic work with borderline patients is the reconstruction of the earliest phases of the skin-ego and their consequences for mental organization.

  6. Successful repair of a 6 meter battery

    SciTech Connect

    Nay, K.; Gratson, M.; Wash, S.; Sundholm, J.L.; Hippe, W.; Ramani, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Following a two-year construction period, LTV Steel Company commissioned a new six-meter coke oven battery and ancillary facilities in December 1981 at the S. Chicago Works. The battery is a 60-oven Didier grouped flue underjet design capable of firing coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. In late 1990, coke side refractory damage in the form of severe spalls and holes in the walls were observed. Numerous repair techniques--welding, guniting, panel patching, end flue repairs using zero expansion brick--were employed as interim measures until a comprehensive repair plan could be implemented. A repair plan (primarily for coke side flues) was developed which envisioned end flue repairs on six walls per year beginning in late 1991, early 1992 depending on refractory delivery. However, in late 1992 it became apparent that the coke side deterioration was occurring faster than expected and that extensive pusher side deterioration was also occurring. Because of these developments, another battery inspection was performed. On the basis of this inspection, it was determined that a major rehabilitation would be required to assure long-term, environmentally acceptable operation of the battery.

  7. Contribution of Forensic Anthropology to Identification Process in Croatia: Examples of Victims Recovered in Wells

    PubMed Central

    Šlaus, Mario; Strinović, Davor; Petrovečki, Vedrana; Vyroubal, Vlasta

    2007-01-01

    Aim To describe the contribution of forensic anthropology to the recovery, analysis, and identification of victims from the 1991-1995 war in Croatia recovered in wells. Methods From 1996 to the present, human remains of a total of 61 individuals have been recovered from 13 wells. Six wells contained the remains of a single individual, one well contained the remains of 2 individuals, and 6 wells contained the remains 3 or more individuals. The majority of wells, containing 90.2% (55/61) of recovered individuals, were located within a 4 km radius of the Croatian-Serbian border. Results Forensic anthropologists re-individualized 26/61 (42.6%) individuals out of skeletonized and commingled remains, provided basic biological data on sex, age-at-death, and stature in all identifications (n = 37), as well as established positive identification by recognizing unique skeletal features (antemortem fractures and skeletal evidence of antemortem surgical interventions) in 3/37 (8.1%) cases. Trauma analyses carried out by forensic anthropologists contributed to the determination of the cause of death in 38/61 (62.3%) individuals and to the probable cause of death in an additional 18/61 (29.5%) individuals. The most frequent (27/38, 71.0%) type of trauma causing death in individuals recovered from wells was a single gunshot wound. Conclusion Forensic anthropologists, collaborating closely with forensic pathologists, forensic odontologists, forensic radiologists, criminologists, and molecular biologists contributed significantly to trauma analysis and identification of war victims recovered from wells. PMID:17696305

  8. Excavation of a Vietnam-era aircraft crash site: use of cross-cultural understanding and dual forensic recovery methods.

    PubMed

    Webster, A D

    1998-03-01

    The excavation of a 23 year-old aircraft crash site in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the transformational processes preceding its excavation in 1995-1996 are detailed. The history of the site involved an initial catastrophic event, with subsequent reclamation and disturbances. Ultimately, a recovery effort by a joint U.S. team from the Central Identification Laboratory, Hawaii (CILHI). Joint Task Force-Full Accounting (JTF-FA) and a Socialist Republic of Vietnam contingent yielded numerous human remains, personal effects, and life-support items from the crash site. This case study should be of interest to the increasing number of forensic anthropologists who carry out work in international contexts. The application of forensic anthropology in human rights abuse cases, for example in Rwanda, Argentina, and Bosnia, provide examples of such cross-cultural endeavors. Cultural factors act in the development of a site and should not be overlooked as significant taphonomic agents. The approach that an indigenous person takes to a crash site or mass grave may be quite different from our own approach, involving Western science. Holland, Anderson, and Mann (I) describe the postmortem alternation of exhumed and/or curated bone caused by indigenous South-east Asian peoples; the examples provided by these authors demonstrate how culture affects the treatment of what we would call "evidence." The international nature of an incident can add complicating "filters" to the reconstruction of events, since reclamation responses by indigenous people vary according to their interpretations of the scene. An investigating forensic anthropologist needs to understand the emic viewpoint (the insider's view), as cultural anthropologists do, when attempting to recover and reconstruct such an incident. In response to the cultural (and natural) taphonomic agents at work on such a site, the use of dual forensic recovery methods--simultaneously treating the investigation scene like an

  9. The clash of medical civilizations: experiencing "primary care" in a neoliberal culture.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian

    2012-12-01

    An anthropologist describes how he found himself at the vortex of a "clash of medical civilizations:" neoliberalism and the international primary health care movement. His involvement in a $6 million social change initiative in medical education became a basis to unlock the hidden tensions, contradictions and movements within the "primary care" phenomenon. The essay is structured on five ethnographic stories, situated on a continuum from "natural" species-level primary care to "unnatural" neoliberal primary care. Food is an element of all tales. Taking the long view of history/prehistory permits us to better recognize ideological distortions in order to more capably transform medicine.

  10. Medical anthropology and Ebola in Congo: cultural models and humanistic care.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, B S; Epelboin, A; Hewlett, B L; Formenty, P

    2005-09-01

    Seldom have medical anthropologists been involved in efforts to control high mortality diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) This paper describes the results of two distinct but complementary interventions during the first phases of an outbreak in the Republic of Congo in 2003. The first approach emphasized understanding local peoples cultural models and political-economic explanations for the disease while the second approach focused on providing more humanitarian care of patients by identifying and incorporating local beliefs and practices into patient care and response efforts.

  11. Richard Michael Suzman (1942-2015).

    PubMed

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Richard Michael Suzman, who died on April 16, 2015. Suzman was trained as a sociologist and anthropologist, but he was attracted to the approaches of demography and economics. He came to know a great deal about diverse fields of science, including health, physiology, psychology, genetics, and economics. He was a scientific leader who was on a quest to develop new transdisciplinary fields and to mobilize the best scientists to work in them. Suzman's passion for transdisciplinary science was fully expressed in his greatest achievement: the famous Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), which he initiated in 1988 and continued to guide and inspire. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Applications of a hand-held GPS receiver in South American rain forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baksh, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A hand-held Global Positioning System receiver was used to determine the precise locations of villages, houses, gardens, and other cultural and environmental features in poorly mapped South American rain forests. The Magellan NAV 1000 unit profides extremely accurate latitude and longitude information, but determination of altitude is problematical. Overall, the receiver effectively allows anthropologists to obtain essential locational data useful for categorizing land uses, mapping tribal boundaries, and other applications in regions where environmental conditions are harsh and/or accessibility is difficult.

  13. Gods, Germs, and Petri Dishes: Toward a Nonsecular Medical Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Elizabeth F S

    2016-01-01

    This commentary calls on medical anthropology to become programmatically non-secular. Despite recent anthropological critiques of secularity, within and outside of anthropology, most contemporary medical anthropologists continue to leave deities and religiosity out of their examinations of healing practices, especially in their accounts of biomedicine. Through a critical, relational constructionist lens, which traces how all entities are both constructed and real, a non-secular medical anthropology would insist that when deities are part of medical practice, they are integral to analysis. Importantly then, within the symmetrical nature of this same constructionist lens, biomedical entities like germs and petri dishes need to be accounted for just as much as deities.

  14. Applications of a hand-held GPS receiver in South American rain forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baksh, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A hand-held Global Positioning System receiver was used to determine the precise locations of villages, houses, gardens, and other cultural and environmental features in poorly mapped South American rain forests. The Magellan NAV 1000 unit profides extremely accurate latitude and longitude information, but determination of altitude is problematical. Overall, the receiver effectively allows anthropologists to obtain essential locational data useful for categorizing land uses, mapping tribal boundaries, and other applications in regions where environmental conditions are harsh and/or accessibility is difficult.

  15. Mother-infant cosleeping, breastfeeding and sudden infant death syndrome: what biological anthropology has discovered about normal infant sleep and pediatric sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    McKenna, James J; Ball, Helen L; Gettler, Lee T

    2007-01-01

    Twenty years ago a new area of inquiry was launched when anthropologists proposed that an evolutionary perspective on infancy could contribute to our understanding of unexplained infant deaths. Here we review two decades of research examining parent-infant sleep practices and the variability of maternal and infant sleep physiology and behavior in social and solitary sleeping environments. The results challenge clinical wisdom regarding "normal" infant sleep, and over the past two decades the perspective of evolutionary pediatrics has challenged the supremacy of pediatric sleep medicine in defining what are appropriate sleep environments and behaviors for healthy human infants. In this review, we employ a biocultural approach that integrates diverse lines of evidence in order to illustrate the limitations of pediatric sleep medicine in adopting a view of infants that prioritizes recent western social values over the human infant's biological heritage. We review what is known regarding infant sleeping arrangements among nonhuman primates and briefly explore the possible paleoecological context within which early human sleep patterns and parent-infant sleeping arrangements might have evolved. The first challenges made by anthropologists to the pediatric and SIDS research communities are traced, and two decades of studies into the behavior and physiology of mothers and infants sleeping together are presented up to the present. Laboratory, hospital and home studies are used to assess the biological functions of shared mother-infant sleep, especially with regard to breastfeeding promotion and SIDS reduction. Finally, we encourage other anthropologists to participate in pediatric sleep research using the unique skills and insights anthropological data provide. By employing comparative, evolutionary and cross-cultural perspectives an anthropological approach stimulates new research insights that influence the traditional medical paradigm and help to make it more inclusive

  16. The biological aspects of physiological anthropology with reference to its five keywords.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Koichi

    2005-05-01

    The methodology of physiological anthropology has been defined in the capacity of an independent academic field by five keywords: environmental adaptability, technological adaptability, physiological polymorphism, whole-body coordination and functional potentiality, clearly suggesting the direction of approach to human beings in the field of physiological anthropology. Recently, these keywords have attracted a great deal of attention from physiological anthropologists in Japan. Physiological anthropology is based on a biological framework. From the viewpoint of biology, it is essential to discuss the biological function of human behavior. In this brief conceptual manuscript, the biological aspects of physiological anthropology are discussed in relation to the five keywords.

  17. African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishengoma, Johnson M.

    2005-05-01

    This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

  18. An evolutionary perspective on health psychology: new approaches and applications.

    PubMed

    Tybur, Joshua M; Bryan, Angela D; Hooper, Ann E Caldwell

    2012-12-20

    Although health psychologists' efforts to understand and promote health are most effective when guided by theory, health psychology has not taken full advantage of theoretical insights provided by evolutionary psychology. Here, we argue that evolutionary perspectives can fruitfully inform strategies for addressing some of the challenges facing health psychologists. Evolutionary psychology's emphasis on modular, functionally specialized psychological systems can inform approaches to understanding the myriad behaviors grouped under the umbrella of "health," as can theoretical perspectives used by evolutionary anthropologists, biologists, and psychologists (e.g., Life History Theory). We detail some early investigations into evolutionary health psychology, and we provide suggestions for directions for future research.

  19. Ways of knowing: Howard Stein's border-crossing use of poetry to interrogate clinical medicine, medical education, and health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2016-09-01

    This article explores how medical anthropologist Howard Stein's poetry and his unique practice of sharing this poetry with the patients, physicians, and administrators who inspired it create ways of knowing that are at once revelatory and emancipatory. Stein's writing shows readers that poetry can be considered as a form of data and as a method of investigation into the processes of the human soul. Furthermore, it represents a kind of intervention that invites health professional readers toward connection, bridge building, and solidarity with their patients and with one another. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Tissue preservation and projectile context in a Spanish Civil War victim.

    PubMed

    Ferllini, Roxana

    2010-07-01

    Exhumations of mass graves containing the remains of those executed during the Spanish Civil War and the subsequent Franco regime are currently being conducted at the request of surviving relatives. This individual case report illustrates how soft tissue preservation, through copper ion contact in one particular victim aided in preserving the projectile in an anatomical context, thereby permitting the correct interpretation of the projectile's path and angle, which otherwise would not have been possible as no bone tissue was affected. The information obtained has important relevance for human rights investigations and the work of the forensic anthropologist. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Anthropology, ethical dissonance, and the construction of the object.

    PubMed

    Fainzang, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    In this article, I discuss certain questions relating to the ethical difficulties faced by anthropologists when dealing with two different social groups and when one group holds a position of dominance over the other. In the first example, I draw on my work on doctor-patient relationships in France; in the second, on a study on reproduction in immigrant African families from Mali and Senegal, living in polygynous households in France. I use these examples to explore questions of positionality, beneficence, and potential harm. I show the choices I made in order to construct an epistemologically ethical object.

  2. Toward a critical anthropology on the impact of global warming on health and human societies.

    PubMed

    Baer, Hans A

    2008-01-01

    This op-ed essay urges medical anthropologists to join a growing number of public health scholars to examine the impact of global warming on health. Adopting a critical medical anthropology perspective, I argue that global warming is yet another manifestation of the contradictions of the capitalist world system. Ultimately, an serious effort to mitigate the impact of global warming not only on health but also settlement patterns and subsistence will require the creation of a new global political economy based upon social parity, democratic processes, and environmental sustainability.

  3. Integrating Different Modes of Inquiry for Pre-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augsburg, Tanya; Acacio de Barros, J.

    At San Francisco State, about half of the students enrolled in Liberal Studies (LS) plan to be elementary school teachers. The LS faculty consists of an anthropologist, a physicist, a geographer, a performance scholar, and a writing composition specialist. Between 2007-2009 the five faculty members developed a curriculum that integrated our areas of expertise and attempted to make students aware of different disciplinary approaches. In this paper, the authors will discuss the changes of curriculum at the Liberal Studies program at San Francisco State University, how we integrated the disciplines, and how we addressed the needs of our students planning to be elementary school teachers.

  4. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  5. What We Can Learn From Shamanic Healing: Brief Psychotherapy With Latino Immigrant Clients

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin de Rios, Marlene

    2002-01-01

    The author, a medical anthropologist and licensed psychotherapist, draws on a database of 700 Latino immigrant families whom she has treated to demonstrate concepts and techniques of psychotherapeutic intervention that are derived from shamanic roots in the immigrant’s original culture. Congruences may exist between the shamanic techniques of the coastal and Amazonian regions of Peru and 3 Western psychotherapy techniques—hypnosis, behavior modification, and cognitive restructuring. By using historic links with Hispanic culture and the techniques discussed in the commentary, psychotherapists can acquire cultural competence that will enable them to effectively reduce mental illness symptoms presented by US Latino immigrants in clinical practice. PMID:12356595

  6. Estimating temperature exposure of burnt bone - A methodological review.

    PubMed

    Ellingham, Sarah T D; Thompson, Tim J U; Islam, Meez; Taylor, Gillian

    2015-05-01

    Forensic anthropologists are frequently confronted with the need to interpret burnt bone. Regardless of the context, one of the key factors for the correct interpretation of the remains and a reconstruction of the incidents leading to incineration is the estimation of the maximum exposure temperature. The recent years have seen an influx in experimental research focusing on temperature estimation, spanning from colour assessment, mechanical strength measurements, histology and structural observations, biochemical changes and crystallinity studies, vastly advancing the understanding of heat induced changes in bone, thus facilitating a more accurate interpretation. This paper draws together and evaluates all currently available methodologies for temperature estimation.

  7. Evaluation of spheno-occipital synchondrosis: A review of literature and considerations from forensic anthropologic point of view

    PubMed Central

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj

    2013-01-01

    Cranial sutures and synchondrosis have long been studied by forensic scientists, human anatomists, and anthropologists for estimation of age in different population groups. Observation of the closure of spheno-occipital synchondrosis has an important role to play in the estimation of age in the examination of unknown human remains when a skull is brought for examination. The present article reviews the studies conducted on the closure of spheno-occipital synchondrosis and presents a few valuable considerations that would be essential for carrying out research related to closure of spheno-occipital synchondrosis in humans. PMID:24255553

  8. ORNL`s war on crime, technically speaking

    SciTech Connect

    Xiques, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes research being carried out by the Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This program works on projects which are solvable, affordable, and outside the scope of the private sector. Examples are presented of work related to: the lifetime of childrens fingerprints compared to adults; the development of ways of providing cooler body armor; digital enhancement technology applied to security-camera images from crime scenes; victim identification by skeletal reconstruction for use by forensic anthropologists.

  9. The utopian Darcy Ribeiro archive.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Luciana Quillet

    2012-03-01

    The project in memory of anthropologist, writer and politician Darcy Ribeiro is analyzed, with emphasis on the relationship he had with his personal archives and the creation of the Darcy Ribeiro Foundation, established to give continuity to his 'legacy.' It highlights the influences present in the formation of his archive and presents an ethnography that seeks to restore the historicity of the archive. It reveals the significance attributed to it by the creator himself, and after his death, by those responsible for his memory. From this study, an attempt is made to evaluate the analytical return from socio-historical approaches to the archives.

  10. Acupuncture Research: Strategies for Clinical Evaluation: Workshop Report, York, July 5–8, 2006

    PubMed Central

    MacPherson, Hugh

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes a ground-breaking workshop on the strategic direction of acupuncture research which was held in York in early July 2006. Three days were spent discussing the history, the philosophy and the practicalities of researching acupuncture. Attending the workshop were an international group of researchers with varied backgrounds, including acupuncturists, physicians, physiotherapists, sociologists and anthropologists. Supported by the Medical Research Council's Health Services Research Collaboration, Elsevier and others, this workshop was an opportunity to brainstorm the issues and to the concerns in the field and set out directions for research that would tackle some of the major challenges facing the acupuncture research community.

  11. Anthropological and radiographic comparison of vertebrae for identification of decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z; Vidoli, Giovanna; Melinek, Judy

    2006-09-01

    This case study demonstrates the importance of involving an anthropologist in forensic situations with decomposed remains. Anthropological consultation was used in conjunction with the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs to establish positive identification of unknown, decomposed remains. The remains had no traditional identifying features such as fingerprints or dental. Through anthropological analysis, it was determined the decedent was male, between 20 and 23 years at time of death and c. 5'2'' tall. This information allowed for a presumptive identification and a request for antemortem radiographs. The missing person was identified comparing the spinous processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae between ante- and postmortem radiographs.

  12. Paul Broca (1824-1880): founder of anthropology, pioneer of neurology and oncology.

    PubMed

    Androutsos, G; Diamantis, A

    2007-01-01

    Paul Broca was an eminent surgeon, neurologist and anthropologist. He wrote many articles on brain anatomy, pathology of bones and joints, aneurysms, craniometry and physical anthropology, and he invented measuring instruments which are used even today. He described the condition of aphasia, called Broca's aphasia. Over a dozen anatomical features, including parts of the brain governing speech and smell, have made his name familiar to students. Thanks to his works on cancer and on tumors in general, he is considered as precursor of oncology.

  13. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 7: Facial analysis before the advent of the cephalometer.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Norman

    2006-02-01

    The cephalometer was not invented in a vacuum. It was the culmination of centuries of efforts on the part of artists, anthropologists, and scientists to fathom nature's vicissitudes. Whereas Renaissance investigators "caged" the human face in a series of grids in an effort to find proportional relations, 20th-century orthodontists were more interested in knowing how the teeth and jaws related to the face and cranial base. Primarily a research tool, the cephalometer became a means of unmasking a patient's whole developmental pattern, becoming our most important diagnostic tool since study models.

  14. [Determination of some somatic body dimensions by osteometric foot measurements].

    PubMed

    Zviagin, V N; Eremenko, E A

    2004-01-01

    Methods of diagnosis of somatic life-time peculiarities of man (body height, shoulders breadth and dimensions of extremities and their segments) were elaborated on the basis of a study of interrelations between the human body-built features, on the one hand, and measurement characteristics of the foot, on the other hand, by using the modern programs of multi-measurement statistics. Isolated skeleton bones of osseous complexes and fragments of native and burnt bones were the research objects. Footwear and cloths items, which belonged to an actual missing person, can be identification objects. The paper is primarily addressed to forensic medical experts and can be useful for criminalists, anthropologists and archeologists.

  15. Culture and personality studies, 1918-1960: myth and history.

    PubMed

    Levine, R A

    2001-12-01

    The field known as "culture and personality studies" in the middle decades of the 20th century was a precursor of contemporary cross-cultural research on personality. Its rejection by anthropologists and sociologists after 1950 was accompanied by stereotypes that have hardened into myth and obscured its character and relevance for contemporary investigators. This article dispels some prevalent misconceptions (concerning its chronology, its theoretical unity, its positions on individual differences and its relationship to Freudian psychoanalysis) and proposes a tentative explanation of its decline.

  16. Conducting Qualitative Research on Stigmatizing Conditions with Military Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Martha L.; Ames, Genevieve M.; Moore, Roland S.

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the conduct of qualitative research regarding sensitive or stigmatizing topics with military populations, and provides suggestions for implementing culturally responsive and effective data collection with these groups. Given high rates of underreporting of sensitive and stigmatizing conditions in the military, qualitative methods have potential to shed light on phenomena that are not well understood. Drawing on a study of U.S. Army National Guard personnel by civilian anthropologists, we present lessons learned and argue that the value of similar studies can be maximized by culturally responsive research design. PMID:27722033

  17. Art as an Evolutionary Adaptation: Inspiration from the Visible Supernovae of AD 1054 and AD 3054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, C. J.; Rappaport, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The authors, an astronomer/priest and an anthropologist/biologist, describe their use of the dramatic arts at the INSAP VIII meeting in their performance of two short skits on the sighting of a supernova in AD 1054 (creating the beautiful Crab Nebula) and a future “Rho Cas” stellar explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia, in AD 3054. They speculate on the emergence of science, religion, and art as bona fide adaptations, responding to natural selection, which served early hominins well in their struggle for existence. They draw parallels to the continued functions of science, religion, and art in modern society.

  18. Functionalists and zombis: Sorcery as spandrel and social rescue.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Roland

    2009-12-01

    At one level, anthropologists remain functionalists in that they generally see acts and institutions as contributing to a greater social whole only through which they make sense. Thus, sorcery accusations have been traditionally interpreted in terms of maintaining social harmony and cohesion. In the case of Haitian zombification, the zombi seems a locally misidentified victim who is frequently mentally ill. As a hapless non-agent, the zombi cannot initiate the sorcery accusations, so how do we understand the recognition and rescue of the zombi, either in terms of social function or social action?

  19. Agenda for an anthropology of pharmaceutical practice.

    PubMed

    Nichter, M; Vuckovic, N

    1994-12-01

    Over the last two decades, patterns of pharmaceutical-related behavior and the cultural interpretation of medicines have been examined by anthropologists in several cultural settings. In this paper the authors identify additional issues warranting study so as to broaden the scope of pharmaceutical anthropology, utilizing as a unifying focus the examination of pharmaceutical use in the context of social transformation. Ten interactive themes are presented which bridge micro-level and macro-level investigations of pharmaceutical use. The discussion moves from the discourse on 'rational drug use' to the rationales which underscore drug prescription, manufacture, and demand.

  20. The 'relics of Joan of Arc': a forensic multidisciplinary analysis.

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Poupon, J; Eb, A; De Mazancourt, P; Gilbert, T; Huynh-Charlier, I; Loublier, Y; Verhille, A M; Moulheirat, C; Patou-Mathis, M; Robbiola, L; Montagut, R; Masson, F; Etcheberry, A; Brun, L; Willerslev, E; de la Grandmaison, G Lorin; Durigon, M

    2010-01-30

    Archaeological remains can provide concrete cases, making it possible to develop, refine or validate medico-legal techniques. In the case of the so-called 'Joan of Arc's relics' (a group of bone and archaeological remains known as the 'Bottle of Chinon'), 14 specialists analysed the samples such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists, zoologist and archaeologist. Materials, methods and results of this study are presented here. This study aims to offer an exploitable methodology for the modern medico-legal cases of small quantities of human bones of carbonised aspect. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Regions of government science: John Wesley Powell in Washington and the American west.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, S

    1999-01-01

    Best known as the first down the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon, John Wesley Powell built his extraordinary career as geographer, geologist, anthropologist, bureaucrat, and conservationist from his knowledge of the arid region of the American West. Yet as much as Powell's scientific work, and his prescriptions for land reform, were grounded in the western landscape, they were equally situated in the booming Gilded Age capital of Washington, DC, where a new community of government scientists was gelling as part of an increasingly centralized federal state.

  2. Evolutionary contributions to solving the "matrilineal puzzle": a test of Holden, Sear, and Mace's model.

    PubMed

    Mattison, Siobhán M

    2011-07-01

    Matriliny has long been debated by anthropologists positing either its primitive or its puzzling nature. More recently, evolutionary anthropologists have attempted to recast matriliny as an adaptive solution to modern social and ecological environments, tying together much of what was known to be associated with matriliny. This paper briefly reviews the major anthropological currents in studies of matriliny and discusses the contribution of evolutionary anthropology to this body of literature. It discusses the utility of an evolutionary framework in the context of the first independent test of Holden et al.'s 2003 model of matriliny as daughter-biased investment. It finds that historical daughter-biased transmission of land among the Mosuo is consistent with the model, whereas current income transmission is not. In both cases, resources had equivalent impacts on male and female reproduction, a result which predicts daughter-biased resource transmission given any nonzero level of paternity uncertainty. However, whereas land was transmitted traditionally to daughters, income today is invested in both sexes. Possible reasons for this discrepancy are discussed.

  3. Marmosets as model species in neuroscience and evolutionary anthropology.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith M; Finkenwirth, Christa

    2015-04-01

    Marmosets are increasingly used as model species by both neuroscientists and evolutionary anthropologists, but with a different rationale for doing so. Whereas neuroscientists stress that marmosets share many cognitive traits with humans due to common descent, anthropologists stress those traits shared with marmosets - and callitrichid monkeys in general - due to convergent evolution, as a consequence of the cooperative breeding system that characterizes both humans and callitrichids. Similarities in socio-cognitive abilities due to convergence, rather than homology, raise the question whether these similarities also extend to the proximate regulatory mechanisms, which is particularly relevant for neuroscientific investigations. In this review, we first provide an overview of the convergent adaptations to cooperative breeding at the psychological and cognitive level in primates, which bear important implications for our understanding of human cognitive evolution. In the second part, we zoom in on two of these convergent adaptations, proactive prosociality and social learning, and compare their proximate regulation in marmosets and humans with regard to oxytocin and cognitive top down regulation. Our analysis suggests considerable similarity in these regulatory mechanisms presumably because the convergent traits emerged due to small motivational changes that define how pre-existing cognitive mechanisms are quantitatively combined. This finding reconciles the prima facie contradictory rationale for using marmosets as high priority model species in neuroscience and anthropology.

  4. [The dialogues between anthropology and health: contributions to public policies].

    PubMed

    Langdon, Esther Jean

    2014-04-01

    In order to examine the development of anthropological paradigms and their dialogue with medicine, I divide the discussion into two general, but non-exclusive, approaches: one that focuses on health and disease as social and cultural experience and construction, and another that examines health from an interactional and political perspective. For the first approach, I focus on North American and French theories that find resonance in the anthropological dialogue in Brazil. For the second political approach, the discussion originates in the dialogue among anthropologists in Latin America who have been developing models to contribute to an interdisciplinary approach necessary for health policies and intervention in health. The concepts of practices in self-care and intermedicality, among others, are explored due to their contribution in anthropology to public policies in health. These anthropologists have argued that health practices should be understood through the notions of autonomy, collectivity, agency and praxis, as opposed to the notions of the biomedical perspective characterized as being universalist, biological, individualist and a-historical.

  5. Guidelines for the recognition of cemetery remains in Greece.

    PubMed

    Eliopoulos, Constantine; Moraitis, Konstantinos; Reyes, Federico; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Manolis, Sotiris

    2011-06-01

    Forensic pathologists frequently consult anthropologists for the identification of skeletonized human remains. These remains may be the result of criminal activity or remains that were unearthed because of erosion, or during construction projects. In some cases, human remains that had been previously buried in a cemetery may be the subject of a forensic investigation. Early recognition of cemetery remains prevents unnecessary efforts and conserves precious resources. One of the key characteristics of cemetery remains is the presence of embalmed tissue. However, there are countries where embalming is not a common practice, and other clues must be sought for identifying previously buried remains. Current funerary customs in Greece and, in particular, the tradition of exhumations result in a large number of misplaced human remains. The present study presents examples of cemetery remains from Greece and offers guidelines for recognizing changes on skeletal remains that may be indicative of a cemetery origin. Location of discovery, condition of the remains, and the types of associated artifacts are all factors that aid forensic anthropologists in identifying cemetery remains.

  6. Biological anthropology and aging.

    PubMed

    Ice, Gillian H

    2005-06-01

    As the number of persons aged 65 and older is increasing dramatically in both developed and developing nations of the world, the health and well-being of elders has become a worldwide public health concern. Although older adults are now found in higher proportions across all cultures, the biology, behavior, and environment vary tremendously across older populations. Biomedical research largely follows a reductionist paradigm separating the domains of culture and biology. Even when health is examined in association with culture and behavior, biomedical researchers largely focus on static unidirectional associations instead of examining the dynamic multidirectional impact of culture, behavior, and the environment on physiology and ultimately health. Since aging and the processes of senescence clearly involve complex interactions among biological, environmental, and cultural domains, anthropologists with a bio-cultural and evolutionary perspective are well-equipped to study variation in aging and senescence. While relatively few biological anthropologists have focused their attention on aging, a growing literature has demonstrated the utility of biocultural approaches to aging. This paper serves as an introduction to a special issue that highlights the core of the biological anthropology of aging.

  7. Race in biology and anthropology: A study of college texts and professors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Leonard; Hampton, Raymond E.; Littlefield, Alice; Hallead, Glen

    Information about social issues is underemphasized in college science education. This article takes the race concept as an example of this neglect. We review the history of the race concept and report the current status of the concept in textbooks and among professors. Responses to surveys of faculty at Ph.D.-granting departments indicate that 67% of biologists accept the concept of biological races in the species Homo sapiens, while only 50% of physical anthropologists do so. Content analysis of college textbooks indicates a significant degree of change over time (1936-1984) in physical anthropology but a lesser degree in biology. We suggest several reasons for the dissimilarity in the two disciplines. We propose continued use of the concept for some infrahuman species, while abandoning its application to Homo sapiens. For those biologists and anthropologists who continue to use the concept, scientific accuracy can be achieved by the presentation in lecture and text of the following ideas: first, consensus among scientists on the race concept's utility and accuracy does not exist; second, there is more variation within than between so-called races; third, discordant gradations due to natural selection, drift, and interbreeding make consistent racial boundary lines impossible to identify; fourth, past use of the race concept has had harmful consequences; fifth, the most precise study of human hereditary variation maps one trait at a time; and sixth, racial labels are misleading, especially as most populations have a cultural designation.

  8. Bergmann's Rule, Adaptation, and Thermoregulation in Arctic Animals: Conflicting Perspectives from Physiology, Evolutionary Biology, and Physical Anthropology After World War II.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Joel B

    2017-05-01

    Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule played important roles in mid-twentieth century discussions of adaptation, variation, and geographical distribution. Although inherited from the nineteenth-century natural history tradition these rules gained significance during the consolidation of the modern synthesis as evolutionary theorists focused attention on populations as units of evolution. For systematists, the rules provided a compelling rationale for identifying geographical races or subspecies, a function that was also picked up by some physical anthropologists. More generally, the rules provided strong evidence for adaptation by natural selection. Supporters of the rules tacitly, or often explicitly, assumed that the clines described by the rules reflected adaptations for thermoregulation. This assumption was challenged by the physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Scholander based on their arctic research conducted after World War II. Their critique spurred a controversy played out in a series of articles in Evolution, in Ernst Mayr's Animal Species and Evolution, and in the writings of other prominent evolutionary biologists and physical anthropologists. Considering this episode highlights the complexity and ambiguity of important biological concepts such as adaptation, homeostasis, and self-regulation. It also demonstrates how different disciplinary orientations and styles of scientific research influenced evolutionary explanations, and the consequent difficulties of constructing a truly synthetic evolutionary biology in the decades immediately following World War II.

  9. Culture, Urbanism and Changing Human Biology.

    PubMed

    Schell, L M

    2014-04-03

    Anthropologists have long known that human activity driven by culture changes the environment. This is apparent in the archaeological record and through the study of the modern environment. Perhaps the largest change since the paleolithic era is the organization of human populations in cities. New environments can reshape human biology through evolution as shown by the evolution of the hominid lineage. Evolution is not the only process capable of reshaping our biology. Some changes in our human biology are adaptive and evolutionary while others are pathological. What changes in human biology may be wrought by the modern urban environment? One significant new change in the environment is the introduction of pollutants largely through urbanization. Pollutants can affect human biology in myriad ways. Evidence shows that human growth, reproduction, and cognitive functioning can be altered by some pollutants, and altered in different ways depending on the pollutant. Thus, pollutants have significance for human biologists and anthropologists generally. Further, they illustrate the bio-cultural interaction characterizing human change. Humans adapt by changing the environment, a cultural process, and then change biologically to adjust to that new environment. This ongoing, interactive process is a fundamental characteristic of human change over the millennia.

  10. Maori heads (mokomokai): the usefulness of a complete forensic analysis procedure.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; Champagnat, Julie; Laquay, Laetitia; Hervé, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Based on an analysis of 19 mummified Maori heads (mokomokai) referred to our forensic laboratory for anthropological analysis prior to their official repatriation from France to New Zealand, and data from the anthropological and medical literature, we propose a complete forensic procedure for the analysis of such pieces. A list of 12 original morphological criteria was developed. Items included the sex, age at death, destruction of the skull base, the presence of argil deposits in the inner part of the skull, nostrils closed with exogenous material, sewing of eyelids and lips, pierced earlobes, ante-mortem and/or post-mortem tattoos, the presence of vegetal fibers within nasal cavities, and other pathological or anthropological anomalies. These criteria were tested for all 19 mokomokai repatriated to New Zealand by the French authorities. Further complementary analyses were limited to fiberscopic examination of the intracranial cavities because of the taboo on any sampling requested by the Maori authorities. In the context of global repatriation of human artifacts to native communities, this type of anthropological expertise is increasingly frequently requested of forensic anthropologists and other practitioners. We discuss the reasons for and against repatriating non-authentic artifacts to such communities and the role played by forensic anthropologists during the authentication process.

  11. Adventures in human population biology.

    PubMed

    Baker, P T

    1996-01-01

    This article is a memoir of anthropologist Paul Baker's professional life. The introduction notes that the field of anthropology was altered by the impact of World War II when physical anthropologists provided vital information to the military. After the war, the GI bill supported the undergraduate and graduate studies of veterans, including Baker. After describing his academic training at the University of New Mexico and Harvard, Baker details his research training and field work in the desert for the US Climatic Research Laboratory and his work identifying the dead in Japan for the Quartermaster unit. Baker then traces his academic career at the Pennsylvania State University during which he directed two multidisciplinary research efforts for the International Biological Programme, one that sought to understand human adaptability at high altitude in Peru and another that studied migration and modernization in Samoa. Baker's last administrative positions were as staff consultant to the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program and as chair of the US MAB committee. Baker retired from academic life at age 60 in 1987 and has devoted his time to reading and to helping organize professional associations in anthropology, especially those devoted to furthering internationally organized scientific efforts. Baker concludes this memoir by acknowledging the growth and development of the discipline of human population biology.

  12. Claude Lévi-Strauss on Race, History, and Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    In 1952, the French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss published a small booklet titled Race and History. It formed part of a series of pamphlets on the so-called “race-question” by leading anthropologists and geneticists, which UNESCO published as part of its campaign against racism. Roughly twenty years later, in 1971, UNESCO invited Lévi-Strauss to give a lecture to open the International Year of Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. This time the lecture, titled “Race and culture,” caused a scandal. In 2005, on occasion of the Organisation’s 60th anniversary, Lévi-Strauss was once again invited by UNESCO to give a lecture. It followed the same lines as his 1971 speech, but now met with acclaim. In my paper I will analyze Lévi-Strauss’ interventions with respect to their reliance on contemporary genetics. Lévi-Strauss always saw a close analogy between structuralist anthropology and genetics, and derived his anti-evolutionary stance from the combinatory logic that both disciplines endorsed. I will argue, that it was this combinatory logic which created room for historical contingency and agency in Lévi-Strauss’ understanding of the history of humankind. PMID:25685173

  13. Ancestral differences in femoral neck axis length: possible implications for forensic anthropological analyses.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Leslie, William D; Baim, Sanford

    2014-03-01

    In forensic anthropological contexts, very few methods of estimating ancestry from the postcranial skeleton are available. The cranium is widely recognized to show the greatest ancestral variation, and is often regarded by forensic anthropologists as the only reliable bone for estimating ancestry from unidentified skeletal remains. Several studies have demonstrated ancestral variation in aspects of the femur, but none have shown significant predictive power for discriminating multiple groups, and have therefore not gained wide acceptance by forensic anthropologists. Skeletal health experts (particularly bone densitometrists), however, have long recognized a relationship between proximal femur geometry (especially hip axis length) and osteoporosis-related fracture risk. Moreover, fracture risk has been noted to vary between ancestral groups. Here, we investigate whether measurements that are related to fracture risk might also be used to estimate ancestry from unidentified skeletal remains. Specifically, we investigate ancestral differences in femoral neck axis length (FNAL) and find significant differences between European, Asian and African groups in both women and men. FNAL was largest in European groups followed by African and then Asian groups. The greatest discriminating power was found between European and Asian groups, but was also significant between European and African groups. These differences may have utility in estimating ancestry in forensic anthropological contexts.

  14. The importance of an anthropological scene of crime investigation in the case of burnt remains in vehicles: 3 case studies.

    PubMed

    Porta, Davide; Poppa, Pasquale; Regazzola, Valeria; Gibelli, Daniele; Schillaci, Daniela Roberta; Amadasi, Alberto; Magli, Francesca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    Inspection of a crime scene is a crucial step in forensic medicine, and even the methods taught by forensic anthropology are essential. Whereas a thorough inspection can provide crucial information, an approximate inspection can be useless or even harmful. This study reports 3 cases of burnt bodies found inside vehicles between 2006 and 2009 in the outskirts of Milan (Italy). In all 3 cases, the victim was killed by gunshot, and the body was burnt in the vehicle to destroy signs of skeletal injury and prevent identification. In every case, the assistance of forensic anthropologists was requested, but only after the inspection of the body at autopsy showed that the remains were incomplete, thus making it more difficult to determine the identity, cause, and manner of death. A second scene of crime inspection was therefore performed with strict anthropological and adapted archeological methods by forensic anthropologists to perform a more complete recovery, proving how much material had been left behind. These cases clearly show the importance of a proper recovery and of the application of forensic anthropology methods on badly charred bodies and the importance of recovering every fragment of bone: even the smallest fragment can provide essential information. Thus, a precise coordination, a correct and thorough recovery of bone fragments, and an anthropological approach are crucial for many issues: analysis of the scene of crime, reconstruction of the corpse, and reconstruction of the perimortem events.

  15. Migrant deaths along the California-Mexico border: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Hinkes, Madeleine J

    2008-01-01

    California shares a 150-mile international border with Mexico. Traditionally, this border has seen non-stop illegal migration. In the 1990s, the Border Patrol began a concerted effort to establish and maintain control of the border, beginning in urban San Diego. This heightened law enforcement presence, known as Operation Gatekeeper, changed the westernmost segment of the border from the most permeable to the least permeable. This enforcement pushed migrants into more dangerous crossing areas in eastern San Diego and Imperial Counties, making their trip longer and more physically challenging as they made their way through treacherous mountains, deserts, and irrigation canals. Death rates soared. Political decisions impacted human lives and the caseloads of forensic anthropologists in jurisdictions along the border. Bodies decompose rapidly here, and there are minimal sources of antemortem data. Many of these migrants are never identified. This paper, and this symposium, is an attempt to bring this situation to the notice of other anthropologists and to discuss cooperative means of addressing the issue of identification.

  16. Conversations between anthropology and psychiatry: drawing out the best from interdisciplinarity in global mental health.

    PubMed

    Rosso Buckton, Amanda

    2015-12-01

    Conversations between anthropologists and psychiatrists have led to new theoretical trajectories, research agendas and clinical practices as social scientists and medical practitioners forged new understandings about the interaction of culture, personhood and illness. However, the demands of global mental health, coupled with health service provision requirements, mean that mental health interventions set up with the best intentions can fail to take into account the knowledge and expertise that social sciences can contribute to a programme's success. In this paper, I reflect on conversations between an anthropologist and mental health professionals in direct reference to data analysis of an AusAID mental health capacity-building programme undertaken in the Pacific region. Social and cultural perspectives embedded within programmes can provide richer, more contextualised interventions. In drawing on the combined expertise of anthropology and psychiatry, new taken-for-granted reference points embedding cultural approaches form the basis for delivery of global mental health programmes. These perspectives include: Locating mental health programmes within development critiques. Situating the subjects of development within contextualised settings, acknowledging and respecting local knowledge, understandings and practices. A focus on interdisciplinarity as the basis for future practice in global mental health projects. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  17. Global Health, Medical Anthropology, and Social Marketing: Steps to the Ecology of Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Anthropology and global health have long been a focus of research for both biological and medical anthropologists. Research has looked at physiological adaptations to high altitudes, community responses to water-borne diseases, the integration of traditional and biomedical approaches to health, global responses to HIV/AIDS, and more recently, to the application of cultural approaches to the control of the Ebola epidemic. Academic anthropology has employed theory and methods to extend knowledge, but less often to apply that knowledge. However, anthropologists outside of the academy have tackled global health issues such as family planning and breast-feeding by bringing together applied medical anthropology and social marketing. In 2014, that potent and provocative combination resulted in the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida being made the home of an innovative center designed to combine academic and applied anthropology with social marketing in order to facilitate social change. This article discusses how inter- and intra-disciplinary research/application has led to the development of Florida's first World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC), and the first such center to focus on social marketing, social change and non-communicable diseases. This article explains the genesis of the Center and presents readers with a brief overview, basic principles and applications of social marketing by reviewing a case study of a water conservation project. The article concludes with thoughts on the ecology of collaboration among global health, medical anthropology and social marketing practitioners.

  18. Critical Anthropology of Global Health "takes a stand" statement: a critical medical anthropological approach to the U.S.'s Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Horton, Sarah; Abadía, Cesar; Mulligan, Jessica; Thompson, Jennifer Jo

    2014-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010--the U.S.'s first major health care reform in over half a century-has sparked new debates in the United States about individual responsibility, the collective good, and the social contract. Although the ACA aims to reduce the number of the uninsured through the simultaneous expansion of the private insurance industry and government-funded Medicaid, critics charge it merely expands rather than reforms the existing fragmented and costly employer-based health care system. Focusing in particular on the ACA's individual mandate and its planned Medicaid expansion, this statement charts a course for ethnographic contributions to the on-the-ground impact of the ACA while showcasing ways critical medical anthropologists can join the debate. We conclude with ways that anthropologists may use critiques of the ACA as a platform from which to denaturalize assumptions of "cost" and "profit" that underpin the global spread of market-based medicine more broadly. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  19. Unidentified bodies and human remains: an Italian glimpse through a European problem.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Porta, D; De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Poppa, P; Grandi, M

    2010-02-25

    The identification of cadavers (the main activity of forensic odontologists and anthropologists) is a crucial issue in forensic pathology, but the official entity of this problem is still poorly known in most countries, apart from a few American reports. In this article the authors present a descriptive study of unidentified decedents over a 14-year period (1995-2008) in Milan. The number of cadavers or human remains arriving at the morgue with no identity amounts to 454 - 3.1% of all autopsies at the Institute of Legal Medicine, with a mean of 32 unidentified subjects every year; 62% reached a positive identification in a period of time ranging from a few days to 10 years. 17% on an average remain unidentified. Most identification processes involved forensic odontology and anthropology. This study aims at revealing the problem and hopefully may provide some food for thought for forensic pathologists, anthropologists and odontologists so that they may focus on this issue and on possible solutions in their countries. 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Becoming respectable: T. Dale Stewart and the acceptance of forensic anthropology in the academic community.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, K A

    2000-03-01

    Before World War II, forensic anthropology was of peripheral interest to a few anthropologists willing to assist in investigations by law enforcement agencies. A strong bias that "police work" was unbecoming to the scholarly pursuits of academics persisted into the post-war years. Changes took place as a consequence of T. Dale Stewart's case work in the identification of human remains with the FBI from 1943 to 1969, his directorship of the National Museum of Natural History (Smithsonian Institution) beginning in 1962, and his work with the Armed Forces after 1948. This paper discusses the historic period of transition of attitudes and practices in the contexts of Stewart's contributions and the cases and teaching programs of one of his contemporaries. Theodore D. McCown at the University of California at Berkeley, during the period of 1939 to 1969. The establishment of the Physical Anthropology Section within the American Academy of Forensic Sciences in 1972 and the creation of the T. Dale Stewart award for distinguished service in forensic anthropology advanced those laboratory research programs and medical-legal investigations conducted by present-day forensic anthropologists.