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Sample records for anthropologist didier fassin

  1. Global Public Health through the Eyes of Medical Anthropologist Didier Fassin

    PubMed Central

    Hysolli, Eriona

    2009-01-01

    At the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference at Yale University, anthropologist Didier Fassin discussed social inequality and the politicization of health in the context of global public health. PMID:20027286

  2. [Contributions of the thought of Didier Fassin to a critical analysis of healthcare policies for vulnerable population groups].

    PubMed

    Weintraub, Ana Cecília Andrade de Moraes; Costa, Maria da Penha Vasconcellos

    2013-01-01

    This is a reflection on the contributions made over the last 14 years by Didier Fassin, in his analysis of issues raised by the phenomenon of migration in contemporary times, especially in France. He regards it as fundamental to comprehend the political uses behind the advent of 'humanitarian reason' and the 'empire of trauma', which underpin society today, in order to understand the suffering caused by large and small crises and the way social forces related to them act. Drawing on Foucault's concepts of biopolitics and biopower, Fassin makes a critical appraisal of the aid and assistance provided for society's 'unwanted' and their lifestyles, marked by social inclusion and exclusion via the body and trauma.

  3. New Ethical Challenges for Anthropologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluehr-Lobban, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    The first code of ethics by the American Anthropological Association, adopted in 1971, was forged during the Vietnam War, years after revelations that anthropologists had engaged in counterinsurgency research in Southeast Asia. Now, in response to issues raised by the war in Iraq, the author advocates that it is time for a new code. Members of the…

  4. An Anthropologist in the Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Nancy Fried Foster was an anthropologist hired by University of Rochester's library to study its undergraduates, to help shed light on how they do their research and write papers, and how they spend their days. The results of the study helped guide a library renovation, influenced a Web-site redesign, led to changes in the way the library markets…

  5. Anthropologists in the Looking Glass.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Bernice A.

    A historical and anthropological analysis of the nature of conventions held by the American Anthropological Association (AAA) is presented. The author, who is an anthropologist, plays the role of participant observer in studying the phenomenon of meetings of the AAA. During the late 1940s and early 1950s, AAA meetings were very small and…

  6. Anthropologists' views on race, ancestry, and genetics

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Joon‐Ho; Ifekwunigwe, Jayne O.; Harrell, Tanya M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Royal, Charmaine D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Controversies over race conceptualizations have been ongoing for centuries and have been shaped, in part, by anthropologists. Objective To assess anthropologists' views on race, genetics, and ancestry. Methods In 2012 a broad national survey of anthropologists examined prevailing views on race, ancestry, and genetics. Results Results demonstrate consensus that there are no human biological races and recognition that race exists as lived social experiences that can have important effects on health. Discussion Racial privilege affects anthropologists' views on race, underscoring the importance that anthropologists be vigilant of biases in the profession and practice. Anthropologists must mitigate racial biases in society wherever they might be lurking and quash any sociopolitical attempts to normalize or promote racist rhetoric, sentiment, and behavior. PMID:27874171

  7. Media Anthropologist Newsletter. Volume 1, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, C. A., Ed.

    The aim of media anthropologists is to provide the general public with entertaining, relevant anthropological background information through the public media. This quarterly newsletter disseminates information, promotes awareness of present physical and social issues, and offers a means of intercommunication on the topic of Media Anthropology.…

  8. The Anthropologist as Essayist: Clifford Geertz.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Miriam Dempsey

    Based on the premise that the most viable form of discovery for the ethnographer is the personal essay--which has been called "the expression of the self thinking" (Alfred Kazin) or writing as learning and thinking--this paper examines the work of anthropologist Clifford Geertz in the light of that definition. Particular attention is…

  9. Epigenetics for anthropologists: An introduction to methods.

    PubMed

    Non, Amy L; Thayer, Zaneta M

    2015-01-01

    The study of epigenetics, or chemical modifications to the genome that may alter gene expression, is a growing area of interest for social scientists. Anthropologists and human biologists are interested in epigenetics specifically, as it provides a potential link between the environment and the genome, as well as a new layer of complexity for the study of human biological variation. In pace with the rapid increase in interest in epigenetic research, the range of methods has greatly expanded over the past decade. The primary objective of this article is to provide an overview of the current methods for assaying DNA methylation, the most commonly studied epigenetic modification. We will address considerations for all steps required to plan and conduct an analysis of DNA methylation, from appropriate sample collection, to the most commonly used methods for laboratory analyses of locus-specific and genome-wide approaches, and recommendations for statistical analyses. Key challenges in the study of DNA methylation are also discussed, including tissue specificity, the stability of measures, timing of sample collection, statistical considerations, batch effects, and challenges related to analysis and interpretation of data. Our hope is that this review serves as a primer for anthropologists and human biologists interested in incorporating epigenetic data into their research programs.

  10. Anthropologists and Policy-Relevant Research: The Case for Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Milton M. R.

    Anthropology research should be relevant to public policy formation. If anthropologists continue to produce research which reflects a "detached observer" perspective, their studies will not enjoy widespread credibility. The use of policy-relevant anthropology (applied anthropology) will depend in large part on the efforts of anthropologists toward…

  11. Perspective on Minority Education: An Interview with Anthropologist John Ogbu.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Kathryn R.

    1981-01-01

    Nigerian anthropologist John Ogbu examines the academic failure of minority groups within the context of American society and draws comparisons to minority group education in five other cultures. (MKM)

  12. Making Strangers at Home: Anthropologists Studying Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumar, Wesley

    2004-01-01

    This article seeks to isolate one major strand of work in American cultural anthropology together with its implications for the study of higher education. While the number of anthropologists who do research on higher education is fairly small, the importance of the field's theoretical and methodological contributions is significant. This article…

  13. Anthropology with an Agenda: Four Forgotten Dance Anthropologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Katrina

    2010-01-01

    In response to postcolonial, feminist and subaltern critiques of anthropology, this article seeks to answer the question, "For whom should research be conducted, and by whom should it be used?" by examining the lives and works of four female dance anthropologists. Franziska Boas, Zora Neale Hurston, Katherine Dunham and Pearl Primus used…

  14. Quantifying characters: polygenist anthropologists and the hardening of heredity.

    PubMed

    Hume, Brad D

    2008-01-01

    Scholars studying the history of heredity suggest that during the 19th-century biologists and anthropologists viewed characteristics as a collection of blended qualities passed on from the parents. Many argued that those characteristics could be very much affected by environmental circumstances, which scholars call the inheritance of acquired characteristics or "soft" heredity. According to these accounts, Gregor Mendel reconceived heredity--seeing distinct hereditary units that remain unchanged by the environment. This resulted in particular traits that breed true in succeeding generations, or "hard" heredity. The author argues that polygenist anthropology (an argument that humanity consisted of many species) and anthropometry in general should be seen as a hardening of heredity. Using a debate between Philadelphia anthropologist and physician, Samuel G. Morton, and Charleston naturalist and reverend, John Bachman, as a springboard, the author contends that polygenist anthropologists hardened heredity by conceiving of durable traits that might reappear even after a race has been eliminated. Polygenists saw anthropometry (the measurement of humans) as one method of quantifying hereditary qualities. These statistical ranges were ostensibly characteristics that bred true and that defined racial groups. Further, Morton's interest in hybridity and racial mixing demonstrates that the polygenists focused as much on the transmission and recognition of "amalgamations" of characters as they did on racial categories themselves. The author suggests that seeing race science as the study of heritable, statistical characteristics rather than broad categories helps explain why "race" is such a persistent cultural phenomenon.

  15. Anthropologists address health equity: recognizing barriers to care

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Systems change is necessary for improving health care in the United States, especially for populations suffering from health disparities. Theoretical and methodological contributions of anthropology to health care design and delivery can inform systems change by providing a window into provider and patient perceptions and practices. Our community-engaged research teams conduct in-depth investigations of provider perceptions of patients, often uncovering gaps between patient and provider perceptions resulting in the degradation of health equity. We present examples of projects where collaborations between anthropologists and health professionals resulted in actionable data on functioning and malfunctioning systemic momentum toward efforts to eliminate disparities and support wellness. PMID:27158189

  16. How conservative are evolutionary anthropologists?: a survey of political attitudes.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Henry F; Smith, Eric A

    2012-09-01

    The application of evolutionary theory to human behavior has elicited a variety of critiques, some of which charge that this approach expresses or encourages conservative or reactionary political agendas. In a survey of graduate students in psychology, Tybur, Miller, and Gangestad (Human Nature, 18, 313-328, 2007) found that the political attitudes of those who use an evolutionary approach did not differ from those of other psychology grad students. Here, we present results from a directed online survey of a broad sample of graduate students in anthropology that assays political views. We found that evolutionary anthropology graduate students were very liberal in their political beliefs, overwhelmingly voted for a liberal U.S. presidential candidate in the 2008 election, and identified with liberal political parties; in this, they were almost indistinguishable from non-evolutionary anthropology students. Our results contradict the view that evolutionary anthropologists hold conservative or reactionary political views. We discuss some possible reasons for the persistence of this view in terms of the sociology of science.

  17. Missionaries, Anthropologists, and Cultural Change [Part I]. Studies in Third World Societies. Publication Number Twenty-Five.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiteman, Darrell L., Ed.

    The topics of anthropologist-missionary relationships, theology and missiology, research methods and missionary contributions to ethnology, and missionary training and methods, along with specific case studies are presented. The 13 essays are: (1) "Prospects for a Better Understanding and Closer Cooperation between Anthropologists and…

  18. The Upper Skagit Indians of Western Washington. Two Reviews: An Anthropologists' View; An Indians' Viewpoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amoss, Pamela T.; Hilbert, Vi

    1976-01-01

    The anthropologist notes that the book is flawed by awkward writing and careless recording of native terms, while the Indian observes that the book presents a colorless account of a vibrant people whose adjustment to an invading Caucasian culture still left them with a sense of humor. (Author/AM)

  19. ’Huts and Nuts’ or ’Hearts and Minds?’ -- Anthropologists and Operational Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-06

    military. During World War I, a leading cultural anthropologist Franz Boas publicly criticized four of his contemporaries for using their profession as...Ku Klux Klan. Ruth Benedict’s mentor Franz Boas was the first to introduce “scientific antiracism” which Benedict faithfully fleshed out in her 1934

  20. Constructing Anthropologists: Culture Learning and Culture Making in U.S. Doctoral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathurst, Laura

    2012-01-01

    In the tradition of anthropological reflexivity, this article examines how the structure of early doctoral training contributes to the construction of particular kinds of anthropologists. Based on research conducted in an anthropology department in the U.S.A. during the late 1990s, the experience of the transition from undergraduate to doctoral…

  1. Becoming a Researcher: Forms of Capital Associated with "Research Capacity" Trajectories of Young British Social Anthropologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holligan, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The paper privileges the "voices" of British social anthropologists examining their perceptions of how their research expertise was acquired. Reference is made to the case of education research in Britain, which, by comparison with social anthropology, reveals limited capacity as measured through performance audits of scientific research…

  2. Nineteenth-Century Racism: The Anthropologist Who First Defined the Negro's Place in Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Presents excerpts from an 1863 address by British anthropologist James Hunt to the Anthropological Society of London. Hunt's paper, "The Negro's Place in Nature," has been called the most important document in an era that laid the foundation for scientific racism. In it, Hunt suggested that physical characteristics of the Negro race were related…

  3. Chronic alcoholism and bone remodeling processes: Caveats and considerations for the forensic anthropologist.

    PubMed

    Michael, Amy R; Bengtson, Jennifer D

    2016-02-01

    Clinical literature provides substantial information on the effects of chronic alcohol abuse on bone remodeling and related skeletal disease processes. This biomedical information is seldom considered in detail by forensic anthropologists, who often rely on normative macroscopic models of bone remodeling and traditional macroscopic age estimation methods in the creation of biological profiles. The case study presented here considers the ways that alcoholism disrupts normal bone remodeling processes, thus skewing estimations of age-at-death. Alcoholism affects bone macroscopically, resulting in a porous appearance and an older estimation of age, while simultaneously inhibiting osteoblastic activity and resulting in a younger microscopic appearance. Forensic anthropologists must also be cognizant of pathological remodeling stemming from alcoholism in cases where trauma analysis is critical to the reconstruction of events leading up to death, as fracture healing rates can be affected. Beyond the case study, we also consider how forensic anthropologists and practitioners can recognize and account for osteological signatures of alcoholism in medico-legal contexts. In order to best estimate age at death, a combined macroscopic and microscopic approach should be employed whenever possible alcohol and drug abuse is known or suspected.

  4. Juan Comas's summary history of the American association of physical anthropologists (1928-1968).

    PubMed

    Alfonso, Marta P; Little, Michael A

    2005-01-01

    This translation of Juan Comas's Summary History of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists was originally published in Spanish by the Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, Mexico, in 1969 (Departamento de Investigaciones Antropológicas, Publication 22). Physical anthropologists from North America and members of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists owe Juan Comas a debt of gratitude for having labored to produce this Summary History of the AAPA. There is much useful and interesting material in this document: extensive endnotes that are helpful to the historian of the profession; an appendix of the Journal issues where the proceedings of annual meetings can be found; a detailed listing of contributors of papers to annual meetings from 1930-1968; a warm acknowledgment and history of the contributions of the Wenner-Gren Foundation to biological anthropology; a history of the Yearbook of Physical Anthropology; and comments on the short-lived PA Newsletter. In addition, there are appendices with the founding AAPA Constitution and By-Laws from 1930 and as they existed in 1968. All of this synoptic information saves the reader with interests in the history of the AAPA considerable effort, especially when few university and college libraries have the full (old and new) series of the AJPA on their shelves. We have tried to provide a translation of Comas's history that is faithful to the original Spanish-language publication. In a few cases, we shortened sentences and applied a slightly more modern usage than was popular in the late 1960s.

  5. An Engineer, an Architect, and an Anthropologist Walk into a Conference Room...

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Jo

    2016-01-01

    Ethnographers are urged to "be there", in the field, in order to gain insight about a particular culture. When the field is unreachable, or does not yet exist, the applied anthropologist must adapt their methods accordingly while maintaining the integrity of their research. The space industry presents a unique case study for such a dilemma. Drawing on Bourdieu's 1977 reflection on the structural constraints and the forming of unconscious schemes of thought imposed by the material world on the body, this paper considers the effect of the presence and absence of place in applied, collaborative anthropological work.

  6. Accuracy Rates of Ancestry Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists Using Identified Forensic Cases.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H

    2017-01-30

    A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the ancestry of a decedent by comparing their skeletal morphology and measurements to skeletons of individuals from known geographic groups. However, the accuracy rates of ancestry estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses 99 forensic cases with identified skeletal remains to develop accuracy rates for ancestry estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct ancestry estimation from these cases is 90.9%, which is comparable to most research-derived rates and those reported by individual practitioners. Statistical tests showed no significant difference in accuracy rates depending on examiner education level or on the estimated or identified ancestry. More recent cases showed a significantly higher accuracy rate. The incorporation of metric analyses into the ancestry estimate in these cases led to a higher accuracy rate.

  7. The Mother of Microloans (and Obama): A Q&A with Anthropologist and Author, Alice G. Dewey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Christine

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Alice G. Dewey, professor emeritus at the University of Hawai'i at Manoa and granddaughter of the renowned American philosopher John Dewey. She is an economic anthropologist who did ground-breaking research on local markets in Indonesia in the 1950s. She recently co-edited "Surviving Against the Odds:…

  8. A new definition of health? An open letter of autochthonous peoples and medical anthropologists to the WHO.

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Coppens, Y; Malaurie, J; Brun, L; Kepanga, M; Hoang-Opermann, V; Correa Calfin, J A; Nuku, G; Ushiga, M; Schor, X E; Deo, S; Hassin, J; Hervé, C

    2017-01-01

    Currently, for many practitioners (hospital and liberals) and researchers (including public health), the WHO definition of health is outdated: first it seems more utopian than pragmatic; then, it proves unsuitable for a large part of the world population. There is clearly a need to refine this definition or propose additional criteria to be more relevant or discriminating. In this perspective, what can indigenous people offer in the elaboration of a new definition of health? In this article, leaders or representatives of autochthonous peoples, anthropologists and physicians from many cultural origins (Amazonia, Patagonia, Papua New-Guinea, Inuit, North-American Indian, sub-Saharan Africa, India, China, Melanesia and Polynesia) have tried to identify and explain several key concepts that WHO should reintegrate into its new definition of health: human equilibrium in nature, accepted spirituality and adaptation. On the sidelines of the application of COP21 decisions that should give back to man his place into the environment, autochthonous people leaders, anthropologists and MDs explain why these three concepts are fundamental and universal health determinants, and need to be included in a new WHO definition of health.

  9. How should forensic anthropologists correct national weather service temperature data for use in estimating the postmortem interval?

    PubMed

    Dabbs, Gretchen R

    2015-05-01

    This study examines the correlation between site-specific and retrospectively collected temperature data from the National Weather Service (NWS) over an extended time period. Using iButtonLink thermochrons (model DS1921G), hourly temperature readings were collected at 15 sites (1 validation; 14 experimental) from December 2010 to January 2012. Comparison between the site-specific temperature data and data retrieved from an official reporter of NWS temperature data shows statistically significant differences between the two in 71.4% (10/14) of cases. The difference ranged between 0.04 and 2.81°C. Examination of both regression and simple adjustment of the mean difference over extended periods (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, & 9 months) suggests that on the timescale typical in forensic anthropology cases neither method of correction is consistent or reliable and that forensic anthropologists would be better suited using uncorrected NWS temperature data when the postmortem interval is extended.

  10. [Social anthropology and anthropologists of the past and present: from exoticism and the imagined reciprocity to everyday inequalities].

    PubMed

    Neufeld, María Rosa

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine two moments in anthropology. First we characterize anthropology as a subject specialized in the study of "the others", which developed in those countries that led the European and North American colonial expansion. We underline the links that existed between this historical context, the features of ethnography -the theoretic-methodological approach developed by anthropologistsand the concept of culture, that became the core of this discipline. Secondly, we intend to further the understanding of some trends of contemporary anthropology: the fact that nowadays anthropologists work on the societies they belong to, their operations (documenting the undocumented, unveiling dayliness, de-naturalizing), which find their roots in earlier anthropology. It also highlights the shift of focus from reciprocity relations to power and inequity relations. Finally it sheds light on some original developments in Latin American anthropology, considering some cases in Mexico, Brazil and Argentina.

  11. Accuracy Rates of Sex Estimation by Forensic Anthropologists through Comparison with DNA Typing Results in Forensic Casework.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Parks, Connie L; Richard, Adam H

    2016-09-01

    A common task in forensic anthropology involves the estimation of the biological sex of a decedent by exploiting the sexual dimorphism between males and females. Estimation methods are often based on analysis of skeletal collections of known sex and most include a research-based accuracy rate. However, the accuracy rates of sex estimation methods in actual forensic casework have rarely been studied. This article uses sex determinations based on DNA results from 360 forensic cases to develop accuracy rates for sex estimations conducted by forensic anthropologists. The overall rate of correct sex estimation from these cases is 94.7% with increasing accuracy rates as more skeletal material is available for analysis and as the education level and certification of the examiner increases. Nine of 19 incorrect assessments resulted from cases in which one skeletal element was available, suggesting that the use of an "undetermined" result may be more appropriate for these cases.

  12. New Directions in U.S. Foreign Assistance and New Roles for Anthropologists. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Forty-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, John P., Ed.; Clark, Mari H., Ed.

    Given recent developments throughout the world, the status of U.S. foreign assistance policies is uncertain. This document is a collection of papers whose authors, all anthropologists concerned with developing nations, critically examine new directions in development assistance in the 1990s. The papers include an introduction (M. Clark; J. Mason);…

  13. What Does It Mean to Be an Activist Scholar? Re-imagining Our Responses as Anthropologists of Education to Contemporary Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    In this address, I ask: What do we bring as anthropologists and educators to our work? Two projects frame my arguments: my work with teachers in Aceh, Indonesia after the 2004 tsunami and my term on a school board in an impoverished U.S. city. I conclude that at a time when challenges are simultaneously local and global, immediate and long term,…

  14. An anthropologist in unexpected places

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Johan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Much contemporary anthropology has turned away from exclusive focus on so-called “primitive” tribes in far-away places. The study of urban people has become more prominent, and some researchers have also turned their gaze towards marginalized minorities in their communities. Philippe Bourgois is an example of this. He is well known for studying crack dealers in East Harlem, New York ( In Search of Respect) and homeless heroin addicts in San Francisco (Righteous Dopefiend). Kula Kula was lucky enough to catch him in his office, and had a chat via skype. PMID:25436019

  15. An Anthropologist Bridges Two Worlds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Philippe Bourgois, who has spent his career studying some of America's roughest neighborhoods and subcultures, got an unusually harsh welcome to his new hometown: Last May, during a trip to North Philly to make contact with some drug dealers, he got caught up in a police raid. The arrest was Bourgois's first, though hardly his first brush with…

  16. An Anthropologist's Reflections on Defining Quality in Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Joseph

    2007-01-01

    In the USA there is a contemporary discourse of crisis about the state of education and a parallel discourse that lays a large portion of the blame onto the poor quality of educational research. The solution offered is "scientific research." This article presents critiques of the core assumptions of the scientific research as secure argument.…

  17. Workshop Report: Early-Career Anthropologists: Vocation and Occupation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follis, Karolina S.; Rogler, Christian R.

    2015-01-01

    Casualisation takes different forms in different academic contexts, from the "adjunctification" of teaching in the U.S.A. to precarious grant-funded postdoc positions common in Europe and the U.K. and the efforts to introduce other forms of temporary academic employment in New Zealand (Shore and Davidson 2014) and Australia (Barcan…

  18. Sir Richard Francis Burton: explorer, anthropologist, irregular physician.

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, D K; Lee, R V

    1995-01-01

    Travellers to remote areas seem to have a magical aura. Indigenous folk often seek them out asking for medical treatment. It does not matter whether or not the traveller is in fact a doctor. Non-medical travellers have rendered good care, and by so doing ensured the success of their expedition. Nevertheless, there are reservations about 'playing doctor' and many travellers shun the role. Others, however, have purposefully impersonated doctors and capitalized on their medical fraud. PMID:7636816

  19. Sir Richard Francis Burton: explorer, anthropologist, irregular physician.

    PubMed

    Pollock, D K; Lee, R V

    1995-05-01

    Travellers to remote areas seem to have a magical aura. Indigenous folk often seek them out asking for medical treatment. It does not matter whether or not the traveller is in fact a doctor. Non-medical travellers have rendered good care, and by so doing ensured the success of their expedition. Nevertheless, there are reservations about 'playing doctor' and many travellers shun the role. Others, however, have purposefully impersonated doctors and capitalized on their medical fraud.

  20. An Anthropologist Examines the Navy’s Recruiting Process.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-12-01

    Mexican-American population of the south Rio Grande valley demonstrates a value complex and economic situation which is significantly less acculturated...be called upon by a continued life in the valley. The fundamental barrier to the recruitment of Hispanics in the south Rio Grande valley--and this is...significantly larger city, with an economy founded on a long-standing tourist trade, and on recently expanded energy interests. Unlike the towns of the Rio

  1. Cesare Lombroso: an anthropologist between evolution and degeneration.

    PubMed

    Mazzarello, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Cesare Lombroso (1835-1909) was a prominent Italian medical doctor and intellectual in the second half of the nineteenth century. He became world famous for his theory that criminality, madness and genius were all sides of the same psychobiological condition: an expression of degeneration, a sort of regression along the phylogenetic scale, and an arrest at an early stage of evolution. Degeneration affected criminals especially, in particular the "born delinquent" whose development had stopped at an early stage, making them the most "atavistic" types of human being. Lombroso also advocated the theory that genius was closely linked with madness. A man of genius was a degenerate, an example of retrograde evolution in whom madness was a form of "biological compensation" for excessive intellectual development. To confirm this theory, in August 1897, Lombroso, while attending the Twelfth International Medical Congress in Moscow, decided to meet the great Russian writer Lev Tolstoy in order to directly verify, in him, his theory of degeneration in the genius. Lombroso's anthropological ideas fuelled a heated debate on the biological determinism of human behaviour.

  2. Cesare Lombroso: an anthropologist between evolution and degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Mazzarello, Paolo

    Summary Cesare Lombroso (1835–1909) was a prominent Italian medical doctor and intellectual in the second half of the nineteenth century. He became world famous for his theory that criminality, madness and genius were all sides of the same psychobiological condition: an expression of degeneration , a sort of regression along the phylogenetic scale, and an arrest at an early stage of evolution. Degeneration affected criminals especially, in particular the “born delinquent” whose development had stopped at an early stage, making them the most “atavistic” types of human being. Lombroso also advocated the theory that genius was closely linked with madness. A man of genius was a degenerate, an example of retrograde evolution in whom madness was a form of “biological compensation” for excessive intellectual development. To confirm this theory, in August 1897, Lombroso, while attending the Twelfth International Medical Congress in Moscow, decided to meet the great Russian writer Lev Tolstoy in order to directly verify, in him, his theory of degeneration in the genius. Lombroso’s anthropological ideas fuelled a heated debate on the biological determinism of human behaviour. PMID:21729591

  3. To Fairly Tell: Social Mobility, Life Histories, and the Anthropologist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benei, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on social agents' own understandings of socio-economic mobility and social achievement, exploring the possibilities offered by the tool of "family" life history in the context of formerly Untouchable communities in western India, Maharashtra. While arguing in favour of family life histories as both resource and…

  4. [Toulouse, an "urban figure of public health". Dealing with public local struggles against health social differences].

    PubMed

    Basson, J-C; Haschar-Noé, N; Honta, M

    2013-06-01

    When drawing up the portrait of "urban figures of public health", in 1998, Didier Fassin considered Toulouse to be one of the worthy "local experiments". Fifteen years after his precursory work, the recently developed local public policy against health social differences gives an opportunity to question ourselves about the effectiveness of such a quality then associated to the city. A cognitive analysis of the elaboration of the Toulousian health public policy meaning enables to notice that the process of health legitimization on a local scale takes the following forms. On the one hand, renaming health as a legitimate object of public policies sets it up as a common wealth. On the other hand, local public policy puts the emphasis on health education and tries to increase the standing of social appraisal coming from associative experiments and abilities of the inhabitants themselves. Finally, it calls for citizens' mobilization and solidarity in order to promote a "health democracy" able to struggle efficiently against health social differences.

  5. The Review of and Reaction to Selected Anthropology Projects by Professional Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dynneson, Thomas L.; Taylor, Bob L.

    The main concern of this paper is to determine the accuracy and representativeness of anthropology material from: Anthropology Curriculum Project (ACP); Education Development Center's Man A Course of Study (MACOS); Materials and Activities for Teachers and Children (MATCH); University of Minnesota's Project Social Studies; Anthropology Curriculum…

  6. T. Dale Stewart's perspective on his career as a forensic anthropologist at the Smithsonian.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, D H

    2000-03-01

    T. D. Stewart (1901-1997) is internationally recognized as an early leader in forensic anthropology. In a series of taped interviews in 1975 and in 1986, Stewart discusses his professional development. The interviews document his early education in Delta, Pennsylvania, his long career at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC and aspects of his many contributions to forensic anthropology. His well-known careful editorial work and exhaustive, problem-oriented research approach may have been influenced by his early training in his hometown bank and his many years of apprenticeship under Ales Hrdlicka (1869-1943). Stewart describes aspects of the difficulties of working for Hrdlicka, yet credits the work ethic established by him as a formative factor in his own prodigious productivity.

  7. How to make stone soup: Is the "Paleo diet" a missed opportunity for anthropologists?

    PubMed

    Chang, Melanie L; Nowell, April

    2016-09-01

    For the past few years, people everywhere have been "going Paleo." Websites and social media touting the benefits of eating a "Paleo diet" and following a "Paleolithic life style" serve as calls to arms for health-conscious individuals seeking information about the latest health and fitness trends. Many of these people participate in programs such as Crossfit, which involve major social and life-style modification components and therefore facilitate the dissemination of dietary fads.(1) The PALEOf(x)(TM) conference, which bills itself as "the world's premier holistic wellness event," has attracted sellout crowds of thousands of attendees for the last four years.(2) Consumers can wear Paleo clothing, download Paleo shopping and exercise apps to their smartphones, order prepackaged Paleo food, prepare it using Paleo cooking implements, or expediently buy Paleo convenience foods from Paleodiet™ vending machines(3) and "Cultured Caveman" food trucks.(4) The Paleo diet is touted by movie stars, reality TV personalities, and professional athletes, including LeBron James and the entire Miami Dolphins NFL team.(5,6) Books with titles such as The Primal Blueprint,(7) Cavewomen Don't Get Fat,(8) and Paleo Perfected(9) (the latter by the stodgy America's Test Kitchen) are legion, and many are bestsellers.

  8. Empowering Teachers and Parents: School Restructuring through the Eyes of Anthropologists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, G. Alfred, Jr., Ed.

    Elmore (1990) has presented two contrasting models of school restructuring, each with different views about who is empowered--teachers or parents. This book examines what happens when schools and school districts attempt to implement either of these models. Following the introduction, "Examining School Restructuring Efforts," by G.…

  9. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: A medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Trotter, R.T. II )

    1990-11-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources; food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models.

  10. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: a medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Trotter, R T

    1990-01-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources: food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models. PMID:2088759

  11. An Anthropologist among the Psychometricians: Assessment Events, Ethnography, and Differential Item Functioning in the Mongolian Gobi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maddox, Bryan; Zumbo, Bruno D.; Tay-Lim, Brenda; Qu, Demin

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the potential for ethnographic observations to inform the analysis of test item performance. In 2010, a standardized, large-scale adult literacy assessment took place in Mongolia as part of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Literacy Assessment and Monitoring Programme (LAMP). In a novel form…

  12. A Mind for All Seasons: Astronomer, Anthropologist, Reformer Tony Aveni Is Professor of the Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anne Lowrey

    1982-01-01

    A profile of Tony Aveni, the 1982 Professor of the Year, is presented. A popular teacher who has also played a central role in founding the discipline for archeoastronomy, he has organized three seminal conferences in the field and has been at the center of curriculum reform at Colgate University. (MLW)

  13. The quest for an absolute chronology in human prehistory: anthropologists, chemists and the fluorine dating method in palaeoanthropology.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, Matthew R; Olson, Cora

    2009-03-01

    By the early twentieth century there was a growing need within palaeoanthropology and prehistoric archaeology to find a way of dating fossils and artefacts in order to know the age of specific specimens, but more importantly to establish an absolute chronology for human prehistory. The radiocarbon and potassium-argon dating methods revolutionized palaeoanthropology during the last half of the twentieth century. However, prior to the invention of these methods there were attempts to devise chemical means of dating fossil bone. Collaborations between Emile Rivière and Adolphe Carnot in the 1890s led to the development of the fluorine dating method, but it was not until the 1940s that this method was improved and widely implemented by Kenneth Oakley to resolve a number of problems in palaeoanthropology, including the Piltdown Man controversy. The invention of the fluorine dating method marked a significant advance in the quest for absolute dating in palaeoanthropology, but it also highlights interesting problems and issues relating to the ability of palaeoanthropologists and chemists to bring together different skills and bodies of knowledge in order successfully to develop and apply the fluorine dating method.

  14. THE PUERTO RICAN FAMILY AND THE ANTHROPOLOGIST--OSCAR LEWIS, "LA VIDA," AND THE CULTURE OF POVERTY. REVIEW ARTICLE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CORDASCO, FRANK M.

    QUESTIONS ARE RAISED IN THIS BOOK REVIEW OF "LA VIDA" ABOUT OSCAR LEWIS'S CONCEPT OF THE "CULTURE OF POVERTY" AND ABOUT THE TYPICALITY OF THE RIOS FAMILY, AN ISSUE CENTRAL TO THE VALIDITY OF THE BOOK'S CONCLUSIONS. FEARS ARE EXPRESSED ABOUT THE POPULARIZATION OF THE BOOK'S FINDINGS AND THEIR WIDESPREAD APPLICATION. THIS ARTICLE IS PUBLISHED IN…

  15. An Anthropologist Who Studies Music and Poetics in a Rain Forest in Papua New Guinea Worries about the Future of the Natives There.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    1991-01-01

    Living with the Kaluli of Papua New Guinea and completing his anthropology dissertation, Steven Feld saw ceremonial life begin to die and the sounds of helicopters and drill rigs compete with birds and waterfalls. Feld's sophisticated recordings preserve some ways in which the people act and blend with their environment. (MSE)

  16. Discours polemique, refutation et resolution des sequences conversationnelles (Argumentative Discourse, Refutation and Outcome of Conversational Sequences).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeschler, Jacques

    1981-01-01

    Analyzes the strategies employed in terminating conversational exchanges, with particular attention to argumentative sequences. Examines the features that distinguish these sequences from those that have a transactional character, and discusses the patterns of verbal interaction attendant to negative responses. Societe Nouvelle Didier Erudition,…

  17. L'E.A.P. ou l'anglais enseigne dans les etudes superieures. Un guide pour le debutant (E.A.P. or English for Academic Purposes: A Guide for the Beginner).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Peter J.

    1981-01-01

    Addresses those readers who are not familiar with EAP, offering an introductory discussion of its objectives and methods, in two parts. Devotes the first part to the needs that justify an EAP approach, and the second to its methodology, with particular attention to interdisciplinary, task-oriented instruction. Societe Nouvelle Didier Erudition, 40…

  18. Echanges, interventions et actes de langage dans la structure de la conversation (Exchanges, Turns at Talk and Speech Acts in the Structure of Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulet, Eddy

    1981-01-01

    Attempts to show how the surface structure of conversation can be described by means of a few principles and simple categories, regardless of its level of complexity. Accordingly, proposes a model that emphasizes the pragmatic functions of certain connectors and markers in the context of conversation exchanges. Societe Nouvelle Didier Erudition,…

  19. Source Fingerprinting in Adobe PDF Files

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    todo.com/tools/peepdf-pdf-analysis-tool [22] G. Delugré and F. Raynal, “ Origami - Sogeti ESEC lab,” Sogeti, 24 May 2011. [Online]. Available: http://esec...lab.sogeti.com/pages/ Origami 39 [23] D. Stevens, “Quickpost: About the physical and logical structure of PDF files | Didier Stevens,” 9

  20. A Literature and Records Search on the Cultural Resources of the Portage, Wisconsin Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    The Wisconsin River originates on the Wisconsin-Michigan border at Lac Vieux Desert. It flows south to Portage and then flows west to the Mississippi...the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Vol. 7 (Reprinted 1908). Pg. 345-365. Madison. Didier, Mary Ellen. 1967 A Distributional Study of the

  1. Civil Reconnaissance; Separating the Insurgent From the Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    Montagne , "Interview: Anna Simons and Catherine Lutz on the involvement of anthropologists in war," National Public Radio’s Morning Edition, 14 August 2002...Military Review March-April 2005. Montagne , Renee "Interview: Anna Simons and Catherine Lutz on the involvement of anthropologists in war

  2. American Indian Reader: Anthropology. Book One of a Series in Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jeannette, Ed.

    The anthropological reader about American Indians presents 28 articles dated from 1968 to 1971. It is divided into 4 parts: the anthropologist: the man and the discipline; a giant step between 2 worlds; scientific investigation: archaeology; and early agricultural and economy: 3 studies. Also included are (1) discussion: an anthropologist as…

  3. Cognitive anthropology is a cognitive science.

    PubMed

    Boster, James S

    2012-07-01

    Cognitive anthropology contributes to cognitive science as a complement to cognitive psychology. The chief threat to its survival has not been rejection by other cognitive scientists but by other cultural anthropologists. It will remain a part of cognitive science as long as cognitive anthropologists research, teach, and publish.

  4. "The Good Child": Anthropological Perspectives on Morality and Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fechter, Anne-Meike

    2014-01-01

    Currently, there is no clearly delineated field that could be described as "the anthropology of morality". There exists, however, an increasingly visible and vocal interest in issues of morality among anthropologists. Although there has been a lack of explicit study, it has become clear that anthropologists have, in fact, been concerned…

  5. 78 FR 65370 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner, Tucson, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    .... ADDRESSES: Dr. Bruce Anderson, Forensic Anthropologist, PCOME, Tucson, AZ 85714, telephone (520) 243-8600... Office for forensic analysis. The Pinal County Medical Examiner, Dr Rebecca Hsu, transferred the remains to the Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner for examination by a forensic anthropologist....

  6. Some Issues Concerning Aggression and Violence in Human Beings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponton, Elizabeth

    1986-01-01

    Examines aggression and violence from an interdisciplinary perspective. Humanistic psychologist Rollo May sees violence as the end product of power deprivation. Anthropologists Konrad Lorenz and Robert Ardrey regard aggression as an innate biological drive. Anthropologist Richard Leakey views it as a learned, culturally determined response.…

  7. Experiences with Poetry, Pedagogy and Participant Observation: Writing with Students in a Study Abroad Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Karen

    2006-01-01

    Many anthropologists have turned to creative writing as they struggle to represent experiences/encounters with other cultures. Study abroad students, while not necessarily anthropologists-in-the-making, are also representers (and representees) of exotic cultures while abroad. This paper explores creative writing as a strategy to help study abroad…

  8. Nanomaterials and the environmental risk: is there some room left for ethics and law?

    PubMed

    Byk, Christian

    2011-01-01

    How legitimate may be the concern posed by the nanotechnologies for health and environment,this effort for reaching a better knowledge of the biotoxicity of nanomaterials is not enough. As Pr Didier Sicard noted, we believe that the ethical reflection should not be the good conscience that may help science in getting rid of social fears. But the ethical reflection is there also to discuss taboo issues in the perspective of a better societal understanding.

  9. Cancer and the Comics: Graphic Narratives and Biolegitimate Lives.

    PubMed

    McMullin, Juliet

    2016-06-01

    Cancer graphic narratives, I argue, are part of a medical imaginary that includes representations of difference and biomedical technology that engage Fassin's (2009) concept of biolegitimacy. Framed in three parts, the argument first draws on discourses about cancer graphic narratives from graphic medicine scholars and authors to demonstrate a construction of universal suffering. Second, I examine tropes of hope and difference as a biotechnical embrace. Finally, I consider biosociality within the context of this imaginary and the construction of a meaningful life. Autobiographical graphic narrative as a creative genre that seeks to give voice to individual illness experiences in the context of biomedicine raises anthropological questions about the interplay between the ordinary and biolegitmate. Cancer graphic narratives deconstruct the big events to demonstrate the ordinary ways that a life constructed as different becomes valued through access to medical technologies.

  10. Evidentiary standards for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Crowder, Christian M

    2009-11-01

    As issues of professional standards and error rates continue to be addressed in the courts, forensic anthropologists should be proactive by developing and adhering to professional standards of best practice. There has been recent increased awareness and interest in critically assessing some of the techniques used by forensic anthropologists, but issues such as validation, error rates, and professional standards have seldom been addressed. Here we explore the legal impetus for this trend and identify areas where we can improve regarding these issues. We also discuss the recent formation of a Scientific Working Group for Forensic Anthropology (SWGANTH), which was created with the purposes of encouraging discourse among anthropologists and developing and disseminating consensus guidelines for the practice of forensic anthropology. We believe it is possible and advisable for anthropologists to seek and espouse research and methodological techniques that meet higher standards to ensure quality and consistency in our field.

  11. 76 FR 14052 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Sabine River Authority of Texas, Quitman, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... fragments. Dr. Harrell Gill-King, Anthropologist, University of North Texas, performed an examination of the human and non-human remains at the request of the Hunt County Sheriff's Department. Dr....

  12. The Physical Scientist in an Interdisciplinary Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    1973-01-01

    Describes interdisciplinary team teaching of an environmental studies course at Dickinson College which involves a physicist, a philosopher, an anthropologist, a theologian, and 15 community members. Physical scientist's roles and students' responses to the course are discussed. (CC)

  13. Filming The Man Hunters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockings, Paul

    1976-01-01

    "The Man Hunters" is a film about paleoanthropology. This article is a personal account of how the film was put together using anthropological knowledge and numerous anthropologists and how the film was received by the American public. (Author)

  14. 75 FR 5105 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department... Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary... anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the human remains....

  15. Reflections on the future of anthropology.

    PubMed

    Sosa, Richard

    2009-12-01

    In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference's theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline.

  16. 75 FR 67998 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... Inventory Completion: Western Michigan University, Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI AGENCY: National..., Anthropology Department, Kalamazoo, MI. The human remains and associated funerary objects were removed from... physical anthropologist in the Anthropology Department at Western Michigan University, studied the...

  17. 75 FR 58428 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Athens County Historical Society and Museum, Athens, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Coe Family Farm on Armitage Road, in Athens County, OH. On January 4, 2010, the human skull was found... forensic anthropologist from Ohio University, the wear and coloration of the skull indicated that it was...

  18. Chillihuani's Culture of Respect and the Circle of Courage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolin, Inge

    2010-01-01

    A Canadian anthropologist describes how "rituals of respect" permeate the indigenous culture of a remote mountainous village in Peru. When children's needs for belonging, mastery, independence, and generosity are met, they thrive and achieve their full potential.

  19. Evolving to the Beat of a Different Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents arguments against the recent "punctuated equilibrium" point of view expressed by evolutionists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge. Reviews evidence for continuous and gradual change, as recently cited by four anthropologists in the July 9 issue of "Nature." (CS)

  20. Anthropology: The Long Lives of Fairy Tales.

    PubMed

    Pagel, Mark

    2016-04-04

    Anthropologists, borrowing techniques from evolutionary biology, have demonstrated that some common fairy tales can be traced back 5,000 years, or more, long before the development of written traditions.

  1. [Frontiers of anthropological research: ethics, autonomy, and trafficking in human organs. A commentary on The Global Traffic in Human Organs, by Nancy Scheper-Hughes].

    PubMed

    Diniz, D

    2001-01-01

    The bioethical debate over the commercialization of the human body has intensified in recent years. This article discusses the principles of ethics and autonomy in the most important ethnography on international traffic in human organs, coordinated by anthropologist Nancy Scheper-Hughes. The author discusses how defending the ethics of non-commercialization of the human body entails absolute ethical principles pertaining to human life, a political premise whose legitimacy is not recognized by relativist anthropologists.

  2. Afghan Tortoise, Korean Hare: Advising in Hard and Soft Cultures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    there is no consensus definition for culture among social scientists. Clifford Geertz , The Interpretation of Cultures (New York: Perseus Books...Group, 1973), 4-5. Clifford Geertz also asserts there is no consensus definition of culture among anthropologists. Koreans tend to make different...external influences similar to the one an advisory effort will present. Although anthropologist Clifford Geertz warned that cultural analysis did not

  3. Early perceptions of an epidemic.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Warwick H

    2008-11-27

    This article surveys some descriptions of the Fore people made on early contact in the 1950s by patrol officers, social anthropologists and medical doctors. Sorcery accusations and cannibalism initially impressed these outside observers, though gradually they came to realize that a strange and fatal condition called kuru was a major affliction of the Fore, especially women and children. Fore attributed kuru to sorcery, anthropologists speculated on psychosomatic causes and medical officers began to wonder if it was a mysterious encephalitis.

  4. Integrating forensic anthropology into Disaster Victim Identification.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z

    2012-06-01

    This paper will provide mass fatality emergency planners, police, medical examiners, coroners and other Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) personnel ways to integrate forensic anthropologists into DVI operations and demonstrate how anthropological contributions have improved DVI projects. In mass disaster situations, anthropologists have traditionally been limited to developing biological profiles from skeletal remains. Over the past decade, however, anthropologists' involvement in DVI has extended well beyond this traditional role as they have taken on increasingly diverse tasks and responsibilities. Anthropological involvement in DVI operations is often dictated by an incident's specific characteristics, particularly events involving extensive fragmentation, commingling, or other forms of compromised remains. This paper will provide examples from recent DVI incidents to illustrate the operational utility of anthropologists in the DVI context. The points where it is most beneficial to integrate anthropologists into the DVI process include: (1) during recovery at the disaster scene; (2) at the triage station as remains are brought into the mortuary; and (3) in conducting the reconciliation process. Particular attention will be paid to quality control and quality assurance measures anthropologists have developed and implemented for DVI projects. Overall, this paper will explain how anthropological expertise can be used to increase accuracy in DVI while reducing the project's cost and duration.

  5. Determination of Pu content in a Spent Fuel Assembly by Measuring Passive Total Neutron count rate and Multiplication with the Differential Die-Away Instrument

    SciTech Connect

    Henzl, Vladimir; Croft, Stephen; Swinhoe, Martyn T.; Tobin, Stephen J.

    2012-07-13

    Inspired by approach of Bignan and Martin-Didier (ESARDA 1991) we introduce novel (instrument independent) approach based on multiplication and passive neutron. Based on simulations of SFL-1 the accuracy of determination of {sup tot}Pu content with new approach is {approx}1.3-1.5%. Method applicable for DDA instrument, since it can measure both multiplication and passive neutron count rate. Comparison of pro's & con's of measuring/determining of {sup 239}Pu{sub eff} and {sup tot}Pu suggests a potential for enhanced diversion detection sensitivity.

  6. From Europe to the United States, Rousseau Takes on the Fall Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarter, Tricia

    2014-06-01

    Denis-Didier Rousseau smiles shyly when discussing his new role as the chair of AGU's Fall Meeting Program Committee. "I'm not used to giving interviews," he says. Nonetheless, he becomes very passionate as he begins to talk about his views on transdisciplinary science and its role in AGU meetings, on including more young scientists in planning meetings, and on the importance of virtual meetings. Rousseau, who is currently a visiting professor at Columbia University, sat with Eos to share his excitement about working with AGU.

  7. Non-Invasive Methods of Cardiovascular Exploration in Aerospace Medicine.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    HILTENBRAND Ch., DIDIER A., POIRIER J.M., BONNEL D ., ILLE H. Ce qu’il faut savoir our l’exploration artdrielle par effet Doppler- Dossiers Clin-Midy, 1978. 2...NEUILLY., R CARRE El AL. IJNCIA D F DEC 83 AGARD AG- IEC F/G 6/5 NI I.’I I.I .2. I’ll’l 11110 1.0 U1.511111140 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NA O AC EA...associated with the infarctus, heoiblock may mask necrosis (antero-septal or diaphragmatic). II D | I ,I D 3 - V 3 -. /N - CASE Nc 27 SOU ... , 21 years

  8. (Thermal energy storage technologies for heating and cooling applications)

    SciTech Connect

    Tomlinson, J.J.

    1990-12-19

    Recent results from selected TES research activities in Germany and Sweden under an associated IEA annex are discussed. In addition, several new technologies for heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles were reviewed and found to benefit similar efforts in the United states. Details of a meeting with Didier-Werke AG, a leading German ceramics manufacturer who will provide TES media necessary for the United States to complete field tests of an advanced high temperature latent heat storage material, are presented. Finally, an overview of the December 1990 IEA Executive Committee deliberations on TES is presented.

  9. The Line Blot: An Immunoassay for Monoclonal and Other Antibodies. Its Application to the Serotyping of Gram-Negative Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    Gram-negative J bacteria 12. PERSONAL A1JTIR(S Raoult D, UaschbA 13a. TYPE OF REPOR~T 13b. TIME COVERED 14.. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month. Day) 15. P...the serotyping of Gram-negative bacteria Didier Raoult 1and Gregory A. Dasch2 Centre National de Reference des Rkckertsioses. C H. U. La Timone...antibodies which recognize heat-sensitive and insensitive epitopes on the typhus rickettsia surface protein antigen is described. A new serotvping assay

  10. Thermal energy storage technologies for heating and cooling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, John J.

    1990-12-01

    Recent results from selected thermal energy storage (TES) research activities in Germany and Sweden are discussed. In addition, several new technologies for heating and cooling of buildings and automobiles were reviewed and found to benefit similar efforts in the United states. Details of a meeting with Didier-Werke AG, a leading German ceramics manufacturer who will provide TES media necessary for the United States to complete field tests of an advanced high temperature latent heat storage material, are presented. Finally, an overview of the December 1990 International Energy Agency (IEA) Executive Committee deliberations on TES is presented.

  11. Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The papers in this volume were presented at a conference entitled, 'Applications of Space-Age Technology in Anthropology,' held November 28, 1990, at NASA's Science and Technology Laboratory. One reason for this conference was to facilitate information exchange among a diverse group of anthropologists. Much of the research in anthropology that has made use of satellite image processing, geographical information systems, and global positioning systems has been known to only a small group of practitioners. A second reason for this conference was to promote scientific dialogue between anthropologists and professionals outside of anthropology. It is certain that both the development and proper application of new technologies will only result from greater cooperation between technicians and 'end-users.' Anthropologists can provide many useful applications to justify the costs of new technological development.

  12. Welcome home, Descartes! rethinking the anthropology of the body.

    PubMed

    Ecks, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    For many scholars, the Cartesian mind/body split is one of the fundamental mistakes of the Western scientific tradition. Anthropologists who study notions of the body in cultures around the world regularly take Descartes as their point of departure. Many also suggest that breaking free from Descartes is politically liberating: if the mindful body could be rediscovered, society could move away from its materialist, positivist, and commodity-fetishizing ways. Beyond the Body Proper is anthropology's best and most comprehensive anti-Cartesian manifesto to date. This volume brings together some of the finest studies on the cultural and historical diversity of bodies and minds. Yet anthropologists' blanket rejection of the mind/body dualism seems politically self-defeating. If anthropologists want to criticize racism, gender hierarchies, or discrimination against disabled people, they need to believe that the mind is independent from the body. In other words, they need to uphold the Cartesian split.

  13. The ambiguities of disciplinary professionalization: The state and cultural dynamics of Canadian inter-war anthropology.

    PubMed

    Nurse, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    The professionalization of Canadian anthropology in the first half of the twentieth century was tied closely to the matrix of the federal state, first though the Anthropology Division of the Geological Survey of Canada and then the National Museum. State anthropologists occupied an ambiguous professional status as both civil servants and anthropologists committed to the methodological and disciplinary imperatives of modern social science but bounded and guided by the operation of the civil service. Their position within the state served to both advance disciplinary development but also compromised disciplinary autonomy. To address the boundaries the state imposed on its support for anthropology, state anthropologists cultivated cultural, intellectual, and commercially-oriented networks that served to sustain new developments in their field, particularly in folklore. This essay examines these dynamics and suggests that anthropology's disciplinary development did not create a disjuncture between professionalized scholarship and civil society.

  14. INTRODUCTION: SUSTAINING THE LIFE OF THE POLIS.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P Wenzel; Kelly, Ann H; Manton, John; Prince, Ruth J; Tousignant, Noémi

    2013-11-01

    How are publics of protection and care defined in African cities today? The effects of globalization and neo-liberal policies on urban space are well documented. From London to São Paulo, denationalization, privatization, offshoring and cuts in state expenditure are creating enclaves and exclusions, resulting in fragmented, stratified social geographies (see Caldeira 2000; Ong 2006; Harvey 2006; Murray 2011). 'Networked archipelagoes', islands connected by transnational circulations of capital, displace other spatial relations and imaginaries. Spaces of encompassment, especially, such as 'the nation' or simply 'society' as defined by inclusion within a whole, lose practical value and intellectual purchase as referents of citizenship (Gupta and Ferguson 2002; Ferguson 2005). In African cities, where humanitarian, experimental or market logics dominate the distribution of sanitation and healthcare, this fragmentation is particularly stark (see, for example, Redfield 2006, 2012; Fassin 2007; Bredeloup et al. 2008; Nguyen 2012). Privilege and crisis interrupt older contiguities, delineating spaces and times of exception. The 'public' of health is defined by survival or consumption, obscuring the human as bearer of civic rights and responsibilities, as inhabitants of 'objective' material worlds 'common to all of us' (Arendt 1958: 52). Is it possible, under these conditions, to enact and imagine public health as a project of citizens, animated in civic space?

  15. Science and miscegenation in the early twentieth century: Edgard Roquette-Pinto's debates and controversies with US physical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Souza, Vanderlei Sebastião de

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes Brazilian anthropologist Edgard Roquette-Pinto's participation in the international debate that involved the field of physical anthropology and discussions on miscegenation in the first decades of the twentieth century. Special focus is on his readings and interpretations of a group of US anthropologists and eugenicists and his controversies with them, including Charles Davenport, Madison Grant, and Franz Boas. The article explores the various ways in which Roquette-Pinto interpreted and incorporated their ideas and how his anthropological interpretations took on new meanings when they moved beyond Brazil's borders.

  16. RACE RELATIONSHIPS: COLLEGIALITY AND DEMARCATION IN PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGY.

    PubMed

    Sachs Collopy, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In 1962, anthropologist Carleton Coon argued in The Origin of Races that some human races had evolved further than others. Among his most vocal critics were geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky and anthropologist Ashley Montagu, each of whom had known Coon for decades. I use this episode, and the long relationships between scientists that preceded it, to argue that scientific research on race was intertwined not only with political projects to conserve or reform race relations, but also with the relationships scientists shared as colleagues. Demarcation between science and pseudoscience, between legitimate research and scientific racism, involved emotional as well as intellectual labor.

  17. Introduction

    PubMed Central

    Taussig, Karen-Sue; Gibbon, Sahra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    We introduce this special issue of Medial Anthropology Quarterly on public health genomics by exploring both the unique contribution of ethnographic sensibility that medical anthropologists bring to the study of genomics and some of the key insights offered by the essays in this collection. As anthropologists, we are concerned with the power dynamics and larger cultural commitments embedded in practices associated with public health. We seek to understand, first, the broad significance of genomics as a cultural object and, second, the social action set into motion as researchers seek to translate genomic knowledge and technology into public health benefits. PMID:24214906

  18. Life beyond earth and the mind of man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berendzen, R. (Editor)

    1973-01-01

    A symposium is reported on the implications of the possibility of extraterrestrial life for social, philosophical, and humanistic impacts. The viewpoints from astronomers, biologists, physicists, anthropologists, and theologians are given. Costs involved for finding this life are discussed along with the possible benefits to society. The direct implications from radio telescopes, the Pioneer 10 plaque, and discussions between the panelists are also reported.

  19. Ethics or Morals: Understanding Students' Values Related to Genetic Tests on Humans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindahl, Mats Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    To make meaning of scientific knowledge in such a way that concepts and values of the life-world are not threatened is difficult for students and laymen. Ethics and morals pertaining to the use of genetic tests for hereditary diseases have been investigated and discussed by educators, anthropologists, medical doctors and philosophers giving, at…

  20. Non-verbal Behavior Cross-Cultural Contact, and the Urban Classroom Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Cornelius Lee

    1976-01-01

    The anthropologist sees specific human non-verbal behavior as the medium through which relationships are maintained, regulated, and guided within culturally prescribed patterns. The spoken language, the use of space, eye-contact, smiling, and the use of the hand constitute unique patterns of behavior that are culturally specific and have wide…

  1. Margaret Mead: Anthropological Perspective on Educational Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Suzanne S.

    Anthropologist Margaret Mead focused much of her thinking, speaking, and writing on education and the impact of rapid change on educational theory and practice. The history of Mead's writings shows sensitivity to both tradition and change. A selection of 12 of Mead's publications provides insight into Mead's innovative and thought-provoking ideas.…

  2. A Century of Margaret Mead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, Ray

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes Margaret Mead's contributions, focusing on Mead as an anthropologist and educator. It discusses contradictions in her ethnographies and in her work on learning. The paper also discusses her beliefs about the problems of the contemporary United States, particularly her rarely noticed contributions to a theory of learning. (SM)

  3. Human Images: A Communications Approach to Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalfen, Richard

    The premise of this 14 week anthropology course is that endeavors by the mass media should be understood as cultural enterprises. Students will examine the means by which anthropologists, photographers, filmmakers, writers, new reporters or other observers translate their observations of another culture to members of their own culture. The Eskimo…

  4. Women in History--Maria Montessori

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierdt, Ginger L.

    2007-01-01

    This article profiles Maria Montessori, an international ambassador for children who became known for her theories and methods of pedagogy, called the "Montessori Method." Montessori developed an educational theory, which combined ideas of scholar Froebel, anthropologists Giuseooe Serge, French physicians Jean Itard and Edouard Sequin,…

  5. Essential Skills for Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Paul M.

    1999-01-01

    No matter what standards they follow, principals must be skilled team builders, instructional leaders, and visionary risk-takers. There are five emerging roles: historian, cheerleader, lightning rod, landscaper (environmental scanner), and anthropologist. To succeed, principals must be empowered by districts, become authentic leaders, and make…

  6. Beatrice Medicine and the Anthropology of Education: Legacy and Vision for Critical Race/Critical Language Research and Praxis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deyhle, Donna; McCarty, Teresa L.

    2007-01-01

    Over a 50-year professional career, Dr. Beatrice Medicine never failed to assert the importance of Indigenous language rights or to challenge racism in the academy, public schools, and society. She urged educational anthropologists to confront racism in our research with Indigenous peoples. She challenged linguicism and urged the teaching of…

  7. Educational Anthropology: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modiano, Nancy

    This paper attempts to summarize the state of the field of educational anthropology, as it relates to studies of educational institutions and processes. Major research done by anthropologists in three areas--school ethnographies, school-community contacts with ethnic minorities, and cognitive and linguistic development--is reviewed. Topics covered…

  8. Interculturalism and Non-Formal Education in Brazil: A Buberian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Alexandre; Morgan, W. J.; Freire, Ida

    2012-01-01

    Gilberto Freyre, the great Brazilian historian and sociologist, described Brazil as a "racial paradise", a place where different races and nationalities have come to live together in a sort of "racial democracy". The literature on this topic has become extensive as anthropologists, social scientists and historians felt the need…

  9. Ethnography by Design: On Goals and Mediating Artefacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segelström, Fabian; Holmlid, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Design ethnography is the appropriation of ethnography for the purposes of informing design. This paper investigates the effects of these appropriations, through a comparative study of how designers and anthropologists approach the same field site and by a review of new techniques introduced by designers to do ethnography. The techniques reviewed…

  10. Handbook. Disaster Response Staff Officer’s Handbook: Observations, Insights, and Lessons

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    military specialists trained in foreign animal disease diagnosis, epidemiology, microbiology, immunology, entomology , pathology, and public health... Forensic dental pathology. • Forensic anthropology methods. 93 DISASTER RESPONSE • Processing. • Preparation. • Disposition of remains. DMORTs are...OPEO). Teams are composed of funeral directors, medical examiners, coroners, pathologists, forensic anthropologists, medical records technicians and

  11. Genetics and Genomics as an Anthropological Subject: Approaching with Caution

    PubMed Central

    Fendos, Justin

    2009-01-01

    Speaking at the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference, cultural anthropologist Margaret Lock pointed out that the advent of the genomic revolution brings with it important societal, political, and social issues that have the potential to radically change both human life and interaction. PMID:20027283

  12. 78 FR 50100 - Notice of Inventory Completion: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Wupatki...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ....D. 1150-1300. The human remains, a cremation, have been analyzed by physical anthropologists who... central pit. The entire pit showed evidence of burning, indicating that the cremation occurred at that location. The cremation method is highly unusual for the Flagstaff and Wupatki areas but is reminiscent...

  13. Reflections on the Future of Anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Richard

    2009-01-01

    In his plenary session entitled Five Questions on the Future, Harvard anthropologist Arthur Kleinman capitalized on the 2009 Society for Medical Anthropology Conference’s theme of Medical Anthropology at the Intersections to speculate on the future of the discipline. PMID:20027285

  14. Scholars Prescribe Freud's "Talking Cure" for Problems of Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Karen J.

    1986-01-01

    While Freud's reputation is in decline among psychiatrists and psychologists, it is on the rise among literary and film critics, historians, anthropologists, and political scientists, where it is being adopted as a tool to help analyze historical movements, literary works and films, cultural patterns, and political theories. (MSE)

  15. Non-Verbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinde, R. A., Ed.

    This inter-disciplinary approach to the subject of non-verbal communication includes essays by linguists, zoologists, psychologists, anthropologists and a drama critic. It begins with a theoretical analysis of communicative processes written from the perspective of a communications engineer, compares vocal communication in animals and man, and…

  16. Statistical basis for positive identification in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Steadman, Dawnie Wolfe; Adams, Bradley J; Konigsberg, Lyle W

    2006-09-01

    Forensic scientists are often expected to present the likelihood of DNA identifications in US courts based on comparative population data, yet forensic anthropologists tend not to quantify the strength of an osteological identification. Because forensic anthropologists are trained first and foremost as physical anthropologists, they emphasize estimation problems at the expense of evidentiary problems, but this approach must be reexamined. In this paper, the statistical bases for presenting osteological and dental evidence are outlined, using a forensic case as a motivating example. A brief overview of Bayesian statistics is provided, and methods to calculate likelihood ratios for five aspects of the biological profile are demonstrated. This paper emphasizes the definition of appropriate reference samples and of the "population at large," and points out the conceptual differences between them. Several databases are introduced for both reference information and to characterize the "population at large," and new data are compiled to calculate the frequency of specific characters, such as age or fractures, within the "population at large." Despite small individual likelihood ratios for age, sex, and stature in the case example, the power of this approach is that, assuming each likelihood ratio is independent, the product rule can be applied. In this particular example, it is over three million times more likely to obtain the observed osteological and dental data if the identification is correct than if the identification is incorrect. This likelihood ratio is a convincing statistic that can support the forensic anthropologist's opinion on personal identity in court.

  17. Professor Avatar: In the Digital Universe of Second Life, Classroom Instruction Also Takes on a New Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    Since its unveiling in 2003, professors and college students have flocked to the virtual world of Second Life. Professors use Second Life to hold distance-education classes, saying that communication among students becomes livelier when they assume digital personae. Anthropologists and sociologists see the virtual world as a laboratory for…

  18. The Evolution from Generation to Post-XX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Young people represent the future, and youth is an eternal topic. In the 1970s when the American anthropologist Margaret Mead published her famous work "Generation Gap," research on generations gained sudden popularity worldwide, and ever since the 1980s when "Generation Gap" was brought to China, research by scholars in this…

  19. The Cultural Structuring of Mealtime Socialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochs, Elinor; Shohet, Merav

    2006-01-01

    Two anthropologists treat mealtimes as cultural sites for socializing children into commensality, communicative expectations, and the symbolic, moral, and sentimental meanings of food and eating. Using ethnographic evidence, they indicate how mealtime comportment is embedded in practices and ideologies relevant to children's competent membership…

  20. Is the Great American Teacher Dead? Principles to Resurrect Meaningful, Effective, and Consciousness Raising Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivers, John J.

    2012-01-01

    A couple of decades ago, a visiting anthropologist agreed with some U.S. authors that the American intellectual on university campuses is basically dead and his/her demise is reflected in the superficial, boring, and uninspiring content to which students are exposed. More recent evidence indicates that things have not changed very much. In this…

  1. More Clever than the Devil: "Ujanja" as Schooling Strategy in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vavrus, Frances

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the concept of "cleverness" as it is employed by Tanzanian youth to improve their likelihood of succeeding in school. It analyzes the Swahili term "ujanja," which combines cleverness, opportunism, and deception, while it also illustrates an educational anthropologist's ongoing process of familiarization…

  2. Phonetics and Other Disciplines: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronstein, Arthur J.; Raphael, Lawrence J.

    Phonetic science is becoming increasingly interdisciplinary. Phoneticians rely on, or at least collaborate with, sociologists, psychologists, biologists, poets, physicists, anthropologists, neurologists and others. A look at the history of phonetics reveals that this seemingly recent trend has deep roots. In fact, it is possible to draw parallels…

  3. Sociolinguistic Implications of Academic Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nida, Eugene A.

    1992-01-01

    The technical complexity of the language of academic journals is discussed in terms of graduate students' needs for information, especially in developing countries. An examination of problems in two articles in "Language" and one in "American Anthropologist" points out the nature of the difficulties and some of the solutions. (Author/LB)

  4. [Alcoholism: indictment or diagnosis?].

    PubMed

    Neves, Delma Pessanha

    2004-01-01

    This article presents reflections on how alcohol consumption is conceived as a sociological object, including proscribed forms linked to the definition of diseases or disregard for moral norms. Through considerations on the accumulated investment in a research process currently under way, the author highlights the ethical and epistemological dilemmas faced by anthropologists who focus on this issue.

  5. Some Ways to Endanger an Endangered Language Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Lindsay J.

    2011-01-01

    The success of programs that are focused on revitalizing an endangered language depends on careful implementation. This paper examines four common mistakes that are made when linguists and anthropologists get involved with documenting endangered languages or participating in revitalization efforts: a failure to appreciate the complexity of the…

  6. Perspectives on the Organization of Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Stanley

    2003-01-01

    In the 1950s, under the aegis of such leading sociologists as Talcott Parsons, anthropologists like Clyde Kluckhohn of Harvard and Alfred Kroeber of the University of California at Berkeley, as well as political scientists Gabriel Almond and Lucien Pye, of Yale and MIT, respectively, the analysis of societal and political culture came to play a…

  7. Nonverbal Communication in Across-Race Dyads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Virginia C.; Powell, Evan R.

    This is one of a series of proxemic studies of dyadic communication behavior made by the authors in natural, academic and laboratory settings with the use of the DIAD. Based on the theory of anthropologists Hall (1966) and Birdwhistell (1970) and developed empirically as initial observations of dyadic interaction were made, the Dennis…

  8. Regarding Chilcott's "Structural Functionalism as a Heuristic Device" Heuristically.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blot, Richard K.

    1998-01-01

    The heuristic value of Chilcott's essay lies less in its support for structural functionalism and more in its concern to reexamine theory in the work of earlier educational anthropologists for what earlier theories and practices can add to current research. (SLD)

  9. AIDS as Metaphor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillen, Liz

    1994-01-01

    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  10. Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of an Evolutionary Social-Learning Game

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-13

    9] M. Enquist, S. Ghirlanda , and K. Eriksson. Critical social learning: A solution to rogers’s paradox of nonadaptive culture. American Anthropologist... Ghirlanda , T. Lillicrap, and K. N. Laland. Why copy others? insights from the social learning strategies tourna- ment. Science, 328(5975):208–213, April

  11. Chapter Two: Foundations for the Study of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter, the historical roots of contemporary Practice Theory are unearthed in the work of semioticians, philosophers, and anthropologists. Saussure's semiotic theory is contrasted with that of Peirce, and the importance of Peirce's work for understanding the context of signs is stressed. The philosophy of language in the writings of…

  12. HBCUs and Writing Programs: Critical Hip Hop Language Pedagogy and First-Year Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Brian J.; Stewart, Shawanda

    2016-01-01

    In the 2015-16 school year, the authors of this article developed an innovative research and assessment project on a new first year composition curriculum based on a pedagogy they call Critical Hip Hop Rhetoric Pedagogy (CHHRP), an educational approach built upon the classroom-based research of linguistic anthropologist H. Samy Alim…

  13. Mongolian Folktales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kevin C., Comp.; Grimme, Holger K., Ed.

    What Hans Christian Andersen and the Grimm brothers achieved by collecting stories from the common people that had been handed down orally from generation to generation is also achieved in this collection of folktales consisting of 45 fables and 65 tales and short stories. This publication, addressed to educators, anthropologists, and specialists…

  14. Using Video Production in Political Science Courses as an Instructional Strategy for Engaging Students in Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florez-Morris, Mauricio; Tafur, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Video production has come into widespread use in various fields of social science. Visual anthropologists (Pink 2006), psychologists (Webster and Sell 2007), historians (Ferro 2000), and visual sociologists (Newman 2006) have used films and videos to document, to preserve, and to analyze social data. There is no reason to think that the use of…

  15. Framing the Cultural Training Landscape: Phase I Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    Government/military took place just following World War I. On December 20, 1919, well-known American Anthropologist Franz Boas publicly – in the form...Supplement (London), April 12, 2002, Page 17. 56 American Anthropological Association,“Uncensuring Franz Boas ,” Adopted by a vote of the AAA membership...association removed Boas from the “governing council and

  16. The Importance of Treating Culture as a System: Lessons on Counter-Insurgency Strategy from the British Iraqi Mandate

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-01

    However, culture consists of far more than customs and courtesies.[1] In this respect, the best working definition of culture uses Franz Boas as a...starting point ( Boas was an early 20th century German cultural anthropologist): “The system of shared beliefs, values, customs, behaviours, and

  17. Lost and Found in Translation: An Education in Narrative in Fieldwork and the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodman, William

    2007-01-01

    One of the most important questions I ask as both a cultural anthropologist and a university teacher is: How do people come to know what they think they know? In this article, I adopt a narrative approach to processes of learning and discovery in two very different locales, an indigenous society in the South Pacific, and a senior seminar on…

  18. John Rae (1813-93): explorer of the Canadian Arctic, the great pedestrian.

    PubMed

    Loosmore, Brian

    2009-11-01

    Born and raised in the Orkney Islands, Dr John Rae joined the Hudson's Bay Company and rose to be Chief Factor. Unusually tough and intelligent, he explored much of northern Canada, mapping the north eastern shore and finding controversial evidence of the lost Franklin expedition of 1845. A talented botanist, geologist, anthropologist and cartographer, he was northern Canada's most distinguished explorer.

  19. Imaginaries of "East and West": Slippery Curricular Signifiers in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoki, Ted T.

    The labels "East and West," suggest two distinct cultural wholes. "East and West" is understood as a binary of two separate preexisting entities, which can be bridged or brought together to conjoin in an "and." This image has dominated Western modernist thought in the works of historians, anthropologists, and others. Educators, like tourists or…

  20. Tuff above “Lucy” Older than expected

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    A poster paper presented at the AGU Spring Meeting offers evidence that the fossil specimen of Australopithecus afarensis known as “Lucy” may be older than had been previously thought. Many anthropologists consider “Lucy” a pivotal find in tracing the evolution of our species.

  1. Anthropology and Popular Culture: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estes, Jack

    The study of popular culture in the United States is an appropriate anthropological endeavor, as evidenced in a case study of the volcanic eruption of Mt. St. Helens in Oregon. By examining its popular arts, anthropologists gain understanding of the culture and its people. For example, an analysis of reactions to the Mt. St. Helens eruption…

  2. Community-Based Research and Student Development: An Interview with Trisha Thorme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shea, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    A growing number of universities have implemented community-based research pedagogy into their undergraduate education. Integrating academic training with community engagement has the potential to engage students in a way volunteering may not. This interview with Trisha Thorme, an anthropologist and assistant director of Princeton University's…

  3. Color in the Classroom: How American Schools Taught Race, 1900-1954

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burkholder, Zoe

    2011-01-01

    Between the turn of the twentieth century and the "Brown v. Board of Education" decision in 1954, the way that American schools taught about "race" changed dramatically. This transformation was engineered by the nation's most prominent anthropologists, including Franz Boas, Ruth Benedict, and Margaret Mead, during World War II.…

  4. Columbia University's Franz Boas: He Led the Undoing of Scientific Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lee D.

    1999-01-01

    As early as 1887, the anthropologist Franz Boas began to combat scientific racism and the insistence that blacks were of lower intelligence than whites. Throughout his career, Boas guided anthropology to a consensus that people of color were not racially inferior and that they possessed unique and historically specific cultures. (SLD)

  5. "Dem Wod Mo Saf": Materials for Reading Creole English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kephart, Ronald

    As part of a study that sought ways to improve the language arts educational experience for Grenadian children, an anthropologist investigated how Carriacou Creole English (CCE) reading materials could be provided and how these children would react to them. CCE is the native language of the inhabitants of Carriacou, a sister island of Grenada. The…

  6. Working with Child Prostitutes in Thailand: Problems of Practice and Interpretation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Heather

    2007-01-01

    Conducting anthropological fieldwork on the emotive issue of child prostitution raises difficult issues for anthropologists and other researchers. This article examines the ethical dilemmas of working with these extremely vulnerable children, focusing on the difference between the researcher's own interpretations and those given by the children…

  7. The Indian Liberation and Social Rights Movement in Kollasuyu (Bolivia). IWGIA Document 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apaza, Julio Tumiri, Ed.

    For some time the Aymara and Quechua Indians have been adopting resolutions and submitting them to the relevant authorities. Compiled by the Centro de Coordinacion y Promocion Campesina "Mink'A" for consideration by the "First Meeting of Anthropologists in the Andean Region" held in September 1975, this document gives a general…

  8. The Contemporary City as Backbone: Museum Rotterdam Meets the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Laar, Paul Th.

    2013-01-01

    Changes at Museum Rotterdam illustrate how history museums can rethink their relationship to history and community. Recognizing that its residents are increasingly transnational, without ties to the Rotterdam of the past, Museum Rotterdam is using the tools of urban anthropologists to involve residents in exploring contemporary heritage. Museum…

  9. Journey to the 'New Normal' and Beyond: Reflections on Learning in a Community of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Gegeo, Karen Ann

    2005-01-01

    Through poetry and strips of narrative, this paper discusses the embodied experience of chemical sensitivity and the anthropologist author's and other patients' journey through altered perception towards knowledge, community and transformation in the context of a medical clinic. The narratives are situated in several strands of relevant theory,…

  10. American Involvement in Fringe Religious Cults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    "Twenty million Americans are involved in fringe religious cults such as spiritualism, Hare Krishna, Scientology, and Black Gospel groups," according to anthropologist Irving Zaretsky of the University of Chicago. He recently completed a 10-year period as a participant-observer of fringe religious groups in the San Francisco Bay area and the…

  11. SOME SOCIAL DETERMINANTS OF VERBAL BEHAVIOR. WORKING PAPER NUMBER 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BLOM, JAN-PETTER; GUMPERZ, JOHN J.

    IN RECENT DISCUSSIONS OF THE PROBLEM OF LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY, BERNSTEIN (1961, 1964) EXPLORES THE HYPOTHESIS THAT SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS ACT AS INTERVENING VARIABLES BETWEEN LINGUISTIC STRUCTURES AND THEIR REALIZATION IN SPEECH. HIS FORMULATION SUGGESTS THAT THE ANTHROPOLOGISTS' ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL CONSTRAINTS GOVERNING INTERPERSONAL RELATIONSHIPS…

  12. Using Sociology: The Application of Concepts. A Paper for the Pennsylvania Sociological Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clavner, Jerry; Sumodi, Veronica

    The interrelatedness of the fields of nursing and sociology is discussed in this paper in an effort to encourage a sympathetic symbiosis between these two fields and between technical and general education. First, an overview is provided of recent trends in sociology, citing the influences of anthropologists and cultural historians on current…

  13. Clifford Geertz and Beyond: The Interpretive Interview/Essay and Reflexive Ethnography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Miriam Dempsey

    In "The Uses of Diversity," the interpretive anthropologist, Clifford Geertz, says that it is impossible to completely get inside the point of view of another culture. Geertz contends, however, that despite multiple voices in the growing body of reflexive ethnographies there is still an author composing the work. Besides Geertz,…

  14. Nisaidie Nif Anye Mwenyewe, Pomogi Mne Eto Sdelat' Samomu: A Comparative Case Study of the Implementation of Montessori Pedagogy in the United Republic of Tanzania and the Russian Federation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnepf, Candy A.

    2010-01-01

    The system of education developed by Maria Montessori, noted Italian feminist, anthropologist and physician, is the single largest pedagogy in the world with over 22,000 public, private, parochial, and charter schools on six continents, enduring even as other teaching methods have waxed and waned. Despite its international diffusion and longevity,…

  15. Are There National Patterns of Teaching? Evidence from the TIMSS 1999 Video Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Givvin, Karen Bogard; Hiebert, James; Jacobs, Jennifer K.; Hollingsworth, Hilary; Gallimore, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    In order to improve teaching, it is important to understand why teaching looks the way that it now does and how its general form can be explained. One way to address this question is at the classroom level. This approach has been found in the ethnographic work of anthropologists and has been skillfully applied in the recent work of such…

  16. Culture in Animals: The Case of a Non-human Primate Culture of Low Aggression and High Affiliation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapolsky, Robert M.

    2006-01-01

    Philosophers often consider what it is that makes individuals human. For biologists considering the same, the answer is often framed in the context of what are the key differences between humans and other animals. One vestige of human uniqueness still often cited by anthropologists is culture. However, this notion has been challenged in recent…

  17. In Search of Housing: Urban Families in Rural Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson Clark, Sherri

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have been following a trend posited by the renowned anthropologist Janet Fitchen, which examines the increasing movement of low-income people to rural communities drawn not necessarily by labor market forces, but by the characteristics and amenities found in rural towns. This study adds to that literature by focusing on the ways in…

  18. Chicana/o Studies and Anthropology: The Dialogue That Never Was.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davalos, KarenMary

    1998-01-01

    Argues that, by initiating a critique of the misrepresentations of Mexican Americans by established anthropologists, Chicana/o scholars anticipated a new anthropology and the problems of an apolitical postmodernism. Examines the challenges offered by Chicana feminists. Suggests that all these dialogues developed because of inequalities within the…

  19. The Effect of Alien Cultures on Local Traditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, P. G.

    There are often many problems, as well as many benefits, in the incorporation of non-local (alien) cultures into an existing cultural framework. This paper explores this process; it consists of five parts, beginning with a detailed definition and discussion of the meaning of culture as seen by psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, and…

  20. Cultural Resources Survey for the Oneida Creek Flood Control Project, NY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Assistant Anthropologist. Directed excavations at two sites in Kickapoo Valley of Wisconsin for State Histor- ical Society of Wisconsin Summer, 1972...meeting of the Charles E. Brown Chapter of the Wis- consin Archaeological Society 1974 "A Preliminary Report on the 1973 Excavations in the Kickapoo

  1. Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Suggests that peoples' encoded historical understandings are significant and therefore central to research. Delineates intellectual currents, such as an interest in the subjective world of humans, that have brought historians and anthropologists into a dialogue that has promoted cross-fertilization. Notes the impact of literary theory on that…

  2. Religious Studies: The Shaping of a Field and a Guide to Reference Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippy, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the development of religious studies as an academic discipline. Examines the work of leading thinkers in the field, including anthropologists Sir James Fraser and Edward Burnett Taylor, sociologist Max Weber, and psychologist Erik Erikson. Identifies some of the many reference works that deal with religious studies. (SG)

  3. Toys: Universal Tools for Learning, Communication and Inclusion for Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PACER Center, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The toys children use during play are extremely important in their development. Anthropologists have found evidence of toys dating back as far as the first record of human life and among all cultures. Toys can be an entertaining and educational way for children to learn and respond to social situations, and they give children the opportunity to…

  4. The Globalizing Labor Market in Education: Teachers as Cultural Ambassadors or Agents of Institutional Isomorphism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kara D.; Stevick, Doyle

    2014-01-01

    Institutional isomorphists and other proponents of world culture theory argue that schools around the world are converging in many ways, whereas anthropologists and others question this conclusion, often arguing that local cultural differences belie superficial similarities. These viewpoints are not merely academic explanations of the spread and…

  5. Becoming Maya? Appropriation of the White Shaman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montejo, Victor D.

    1999-01-01

    The history of anthropology among the Maya consists of both the literal exploitation of archaeological finds and the appropriation of Maya culture and history by the Western academic world to construct distorted theories of the Maya past. In the ultimate disgrace, some Mayan priests are training White anthropologists to become shamans themselves…

  6. Helping Preservice Teachers (PSTs) Understand the Realities of Poverty: Innovative Curriculum Modules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Moon-Heum; Convertino, Christina; Khourey-Bowers, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an innovative addition to the curriculum to help preservice teachers cultivate an understanding of poverty. Using technology, an interdisciplinary team created two online learning modules entitled Teacher as Learning Facilitator and Teacher as Anthropologist. Preservice teachers valued the newly developed…

  7. Cross-Cultural Language Learning and Web Design Complexity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Ji Yong

    2015-01-01

    Accepting the fact that culture and language are interrelated in second language learning (SLL), the web sites should be designed to integrate with the cultural aspects. Yet many SLL web sites fail to integrate with the cultural aspects and/or focus on language acquisition only. This study identified three issues: (1) anthropologists'…

  8. A World of Babies: Imagined Childcare Guides for Seven Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLoache, Judy S., Ed.; Gottlieb, Alma, Ed.

    People living in different parts of the world hold diverse beliefs about the nature and the nurturing of infants. Celebrating that diversity and based on the research of anthropologists, psychologists, and historians, this book presents information on child care from seven societies around the world, past and present, illustrating how the…

  9. Old Ponape. Pohnpei Ni Mwehin Kawa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Pensile, Comp.; And Others

    This book presents English and Ponape versions of the stories, legends, and histories originally transcribed by anthropologists attached to the Thilenius South Sea Expedition of 1908-1910. The natives of the Marshall Islands in Micronesia who related these stories are identified, but the material is much older and represents the cultural heritage…

  10. Japan's High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlen, Thomas P.

    The author, an anthropologist, spent 14 months (1974-75) in the industrial port city of Kobe (Japan) observing a cross section of urban high schools, including Japan's most elite private school and a night vocational school plagued by absenteeism and delinquency. He reports on the character of the institutions and of the experience via…

  11. Inside Intuition: What We Know About Nonverbal Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Flora

    Information gathered from one and a half years of interviews with anthropologists, psychologists, ethologists, sociologists, and psychiatrists provides the source of answers for the questions this book addresses: How much do we communicate with words, and how much with gestures, postures, and movement? What can we learn from the study of nonverbal…

  12. American Homelands: Classroom Approaches towards a Complex Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Chris W.

    2008-01-01

    Geographers, along with anthropologists and sociologists, have been debating the homeland concept as it applies in North America for decades. In recent years, the political ideology of the war on terror has added another dimension to this discussion. If the attention given to the concept by introductory textbooks is any indication, homelands are…

  13. Preliminary GIS analysis of the agricultural landscape of Cuyo Cuyo, Department of Puno, Peru

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winterhalder, Bruce; Evans, Tom

    1991-01-01

    Computerized analysis of a geographic database (GIS) for Cuyo Cuyo, (Dept. Puno, Peru) is used to correlate the agricultural production zones of two adjacent communities to altitude, slope, aspect, and other geomorphological features of the high-altitude eastern escarpment landscape. The techniques exemplified will allow ecological anthropologists to analyze spatial patterns at regional scales with much greater control over the data.

  14. Literacy Campaigns and the Indigenization of Modernity: Rearticulations of Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialostok, Steve; Whitman, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Many current literacy campaigns intended for indigenous peoples in Third World countries are reconceptualizations of earlier colonial projects and conform to the needs of late-modern capitalism. Early anthropology may have influenced the discourses surrounding literacy, but current anthropologists have charted important cultural and linguistic…

  15. Dell H. Hymes: His Scholarship and Legacy in Anthropology and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Dell Hathaway Hymes, linguistic anthropologist and educational visionary extraordinaire, passed away in November 2009, leaving behind a voluminous scholarship and inspirational legacy in the study of language and inequality, ethnography, sociolinguistics, Native American ethnopoetics, and education. This essay provides a brief account of Hymes's…

  16. Culture, Education, Anthropology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the anthropology of education must focus on what people do to educate themselves outside the constraints constituting the problematics of schooling. Anthropologists must do this precisely to fulfill their public role as legitimate participants in the conversations about understanding and transforming schooling. When…

  17. Gender Bias in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Gregory Lewis

    2014-01-01

    The philosophical anthropologist Dorothy Dinnerstein, in her 1976 work "The Mermaid and the Minotaur: Sexual Arrangements and Human Malaise," argued that in order for us to address the excesses of male-dominated rule in society (militarism, rapacious consumerism), we must attack the root cause of patriarchy--women's domination of early…

  18. Assessment of the Forensic Sciences Profession: Assessment of the Personnel of the Forensic Sciences Profession. Volume II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, Kenneth S.; And Others

    A state-of-the-art assessment is presented of the number, training, and experience of scientific and paraprofessional personnel serving the criminal justice system as expert witnesses. The study concentrated on the following disciplines: criminalists, coroner/medical examiner personnel (especially forensic pathologists), forensic anthropologists,…

  19. The Taos Blue Lake Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodine, John J.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the Blue Lake Ceremony of the Taos Pueblo Indians of New Mexico. Reproduces the 1906 account of the ceremony by anthropologist Matilda Coxe Stevenson and notes modern verification and change. Discusses the importance of this annual August pilgrimage and initiation rite to the preservation of Taos culture. (SV)

  20. Little Choice for the Chumash: Colonialism, Cattle, and Coercion in Mission Period California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dartt-Newton, Deana; Erlandson, Jon M.

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with the Chumash people, their history, as well as colonization and coercion during the mission period in California. In this article, the authors examine a complex paper on the missionization of the Chumash Indians of the California Coast published in American Anthropologist by Daniel O. Larson, John R. Johnson, and Joel C.…

  1. Tenacious Southern Progressives: Confounding Mencken's Myth of Mediocrity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louise; Reynolds, Katherine

    After H.L. Mencken in a 1920 essay labeled the American South "the Sahara of the Bozart," the journalist Gerald Johnson debated with him the merits of southern intellectual life primarily as indicated in southern literature. There were noteworthy southern artists, journalists, social anthropologists, and educators, ranging from the…

  2. 76 FR 14059 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Bureau of Land Management, Casper Field Office, Casper, WY, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    .... Subsequently in 1963, a skull from an adult male was given to Dr. Mulloy by Ted Miller of Gering, NE, which had...), in Goshen County, WY. The remains, which consist of a skull, were found and collected by Grant... gave the skull to Dr. George Gill, ] University of Wyoming Anthropologist, who brought it to...

  3. Playing with Knives: The Socialization of Self-Initiated Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancy, David F.

    2016-01-01

    Since Margaret Mead's field studies in the South Pacific a century ago, there has been the tacit understanding that as culture varies, so too must the socialization of children to become competent culture users and bearers. More recently, the work of anthropologists has been mined to find broader patterns that may be common to childhood across a…

  4. A New Tradition: A Reflection on Collaboration and Contact Zones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford-Napoleone, Amber R.

    2013-01-01

    Anthropologist James Clifford published his influential essay "Museums as Contact Zones" in 1997. He explored the aspects and limits of museums as contact zones in the globalized world, and focused on the museum's role in cross-cultural dialogue in the twentieth century. In "A New Tradition: A Reflection on Collaboration and Contact…

  5. Annual Review of Anthropology, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bernard J., Ed.; And Others

    Seventeen articles focus on current research interests of anthropologists. The volume is part of a five-year project designed to identify interesting directions in physical, linguistic, archaeological, social, and cultural anthropology. Covering a wide range of anthropological subjects, the articles discuss a history of physical anthropology,…

  6. From Hometown to Nontown: Rural Community Effects of Suburbanization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salamon, Sonya

    2003-01-01

    Regional suburbanization processes are transforming rural America socially and physically, threatening the uniqueness of small towns whose diversity is a national resource. This article reviews existing holistic descriptions of American rural communities since post-World War II by rural sociologists and anthropologists. Three new community case…

  7. Last Words: The Dying of Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sampat, Payal

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the problem of language extinction as cultural homogeneity spreads over the earth. Just 600 of the world's 6,800 languages are safe from extinction meaning that they are still being learned by children. Many anthropologists see the decline as analogous to biodiversity loss: it is a form of cultural impoverishment and a loss of our…

  8. Waiting for the Masculists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Dudley

    2004-01-01

    The author of this article looks back at television advertising from the last 50 years. He observes the position of women in American society as creatures who served at men's pleasure and for men's pleasure. When future anthropologists examine today's television advertising, one significant change they will note is that the culture is more…

  9. New Directions in the Study of Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenneberg, Eric H., Ed.

    A cross-section of language research at mid-century from the viewpoint of the psychologist, biologist, and anthropologist is offered in this book bearing on problems of (1) maturation, (2) social anthropology, (3) human biology, (4) experimental psychology, and (5) primary acquisition of speech and language. Five papers delivered at a symposium on…

  10. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 4: the professionalization of orthodontics (concluded).

    PubMed

    Wahl, Norman

    2005-08-01

    Angle's legacy was assured when his disciples, both in the United States and abroad, boarded the joiners' bandwagon. The first 2 cornerstones of the professional pyramid were laid (education and organization), and the specialty began to pour the third cornerstone: orthodontic literature. Anthropologists, anatomists, histologists, and health professionals laid the foundation for the study of craniofacial growth.

  11. Postrace: Every Good-bye Ain't Gone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Iris Carter

    2010-01-01

    In this commentary, anthropologist Iris Carter Ford reflects on the preceding pieces by Carmen Kynard and Signithia Fordham. She identifies parallels among the two essays and her own life, drawing out themes that emerge from the narratives. Integrating ideas about "talking black" and "talking back," Ford notes that both phenomena have roots in…

  12. Joint Force Quarterly. Issue 38, 3rd Quarter, July 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    anthropologists such as Gregory Bateson served the war effort directly, first conduct- ing intelligence opera- tions in Burma for the Office of...leaders such as General James L. Jones, Jr., USMC, Supreme Allied Commander, Europe, and Admi- ral Gregory G. Johnson, USN, combatant com- mander, Joint

  13. Ethnography and Ethics: A Critique of Gregory Bateson (1904-1980)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watras, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    This essay about the work of a famous anthropologist is an attempt to illuminate one way that researchers could apply their findings about the behavior of people in particular groups to ethical considerations of social relations. I argue that Gregory Bateson (1904-1980) is a good example because he applied a few seminal ideas to a wide range of…

  14. Technologies and Levels of Learning: A Gregory Bateson Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Steven; Cummings, Rhoda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the effective use of instructional technology and examines the use of instructional technology within the framework of anthropologist Gregory Bateson's theory of learning, which views learning as a function of expectation and engagement of the student within the context of the learning experience. (Author/LRW)

  15. Body Language in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Patrick W.

    2005-01-01

    Ralph Waldo Emerson and Mae West would seem to have little in common, but there is one thing they both understood--the importance of body language. Educators, psychologists, anthropologists and sociologists define body language or nonverbal communication as communication without words. It includes overt behaviors such as facial expressions, eye…

  16. Teachers' and Learners' Attitudes towards Culture and Culture Learning in a Turkish Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahraman, Ayhan

    2016-01-01

    In the field of ELT, the undeniable relationship between language and culture has always been a focus of attention from a variety of perspectives. Sociologists, anthropologists and naturally applied linguists have tried to understand whether cultural aspects of L2 scaffold or interfere in much the way where other types of contrasting linguistic…

  17. Healing Circles: An Ethnographic Study of the Interactions Among Health and Healing Practitioners From Multiple Disciplines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    “Healing circle” is a term that has been employed by a group of Northern California integrative medicine researchers as we embarked on an 8-year ethnographic study. As a clinical medical anthropologist and registered nurse specializing in integrative practice and behavioral health, I undertook this study with colleagues from various health disciplines. PMID:25105070

  18. On Teaching Ethnographic Film

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarfield, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    The author of this article, a developmental anthropologist, illustrates how the instructor can use ethnographic films to enhance the study of anthropology and override notions about the scope and efficacy of Western intervention in the Third World, provided the instructor places such films in their proper historical and cultural context. He…

  19. Conflict and the Common Good. Studies in Third World Societies, Publication Number Twenty-Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Robert S., Ed.; Willner, Dorothy, Ed.

    The fundamental theme of these papers is what constitutes the common good and the issues and problems related to the understanding of that common good. Several anthropologists and a political scientist explore this theme in various geographic settings and from many theoretical and methodological perspectives. Among the countries and cultures…

  20. Case Western U. Scholar Collects Tales of Tibetans Facing Tumultuous Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grasgreen, Allie

    2008-01-01

    Melvyn C. Goldstein, an anthropologist at Case Western Reserve University, has spent 40 years, off and on, collecting oral histories from Tibet. As rural Tibetans who have endured decades of tumult approach old age, Goldstein, who is also a director of the university's Center for Research on Tibet, has preserved their stories. He has interviewed…

  1. Difficult Collective Deliberations: Anthropological Notes toward a Theory of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenne, Herve

    2007-01-01

    Background/Context: In the 1970s, Lawrence Cremin urged researchers to remember that education is more than schooling. Few heeded this call, perhaps because of the absence of the theoretical framework needed to make this more than a platitude. As a cultural anthropologist, I argue that education is a fundamental human activity that is infinitely…

  2. Contact and Connection: A Cross-Cultural Look at Parenting Styles in Bali and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kestenberg-Amighi, Janet

    2004-01-01

    This article argues that a culturally approved style of nonverbal parent-infant interaction influences the unfolding parent-child relationship and the child's social development. The author, an anthropologist, compares parenting styles in the "low-contact" culture of the United States with parenting in the "high-contact"…

  3. The Island Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Margaret

    1970-01-01

    Dr. Mead, the world-renowned anthropologist and expert behavioral scientist, is associated with the American Museum of Natural History, which acts as her headquarters as she documents her observations on Man, society and technology. She discusses the need to develop specialists with concern for saving the endangered planet earth. (Editor/GR)

  4. Cooperative Competition: Possibly Oxymoronic But Definitely Smart

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    competition and warfare. 56 Anthropologist Agustin Fuentes writes “There is no doubt that the potential for aggressive conflict in a variety of forms...Studies, 27 March 2002. Fuentes, Agustin . “It‟s Not All Sex and Violence: Integrated Anthropology and the Role of Cooperation and Social Complexity

  5. Motivations of North American Indians in Athletic Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesavento, Wilma J.

    This is a report on the motives of North American Indians in holding their athletic games. Data were researched from "Annual Reports of the Bureau of American Ethnology" published between 1881 and 1933. Anthropologists, artifact collectors, artist-writers, and historians provided primary evidential sources for athletic game motivation.…

  6. Dem Bones: Forensic Resurrection of a Skeleton.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruce, Alease

    2001-01-01

    Presents an activity for students to determine the sex and age of an individual from a collection of bones. Simulates some of the actual procedures conducted in a forensic anthropologist's lab, examining and identifying bones through a series of lab activities. (Author/ASK)

  7. Language Death: A Freirean Solution in the Heart of the Amazon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilherme, Alex

    2013-01-01

    "Language death" is an undeniable phenomenon of our modern times as languages have started to disappear at an alarming rate. This has led linguists, anthropologists, philosophers and educationists to engage with this issue at various levels in an attempt to try to understand the decline in this rich area of human communication and…

  8. Memory, Trauma, and Phantasmagoria in Claudia Llosa's "La Teta Asustada"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueda, Carolina

    2015-01-01

    The film "La teta asustada" (Claudia Llosa, 2009) was inspired by the text titled "Entre prójimos: El conflicto armado interno y la política de la reconciliación en el Perú" by the medical anthropologist Kimberly Theidon. In this study, Theidon compiles the testimonies of a group of indigenous women who were sexually assaulted…

  9. Conceptualizing the Role of Culture in Political Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronoff, Myron J.

    Using as a point of departure anthropologist Clifford Geertz's study of culture with special emphasis on political change, the paper develops a theoretical framework for studying the relationship between culture and political change. A major objective of this anthropological approach to the study of political culture is to help political…

  10. Why Culture Matters: An Empirically-Based Pre-Deployment Training Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Johnston 1995; Monaghan and Just 2000; Salzman 2001; Lichbach and Zuckerman 2002; Wedeen 2002). Anthropologist Clifford Geertz (2000) agrees that......analysis of culture should be more descriptive or narrative in nature, rather than empirical. Geertz (2000) also took a multi-theoretical approach and

  11. American Indian Literature Appropriate for Secondary and Middle-Level Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Jim

    American Indian literature deserves a more prominent place in the English language arts curriculum. Oral literature of American Indians includes didactic stories, told to maintain tribal mores and value systems; it also includes humorous and entertaining stories, as well as histories of various American Indian peoples. Anthropologists and…

  12. Reliable and Valid Stories?--Turning Ethnographic Data into Narratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Wendy

    Ethnographic research projects have surged in recent years and are well represented in Research in the Teaching of English (RTE) bibliographies. However, methods texts were written for social scientists and anthropologists, not for writing researchers. Methods texts and rhetoric programs' general grounding in positivistic research imply that…

  13. A Drama of Learning: Mantle of the Expert.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathcote, Dorothy; Herbert, Phyl

    1985-01-01

    When the "mantle of the expert" system of teaching is used in drama, the teacher assumes a fictional role which places the student in the position of being the expert. In this project, students were historians/anthropologists charged with the responsibility of creating a Bronze Age community. (MT)

  14. AnthroNotes: Museum of Natural History Publications for Educators, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selig, Ruth O., Ed.; Brooks, Alison S., Ed.; Lanouette, JoAnne, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    The journal is intended for anthropologists, archaeologists, teachers, museum and other professionals interested in the wider dissemination of anthropology, particularly in schools. It offers in-depth articles on current anthropological research, teaching activities, and reviews of new resources. The winter/spring issue contains four sections: (1)…

  15. The role of forensic anthropology in Disaster Victim Identification (DVI).

    PubMed

    Blau, Soren; Briggs, Christopher A

    2011-02-25

    This paper briefly describes Disaster Victim Identification (DVI) and reviews the history of the use of forensic anthropology in the identification process. The potential contributions made by forensic anthropology are illustrated through the presentation of a case study. In February 2009 the state of Victoria in south-eastern Australia experienced the most devastating bushfires in its history, resulting in catastrophic loss of life and public and private property. Within 48h of the disaster, forensic teams including pathologists, odontologists and anthropologists assembled at the Victorian Institute of Forensic Medicine in Melbourne to begin the task of identifying the deceased. This paper reviews the part played by forensic anthropologists in the identification process and outlines the important contribution anthropologists can make to DVI, especially at the scene, in the mortuary and in the reconciliation process. The anthropologist's experience with differentially preserved human remains meant they played an important role identifying and recovering heavily fragmentary human skeletal remains, differentiating human from non-human remains, establishing basic biological information such as the sex and age of the individuals and confirming or denying the possibility of re-associating body parts for release to families.

  16. The Role of the State Educational Agency in the Development of Innovative Programs in Student Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelfelt, Roy A., Ed.

    In the introduction to this collection of papers, William Drummond summarizes the national conference proceedings and personal reactions to them. Chapter 1, "The Revolution Explosion," is a talk by Frankie Beth Nelson about the way an anthropologist looks at the school and its purposes. Chapter 2 (SP 002 631), "Student Teaching: The State of the…

  17. Stirring the American Cultural Stew: Developing and Implementing Ethnic Curricula in Connecticut.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weibust, Patricia S.

    This paper identifies issues which arose during the development of an ethnic studies curriculum project in Connecticut. It also defines the author's role as an educational anthropologist involved in the project. Initiated in 1974, the "Peoples of Connecticut" project involved research on ethnic groups in the state and promotion of curricula to…

  18. Straight Talk and Sweet Talk: Political Discourse in a Community of Equals. Working Papers in Sociolinguistics, No. 71.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brenneis, Donald

    Anthropologists have indicated that the need to act politically and to avoid the appearance of such action is marked in egalitarian societies. The perils of confrontation in such societies often foster indirect and highly allusive speech. This paper invesitgates the relationship between direct and indirect speech in an Indo-Fijian community which…

  19. Lessons in Communication: Three Contract Ethnographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastmond, Nick; And Others

    Ethnography, the preferred method of inquiry of the cultural anthropologist, is currently the most widely recognized qualitative method for research. Defined as the "art and science of describing a group or culture," it provides a means of studying and understanding other groups, their values and culture. This study documents the use of…

  20. Culture Shock and Anthropological Fieldwork.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, David Read

    The document reviews literature on the effects of culture shock and suggests reasons that anthropological writings seldom deal with the subject. Definitions of culture shock begin with the writings of anthropologist Kalvero Oberg, who first introduced the term in the mid 1950s. Oberg wrote that culture shock is precipitated by the anxiety that…

  1. Cultural Challenges to Education: The Influences of Cultural Factors in School Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brembeck, Cole S., Ed.; Hill, Walker H., Ed.

    The larger environment in which individuals live has become the arena for exploring the influence and uses of cultural values in school learning and educational decision making. The aim of this book is to explore this arena. Anthropologist Henry G. Burger, in Part I, discusses the assimilation of all groups into a single average Yankee, and…

  2. Seeing Speech Production through the Window of Complex Interactions: Introduction to the Supplement of Select Papers from the 10th International Seminar on Speech Production (ISSP) in Cologne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Susanne; Lancia, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: As the famous linguist and anthropologist C. Hockett noted about 30 years ago, "What one sees of language, as of anything, depends on the angle of view, and different explorers approach from different directions. Unfortunately, sometimes they become so enamored of their particular approach that they incline to scoff at any other, so…

  3. School & Society. Learning Content through Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueba, Henry T., Ed.; Delgado-Gaitan, Concha, Ed.

    Over the last 30 years, educational anthropologists have been exploring the organizational structure of schools and their relationship to society in order to shed light on the complex processes of acquisition, organization, and transmission of cultural knowledge. This volume covers the need to provide a field-based, well-documented cultural…

  4. Mesa Verde: A Study of Man in an Agricultural Setting. Library Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Health Service (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This collection of secondary readings contains general information about the ecology of living space, and specific information about the prehistory ecology of Mesa Verde, Colorado. There is also a section on how anthropologists use trees to date artifacts. A related document is indexed as ED 001 721. (AWW)

  5. Folk Literature of the Warao Indians; Narrative Material and Motif Content.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilbert, Johannes

    The Latin American Center, University of California at Los Angeles, presents a collection of the folk literature of the "boat people," the Warao Indians of the Orinoco Delta of Venezuela and Guyana. According to Professor Johannes Wilbert and other anthropologists, "the inaccessibility of their habitat has preserved their tribal…

  6. Patterns of Sophistication and Naivety: Some Features of Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Education. Occasional Paper No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Frederick

    The limits and boundaries of anthropology are briefly discussed, along with a general description of lay attitudes towards the field. A research case is given to illustrate the way in which anthropological study methods can contribute to educational research. Noted among these contributions is an informed distrust that anthropologists exhibit…

  7. The Modernization of Colonialism and the Educability of the "Native": Transpacific Knowledge Networks and Education in the Interwar Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Julie; Paisley, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on a seminar-conference held in Hawaii in 1936 on the "educability" of native peoples. The seminar-conference was convened by New Zealand anthropologist Felix Keesing and Yale education professor Charles Loram and supported by the Carnegie Corporation, among other organizations. Conference delegates--who came from…

  8. Towards a Discovery-Oriented Ethnography in Researching the Professional Context of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friberg, Torbjörn

    2014-01-01

    Today anthropologists seem to be increasingly studying phenomena in their own societies. Many have a focus on policies in organizations and an interest in explicating cultural phenomena constituted by power and governance. Consequently, a recent interest has emerged in Michel Foucault's philosophy, especially as an inspiration for ethnographic…

  9. William Golding's Iconoclastic Views about the Neanderthal Man in "The Inheritors"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youssef, Sayed Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    William Golding has been identified as a nonconformist whose opinions always go contrary to what is customarily accepted or established. This is shown in all his novels, more specifically "The Inheritors", in which he defies long established opinions held by anthropologists, historians, archaeologists as well as many others about the…

  10. Cultures and Conflict in Local School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Margaret A.

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that conflict, change, and deviance in school board behavior can be effectively studied and examined within generalized models of culture. In the first section, problems in studying educational cultures are identified and the biased views of educational anthropologists are discussed. Section II presents…

  11. An Observation: Historical Review of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ruby D.

    Presenting an historical review of American Indian education, this document includes the following: (1) Introduction (identifies the educational anthropologist as one who investigates the learner's and the educator's cultural orientation to better facilitate the continuity of educational content and method); (2) Definition of Terms (culture,…

  12. A Current Appraisal of the Behavioral Sciences, Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handy, Rollo; Harwood, E. C.

    This book discusses modern scientific inquiry and examines the procedures of inquiry into human behavior used in the behavioral science disciplines. Psychologists look at the individual's adjustive procedures and the evolution of those adjustments within a species. Anthropologists inquire into the behavioral similarities and differences of human…

  13. Is an Inuit Literary History Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Keavy

    2010-01-01

    In 1921, the Greenlandic anthropologist Knud Rasmussen set out to travel twenty thousand miles by dog team across Inuit Nunaat--the Inuit homeland. During this three-year journey--the famous Fifth Thule Expedition--Rasmussen was struck by the similarities in the language and culture of Inuit communities across the entire Arctic. Considering the…

  14. Who Got to Decide on Nadia Abu El-Haj's Tenure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Dan; Shamir, Ronen

    2008-01-01

    The tension surrounding Barnard College's determination of whether to grant tenure to anthropologist Nadia Abu El-Haj was resolved this fall. Barnard reached a positive decision. The affair, however, leaves a number of important issues open. At the center of this controversy stands Abu El-Haj's first book, "Facts on the Ground: Archaeological…

  15. [Blood transfusion and ethics: new questions].

    PubMed

    Sicard, D

    2006-09-01

    Chairman to the French Institutional Review Board, Professor Didier Sicard raises blood donation issues from an ethical standpoint. The contaminated blood scandal focused on the necessity of reducing transfusion risks and regarded blood safety as an ethical mandatory requirement, a debatable subject to deal with. The author proposes to reconsider the nature of unpaid blood donations while advising not to scorn the remunerated gift when such is the case. As for the use of blood, he questions the solutions based on a zero risk perspective, in particular an excessive auto-transfusional practice or a restrictive use of blood, lately regarded as essential. Starting from the blood donation concern this article leads us to think over both our society's fears and the precautionary principle abuses.

  16. Why 400 Years to Discover Countless Planets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Paul H.

    2011-04-01

    In 1584, Dominican monk Giordano Bruno envisioned the stars as "countless suns with countless earths, all rotating around their suns." Searching for intellectual freedom, he fled his native Italy to Protestant Switzerland and Germany, but in 1600 the Roman Inquisition condemned him for heresy. He was burned at the stake. Fast-forwarding to 1995, the Swiss astronomers Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced the discovery of a planet orbiting a star similar to our sun (51 Pegasi). In 2010, 500 planets had been found orbiting 421 stars. On Feb 2, 2011, NASA announced 1200 planet candidates. It took 400 years for telescope technology to advance and for Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, Bradley, and Foucault to make major contributions, culminating in today's astrophysics with digital imaging and processing. Contrasting with Bruno, in 2010 Dominican Francisco Ayala, who had been president of the Sigma Xi and AAAS, won the 1.6M Templeton Prize for affirming life's spiritual dimension.

  17. Seeing (and Doing) Conservation Through Cultural Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, Richard B.; Russell, Diane; West, Paige; Brosius, J. Peter

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we first discuss various vantage points gained through the authors’ experience of approaching conservation through a “cultural lens.” We then draw out more general concerns that many anthropologists hold with respect to conservation, summarizing and commenting on the work of the Conservation and Community Working Group within the Anthropology and Environment Section of the American Anthropological Association. Here we focus on both critiques and contributions the discipline of anthropology makes with regard to conservation, and show how anthropologists are moving beyond conservation critiques to engage actively with conservation practice and policy. We conclude with reflections on the possibilities for enhancing transdisciplinary dialogue and practice through reflexive questioning, the adoption of disciplinary humility, and the realization that “cross-border” collaboration among conservation scholars and practitioners can strengthen the political will necessary to stem the growing commoditization and ensuing degradation of the earth’s ecosystems.

  18. The role of forensic anthropology in the examination of the Daegu subway disaster (2003, Korea).

    PubMed

    Park, Dae-Kyoon; Park, Kyung-Ho; Ko, Jeong-Sik; Kim, Yi-Suk; Chung, Nak-Eun; Ahn, Yong-Woo; Han, Seung-Ho

    2009-05-01

    Meticulous recovery of victims in the Daegu subway disaster was possible, because charred and fragmented victims were left in situ. Because bodies were piled one over another within the train, appropriate methodology during the recovery was critical to identifying the victims. The disaster area was thoroughly documented with notes, photographs, and schematic drawings of the various locations. The recovery team, comprising two medical examiners and one forensic anthropologist, decided when charred body parts and cremated bones were linked to the same individual based on the anatomy and forensic anthropological examination. Without these recovery procedures, it would not have been possible to efficiently harvest representative DNA sample from most of the victims' body parts. After the entire process of identification, 136 victims were positively identified, and six victims remained unidentified. This study supports the crucial role of forensic anthropologists in the recovery of victims, especially in fire scenes.

  19. Historical Trends in Graduate Research and Training of Diplomates of the American Board of Forensic Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Bethard, Jonathan D

    2017-01-01

    The history of forensic anthropology has been documented by numerous scholars. These contributions have described the work of early pioneers in the field and have described important milestones, such as the founding of the Physical Anthropology Section of the American Academy of Forensic Sciences (AAFS) in 1972 and the American Board of Forensic Anthropology (ABFA) in 1977. This paper contributes to the growing literature on the history of forensic anthropology by documenting the academic training of all individuals who have been granted diplomate status by the ABFA (n = 115). Doctoral dissertation titles were queried to discern broad patterns of research foci. A total of 39 doctoral granting institutions have trained diplomates and 77.3% of board-certified forensic anthropologists wrote dissertations involving skeletal biology, bioarchaeology, or forensic anthropology. Board-certified forensic anthropologists are a broadly trained group of professionals with far-reaching anthropological interests and expertise.

  20. Alien origins: xenophilia and the rise of medical anthropology in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Geest, Sjaak

    2012-04-01

    The beginnings of medical anthropology in the Netherlands have a 'xenophile' character in two respects. First, those who started to call themselves medical anthropologists in the 1970s and 1980s were influenced and inspired not so much by anthropological colleagues, but by medical doctors working in tropical countries who had shown an interest in the role of culture during their medical work. Secondly, what was seen as medical anthropology in those early days almost always took place in 'foreign' countries and cultures. One can hardly overestimate the exoticist character of medical anthropology up to the 1980s. It was almost automatic for anthropologists to take an interest in medical issues occurring in another cultural setting, while overlooking the same issues at home. Medical anthropology 'at home' started only around 1990. At present, medical anthropology in the Netherlands is gradually overcoming its xenophile predilection.

  1. Biological Discourses on Human Races and Scientific Racism in Brazil (1832-1911).

    PubMed

    Arteaga, Juanma Sánchez

    2016-05-23

    This paper analyzes biological and scientific discourses about the racial composition of the Brazilian population, between 1832 and 1911. The first of these dates represents Darwin's first arrival in the South-American country during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. The study ends in 1911, with the celebration of the First universal Races congress in London, where the Brazilian physical anthropologist J.B. Lacerda predicted the complete extinction of black Brazilians by the year 2012. Contemporary European and North-American racial theories had a profound influence in Brazilian scientific debates on race and miscegenation. These debates also reflected a wider political and cultural concern, shared by most Brazilian scholars, about the future of the Nation. With few known exceptions, Brazilian evolutionists, medical doctors, physical anthropologists, and naturalists, considered that the racial composition of the population was a handicap to the commonly shared nationalistic goal of creating a modern and progressive Brazilian Republic.

  2. Critical Anthropology of Global Health "takes a stand" statement: a critical medical anthropological approach to the U.S.'s Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Horton, Sarah; Abadía, Cesar; Mulligan, Jessica; Thompson, Jennifer Jo

    2014-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010--the U.S.'s first major health care reform in over half a century-has sparked new debates in the United States about individual responsibility, the collective good, and the social contract. Although the ACA aims to reduce the number of the uninsured through the simultaneous expansion of the private insurance industry and government-funded Medicaid, critics charge it merely expands rather than reforms the existing fragmented and costly employer-based health care system. Focusing in particular on the ACA's individual mandate and its planned Medicaid expansion, this statement charts a course for ethnographic contributions to the on-the-ground impact of the ACA while showcasing ways critical medical anthropologists can join the debate. We conclude with ways that anthropologists may use critiques of the ACA as a platform from which to denaturalize assumptions of "cost" and "profit" that underpin the global spread of market-based medicine more broadly.

  3. Genomic anthropology: coming in from the cold?

    PubMed

    Pálsson, Gísli

    2008-08-01

    By rendering obsolete the theoretical opposition of nature and culture, the study of the human genome has given rise to fresh networks among anthropologists and other scholars. These developments, in turn, invite a refashioning of anthropology. Because genomic studies are directly concerned with the constitution of personhood, they must engage with local notions of personhood and belonging, thus undermining the distinction between experts and laypersons and demonstrating the need for new frameworks for collaboration between anthropologists and their subjects. These trends are illustrated by research in Nunavut (Canada) and Greenland, in particular an examination of the similarities and differences between modern gene talk about the constitution of the individual and "Inuit epigenetics"--local notions of naming, subjectivity, and relatedness.

  4. "Monkeys, babies, idiots" and "primitives": nature-nurture debates and philanthropic foundation support for American anthropology in the 1920s and 1930s.

    PubMed

    Biehn, Kersten Jacobson

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long discussion among historians about the impact that foundation policies had on the development of the social sciences during the interwar era. This discussion has centered on the degree to which foundation officers, particularly from the Rockefeller boards, exercised a hegemonic influence on research. In this essay, I argue that the field of American cultural anthropology has been neglected and must be reconsidered as a window into foundation intervention in nature-nurture debates. Despite foundation efforts to craft an anthropology policy that privileged hereditarian explanations, I contend that cultural anthropologists were committed to proving the primacy of "nurture," even when that commitment cost them valuable research dollars. It was this commitment that provided an essential bulwark for the discipline. Ironically, it was the need to negotiate with foundations about the purpose of their research that helped cultural anthropologists to articulate their unique, and thus intrinsically valuable, approach to nature-nurture debates.

  5. [Anthropology and synthetic Darwinism in the Third Reich: The Evolution of Organisms (1943)].

    PubMed

    Hossfeld, Uwe; Junker, Thomas

    2003-03-01

    This essay will analyse early attempts to base anthropology on the theoretical model provided by the emerging synthetic Darwinism of the 1940s. In the first section we will investigate the historical context of the publication of one of the central documents of synthetic Darwinism in Germany: Gerhard Heberer's Die Evolution der Organismen (1943). Anthropology was covered extensively in this book. The second section will give an impression of the live and work of the five anthropologists represented in Heberer's book: Christian von Krogh, Wilhelm Gieseler, Otto Reche, Hans Weinert, and Gerhard Heberer. The third part of our paper will clarify whether these anthropologists shared a common theoretical outlook with the founders of synthetic Darwinism, and to what degree they were committed to the racial ideas of the Third Reich.

  6. Navigating diagnoses: understanding mind-body relations, mental health, and stigma in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Harper, Ian

    2008-12-01

    Anthropologists and psychiatrists traditionally have used the salience of a mind-body dichotomy to distinguish Western from non-Western ethnopsychologies. However, despite claims of mind-body holism in non-Western cultures, mind-body divisions are prominent in non-Western groups. In this article, we discuss three issues: the ethnopsychology of mind-body dichotomies in Nepal, the relationship between mind-body dichotomies and the hierarchy of resort in a medical pluralistic context, and, finally, the role of mind-body dichotomies in public health interventions (biomedical and psychosocial) aimed toward decreasing the stigmatization of mental illness. We assert that, by understanding mind-body relations in non-Western settings, their implications, and ways in which to reconstitute these relations in a less stigmatizing manner, medical anthropologists and mental health workers can contribute to the reduction of stigma in global mental health care.

  7. Navigating Diagnoses: Understanding Mind–Body Relations, Mental Health, and Stigma in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Harper, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Anthropologists and psychiatrists traditionally have used the salience of a mind–body dichotomy to distinguish Western from non-Western ethnopsychologies. However, despite claims of mind–body holism in non-Western cultures, mind–body divisions are prominent in non-Western groups. In this article, we discuss three issues: the ethnopsychology of mind–body dichotomies in Nepal, the relationship between mind–body dichotomies and the hierarchy of resort in a medical pluralistic context, and, lastly, the role of mind–body dichotomies in public health interventions (biomedical and psychosocial) aimed toward decreasing the stigmatization of mental illness. We assert that, by understanding mind–body relations in non-Western settings, their implications, and ways in which to reconstitute these relations in a less stigmatizing manner, medical anthropologists and mental health workers can contribute to the reduction of stigma in global mental healthcare. PMID:18784989

  8. [Disability, for a revolution of thought and action].

    PubMed

    Gardou, Charles

    2014-05-01

    While considerable progress has been made, disabled people are still perceived as "separate" beings in our society. For them to be integrated, it is necessary to accept their difference and favour their autonomy. The respect of the rights of disabled people thereby enables professionals to position themselves within an ethical support approach. An interview with Charles Gardou, an anthropologist and university professor at Lumière-Lyon 2 University.

  9. [T. Shevchenko in biography of physician, ethnographer and traveller M. Myklukho-Maklaĭ].

    PubMed

    Martsinkovs'kyĭ, I B

    2007-01-01

    The biography of the doctor, N. Miklukho-Maklay, a world scientist, anthropologist, ethnographer and travaller has Ukrainian roots. N. Miklukho-Maklay himself and his father knew and was interested in work of T. Shevchenko. N. Miklukho-Maklay and T. Shevchenko spoke out against colonial policy and social inequality: N. Miklukho-Maklay against racism and T. Shevchenko against the serfdom as a form of slavery.

  10. Keeping the feet of the gods and the saints warm: mundane pragmatics in times of suffering and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Els

    2008-12-01

    In this article the author writes about mundane pragmatics, or everyday deeds, in times of suffering and uncertainty. Such pragmatics differ from cultural practices such as biomedical therapies or individual health-seeking behaviour patterns. Medical anthropologists and others working in the field of health and illness often overlook such pragmatics. However, these actions are of great social value and express the connectedness and bonds between people. They also express our deep beliefs, hopes, powerlessness and vulnerability.

  11. M-X Environmental Technical Report. Environmental Characteristics of Alternative Designated Deployment Areas, Archaeological and Historical Resources.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-22

    although the Spanish continued to place mythical mounts of silver and interior rivers on maps, attesting to the persistence of the belief that there...tri-weekly) Palisade - Hamilton (1876) - stage line Panaca - Mount Irish (date unknown) - road Panaca - Muddy Valley (date unknown) - mail route...Association, Lubbock. 1974. Wheat, Joe Ben. The Jurgens Site. Plains Anthropologist Memoir 15. 1979. Wheeler, S.M., 1973. The Archaeology of Etna Cave

  12. New technology and regional studies in human ecology: A Papua New Guinea example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morren, George E. B., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Two key issues in using technologies such as digital image processing and geographic information systems are a conceptually and methodologically valid research design and the exploitation of varied sources of data. With this realized, the new technologies offer anthropologists the opportunity to test hypotheses about spatial and temporal variations in the features of interest within a regionally coherent mosaic of social groups and landscapes. Current research on the Mountain OK of Papua New Guinea is described with reference to these issues.

  13. Organizational Friction: Urban Crime Control Diminish Effect Theory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-10

    Belize” by social violence anthropologist Dr. Herbert Gayle and Nelma Mortis along with Jamuna Vasquez ; Raymond J. Mossiah, Melvin Hewlett, and Alindy...analysis New Jersey: Prentice-Hall Inc. Gayle, Herbert, and Nelma Mortis, with Jamuna Vasquez , Raymond Mossiah, Melvin Hewlett, Alindy Amaya. 2010. Male...Longman Inc. 125 News 5. 2010. Crime control council looks at rogue cops and Crooks report. Michael Young interview by Jose Sanchez . 12 March

  14. Somalia: IGAD’s Attempt to Restore Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Somalis are thought to have migrated into northern Kenya and southern Somalia from the lake regions of the southern Ethiopian highlands. The proto...Sam, as they are called by anthropologists, migrated further into the Ogaden region of Ethiopia and northern Somalia in 6 search of water and...interriverine areas became herders, raising camels, sheep, and goats: they migrated as necessary to keep their herds near water and good pasture lands

  15. [Participatory observation in the 1995 count of population and housing. An anthropological experience].

    PubMed

    Mindek, D

    1996-01-01

    "The experience of an anthropologist who participated as enumerator in [Mexico's] Conteo de Poblacion y Vivienda 1995 is analyzed in this paper. The author describes briefly the methodology...for each stage of the enumeration; she systematically points [out] the circumstances and reasons that determine why the different groups involved in the process do not follow the rules. She [examines] the questions that the informers usually avoid answering, or the ones they answer hardly and imprecisely." (EXCERPT)

  16. The Hidden Dimension of Strategic Planning: Explorations in the Formation of Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    commerce, warfare, and even sleep, is based on presuppositions. -- Gregory Bateson By education most have been misled; So they believe, because they so...sensory input but actually supplied from our memory. Anthropologist\\Philosopher Gregory Bateson tells us: "All experience is subjective, . . our brains...to radio waves and to magnetic fields. Certain fish emit 38 Press and Arian, 1966, 156. 𔄃 Bateson , Greogory, Mind and Nature, A Necessary Unity

  17. Cultural Understanding in Counterinsurgency: Analysis of the Human Terrain System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    the experience of Gregory 27 Ibid., 16. 28 Ibid., 16. 29 Murray L. Wax, "Wartime Dilemmas of...Persuasive and Ignored Contributions," 16. 31 Ibid., 16. 15 Bateson , a noted anthropologist who in 1943 enlisted into the OSS. During the war he not...OSS forward intelligence units in the Burmese Arakan Mountains.32 Following the war, Bateson increasingly became disillusioned with the work he did

  18. Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: Why the New UCMJ Rape Law Missed the Mark, and How an Affirmative Consent Statute Will Put it Back on Target

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    in the workplace, and gender based discrimination. Through various approaches, feminists have identified gendered components and gendered ...Anthropologists and sociologists have conducted extensive research into the cultural history of rape and rape laws.12 Feminist jurisprudence1 on the crime of...is on what is in the best interest of the U.S. Armed Forces and those who serve, rather than the sociological or feminist perspective. Indeed, the

  19. Cultural Dimensions of Strategy and Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    that he himself has spun. The American anthropologist Clifford Geertz (1926-2007) extended this notion by equating culture with Weber’s “webs of...the dominant variant of cultural anthropology that approaches culture as a symbolic system. Clifford Geertz , The Interpretation of Cultures, New York...Nationalism, Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1983, pp. 101-109. 4. Clifford Geertz , Chapter 1, “Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive

  20. Amateur versus professional: the search for Bigfoot.

    PubMed

    Regal, Brian

    2008-06-01

    Those who would seek monsters not as metaphors, but as flesh and blood organisms have gone largely overlooked by the history of science. Starting in the 1950s and 1960s a group of amateur monster hunters and physical anthropologists began to pursue such creatures as Sasquatch, Bigfoot and the Yeti as living species. Whether or not such creatures exist, the monster hunters themselves are fascinating subjects for study, illustrating the tensions that are all too common between amateur naturalists and professional scientists.

  1. Reconciling "stress" and "health" in physical anthropology: what can bioarchaeologists learn from the other subdisciplines?

    PubMed

    Reitsema, Laurie J; McIlvaine, Britney Kyle

    2014-10-01

    The concepts of "stress" and "health" are foundational in physical anthropology as guidelines for interpreting human behavior and biocultural adaptation in the past and present. Though related, stress and health are not coterminous, and while the term "health" encompasses some aspects of "stress," health refers to a more holistic condition beyond just physiological disruption, and is of considerable significance in contributing to anthropologists' understanding of humanity's lived experiences. Bioarchaeological interpretations of human health generally are made from datasets consisting of skeletal markers of stress, markers that result from (chronic) physiological disruption (e.g., porotic hyperostosis; linear enamel hypoplasia). Non-specific indicators of stress may measure episodes of stress and indicate that infection, disease, or nutritional deficiencies were present in a population, but in assessing these markers, bioarchaeologists are not measuring "health" in the same way as are human biologists, medical anthropologists, or primatologists. Rather than continue to diverge on separate (albeit parallel) trajectories, bioarchaeologists are advised to pursue interlinkages with other subfields within physical anthropology toward bridging "stress" and "health." The papers in this special symposium set include bioarchaeologists, human biologists, molecular anthropologists, and primatologists whose research develops this link between the concepts of "stress" and "health," encouraging new avenues for bioarchaeologists to consider and reconsider health in past human populations.

  2. In search of racial types: soldiers and the anthropological mapping of the Romanian nation, 1914–44

    PubMed Central

    TURDA, MARIUS

    2013-01-01

    Turda’s article explores the diverse ways in which racial research conducted on prisoners-of-war (POWs) and soldiers contributed to the emergence of anthropological narratives of national identity in Romania between 1914 and 1944. It first discusses racial typologies produced by Austrian, German, Italian and Polish anthropologists investigating POWs during the First World War, and then examines how Romanian physicians and anthropologists engaged with these typologies while refining their own scientific and nationalist agendas. An essential corollary to this development was a strong commitment to the cultivation of distinct Romanian racial types. The interwar and Second World War periods witnessed the full flowering of a Romanian race science that accommodated a racial hierarchy as the basis for national difference. Moreover, by identifying the racial types purportedly constituting the Romanian nation, anthropologists not only hoped to develop a systematic racial inventory of Romania’s ethnic communities, but also to reinforce the myth of ethnogenesis, which described the Romanians as worthy of their noble European origins and legitimized their territorial claims. PMID:24363459

  3. Crafting a new science: defining paleoanthropology and its relationship to prehistoric archaeology, 1860-1890.

    PubMed

    Goodrum, Matthew R

    2014-12-01

    Paleoanthropology emerged as a science during the late nineteenth century. The discovery of prehistoric artifacts in Pleistocene deposits soon led to the excavation of fossilized human bones. The archaeologists and geologists who unearthed them were primarily concerned with determining whether the human fossils and the artifacts found with them actually dated from the Pleistocene, thus offering evidence for the geological antiquity of humans. Prehistoric archaeologists reconstructed the way of life of prehistoric peoples through the artifacts found, while anthropologists examined the human fossils. They wanted primarily to identify the races of prehistoric humans. It was within this context that French anthropologists began to use the term "paléo-anthropologie" to refer to a new scientific discipline devoted to the study of prehistoric human races and human paleontology. This essay examines how paleoanthropology was defined as a science during the 1870s and 1880s. It shows that a tension existed between the objectives and methods of archaeologists and anthropologists. Paul Topinard criticized archaeologists and argued that a new type of scientist; the paleoanthropologist trained in anatomy or zoology, was needed to study human fossils properly.

  4. [Anthropology at the heart of medicine].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Laurent

    2008-10-01

    Anthropology and medicine share many concerns, but have had trouble collaborating in the past. The anthropologist has had to plead both with his colleagues and physicians to move beyond a < culturalist > vision that would confine him to the study of traditional or alternative medicines and representations of populations and the sick. The anthropologist's approach perceived as intrusive has also raised fears in the medical world. These reciprocal misunderstandings and stereotypes need to be overcome by an anthropology that studies the practices and knowledge of modern medicine as they are elaborated daily. Anthropology will dialogue with medicine without judging it. In its turn, medicine will open its sites of healing and teaching to the anthropologist. Anthropology at the heart of medicine is organized around the idea that the paths and expectations of health professionals reflect the specicifities of the local system of health. The individual dimensions of practices cannot be divorced from the functioning of structures of health and decision. Finally, like any other kind of anthropology, medical anthropology must scrutinize its own methods and ethics in a critical way.

  5. "Doctor, Why Didn't You Adopt My Baby?" Observant Participation, Care, and the Simultaneous Practice of Medicine and Anthropology.

    PubMed

    Sufrin, Carolyn

    2015-12-01

    Medical anthropology has long appreciated the clinical encounter as a rich source of data and a key site for critical inquiry. It is no surprise, then, that a number of physician-anthropologists have used their clinical insights to make important contributions to the field. How does this duality challenge and enhance the moral practice and ethics of care inherent both to ethnography and to medicine? How do bureaucratic and professional obligations of HIPAA and the IRB intersect with aspirations of anthropology to understand human experience and of medicine to heal with compassion? In this paper, I describe my simultaneous fieldwork and clinical practice at an urban women's jail in the United States. In this setting, being a physician facilitates privileged access to people and spaces within, garners easy trust, and enables an insider perspective more akin to observant participation than participant observation. Through experiences of delivering the infants of incarcerated pregnant women and of being with the mothers as they navigate drug addiction, child custody battles, and re-incarceration, the roles of doctor and anthropologist become mutually constitutive and transformative. Moreover, the dual practice reveals congruities and cracks in each discipline's ethics of care. Being an anthropologist among informants who may have been patients reworks expectations of care and necessitates ethical practice informed by the dual roles.

  6. Forensic anthropology in Europe: an assessment of current status and application.

    PubMed

    Kranioti, Elena; Paine, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Forensic anthropology is the discipline that traditionally deals with the examination of human remains for legal purposes and it derives from the fields of anatomy, physical anthropology and forensic medicine. For more than a century, forensic anthropologists in the United States have been offering their services in the court of law complementing the medico-legal investigation of other forensic professionals. The current status in European countries is presented here. The development of forensic anthropology varies significantly among the countries of Europe. Whereas some countries show a long history of research activity in the forensic sciences, including forensic anthropology (i.e. France, Germany and Spain), others are exhibiting a recent, rapid development (i.e. United Kingdom). In some cases, forensic anthropologists are employed within the academic realm (i.e. U.K., Denmark, Portugal, Turkey), forensic institutions (Netherlands) or government organizations (Spain, Hungary), although the vast majority of them remain limited to freelance activities on a sporadic basis. Often, European scientists that deal with skeletal remains come from nonphysical anthropology disciplines such as archaeology, forensic medicine and biology. In many cases they do not have adequate training equivalent to the forensic anthropologists in the USA. Naturally, without common training and a common legal system, an accreditation system for Europe will be difficult to implement.

  7. Cholera ante portas – The re-emergence of cholera in Kinshasa after a ten-year hiatus

    PubMed Central

    Bompangue, Didier; Vesenbeckh, Silvan Manuel; Giraudoux, Patrick; Castro, Marcia; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Kebela Ilunga, Benoît; Murray, Megan

    2012-01-01

    alert. Didier Bompangue and Silvan Vesenbeckh contributed equally to this work. *corresponding author: Silvan Vesenbeckh, Harvard School of Public Health (vesenbeckh@gmail.com) Didier Bompangue is Associate Professor in the Department of Microbiology (University of Kinshasa) and Epidemiologist in the DRC Ministry of Health. He was involved in the investigations of the described outbreak since February 2011. PMID:22453903

  8. Conductor-like screening model for relaxed excited states: Implementation in the semiempirical method MSINDO.

    PubMed

    Krause, Katharina; Bredow, Thomas

    2014-03-15

    Two approaches to treat solvent polarization and reorientation effects for excited states of molecules and surfaces have been implemented in the recently developed MSINDO-sCIS method (Gadaczek, Krause, Hintze, Bredow, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2011, 7, 3675). They allow for an efficient calculation of analytical energy gradients and hence open the opportunity to investigate fluorescence effects or photochemical reactions in solution for large molecules that are difficult to treat with high-level methods. Both approaches are based on the conductor-like screening model (COSMO) (Klamt and Schüürmann, J. Chem. Soc., Perkin Trans. 1993, 2, 799) in combination with the configuration interaction singles (CIS) method (Foresman, Head-Gordon, Pople, and Frisch, J. Phys. Chem. 1992, 96, 135). The paper gives a brief outline of the theoretical background. As a first application, solvent shifts of three well-studied, environment-sensitive fluorescent dyes (Kucherak, Didier, Mély, and Klymchenko, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2010, 1, 616) have been calculated and compared with experimental results and standard time-dependent density functional theory. A statistical evaluation of MSINDO-COSMO-sCIS is provided for a set of 39 molecules suggested recently by Jacquemin et al. (Jacquemin, Planchat, Adamo, and Mennucci, J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2012, 8, 2359). Calculated vertical and adiabatic excitation energies and fluorescence energies are compared to experimental data.

  9. Successful repair of a 6 meter battery

    SciTech Connect

    Nay, K.; Gratson, M.; Wash, S.; Sundholm, J.L.; Hippe, W.; Ramani, R.V.

    1996-12-31

    Following a two-year construction period, LTV Steel Company commissioned a new six-meter coke oven battery and ancillary facilities in December 1981 at the S. Chicago Works. The battery is a 60-oven Didier grouped flue underjet design capable of firing coke oven gas and blast furnace gas. In late 1990, coke side refractory damage in the form of severe spalls and holes in the walls were observed. Numerous repair techniques--welding, guniting, panel patching, end flue repairs using zero expansion brick--were employed as interim measures until a comprehensive repair plan could be implemented. A repair plan (primarily for coke side flues) was developed which envisioned end flue repairs on six walls per year beginning in late 1991, early 1992 depending on refractory delivery. However, in late 1992 it became apparent that the coke side deterioration was occurring faster than expected and that extensive pusher side deterioration was also occurring. Because of these developments, another battery inspection was performed. On the basis of this inspection, it was determined that a major rehabilitation would be required to assure long-term, environmentally acceptable operation of the battery.

  10. The Skin-Ego: Dyadic Sensuality, Trauma in Infancy, and Adult Narcissistic Issues.

    PubMed

    Anzieu-Premmereur, Christine

    2015-10-01

    The skin-ego is a metaphor created by the French psychoanalyst Didier Anzieu to describe the process by which the infant's emerging ego develops a container for psychic contents and achieves a secure feeling of well-being. The ego encloses the psychic apparatus as the skin encloses the body. The ego becomes able to fix barriers protecting the internal world and to screen exchanges with the id, the superego, and the outside world. The skin-ego is an envelope that contains thoughts and gives to thinking activity some limits, continuity, and a protection against the instincts. The functions of the skin-ego are to maintain thoughts, to contain ideas and affects, to provide a protective shield, to register traces of primary communication with the outside world, to manage inter-sensorial correspondences, to individuate, to support sexual excitation, and to recharge the libido. The skin-ego is the foundation of the container-contained relationship. An important part of psychoanalytic work with borderline patients is the reconstruction of the earliest phases of the skin-ego and their consequences for mental organization.

  11. International Congress on Transposable Elements (ICTE) 2012 in Saint Malo and the sea of TE stories.

    PubMed

    Ainouche, Abdelkader; Bétermier, Mireille; Chandler, Mick; Cordaux, Richard; Cristofari, Gaël; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Lesage, Pascale; Panaud, Olivier; Quesneville, Hadi; Vaury, Chantal; Vieira, Cristina; Vitte, Clémentine

    2012-10-30

    An international conference on Transposable Elements (TEs) was held 21-24 April 2012 in Saint Malo, France. Organized by the French Transposition Community (GDR Elements Génétiques Mobiles et Génomes, CNRS) and the French Society of Genetics (SFG), the conference's goal was to bring together researchers from around the world who study transposition in diverse organisms using multiple experimental approaches. The meeting drew more than 217 attendees and most contributed through poster presentations (117), invited talks and short talks selected from poster abstracts (48 in total). The talks were organized into four scientific sessions, focused on: impact of TEs on genomes, control of transposition, evolution of TEs and mechanisms of transposition. Here, we present highlights from the talks given during the platform sessions. The conference was sponsored by Alliance pour les sciences de la vie et de la santé (Aviesan), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Université de Perpignan, Université de Rennes 1, Région Bretagne and Mobile DNA. CHAIR OF THE ORGANIZATION COMMITTEE: Jean-Marc Deragon ORGANIZERS: Abdelkader Ainouche, Mireille Bétermier, Mick Chandler, Richard Cordaux, Gaël Cristofari, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pascale Lesage, Didier Mazel, Olivier Panaud, Hadi Quesneville, Chantal Vaury, Cristina Vieira and Clémentine Vitte.

  12. Youth plus experience: the discovery of 51 Pegasi b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenadelli, Davide; Bernagozzi, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In 1995, Michel Mayor and Didier Queloz announced they discovered 51 Pegasi b, the first planet ever found around a star other than the Sun. This discovery turned out to be a milestone of recent astronomy, as it opened up a new field of research that is growing impressively these days. However, 51 Pegasi b has surprising properties as compared to the planets of the Solar System, as it is a giant planet on a very close-in orbit around its parent star. Hence, its discovery was unexpected and its actual existence did not go unchallenged. In the following years, a passionate debate sprang up, and finally astronomers accepted it, but at the price of a deep revision of our understanding of how planetary systems are formed and evolve. In the present paper, we reconstruct the dynamics of the discovery of 51 Pegasi b and the first exoplanets, the quarrel that arose among astronomers and the final acceptance of the existence of planets with unexpected characteristics. This remarkable story is recounted by means of published literature as well as interviews with several of its main protagonists.

  13. The joke envelope: a neglected precursor of the psychic envelope concept in Freud's writing.

    PubMed

    Spero, Moshe Halevi

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of the primeval skin ego, psychic envelope, and related pre-ego containing and wrapping functions elaborated respectively by Esther Bick, Didier Anzieu, and Francis Tustin occupy an important position in contemporary psychoanalytic theory and clinical practice. The psychic envelope begins as a virtual mental protostructure ("proto" because it is not yet based on fully symbolized representations) that holds the budding mind together pending further developments. With maturity, the enveloping functions adopt symbolized, metaphoric form (for example, the aesthetic use of cloth, the analytic framework), but can regress to more concrete and pathological forms. The aforementioned authors based their ideas on a cluster of specific allusions to the idea of a psychic covering, barrier, or envelope in Freud's work. Yet they neglected one reference, hidden in Freud's analysis of the structure ofjokes and humor: the 'joke envelope"--die witzige Einkleidung. The present essay explores Freud's use of the term Einkleidung, including his intriguing idea that a joke requires three people whereas a dream does not and the fact that Freud nowhere speaks of a "dream envelope. "I take the "joke envelope" beyond its original context and posit a relationship between laughter and the early, normative traumas of breathing, crying, and loss, and the dawn of rhythmic envelopes that enable mentalization. Jokes and joking symbolically repeat the early rupture and rapture of breathing and self-other differentiation and the internalization of maternal containing and envelopment.

  14. Honors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-12-01

    Twenty-three AGU members are among the newly elected fellows of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, announced on 25 November 2013. They are Lance F. Bosart, University at Albany, State University of New York; William Henry Brune III, Pennsylvania State University; Robert H. Byrne, University of South Florida; Walter K. Dodds, Kansas State University; Sherilyn Claire Fritz, University of Nebraska-Lincoln; Kevin P. Furlong, Pennsylvania State University; Arnold L. Gordon, Columbia University; Thomas A. Herring, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Malcolm Hughes, University of Arizona; Thomas C. Johnson, University of Minnesota Duluth; Jack A. Kaye, NASA; Samuel P. Kounaves, Tufts University; Klaus S. Lackner, Columbia University; Yiqi Luo, University of Oklahoma; Jean-Bernard Minster, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of California, San Diego (UCSD); Kenneth H. Nealson, University of Southern California; Walter Clarkson Pitman III, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory; James E. Quick, Southern Methodist University; Ross J. Salawitch, University of Maryland, College Park; Didier Sornette, ETH Zürich (Swiss Federal Institute of Technology); Michael Stein, University of Chicago; Bradley M. Tebo, Oregon Health and Science University; and Mark H. Thiemens, UCSD.

  15. Effects of eating frequency, snacking, and breakfast skipping on energy regulation: symposium overview.

    PubMed

    McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    The ASN hosted a symposium entitled "Eating Patterns and Energy Balance: A Look at Eating Frequency, Snacking, and Breakfast Omission" at the Experimental Biology 2009 annual meeting on April 19, 2009, in New Orleans, LA. The symposium was chaired by Megan McCrory and co-chaired by Wayne Campbell, both from Purdue University. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts to provide an overview of research on the potential role of eating patterns in the development of overweight and obesity. Studies on eating frequency, snacking, and breakfast skipping were highlighted. In particular, evidence both for and against their roles were discussed, methodological issues that underlie controversies were addressed, and suggested future directions for research were outlined. Appetite regulation and hormonal effects were also reviewed. Megan McCrory introduced the session then discussed studies on eating frequency and energy regulation in free-living adults consuming self-selected diets. Heather Leidy summarized the state of the research on eating frequency and energy regulation in adults from controlled feedings studies. Didier Chapelot discussed various usages of "snack" and argued for a physiological basis to distinguish snacks from meals. Mark Pereira presented information on the effects of breakfast skipping and the macronutrient composition of breakfast in energy regulation and mood. A panel discussion/question and answer session ended the symposium. The symposium was videotaped and can be viewed at www.nutrition.org.

  16. Excavation of a Vietnam-era aircraft crash site: use of cross-cultural understanding and dual forensic recovery methods.

    PubMed

    Webster, A D

    1998-03-01

    The excavation of a 23 year-old aircraft crash site in the Socialist Republic of Vietnam and the transformational processes preceding its excavation in 1995-1996 are detailed. The history of the site involved an initial catastrophic event, with subsequent reclamation and disturbances. Ultimately, a recovery effort by a joint U.S. team from the Central Identification Laboratory, Hawaii (CILHI). Joint Task Force-Full Accounting (JTF-FA) and a Socialist Republic of Vietnam contingent yielded numerous human remains, personal effects, and life-support items from the crash site. This case study should be of interest to the increasing number of forensic anthropologists who carry out work in international contexts. The application of forensic anthropology in human rights abuse cases, for example in Rwanda, Argentina, and Bosnia, provide examples of such cross-cultural endeavors. Cultural factors act in the development of a site and should not be overlooked as significant taphonomic agents. The approach that an indigenous person takes to a crash site or mass grave may be quite different from our own approach, involving Western science. Holland, Anderson, and Mann (I) describe the postmortem alternation of exhumed and/or curated bone caused by indigenous South-east Asian peoples; the examples provided by these authors demonstrate how culture affects the treatment of what we would call "evidence." The international nature of an incident can add complicating "filters" to the reconstruction of events, since reclamation responses by indigenous people vary according to their interpretations of the scene. An investigating forensic anthropologist needs to understand the emic viewpoint (the insider's view), as cultural anthropologists do, when attempting to recover and reconstruct such an incident. In response to the cultural (and natural) taphonomic agents at work on such a site, the use of dual forensic recovery methods--simultaneously treating the investigation scene like an

  17. Estimating temperature exposure of burnt bone - A methodological review.

    PubMed

    Ellingham, Sarah T D; Thompson, Tim J U; Islam, Meez; Taylor, Gillian

    2015-05-01

    Forensic anthropologists are frequently confronted with the need to interpret burnt bone. Regardless of the context, one of the key factors for the correct interpretation of the remains and a reconstruction of the incidents leading to incineration is the estimation of the maximum exposure temperature. The recent years have seen an influx in experimental research focusing on temperature estimation, spanning from colour assessment, mechanical strength measurements, histology and structural observations, biochemical changes and crystallinity studies, vastly advancing the understanding of heat induced changes in bone, thus facilitating a more accurate interpretation. This paper draws together and evaluates all currently available methodologies for temperature estimation.

  18. The 'relics of Joan of Arc': a forensic multidisciplinary analysis.

    PubMed

    Charlier, P; Poupon, J; Eb, A; De Mazancourt, P; Gilbert, T; Huynh-Charlier, I; Loublier, Y; Verhille, A M; Moulheirat, C; Patou-Mathis, M; Robbiola, L; Montagut, R; Masson, F; Etcheberry, A; Brun, L; Willerslev, E; de la Grandmaison, G Lorin; Durigon, M

    2010-01-30

    Archaeological remains can provide concrete cases, making it possible to develop, refine or validate medico-legal techniques. In the case of the so-called 'Joan of Arc's relics' (a group of bone and archaeological remains known as the 'Bottle of Chinon'), 14 specialists analysed the samples such as a cadaver X of carbonised aspect: forensic anthropologist, medical examiners, pathologists, geneticists, radiologist, biochemists, palynologists, zoologist and archaeologist. Materials, methods and results of this study are presented here. This study aims to offer an exploitable methodology for the modern medico-legal cases of small quantities of human bones of carbonised aspect.

  19. Medical anthropology and Ebola in Congo: cultural models and humanistic care.

    PubMed

    Hewlett, B S; Epelboin, A; Hewlett, B L; Formenty, P

    2005-09-01

    Seldom have medical anthropologists been involved in efforts to control high mortality diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) This paper describes the results of two distinct but complementary interventions during the first phases of an outbreak in the Republic of Congo in 2003. The first approach emphasized understanding local peoples cultural models and political-economic explanations for the disease while the second approach focused on providing more humanitarian care of patients by identifying and incorporating local beliefs and practices into patient care and response efforts.

  20. Art as an Evolutionary Adaptation: Inspiration from the Visible Supernovae of AD 1054 and AD 3054

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbally, C. J.; Rappaport, M. B.

    2016-01-01

    The authors, an astronomer/priest and an anthropologist/biologist, describe their use of the dramatic arts at the INSAP VIII meeting in their performance of two short skits on the sighting of a supernova in AD 1054 (creating the beautiful Crab Nebula) and a future “Rho Cas” stellar explosion in the constellation Cassiopeia, in AD 3054. They speculate on the emergence of science, religion, and art as bona fide adaptations, responding to natural selection, which served early hominins well in their struggle for existence. They draw parallels to the continued functions of science, religion, and art in modern society.

  1. What We Can Learn From Shamanic Healing: Brief Psychotherapy With Latino Immigrant Clients

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin de Rios, Marlene

    2002-01-01

    The author, a medical anthropologist and licensed psychotherapist, draws on a database of 700 Latino immigrant families whom she has treated to demonstrate concepts and techniques of psychotherapeutic intervention that are derived from shamanic roots in the immigrant’s original culture. Congruences may exist between the shamanic techniques of the coastal and Amazonian regions of Peru and 3 Western psychotherapy techniques—hypnosis, behavior modification, and cognitive restructuring. By using historic links with Hispanic culture and the techniques discussed in the commentary, psychotherapists can acquire cultural competence that will enable them to effectively reduce mental illness symptoms presented by US Latino immigrants in clinical practice. PMID:12356595

  2. Anthropological and radiographic comparison of vertebrae for identification of decomposed human remains.

    PubMed

    Mundorff, Amy Z; Vidoli, Giovanna; Melinek, Judy

    2006-09-01

    This case study demonstrates the importance of involving an anthropologist in forensic situations with decomposed remains. Anthropological consultation was used in conjunction with the comparison of antemortem and postmortem radiographs to establish positive identification of unknown, decomposed remains. The remains had no traditional identifying features such as fingerprints or dental. Through anthropological analysis, it was determined the decedent was male, between 20 and 23 years at time of death and c. 5'2'' tall. This information allowed for a presumptive identification and a request for antemortem radiographs. The missing person was identified comparing the spinous processes of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae between ante- and postmortem radiographs.

  3. ORNL`s war on crime, technically speaking

    SciTech Connect

    Xiques, P.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes research being carried out by the Center for Applied Science and Technology for Law Enforcement (CASTLE), at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This program works on projects which are solvable, affordable, and outside the scope of the private sector. Examples are presented of work related to: the lifetime of childrens fingerprints compared to adults; the development of ways of providing cooler body armor; digital enhancement technology applied to security-camera images from crime scenes; victim identification by skeletal reconstruction for use by forensic anthropologists.

  4. The clash of medical civilizations: experiencing "primary care" in a neoliberal culture.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Brian

    2012-12-01

    An anthropologist describes how he found himself at the vortex of a "clash of medical civilizations:" neoliberalism and the international primary health care movement. His involvement in a $6 million social change initiative in medical education became a basis to unlock the hidden tensions, contradictions and movements within the "primary care" phenomenon. The essay is structured on five ethnographic stories, situated on a continuum from "natural" species-level primary care to "unnatural" neoliberal primary care. Food is an element of all tales. Taking the long view of history/prehistory permits us to better recognize ideological distortions in order to more capably transform medicine.

  5. Tissue preservation and projectile context in a Spanish Civil War victim.

    PubMed

    Ferllini, Roxana

    2010-07-01

    Exhumations of mass graves containing the remains of those executed during the Spanish Civil War and the subsequent Franco regime are currently being conducted at the request of surviving relatives. This individual case report illustrates how soft tissue preservation, through copper ion contact in one particular victim aided in preserving the projectile in an anatomical context, thereby permitting the correct interpretation of the projectile's path and angle, which otherwise would not have been possible as no bone tissue was affected. The information obtained has important relevance for human rights investigations and the work of the forensic anthropologist.

  6. Ways of knowing: Howard Stein's border-crossing use of poetry to interrogate clinical medicine, medical education, and health care organizations.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Johanna

    2016-09-01

    This article explores how medical anthropologist Howard Stein's poetry and his unique practice of sharing this poetry with the patients, physicians, and administrators who inspired it create ways of knowing that are at once revelatory and emancipatory. Stein's writing shows readers that poetry can be considered as a form of data and as a method of investigation into the processes of the human soul. Furthermore, it represents a kind of intervention that invites health professional readers toward connection, bridge building, and solidarity with their patients and with one another. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Regions of government science: John Wesley Powell in Washington and the American west.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, S

    1999-01-01

    Best known as the first down the Colorado River through the Grand Canyon, John Wesley Powell built his extraordinary career as geographer, geologist, anthropologist, bureaucrat, and conservationist from his knowledge of the arid region of the American West. Yet as much as Powell's scientific work, and his prescriptions for land reform, were grounded in the western landscape, they were equally situated in the booming Gilded Age capital of Washington, DC, where a new community of government scientists was gelling as part of an increasingly centralized federal state.

  8. Integrating Different Modes of Inquiry for Pre-Service Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augsburg, Tanya; Acacio de Barros, J.

    At San Francisco State, about half of the students enrolled in Liberal Studies (LS) plan to be elementary school teachers. The LS faculty consists of an anthropologist, a physicist, a geographer, a performance scholar, and a writing composition specialist. Between 2007-2009 the five faculty members developed a curriculum that integrated our areas of expertise and attempted to make students aware of different disciplinary approaches. In this paper, the authors will discuss the changes of curriculum at the Liberal Studies program at San Francisco State University, how we integrated the disciplines, and how we addressed the needs of our students planning to be elementary school teachers.

  9. Applications of a hand-held GPS receiver in South American rain forests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baksh, Michael

    1991-01-01

    A hand-held Global Positioning System receiver was used to determine the precise locations of villages, houses, gardens, and other cultural and environmental features in poorly mapped South American rain forests. The Magellan NAV 1000 unit profides extremely accurate latitude and longitude information, but determination of altitude is problematical. Overall, the receiver effectively allows anthropologists to obtain essential locational data useful for categorizing land uses, mapping tribal boundaries, and other applications in regions where environmental conditions are harsh and/or accessibility is difficult.

  10. Orthodontics in 3 millennia. Chapter 7: Facial analysis before the advent of the cephalometer.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Norman

    2006-02-01

    The cephalometer was not invented in a vacuum. It was the culmination of centuries of efforts on the part of artists, anthropologists, and scientists to fathom nature's vicissitudes. Whereas Renaissance investigators "caged" the human face in a series of grids in an effort to find proportional relations, 20th-century orthodontists were more interested in knowing how the teeth and jaws related to the face and cranial base. Primarily a research tool, the cephalometer became a means of unmasking a patient's whole developmental pattern, becoming our most important diagnostic tool since study models.

  11. Toward a critical anthropology on the impact of global warming on health and human societies.

    PubMed

    Baer, Hans A

    2008-01-01

    This op-ed essay urges medical anthropologists to join a growing number of public health scholars to examine the impact of global warming on health. Adopting a critical medical anthropology perspective, I argue that global warming is yet another manifestation of the contradictions of the capitalist world system. Ultimately, an serious effort to mitigate the impact of global warming not only on health but also settlement patterns and subsistence will require the creation of a new global political economy based upon social parity, democratic processes, and environmental sustainability.

  12. "Violent Intent Modeling: Incorporating Cultural Knowledge into the Analytical Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Nibbs, Faith G.

    2007-08-24

    While culture has a significant effect on the appropriate interpretation of textual data, the incorporation of cultural considerations into data transformations has not been systematic. Recognizing that the successful prevention of terrorist activities could hinge on the knowledge of the subcultures, Anthropologist and DHS intern Faith Nibbs has been addressing the need to incorporate cultural knowledge into the analytical process. In this Brown Bag she will present how cultural ideology is being used to understand how the rhetoric of group leaders influences the likelihood of their constituents to engage in violent or radicalized behavior, and how violent intent modeling can benefit from understanding that process.

  13. African Oral Traditions: Riddles Among The Haya of Northwestern Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishengoma, Johnson M.

    2005-05-01

    This study argues for the integration of African oral traditions and other elements of traditional learning into the modern school curriculum. It thus contributes to supporting the increased relevance of education to local communities. In particular, using the example of riddles collected from one of the main ethnic groups in Northwestern Tanzania, the Haya people, the present study challenges the views of those social and cultural anthropologists who hold that African riddles have no substantially meaningful educational value. Instead, it is maintained that riddles make an important contribution to children's full participation in the social, cultural, political, and economic life of African communities, especially by fostering critical thinking and transmitting indigenous knowledge.

  14. The utopian Darcy Ribeiro archive.

    PubMed

    Heymann, Luciana Quillet

    2012-03-01

    The project in memory of anthropologist, writer and politician Darcy Ribeiro is analyzed, with emphasis on the relationship he had with his personal archives and the creation of the Darcy Ribeiro Foundation, established to give continuity to his 'legacy.' It highlights the influences present in the formation of his archive and presents an ethnography that seeks to restore the historicity of the archive. It reveals the significance attributed to it by the creator himself, and after his death, by those responsible for his memory. From this study, an attempt is made to evaluate the analytical return from socio-historical approaches to the archives.

  15. Richard Michael Suzman (1942-2015).

    PubMed

    Kahneman, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Richard Michael Suzman, who died on April 16, 2015. Suzman was trained as a sociologist and anthropologist, but he was attracted to the approaches of demography and economics. He came to know a great deal about diverse fields of science, including health, physiology, psychology, genetics, and economics. He was a scientific leader who was on a quest to develop new transdisciplinary fields and to mobilize the best scientists to work in them. Suzman's passion for transdisciplinary science was fully expressed in his greatest achievement: the famous Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), which he initiated in 1988 and continued to guide and inspire. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Agenda for an anthropology of pharmaceutical practice.

    PubMed

    Nichter, M; Vuckovic, N

    1994-12-01

    Over the last two decades, patterns of pharmaceutical-related behavior and the cultural interpretation of medicines have been examined by anthropologists in several cultural settings. In this paper the authors identify additional issues warranting study so as to broaden the scope of pharmaceutical anthropology, utilizing as a unifying focus the examination of pharmaceutical use in the context of social transformation. Ten interactive themes are presented which bridge micro-level and macro-level investigations of pharmaceutical use. The discussion moves from the discourse on 'rational drug use' to the rationales which underscore drug prescription, manufacture, and demand.

  17. Functionalists and zombis: Sorcery as spandrel and social rescue.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Roland

    2009-12-01

    At one level, anthropologists remain functionalists in that they generally see acts and institutions as contributing to a greater social whole only through which they make sense. Thus, sorcery accusations have been traditionally interpreted in terms of maintaining social harmony and cohesion. In the case of Haitian zombification, the zombi seems a locally misidentified victim who is frequently mentally ill. As a hapless non-agent, the zombi cannot initiate the sorcery accusations, so how do we understand the recognition and rescue of the zombi, either in terms of social function or social action?

  18. Race in biology and anthropology: A study of college texts and professors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman, Leonard; Hampton, Raymond E.; Littlefield, Alice; Hallead, Glen

    Information about social issues is underemphasized in college science education. This article takes the race concept as an example of this neglect. We review the history of the race concept and report the current status of the concept in textbooks and among professors. Responses to surveys of faculty at Ph.D.-granting departments indicate that 67% of biologists accept the concept of biological races in the species Homo sapiens, while only 50% of physical anthropologists do so. Content analysis of college textbooks indicates a significant degree of change over time (1936-1984) in physical anthropology but a lesser degree in biology. We suggest several reasons for the dissimilarity in the two disciplines. We propose continued use of the concept for some infrahuman species, while abandoning its application to Homo sapiens. For those biologists and anthropologists who continue to use the concept, scientific accuracy can be achieved by the presentation in lecture and text of the following ideas: first, consensus among scientists on the race concept's utility and accuracy does not exist; second, there is more variation within than between so-called races; third, discordant gradations due to natural selection, drift, and interbreeding make consistent racial boundary lines impossible to identify; fourth, past use of the race concept has had harmful consequences; fifth, the most precise study of human hereditary variation maps one trait at a time; and sixth, racial labels are misleading, especially as most populations have a cultural designation.

  19. Estimation of living stature from selected anthropometric (soft tissue) measurements: applications for forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bradley J; Herrmann, Nicholas P

    2009-07-01

    Estimation of living stature has obvious utility in the identification process. Typically, anthropologists estimate stature from the measurement of long bone length. This type of analysis is traditionally conducted on skeletonized or badly decomposed remains, so collection of the necessary bone measurements is relatively simple. As the role of anthropologists expands into medical examiner offices and mass fatality incidents, the analysis of fleshed bodies and body parts is a more common scenario. For stature estimation in these types of cases (e.g., analysis of body portions recovered from an aircraft crash site or from intentional dismemberment), the presence of soft tissue on the human remains would usually necessitate dissection to expose skeletal elements to derive metric data for stature estimation. In order to circumvent this step, this paper provides various formulae that allow for standard anthropometric (i.e., soft tissue) measurements to be used in place of skeletal measurements. Data were compiled from several anthropometric studies (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey [NHANES] and U.S. Army Anthropometric Survey [ANSUR]) and numerous regression models are presented. Results are compared between skeletal measurements and the anthropometric measurements from each study. It was found that the ANSUR models are similar to the skeletal models, while the NHANES models exhibit weaker correlation coefficients and higher standard errors. Overall, this study finds that stature estimates derived from anthropometric data provide good results and remove the necessity for dissection when working with fleshed body portions.

  20. Maori heads (mokomokai): the usefulness of a complete forensic analysis procedure.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; Champagnat, Julie; Laquay, Laetitia; Hervé, Christian

    2014-09-01

    Based on an analysis of 19 mummified Maori heads (mokomokai) referred to our forensic laboratory for anthropological analysis prior to their official repatriation from France to New Zealand, and data from the anthropological and medical literature, we propose a complete forensic procedure for the analysis of such pieces. A list of 12 original morphological criteria was developed. Items included the sex, age at death, destruction of the skull base, the presence of argil deposits in the inner part of the skull, nostrils closed with exogenous material, sewing of eyelids and lips, pierced earlobes, ante-mortem and/or post-mortem tattoos, the presence of vegetal fibers within nasal cavities, and other pathological or anthropological anomalies. These criteria were tested for all 19 mokomokai repatriated to New Zealand by the French authorities. Further complementary analyses were limited to fiberscopic examination of the intracranial cavities because of the taboo on any sampling requested by the Maori authorities. In the context of global repatriation of human artifacts to native communities, this type of anthropological expertise is increasingly frequently requested of forensic anthropologists and other practitioners. We discuss the reasons for and against repatriating non-authentic artifacts to such communities and the role played by forensic anthropologists during the authentication process.

  1. Claude Lévi-Strauss on Race, History, and Genetics

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    In 1952, the French anthropologist Claude Lévi-Strauss published a small booklet titled Race and History. It formed part of a series of pamphlets on the so-called “race-question” by leading anthropologists and geneticists, which UNESCO published as part of its campaign against racism. Roughly twenty years later, in 1971, UNESCO invited Lévi-Strauss to give a lecture to open the International Year of Action to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination. This time the lecture, titled “Race and culture,” caused a scandal. In 2005, on occasion of the Organisation’s 60th anniversary, Lévi-Strauss was once again invited by UNESCO to give a lecture. It followed the same lines as his 1971 speech, but now met with acclaim. In my paper I will analyze Lévi-Strauss’ interventions with respect to their reliance on contemporary genetics. Lévi-Strauss always saw a close analogy between structuralist anthropology and genetics, and derived his anti-evolutionary stance from the combinatory logic that both disciplines endorsed. I will argue, that it was this combinatory logic which created room for historical contingency and agency in Lévi-Strauss’ understanding of the history of humankind. PMID:25685173

  2. Plant-animal subsistence ratios and macronutrient energy estimations in worldwide hunter-gatherer diets.

    PubMed

    Cordain, L; Miller, J B; Eaton, S B; Mann, N; Holt, S H; Speth, J D

    2000-03-01

    Both anthropologists and nutritionists have long recognized that the diets of modern-day hunter-gatherers may represent a reference standard for modern human nutrition and a model for defense against certain diseases of affluence. Because the hunter-gatherer way of life is now probably extinct in its purely un-Westernized form, nutritionists and anthropologists must rely on indirect procedures to reconstruct the traditional diet of preagricultural humans. In this analysis, we incorporate the most recent ethnographic compilation of plant-to-animal economic subsistence patterns of hunter-gatherers to estimate likely dietary macronutrient intakes (% of energy) for environmentally diverse hunter-gatherer populations. Furthermore, we show how differences in the percentage of body fat in prey animals would alter protein intakes in hunter-gatherers and how a maximal protein ceiling influences the selection of other macronutrients. Our analysis showed that whenever and wherever it was ecologically possible, hunter-gatherers consumed high amounts (45-65% of energy) of animal food. Most (73%) of the worldwide hunter-gatherer societies derived >50% (> or =56-65% of energy) of their subsistence from animal foods, whereas only 14% of these societies derived >50% (> or =56-65% of energy) of their subsistence from gathered plant foods. This high reliance on animal-based foods coupled with the relatively low carbohydrate content of wild plant foods produces universally characteristic macronutrient consumption ratios in which protein is elevated (19-35% of energy) at the expense of carbohydrates (22-40% of energy).

  3. Global Health, Medical Anthropology, and Social Marketing: Steps to the Ecology of Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Whiteford, Linda

    2015-06-01

    Anthropology and global health have long been a focus of research for both biological and medical anthropologists. Research has looked at physiological adaptations to high altitudes, community responses to water-borne diseases, the integration of traditional and biomedical approaches to health, global responses to HIV/AIDS, and more recently, to the application of cultural approaches to the control of the Ebola epidemic. Academic anthropology has employed theory and methods to extend knowledge, but less often to apply that knowledge. However, anthropologists outside of the academy have tackled global health issues such as family planning and breast-feeding by bringing together applied medical anthropology and social marketing. In 2014, that potent and provocative combination resulted in the University of South Florida in Tampa, Florida being made the home of an innovative center designed to combine academic and applied anthropology with social marketing in order to facilitate social change. This article discusses how inter- and intra-disciplinary research/application has led to the development of Florida's first World Health Organization Collaborating Center (WHO CC), and the first such center to focus on social marketing, social change and non-communicable diseases. This article explains the genesis of the Center and presents readers with a brief overview, basic principles and applications of social marketing by reviewing a case study of a water conservation project. The article concludes with thoughts on the ecology of collaboration among global health, medical anthropology and social marketing practitioners.

  4. Forensic anthropology: developments of a classical discipline in the new millennium.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Cristina

    2007-01-17

    The present brief review is a survey of the role of forensic anthropology (FA) in the new millennium. After an introduction which deals with the expanding definition of the discipline and the issue of professionality and training, the author approaches the role and novel developments of the field, with particular reference to the past 5 years. Such developments are discussed in a sectorial manner, distinguishing the role of research in the areas of forensic anthropology which deal with human remains and those that deal with the living. As regards the "human remains" domain, advances and stalls still present in the fields of species and postmortem interval determination, sexing, aging and attribution of ancestry are stressed. The need for standards in facial reconstruction and positive identification by bone morphology are underlined, as well as the growing role of the anthropologist in detecting signs of trauma. Finally, the relatively new role of the forensic anthropologist in the domain of identification of the living is described, although this area is still underrepresented as regards research activity: these studies concern the strive to devise methods for identifying faces (e.g. in the case of crimes registered by videosurveillance systems), aging living individuals or juveniles represented in pedopornographic material.

  5. Unidentified bodies and human remains: an Italian glimpse through a European problem.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Porta, D; De Angelis, D; Gibelli, D; Poppa, P; Grandi, M

    2010-02-25

    The identification of cadavers (the main activity of forensic odontologists and anthropologists) is a crucial issue in forensic pathology, but the official entity of this problem is still poorly known in most countries, apart from a few American reports. In this article the authors present a descriptive study of unidentified decedents over a 14-year period (1995-2008) in Milan. The number of cadavers or human remains arriving at the morgue with no identity amounts to 454 - 3.1% of all autopsies at the Institute of Legal Medicine, with a mean of 32 unidentified subjects every year; 62% reached a positive identification in a period of time ranging from a few days to 10 years. 17% on an average remain unidentified. Most identification processes involved forensic odontology and anthropology. This study aims at revealing the problem and hopefully may provide some food for thought for forensic pathologists, anthropologists and odontologists so that they may focus on this issue and on possible solutions in their countries.

  6. Post-mortem computed tomography and 3D imaging: anthropological applications for juvenile remains.

    PubMed

    Brough, Alison L; Rutty, Guy N; Black, Sue; Morgan, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Anthropological examination of defleshed bones is routinely used in medico-legal investigations to establish an individual's biological profile. However, when dealing with the recently deceased, the removal of soft tissue from bone can be an extremely time consuming procedure that requires the presence of a trained anthropologist. In addition, due to its invasive nature, in some disaster victim identification scenarios the maceration of bones is discouraged by religious practices and beliefs, or even prohibited by national laws and regulations. Currently, three different radiological techniques may be used in the investigative process; plain X-ray, dental X-ray and fluoroscopy. However, recent advances in multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) mean that it is now possible to acquire morphological skeletal information from high resolution images, reducing the necessity for invasive procedures. This review paper considers the possible applications of a virtual anthropological examination by reviewing the main juvenile age determination methods used by anthropologists at present and their possible adaption to MDCT.

  7. Migrant deaths along the California-Mexico border: an anthropological perspective.

    PubMed

    Hinkes, Madeleine J

    2008-01-01

    California shares a 150-mile international border with Mexico. Traditionally, this border has seen non-stop illegal migration. In the 1990s, the Border Patrol began a concerted effort to establish and maintain control of the border, beginning in urban San Diego. This heightened law enforcement presence, known as Operation Gatekeeper, changed the westernmost segment of the border from the most permeable to the least permeable. This enforcement pushed migrants into more dangerous crossing areas in eastern San Diego and Imperial Counties, making their trip longer and more physically challenging as they made their way through treacherous mountains, deserts, and irrigation canals. Death rates soared. Political decisions impacted human lives and the caseloads of forensic anthropologists in jurisdictions along the border. Bodies decompose rapidly here, and there are minimal sources of antemortem data. Many of these migrants are never identified. This paper, and this symposium, is an attempt to bring this situation to the notice of other anthropologists and to discuss cooperative means of addressing the issue of identification.

  8. The importance of an anthropological scene of crime investigation in the case of burnt remains in vehicles: 3 case studies.

    PubMed

    Porta, Davide; Poppa, Pasquale; Regazzola, Valeria; Gibelli, Daniele; Schillaci, Daniela Roberta; Amadasi, Alberto; Magli, Francesca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2013-09-01

    Inspection of a crime scene is a crucial step in forensic medicine, and even the methods taught by forensic anthropology are essential. Whereas a thorough inspection can provide crucial information, an approximate inspection can be useless or even harmful. This study reports 3 cases of burnt bodies found inside vehicles between 2006 and 2009 in the outskirts of Milan (Italy). In all 3 cases, the victim was killed by gunshot, and the body was burnt in the vehicle to destroy signs of skeletal injury and prevent identification. In every case, the assistance of forensic anthropologists was requested, but only after the inspection of the body at autopsy showed that the remains were incomplete, thus making it more difficult to determine the identity, cause, and manner of death. A second scene of crime inspection was therefore performed with strict anthropological and adapted archeological methods by forensic anthropologists to perform a more complete recovery, proving how much material had been left behind. These cases clearly show the importance of a proper recovery and of the application of forensic anthropology methods on badly charred bodies and the importance of recovering every fragment of bone: even the smallest fragment can provide essential information. Thus, a precise coordination, a correct and thorough recovery of bone fragments, and an anthropological approach are crucial for many issues: analysis of the scene of crime, reconstruction of the corpse, and reconstruction of the perimortem events.

  9. Bergmann's Rule, Adaptation, and Thermoregulation in Arctic Animals: Conflicting Perspectives from Physiology, Evolutionary Biology, and Physical Anthropology After World War II.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Joel B

    2016-06-17

    Bergmann's rule and Allen's rule played important roles in mid-twentieth century discussions of adaptation, variation, and geographical distribution. Although inherited from the nineteenth-century natural history tradition these rules gained significance during the consolidation of the modern synthesis as evolutionary theorists focused attention on populations as units of evolution. For systematists, the rules provided a compelling rationale for identifying geographical races or subspecies, a function that was also picked up by some physical anthropologists. More generally, the rules provided strong evidence for adaptation by natural selection. Supporters of the rules tacitly, or often explicitly, assumed that the clines described by the rules reflected adaptations for thermoregulation. This assumption was challenged by the physiologists Laurence Irving and Per Scholander based on their arctic research conducted after World War II. Their critique spurred a controversy played out in a series of articles in Evolution, in Ernst Mayr's Animal Species and Evolution, and in the writings of other prominent evolutionary biologists and physical anthropologists. Considering this episode highlights the complexity and ambiguity of important biological concepts such as adaptation, homeostasis, and self-regulation. It also demonstrates how different disciplinary orientations and styles of scientific research influenced evolutionary explanations, and the consequent difficulties of constructing a truly synthetic evolutionary biology in the decades immediately following World War II.

  10. Ancestral differences in femoral neck axis length: possible implications for forensic anthropological analyses.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Leslie, William D; Baim, Sanford

    2014-03-01

    In forensic anthropological contexts, very few methods of estimating ancestry from the postcranial skeleton are available. The cranium is widely recognized to show the greatest ancestral variation, and is often regarded by forensic anthropologists as the only reliable bone for estimating ancestry from unidentified skeletal remains. Several studies have demonstrated ancestral variation in aspects of the femur, but none have shown significant predictive power for discriminating multiple groups, and have therefore not gained wide acceptance by forensic anthropologists. Skeletal health experts (particularly bone densitometrists), however, have long recognized a relationship between proximal femur geometry (especially hip axis length) and osteoporosis-related fracture risk. Moreover, fracture risk has been noted to vary between ancestral groups. Here, we investigate whether measurements that are related to fracture risk might also be used to estimate ancestry from unidentified skeletal remains. Specifically, we investigate ancestral differences in femoral neck axis length (FNAL) and find significant differences between European, Asian and African groups in both women and men. FNAL was largest in European groups followed by African and then Asian groups. The greatest discriminating power was found between European and Asian groups, but was also significant between European and African groups. These differences may have utility in estimating ancestry in forensic anthropological contexts.

  11. Adventures in human population biology.

    PubMed

    Baker, P T

    1996-01-01

    This article is a memoir of anthropologist Paul Baker's professional life. The introduction notes that the field of anthropology was altered by the impact of World War II when physical anthropologists provided vital information to the military. After the war, the GI bill supported the undergraduate and graduate studies of veterans, including Baker. After describing his academic training at the University of New Mexico and Harvard, Baker details his research training and field work in the desert for the US Climatic Research Laboratory and his work identifying the dead in Japan for the Quartermaster unit. Baker then traces his academic career at the Pennsylvania State University during which he directed two multidisciplinary research efforts for the International Biological Programme, one that sought to understand human adaptability at high altitude in Peru and another that studied migration and modernization in Samoa. Baker's last administrative positions were as staff consultant to the Man and the Biosphere (MAB) program and as chair of the US MAB committee. Baker retired from academic life at age 60 in 1987 and has devoted his time to reading and to helping organize professional associations in anthropology, especially those devoted to furthering internationally organized scientific efforts. Baker concludes this memoir by acknowledging the growth and development of the discipline of human population biology.

  12. Marmosets as model species in neuroscience and evolutionary anthropology.

    PubMed

    Burkart, Judith M; Finkenwirth, Christa

    2015-04-01

    Marmosets are increasingly used as model species by both neuroscientists and evolutionary anthropologists, but with a different rationale for doing so. Whereas neuroscientists stress that marmosets share many cognitive traits with humans due to common descent, anthropologists stress those traits shared with marmosets - and callitrichid monkeys in general - due to convergent evolution, as a consequence of the cooperative breeding system that characterizes both humans and callitrichids. Similarities in socio-cognitive abilities due to convergence, rather than homology, raise the question whether these similarities also extend to the proximate regulatory mechanisms, which is particularly relevant for neuroscientific investigations. In this review, we first provide an overview of the convergent adaptations to cooperative breeding at the psychological and cognitive level in primates, which bear important implications for our understanding of human cognitive evolution. In the second part, we zoom in on two of these convergent adaptations, proactive prosociality and social learning, and compare their proximate regulation in marmosets and humans with regard to oxytocin and cognitive top down regulation. Our analysis suggests considerable similarity in these regulatory mechanisms presumably because the convergent traits emerged due to small motivational changes that define how pre-existing cognitive mechanisms are quantitatively combined. This finding reconciles the prima facie contradictory rationale for using marmosets as high priority model species in neuroscience and anthropology.

  13. [The dialogues between anthropology and health: contributions to public policies].

    PubMed

    Langdon, Esther Jean

    2014-04-01

    In order to examine the development of anthropological paradigms and their dialogue with medicine, I divide the discussion into two general, but non-exclusive, approaches: one that focuses on health and disease as social and cultural experience and construction, and another that examines health from an interactional and political perspective. For the first approach, I focus on North American and French theories that find resonance in the anthropological dialogue in Brazil. For the second political approach, the discussion originates in the dialogue among anthropologists in Latin America who have been developing models to contribute to an interdisciplinary approach necessary for health policies and intervention in health. The concepts of practices in self-care and intermedicality, among others, are explored due to their contribution in anthropology to public policies in health. These anthropologists have argued that health practices should be understood through the notions of autonomy, collectivity, agency and praxis, as opposed to the notions of the biomedical perspective characterized as being universalist, biological, individualist and a-historical.

  14. The end of life, the ends of life: an anthropological view.

    PubMed

    Varisco, Daniel Martin

    2011-12-01

    All known human societies have a worldview that deserves to be called religion; all religions must explain death. Anthropologists study the diversity of religious systems, present and past, in order to understand what is common to humanity. Rather than starting from the view of a particular revelation or set of doctrines, the anthropologist tries to step outside his or her own subjective worldview and identify patterns in the evolution of human thinking about the reality of physical death. Are humans the only animals that are conscious of death, or do we share sentiments observable in our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees? At what point in history did the concept of an afterlife, life in some spiritual sense after physical death, appear? Is the religious explanation of life and death a mere reflection of a communal social fact, as the sociologist Emil Durkheim suggested, or a shared psychological trait, as more recent scholars assert? Can and should the modern scientist make a definitive statement about the finality of death and human consciousness?

  15. Ethnology in the metropole: Robert Knox, Robert Gordon Latham and local sites of observational training.

    PubMed

    Sera-Shriar, Efram

    2011-12-01

    Anthropologists have traditionally separated the history of their discipline into two main diverging methodological paradigms: nineteenth-century armchair theorizing, and twentieth-century field-based research. But this tradition obscures both the complexity of the observational practices of early nineteenth-century researchers and the high degree of continuity between these practices and the techniques that came later. While historians have long since abandoned the notion that nineteenth-century ethnologists and anthropologists were merely 'armchair' theorists, this paper shows that there is still much to learn once one asks more insistently what the observational practices of early researchers were actually like. By way of bringing out this complexity and continuity, this essay re-examines the work of two well-known British ethnologists, Robert Knox, and Robert Gordon Latham; looking in particular at their methods of observing, analysing and representing different racial groups. In the work of each figure, early training in natural history, anatomy and physiology can be seen to have influenced their observational practices when it came to identifying and classifying human varieties. Moreover, in both cases, Knox and Latham developed locally-based observational training sites.

  16. Aging and social change among Abaluyia in western Kenya: anthropological and historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cattell, Maria G

    2008-06-01

    This article presents narrative accounts which illustrate ways that modernization and social change have transformed the daily lives of Abaluyia, especially older people, in rural western Kenya since the late nineteenth century. The narratives reveal history as lived experience, as observed and recorded by an anthropologist who has been doing research among Abaluyia in Bunyala and Samia over the past 25 years. The story involves continuity of cultural beliefs and practices, and it involves change-change imposed by the macro-events of globalizing processes, from colonialism to Structural Adjustment Programs, and change as people's adaptive responses to those processes, particularly how changing cultural practices have impacted elders. The grand narrative is historical, the overarching story of the incorporation of Kenya and Kenyans into the global political economy from the colonial period to the present. Other narratives are biographical, case studies of individuals from two extended families and their personal experiences of social change over the past century. The background narrative is autobiographical, the anthropologist's story of the practice of anthropological fieldwork and her own experiences and observations of social change in western Kenya. Since anthropological data over time become history, the approach here is both anthropological and historical.

  17. Acculturation and Its Discontents: A Case for Bringing Anthropology Back into the Conversation

    PubMed Central

    Guarnaccia, Peter J.; Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Anthropologists’ contribution to the study of cultural change is urgent in light of the increasing number of people of different backgrounds who are migrating around the globe and settling in new communities, and the opportunities and challenges that come along with that process. By examining the anthropological literature on acculturation going back to the 1936 Memorandum by Redfield, Linton and Herskovits, this paper reviews and assesses the discipline’s perspective on acculturation, and lays out the case for why it is critical for anthropologists to re-engage the concept. Although other disciplines, particularly psychology and sociology, have dominated the field of acculturation research more recently, they mostly have done so with a narrow focus. While it is important to acknowledge the pitfalls of anthropology’s past study of acculturation, there are important features of the acculturation construct that continue to be relevant. Among these are the study of acculturation as a process that is multidimensional; the investigation of how different kinds of power affect the acculturation process; the impacts of attitudes, actions and policies of the receiving group on how acculturation proceeds; the role of “real history” in understanding processes of acculturation; and the global perspective on these processes. We suggest ways in which anthropologists can reignite the field of acculturation research by engaging with Redfield, Linton and Herskovits’ framework and subsequent anthropological literature. PMID:27595125

  18. Culture, Urbanism and Changing Human Biology.

    PubMed

    Schell, L M

    2014-04-03

    Anthropologists have long known that human activity driven by culture changes the environment. This is apparent in the archaeological record and through the study of the modern environment. Perhaps the largest change since the paleolithic era is the organization of human populations in cities. New environments can reshape human biology through evolution as shown by the evolution of the hominid lineage. Evolution is not the only process capable of reshaping our biology. Some changes in our human biology are adaptive and evolutionary while others are pathological. What changes in human biology may be wrought by the modern urban environment? One significant new change in the environment is the introduction of pollutants largely through urbanization. Pollutants can affect human biology in myriad ways. Evidence shows that human growth, reproduction, and cognitive functioning can be altered by some pollutants, and altered in different ways depending on the pollutant. Thus, pollutants have significance for human biologists and anthropologists generally. Further, they illustrate the bio-cultural interaction characterizing human change. Humans adapt by changing the environment, a cultural process, and then change biologically to adjust to that new environment. This ongoing, interactive process is a fundamental characteristic of human change over the millennia.

  19. The End of Life, The Ends of Life: An Anthropological View

    PubMed Central

    Varisco, Daniel Martin

    2012-01-01

    All known human societies have a worldview that deserves to be called religion; all religions must explain death. Anthropologists study the diversity of religious systems, present and past, in order to understand what is common to humanity. Rather than starting from the view of a particular revelation or set of doctrines, the anthropologist tries to step outside his or her own subjective worldview and identify patterns in the evolution of human thinking about the reality of physical death. Are humans the only animals that are conscious of death, or do we share sentiments observable in our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees? At what point in history did the concept of an afterlife, life in some spiritual sense after physical death, appear? Is the religious explanation of life and death a mere reflection of a communal social fact, as the sociologist Emil Durkheim suggested, or a shared psychological trait, as more recent scholars assert? Can and should the modern scientist make a definitive statement about the finality of death and human consciousness? PMID:23610511

  20. Geodynamic evolution and sedimentary infill of the northern Levant Basin: A source to sink-perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawie, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nicolas Hawie a,b,c (nicolas.hawie@upmc.fr) Didier Granjeon c (didier.granjeon@ifpen.fr) Christian Gorini a,b (christian.gorini@upmc.fr) Remy Deschamps c (remy.deschamps@ifpen.fr) Fadi H. Nader c (fadi-henri.nader@ifpen.fr) Carla Müller Delphine Desmares f (delphine.desmares@upmc.fr) Lucien Montadert e (lucien.montadert@beicip.com) François Baudin a (francois.baudin@upmc.fr) a UMR 7193 Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie/ Univ. Paris 06, case 117. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France b iSTEP, UMR 7193, CNRS, F-75005, Paris, France c IFP Energies nouvelles, 1-4 avenue du Bois Préau 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex, France d UMR 7207, Centre de Recherche sur la Paleobiodiversité et les Paleoenvironnements. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 46-56 5ème. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France e Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoléon Bonaparte, 95502 Rueil-Malmaison, France Sedimentological and biostratigraphic investigations onshore Lebanon coupled with 2D offshore reflection seismic data allowed proposing a new Mesozoic-Present tectono-stratigraphic framework for the northern Levant Margin and Basin. The seismic interpretation supported by in-depth facies analysis permitted to depict the potential depositional environments offshore Lebanon as no well has yet been drilled. The Levant region has been affected by successive geodynamic events that modified the architecture of its margin and basin from a Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic rift into a Late Cretaceous subduction followed by collision and Miocene-Present strike slip motion. The interplay between major geodynamic events as well as sea level fluctuations impacted on the sedimentary infill of the basin. During Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Levant Margin is dominated by the aggradation of a carbonate platform while deepwater mixed-systems prevailed in the basin. During the Oligo-Miocene, three major sedimentary pathways are expected to drive important

  1. Magmatic Enclaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, C. R.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past three decades, the term "magmatic enclave" has become widely accepted for small (typically <1 m) spheroidal bodies of igneous rock that are compositionally distinct from their coeval lava or intrusive hosts (e.g., Didier and Barbarin, 1991). Certain magmatic enclaves are crystal cumulates but most are globs of magma more mafic and hotter than their host. Understanding the origins and scientific utility of enclaves is aided by their common occurrence in both plutonic and volcanic rocks. Enclaves were noticed and described by geologists and petrographers for decades (e.g., Lacroix, 1890; Pabst, 1928; Williams, 1931) before it was demonstrated that many enclaves were introduced into their hosts while both were in a magmatic state: For example, in plutons by Wager and Bailey (1953), Walker and co-workers (1960's), Didier (1973), Wiebe (1980), and Vernon (1984), and in volcanic rocks by Wilcox (1944), Eichelberger (1980), and Bacon (1986). Spheroidal forms, crenulated or fine-grained margins, and crystal textures of enclaves are evidence of magmatic behavior. On entrapment, an enclave rapidly loses heat to its host and grows groundmass crystals whose size and morphology reflect the degree of enclave undercooling that is closely related to compositional contrast. At depth, some of the water dissolved in enclave magma may enter hydrous silicates but much can exsolve, including during partial crystallization. Vapor exsolution creates spherical vesicles and irregular gas pockets between crystals that give most volcanic enclaves porous textures. A vapor pressure gradient between an incompletely crystallized rigid enclave interior and host magma can drive residual melt into segregation vesicles and even out of the enclave by gas-driven filter pressing. Such enclaves have cores with cumulate-like compositions. Felsic droplets in mafic inclusions in plutonic rocks are interpreted as crystallized segregation vesicles. Enclaves are samples of magma that may not

  2. Report of the 4th European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Susana S; Distel, Martin; Linker, Claudia; Fior, Rita; Monteiro, Rui; Bianco, Isaac H; Portugues, Ruben; Strähle, Uwe; Saúde, Leonor

    2016-12-01

    The European Zebrafish Principal Investigator Meeting (EZPM) is an ideal forum for group leaders using this fantastic animal model not only to discuss science but also to strengthen their interactions, to push forward technological advances, and to define guidelines for the use of this fish in research. The city of Lisbon (Portugal) was voted by the European group leaders to be the setting for the 4th EZPM, and the organizing committee, composed by Leonor Saúde (iMM Lisboa, PT), Susana Lopes (CEDOC, PT), Michael Orger (Champalimaud Foundation, PT), Rui Oliveira (ISPA, PT), and António Jacinto (CEDOC, PT), was very enthusiastic to organize a productive event. The 4th EZPM took place from March 15 to 19 at Pavilhão do Conhecimento, a Science Museum and Educational Center winner of The Great Prize FAD of Arquitecture 1999 and The Society for Environmental Graphic Design Award 2011. Over 5 days, 135 group leaders (89 men and 46 women) coming from 19 different European countries and also from the United States, Turkey, Israel, Chile, and Singapore presented and discussed their recent research achievements. In addition to the scientific oral and poster presentations, the group leaders gathered in very lively community sessions on morphants versus mutants (chaired by Didier Stainier, Max Planck Institute for Heart and Lung Research, DE), funding issues (chaired by Uwe Strahle, KIT-ITG, DE), and gender equality (chaired by Corinne Houart, KCL, United Kingdom). One of the highlights of the 4th EZPM was the guided visit to Oceanário de Lisboa, an international award-winning place that celebrates life with a stunning display of living aquatic creatures.

  3. On the dynamics of the world demographic transition and financial-economic crises forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akaev, A.; Sadovnichy, V.; Korotayev, A.

    2012-05-01

    The article considers dynamic processes involving non-linear power-law behavior in such apparently diverse spheres, as demographic dynamics and dynamics of prices of highly liquid commodities such as oil and gold. All the respective variables exhibit features of explosive growth containing precursors indicating approaching phase transitions/catastrophes/crises. The first part of the article analyzes mathematical models of demographic dynamics that describe various scenarios of demographic development in the post-phase-transition period, including a model that takes the limitedness of the Earth carrying capacity into account. This model points to a critical point in the early 2050s, when the world population, after reaching its maximum value may decrease afterward stabilizing then at a certain stationary level. The article presents an analysis of the influence of the demographic transition (directly connected with the hyperexponential growth of the world population) on the global socioeconomic and geopolitical development. The second part deals with the phenomenon of explosive growth of prices of such highly liquid commodities as oil and gold. It is demonstrated that at present the respective processes could be regarded as precursors of waves of the global financial-economic crisis that will demand the change of the current global economic and political system. It is also shown that the moments of the start of the first and second waves of the current global crisis could have been forecasted with a model of accelerating log-periodic fluctuations superimposed over a power-law trend with a finite singularity developed by Didier Sornette and collaborators. With respect to the oil prices, it is shown that it was possible to forecast the 2008 crisis with a precision up to a month already in 2007. The gold price dynamics was used to calculate the possible time of the start of the second wave of the global crisis (July-August 2011); note that this forecast has turned out

  4. International Congress on Transposable Elements (ICTE) 2012 in Saint Malo and the sea of TE stories

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    An international conference on Transposable Elements (TEs) was held 21–24 April 2012 in Saint Malo, France. Organized by the French Transposition Community (GDR Elements Génétiques Mobiles et Génomes, CNRS) and the French Society of Genetics (SFG), the conference’s goal was to bring together researchers from around the world who study transposition in diverse organisms using multiple experimental approaches. The meeting drew more than 217 attendees and most contributed through poster presentations (117), invited talks and short talks selected from poster abstracts (48 in total). The talks were organized into four scientific sessions, focused on: impact of TEs on genomes, control of transposition, evolution of TEs and mechanisms of transposition. Here, we present highlights from the talks given during the platform sessions. The conference was sponsored by Alliance pour les sciences de la vie et de la santé (Aviesan), Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale (INSERM), Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), Université de Perpignan, Université de Rennes 1, Région Bretagne and Mobile DNA. Chair of the organization committee Jean-Marc Deragon Organizers Abdelkader Ainouche, Mireille Bétermier, Mick Chandler, Richard Cordaux, Gaël Cristofari, Jean-Marc Deragon, Pascale Lesage, Didier Mazel, Olivier Panaud, Hadi Quesneville, Chantal Vaury, Cristina Vieira and Clémentine Vitte PMID:23110759

  5. PREFACE: European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, Horst; Georg, Sören

    2014-12-01

    The European Workshop on Advanced Control and Diagnosis is an annual event that has been organised since 2003 by Control Engineering departments of several European universities in Germany, France, the UK, Poland, Italy, Hungary and Denmark. The overall planning of the workshops is conducted by the Intelligent Control and Diagnosis (ICD) steering committee. This year's ACD workshop took place at HTW Berlin (University of Applied Sciences) and was organised by the Control Engineering group of School of Engineering I of HTW Berlin. 38 papers were presented at ACD 2014, with contributions spanning a variety of fields in modern control science: Discrete control, nonlinear control, model predictive control, system identification, fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control, control applications, applications of fuzzy logic, as well as modelling and simulation, the latter two forming a basis for all tasks in modern control. Three interesting and high-quality plenary lectures were delivered. The first plenary speaker was Wolfgang Weber from Pepperl+Fuchs, a German manufacturer of state-of-the-art industrial sensors and process interfaces. The second and third plenary speakers were two internationally high-ranked researchers in their respective fields, Prof. Didier Theilliol from Université de Lorraine and Prof. Carsten Scherer from Universität Stuttgart. Taken together, the three plenary lectures sought to contribute to closing the gap between theory and applications. On behalf of the whole ACD 2014 organising committee, we would like to thank all those who submitted papers and participated in the workshop. We hope it was a fruitful and memorable event for all. Together we are looking forward to the next ACD workshop in 2015 in Pilsen, Czech Republic. Horst Schulte (General Chair), Sören Georg (Programme Chair)

  6. First Quarter Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Rohay, Alan C.; Sweeney, Mark D.; Hartshorn, Donald C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Devary, Joseph L.

    2009-03-15

    The Hanford Seismic Assessment Program (HSAP) provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. The HSAP is responsible for locating and identifying sources of seismic activity and monitoring changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, natural phenomena hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the HSAP works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The Hanford Seismic Network and the Eastern Washington Regional Network consist of 44 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Assessment Team. This includes three recently acquired Transportable Array stations located at Cold Creek, Didier Farms, and Phinney Hill. For the Hanford Seismic Network, ten local earthquakes were recorded during the first quarter of fiscal year 2009. All earthquakes were considered as “minor” with magnitudes (Mc) less than 1.0. Two earthquakes were located at shallow depths (less than 4 km), most likely in the Columbia River basalts; five earthquakes at intermediate depths (between 4 and 9 km), most likely in the sub-basalt sediments); and three earthquakes were located at depths greater than 9 km, within the basement. Geographically, four earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas and six earthquakes were classified as random events.

  7. Back to the future: ethnodevelopment among the Jalq'a of Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Healy, K

    1992-01-01

    The story is told of how several Chilean anthropologists and Bolivian colleagues helped the Jalq'a people to revive their traditional handicrafts as a model for microregional development. The quest was initially undertaken to find out about "potolo" weavings. The Jalq'a people were found in numbers totaling 25,000 impoverished and with very high infant mortality rates, low incomes, and social disorganization. although the traditional woven dresses were still worn, the color combinations and motifs had lost their originality and precision. The story was told about how during the 1960s and 1970s the poor cash economy had forced people to sell their textiles to tourists and traders for lower than market value. Eventually it became apparent that there were no longer models of the traditional garments to inspire new generations. Upon the anthropologists arrival and inquiries, it was related that local interest to revive production of these native textiles was still there. The craft revival took root because of the interest in the people not just as artisans but as people, and rapport was established. The background of the anthropologists is related. A grassroots support organization (GSO) was formed to assist in economic development that was rooted in the life of the community. The pace was set by participants and a few women at first were trained in commercial production. A shaman was asked to conduct a ritual ceremony which involved calling upon the mountain deities, the Mallkus, to give them a sign. The Mallkus agreed the project was good and the Jalq'a must conserve their language and culture and textiles. New workshops were blessed in a similar way. In the first workshop the challenge was for the women to determine how to make the many strange animals that appeared in Jalq'a designs; a photographic archive was put together and the hand-dyed colors restored with some difficulty. The exhibit of the textiles after several years led to new respect for the Jalq'a and

  8. Values and beliefs of vegetarians and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Allen, M W; Wilson, M; Ng, S H; Dunne, M

    2000-08-01

    Following the claim by some anthropologists and sociologists that 1 symbolic meaning of meat is a preference for hierarchical domination (C. J. Adams, 1990; N. Fiddes, 1989; D. D. Heisley, 1990; J. Twigg, 1983), the authors compared the values and beliefs of vegetarians and omnivores in 2 studies conducted in New Zealand. They compared the full range of vegetarians and omnivores on right-wing authoritarianism, social dominance orientation, human values, and consumption values. The participants tending toward omnivorism differed from those leaning toward veganism and vegetarianism in 2 principal ways: The omnivores (a) were more likely to endorse hierarchical domination and (b) placed less importance on emotional states. Accordingly, the acceptance or rejection of meat co-varied with the acceptance or rejection of the values associated with meat; that finding suggests that individuals consume meat and embrace its symbolism in ways consistent with their self-definitions.

  9. The Erosion of Rights to Abortion Care in the United States: A Call for a Renewed Anthropological Engagement with the Politics of Abortion.

    PubMed

    Andaya, Elise; Mishtal, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    Women's rights to legal abortion in the United States are now facing their greatest social and legislative challenges since its 1973 legalization. Legislation restricting rights and access to abortion care has been passed at state and federal levels at an unprecedented rate. Given the renewed vigor of anti-abortion movements, we call on anthropologists to engage with this shifting landscape of reproductive politics. This article examines recent legislation that has severely limited abortion access and maps possible directions for future anthropological analysis. We argue that anthropology can provide unique contributions to broader abortion research. The study of abortion politics in the United States today is not only a rich opportunity for applied and policy-oriented ethnographic research. It also provides a sharply focused lens onto broader theoretical concerns in anthropology and new social formations across moral, medical, political, and scientific fields in 21st-century America.

  10. Introduction. Shrines, substances and medicine in sub-Saharan Africa: archaeological, anthropological, and historical perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Insoll, Timothy

    2011-01-01

    Whereas shrines in Africa, and to a lesser extent their links with medicine and healing, have been extensively studied by historians and anthropologists, they have been largely neglected by archaeologists. Focus has been placed upon palaeopathology when medicine is considered in archaeological contexts. Difficulties certainly exist in defining medicine shrines, substances and practices archaeologically, yet research can take various forms – scapegoats and figural representations of disease; divination and diagnosis; trade and spread of medicinal substances, shrines, and amulets; syncretism of different traditions and materiality; the material culture associated with healing and medicinal substance; depictions in rock art; genetic research. A move beyond palaeopathology is required to begin to understand the archaeology of medicine shrines, substances, practices and healing in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:21810034

  11. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents.

  12. A silver-stain modification of standard histological slide preparation for use in anthropology analyses.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Deborrah C; Pace, Eric D

    2015-03-01

    The traditional histology method typically employed by forensic anthropologists involves plastic embedding of undecalcified bone. The embedded sample is then cut by a diamond blade saw and ground to the required thickness of ~50-100 microns using a grinder. There are several limitations to this method: Cement lines may be blurred; depth-of-field artifacts may result from viewing thick sections; and medicolegal offices with limited budgets may not be able to invest in additional equipment or training for this method. A silver nitrate stain modification of the standard histology preparation technique of decalcified bone is presented. The benefits of this technique are that: Cement lines are viewed clearly; no depth-of-field artifacts are present; and because this is a modification of the standard technique used by histology laboratories typically employed by medicolegal offices, no additional equipment or training is required.

  13. Introducing Human Mandible Identification [(hu)MANid]: A Free, Web-Based GUI to Classify Human Mandibles.

    PubMed

    Berg, Gregory E; Kenyhercz, Michael W

    2017-03-06

    Statistical programs have revolutionized the way in which forensic anthropologists conduct casework by allowing practitioners to use computationally complex analytics at the click of a button. Importantly, the products of these statistical programs are reproducible and contain measures of error or uncertainty, thereby strengthening conclusions. This paper is an introduction to (hu)MANid, a free, web-based application that uses linear and mixture discriminant function analyses to classify human mandibles into one of many worldwide and/or periodic reference groups. The mechanics, development, and use of the application will be discussed. Further, the program was tested against other software to compare model performances and classifications. Total correct classifications among the test cases and programs were identical. Ten mandibles were tested using both statistical procedures. Mixture discriminant analysis improved classification by an average of 9.3% and correctly identified three more mandibles than LDA. Therefore, we believe (hu)MANid will be an asset to the anthropological community.

  14. Alcohol brewing and the African tuberculosis epidemic.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Kate; Bloss, Emily

    2011-03-01

    Countries in much of Africa are struggling with large tuberculosis (TB) epidemics. Although the treatment programs are being implemented as well as the many constraints allow, more prevention of TB is needed. Based on literature on alcohol and TB, and observations and case studies, we consider one potential area for intervention might be the popular and ubiquitous small bars and beer huts in many towns and cities. In these usually poverty-ridden sites, with their densely packed clientele, large amounts of alcohol are consumed often by those with compromised immune systems who are at risk of acquiring the disease. The alcohol brewers-called Mama Pimas (from kupima, to measure, in Kiswahili) in Kenya-are the subject of this editorial. We look at the risks and potential benefits of reaching these women. Medical anthropologists are needed to help provide better evidence for TB prevention programs.

  15. Carolina in the Carolines: a survey of patterns and meanings of smoking on a Micronesian island.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Mac

    2005-12-01

    Tobacco use--especially smoking industrially manufactured cigarettes--kills nearly 5 million people annually and is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide. Tobacco is a widely used global commodity embedded in cultural meanings, and its consumption involves a set of learned, patterned social behaviors. Seemingly, then, tobacco offers a most appealing anthropological research topic, yet its study has been relatively ignored by medical anthropologists when compared to research on alcoholic beverages and illegal drugs. To help fill this gap, this article sketches the historical background of tobacco in Micronesia, presents the results of a cross-sectional smoking survey from Namoluk Atoll, and describes contemporary smoking patterns and locally understood symbolic associations of tobacco. Intersections among history, gender, local meanings, the health transition, and the transnational marketing of tobacco are addressed, and cigarette smoking is seen as part of a new syndemic of chronic diseases in Micronesia.

  16. Defining life.

    PubMed

    Benner, Steven A

    2010-12-01

    Any definition is intricately connected to a theory that gives it meaning. Accordingly, this article discusses various definitions of life held in the astrobiology community by considering their connected "theories of life." These include certain "list" definitions and a popular definition that holds that life is a "self-sustaining chemical system capable of Darwinian evolution." We then act as "anthropologists," studying what scientists do to determine which definition-theories of life they constructively hold as they design missions to seek non-terran life. We also look at how constructive beliefs about biosignatures change as observational data accumulate. And we consider how a definition centered on Darwinian evolution might itself be forced to change as supra-Darwinian species emerge, including in our descendents, and consider the chances of our encountering supra-Darwinian species in our exploration of the Cosmos. Last, we ask what chemical structures might support Darwinian evolution universally; these structures might be universal biosignatures.

  17. Chemical Differentiation of Osseous, Dental, and Non-skeletal Materials in Forensic Anthropology using Elemental Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Heather A; Meizel-Lambert, Cayli J; Schultz, John J; Sigman, Michael E

    2015-03-01

    Forensic anthropologists are generally able to identify skeletal materials (bone and tooth) using gross anatomical features; however, highly fragmented or taphonomically altered materials may be problematic to identify. Several chemical analysis techniques have been shown to be reliable laboratory methods that can be used to determine if questionable fragments are osseous, dental, or non-skeletal in nature. The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed background of chemical analysis techniques focusing on elemental compositions that have been assessed for use in differentiating osseous, dental, and non-skeletal materials. More recently, chemical analysis studies have also focused on using the elemental composition of osseous/dental materials to evaluate species and provide individual discrimination, but have generally been successful only in small, closed groups, limiting their use forensically. Despite significant advances incorporating a variety of instruments, including handheld devices, further research is necessary to address issues in standardization, error rates, and sample size/diversity.

  18. A Case of Contested Cremains Analyzed Through Metric and Chemical Comparison.

    PubMed

    Bartelink, Eric J; Sholts, Sabrina B; Milligan, Colleen F; Van Deest, Traci L; Wärmländer, Sebastian K T S

    2015-07-01

    Since the 1980s, cremation has become the fastest growing area of the U.S. funeral industry. At the same time, the number of litigations against funeral homes and cremation facilities has increased. Forensic anthropologists are often asked to determine whether the contents of an urn are actually cremated bone, and to address questions regarding the identity of the remains. This study uses both metric and chemical analyses for resolving a case of contested cremains. A cremains weight of 2021.8 g was predicted based on the decedent's reported stature and weight. However, the urn contents weighed 4173.5 g. The urn contents also contained material inconsistent with cremains (e.g., moist sediment, stones, ferrous metal). Analysis using XRD and SEM demonstrated that the urn contained thermally altered bone as well as inorganic material consistent with glass fiber cement. Although forensically challenging, cremains cases such as this one can be resolved using a multidisciplinary approach.

  19. Subsistence-patterns, gender roles, effective temperature, and the evolutionary timing of a post reproductive life span.

    PubMed

    Loffler, German

    2016-04-01

    Evolutionary anthropologists explain menopause and the start of a post reproductive lifespan (PRLS), as beneficiary for older women who can now help contribute to their children/grandchildren's wellbeing. This paper presents a new model with the aim to elucidate when, where, and for whom, such benefits may have arisen. In foraging societies, women contribute nutrients to their social groups/family units to a greater degree as overall effective temperatures (ETs) rise. Where the ET is favorable for women's contributions (ETs between 15 and 20), selection does lengthen the PRLS of women because women contribute sufficiently to enhance their own inclusive fitness. Paleo-environment records suggest that the climate necessary to encourage an increase PRLS occurred shortly after the younger dryad in emerging subtropical settings. Subsistence patterns and gender roles may have played a role in the evolution of PRLS in human females.

  20. Cultural relativity of toilet training readiness: a perspective from East Africa.

    PubMed

    deVries, M W; deVries, M R

    1977-08-01

    Ideas about infant capabilities and toilet training practice have changed in the United States following cultural trends and the advice of child care experts. Anthropologists have shown that a society's specific infant training practices are adaptive to survival and cultural values. The different expectations of infant behavior of the East African Digo produces a markedly different toilet training approach than the current maturational readiness method recommended in America. The Digo believe that infants can learn soon after birth and begin motor and toilet training in the first weeks of life. With a nurturant conditioning approach, night and day dryness is accomplished by 5 or 6 months. The success of early Digo training suggests that sociocultural factors are more important determinants of toilet training readiness than is currently thought.

  1. Playing With Knives: The Socialization of Self-Initiated Learners.

    PubMed

    Lancy, David F

    2016-05-01

    Since Margaret Mead's field studies in the South Pacific a century ago, there has been the tacit understanding that as culture varies, so too must the socialization of children to become competent culture users and bearers. More recently, the work of anthropologists has been mined to find broader patterns that may be common to childhood across a range of societies. One improbable commonality has been the tolerance, even encouragement, of toddler behavior that is patently risky, such as playing with or attempting to use a sharp-edged tool. This laissez faire approach to socialization follows from a reliance on children as "self-initiated learners." In this article, the ethnographic literature that shows why children are encouraged to learn without prompting or guidance and how that happens is reviewed.

  2. Virtual anthropology and forensic identification using multidetector CT

    PubMed Central

    Savall, F; Mokrane, F-Z; Rousseau, H; Crubézy, E; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2014-01-01

    Virtual anthropology is made possible by modern cross-sectional imaging. Multislice CT (MSCT) can be used for comparative bone and dental identification, reconstructive identification and lesion identification. Comparative identification, the comparison of ante- and post-mortem imaging data, can be performed on both teeth and bones. Reconstructive identification, a considerable challenge for the radiologist, identifies the deceased by determining sex, geographical origin, stature and age at death. Lesion identification combines virtual autopsy and virtual anthropology. MSCT can be useful in palaeopathology, seeking arthropathy, infection, oral pathology, trauma, tumours, haematological disorders, stress indicators or occupational stress in bones and teeth. We examine some of the possibilities offered by this new radiological subspeciality that adds a new dimension to the work of the forensic radiologist. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial and involves communication and data exchange between radiologists, forensic pathologists, anthropologists and radiographers. PMID:24234584

  3. The ecological and evolutionary energetics of hunter-gatherer residential mobility.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Marcus J; Lobo, José; Rupley, Eric; Youn, Hyejin; West, Geoffrey B

    2016-05-06

    Residential mobility is a key aspect of hunter-gatherer foraging economies and therefore is an issue of central importance in hunter-gatherer studies. Hunter-gatherers vary widely in annual rates of residential mobility. Understanding the sources of this variation has long been of interest to anthropologists and archeologists. The vast majority of hunter-gatherers who are dependent on terrestrial plants and animals move camp multiple times a year because local foraging patches become depleted and food, material, and social resources are heterogeneously distributed through time and space. In some environments, particularly along coasts, where resources are abundant and predictable, hunter-gatherers often become effectively sedentary. But even in these special cases, a central question is how these societies have maintained viable foraging economies while reducing residential mobility to near zero.

  4. The impact of Daubert on the admissibility of forensic anthropology expert testimony.

    PubMed

    Lesciotto, Kate M

    2015-05-01

    Forensic anthropologists anticipated a significant impact from the 1993 Supreme Court Daubert decision, which addressed the standard of admissibility for expert testimony. In response, many forensic articles cited Daubert in the search for objective techniques or a critique of established subjective methods. This study examines challenges to forensic anthropological expert testimony to evaluate whether Daubert has actually affected the admissibility of such testimony. Thirty cases were identified that addressed the admissibility of the testimony, including 14 cases prior to Daubert and 16 after Daubert. Examination of these cases indicates that post-Daubert cases do not result in more exclusions. Yet, this lack of exclusions may instead be viewed as a manifestation of the field's overall surge toward more objective and quantifiable techniques in a self-regulating response to Daubert.

  5. An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part II: Field and Laboratory Considerations.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lindsey G; Dabbs, Gretchen R; Spencer, Jessica R

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on potential hazards and risks to forensic anthropologists while working in the field and laboratory in North America. Much has changed since Galloway and Snodgrass published their seminal article addressing these issues. The increased number of forensic practitioners combined with new information about potential hazards calls for an updated review of these pathogens and chemicals. Discussion of pathogen hazards (Brucella, Borrelia burgdorferi, Yersinia pestis, Clostridium tetani and West Nile virus) includes important history, exposure routes, environmental survivability, early symptoms, treatments with corresponding morbidity and mortality rates, and decontamination measures. Additionally, data pertaining to the use of formaldehyde in the laboratory environment have resulted in updated safety regulations, and these are highlighted. These data should inform field and laboratory protocols. The hazards of working directly with human remains are discussed in a companion article, "An Update on the Hazards and Risks of Forensic Anthropology, Part I: Human Remains."

  6. Virtual anthropology and forensic identification using multidetector CT.

    PubMed

    Dedouit, F; Savall, F; Mokrane, F-Z; Rousseau, H; Crubézy, E; Rougé, D; Telmon, N

    2014-04-01

    Virtual anthropology is made possible by modern cross-sectional imaging. Multislice CT (MSCT) can be used for comparative bone and dental identification, reconstructive identification and lesion identification. Comparative identification, the comparison of ante- and post-mortem imaging data, can be performed on both teeth and bones. Reconstructive identification, a considerable challenge for the radiologist, identifies the deceased by determining sex, geographical origin, stature and age at death. Lesion identification combines virtual autopsy and virtual anthropology. MSCT can be useful in palaeopathology, seeking arthropathy, infection, oral pathology, trauma, tumours, haematological disorders, stress indicators or occupational stress in bones and teeth. We examine some of the possibilities offered by this new radiological subspeciality that adds a new dimension to the work of the forensic radiologist. A multidisciplinary approach is crucial and involves communication and data exchange between radiologists, forensic pathologists, anthropologists and radiographers.

  7. The utility of the Samworth and Gowland age-at-death "look-up" tables in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Passalacqua, Nicholas V

    2010-03-01

    Accurate age-at-death estimates are crucial to forensic anthropologists when onstructing biological profiles aimed at narrowing a missing-persons list and to allow for timely and efficient identification of an unknown victim. The present contribution evaluates the utility of three new age-at-death estimation techniques recently proposed by Samworth and Gowland (2007). Results indicate that, in the samples under study, the Samworth and Gowland estimates from the pubic symphysis and auricular surface perform similar to alternate phase methods. The combined method does not appear to further enhance either the precision or the accuracy of the single pubic symphysis age-at-death estimate. In conclusion, these new methods seem to be more robust to distribution deviations than originally proposed by Samworth and Gowland (2007). They are therefore suitable for immediate and reliable forensic usage in the United States and worthy of further research for their use in North American forensic contexts.

  8. Age estimation in forensic anthropology: quantification of observer error in phase versus component-based methods.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Natalie R; Ramirez Montes, Paula Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess observer error in phase versus component-based scoring systems used to develop age estimation methods in forensic anthropology. A method preferred by forensic anthropologists in the AAFS was selected for this evaluation (the Suchey-Brooks method for the pubic symphysis). The Suchey-Brooks descriptions were used to develop a corresponding component-based scoring system for comparison. Several commonly used reliability statistics (kappa, weighted kappa, and the intraclass correlation coefficient) were calculated to assess observer agreement between two observers and to evaluate the efficacy of each of these statistics for this study. The linear weighted kappa was determined to be the most suitable measure of observer agreement. The results show that a component-based system offers the possibility for more objective scoring than a phase system as long as the coding possibilities for each trait do not exceed three states of expression, each with as little overlap as possible.

  9. Forensic anthropology casework-essential methodological considerations in stature estimation.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Kanchan, Tanuj; Menezes, Ritesh G; Ghosh, Abhik

    2012-03-01

    The examination of skeletal remains is a challenge to the medical examiner's/coroner's office and the forensic anthropologist conducting the investigation. One of the objectives of the medico-legal investigation is to estimate stature or height from various skeletal remains and body parts brought for examination. Various skeletal remains and body parts bear a positive and linear correlation with stature and have been successfully used for stature estimation. This concept is utilized in estimation of stature in forensic anthropology casework in mass disasters and other forensic examinations. Scientists have long been involved in standardizing the anthropological data with respect to various populations of the world. This review deals with some essential methodological issues that need to be addressed in research related to estimation of stature in forensic examinations. These issues have direct relevance in the identification of commingled or unknown remains and therefore it is essential that forensic nurses are familiar with the theories and techniques used in forensic anthropology.

  10. Heaps of health, metaphysical fitness: Ayurveda and the ontology of good health in medical anthropology.

    PubMed

    Alter, J S

    1999-02-01

    Because most scholars take it for granted that medicine is concerned with healing and problems of ill health, the way in which various medical systems define good health has not been adequately studied. Moreover, good health as such is usually regarded as a natural, normative state of being even by most medical anthropologists, who otherwise take a critical, relativist perspective on the subject of illness, pain, and disease. Using the case of Ayurvedic medicine, this article shows that there is a very different way of looking at the question of how health is embodied. This perspective is proactive and concerned with overall fitness rather than reactive and primarily concerned with either illness or disease. The argument presented here therefore seeks to go beyond the limiting--although extremely useful--orientation of remedial health care and suggest a radical challenge to some of the most basic ontological assumptions in the cross-cultural comparative study of medical systems.

  11. [The archeology of slavery on Jesuit fazendas: first research notes].

    PubMed

    Symanski, Luís Cláudio P; Gomes, Flávio

    2012-12-01

    These preliminary research notes present theoretical and methodological questions regarding a recently inaugurated investigation in historical archeology that intends to analyze daily life under slavery, demographic regimes, cultural practices, and so on. A survey of archeological sites on former 'senzalas' (slave quarters) and slave-owning fazendas in the Paraíba Valley and northern part of the state of Rio de Janeiro is currently in progress. With the cooperation of historians, archeologists, and anthropologists, records of the material culture of slave populations, which originally comprised indigenes and later Africans, are being located at excavations underway on the fazenda that is part of the Jesuit school in Campos dos Goytacazes, Rio de Janeiro, first run by the clergy and later by members of the laity in the seventeenth, eighteenth, and nineteenth centuries.

  12. Half full or half empty? Shelter after the Jogjakarta earthquake.

    PubMed

    MacRae, Graeme; Hodgkin, David

    2011-01-01

    The international shelter response to the Jogjakarta earthquake in Indonesia in May 2006 is widely regarded as a success story, especially when compared with the response to the Indian Ocean tsunami 16 months earlier. This evaluation is largely in terms of the international aid system itself, which emphasises statistical measures of 'success' and internal coordination and efficiency. From the perspective of those closer to the ground, however, it was less successful, especially in terms of coordination and communication with and participation of local agencies and affected communities. This paper, by an aid worker resident in Jogjakarta and an anthropologist, examines the response from a perspective grounded both within and outside the aid system, local as well as global. It recognises the relative success of the response, but argues for an approach more grounded in local knowledge and responsive to local concerns, while also providing practical suggestions for improvement.

  13. Patenting nature or protecting culture? Ethnopharmacology and indigenous intellectual property rights

    PubMed Central

    McGonigle, Ian Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Ethnopharmacologists are scientists and anthropologists that study indigenous medicines and healing practices, and who often develop new therapies and medicines for wider use. Ethnopharmacologists do fieldwork with indigenous peoples in traditional societies, where they encounter a wide range of cultural values and varying ideas about the nature of property relations. This poses difficulties for protecting indigenous intellectual property and for making just trade agreements. This Note reviews the legal issues relevant to the protection of indigenous resources in ethnopharmacology trade agreements, and suggests that recent developments in anthropology and the social study of science could be instructive in furthering the legal discourse and in providing policy directions. Specifically, the Note introduces the concepts of ‘ontological pluralism’ and ‘epistemic subsidiarity’, which could help lawmakers write sui generis trade agreements to better protect indigenous knowledge and resources. PMID:27774245

  14. The mushroom and the water lily: literary and pictorial evidence for Nymphaea as a ritual psychotogen in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Emboden, W A

    1982-03-01

    In reconstructing early uses of psychotogens in Mesoamerica, mushrooms have occupied the attention of botanists and anthropologists almost the exclusion of other plant motifs. Not all the images and literary fragments extant lend themselves to mycological interpretation. Some authors have interpreted the peltate leaves and flower buds of the psychotogen Nymphaea ampla as being green mushrooms and/or stalked sea shells. The context of presentation, information on the water lily in Maya antiquity, and recent information on the chemistry of this white water lily suggest that we must reassess the role of Nymphaea ampla. In a reevaluation of these ancient literary and iconographic sources, it would seem that both mushrooms and water lilies emerge as important ritual psychotogens. While the contextual use of mushrooms is well known, the water lily has been largely ignored. This presentation provides some perspective on both of these important New World narcotics.

  15. Signing on for dirty work: Taking stock of a public psychiatry project from the inside.

    PubMed

    Pope, Leah G; Cubellis, Lauren; Hopper, Kim

    2016-08-01

    As applied anthropologists used to working at arm's length from public psychiatry, we step out of the daily grind to take stock of the challenges of taking on ethnography entrained-harnessed to the implementation of a new program. These include the loss of critical distance, the struggles to negotiate locally viable forms of authority and relevance, the necessity of sustaining a Janus-faced relation with principal players, the urgency of seeing time-sensitive information converted into corrective feedback, and the undeniable attraction of being part of "committed work" with game-changing potential. In so doing, we rework the terms of witnessing and revive an old alternative: that documentary dirty work be reclaimed as a variant of public anthropology, one that transforms the work of application from mere afterthought to integral part of the original inquiry.

  16. The misconstruction of critical medical anthropology: a response to a cultural constructivist critique.

    PubMed

    Baer, H A

    1997-05-01

    Since its emergence over a decade ago as a distinct theoretical framework, critical medical anthropology (CMA) has engaged in debate and dialogue with various other perspectives within medical anthropology, particularly clinical anthropology, medical ecology, and, to a lesser degree, postmodernism. While at least two genres of CMA have emerged, both of which are involved in a dialogue with each other, proponents of other perspectives often misread or "misconstruct" the agenda of CMA as both a theoretical framework and a strategy for health activism. This essay in particular critiques this process among proponents of the interpretative or cultural constructivist perspective. On a positive note, however, I urge critical medical anthropologists and cultural constructivists within medical anthropology to enter into a dialogue with each other because their two perspectives, despite the presence of obvious epistemological differences, share commonalities.

  17. The Contribution of Applied Social Sciences to Obesity Stigma-Related Public Health Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Bombak, Andrea E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is viewed as a major public health concern, and obesity stigma is pervasive. Such marginalization renders obese persons a “special population.” Weight bias arises in part due to popular sources' attribution of obesity causation to individual lifestyle factors. This may not accurately reflect the experiences of obese individuals or their perspectives on health and quality of life. A powerful role may exist for applied social scientists, such as anthropologists or sociologists, in exploring the lived and embodied experiences of this largely discredited population. This novel research may aid in public health intervention planning. Through these studies, applied social scientists could help develop a nonstigmatizing, salutogenic approach to public health that accurately reflects the health priorities of all individuals. Such an approach would call upon applied social science's strengths in investigating the mundane, problematizing the “taken for granted” and developing emic (insiders') understandings of marginalized populations. PMID:24782921

  18. Patenting nature or protecting culture? Ethnopharmacology and indigenous intellectual property rights.

    PubMed

    McGonigle, Ian Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Ethnopharmacologists are scientists and anthropologists that study indigenous medicines and healing practices, and who often develop new therapies and medicines for wider use. Ethnopharmacologists do fieldwork with indigenous peoples in traditional societies, where they encounter a wide range of cultural values and varying ideas about the nature of property relations. This poses difficulties for protecting indigenous intellectual property and for making just trade agreements. This Note reviews the legal issues relevant to the protection of indigenous resources in ethnopharmacology trade agreements, and suggests that recent developments in anthropology and the social study of science could be instructive in furthering the legal discourse and in providing policy directions. Specifically, the Note introduces the concepts of 'ontological pluralism' and 'epistemic subsidiarity', which could help lawmakers write sui generis trade agreements to better protect indigenous knowledge and resources.

  19. Medicalization of global health 2: The medicalization of global mental health.

    PubMed

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Once an orphan field, 'global mental health' now has wide acknowledgement and prominence on the global health agenda. Increased recognition draws needed attention to individual suffering and the population impacts, but medicalizing global mental health produces a narrow view of the problems and solutions. Early framing by advocates of the global mental health problem emphasised biological disease, linked psychiatry with neurology, and reinforced categories of mental health disorders. Universality of biomedical concepts across culture is assumed in the globalisation of mental health but is strongly disputed by transcultural psychiatrists and anthropologists. Global mental health movement priorities take an individualised view, emphasising treatment and scale-up and neglecting social and structural determinants of health. To meet international targets and address the problem's broad social and cultural dimensions, the global mental health movement and advocates must develop more comprehensive strategies and include more diverse perspectives.

  20. The use of an alternate light source for detecting bones underwater.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Angi M; Horn, Kevin J; Smith, Victoria A

    2014-07-01

    When searching underwater crime scenes or disaster scenes for fragmentary human remains, it may be advantageous for forensic divers to be able to detect the presence of bones and teeth among other marine materials (such as shells and rocks). In terrestrial environments, this can typically be accomplished by visual and instrumental methods, but underwater conditions make it difficult to employ detection and sorting techniques in these environments. This study investigates fluorescence of bones and teeth and other marine materials using a submersible alternate light source (ALS) and concludes that an ALS can be a useful tool for detecting bones and teeth in underwater searches as well in terrestrial searches and laboratory environments. The results could impact the methods and equipment used by forensic divers and forensic anthropologists when searching for skeletal remains, potentially increasing the quantity and efficiency of forensic evidence recovered.

  1. Skeletal Indicators of Stress: A Component of the Biocultural Profile of Undocumented Migrants in Southern Arizona.

    PubMed

    Beatrice, Jared S; Soler, Angela

    2016-09-01

    The ability of forensic anthropologists in the United States to distinguish the remains of foreign nationals from those of American citizens may be crucial to the identification process. This study adds new criteria for identifying Hispanic foreign nationals in southern Arizona to those previously outlined by Birkby et al. (J Forensic Sci 53, 2008, 29) in the "cultural profile." Skeletal indicators of nonspecific stress were evaluated in undocumented border crossers (UBCs) at the Pima County Office of the Medical Examiner and in documented American samples. Odds ratios show significant associations between UBC status and the presence of porotic hyperostosis and enamel hypoplasias, which are, respectively, 7.9 and 3 times more prevalent among UBCs. These findings are consistent with disparities in access to adequate nutrition and health care during childhood. In conjunction with context and other biocultural factors, the presence of these conditions should prompt practitioners to consider that unidentified remains may represent foreign nationals.

  2. The power of contextual effects in forensic anthropology: a study of biasability in the visual interpretations of trauma analysis on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Hanson, Ian; Dozzi, Nathalie

    2014-09-01

    The potential for contextual information to bias assessments in the forensic sciences has been demonstrated, in several forensic disiplines. In this paper, biasability potential within forensic anthropology was examined by analyzing the effects of external manipulations on judgments and decision-making in visual trauma assessment. Three separate websites were created containing fourteen identical images. Participants were randomly assigned to one website. Each website provided different contextual information, to assess variation of interpretation of the same images between contexts. The results indicated a higher scoring of trauma identification responses for the Mass grave context. Furthermore, a significant biasing effect was detected in the interpretation of four images. Less experienced participants were more likely to indicate presence of trauma. This research demonstrates bias impact in forensic anthropological trauma assessments and highlights the importance of recognizing and limiting cognitive vulnerabilities that forensic anthropologists might bring to the analysis.

  3. Do "illegal" im/migrants have a right to health? Engaging ethical theory as social practice at a Tel Aviv open clinic.

    PubMed

    Willen, Sarah S

    2011-09-01

    As the notion of a "right to health" gains influence, it is increasingly deployed in ways that are diverse, contextually variable, and at times logically inconsistent. Drawing on extended fieldwork at an Israeli human rights organization that advocates for "illegal" migrants and other vulnerable groups, this article contends that medical anthropologists cannot simply rally behind this right. Instead, we must take it as an object of ethnographic analysis and explore bow it is invoked, debated, and resisted in specific contexts. Critical ethnographies of right to health discourse and practice can enlighten us, and help us enlighten scholars in other fields, to the complexity, messiness, and "mushiness" (Sen 2009) of this right, especially in the context of advocacy on unauthorized im/migrants' behalf. It can also deepen understanding of the complicated and sometimes tense relationships among human rights, humanitarianism, and other contemporary idioms of social justice mobilization, especially in the health domain.

  4. Who Was Helping? The Scope for Female Cooperative Breeding in Early Homo

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Adrian Viliami; Hinde, Katie; Newson, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Derived aspects of our human life history, such as short interbirth intervals and altricial newborns, have been attributed to male provisioning of nutrient-rich meat within monogamous relationships. However, many primatologists and anthropologists have questioned the relative importance of pair-bonding and biparental care, pointing to evidence that cooperative breeding better characterizes human reproductive and child-care relationships. We present a mathematical model with empirically-informed parameter ranges showing that natural selection favors cooperation among mothers over a wide range of conditions. In contrast, our analysis provides a far more narrow range of support for selection favoring male coalition-based monogamy over more promiscuous independent males, suggesting that provisioning within monogamous relationships may fall short of explaining the evolution of Homo life history. Rather, broader cooperative networks within and between the sexes provide the primary basis for our unique life history. PMID:24367605

  5. Anthropological discourses on the globalization of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in post-conflict societies.

    PubMed

    Moghimi, Yavar

    2012-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a construct that has moved far beyond its origins in Veterans Administration hospitals after the Vietnam War. It is now commonly used in post-conflict societies by humanitarian agencies and researchers. This article looks at the ever-growing expansion of PTSD and reviews medical anthropologists' critiques of this cross-cultural dissemination of Western psychiatric knowledge. The article also reviews post-conflict ethnographies and their results, which often highlight a mismatch between local priorities and the psycho-social services being provided by outside agencies. Finally, the author highlights interventions that are currently being undertaken by humanitarian agencies in an attempt to bridge psychiatric expertise and local forms of healing. Although PTSD is a useful construct for conceptualizing the experience of those who have suffered traumatic events, it does not lend itself to universal cross-cultural application and should be cautiously applied in post-conflict societies.

  6. Widow and widower remarriage: an analysis in a rural 19th century Costa Rican population and a cross-cultural discussion.

    PubMed

    Madrigal, L; Ware, B; Melendez, M

    2003-12-01

    Although the topic of remarriage features saliently in the cultural anthropological literature, it is virtually absent in the biological anthropology journals. This is perplexing, given that remarriage affects the differential reproductive success of males and females in a community, and could well impact a community's population structure. In this paper, we research remarriage practices in a rural 19th century community in Costa Rica. Although we find support for the proposition that males are more likely to remarry than females, we find that widows who remarry are not all young and able to reproduce. Our findings support the cross-culturally-generated suggestion that a female's ability not to remarry is tied to her to ability to own property. Remarriage is a topic of interest to biological anthropologists from a cross-cultural and biocultural perspective.

  7. Diverse approaches to analysing the history of human and pathogen evolution: how to tell the story of the past 70 000 years

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, D. M.; Balloux, F.; Boyton, R. J.

    2012-01-01

    The meeting ‘Human evolution, migration and history revealed by genetics, immunity and infection’, along with the follow-on satellite meeting at the Kavli Centre over the subsequent two days, brought together diverse talents. The aim was to see if new insights could be gained by bringing together those who have interests in the past 50–100 000 years of human history, overlaying the perspectives of palaeogeneticists, anthropologists, human geneticists, pathogen geneticists, immunologists, disease modellers, linguists, immunogeneticists, historians and archaeologists. It rapidly became clear that while all may agree on the broad brush-strokes including ‘out-of-Africa’ and the general approximations of timelines, diverse approaches may often suggest somewhat different ways of telling the story. PMID:22312043

  8. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide.

  9. Use of Dried Blood Spots: An Ideal Tool for Medical Anthropology “in the Field”

    PubMed Central

    Benyshek, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    The use of dried whole blood spot samples provides medical anthropological researchers—especially those working in remote, isolated communities—with several advantages over traditional methods. Anthropological research utilizing venous-drawn blood samples can create challenges in terms of phlebotomy training, personnel needs, storage and transportation requirements, and participant discomfort. Alternatively, research utilizing dried blood spot samples, via finger stick collection techniques, eliminates or reduces these problems greatly. While the use of dried blood spots is often the best sampling option for anthropologists or other population-level researchers, the method does have some limitations. Nevertheless, as the number of dried blood spot analyte protocols continues to increase, the logistical and participant advantages of dried blood spot methods assure their increased utility in biomedical anthropological research in the future. PMID:20307385

  10. Cultural-Ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement Used to Explain a Story of Race, Culture and Education.

    PubMed

    Ogunyemi, Boluwaji

    2017-01-01

    Students of African ancestry often share an experience of being a racialized minority in the context of the educational institution. Late Professor of Anthropology John Ogbu's Cultural-ecological Theory of Academic Disengagement is employed to describe the negative responses encountered by peers in the name of academic achievement. The late Nigerian-American anthropologist John Ogbu described that it is often socially disadvantageous for black youth to prosper academically in formal education. Black students are often seen as betraying their cultural identities by aspiring to academic success and scholastic achievement and are met with repugnance by black peers. The notion of "acting white" is unnecessary, impertinent should be abandoned outright as achievement should have no color.

  11. [Tradition and innovation in Zurich anthropology between 1915 and 1925].

    PubMed

    Chaoui, Natalie Janine; Schmutz, Hans-Konrad

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of the publications of the Zurich anthropologists, Adolph Hans Schultz (1891-1976) and Otto Schlaginhaufen (1879-1973) from 1915 to 1925 revealed that both were interested in various subjects and worked on different materials but used the same quantitative method of their teacher, Rudolf Martin (1864-1925). Thus, this method is likely to be the supporting element of the Zurich school of anthropology. The 1915-1925 period describes the earliest stage in Schultz's scientific career and his first years in America, prior to his expeditions to Panama, Siam, and Borneo which presumably led to a change in his object selection. Eugenics became an interdisciplinary guideline of research furthered by the Zurich school of anthropology. Schlaginhaufen as head of the Department of Anthropology and a foundation for anthropological research had a direct influence on other research groups within his university.

  12. The difficult task of assessing perimortem and postmortem fractures on the skeleton: a blind text on 210 fractures of known origin.

    PubMed

    Cappella, Annalisa; Amadasi, Alberto; Castoldi, Elisa; Mazzarelli, Debora; Gaudio, Daniel; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2014-11-01

    The distinction between perimortem and postmortem fractures is an important challenge for forensic anthropology. Such a crucial task is presently based on macro-morphological criteria widely accepted in the scientific community. However, several limits affect these parameters which have not yet been investigated thoroughly. This study aims at highlighting the pitfalls and errors in evaluating perimortem or postmortem fractures. Two trained forensic anthropologists were asked to classify 210 fractures of known origin in four skeletons (three victims of blunt force trauma and one natural death) as perimortem, postmortem, or dubious, twice in 6 months in order to assess intraobserver error also. Results show large errors, ranging from 14.8 to 37% for perimortem fractures and from 5.5 to 14.8% for postmortem ones; more than 80% of errors concerned trabecular bone. This supports the need for more objective and reliable criteria for a correct assessment of peri- and postmortem bone fractures.

  13. The identification of living persons on images: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Gibelli, D; Obertová, Z; Ritz-Timme, S; Gabriel, P; Arent, T; Ratnayake, M; De Angelis, D; Cattaneo, C

    2016-03-01

    Personal identification in the forensic context commonly concerns unknown decedents. However, recently there has been an increase in cases which require identification of living persons, especially from surveillance systems. These cases bring about a relatively new challenge for forensic anthropologists and pathologists concerning the selection of the most suitable methodological approaches with regard to the limitations of the photographic representation of a given person for individualization and identity. Facial features are instinctively the primary focus for identification approaches. However, other body parts (e.g. hands), and body height and gait (on videos) have been considered in cases of personal identification. This review aims at summarizing the state-of-the-art concerning the identification of the living on images and videos, including a critical evaluation of the advantages and limitations of different methods. Recommendations are given in order to aid forensic practitioners who face cases of identification of living persons.

  14. Fingering a murderer: a successful anthropological and radiological collaboration.

    PubMed

    Brogdon, B G; Sorg, Marcella H; Marden, Kerriann

    2010-01-01

    We illustrate an interdisciplinary approach to identify a victim in a case with complex taphonomic and procedural issues. Burning, fragmentation, species commingling, and examination by multiple experts required anthropological preparation and analysis combined with radiographic adaptations to image and match trabecular patterns in unusually small, burned specimens. A missing person was last seen in the company of a reclusive female on a remote rural property. A warranted search found several burn sites containing human and animal bones. Fragment preparation, analysis, and development of a biological profile by anthropologists enabled examination by the odontologist, molecular biologist, and radiologist, and justified use of antemortem radiographs from one potential victim. Visual and radiological comparison resulted in a positive (later confirmed) identification of the victim by radiological matches of three carpal phalanges. Although some dimensional changes are expected with burning, morphological details were preserved, aided by selection of relatively intact, small bones for comparison.

  15. An anthropological analysis of gunshot wounds to the chest.

    PubMed

    Langley, Natalie R

    2007-05-01

    This analysis of gunshot trauma to the bony thorax examines 87 handgun and rifle wounds from documented cases in an effort to corroborate an earlier report and to provide the forensic community with additional literature in this area. Specifically, this study tests whether the trauma signatures associated with gunshot wounds in the bony thorax are useful in determining the direction of fire. Because the ribs occupy a significant portion of the bony thorax, they are struck more frequently than other bones and, consequently, they are the focus of this report. This study confirmed that bullets can leave distinctive markers on ribs that indicate the direction of fire, including depressed fractures, bone fragments displaced in the direction of the bullet's path, and beveling. Although forensic anthropologists can determine the direction that a bullet was traveling when it struck a given rib, they cannot give a definitive statement about the number or sequence of gunshots without supporting soft tissue evidence.

  16. Diagnosis of aortic dextroposition on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Costea, Georgică; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin

    2012-03-01

    The fine macroscopic observation of a young adult female skeleton recovered from a Roman graveyard in Romania revealed distinctive flattening of the vertebra related to a right-sided aorta. Associated bone anomalies may be related to a Kartagener syndrome. This case highlights the fact that visceral anomalies may be diagnosed even on skeletal remains. Such lesions could be useful for osteo-archaeologists, of course, but also for forensic anthropologist investigators dealing with skeletonized remains (for example during the identification process of a dead body, through comparison with known medical data for missing people). More, hypotheses about cause and/or manner of death may be given, and a possibility of genetic confirmation exists.

  17. Focus: Global histories of science. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Sivasundaram, Sujit

    2010-03-01

    An interest in global histories of science is not new. Yet the project envisioned by this Focus section is different from that pursued by natural historians and natural philosophers in the early modern age. Instead of tracing universal patterns, there is value in attending to the connections and disconnections of science on the global stage. Instead of assuming the precision of science's boundaries, historians might consider the categories of "science" and "indigenous knowledge" to have emerged from globalization. New global histories of science will be characterized by critical reflection on the limits of generalization, as well as a creative adoption of new sources, methods, and chronologies, in an attempt to decenter the European history of science. Such a project holds the promise of opening up new conversations between historians, anthropologists, philosophers, and sociologists of science. It is of critical importance if the discipline is not to fragment into regional and national subfields or become dominated by structural frameworks such as imperialism.

  18. Medicalization of global health 2: the medicalization of global mental health

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Jocalyn

    2014-01-01

    Once an orphan field, ‘global mental health’ now has wide acknowledgement and prominence on the global health agenda. Increased recognition draws needed attention to individual suffering and the population impacts, but medicalizing global mental health produces a narrow view of the problems and solutions. Early framing by advocates of the global mental health problem emphasised biological disease, linked psychiatry with neurology, and reinforced categories of mental health disorders. Universality of biomedical concepts across culture is assumed in the globalisation of mental health but is strongly disputed by transcultural psychiatrists and anthropologists. Global mental health movement priorities take an individualised view, emphasising treatment and scale-up and neglecting social and structural determinants of health. To meet international targets and address the problem's broad social and cultural dimensions, the global mental health movement and advocates must develop more comprehensive strategies and include more diverse perspectives. PMID:24848660

  19. Ethnopharmacology in the work of Melville William Hilton-Simpson (1881-1938)--historical analysis and current research opportunities.

    PubMed

    Helmstädter, A

    2016-06-01

    In the early 20th century, the British anthropologist Melville William Hilton-Simpson (1881-1938) did explorations in Africa, mainly the Congo region and the Aurès region in Algeria. He showed considerable interest in local medicinal practices and plants used by the natives, mainly the Algerian Berbers. He left notes, letters and publications about traditional medicine which were screened for relevant information about medicinal plant use. His reports were compared with current knowledge and recent study results. Many plants described by Hilton-Simpson as therapeutically relevant could prove their efficacy in current studies which again shows that historical sources may exert some reliability. The study, however, unveiled a couple of plants reported as traditionally used, but neglected by modern science so far. These, including Marrubium supinum, Cynoglossum pictum (= C. creticum), Sonchus maritimus, and two Erodium species, are strongly recommended to be further studied. Foresightedly, this approach was already intended by Hilton-Simpson himself.

  20. Analyzing strategies for developing a prenatal health care outreach program to reduce social and cultural barriers.

    PubMed

    Andrus, N C; Partner, S F; Leppert, P C

    1997-01-01

    Beginning in March, 1994, a multi-cultural, interdisciplinary team of health care providers at Rochester General Hospital in Rochester, New York, planned and implemented a prenatal outreach program in partnership with the Rochester YWCA. The purpose of the project is to increase access to obstetric and gynecological services for low-income African-Americans, Hispanic, and white women. The processes involved in developing an outreach intervention program, Opening Doors, are described and the conflicts that surfaced during the initial stages of program development are analyzed. The problems which occurred can be attributed to role boundary conflict and differences in philosophy regarding ethnicity and health behavior. Through interviews with the anthropologist on the management team and some changes in the overall structure of the program administration, resolution of the conflicts became possible.

  1. Skillful Revelation: Local Healers, Rationalists, and Their 'Trickery' in Chhattisgarh, Central India.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Helen M

    2015-01-01

    To understand the workings of medicine, healing, placebo, belief, and rationality, medical anthropologists need to pay attention to the complex relations of various forms of revelation, contemplation, and rejoining revelation that attach to illness and healing. In this article two performances of a healing technique located in the agricultural plain of Chhattisgarh, central India, are compared: one representing scientific rationality; the other 'blind' superstition. In both performances the practitioner's aim is to reveal: the local healer reveals witchcraft objects from the afflicted body; the local rationalist society reveals the healer's technique as a fraudulent trick. Each performance shares 'an aesthetics of revelation'-they rely on seeing or revealing to obtain their social effect. The interplay between forms of revelation, a reliance on aesthetics for the revelation, and the ways of seeing can indicate how distinctions are made (or not) between doctor and quack, expertise and gimmickry, and truth and falsehood.

  2. Entangled traditions of race: Physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania, 1900-1940.

    PubMed

    Turda, Marius

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the relationship between race and physical anthropology in Hungary and Romania between 1900 and 1940. It begins by looking at institutional developments in both countries and how these influenced the most important Hungarian and Romanian anthropologists' professional and research agendas. Drawing from a wide range of primary sources, the article reveals the significant role the concept of race played in articulating anthropological and ethnic narratives of national belonging. It is necessary to understand the appeal of the idea of race in this context. With idealized images of national communities and racial hierarchies creeping back into Eastern European popular culture and politics, one needs to understand the latent and often unrecognized legacies of race in shaping not only scientific disciplines like anthropology, but also the emergence and entrancement of modern Hungarian and Romanian nationalism.

  3. The Social Life of Health Insurance in Low- to Middle-income Countries: An Anthropological Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Dao, Amy; Nichter, Mark

    2016-03-01

    The following article identifies new areas for engaged medical anthropological research on health insurance in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Based on a review of the literature and pilot research, we identify gaps in how insurance is understood, administered, used, and abused. We provide a historical overview of insurance as an emerging global health panacea and then offer brief assessments of three high-profile attempts to provide universal health coverage. Considerable research on health insurance in LMICs has been quantitative and focused on a limited set of outcomes. To advance the field, we identify eight productive areas for future ethnographic research that will add depth to our understanding of the social life and impact of health insurance in LMICs. Anthropologists can provide unique insights into shifting health and financial practices that accompany insurance coverage, while documenting insurance programs as they evolve and respond to contingencies.

  4. Toward an Anthropology of Insurance and Health Reform: An Introduction to the Special Issue.

    PubMed

    Dao, Amy; Mulligan, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    This article introduces a special issue of Medical Anthropology Quarterly on health insurance and health reform. We begin by reviewing anthropological contributions to the study of financial models for health care and then discuss the unique contributions offered by the articles of this collection. The contributors demonstrate how insurance accentuates--but does not resolve tensions between granting universal access to care and rationing limited resources, between social solidarity and individual responsibility, and between private markets and public goods. Insurance does not have a single meaning, logic, or effect but needs to be viewed in practice, in context, and from multiple vantage points. As the field of insurance studies in the social sciences grows and as health reforms across the globe continue to use insurance to restructure the organization of health care, it is incumbent on medical anthropologists to undertake a renewed and concerted study of health insurance and health systems.

  5. The ecological and evolutionary energetics of hunter‐gatherer residential mobility

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Marcus J.; Lobo, José; Rupley, Eric; Youn, Hyejin; West, Geoffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Residential mobility is a key aspect of hunter‐gatherer foraging economies and therefore is an issue of central importance in hunter‐gatherer studies.1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 Hunter‐gatherers vary widely in annual rates of residential mobility. Understanding the sources of this variation has long been of interest to anthropologists and archeologists. The vast majority of hunter‐gatherers who are dependent on terrestrial plants and animals move camp multiple times a year because local foraging patches become depleted and food, material, and social resources are heterogeneously distributed through time and space. In some environments, particularly along coasts, where resources are abundant and predictable, hunter‐gatherers often become effectively sedentary. But even in these special cases, a central question is how these societies have maintained viable foraging economies while reducing residential mobility to near zero. PMID:27312184

  6. Understanding the organisational context for adverse events in the health services: the role of cultural censorship.

    PubMed

    Hart, E; Hazelgrove, J

    2001-12-01

    This paper responds to the current emphasis on organisational learning in the NHS as a means of improving healthcare systems and making hospitals safer places for patients. Conspiracies of silence have been identified as obstacles to organisational learning, covering error and hampering communication. In this paper we question the usefulness of the term and suggest that "cultural censorship", a concept developed by the anthropologist Robin Sherriff, provides a much needed insight into cultures of silence within the NHS. Drawing on a number of illustrations, but in particular the Ritchie inquiry into the disgraced gynaecologist Rodney Ledward, we show how the defining characteristics of cultural censorship can help us to understand how adverse events get pushed underground, only to flourish in the underside of organisational life.

  7. Application of FORDISC 3.0 to explore differences among crania of North American and South African blacks and whites.

    PubMed

    L'Abbé, Ericka N; Kenyhercz, Michael; Stull, Kyra E; Keough, Natalie; Nawrocki, Stephen

    2013-11-01

    Using discriminant function analysis, classification accuracies for ancestry and sex in white and black South Africans were compared using North American (FDB), African groups in Howells (HDB), and South African (SADB) databases in FORDISC 3.0. (FD3). Twenty-four standard linear measures were collected from a total of 86 black and 101 white crania obtained from the Pretoria Bone Collection. White and black South Africans classified 73% correctly in FDB, 55% correctly in HDB, and 71% correctly in SADB. The percentage of atypical cases was higher with FDB than SADB. In all three databases, misclassification occurred more with sex than ancestry revealing differences in sexual dimorphism between population groups. Broad ancestral differences may explain low misclassification rates for ancestry. FD3, with a modern South African reference sample, can assist South African anthropologists to standardize methodology and to justify procedures for estimating ancestry.

  8. Eugenics and racial biology in Sweden and the USSR: contacts across the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Rudling, Per Anders

    2014-01-01

    The 1920s saw a significant exchange between eugenicists in Sweden and the young Soviet state. Sweden did not take part in World War I, and during the years following immediately upon the Versailles peace treaty, Swedish scholars came to serve as an intermediary link between, on the one hand, Soviet Russia and Weimar Germany, and, on the other hand, Western powers. Swedish eugenicists organized conferences, lecture tours, visits, scholarly exchanges, and transfers and translation of eugenic research. Herman Lundborg, the director of the world's first State Institute of Racial Biology, was an old-fashioned, deeply conservative, and anti-communist "scientific" racist, who somewhat paradoxically came to serve as something of a Western liaison for Soviet eugenicists. Whereas the contacts were disrupted in 1930, Swedish eugenicists had a lasting impact on Soviet physical anthropologists, who cited their works well into the 1970s, long after they had been discredited in Sweden.

  9. Informed Consent in cross-cultural perspective: clinical research in the Tibetan Autonomous Region, PRC.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vincanne; Miller, Suellen; Craig, Sienna; Sonam; Nyima; Droyoung; Le, Phuoc V; Varner, Micheal

    2007-12-01

    Procedures of Informed Consent are considered a high priority for international biomedical research. However, informed consent protocols are not necessarily transferable across cultural, national or ethnic groups. Recent debates identify the need for balancing ethical universals with practical and local conditions and paying attention to questions of cultural competence when it comes to the Informed Consent process for clinical biomedical research. This article reports on the results of a two-year effort to establish a culturally appropriate Informed Consent process for biomedical research in the Tibet Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of China. A team of Tibetan and American researchers, physicians, health professionals and medical anthropologists conducted the research. The Informed Consent was specifically for undertaking a triple-blind, double placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial of a Tibetan medicine compared with Misoprostol for reducing postpartum blood loss. The findings suggest greater need for flexibility and cooperation in establishing Informed Consent protocols across cultures and nations.

  10. The verbal portrait: Erik H. Erikson's contribution to psychoanalytic discourse.

    PubMed

    Capps, Donald

    2011-12-01

    This article makes the case that Erik H. Erikson developed a form of psychoanalytic discourse-the verbal portrait-which, although not unprecedented, became a focal feature of his work, and the testing ground for the cogency of his major contribution to psychoanalysis (the concept of identity). It suggests that Erikson was inspired to develop the verbal portrait because he came to psychoanalysis from art and was, in fact, a portrait artist. Drawing especially on the work of Richard Brilliant, it presents the view that a portrait is a portrayal of the subject's identity and goes on to show how Erikson's memorial to the cultural anthropologist Ruth Benedict is representative of the verbal portrait.

  11. [Environmental history as an anthropologic topic. Contribution to "chemical anthropology"].

    PubMed

    Grupe, G

    1990-06-01

    Human population history is firmly connected with temporal and regional changes of the environment. Whether natural or anthropogene, alteration of environmental features lead to changes of human life-style and to the development of adaptive strategies. The demand of resources for his subsistence has led man to diverse impacts on his environment since ever. Thus, environmental history is a scientific topic for anthropologists. The research potential of trace element studies of excavated human skeletons for the reconstruction of natural and socio-cultural environments as well as for distribution patterns of hazardous substances is outlined for the European Middle Ages. The scientific value of unravelling past man/environment-interrelationships for both the historical and applied sciences and the place of any "chemical anthropology" within this context is discussed.

  12. Cam-type deformities: Concepts, criteria, and multidetector CT features.

    PubMed

    Mellado, J M; Radi, N

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting imaging studies of a painful hip requires detailed knowledge of the regional anatomy. Some variants of the proximal femur, such as cam-type deformities, can course asymptomatically or cause femoroacetabular impingement. The principal numerical criterion for defining cam-type deformities, the alpha angle, has some limitations. In this article, we review the anatomic variants of the anterior aspect of the proximal femur, focusing on cam-type deformities. Using diagrams and multidetector CT images, we describe the parameters that are useful for characterizing these deformities in different imaging techniques. We also discuss the potential correspondence of imaging findings of cam-type deformities with the terms coined by anatomists and anthropologists to describe these phenomena.

  13. Synchrony and cooperation.

    PubMed

    Wiltermuth, Scott S; Heath, Chip

    2009-01-01

    Armies, churches, organizations, and communities often engage in activities-for example, marching, singing, and dancing-that lead group members to act in synchrony with each other. Anthropologists and sociologists have speculated that rituals involving synchronous activity may produce positive emotions that weaken the psychological boundaries between the self and the group. This article explores whether synchronous activity may serve as a partial solution to the free-rider problem facing groups that need to motivate their members to contribute toward the collective good. Across three experiments, people acting in synchrony with others cooperated more in subsequent group economic exercises, even in situations requiring personal sacrifice. Our results also showed that positive emotions need not be generated for synchrony to foster cooperation. In total, the results suggest that acting in synchrony with others can increase cooperation by strengthening social attachment among group members.

  14. Cooperation and the evolution of intelligence.

    PubMed

    McNally, Luke; Brown, Sam P; Jackson, Andrew L

    2012-08-07

    The high levels of intelligence seen in humans, other primates, certain cetaceans and birds remain a major puzzle for evolutionary biologists, anthropologists and psychologists. It has long been held that social interactions provide the selection pressures necessary for the evolution of advanced cognitive abilities (the 'social intelligence hypothesis'), and in recent years decision-making in the context of cooperative social interactions has been conjectured to be of particular importance. Here we use an artificial neural network model to show that selection for efficient decision-making in cooperative dilemmas can give rise to selection pressures for greater cognitive abilities, and that intelligent strategies can themselves select for greater intelligence, leading to a Machiavellian arms race. Our results provide mechanistic support for the social intelligence hypothesis, highlight the potential importance of cooperative behaviour in the evolution of intelligence and may help us to explain the distribution of cooperation with intelligence across taxa.

  15. Scratching the Surface? The use of surface scanning in physical and paleoanthropology.

    PubMed

    Friess, Martin

    2012-01-01

    As virtual anthropology is becoming more and more ubiquitous, so are the means to acquire, process and analyze 3D data. Among these means, surface scanners have gained a prominent place for a variety of reasons that make them useful to anthropologists. While surface scanning has several advantages over other 3D devices (digitizers, volume scanners etc.), it does come with one obvious drawback - internal structures remain invisible. Still, surface scanning is emerging as a convenient tool for anthropometric and especially paleoanthropological research. It extends our ability to quantify phenotypic variation, its non-destructive nature contributes to specimen conservation, and it can become an integral part of virtual anthropology, thus doing more than just "scratching the surface".

  16. Habituating field scientists.

    PubMed

    Alcayna-Stevens, Lys

    2016-12-01

    This article explores the sensory dimensions of scientific field research in the only region in the world where free-ranging bonobos ( Pan paniscus) can be studied in their natural environment; the equatorial rainforest of the Democratic Republic of Congo. If, as sensory anthropologists have argued, the senses are developed, grown and honed in a given cultural and environmental milieu, how is it that field scientists come to dwell among familiarity in a world which is, at first, unfamiliar? This article builds upon previous anthropological and philosophical engagements with habituation that have critically examined primatologists' attempts to become 'neutral objects in the environment' in order to habituate wild apes to their presence. It does so by tracing the somatic modes of attention developed by European and North American researchers as they follow bonobos in these forests. The argument is that as environments, beings and their elements become familiar, they do not become 'neutral', but rather, suffused with meaning.

  17. Social scientists in public health: a fuzzy approach.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, Juliana Luporini; Stephan, Celso; Nunes, Everardo Duarte

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to describe and analyze the presence of social scientists, anthropologists, sociologists and political scientists in the field of public health. A survey by the Lattes Curriculum and sites of Medical Colleges, Institutes of Health Research Collective, seeking professionals who work in healthcare and have done some stage of their training in the areas of social sciences. In confluence with Norbert Elias' concepts of social networks and configuration of interdependence it was used fuzzy logic, and the tool free statistical software R version 2.12.0 which enabled a graphic representation of social scientists interdependence in the field of social sciences-health-social sciences. A total of 238 professionals were ready in 6 distinct clusters according to the distance or closer of each professional in relation to public health and social sciences. The work was shown with great analytical and graphical representation possibilities for social sciences of health, in using this innovative quantitative methodology.

  18. The Andaman Islanders in a regional genetic context: reexamining the evidence for an early peopling of the archipelago from South Asia.

    PubMed

    Chaubey, Gyaneshwer; Endicott, Phillip

    2013-01-01

    The indigenous inhabitants of the Andaman Islands were considered by many early anthropologists to be pristine examples of a "negrito" substrate of humanity that existed throughout Southeast Asia. Despite over 150 years of research and study, questions over the extent of shared ancestry between Andaman Islanders and other small-bodied, gracile, dark-skinned populations throughout the region are still unresolved. This shared phenotype could be a product of shared history, evolutionary convergence, or a mixture of both. Recent population genetic studies have tended to emphasize long-term physical isolation of the Andaman Islanders and an affinity to ancestral populations of South Asia. We reexamine the genetic evidence from genome-wide autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data for a shared history between the tribes of Little Andaman (Onge) and Great Andaman, and between these two groups and the rest of South and Southeast Asia (both negrito and non-negrito groups).

  19. Franz Boas, geographer, and the problem of disciplinary identity.

    PubMed

    Koelsch, William A

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines Franz Boas as an aspiring professional geographer during the 1880s: his Baffin Land research, his publications, his participation in geography organizations, and his struggle to attain a university appointment in geography. Frustrated by a seeming lack of opportunity for advancement in Germany, Boas explored career opportunities as a geographer in America and launched a series of unsuccessful but meaningful attempts to dominate the intellectual direction of American geography. Finally, the article reviews the circumstances surrounding Boas's appointment as an anthropologist at Clark University in 1889. Through examining Boas's own words and actions, the paper demonstrates that his professional identification with geography was lengthier and stronger than earlier accounts have suggested. It also critiques the myth of a Baffin Land "conversion" to anthropology, and delineates the circumstances of his shift from German human geography to his Americanist recasting of anthropology after 1889.

  20. Medical anthropology and the physician assistant profession.

    PubMed

    Henry, Lisa R

    2015-01-01

    Medical anthropology is a subfield of anthropology that investigates how culture influences people's ideas and behaviors regarding health and illness. Medical anthropology contributes to the understanding of how and why health systems operate the way they do, how different people understand and interact with these systems and cultural practices, and what assets people use and challenges they may encounter when constructing perceptions of their own health conditions. The goal of this article is to highlight the methodological tools and analytical insights that medical anthropology offers to the study of physician assistants (PAs). The article discusses the field of medical anthropology; the advantages of ethnographic and qualitative research; and how medical anthropology can explain how PAs fit into improved health delivery services by exploring three studies of PAs by medical anthropologists.

  1. The emotional, political, and analytical labor of engaged anthropology amidst violent political conflict.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosa Cordillera

    2015-01-01

    Given the harsh realities that people live through in southern Philippines, where there is rife human rights violations and violent political conflict, it becomes difficult and arguably unethical for anthropologists to assume a position of neutrality. Following calls for engaged anthropology, I contend that engagement entails simultaneously an emotional, political, and analytical labor and troubles the separation of the self and other. I suggest that a way to labor through these challenges of researching suffering, and the reciprocal obligations this implicates, is to utilize feminist reflexivity and epistemic reflexivity. These necessitate an objectification of the self and one's intellectual field to achieve an epistemological break that would lead to an understanding of the other and their realities.

  2. Anthropology in a postcolonial colony: Helen I. Safa's contribution to Puerto Rican ethnography.

    PubMed

    Duany, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses Helen I. Safa's legacy to anthropological thought in Puerto Rico. The first part of the article locates Safa's research on the Island within a long tradition of fieldwork by U.S. scholars since the early twentieth century. More recent research, conducted mostly by Puerto Rican women anthropologists and other social scientists, has expanded upon Safa's insights on gender and work. The second part of the essay analyzes Safa's major empirical work, The Urban Poor of Puerto Rico: A Study in Development and Inequality. Above all, this book helped overcome the theoretical impasse over the culture of poverty that characterized much of urban anthropology during the 1960s and 1970s. The article concludes with an appraisal of the relevance of Safa's work for the ethnography of contemporary Puerto Rico.

  3. From application to implication in medical anthropology: political, historical and narrative interpretations of the world of sickness and health.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Mônica de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews some of the current writing on medical anthropology, and is guided by political orientation/implication in the choice of its study targets, its analysis and its construction of solutions for the problems investigated. Starting from the narratives of anthropologists, it goes on to show the historical and socio-political bases characteristic of the subject in their countries of origin or migration. Within a general overview of the three principal contemporary trends - critical medical anthropology, the anthropology of suffering and the anthropology of biopower - the focus is on theoretical and thematic choices to meet the demand for "politicization" of the anthropological debate in the field of health, on the basis of which an "implied" medical anthropology is advocated.

  4. THE LOSS OF MALAYSIA AIRLINES FLIGHT MH17: A FORENSIC AND HUMANITARIAN TASK.

    PubMed

    Ranson, David

    2015-06-01

    While forensic medical tasks are usually associated with supporting the criminal justice system, there are a range of forensic medical skills that can be brought to bear on addressing humanitarian activities. Disaster victim identification is a procedure that has achieved international standardisation through the work of a multinational Interpol Standing Committee. While part of a police organisation, it includes forensic pathologists, anthropologists, odontologists and molecular biologists who provide most of the specialist scientific input regarding identification that is integrated with police processes such as document examination and fingerprinting. The loss of Malaysian Airlines Flight MH17 represented a major activation of these procedures in an environment that had both humanitarian and forensic criminal investigation components. The information that is derived from the processes involved in disaster victim identification has a value that goes far beyond the determination of identity. It has an important humanitarian role in supporting the family and friends of the victims in their bereavement journey.

  5. Wayfinding in Social Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liben-Nowell, David

    With the recent explosion of popularity of commercial social-networking sites like Facebook and MySpace, the size of social networks that can be studied scientifically has passed from the scale traditionally studied by sociologists and anthropologists to the scale of networks more typically studied by computer scientists. In this chapter, I will highlight a recent line of computational research into the modeling and analysis of the small-world phenomenon - the observation that typical pairs of people in a social network are connected by very short chains of intermediate friends - and the ability of members of a large social network to collectively find efficient routes to reach individuals in the network. I will survey several recent mathematical models of social networks that account for these phenomena, with an emphasis on both the provable properties of these social-network models and the empirical validation of the models against real large-scale social-network data.

  6. TRANSFERENCE TO A MEDICAL CENTER—A Cultural Dimension in Healing

    PubMed Central

    Wilmer, Harry A.

    1962-01-01

    The phenomenon of transference to a medical center is similar to the transference given to an individual physician, the feelings being invested in The Center rather than in a person. The reputation and the image of The Center can give therapeutic sustenance. There are common features to each healing organization from primitive times to the journeys to the Oracles at the shrine of Zeus at Dodona and Apollo at Delphi, to Mecca and St. Bartholomew's Hospital, to Lourdes and Gheel, and to the present-day medical center. A phenomenon which we have identified as Transference to a Center has previously been known to physicians, theologians, historians, sociologists and anthropologists, by different names. In a social sense, transference to a medical center is akin to an Edifice complex. PMID:14040281

  7. American alligator proximal pedal phalanges resemble human finger bones: Diagnostic criteria for forensic investigators.

    PubMed

    Ferraro, Joseph V; Binetti, Katie M

    2014-07-01

    A scientific approach to bone and tooth identification requires analysts to pursue the goal of empirical falsification. That is, they may attribute a questioned specimen to element and taxon only after having ruled out all other possible attributions. This requires analysts to possess a thorough understanding of both human and non-human osteology, particularly so for remains that may be morphologically similar across taxa. To date, forensic anthropologists have identified several potential 'mimics' for human skeletal remains, including pig teeth and bear paws. Here we document another possible mimic for isolated human skeletal elements--the proximal pedal phalanges of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) closely resemble the proximal and intermediate hand phalanges of adult humans. We detail morphological similarities and differences between these elements, with the goal of providing sufficient information for investigators to confidently falsify the hypothesis that a questioned phalanx is derived from an American alligator.

  8. A Molecular Approach to the Sexing of the Triple Burial at the Upper Paleolithic Site of Dolní Věstonice

    PubMed Central

    Svoboda, Jiří; Krause, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    In the past decades ancient DNA research has brought numerous insights to archaeological research where traditional approaches were limited. The determination of sex in human skeletal remains is often challenging for physical anthropologists when dealing with incomplete, juvenile or pathological specimens. Molecular approaches allow sexing on the basis of sex-specific markers or by calculating the ratio of DNA derived from different chromosomes. Here we propose a novel approach that relies on the ratio of X chromosome-derived shotgun sequencing data to the autosomal coverage, thus establishing the probability of an XX or XY karyotype. Applying this approach to the individuals of the Upper Paleolithic triple burial of Dolní Věstonice reveals that all three skeletons, including the individual DV 15, whose sex has long been debated due to a pathological condition, were male. PMID:27706187

  9. Scavenging behavior of Lynx rufus on human remains during the winter months of Southeast Texas.

    PubMed

    Rippley, Angela; Larison, Nicole C; Moss, Kathryn E; Kelly, Jeffrey D; Bytheway, Joan A

    2012-05-01

    Animal-scavenging alterations on human remains can be mistaken as human criminal activity. A 32-day study, documenting animal scavenging on a human cadaver, was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science facility, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas. A Stealth Cam Rogue IR was positioned near the cadaver to capture scavenging activity. An atypical scavenger, the bobcat, Lynx rufus, was recorded feeding on the cadaver. Scavenging by bobcats on human remains is not a predominant behavior and has minimal documentation. Scavenging behaviors and destruction of body tissues were analyzed. Results show that the bobcat did not feed on areas of the body that it does for other large animal carcasses. Results also show the bobcat feeds similarly during peak and nonpeak hours. Understanding the destruction of human tissue and covering of the body with leaf debris may aid forensic anthropologists and pathologists in differentiating between nefarious human activity and animal scavenging.

  10. Estimating the timing of long bone fractures: correlation between the postmortem interval, bone moisture content, and blunt force trauma fracture characteristics*.

    PubMed

    Wieberg, Danielle A M; Wescott, Daniel J

    2008-09-01

    There is very limited knowledge about how long perimortem fracture characteristics persist into the postmortem interval (PMI). Therefore, in this study, 60 porcine long bones were exposed to natural taphonomic conditions and fractured with a steel bone breaking apparatus every 28 days throughout a 141-day period. Differences between macroscopic blunt force trauma fracture characteristics (fracture angle, surface morphology, and outline) were examined to determine if they varied over time or in relationship to bone moisture content (ash weight) and overall assessment. There are significant relationships between (1) PMI and percent ash weight (%AW), fracture surface, and fracture angle and (2) %AW and fracture surface and fracture angle. Bone moisture content correlates significantly with fracture morphology and other characteristics commonly used by forensic anthropologists to determine the timing of traumatic injuries. However, fracture characteristics normally associated with perimortem trauma can persist long into the PMI.

  11. Darwin's emotions: The scientific self and the sentiment of objectivity.

    PubMed

    White, Paul

    2009-12-01

    Darwin's emotional life has been a preoccupation of biographers and popularizers, while his research on emotional expression has been of keen interest to anthropologists and psychologists. Much can be gained, however, by looking at Darwin's emotions from both sides, by examining the relationship between his emotional experience and his scientific study of emotion. Darwin developed various techniques for distancing himself from his objects of study and for extracting emotional "objects" from feeling subjects. In order to investigate emotions scientifically, his own emotional life, his feelings for others, had to give way-or did it? This question has implications well beyond the life of Darwin, moral implications about the effects of scientific discipline on those who practice it and on the animals and people subjected to it. This dual approach to Darwin's emotions also allows us to address a conundrum of recent histories of "objectivity"--namely, the status of the scientific self as a feeling subject.

  12. Aboriginal astronomical traditions from Ooldea, South Australia. Part 1: Nyeeruna and 'The Orion Story'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leaman, Trevor M.; Hamacher, Duane W.

    2014-07-01

    Whilst camped at Ooldea, South Australia, between 1919 and 1935, the amateur anthropologist Daisy Bates CBE recorded the daily lives, lore and oral traditions of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert region surrounding Ooldea. Among her archived notes are stories regarding the Aboriginal astronomical traditions of this region. One story in particular, involving the stars making up the modern western constellations of Orion and Taurus, and thus referred to here as 'The Orion Story', stands out for its level of detail and possible references to transient astronomical phenomena. Here, we critically analyse several important elements of 'The Orion Story', including its relationship to an important secret-sacred male initiation rite. This paper is the first in a series attempting to reconstruct a more complete picture of the sky knowledge and star lore of the Aboriginal people of the Great Victoria Desert.

  13. Sex Assessment from the Volume of the First Metatarsal Bone: A Comparison of Linear and Volume Measurements.

    PubMed

    Gibelli, Daniele; Poppa, Pasquale; Cummaudo, Marco; Mattia, Mirko; Cappella, Annalisa; Mazzarelli, Debora; Zago, Matteo; Sforza, Chiarella; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2017-02-23

    Sexual dimorphism is a crucial characteristic of skeleton. In the last years, volumetric and surface 3D acquisition systems have enabled anthropologists to assess surfaces and volumes, whose potential still needs to be verified. This article aimed at assessing volume and linear parameters of the first metatarsal bone through 3D acquisition by laser scanning. Sixty-eight skeletons underwent 3D scan through laser scanner: Seven linear measurements and volume from each bone were assessed. A cutoff value of 13,370 mm(3) was found, with an accuracy of 80.8%. Linear measurements outperformed volume: metatarsal length and mediolateral width of base showed higher cross-validated accuracies (respectively, 82.1% and 79.1%, raising at 83.6% when both of them were included). Further studies are needed to verify the real advantage for sex assessment provided by volume measurements.

  14. Forensic Applicability of Femur Subtrochanteric Shape to Ancestry Assessment in Thai and White American Males.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Sean D; Winburn, Allysha P

    2015-09-01

    Ancestry assessment from the postcranial skeleton presents a significant challenge to forensic anthropologists. However, metric dimensions of the femur subtrochanteric region are believed to distinguish between individuals of Asian and non-Asian descent. This study tests the discriminatory power of subtrochanteric shape using modern samples of 128 Thai and 77 White American males. Results indicate that the samples' platymeric index distributions are significantly different (p≤0.001), with the Thai platymeric index range generally lower and the White American range generally higher. While the application of ancestry assessment methods developed from Native American subtrochanteric data results in low correct classification rates for the Thai sample (50.8-57.8%), adapting these methods to the current samples leads to better classification. The Thai data may be more useful in forensic analysis than previously published subtrochanteric data derived from Native American samples. Adapting methods to include appropriate geographic and contemporaneous populations increases the accuracy of femur subtrochanteric ancestry methods.

  15. Understanding the organisational context for adverse events in the health services: the role of cultural censorship

    PubMed Central

    Hart, E; Hazelgrove, J

    2001-01-01

    This paper responds to the current emphasis on organisational learning in the NHS as a means of improving healthcare systems and making hospitals safer places for patients. Conspiracies of silence have been identified as obstacles to organisational learning, covering error and hampering communication. In this paper we question the usefulness of the term and suggest that "cultural censorship", a concept developed by the anthropologist Robin Sherriff, provides a much needed insight into cultures of silence within the NHS. Drawing on a number of illustrations, but in particular the Ritchie inquiry into the disgraced gynaecologist Rodney Ledward, we show how the defining characteristics of cultural censorship can help us to understand how adverse events get pushed underground, only to flourish in the underside of organisational life. Key Words: cultural censorship; organisational culture; quality improvement; patient safety PMID:11743156

  16. Race, ethnicity, and racism in medical anthropology, 1977-2002.

    PubMed

    Gravlee, Clarence C; Sweet, Elizabeth

    2008-03-01

    Researchers across the health sciences are engaged in a vigorous debate over the role that the concepts of "race" and "ethnicity" play in health research and clinical practice. Here we contribute to that debate by examining how the concepts of race, ethnicity, and racism are used in medical-anthropological research. We present a content analysis of Medical Anthropology and Medical Anthropology Quarterly, based on a systematic random sample of empirical research articles (n = 283) published in these journals from 1977 to 2002. We identify both differences and similarities in the use of race, ethnicity, and racism concepts in medical anthropology and neighboring disciplines, and we offer recommendations for ways that medical anthropologists can contribute to the broader debate over racial and ethnic inequalities in health.

  17. Managed care or managed inequality? A call for critiques of market-based medicine.

    PubMed

    Rylko-Bauer, Barbara; Farmer, Paul

    2002-12-01

    This review article critiques the growing dominance of market-based medicine in the United States against the background of existing problems with quality of care, rising costs, devaluation of doctor-patient relationships, and, especially, persistent inequalities of access and outcomes. It summarizes the present state of health care delivery by focusing on the concurrent trends of growth in managed care, expanding profits, increasing proportion of those uninsured, and widening racial, ethnic, and class disparities in access to care. Allowing market forces to dictate the shape of health care delivery in this country ensures that inequalities will continue to grow and modern medicine will become increasingly adept at managing inequality rather than managing (providing) care. The article challenges anthropology to become more involved in critiquing these developments and suggests how anthropologists can expand on and contextualize debates surrounding the market's role in medicine, here and abroad.

  18. Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005).

    PubMed

    Ceci, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    Presents an obituary for Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005). Before Urie Bronfenbrenner, child psychologists studied the child, sociologists the family, anthropologists the society, economists the economic framework, and political scientists the structure. As the result of Urie's extension of the concept of the ecology of human development, these environments--from the family to economic and political structures--are viewed as part of the life course, embracing both childhood and adulthood. Bronfenbrenner, widely regarded as one of the world's leading scholars in developmental psychology, child rearing, and human ecology--the interdisciplinary domain he helped popularize--died at his home in Ithaca, New York, on September 25, 2005, at the age of 88. He was the Jacob Gould Sherman Professor Emeritus of Human Development and of Psychology at Cornell University, where he spent most of his professional career. A brief biography of Bronfenbrenner is followed by an overview of his published work, his theories and other influential accomplishments.

  19. Women and the family of the future.

    PubMed

    Quimby, C H

    1994-02-01

    The complexities of current societal trends impose a daunting challenge to providers of maternal child health services. Demographers, anthropologists, sociologists, policy makers, and health care providers struggle to grasp the multiple issues in an effort to create useful strategies for the 21st century. The 1990s have been labeled the decade of women's health. Legislative and policy efforts have focused new and much-needed attention on women as recipients and providers of health care. The realities of mothers in the work force, the epidemic of adolescent pregnancy, the swelling ranks of women and children in poverty, the increasing number of women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, the new advances in reproductive technology, and the effect of population and immigration trends greatly influence the childbearing client of the future and create enormous pressures for critical problem solving.

  20. Suicide prevention in the Pacific War (WW II).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, P T

    1991-01-01

    During the war against Japan, there were two facets of an American program to prevent suicide among the Japanese. One was a research component in the Foreign Morale Analysis Division (FMAD), a subunit of the Office of War Information. The principal FMAD figure who did most of the research on Japanese suicide and ways to prevent suicide among the Japanese military was the anthropologist Ruth Benedict, assisted by her Japanese-American aide Robert Hashima. The second facet was the suicide prevention program itself, which was put into effect toward the end of the war in the battles of Saipan and Okinawa. This program of action was undertaken by American GIs. These unheralded activities in suicide prevention merit a place in the annals of suicide prevention programs.

  1. Franz Boas and his plans for an International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Godoy, R

    1977-07-01

    The expansionist policy of the United States at the turn of the century widened the horizons of American anthropology. The International School of American Archaeology and Ethnology was one of the first attempts by American anthropologists to carry out systematic research in foreign lands. Motivated partly by a wish to strengthen the quality of American anthropology, Franz Boas succeeded in gaining the cooperation of several European and American institutions. The purpose of the school was to conduct rigorous anthropological investigations in Mexico. Obsessed with professionalizing the discipline, Boas failed to take into account the turbulent political climate of Mexico when planning the school. Although it did good work for a number of years (1910-1914), the school was broken up forever in 1914 because of the Mexican revolution. Attempts at resurrection failed for numerous reasons.

  2. Anthropology is missing: on the World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change.

    PubMed

    Trostle, James

    2010-07-01

    When the World Bank publishes a report on climate change, the world takes notice. What are its diagnoses and treatments, and how present is anthropology in this analysis? The 2010 World Development Report on climate change provides few new diagnostic tools and no clear Bank policy revisions. It often fails to harmonize neoliberal development rhetoric with new climate-change imperatives. It nods to the importance of social context and risk perception yet refers primarily to behavioral economics and psychological constructs. Although anthropologists are documenting the local effects and human responses to larger-scale, climate-driven processes, our work is absent in the report. To play a role at global scale we would do well to learn more about concepts like nonlinearity and emergence, systems analysis, modeling, and disease dynamics. Our adroitness in developing metaphors and methods for crossing scale will make our efforts more visible and applicable.

  3. Three pioneers of comparative psychology in America, 1843-1890: Lewis H. Morgan, John Bascom, and Joseph LeConte.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Timothy D

    2003-02-01

    Scientific comparative psychology in America dates from the mid-1890s, but there is a body of earlier literature on the topic, written during a period of theistic debates over Darwinian evolution. The anthropologist Lewis H. Morgan rejected instinct as an explanation of animal behavior in 1843 and defended the mental similarities between animals and humans, although he was not an evolutionist. John Bascom's textbook Comparative Psychology (1878) is the earliest American work to use that title, and its theistic approach anticipates some arguments found in much later evolutionary works. Beginning in 1860, the geologist Joseph LeConte, who is well known for defending the compatibility of evolution and religion, wrote several articles in which he outlined a comparative evolutionary approach to psychological problems. However, these writers did not establish a coherent research tradition and were ignored by the "New Psychologists" of the 1880s.

  4. A Mother’s Heart is Weighed Down with Stones: A Phenomenological Approach to the Experience of Transnational Motherhood

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although recent scholarship on transnational mothers has rigorously examined the effect of migration on gender constructs and ideologies, it neglects analysis of the lived experience of separated mothers and children. In privileging the exploration of transnational separations through the single analytical lens of gender, such research reduces the embodied distress of mothers and children to mere “gender false consciousness.” This paper calls upon anthropologists to redress this oversight by undertaking a phenomenological analysis of the lived experience of transnational motherhood. Eschewing an analysis of mothers and children as isolated social roles, I show that the suffering of mothers and children is profoundly relational. Through analysis of the narratives of undocumented Salvadoran mothers residing in the U.S., I show how the strain of such mothers’ undocumented status is lived and shouldered within the intersubjective space of the family. PMID:19101786

  5. Letting the Air Out: Aire as an Empty Signifier in Oaxacan Understandings of Illness.

    PubMed

    Gross, Toomas

    2016-12-01

    "Air (aire, also aigre) in the body" is a frequent explanation of illness according to the traditional medical beliefs in Mexico. Anthropologists have generally scrutinized aire in the context of other common folk illnesses treated by traditional healers (curanderas). However, drawing on my research in the communities of Northern Oaxaca I suggest that aire occupies a more distinct position in the folk medical cosmology than it has usually been credited with. This distinction rests on the notion's exceptional ambivalence and openness to multiple interpretations. "Air" is recurred to as the cause of illness mainly in situations where every other explanation, either "traditional" or "biomedical," seems to be inadequate. The physical properties of air-its transparency, invisibility, apparent immateriality, near omnipresence, and virtual "nothingness"-render it a suitable explanation of the last resort. Local understandings of what aire "is" are often vague and elusive, and in many respects the term functions in folk medical discourse as an "empty signifier."

  6. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery.

  7. Communicating science: Reflections of an AGU public affairs intern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huth, Tyler

    2012-10-01

    This past summer, I read a biography of the geologist and anthropologist John Wesley Powell. Among his many important accomplishments, Powell was a legendary explorer of the then largely unknown American West, a leader in the founding of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its second director, and the founder of the Cosmos Club in Washington, D. C. He was a student of the Earth from an early age, fought and lost an arm for the Union during the Civil War, advanced to the rank of major, led the first successful expedition down the entirety of the Grand Canyon, and then spent the rest of his life coupling scientific knowledge with public policy.

  8. Becoming Buzz Lightyear and Other Clinical Tales: Indigenizing Disney in a World of Disability

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, anthropologists are investigating the place of mass media in our lives, for we live, as Ortner (1999) notes, in a ‘media-saturated world.’ This paper explores the role of (globalized) children's mass media – with particular emphasis on Disney – and its influence on one particular community of consumers. The community consists of African American children who face serious disabilities and chronic illnesses, as well as the families who care for them. Disney films and characters permeate the lives and imaginations of these children and parenting kin. While the compelling power of Disney can legitimately be construed as a form of global domination, an emphasis on domination and on the consumer as unwitting victim easily underestimates the agency of the audience. PMID:21643552

  9. Is schizophrenia rare if grain is rare?

    PubMed

    Dohan, F C; Harper, E H; Clark, M H; Rodrigue, R B; Zigas, V

    1984-03-01

    If, as hypothesized, neuroactive peptides from grain glutens are the major agents evoking schizophrenia in those with the genotype(s), it should be rare if grain is rare. To test this, we analyzed the results of our clinical examinations (e.g., kuru) and observations of anthropologists on peoples consuming little or no grain. Only two overtly insane chronic schizophrenics were found among over 65,000 examined or closely observed adults in remote regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG, 1950-1967) and Malaita , Solomon Islands (1980-1981), and on Yap , Micronesia (1947-1948). In preneuroleptic Europe over 130 would have been expected. When these peoples became partially westernized and consumed wheat, barley beer, and rice, the prevalence reached European levels. Our findings agree with previous epidemiologic and experimental results indicating that grain glutens are harmful to schizophrenics.

  10. A case study of participatory action research in a public new England middle school: empowerment, constraints and challenges.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Evelyn Newman; Berg, Marlene J; Rodriguez, Chiedza; Morgan, Damion

    2010-09-01

    PAR recognizes teachers and students as co-creators in a learning process that builds self-efficacy essential to long-term educational success. In enabling contexts, PAR projects also allow teachers to critically deconstruct societal power, examine how these dynamics are reproduced in the classroom, and work against the silencing of student voices. This case study describes the process of implementing an inquiry-based PAR model into a formal urban middle school program intended to reduce drop out rates. The anthropologist/researchers employed participant observation, interviews, and review of student work to explore the dynamics, challenges, and constraints confronted during the process. The intervention demonstrated the gap between practice and theory in a middle school environment marked by well-defined hierarchies and roles as well as high-stakes testing.

  11. The epigenome and nature/nurture reunification: a challenge for anthropology.

    PubMed

    Lock, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    Recognition among molecular biologists of variables external to the body that can bring about hereditable changes in gene expression or cellular phenotypes has reignited nature/nurture discussion. These epigenetic findings may well set off a new round of somatic reductionism because research is confined largely to the molecular level. A brief review of the late nineteenth-century formulation of the nature/nurture concept is followed by a discussion of the positions taken by Boas and Kroeber on this matter. I then illustrate how current research into Alzheimer's disease uses a reductionistic approach, despite epigenetic findings in this field that make the shortcomings of reductionism clear. In order to transcend the somatic reductionism associated with epigenetics, drawing on concepts of local biologies and embedded bodies, anthropologists can carry out research in which epigenetic findings are contextualized in the specific historical, socio/political, and environmental realities of lived experience.

  12. Field and laboratory methods in human milk research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth M; Aiello, Marco O; Fujita, Masako; Hinde, Katie; Milligan, Lauren; Quinn, E A

    2013-01-01

    Human milk is a complex and variable fluid of increasing interest to human biologists who study nutrition and health. The collection and analysis of human milk poses many practical and ethical challenges to field workers, who must balance both appropriate methodology with the needs of participating mothers and infants and logistical challenges to collection and analysis. In this review, we address various collection methods, volume measurements, and ethical considerations and make recommendations for field researchers. We also review frequently used methods for the analysis of fat, protein, sugars/lactose, and specific biomarkers in human milk. Finally, we address new technologies in human milk research, the MIRIS Human Milk Analyzer and dried milk spots, which will improve the ability of human biologists and anthropologists to study human milk in field settings.

  13. Troubling objectivity: the promises and pitfalls of training Haitian clinicians in qualitative research methods.H.

    PubMed

    Minn, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Building research capacity is a central component of many contemporary global health programs and partnerships. While medical anthropologists have been conducting qualitative research in resource-poor settings for decades, they are increasingly called on to train "local" clinicians, researchers, and students in qualitative research methods. In this article, I describe the process of teaching introductory courses in qualitative research methods to Haitian clinicians, hospital staff, and medical students, who rarely encounter qualitative research in their training or practice. These trainings allow participants to identify and begin to address challenges related to health services delivery, quality of care, and provider-patient relations. However, they also run the risk of perpetuating colonial legacies of objectification and reinforcing hierarchies of knowledge and knowledge production. As these trainings increase in number and scope, they offer the opportunity to reflect critically on new forms of transnational interventions that aim to reduce health disparities.

  14. Remeasuring man.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science.

  15. Growth retardation and delayed puberty in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Umławska, Wioleta; Prusek-Dudkiewicz, Anna

    2010-03-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common joint disorder in developing children. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis is difficult to diagnose and treat. In some patients, signs and symptoms can be frustratingly inconsistent, contradictory or idiosyncratic. Short stature in patients with JIA is usually due to reduced growth in the lower extremities, and only rarely due to reduced growth in the spinal column. In some studies, children with JIA were found to have infantile body proportions. Puberty is delayed in children with JIA. In children with chronic arthritic disorders, there is a strong correlation between the activity of the disease and the age of puberty. The main goals in reducing growth retardation in children with JIA are promoting timely remission and reducing the duration and dosage of corticosteroid treatment. It is important to regularly monitor physical development. Further improvements to the treatment protocol depend on continued interdisciplinary research involving paediatricians, rheumatologists and clinical anthropologists.

  16. The discursive construction of competence and responsibility in medical collegial talk.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Paul

    2004-01-01

    The paper explores the construction of clinical competence in the spoken discourse of physicians. The analysis is derived from transcribed recordings of physicians' talk in the specialty of Haematology in an American teaching hospital. It is argued that current discussions of 'competence' among medical sociologists and anthropologists are not adequately based in the direct observation and recording of physicians' professional, collegial interactions. It is argued that physicians' constructions of case narratives and presentations inscribes the evaluations of the responsibility and competence of other physicians, through the representation of their agency and character in the course of accounts of cases. The paper thus addresses the naturally occurring use of 'evidence' in a clinical setting, and is an invitation to more naturalistic studies of 'evidence-based medicine'.

  17. "I Don't Know the Words He Uses": Therapeutic Communication among Q'eqchi Maya Healers and Their Patients.

    PubMed

    Waldram, James B

    2015-09-01

    Traditional or indigenous healing is often assumed to involve rich forms of dialogical and symbolic communication between healer and patient that serve to explain its salience and efficacy. An ethnographic study of Q'eqchi Maya healing in Belize suggests, however, that communication in some forms of indigenous healing may also be minimal and peripheral to treatment and more akin to that of biomedicine than so-called traditional medicine. While communication may still involve symbolic, intercorporeal, and other forms of subtle intersubjective connection, anthropologists often overreach in an effort to portray such healing systems in contradistinction to biomedicine. It is argued here that Q'eqchi healing might best be thought of as a form of empirically based restorative medicine in which communication is purely instrumental to the healer's task of diagnosing and eliminating pathology and restoring the health of the patient.

  18. [Matter and spirit: the unconscious in Carl Gustav Carus's psychology (1779-1868)].

    PubMed

    Montiel, L

    1997-01-01

    Carl Gustav Carus, one of the originators of a doctrine centered on the unconscious, is an interesting figure from current viewpoints. The doctrine he espoused was psychological, but in addition, the author sought foundations for his thinking in the biological knowledge of his time. The unconscious that Carus postulated was simultaneously biological, material and psychological in nature. Thus the history of psychism--the history of the soul--was related with the individual's and the species's biological history. From this perspective the unconscious was recognized as an indispensable element of rational thought. This theory, which recalls in many aspects that of C.G. Jung, made possible the medical study of psychic life and the revaluation of unconscious factors of psychism which were usually denigrated by modern anthropologists and moralists.

  19. [BIOETHICS FACED WITH SOCIOCULTURAL DIVERSITY, THE IMPACT OF THE MEANING GIVEN TO AN UNFINISHED CONCEPT].

    PubMed

    Marin, Ana; Bouffard, Chantal

    2015-10-01

    At a time in which the ethical awareness towards socio-cultural diversity is a necessity, it seems of paramount importance to explore what is meant by bioethics. Without being exhaustive, this paper suggests to scrutinize the key defnitions of bioethics, considering their evolution over time as well as their convergence with anthropology. Starting with its global and its restricted definitions, this article examines certain differences or definitional imprecisions in the light of the concepts used by bioethicists and anthropologists in their conception of bioethics. While this exercise shows the pertinence of the conceptual tools proposed by anthropology to facilitate the cultural diversity's integration into bioethics, it ultimately challenges an anthropological approach that has been unable to mainstream this knowledge into the definition of bioethics.

  20. [Psychosocial aspects of dance and music of the Brazilian carnival].

    PubMed

    Costa e Silva, J A

    1982-05-01

    In this paper the author analyses the rites of Carnival, a sociocultural phenomenon that has aroused the interest of sociologists and anthropologists through out the world. He emphasizes the importance of Carnival as a psychic stabilizing mechanism, responsible for the reduction of psychiatric cases observed during this period. He studies the origins of Brazilian culture, the peculiarities the meeting of the African folklore and mysticism with the European folklore has created, and also the results of such interaction. In tracing the origins of Carnival rites, the author points out the significant role played by the dynamic and contagious rhythm of the music, that generates an unrestrained atmosphere in which enthusiastic singing and dancing act as elements of catharsis, liberation, compensation and social integration.

  1. Suicide and the afterlife: popular religion and the standardisation of 'culture' in Japan.

    PubMed

    Picone, Mary

    2012-06-01

    For an overwhelming majority of commentators, including many anthropologists, 'Japanese culture' is still associated with a positive view of suicide. Western-language writings have contributed by feedback loop to perpetuate this stereotype. Besides the local 'samurai ethic', Japanese Buddhism is also said not to prohibit taking one's life. However, the most popular examples of heroic self-sacrifice, from the Edo period to WWII, are fraught with covert contradictions. From ancient times to the present religious practitioners of all sorts have maintained that suicide creates unhappy, resentful spirits who harm the living. This article discusses many examples of a diverse series of narratives, from spirit medium's séances to drama to contemporary films, in which the anguished spirits of suicides are allowed to express themselves directly. After the figures rose alarmingly in the late 1990s various religious organisations have attempted to fight the stigma suffered by bereaved family members and have introduced new interpretations and new rituals.

  2. Stigma, community, ethnography: Joan Ablon's contribution to the anthropology of impairment-disability.

    PubMed

    Shuttleworth, Russell P; Kasnitz, Devva

    2004-06-01

    Joan Ablon has helped establish the anthropology of impairment-disability and significantly contributed to the role of anthropology in disability studies. In this article, we review the development of and situate Ablon's ethnographic research in the anthropology of impairment-disability. We then address various methodological issues in her work including her ethnographic approach, her grounding in action anthropology and her support for the development of the academic study of disability in anthropology and the careers of disabled anthropologists. The next section of the article examines Ablon's use of the notion of stigma, her understanding of community, and her engagement with disability rights. As examples of themes important to disability studies, we present her discussion of the implications of the ideal of the body beautiful, and gender differences in negotiating intimacy for people with physical differences. We close with a discussion of the future of an anthropology of impairment-disability.

  3. Review of corruption in the health sector: theory, methods and interventions.

    PubMed

    Vian, Taryn

    2008-03-01

    There is increasing interest among health policymakers, planners and donors in how corruption affects health care access and outcomes, and what can be done to combat corruption in the health sector. Efforts to explain the risk of abuse of entrusted power for private gain have examined the links between corruption and various aspects of management, financing and governance. Behavioural scientists and anthropologists also point to individual and social characteristics which influence the behaviour of government agents and clients. This article presents a comprehensive framework and a set of methodologies for describing and measuring how opportunities, pressures and rationalizations influence corruption in the health sector. The article discusses implications for intervention, and presents examples of how theory has been applied in research and practice. Challenges of tailoring anti-corruption strategies to particular contexts, and future directions for research, are addressed.

  4. Taking a historical turn: possible points of connection between social pyschology and history.

    PubMed

    Knights, Mark

    2012-12-01

    The article confronts methodological differences between (and among) social psychologists and historians about how far the social psychologist should be interested only in contemporary or very recent history and how far general conclusions can be drawn about human behaviour across time and space. The article suggests that social psychology need not be present-centric and might take different forms of a 'historical turn'. In turn, it is suggested, historians can benefit from approaches developed by social psychologists. Seven possible points of connection with the discipline of history are put forward in the hope of fostering future collaborations. These are: the nature of modernity; collective memory and the uses of the past; political discourse and ideologies; partisanship; the public sphere; stereotypes; and languages and images. Indeed, just as they can encourage closer collaboration between historians and social psychologists, these themes might also open a wider inter-disciplinary discussion with anthropologists, sociologists, literary scholars, art historians and scholars of political discourse.

  5. The transition from quantity to quality: A neglected causal mechanism in accounting for social evolution

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Robert L.

    2000-01-01

    Students of social evolution are concerned not only with the general course it has followed, but also with the mechanisms that have brought it about. One such mechanism comes into play when the quantitative increase in some entity, usually population, reaching a certain threshold, gives rise to a qualitative change in the structure of a society. This mechanism, first recognized by Hegel, was seized on by Marx and Engels. However, neither they nor their current followers among anthropologists have made much use of it in attempting to explain social evolution. But as this paper attempts to show, in those few instances when the mechanism has been invoked, it has heightened our understanding of the process of social evolution. And, it is argued, if the mechanism were more widely applied, further understanding of the course of evolution could be expected to result. PMID:11050189

  6. Identification of severely incinerated human remains: the need for a cooperative approach between forensic specialities. A case report.

    PubMed

    Bassed, Richard

    2003-10-01

    Positive identification of incinerated human remains can be a perplexing problem, especially when there is no genetic material remaining for DNA analysis. This paper illustrates the importance of a multi-disciplinary approach to the identification of such remains, and explores the processes involved in the various effects of heat upon human bone and teeth, and the implications this has for positive identification. A case study is presented to illustrate the various problems encountered and the importance of discovering comprehensive ante-mortem records of the deceased. It is submitted that forensic odontologists and anthropologists be included in the body recovery process, both to maximise the recovery of evidence, and to ensure that all possible avenues for positive identification are explored, so as to avoid the need to rely upon the less robust method of circumstantial identification.

  7. Whole-body 3D scanner and scan data report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addleman, Stephen R.

    1997-03-01

    With the first whole-body 3D scanner now available the next adventure confronting the user is what to do with all of the data. While the system was built for anthropologists, it has created interest among users from a wide variety of fields. Users with applications in the fields of anthropology, costume design, garment design, entertainment, VR and gaming have a need for the data in formats unique to their fields. Data from the scanner is being converted to solid models for art and design and NURBS for computer graphics applications. Motion capture has made scan data move and dance. The scanner has created a need for advanced application software just as other scanners have in the past.

  8. Revisiting Psychological Mechanisms in the Anthropology of Altruism.

    PubMed

    Hackman, Joseph; Munira, Shirajum; Jasmin, Khaleda; Hruschka, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    Anthropologists have long been interested in the reasons humans choose to help some individuals and not others. Early research considered psychological mediators, such as feelings of cohesion or closeness, but more recent work, largely in the tradition of human behavioral ecology, shifted attention away from psychological measures to clearer observables, such as past behavior, genetic relatedness, affinal ties, and geographic proximity. In this paper, we assess the value of reintegrating psychological measures-perceived social closeness-into the anthropological study of altruism. Specifically, analyzing social network data from four communities in rural Bangladesh (N = 516), we show that perceived closeness has a strong independent effect on helping, which cannot be accounted for by other factors. These results illustrate the potential value of reintegrating proximate psychological measures into anthropological studies of human cooperation.

  9. Darwin's apes and "savages".

    PubMed

    Martínez-Contreras, Jorge

    2010-02-01

    Since his visit to Tierra del Fuego in the 1830s, Darwin had been fascinated by the "savages" that succeeded in surviving on such a "broken beach", and because they were certainly similar in behaviour to our ancestors. However, he was also fascinated by baboons' behaviour, according to Brehm's accounts: hamadryas baboons showed a strong altruism to the point of risking their own lives in order to save their infants from attack by dogs. In 1871, he mentions he would rather have descended from brave baboons than from "savages", considered egoistic. We study the two sources of these ideas and try to show how Darwin's comparative reflections on apes and "savages" made him the first evolutionist anthropologist.

  10. A multidisciplinary view on cultural primatology: behavioral innovations and traditions in Japanese macaques.

    PubMed

    Leca, Jean-Baptiste; Gunst, Noëlle; Pelletier, Amanda N; Vasey, Paul L; Nahallage, Charmalie A D; Watanabe, Kunio; Huffman, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    Cultural primatology (i.e., the study of behavioral traditions in nonhuman primates as a window into the evolution of human cultural capacities) was founded in Japan by Kinji Imanishi in the early 1950s. This relatively new research area straddles different disciplines and now benefits from collaborations between Japanese and Western primatologists. In this paper, we return to the cradle of cultural primatology by revisiting our original articles on behavioral innovations and traditions in Japanese macaques. For the past 35 years, our international team of biologists, psychologists and anthropologists from Japan, France, Sri Lanka, the USA and Canada, has been taking an integrative approach to addressing the influence of environmental, sociodemographic, developmental, cognitive and behavioral constraints on the appearance, diffusion, and maintenance of behavioral traditions in Macaca fuscata across various domains; namely, feeding innovation, tool use, object play, and non-conceptive sex.

  11. Automated classification of female facial beauty by image analysis and supervised learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunes, Hatice; Piccardi, Massimo; Jan, Tony

    2004-01-01

    The fact that perception of facial beauty may be a universal concept has long been debated amongst psychologists and anthropologists. In this paper, we performed experiments to evaluate the extent of beauty universality by asking a number of diverse human referees to grade a same collection of female facial images. Results obtained show that the different individuals gave similar votes, thus well supporting the concept of beauty universality. We then trained an automated classifier using the human votes as the ground truth and used it to classify an independent test set of facial images. The high accuracy achieved proves that this classifier can be used as a general, automated tool for objective classification of female facial beauty. Potential applications exist in the entertainment industry and plastic surgery.

  12. Anthropology of health in Brazil: a border discourse.

    PubMed

    Langdon, Esther Jean; Follér, Maj-Lis

    2012-01-01

    This article traces the development of anthropological research on health in Brazil in light of discussions on modernity/coloniality and world anthropologies. Originating in the 1970s, stimulated by external and internal pressures for scientific production and along with the expansion of graduate programs, a network of anthropologists has consolidated and multiplied in Brazil. We describe the development of research groups, meetings, and publications in order to characterize Brazilian anthropology of health as a research program that distinguishes itself from North Atlantic medical anthropology. We examine the visibility and circulation of references in academic publications to explore the participation of Brazilians in the global discourse and, more specifically, in the North-South dialogue. From a comparative perspective, we argue that anthropological investigations of health reflect a perspective and ethos distinctive to Brazil and its historical and political processes.

  13. "Stress knocks hard on your immune system": asthma and the discourse on stress.

    PubMed

    Pohlman, Betsy; Becker, Gay

    2006-01-01

    Stress has been described by anthropologists and other scholars as a problematic concept, a discourse, a modern metaphor, a collective representation, and a cultural resource. The vast array of academic work in the arena of stress research belies the historical reality of stress as an object of inquiry; rather, stress is presented as new, the story of its emergence intermingled with processes of industrialization, individualism, and perceptions of modern life. This article traces the uses to which the concept of stress is put in the illness narratives of persons with asthma. It argues that multiple invocations of stress not only make visible the workings of personal responsibility and individualism regarding chronic illness management in the contemporary United States but also gesture toward the social relations of sickness that lie beyond individual control.

  14. Neuroanthropology: Evolution and Emotional Embodiment

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Benjamin C.; Garcia, Justin R.

    2009-01-01

    The Decade of the Mind is a proposal for a research initiative focused on four areas of neuroscience, including mental health, high-level cognitive function, education, and computational applications. Organizing efforts to date have primarily included cognitive scientists, computer scientists, and engineers, as well as physicians. At the same time anthropologists have started to explore the implications of neuroscience for understanding culture. Here we suggest that evolutionary neuroscience can be used to bridge knowledge obtained by social scientists with that obtained in the neurosciences for a more complete appreciation of the mind. We consider such a perspective as neuroanthropology. We use embodiment, an anthropological concept that has been substantiated by recent findings in neuroscience, to illustrate an integrative biocultural approach within neuroanthropology and suggest future possible directions for research. PMID:20305748

  15. Magda Mateus Cardenas, director of Centro Amauta, Cusco, Peru: interview.

    PubMed

    Sweetman, C

    1997-02-01

    Magda Mateus Cardenas, trained as an anthropologist, is currently director of Centro Amauta, a feminist organization in Peru that addresses issues of gender, class, and culture. In this interview, Mateus Cardenas describes her long involvement with development organizations and grass-roots campaigns to improve women's status. She notes that, although many organizations have adopted a gender perspective, few comprehend its highly political, transformational aspects. Women's rights tend to be viewed by development agencies as just one more factor to be incorporated into development projects rather than as a perspective that changes views of development itself. A genuine gender perspective entails changes in the organizational, social, and political aspects of the themes of autonomy and empowerment, with adaptations of content and methods to local conditions. A precondition to women's emancipation is access to and control of financial and economic resources. This, in turn, requires training in technical skills and access to the marketplace on more competitive terms.

  16. Gendering the Gift of Life: Family Politics and Kidney Donation in Egypt and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Crowley-Matoka, Megan; Hamdy, Sherine F

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we demonstrate how living kidney donation is a particularly gendered experience. We draw on anthropologists' contributions to understanding the globalization of reproductive technologies to argue that kidney donation similarly endangers and preserves fertility, thereby unsettling and reifying gendered familial labor. Based on fieldwork in two ethnographic sites--Egypt and Mexico--we examine how kidney donation is figured as a form of social reproduction. In both settings, kidney recipients rely almost exclusively on organs from living donors. We focus on how particular gender ideologies--as evident, for example, in the trope of the "self-sacrificing mother"--can serve as a cultural technology to generate donations in an otherwise organ-scarce medical setting. Alternatively, transplantation can disrupt gender norms and reproductive viability. In demonstrating the pervasiveness of gendered tropes in the realm of transplantation, we unsettle assumptions about the "family" as the locus of pure, altruistic donation.

  17. A Chilling Example? Uruguay, Philip Morris International, and WHO's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Russell, Andrew; Wainwright, Megan; Mamudu, Hadii

    2015-06-01

    The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) is the first international public health treaty to address the global spread of tobacco products. Ethnographic research at the fourth meeting of the FCTC's Conference of the Parties in Uruguay highlights the role of the FCTC in recalibrating the relationship between international trade and investment agreements and those of global public health. Specifically, we chart the origins and development of the Punta del Este Declaration, tabled by Uruguay at the conference, to counter a legal request by Philip Morris International, the world's largest tobacco transnational, for arbitration by the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes over Uruguay's alleged violations of several international trade and investment treaties. We argue that medical anthropologists should give greater consideration to global health governance and diplomacy as a potential counterweight to the 'politics of resignation' associated with corporate capitalism.

  18. Race and History: Comments from an Epistemological Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The historiography of race is usually framed by two discontinuities: The invention of race by European naturalists and anthropologists, marked by Carl Linnaeus’s Systema naturae (1735); and the demise of racial typologies after WWII in favor of population-based studies of human diversity. This framing serves a similar function as the quotation marks that almost invariably surround the term. “Race” is placed outside of rational discourse as a residue of outdated essentialist and hierarchical thinking. I will throw doubt on this underlying assumption, not in order to re-legitimate race, but in order to understand better why race has been, and continues to be, such a politically powerful and explosive concept. PMID:25684833

  19. Reconciling evidence-based practice and cultural competence in mental health services: introduction to a special issue.

    PubMed

    Gone, Joseph P

    2015-04-01

    The calls for evidence-based practice (EBP) and cultural competence (CC) represent two increasingly influential mandates within the mental health professions. Advocates of EBP seek to standardize clinical practice by ensuring that only treatment techniques that have demonstrated therapeutic outcomes under scientifically controlled conditions would be adopted and promoted in mental health services. Advocates of CC seek to diversify clinical practice by ensuring that treatment approaches are designed and refined for a multicultural clientele that reflects a wide variety of psychological orientations and life experiences. As these two powerful mandates collide, the fundamental challenge becomes how to accommodate substantive cultural divergences in psychosocial experience using narrowly prescriptive clinical practices and approaches, without trivializing either professional knowledge or cultural difference. In this Introduction to a special issue of Transcultural Psychiatry, the virtue of an interdisciplinary conversation between and among anthropologists, psychologists, psychiatrists, and social work researchers in addressing these tensions is extolled.

  20. Lessons from Srebrenica: the contributions and limitations of physical anthropology in identifying victims of war crimes.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra

    2003-07-01

    In July 1995, the town of Srebrenica fell to Bosnian-Serb forces, leaving more than 7000 Muslim men missing and presumed dead. Anthropologists participating in the identification process were faced with a unique problem: the victims appeared identical. All were adult males of a single ethnic group. Decomposition as well as the absence of antemortem (AM) medical and dental records confounded identification. As of December 1999, only 63 men had been positively identified using DNA, personal effects, and identification papers. Are current anthropological methods of sex, age, and stature estimation and AM trauma assessment sufficiently accurate to differentiate the remaining victims and aid in their identification? Comparisons of relative-reported AM information and postmortem examination records for 59 of the 63 identified individuals indicated that while all individuals were sexed correctly, only 42.4% were accurately aged and 29.4% had a stature estimate that included their reported height.

  1. Percentage of body recovered and its effect on identification rates and cause and manner of death determination.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra A; Potter, Wendy E

    2007-05-01

    Anthropologists frequently encounter cases in which only partial human remains are recovered. This study reports how the percentage of the body recovered affects identification (ID) rates and cause and manner of death determination. A total of 773 cases involving anthropology consults were drawn from the New Mexico medical examiner's office (1974-2006). Results indicate a significant correlation between body percent recovered and ID rates, which ranged from 89% for complete bodies to 56% when less than half the body was present. Similar patterns were evident in cause/manner determination, which were the highest (83% and 79%, respectively) in complete bodies but declined to 40% when less than half the body was found. The absence of a skull also negatively impacted ID and ruling rates. Findings are compared with general autopsy ID rates (94-96%) and cause/manner determination rates (96-99%) as well as prior published rates for individual casework and mass death events.

  2. Death, taxes, public opinion, and the Midas touch of Mary Tyler Moore: accounting for promises by politicians to help avert and control diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rock, Melanie

    2003-06-01

    Anthropologists have begun to publish ethnographic accounts of policy-making, but few have studied medical or health matters, despite broad acceptance in anthropology that "biopower" permeates contemporary societies. This article presents some findings from an ethnographic study of how diabetes gained recognition as a pressing public health problem in Canada. It underlines the importance of statistics for constituting power within and across nation states. Statistics imbricate people and things distributed across vast distances, but they still need to be generated and invoked by individuals to engender effects--as illustrated in this article by the contributions of researchers, aboriginal leaders, and an American actress, Mary Tyler Moore--in this case, the development of Canadian government policies justified in the name of averting and controlling diabetes. To make sense of these findings, subtle differences between two concepts coined by Michel Foucault, "biopower" and "governmentality," seem significant.

  3. Social behavior as discriminative stimulus and consequence in social anthropology

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Bernard

    1992-01-01

    A behavior analysis is provided for three topics in social anthropology. Food, social relations, and ritual behaviors can enter into contingencies both as functional consequences and as discriminative stimuli for the reinforcement of behaviors through generalized social consequences. Many “symbolic” behaviors, which some social anthropologists believe go beyond an individual material basis, are analyzed as the latter. It is shown how the development of self-regulation to bridge remote consequences can undermine a group's generalized social control. It is also shown that rituals and taboos can be utilized to maintain generalized social compliance, which in turn can maintain both the community's verbal behavior and other group behaviors that bridge indirect and remote consequences. PMID:22478112

  4. From victim to heroine: children's stories revisited.

    PubMed

    Turkel, Ann Ruth

    2002-01-01

    The need to escape reality and the taste for adventure with the unknown fills a universal need for both adults and children. Fairy tales have a powerful grip on the imagination because they are homespun versions of myths and have passionate intensity without epic grandeur. The happy ending of fairy tales reflects gender stereotyping because the heroine usually does very little except sit, wish, and wait for marriage. She has no control over her destiny and no active involvement in selecting or planning her future. These heroines are really passive victims. Sexism was once rampant in children's books. The Oz books, with their independent, courageous, and active heroine were way ahead of their time. The advent of women's liberation has led to a reappraisal of the female in folk literature. Anthropologists have now discovered stories of admirable women who were strong characters in their own epic dramas.

  5. What's in the 'treatment gap'? Ethnographic perspectives on addiction and global mental health from China, Russia, and the United States.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, Nicholas; Garriott, William; Raikhel, Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Recent years have seen the emergence of a 'global mental health' agenda, focused on providing evidence-based interventions for mental illnesses in low- and middle-income countries. Anthropologists and cultural psychiatrists have engaged in vigorous debates about the appropriateness of this agenda. In this article, we reflect on these debates, drawing on ethnographic fieldwork on the management of substance use disorders in China, Russia, and the United States. We argue that the logic of 'treatment gaps,' which guides much research and intervention under the rubric of global mental health, partially obscures the complex assemblages of institutions, therapeutics, knowledges, and actors framing and managing addiction (as well as other mental health issues) in any particular setting.

  6. A Study on Generic Representation of Skeletal Remains Replication of Prehistoric Burial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, C.-W.; Chiu, H.-L.; Chang, S.-K.

    2015-08-01

    Generic representation of skeletal remains from burials consists of three dimensions which include physical anthropologists, replication technicians, and promotional educators. For the reason that archaeological excavation is irreversible and disruptive, detail documentation and replication technologies are surely needed for many purposes. Unearthed bones during the process of 3D digital scanning need to go through reverse procedure, 3D scanning, digital model superimposition, rapid prototyping, mould making, and the integrated errors generated from the presentation of colours and textures are important issues for the presentation of replicate skeleton remains among professional decisions conducted by physical anthropologists, subjective determination of makers, and the expectations of viewers. This study presents several cases and examines current issues on display and replication technologies for human skeletal remains of prehistoric burials. This study documented detail colour changes of human skeleton over time for the reference of reproduction. The tolerance errors of quantification and required technical qualification is acquired according to the precision of 3D scanning, the specification requirement of rapid prototyping machine, and the mould making process should following the professional requirement for physical anthropological study. Additionally, the colorimeter is adopted to record and analyse the "colour change" of the human skeletal remains from wet to dry condition. Then, the "colure change" is used to evaluate the "real" surface texture and colour presentation of human skeletal remains, and to limit the artistic presentation among the human skeletal remains reproduction. The"Lingdao man No.1", is a well preserved burial of early Neolithic period (8300 B.P.) excavated from Liangdao-Daowei site, Matsu, Taiwan , as the replicating object for this study. In this study, we examined the reproduction procedures step by step for ensuring the surface

  7. Bone shaft bending strength index is unaffected by exercise and unloading in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Ian J; Gupta, Shikha; Sankaran, Jeyantt; Demes, Brigitte; Judex, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Anthropologists frequently use the shaft bending strength index to infer the physical activity levels of humans living in the past from their lower limb bone remains. This index is typically calculated as the ratio of bone shaft second moments of area about orthogonal principal axes (i.e. Imax/Imin). Individuals with high Imax/Imin values are inferred to have been very active, whereas individuals with low values are inferred to have been more sedentary. However, there is little direct evidence that activity has a causal and predictable effect on the shaft bending strength index. Here, we report the results of two experiments that were designed to test the model within which anthropologists commonly interpret the shaft bending strength index. In the first experiment, mice were treated daily with treadmill exercise for 1 month to simulate a high-activity lifestyle. In the second experiment, in an attempt to simulate a low-activity lifestyle, functional weight-bearing was removed from the hindlimbs of mice for 1 month. Femoral mid-shaft structure was determined with μCT. We found that while exercise resulted in significant enhancement of Imax and Imin compared with controls, it failed to significantly increase the Imax/Imin index. Similarly, stunted bone growth caused by unloading resulted in significantly diminished Imax and Imin compared with controls, but low activity did not lead to significantly decreased Imax/Imin compared with normal activity. Together, these results suggest that caution is required when the bone shaft bending strength index is used to reconstruct the activity levels of past humans. PMID:25645569

  8. New perspectives in forensic anthropology.

    PubMed

    Dirkmaat, Dennis C; Cabo, Luis L; Ousley, Stephen D; Symes, Steven A

    2008-01-01

    A critical review of the conceptual and practical evolution of forensic anthropology during the last two decades serves to identify two key external factors and four tightly inter-related internal methodological advances that have significantly affected the discipline. These key developments have not only altered the current practice of forensic anthropology, but also its goals, objectives, scope, and definition. The development of DNA analysis techniques served to undermine the classic role of forensic anthropology as a field almost exclusively focused on victim identification. The introduction of the Daubert criteria in the courtroom presentation of scientific testimony accompanied the development of new human comparative samples and tools for data analysis and sharing, resulting in a vastly enhanced role for quantitative methods in human skeletal analysis. Additionally, new questions asked of forensic anthropologists, beyond identity, required sound scientific bases and expanded the scope of the field. This environment favored the incipient development of the interrelated fields of forensic taphonomy, forensic archaeology, and forensic trauma analysis, fields concerned with the reconstruction of events surrounding death. Far from representing the mere addition of new methodological techniques, these disciplines (especially, forensic taphonomy) provide forensic anthropology with a new conceptual framework, which is broader, deeper, and more solidly entrenched in the natural sciences. It is argued that this new framework represents a true paradigm shift, as it modifies not only the way in which classic forensic anthropological questions are answered, but also the goals and tasks of forensic anthropologists, and their perception of what can be considered a legitimate question or problem to be answered within the field.

  9. Race, populations, and genomics: Africa as laboratory.

    PubMed

    Braun, Lundy; Hammonds, Evelynn

    2008-11-01

    Much of the recent debate over race, genetics, and health has focused on the extent to which typological notions of race have biological meaning. Less attention, however, has been paid to the assumptions about the nature of "populations" that both inform contemporary biological and medical research and that underlie the concept of race. Focusing specifically on Africa in the 1930s and 1940s, this paper explores the history of how fluid societies were transformed into bounded units amenable to scientific analysis. In the so-called "Golden Age of Ethnography," university-trained social anthropologists, primarily from Britain and South Africa, took to the field to systematically study, organize, and order the world's diverse peoples. Intent on creating a scientific methodology of neutral observation, they replaced amateur travelers, traders, colonial administrators, and missionaries as authoritative knowledge producers about the customs, beliefs, and languages of indigenous peoples. At the same time, linguists were engaged in unifying African languages and mapping language onto primordial "tribal" territories. We argue that the notion of populations or "tribes" as discrete units suitable for scientific sampling and classification emerged in the 1930s and 1940s with the ethnographic turn in social anthropology and the professionalization and institutionalization of linguistics in Western and South African universities. Once named and entered into international atlases and databases by anthropologists in the U.S., the existence of populations as bounded entities became self-evident, thus setting the stage for their use in large-scale population genetic studies and the contemporary reinvigoration of broad claims of difference based on population identification.

  10. The manifestation of cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion in bone tissue and its identification in human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Katie

    2013-09-10

    Cocaine-induced midline destructive lesion (CIMDL) is a condition that may arise in response to chronic insufflation ("snorting") of cocaine. It is clinically diagnosed when the nasal septum, lateral nasal walls, and/or hard palate show signs of destruction in association with cocaine use. Although its true incidence is unknown, CIMDL is not an uncommon clinical finding amongst intranasal cocaine abusers and is likely to be encountered by forensic anthropologists and medical examiners working worldwide. Given the preponderance of drug abusers amongst the subjects of forensic casework, the ability to diagnose CIMDL in dry bone may provide crucial insight into an investigation and even help confirm an individual identification. This paper aims to make practicing forensic anthropologists aware of CIMDL. Through the analysis of existing clinical literature, patient CT scans, and histology sections, it works toward the establishment of formal diagnostic criteria for identifying CIMDL in human skeletal remains. Lytic destruction regularly involves the vomer and frequently extends to the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid, the palatal process of the maxillae or the palatine bones, and the inferior nasal conchae. The middle nasal conchae, medial walls of the maxillary sinuses, ethmoid sinuses, and cribriform plate are often damaged. Destruction may also implicate the superior nasal conchae, the orbit, and the sphenoid. Bones affected by CIMDL may contain necrotic lesions or may be absent entirely. Lesions show minimal, if any, signs of repair. The author proposes that this lack of new bone formation may be mediated by potentially elevated leptin levels in cocaine abusers and CIMDL patients and may be the key to differentiating CIMDL from other lytic processes of the midface.

  11. Bone shaft bending strength index is unaffected by exercise and unloading in mice.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Ian J; Gupta, Shikha; Sankaran, Jeyantt; Demes, Brigitte; Judex, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    Anthropologists frequently use the shaft bending strength index to infer the physical activity levels of humans living in the past from their lower limb bone remains. This index is typically calculated as the ratio of bone shaft second moments of area about orthogonal principal axes (i.e. I(max)/I(min)). Individuals with high I(max)/I(min) values are inferred to have been very active, whereas individuals with low values are inferred to have been more sedentary. However, there is little direct evidence that activity has a causal and predictable effect on the shaft bending strength index. Here, we report the results of two experiments that were designed to test the model within which anthropologists commonly interpret the shaft bending strength index. In the first experiment, mice were treated daily with treadmill exercise for 1 month to simulate a high-activity lifestyle. In the second experiment, in an attempt to simulate a low-activity lifestyle, functional weight-bearing was removed from the hindlimbs of mice for 1 month. Femoral mid-shaft structure was determined with μCT. We found that while exercise resulted in significant enhancement of I(max) and I(min) compared with controls, it failed to significantly increase the I(max)/I(min)index. Similarly, stunted bone growth caused by unloading resulted in significantly diminished I(max) and I(min) compared with controls, but low activity did not lead to significantly decreased I(max)/I(min)compared with normal activity. Together, these results suggest that caution is required when the bone shaft bending strength index is used to reconstruct the activity levels of past humans.

  12. Surface analysis of stone and bone tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stemp, W. James; Watson, Adam S.; Evans, Adrian A.

    2016-03-01

    Microwear (use-wear) analysis is a powerful method for identifying tool use that archaeologists and anthropologists employ to determine the activities undertaken by both humans and their hominin ancestors. Knowledge of tool use allows for more accurate and detailed reconstructions of past behavior, particularly in relation to subsistence practices, economic activities, conflict and ritual. It can also be used to document changes in these activities over time, in different locations, and by different members of society, in terms of gender and status, for example. Both stone and bone tools have been analyzed using a variety of techniques that focus on the observation, documentation and interpretation of wear traces. Traditionally, microwear analysis relied on the qualitative assessment of wear features using microscopes and often included comparisons between replicated tools used experimentally and the recovered artifacts, as well as functional analogies dependent upon modern implements and those used by indigenous peoples from various places around the world. Determination of tool use has also relied on the recovery and analysis of both organic and inorganic residues of past worked materials that survived in and on artifact surfaces. To determine tool use and better understand the mechanics of wear formation, particularly on stone and bone, archaeologists and anthropologists have increasingly turned to surface metrology and tribology to assist them in their research. This paper provides a history of the development of traditional microwear analysis in archaeology and anthropology and also explores the introduction and adoption of more modern methods and technologies for documenting and identifying wear on stone and bone tools, specifically those developed for the engineering sciences to study surface structures on micro- and nanoscales. The current state of microwear analysis is discussed as are the future directions in the study of microwear on stone and bone tools.

  13. Learning how to ask in ethnography and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Krause, Inga-Britt

    2003-01-01

    To social anthropologists an affinity with psychotherapy lies in the view that this discipline is a social science. Increasingly, social anthropologists offer comments and analyse their own data using psychotherapeutic or psychoanalytic frames of reference. At the same time, a methodological crisis has developed in ethnography. This is a crisis of how to carry out an ethnographic enquiry in a disciplined manner without either claiming to be a detached observer on the one hand or explaining away the subjective experiences of informants or clients with too much interpretation on the other. The aim of this paper is to address this crisis and to suggest ways in which ethnographers can use techniques from one type of psychotherapy, namely systemic or family psychotherapy in order to access social and psychological aspects of the lives of their informants. The paper achieves this by describing systemic psychotherapy and its theoretical foundations in the ethnographic work of Gregory Bateson. It then reviews the mainly medical anthropology literature in which the connection between psychotherapy and anthro pology has been discussed. While this literature has suggested a narrative and a performative approach to ethnographic data and, therefore, to informants, it has not extended the analytic frame to include the ethnographer him/herself within these frames. Clinical case material is presented to demonstrate how such an inclusion is central to the practice of systemic psychotherapy and to show that this type of material is ethnographic. The techniques of double description, hypothesising and circular questioning are described and demonstrated, and it is argued that adapting these to an ethnographic enquiry will enhance the validity of the anthropological project.

  14. Macromorphoscopic trait expression in a cranial sample from Medellín, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Monsalve, Timisay; Hefner, Joseph T

    2016-09-01

    Adjusting existing methods of human identification developed by forensic anthropologists in the United States for use with populations not included in the original development of an analytical method requires data collection using contemporary osteological collections from those populations, and an assessment of the within-group variation present. The primary purpose of this research is to document cranial macromorphoscopic trait variation using methods previously developed in the United States in a sample of 244 individuals from Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. All individuals are of known age, sex, and birth region. The complex population and demographic history of Colombia makes ancestry assessment particularly difficult in that country. To that end, we explore inter-regional variation throughout Antioquia using birthplace to determine whether forensic anthropologists can provide finer levels of detail beyond identifying an unknown set of human remains as 'Colombian' or, more generally, Hispanic. State and local levels of identification resulting from the varied population histories of each state within Antioquia permit finer resolution, but only to a degree of certainty. Artificial neural networks (aNN) correctly classified only 18.6% of a validation sample, following modest classification accuracies of test/tuning (11.6%) and training (82.8%) samples to original birthplace. As with most neural networks, overfitting is an issue with these analyses. To remedy this overfitting and to document the applicability of aNNs to the assessment of ancestry in Colombia, we pooled the sample of Colombian data and compared that to modern American samples. In those analyses, the best aNN model correctly classified 48.4% (validation) of the sample. Given these results, finer levels of analysis in Colombia are not yet possible using only macromorphoscopic trait data.

  15. The Œdipus complex, crystallizer of the debate between psychoanalysis and anthropology.

    PubMed

    Smadja, Eric

    2011-08-01

    The way that anthropologists understand the Oedipus complex, in particular, is a good example of how they understand psychoanalysis in general. Indeed, it has crystallized a set of reactions marked by ignorance, misunderstanding, distortion and screening out and at the same time has provoked suspicion among anthropologists as to psychoanalysis, according to the preconceptions of the various schools of thought and authors implied, and this from the very first contacts up to nowadays. In what way did the psychoanalysts contribute to this and what representation did they, in turn, elaborate of anthropology? The purpose of this paper is to expose the epistemological and historical conditions of the emergence of this debate, and then to develop it by following chronology up to the 1950s and 1960s, while differentiating three major cultural areas, Great Britain, the USA and France, in order to get a clearer picture. From that point on, we will try to diversify our inquiry and to formulate some interpretative hypotheses. In particular, we think that a traumatic event may have inaugurated and organized the history of the relationship between the two disciplines, producing a situation of acculturation with multiple impacts, if we identify them with two cultures coming into contact: what is at stake here is Totem and Taboo in which Freud carries through the first major psychoanalytical approach of the interpretation of ethnographic facts, that leads him to transplant the universality of the Oedipus complex to the very root of the first social institutions and to pinpoint the presence of unconscious processes in their genesis.

  16. Major results of the MAARBLE project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daglis, Ioannis A.; Bourdarie, Sebastien; Horne, Richard B.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Mann, Ian R.; Santolik, Ondrej; Turner, Drew L.; Balasis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Anastasiadis, Vassilis Angelopoulos, David Barona, Eleni Chatzichristou, Stavros Dimitrakoudis, Marina Georgiou, Omiros Giannakis, Sarah Glauert, Benjamin Grison, Zuzana Hrbackova, Andy Kale, Christos Katsavrias, Tobias Kersten, Ivana Kolmasova, Didier Lazaro, Eva Macusova, Vincent Maget, Meghan Mella, Nigel Meredith, Fiori-Anastasia Metallinou, David Milling, Louis Ozeke, Constantinos Papadimitriou, George Ropokis, Ingmar Sandberg, Maria Usanova, Iannis Dandouras, David Sibeck, Eftyhia Zesta.

  17. Representatives of countries participating in the International Space Station toured KSC's Space Sta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    and Shuttle Upgrades; Steve Francois, director, International Space Station and Shuttle Processing; Roy Tharpe, Boeing launch site manager; Jon Cowart, ISS elements manager; John Schumacher, NASA associate administrator for external relations; Didier Kechemair, space advistor to the French minister for education, research, and technology; Yoshinori Yoshimura, NASDA; and Loren Shriver, KSC deputy director for launch and payload processing. Node 1 of the ISS is in the background.

  18. PREFACE: Nanosafe 2012: International Conferences on Safe Production and Use of Nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tardif, François

    2013-04-01

    Welcome from the organizers The rapidly developing field of nanotechnology opens up many exciting opportunities and benefits for new materials with significantly improved properties as well as some revolutionary applications in the fields of energy, environment, medicine, etc. These new materials potentially pave the way to considerable innovations in many industries of the 21st century although associated risks must be perfectly under control for workers, consumers and the environment. So, one can easily understand why Nanosafety is now considered as a specific new scientific area, gaining in importance and maturity every day. Following the successful outcome of the two past international conferences on the safe production and use of nanomaterials: Nanosafe 2008 and 2010, the organizing committee has the pleasure of welcoming again to Grenoble some of the most famous specialists of the field in the world. In addition to the standard issues addressed in previous nanosafe conferences such as Toxicology, Eco-toxicology, Expology, Detection, Life Cycle Analysis, Regulation and Standardization, new topics of great interest will be dealt with this year, concerning Governance and practical Risk Management for OSH experts and Societal issues. In order to enhance the exchanges and conviviality three debates werw organized around Nano Governance, Toxicology and Ethics. We hope that you will appreciate this new Nanosafe edition like the previous ones. This is your Nanosafe conference, please enjoy. The Nanosafe conference organisers François Tardif and Frédéric Shuster Management Vanessa Gaultier Francois TardifFrederic ShusterVanessa Gaultier François TardifFrédéric Shuster Vanessa Gaultier Local Organizing Committee Vanessa GAULTIER (CEA) François TARDIF (CEA) Dominique BAGUET (CEA) Frédédric SHUSTER (CEA) Yves SICARD (CEA) Catherine DURAND (CEA) Didier MOLKO (MINATEC) International Scientific Committee Chair: Frédéric SCHUSTER (CEA, FR) François TARDIF (CEA

  19. Mortality and morbidity in the city of Bern, Switzerland, 1805-1815 with special emphasis on infant, child and maternal deaths.

    PubMed

    Rüttimann, D; Loesch, S

    2012-02-01

    childbed fever in the early 1800s was low. Bern's data indicate that the extent of deaths related to childbirth in this period is overrated. This research has an explicit interdisciplinary value for various fields including both the humanities and natural sciences, since information reported here represents the complete age and sex structure of a deceased population. Physical anthropologists can use these data as a true reference group for their palaeodemographic studies of preindustrial Central Europe of the late 18th and early 19th century. It is a call to both historians and anthropologists to use our resources to a better effect through combination of methods and exchange of knowledge.

  20. Forensic anthropology in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Işcan, M Y; Olivera, H E

    2000-03-13

    Forensic anthropology has been one of the fastest growing medico-legal disciplines both in its contribution to the practical needs of the legal system and research accomplishments. New anthropological standards were developed to apply to a specific population of a region. The purpose of this paper is to analyze a large sample of anthropological forensic cases and to review pertinent literature that deals with anthropological standards developed for the population of the continent of Central and South America. Using Uruguay as an example, there was not a single office or anthropologist assigned to analyze human skeletal remains in Uruguay. In 1991 the Laboratorio de Antropología Forense at the Morgue Judicial of Montevideo was created. A total of 189 forensic anthropological cases (276 individuals) were analyzed since this date. Twenty six percent of cases involving human remains were positively identified. The majority came from the Departamento de Montevideo, the largest population district of the country. Most of the cases fell into the 60 to 69 years old age range (35%). Females represented 32% of the total. Since the establishment of the laboratory, the number of forensic cases increased considerably from 20 in 1991 to 40 in 1997. The case studies were accompanied with skull-photo superimposition and facial reconstruction when no other evidence for positive identification was available. This service provided by the laboratory was quickly known to coroners, law enforcement agencies, and other legal authorities and thus utilized not only in Uruguay but also in several other countries in the continent. Because of the obvious need for an anthropologist, there are now university programs to provide forensic anthropological education. Yet, research has lagged behind considerably. Deficiencies are obvious in basic osteological standards of estimating age, calculating stature, determining sex and assessing race that can be applied to populations of the continent

  1. Jung and Lévy-Bruhl.

    PubMed

    Segal, Robert A

    2007-11-01

    For his knowledge of 'primitive' peoples, C. G. Jung relied on the work of Lucien Lévy-Bruhl (1857-1939), a French philosopher who in mid-career became an armchair anthropologist. In a series of books from 1910 on, Lévy-Bruhl asserted that 'primitive' peoples had been misunderstood by modern Westerners. Rather than thinking like moderns, just less rigorously, 'primitives' harbour a mentality of their own. 'Primitive' thinking is both 'mystical' and 'prelogical'. By 'mystical', Lévy-Bruhl meant that 'primitive' peoples experience the world as identical with themselves. Their relationship to the world, including to fellow human beings, is that of participation mystique. By 'prelogical', Lévy-Bruhl meant that 'primitive' thinking is indifferent to contradictions. 'Primitive' peoples deem all things identical with one another yet somehow still distinct. A human is at once a tree and still a human being. Jung accepted unquestioningly Lévy-Bruhl's depiction of the 'primitive' mind, even when Jung, unlike Lévy-Bruhl, journeyed to the field to see 'primitive' peoples firsthand. But Jung altered Lévy-Bruhl's conception of 'primitive' mentality in three key ways. First, he psychologized it. Whereas for Lévy-Bruhl 'primitive' thinking is to be explained sociologically, for Jung it is to be explained psychologically: 'primitive' peoples think as they do because they live in a state of unconsciousness. Second, Jung universalized 'primitive' mentality. Whereas for Lévy-Bruhl 'primitive' thinking is ever more being replaced by modern thinking, for Jung 'primitive' thinking is the initial psychological state of all human beings. Third, Jung appreciated 'primitive' thinking. Whereas for Lévy-Bruhl 'primitive' thinking is false, for Jung it is true--once it is recognized as an expression not of how the world but of how the unconscious works. I consider, along with the criticisms of Lévy-Bruhl's conception of 'primitive' thinking by his fellow anthropologists and

  2. Teaching in hunter–gatherer infancy

    PubMed Central

    Hewlett, Barry S.; Roulette, Casey J.

    2016-01-01

    A debate exists as to whether teaching is part of human nature and central to understanding culture or whether it is a recent invention of Western, Educated, Industrial, Rich, Democratic cultures. Some social–cultural anthropologists and cultural psychologists indicate teaching is rare in small-scale cultures while cognitive psychologists and evolutionary biologists indicate it is universal and key to understanding human culture. This study addresses the following questions: Does teaching of infants exist in hunter–gatherers? If teaching occurs in infancy, what skills or knowledge is transmitted by this process, how often does it occur and who is teaching? The study focuses on late infancy because cognitive psychologists indicate that one form of teaching, called natural pedagogy, emerges at this age. Videotapes of Aka hunter–gatherer infants were used to evaluate whether or not teaching exists among Aka hunter–gatherers of central Africa. The study finds evidence of multiple forms of teaching, including natural pedagogy, that are used to enhance learning of a variety of skills and knowledge. PMID:26909166

  3. The Quiet Migration Redux: International Adoption, Race, and Difference

    PubMed Central

    Leinaweaver, Jessaca B.

    2014-01-01

    Demographers frame international adoption primarily as an unusual kind of migration. This insight offers anthropologists new ways to think about kinship. Drawing on demographic scholarship and anthropological kinship and migration studies, this article develops a new and hybrid approach to international adoption as a complex social process that is both migratory and productive of kinship. Viewing international adoption as a form of migration reveals how the stated “push factors” and actual “pull factors” of international adoption do not align perfectly. Using an anthropological life course perspective, the article then explores how the experiences of these “migrants” and those close to them, over time, are better understood as racialization than solely the product of migration. Looking at adoptees’ lives through a migration lens reveals some of the persistent discomforts that prevent open conversations about racial difference and minority status in an adoptive context, that is, one where children have been caused to migrate, recruited into families. This article draws on data from ethnographic fieldwork with Spanish parents who have adopted Peruvian children to argue that international adoption is a unique form of immigration that produces a minority category within a majority population. PMID:25598546

  4. Relaxed Observance of Traditional Marriage Rules Allows Social Connectivity without Loss of Genetic Diversity.

    PubMed

    Guillot, Elsa G; Hazelton, Martin L; Karafet, Tatiana M; Lansing, J Stephen; Sudoyo, Herawati; Cox, Murray P

    2015-09-01

    Marriage rules, the community prescriptions that dictate who an individual can or cannot marry, are extremely diverse and universally present in traditional societies. A major focus of research in the early decades of modern anthropology, marriage rules impose social and economic forces that help structure societies and forge connections between them. However, in those early anthropological studies, the biological benefits or disadvantages of marriage rules could not be determined. We revisit this question by applying a novel simulation framework and genome-wide data to explore the effects of Asymmetric Prescriptive Alliance, an elaborate set of marriage rules that has been a focus of research for many anthropologists. Simulations show that strict adherence to these marriage rules reduces genetic diversity on the autosomes, X chromosome and mitochondrial DNA, but relaxed compliance produces genetic diversity similar to random mating. Genome-wide data from the Indonesian community of Rindi, one of the early study populations for Asymmetric Prescriptive Alliance, are more consistent with relaxed compliance than strict adherence. We therefore suggest that, in practice, marriage rules are treated with sufficient flexibility to allow social connectivity without significant degradation of biological diversity.

  5. Crooked Timber: The life of Calvin Wells (1908–1978)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Calvin Wells was the leading palaeopathologist in the UK between the later 1950s and the early 1970s. He studied medicine at University College London but failed in anatomy and qualified in 1933 with the Conjoint Diploma (MRCS, LRCP). After qualification he began to study obstetrics and after war service in the RAMC he settled in Norfolk (UK), established a small general practice and took up palaeopathology. Although he was usually conservative in diagnosis he tended to over-interpret signs in the skeleton, often publishing descriptions that were more fiction than science. He held firm views on the way in which palaeopathology should be undertaken and in particular he resented the entry into the field of anthropologists without medical training. His major contributions to palaeopathology were related to the study of cremations and the introduction of the notion of pseudopathology, and his writings on these subjects have scarcely been improved upon since. He was extremely well read, warm and encouraging to those with archaeological or medical qualifications, but vituperative about those he disliked. His bone reports, which are a major proportion of his published output, generally were highly regarded but his writing is often marred by sexual innuendo and vulgarity which does his memory little credit. PMID:24585588

  6. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    PubMed

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine.

  7. Herculaneum: Clues to Vesuvius eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    More than 80 skeletons have been unearthed in the ancient Mediterranean town of Herculaneum, west of Italy's Mount Vesuvius. This anthropological find corroborates a reinterpretation by three University of Rhode Island scientists of the sequence of the August A.D. 79 eruption of Vesuvius. In addition, the discovery is the first proof that large numbers of people perished as they tried to flee from the eruption, estimated to have been about 10 times more powerful than the May 1980 Mount St. Helens blast.‘Who says dead men don't talk? Their bones have something to say about them and their everyday lives,’ says Sara C. Bisel, a physical anthropologist who analyzed the skeletons. Among the remains are a cluster of skeletons from six adults, four children, and two infants trying to shield themselves from the volcanic onslaught; the skeleton of a sailor, still clutching an oar, lying on his back beside an 8-m-long capsized boat; a woman whose now bony hand was still graced with gem-encrusted gold rings; and a soldier (see Figure 1). From these and other finds the anthropological team was able to discern that the ancient Romans, on average, were shorter than modern citizens and, judging from the condition of some of the teeth, probably had a low-sugar diet.

  8. The Implications of the Cognitive Sciences for the Relation Between Religion and Science Education: The Case of Evolutionary Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blancke, Stefaan; De Smedt, Johan; De Cruz, Helen; Boudry, Maarten; Braeckman, Johan

    2012-08-01

    This paper discusses the relationship between religion and science education in the light of the cognitive sciences. We challenge the popular view that science and religion are compatible, a view that suggests that learning and understanding evolutionary theory has no effect on students' religious beliefs and vice versa. We develop a cognitive perspective on how students manage to reconcile evolutionary theory with their religious beliefs. We underwrite the claim developed by cognitive scientists and anthropologists that religion is natural because it taps into people's intuitive understanding of the natural world which is constrained by essentialist, teleological and intentional biases. After contrasting the naturalness of religion with the unnaturalness of science, we discuss the difficulties cognitive and developmental scientists have identified in learning and accepting evolutionary theory. We indicate how religious beliefs impede students' understanding and acceptance of evolutionary theory. We explore a number of options available to students for reconciling an informed understanding of evolutionary theory with their religious beliefs. To conclude, we discuss the implications of our account for science and biology teachers.

  9. Exhumation research concerning the victims of political repressions in 1945-1956 in Poland: A new direction in forensic medicine.

    PubMed

    Szleszkowski, Lukasz; Thannhäuser, Agata; Szwagrzyk, Krzysztof; Konczewski, Paweł; Kawecki, Jerzy; Swiątek, Barbara

    2014-02-01

    In 2011 in Wroclaw (Poland), the bodies of 223 prisoners were exhumed, including the victims of political repressions and prosecutions in the period 1949-1954, during which people fighting for the independence of Poland were executed and buried in unidentified graves in various graveyards. It was the first exhumation conducted in Poland on such a large scale. The aim of the present publication is to describe the new direction in forensic medicine employed in these exhumations, which resulted from the new opportunities created by the opening of the state archives after the political transformation of 1989. The authors describe the difficulties they encountered during their exploration of prisoners' burial grounds. The graveyards included in the investigation bear the marks of an intentional policy of confusion and secret burial methods. First, significant disorder in the logical (based on time of death) sequence of burials was observed. This made identification difficult. A substantial time lapse between death and burial in each case, along with the unavailability of comparative data, limited the use of identification methods widely employed in forensic medicine. For this reason, initial analysis had to be based on observations and confirmations made by forensic medicine about the sequence of burials as compared to cemetery documentation. Situations such as this clearly call for the cooperation of historians, archaeologists, anthropologists and forensic pathologists. Political transformations in Eastern Europe in the 1990s gave rise to hopes of exchanging experiences in this type of research as conducted in other countries of the former Eastern Bloc.

  10. Diversity and divergence among the tribal populations of India.

    PubMed

    Watkins, W S; Prasad, B V R; Naidu, J M; Rao, B B; Bhanu, B A; Ramachandran, B; Das, P K; Gai, P B; Reddy, P C; Reddy, P G; Sethuraman, M; Bamshad, M J; Jorde, L B

    2005-11-01

    Tribal populations of the Indian subcontinent have been of longstanding interest to anthropologists and human geneticists. To investigate the relationship of Indian tribes to Indian castes and continental populations, we analyzed 45 unlinked autosomal STR loci in 9 tribal groups, 8 castes, and 18 populations from Africa, Europe and East Asia. South Indian tribal populations demonstrate low within-population heterozygosity (range: 0.54 - 0.69), while tribal populations sampled further north and east have higher heterozygosity (range: 0.69 - 0.74). Genetic distance estimates show that tribal Indians are more closely related to caste Indians than to other major groups. Between-tribe differentiation is high and exceeds that for eight sub-Saharan African populations (4.8% vs. 3.7%). Telugu-speaking populations are less differentiated than non-Telugu speakers (F(ST): 0.029 vs. 0.079), but geographic distance was not predictive of genetic affinity between tribes. South Indian tribes show significant population structure, and individuals can be clustered statistically into groups that correspond with their tribal affiliation. These results are consistent with high levels of genetic drift and isolation in Indian tribal populations, particularly those of South India, and they imply that these populations may be potential candidates for linkage disequilibrium and association mapping.

  11. Social isolation and delayed discovery of bodies in houses: the value of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology in the medico-legal investigation.

    PubMed

    Archer, M S; Bassed, R B; Briggs, C A; Lynch, M J

    2005-07-16

    The bodies of socially isolated people may remain undiscovered in their own houses for prolonged periods. Occasionally the body is in situ for sufficient time to become skeletonised, or partially so. Medico-legal investigation of these cases is complicated by degradation and contamination of evidence. Thus, a multidisciplinary forensic investigation is recommended. The potential contributions of forensic pathology, anthropology, odontology and entomology are outlined here with reference to two cases that occurred in Victoria, Australia, in 2003. Forensic pathologists are often unable to determine the cause of death in skeletonised bodies, however, they may find evidence to support either a natural or unnatural mode of death, and they may describe skeletal pathology or trauma, and identify skeletal features to support radiological identification of the deceased. Anthropologists can provide supplementary evidence of skeletal trauma. Additionally, they can assess age, sex, stature and racial affiliation from skeletal remains. Odontologists can identify individuals through comparison with ante-mortem dental records; however, potential difficulties exist in identifying the treating dentist of a socially isolated person. Odontologists may also examine the teeth and oro-facial skeleton for trauma. Entomologists may estimate minimum death time and/or season of death. Entomological examination of insect remains may also confirm that a body has lain in situ for a considerable period.

  12. Verbal Synchrony and Action Dynamics in Large Groups.

    PubMed

    von Zimmermann, Jorina; Richardson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    While synchronized movement has been shown to increase liking and feelings of togetherness between people, we investigated whether collective speaking in time would change the way that larger groups played a video game together. Anthropologists have speculated that the function of interpersonal coordination in dance, chants, and singing is not just to produce warm, affiliative feelings, but also to improve group action. The group that chants and dances together hunts well together. Direct evidence for this is sparse, as research so far has mainly studied pairs, the effects of coordinated physical movement, and measured cooperation and affiliative decisions. In our experiment, large groups of people were given response handsets to play a computer game together, in which only joint coordinative efforts lead to success. Before playing, the synchrony of their verbal behavior was manipulated. After the game, we measured group members' affiliation toward their group, their performance on a memory task, and the way in which they played the group action task. We found that verbal synchrony in large groups produced affiliation, enhanced memory performance, and increased group members' coordinative efforts. Our evidence suggests that the effects of synchrony are stable across modalities, can be generalized to larger groups and have consequences for action coordination.

  13. Vertebral osteophyte of pre-modern Korean skeletons from Joseon tombs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Kim, Myeung Ju; Kim, Yi-Suk; Oh, Chang Seok

    2012-01-01

    Spinal osteophytic changes are known to be affected by differences in age, sex, population, and mechanical stress. We examined Joseon skeletons (n=87) to obtain vertebral osteophytosis data on a pre-modern Korean population. The mean osteophytic value (MOV) of vertebrae increased in the cervical-thoracic-lumbar order. More severe osteophytosis was found in the vertebrae (C5, T9, T10, and L4) farthest from the line of gravity, while the general pattern of vertebral osteophytosis appeared similar to those of previous reports on other skeletal series. More severe osteophytes were much more common in the males, possibly due to their engaging in more strenuous physical labor than that of females. We also observed MOV patterns seemingly unique to the Joseon people, and findings not typically reported in previous studies. Although a full explanation of the factors contributing to vertebral-osteophytic development in Joseon Koreans will require further studies, the present results are meaningful to anatomists and anthropologists interested in osteophytic patterns occurring in an East Asian population. PMID:23301195

  14. Sacred content, secular context: a generative theory of religion and spirituality for social work.

    PubMed

    Liechty, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Although a secular profession, social work practitioners and educators do explore human spirituality, and this is embraced now by the profession as integral to a holistic view of the human being. Social workers in hospice and end-of-life care are on the front line of this shift. Still needed is for the profession to coalesce around a generative theory of religion to inform the discipline. The author proposes that a synthesis of ideas, particularly from anthropologists Ernest Becker and Fredrick Streng, provides a generative theory of religion that advances meaningful interface between diverse religious and spiritual ideations of clients and clinicians alike. This theory of generative death anxiety locates the basic religious urge as response to the human awareness of the ontological condition of mortality, which then becomes expressed existentially in all of its diverse particularities. This approach avoids being overly reductionist, yet does provide categories for clear analysis. It cultivates critical respect for human religiosity and fosters productive and creative incorporation of human spirituality into the practical and pragmatic clinical perspective.

  15. Intracultural diversity and the sociocultural correlates of blood pressure: a Jamaican example.

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W; Grell, G A; Viteri, F E

    1995-09-01

    Attention to intracultural diversity in anthropological research has increased, but the implications of that diversity for research design and data analysis in medical anthropology have not proceeded as far. An examination of diversity and its use in guiding data analyses is given here, based on the study of blood pressure and its social and psychological correlates. It is argued that in the specific ethnographic setting of a small West Indian town, social class structures the diversity of the meanings of beliefs and behaviors. Diversity of meanings, in turn, alters the associations of those beliefs and behaviours with blood pressure. Data analyses guided by this orientation demonstrate that the social patterning of blood pressure varies between and within social class. Specifically, it is shown that one model of social and psychological influences on blood pressure applies only to middle-class persons in a small Jamaican community and not to lower-class persons. Medical anthropologists need to be more sensitive to the range of intracultural diversity and to how that diversity can influence the results of research.

  16. Current research in transcultural psychiatry in the Nordic countries.

    PubMed

    Ekblad, Solvig; Kastrup, Marianne Carisius

    2013-12-01

    This article discusses major themes in recent transcultural psychiatric research in the Nordic countries from 2008 to 2011: (a) epidemiological studies of migration, (b) indigenous populations, and (c) quality of psychiatric care for migrants. Over the past several decades, the populations of the Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden, which were relatively homogeneous, have become increasingly culturally diverse. Many migrants to Nordic countries have been exposed to extreme stress, such as threats of death and/or torture and other severe social adversities before, during, and after migration, with potential effects on their physical, mental, social, and spiritual health. Growing interest in transcultural issues is reflected in the level of scientific research and clinical activity in the field by Nordic physicians, psychologists, social scientists, demographers, medical anthropologists, as well as other clinicians and policy planners. Research includes work with migrants and indigenous minorities in the Nordic countries, as well as comparisons with mental health in postconflict countries. We conclude by suggesting future directions for transcultural psychiatry research and providing guidelines for the education and training of future clinicians in the Nordic countries.

  17. Human heredity after 1945: moving populations centre stage.

    PubMed

    Bangham, Jenny; de Chadarevian, Soraya

    2014-09-01

    The essays in this issue look at the contested history of human heredity after 1945 from a new analytical angle, that of populations and the ways in which they were constructed and studied. One consequence of this approach is that we do not limit our attention to the disciplinary study of genetics. After the Second World War, populations became a central topic for an array of fields, including demography, anthropology, epidemiology, and public health. Human heredity had a role in all of these: demographers carried out mental surveys in efforts to distinguish hereditary from environmental factors, doctors screened newborns and tested pregnant women for chromosome disorders; anthropologists collected blood from remote locations to gain insights into the evolutionary history of human populations; geneticists monitored people exposed to radiation. Through this work, populations were labelled as clinical, normal, primitive, pure, vulnerable or exotic. We ask: how were populations chosen, who qualified as members, and how was the study of human heredity shaped by technical, institutional and geopolitical conditions? By following the practical and conceptual work to define populations as objects of research, the essays trace the circulation of practices across different fields and contexts, bringing into view new actors, institutions, and geographies. By doing so the collection shows how human heredity research was linked to the broader politics of the postwar world, one profoundly conditioned by Cold War tensions, by nationalist concerns, by colonial and post-colonial struggles, by modernisation projects and by a new internationalism.

  18. Crooked Timber: The life of Calvin Wells (1908-1978).

    PubMed

    Waldron, Tony

    2014-05-01

    Calvin Wells was the leading palaeopathologist in the UK between the later 1950s and the early 1970s. He studied medicine at University College London but failed in anatomy and qualified in 1933 with the Conjoint Diploma (MRCS, LRCP). After qualification he began to study obstetrics and after war service in the RAMC he settled in Norfolk (UK), established a small general practice and took up palaeopathology. Although he was usually conservative in diagnosis he tended to over-interpret signs in the skeleton, often publishing descriptions that were more fiction than science. He held firm views on the way in which palaeopathology should be undertaken and in particular he resented the entry into the field of anthropologists without medical training. His major contributions to palaeopathology were related to the study of cremations and the introduction of the notion of pseudopathology, and his writings on these subjects have scarcely been improved upon since. He was extremely well read, warm and encouraging to those with archaeological or medical qualifications, but vituperative about those he disliked. His bone reports, which are a major proportion of his published output, generally were highly regarded but his writing is often marred by sexual innuendo and vulgarity which does his memory little credit.

  19. Scanning electron microscope analysis of gunshot defects to bone: an underutilized source of information on ballistic trauma.

    PubMed

    Rickman, John M; Smith, Martin J

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen increasing involvement by forensic anthropologists in the interpretation of skeletal trauma. With regard to ballistic injuries, there is now a large literature detailing gross features of such trauma; however, less attention has been given to microscopic characteristics. This article presents analysis of experimentally induced gunshot trauma in animal bone (Bos taurus scapulae) using full metal jacket (FMJ), soft point (SP), and captive bolt projectiles. The results were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional analysis was conducted on a purported parietal gunshot lesion in a human cranial specimen. A range of features was observed in these samples suggesting that fibrolamellar bone response to projectile impact is analogous to that observed in synthetic composite laminates. The results indicate that direction of bullet travel can be discerned microscopically even when it is ambiguous on gross examination. It was also possible to distinguish SP from FMJ lesions. SEM analysis is therefore recommended as a previously underexploited tool in the analysis of ballistic trauma.

  20. Cross-cultural conceptions of pain and pain control

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Pain is a ubiquitous feature of the human experience. This paper presents an anthropology of pain. Anthropology is defined as the cross-cultural and comparative study of human behavior. Pain can be acute and episodic, and pain can be constant and uninterrupted. Acute pain, lasting for minutes or hours, is reported at some time by virtually all adults and by most juveniles and is indicated by the cries and facial expressions of toddlers and infants. This universality of pain as a part of the human condition has been established by the research of many biological, physical, and social scientists. Ethnographers, physicians, and public health experts describe pain complaints for a variety of modern, industrial societies and traditional, undeveloped societies. Pain is the most frequent complaint brought to the offices of physicians in North America, and it is a focus of attention in the literate medical traditions of China, India, and Islamic cultures. Hence, the study of pain and the cultural perceptions of pain are prominent foci of anthropologists. Given that the goal of medicine is to offer medical care to all people who seek it, the practice of modern medicine may be assisted by an exploration of the possibility of cultural differences in medical beliefs and practices in the multiethnic and racially diverse patient populations today. PMID:16333427