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Sample records for anti human herpes

  1. The Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Drug Tenofovir, a Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor, Also Targets the Herpes Simplex Virus DNA Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Andrei, Graciela; Gillemot, Sarah; Topalis, Dimitrios; Snoeck, Robert

    2018-02-14

    Genital herpes is an important cofactor for acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and effective prophylaxis is a helpful strategy to halt both HIV and herpes simplex virus (HSV) transmission. The antiretroviral agent tenofovir, formulated as a vaginal microbicide gel, was shown to reduce the risk of HIV and HSV type 2 (HSV-2) acquisition. HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 mutants were selected for resistance to tenofovir and PMEO-DAPy (6-phosphonylmethoxyethoxy-2,4-diaminopyrimidine, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate with dual anti-HSV and anti-HIV activity) by stepwise dose escalation. Several plaque-purified viruses were characterized phenotypically (drug resistance profiling) and genotypically (sequencing of the viral DNA polymerase gene). Tenofovir resistant and PMEO-DAPy-resistant viruses harbored specific amino acid substitutions associated with resistance not only to tenofovir and PMEO-DAPy but also to acyclovir and foscarnet. These amino acid changes (A719V, S724N, and L802F [HSV-1] and M789T and A724V [HSV-2]) were also found in clinical isolates recovered from patients refractory to acyclovir and/or foscarnet therapy or in laboratory-derived strains. A total of 10 (HSV-1) and 18 (HSV-2) well-characterized DNA polymerase mutants had decreased susceptibility to tenofovir and PMEO-DAPy. Tenofovir and PMEO-DAPy target the HSV DNA polymerase, and clinical isolates with DNA polymerase mutations emerging under acyclovir and/or foscarnet therapy showed cross-resistance to tenofovir and PMEO-DAPy. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Human Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 in Confiscated Gorilla

    PubMed Central

    Oxford, Kristie L.; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A.; Cranfield, Michael R.; Lowenstine, Linda J.

    2014-01-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans. PMID:25341185

  3. Human herpes simplex virus type 1 in confiscated gorilla.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Kirsten V K; Oxford, Kristie L; Gardner-Roberts, David; Kinani, Jean-Felix; Spelman, Lucy; Barry, Peter A; Cranfield, Michael R; Lowenstine, Linda J

    2014-11-01

    In 2007, we detected human herpes simplex virus type 1, which caused stomatitis, in a juvenile confiscated eastern lowland gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) that had a high degree of direct contact with human caretakers. Our findings confirm that pathogens can transfer between nonhuman primate hosts and humans.

  4. Safety of herpes zoster vaccination among inflammatory bowel disease patients being treated with anti-TNF medications.

    PubMed

    Khan, N; Shah, Y; Trivedi, C; Lewis, J D

    2017-10-01

    The risk of herpes zoster (HZ) is elevated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients treated with anti-TNF medications. While it is optimal to give herpes zoster vaccine prior to initiation of therapy clinical circumstances may not always allow this. To determine the safety of giving herpes zoster vaccine while patients are on anti-TNF therapy. We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving IBD patients who were followed in the Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare system between 2001 and 2016. Patients who received herpes zoster vaccine while on anti-TNF medication were identified through vaccination codes and confirmed through individual chart review. Our outcome of interest was development of HZ between 0 and 42 days after herpes zoster vaccine administration. Fifty-six thousand four hundred and seventeen patients with IBD were followed in the VA healthcare system. A total of 59 individuals were on anti-TNF medication when they were given herpes zoster vaccine, and amongst them, 12 (20%) were also taking a thiopurine. Median age at the time of herpes zoster vaccine was 64.9 years and 95% of patients had a Charlson Comorbidity Index of ≥2. Median number of encounters within 42 days after receiving herpes zoster vaccine was two. No case of HZ was found within 0-42 days of HZV administration. Our data suggest that co-administering the herpes zoster vaccine to patients who are taking anti-TNF medications is relatively safe. This study significantly expands the evidence supporting the use of herpes zoster vaccine in this population, having included an elderly group of patients with a high Charlson Comorbidity Index who are likely at a much higher risk of developing HZ. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 activity of Houttuynoid A, a flavonoid from Houttuynia cordata Thunb.

    PubMed

    Li, Ting; Liu, Libao; Wu, Hongling; Chen, Shaodan; Zhu, Qinchang; Gao, Hao; Yu, Xiongtao; Wang, Yi; Su, Wenhan; Yao, Xinsheng; Peng, Tao

    2017-08-01

    Early events in herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection reactivate latent human immunodeficiency virus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human papillomavirus in the presence of acyclovir (ACV). The common use of nucleoside analog medications, such as ACV and pencyclovir, has resulted in the emergence of drug-resistant HSV-1 strains in clinical therapy. Therefore, new antiherpetics that can inhibit early events in HSV-1 infection should be developed. An example of this treatment is Houttuynia cordata Thunb. water extract, which can inhibit HSV-1 infection through multiple mechanisms. In this study, the anti-HSV-1 activity of Houttuynoid A, a new type of flavonoid isolated from H. cordata, was investigated. Three different assays confirmed that this compound could exhibit strong in vitro anti-HSV-1 activity. One assay verified that this compound could inhibit HSV-1 multiplication and prevent lesion formation in a HSV-1 infection mouse model. Mechanism analysis revealed that this compound could inactivate HSV-1 infectivity by blocking viral membrane fusion. Moreover, Houttuynoid A exhibited antiviral activities against other alpha herpes viruses, such as HSV-2 and varicella zoster virus (VZV). In conclusion, Houttuynoid A may be a useful antiviral agent for HSV-1. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Human herpes viruses in burn patients: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wurzer, Paul; Guillory, Ashley; Parvizi, Daryousch; Clayton, Robert P; Branski, Ludwik K; Kamolz, Lars-P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Lee, Jong O

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of human herpes viruses, including herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and varicella zoster virus (VZV) to morbidity and mortality after burns remains controversial. This systematic review was undertaken to assess evidence of herpes virus-related morbidity and mortality in burns. PubMed, Ovid, and Web of Science were searched to identify studies of HSV, CMV, or VZV infections in burn patients. Exclusion criteria included: A level of evidence (LoE) of IV or V; nonhuman in vivo studies; and non-English articles. There was no limitation by publication date. Fifty articles were subjected to full-text analysis. Of these, 18 had LoE between I-III and were included in the final review (2 LoE I, 16 LoE II-III). Eight had a prospective study design, 9 had a retrospective study design, and 1 included both. No direct evidence linked CMV and HSV infection with increased morbidity and mortality in burns. Following burn, CMV reactivation was more common than a primary CMV infection. Active HSV infection impaired wound healing but was not directly correlated to mortality. Infections with VZV are rare after burns but when they occur, VZV infections were associated with severe complications including mortality. The therapeutic effect of antiviral agents administered after burns warrants investigation via prospective randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  7. Calcium spirulan derived from Spirulina platensis inhibits herpes simplex virus 1 attachment to human keratinocytes and protects against herpes labialis.

    PubMed

    Mader, Julia; Gallo, Antonio; Schommartz, Tim; Handke, Wiebke; Nagel, Claus-Henning; Günther, Patrick; Brune, Wolfram; Reich, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 are highly prevalent in populations worldwide and cause recurrent oral lesions in up to 40% of infected subjects. We investigated the antiviral activity of a defined Spirulina platensis microalga extract and of purified calcium spirulan (Ca-SP), a sulfated polysaccharide contained therein. The inhibitory effects of HSV-1 were assessed by using a plaque reduction assay and quantitative PCR in a susceptible mammalian epithelial cell line and confirmed in human keratinocytes. Time-of-addition and attachment experiments and fluorescence detection of the HSV-1 tegument protein VP16 were used to analyze the mechanism of HSV-1 inhibition. Effects of Ca-SP on Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8 replication and uptake of the ORF45 tegument protein were tested in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. In an observational trial the prophylactic effects of topically applied Ca-SP were compared with those of systemic and topical nucleoside analogues in 198 volunteers with recurrent herpes labialis receiving permanent lip makeup. Ca-SP inhibited HSV-1 infection in vitro with a potency at least comparable to that of acyclovir by blocking viral attachment and penetration into host cells. Ca-SP also inhibited entry of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpes virus 8. In the clinical model of herpes exacerbation, the prophylactic effect of a Ca-SP and microalgae extract containing cream was superior to that of acyclovir cream. These data indicate a potential clinical use of Ca-SP containing Spirulina species extract for the prophylactic treatment of herpes labialis and suggest possible activity of Ca-SP against infections caused by other herpesviruses. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Herpes zoster could be an early manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu; Chen, Wen-Chi

    2016-05-01

    No formal epidemiological research based on systematic analysis has focused on the relationship between herpes zoster and immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Taiwan. Our aim was to explore whether herpes zoster is an early manifestation of undiagnosed human HIV infection in Taiwan. This was a retrospective cohort study using the database of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. A total of 35,892 individuals aged ≤ 84 years with newly diagnosed herpes zoster from 1998 to 2010 were assigned to the herpes zoster group, whereas 143,568 sex-matched and age-matched, randomly selected individuals without herpes zoster served as the non-herpes zoster group. The incidence of HIV diagnosis at the end of 2011 was estimated in both groups. The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval (CI) for risk of HIV diagnosis associated with herpes zoster and other comorbidities including drug dependence and venereal diseases. The overall incidence of HIV diagnosis was 4.19-fold greater in the herpes zoster group than that in the non-herpes zoster group (3.33 per 10,000 person-years vs. 0.80 per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI 4.04-4.35). The multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analysis revealed that the adjusted hazard ratio of HIV diagnosis was 4.37 (95% CI 3.10-6.15) for individuals with herpes zoster and without comorbidities, as compared with individuals without herpes zoster and without comorbidities. Herpes zoster is associated with HIV diagnosis. Patients who have risk behaviors of HIV infection should receive regular surveillance for undiagnosed HIV infection when they present with herpes zoster. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Computational repositioning of ethno medicine elucidated gB-gH-gL complex as novel anti herpes drug target

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Herpes viruses are important human pathogens that can cause mild to severe lifelong infections with high morbidity. They remain latent in the host cells and can cause recurrent infections that might prove fatal. These viruses are known to infect the host cells by causing the fusion of viral and host cell membrane proteins. Fusion is achieved with the help of conserved fusion machinery components, glycoproteins gB, heterodimer gH-gL complex along with other non-conserved components. Whereas, another important glycoprotein gD without which viral entry to the cell is not possible, acts as a co-activator for the gB-gH-gL complex formation. Thus, this complex formation interface is the most promising drug target for the development of novel anti-herpes drug candidates. In the present study, we propose a model for binding of gH-gL to gB glycoprotein leading from pre to post conformational changes during gB-gH-gL complex formation and reported the key residues involved in this binding activity along with possible binding site locations. To validate the drug targetability of our proposed binding site, we have repositioned some of the most promising in vitro, in vivo validated anti-herpes molecules onto the proposed binding site of gH-gL complex in a computational approach. Methods Hex 6.3 standalone software was used for protein-protein docking studies. Arguslab 4.0.1 and Accelrys® Discovery Studio 3.1 Visualizer softwares were used for semi-flexible docking studies and visualizing the interactions respectively. Protein receptors and ethno compounds were retrieved from Protein Data Bank (PDB) and Pubchem databases respectively. Lipinski’s Filter, Osiris Property Explorer and Lazar online servers were used to check the pharmaceutical fidelity of the drug candidates. Results Through protein-protein docking studies, it was identified that the amino acid residues VAL342, GLU347, SER349, TYR355, SER388, ASN395, HIS398 and ALA387 of gH-gL complex play an active

  10. IL-12 Expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus promotes anti-tumor activity and immunologic control of metastatic ovarian cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Eric D; Meza-Perez, Selene; Bevis, Kerri S; Randall, Troy D; Gillespie, G Yancey; Langford, Catherine; Alvarez, Ronald D

    2016-10-27

    Despite advances in surgical aggressiveness and conventional chemotherapy, ovarian cancer remains the most lethal cause of gynecologic cancer mortality; consequently there is a need for new therapeutic agents and innovative treatment paradigms for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Several studies have demonstrated that ovarian cancer is an immunogenic disease and immunotherapy represents a promising and novel approach that has not been completely evaluated in ovarian cancer. Our objective was to evaluate the anti-tumor activity of an oncolytic herpes simplex virus "armed" with murine interleukin-12 and its ability to elicit tumor-specific immune responses. We evaluated the ability of interleukin-12-expressing and control oncolytic herpes simplex virus to kill murine and human ovarian cancer cell lines in vitro. We also administered interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus to the peritoneal cavity of mice that had developed spontaneous, metastatic ovarian cancer and determined overall survival and tumor burden at 95 days. We used flow cytometry to quantify the tumor antigen-specific CD8 + T cell response in the omentum and peritoneal cavity. All ovarian cancer cell lines demonstrated susceptibility to oncolytic herpes simplex virus in vitro. Compared to controls, mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus demonstrated a more robust tumor antigen-specific CD8 + T-cell immune response in the omentum (471.6 cells vs 33.1 cells; p = 0.02) and peritoneal cavity (962.3 cells vs 179.5 cells; p = 0.05). Compared to controls, mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oncolytic herpes simplex virus were more likely to control ovarian cancer metastases (81.2 % vs 18.2 %; p = 0.008) and had a significantly longer overall survival (p = 0.02). Finally, five of 6 mice treated with interleukin-12-expressing oHSV had no evidence of metastatic tumor when euthanized at 6 months, compared to two of 4 mice treated with

  11. Antiviral effects of herpes simplex virus specific anti-sense nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Cantin, E M; Podsakoff, G; Willey, D E; Openshaw, H

    1992-01-01

    We have targeted mRNA sequences encompassing the translation initiation codon of the essential herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) IE3 gene with three kinds of anti-sense molecule. Addition of a 15mer oligodeoxyribonucleoside methylphosphonate to tissue culture cells resulted in suppression of viral replication. HSV-1 replication was also inhibited in cultured cells containing anti-sense vectors expressing transcripts complementary to the IE3 mRNA. We have also constructed a ribozyme which upon base pairing with the target IE3 mRNA induces cleavage at the predicted GUC site. A major obstacle to anti-sense studies in animals is drug delivery of preformed antisense molecules to ganglionic neurons, the site of HSV latency and reactivation. We speculate as to how this may be accomplished through carrier compounds which are taken up by nerve terminals and transported by retrograde axoplasmic flow. By the same route, HSV itself may be used as an anti-sense vector.

  12. Expression of varicella-zoster virus and herpes simplex virus in normal human trigeminal ganglia

    SciTech Connect

    Vafai, A.; Wellish, M.; Devlin, M.

    1988-04-01

    Lysates of radiolabeled explants from four human trigeminal ganglia were immunoprecipitated with antibodies to varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and to herpes simplex virus. Both herpes simplex virus- and VZV-specific proteins were detected in lysates of all four ganglia. Absence of reactivity in ganglion explants with monoclonal antibodies suggested that herpes simplex virus and VZV were not reactivated during the culture period. In situ hybridization studies demonstrated the presence of RNA transcripts from the VZV immediate early gene 63. This approach to the detection of herpes simplex virus and VZV expression in human ganglia should facilitate analysis of viral RNA and proteinsmore » in human sensory ganglia.« less

  13. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model.

    PubMed

    Perna, J J; Mannix, M L; Rooney, J F; Notkins, A L; Straus, S E

    1987-09-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpes simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.

  14. Detection of herpes simplex virus-specific DNA sequences in latently infected mice and in humans.

    PubMed

    Efstathiou, S; Minson, A C; Field, H J; Anderson, J R; Wildy, P

    1986-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus-specific DNA sequences have been detected by Southern hybridization analysis in both central and peripheral nervous system tissues of latently infected mice. We have detected virus-specific sequences corresponding to the junction fragment but not the genomic termini, an observation first made by Rock and Fraser (Nature [London] 302:523-525, 1983). This "endless" herpes simplex virus DNA is both qualitatively and quantitatively stable in mouse neural tissue analyzed over a 4-month period. In addition, examination of DNA extracted from human trigeminal ganglia has shown herpes simplex virus DNA to be present in an "endless" form similar to that found in the mouse model system. Further restriction enzyme analysis of latently infected mouse brainstem and human trigeminal DNA has shown that this "endless" herpes simplex virus DNA is present in all four isomeric configurations.

  15. Detection of herpes simplex virus-specific DNA sequences in latently infected mice and in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Efstathiou, S; Minson, A C; Field, H J; Anderson, J R; Wildy, P

    1986-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-specific DNA sequences have been detected by Southern hybridization analysis in both central and peripheral nervous system tissues of latently infected mice. We have detected virus-specific sequences corresponding to the junction fragment but not the genomic termini, an observation first made by Rock and Fraser (Nature [London] 302:523-525, 1983). This "endless" herpes simplex virus DNA is both qualitatively and quantitatively stable in mouse neural tissue analyzed over a 4-month period. In addition, examination of DNA extracted from human trigeminal ganglia has shown herpes simplex virus DNA to be present in an "endless" form similar to that found in the mouse model system. Further restriction enzyme analysis of latently infected mouse brainstem and human trigeminal DNA has shown that this "endless" herpes simplex virus DNA is present in all four isomeric configurations. Images PMID:3003377

  16. Ancient Recombination Events between Human Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Burrel, Sonia; Boutolleau, David; Ryu, Diane; Agut, Henri; Merkel, Kevin; Leendertz, Fabian H.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are seen as close relatives but also unambiguously considered as evolutionary independent units. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 18 HSV-2 isolates characterized by divergent UL30 gene sequences to further elucidate the evolutionary history of this virus. Surprisingly, genome-wide recombination analyses showed that all HSV-2 genomes sequenced to date contain HSV-1 fragments. Using phylogenomic analyses, we could also show that two main HSV-2 lineages exist. One lineage is mostly restricted to subSaharan Africa whereas the other has reached a global distribution. Interestingly, only the worldwide lineage is characterized by ancient recombination events with HSV-1. Our findings highlight the complexity of HSV-2 evolution, a virus of putative zoonotic origin which later recombined with its human-adapted relative. They also suggest that coinfections with HSV-1 and 2 may have genomic and potentially functional consequences and should therefore be monitored more closely. PMID:28369565

  17. Ancient Recombination Events between Human Herpes Simplex Viruses.

    PubMed

    Burrel, Sonia; Boutolleau, David; Ryu, Diane; Agut, Henri; Merkel, Kevin; Leendertz, Fabian H; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien

    2017-07-01

    Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are seen as close relatives but also unambiguously considered as evolutionary independent units. Here, we sequenced the genomes of 18 HSV-2 isolates characterized by divergent UL30 gene sequences to further elucidate the evolutionary history of this virus. Surprisingly, genome-wide recombination analyses showed that all HSV-2 genomes sequenced to date contain HSV-1 fragments. Using phylogenomic analyses, we could also show that two main HSV-2 lineages exist. One lineage is mostly restricted to subSaharan Africa whereas the other has reached a global distribution. Interestingly, only the worldwide lineage is characterized by ancient recombination events with HSV-1. Our findings highlight the complexity of HSV-2 evolution, a virus of putative zoonotic origin which later recombined with its human-adapted relative. They also suggest that coinfections with HSV-1 and 2 may have genomic and potentially functional consequences and should therefore be monitored more closely. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  18. Amplification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 and Human Herpes Virus Type 5 Polymerase Gene Segment From Formalin-Fixed Brain Tissue From Alzheimer’s Disease Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    The neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1) gene target was amplified and sequenced in all samples tested, in addition to HSV1 , HSV2 , or Human Herpes...Triphosphate DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid GAPDH Glyceraldehyde-3 -phosphate dehydrogenase HSV Herpes Simplex Virus HSV1 Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 HSV2 Herpes... HSV2 ) share 50-70 % homology. HSV1 is primarily associated with oral and ocular lesions, while HSV2 is primarily associated with genital and anal lesions

  19. Isolation of a new herpes virus from human CD4 sup + T cells

    SciTech Connect

    Frenkel, N.; Schirmer, E.C.; Wyatt, L.S.

    1990-01-01

    A new human herpes virus has been isolated from CD4{sup +} T cells purified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a healthy individual (RK), following incubation of the cells under conditions promoting T-cell activation. The virus could not be recovered from nonactivated cells. Cultures of lymphocytes infected with the RK virus exhibited a cytopathic effect, and electron microscopic analyses revealed a characteristic herpes virus structure. RK virus DNA did not hybridize with large probes derived from herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr virus, varicella-zoster virus, and human cytomegalovirus. The genetic relatedness of the RK virus to the recently identified T-lymphotropic human herpesmore » virus 6 (HHV-6) was investigated by restriction enzyme analyses using 21 different enzymes and by blot hydridization analyses using 11 probes derived from two strains of HHV-6 (Z29 and U1102). Whereas the two HHV-6 strains exhibited only limited restriction enzyme polymorphism, cleavage of the RK virus DNA yielded distinct patterns. Of the 11 HHV-6 DNA probes tested, only 6 cross-hybridized with DNA fragments derived from the RK virus. Taken together, the maximal homology amounted to 31 kilobases of the 75 kilobases tested. The authors conclude that the RK virus is distinct from previously characterized human herpesviruses. The authors propose to designate it as the prototype of a new herpes virus, the seventh human herpes virus identified to date.« less

  20. Autophagy is involved in anti-viral activity of pentagalloylglucose (PGG) against Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Ying, E-mail: peiying-19802@163.com; Chen, Zhen-Ping, E-mail: 530670663@qq.com; Ju, Huai-Qiang, E-mail: 344464448@qq.com

    2011-02-11

    Research highlights: {yields} We showed PGG has anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and can induce autophgy. {yields} Autophagy may be a novel and important mechanism mediating PGG anti-viral activities. {yields} Inhibition of mTOR pathway is an important mechanism of induction of autophagy by PGG. -- Abstract: Pentagalloylglucose (PGG) is a natural polyphenolic compound with broad-spectrum anti-viral activity, however, the mechanisms underlying anti-viral activity remain undefined. In this study, we investigated the effects of PGG on anti-viral activity against Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) associated with autophagy. We found that the PGG anti-HSV-1 activity was impairedmore » significantly in MEF-atg7{sup -/-} cells (autophagy-defective cells) derived from an atg7{sup -/-} knockout mouse. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that PGG-induced autophagosomes engulfed HSV-1 virions. The mTOR signaling pathway, an essential pathway for the regulation of autophagy, was found to be suppressed following PGG treatment. Data presented in this report demonstrated for the first time that autophagy induced following PGG treatment contributed to its anti-HSV activity in vitro.« less

  1. Houttuynoids A-E, anti-herpes simplex virus active flavonoids with novel skeletons from Houttuynia cordata.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Dan; Gao, Hao; Zhu, Qin-Chang; Wang, Ya-Qi; Li, Ting; Mu, Zhen-Qiang; Wu, Hong-Ling; Peng, Tao; Yao, Xin-Sheng

    2012-04-06

    Houttuynoids A-E (1-5), a new type of flavonoid with houttuynin tethered to hyperoside, and their presumed biosynthetic precursor hyperoside (6) were isolated from the whole plant of Houttuynia cordata. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR. A hypothetical biogenetic pathway for houttuynoids A-E was proposed. Compounds 1-5 exhibited potent anti-HSV (herpes simplex viruses) activity.

  2. Human herpes simplex viruses in benign and malignant thyroid tumours.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Kirk; Patel, Aneeta; Larin, Alexander; Hoperia, Victoria; Saji, Motoyasu; Bauer, Andrew; Yim, Kevin; Hemming, Val; Vasko, Vasyl

    2010-06-01

    To test the hypothesis that herpes viruses may have a role in thyroid neoplasia, we analysed thyroid tissues from patients with benign (44) and malignant (65) lesions for HSV1 and HSV2 DNA. Confirmatory studies included direct sequencing, analysis of viral gene expression, and activation of viral-inducible signalling pathways. Expression of viral entry receptor nectin-1 was examined in human samples and in cancer cell lines. In vitro experiments were performed to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV. HSV DNA was detected in 43/109 (39.4%) examined samples. HSV capsid protein expression correlated with HSV DNA status. HSV-positive tumours were characterized by activation of virus-inducible signalling such as interferon-beta expression and nuclear NFkappaB expression. Lymphocyte infiltration and oncocytic cellular features were common in HSV-positive tumours. HSV1 was detected with the same frequency in benign and malignant thyroid tumours. HSV2 was significantly associated with papillary thyroid cancer and the presence of lymph node metastases. The expression of HSV entry receptor nectin-1 was increased in thyroid tumours compared to normal thyroid tissue and further increased in papillary thyroid cancer. Nectin-1 expression was detected in all examined thyroid cancer cell lines. Nectin-1 expression in cancer cells correlated with their susceptibility to HSV. Inhibition of PI3K/AKT or MAPK/ERK signalling did not affect the level of nectin-1 expression but decreased thyroid cancer cell susceptibility to HSV. These findings showed that HSV is frequently detected in thyroid cancer. During tumour progression, thyroid cells acquire increased susceptibility to HSV due to increased expression of viral entry mediator nectin-1 and activation of mitogenic signalling in cancer cells.

  3. A case of anti aquapolin-4 antibody positive myelitis with hyperhidrosis, following herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Suda, Machiko; Tsutsumiuchi, Michiko; Uesaka, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Nobukazu

    2017-01-31

    We report an acute myelitis in a 53-year-old woman that occurred in 7 days after the diagnosis of Th5-6 herpes zoster. Clinical examination revealed hyperhidrosis of left side of her face, neck, arm and upper chest. She also had muscle weakness of her left leg and sensory impairment for light touch and temperature in her chest and legs. Spinal cord MRI demonstrated a longitudinal T 2 -hyperintense lesion extending from Th1 to 7. In the axial imaging, the lesion dominantly located in the left side gray matter. Hyperhidrosis, weakness and sensory impairment were improved after intravenous therapy with acyclovir and methylprednisolone. VZV (varicella zoster virus) IgG index of the cerebrospinal fluid was high and serological anti aquaporin-4 antibodies were positive at the time of the admission. This case had both characteristics of VZV myelitis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. Myelitis relapsed 19 months after the first attack. We believe that sympathetic hyper reactivity due to thoracic spinal cord lesion was responsible for the hyperhidrosis in our patient.

  4. Demonstration of the oncogenic potential of Herpes simplex viruses and human cytomegalovirus. [UV radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Rapp, F.; Li, J.L.H.

    1975-01-01

    The following topics are reviewed: transformation of hamster embryo cells by herpes simplex viruses and human cytomegalovirus; the use of uv radiation and photodynamic action to inactivate virus infectivity while retaining the transformation potential of the virus; detection of virus-specific antigens in transformed cells; oncogenicity of HSV- and CMV-transformed cells in vivo; immunological studies of metastases induced by herpes virus-transformed cells; resistance of transformed cells to superinfection; maintenance of the virus genome in the transformed state; and stimulation of cellular DNA synthesis by human cytomegalovirus. (HLW)

  5. Reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus infection by ultraviolet light: a human model

    SciTech Connect

    Perna, J.J.; Mannix, M.L.; Rooney, J.F.

    1987-09-01

    Infection with herpes simplex virus often results in a latent infection of local sensory ganglia and a disease characterized by periodic viral reactivation and mucocutaneous lesions. The factors that trigger reactivation in humans are still poorly defined. In our study, five patients with documented histories of recurrent herpes simplex virus infection on the buttocks or sacrum were exposed to three times their minimal erythema dose of ultraviolet light. Site-specific cutaneous herpes simplex virus infection occurred at 4.4 +/- 0.4 days after exposure to ultraviolet light in 8 of 13 attempts at reactivation. We conclude that ultraviolet light can reactivate herpesmore » simplex virus under experimentally defined conditions. This model in humans should prove useful in evaluating the pathophysiology and prevention of viral reactivation.« less

  6. Imbalanced Oxidative Stress Causes Chlamydial Persistence during Non-Productive Human Herpes Virus Co-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Prusty, Bhupesh K.; Böhme, Linda; Bergmann, Birgit; Siegl, Christine; Krause, Eva; Mehlitz, Adrian; Rudel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Both human herpes viruses and Chlamydia are highly prevalent in the human population and are detected together in different human disorders. Here, we demonstrate that co-infection with human herpes virus 6 (HHV6) interferes with the developmental cycle of C. trachomatis and induces persistence. Induction of chlamydial persistence by HHV6 is independent of productive virus infection, but requires the interaction and uptake of the virus by the host cell. On the other hand, viral uptake is strongly promoted under co-infection conditions. Host cell glutathione reductase activity was suppressed by HHV6 causing NADPH accumulation, decreased formation of reduced glutathione and increased oxidative stress. Prevention of oxidative stress restored infectivity of Chlamydia after HHV6-induced persistence. We show that co-infection with Herpes simplex virus 1 or human Cytomegalovirus also induces chlamydial persistence by a similar mechanism suggesting that Chlamydia -human herpes virus co-infections are evolutionary shaped interactions with a thus far unrecognized broad significance. PMID:23077614

  7. Non-nucleosidic inhibition of Herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase: mechanistic insights into the anti-herpetic mode of action of herbal drug withaferin A.

    PubMed

    Grover, Abhinav; Agrawal, Vibhuti; Shandilya, Ashutosh; Bisaria, Virendra S; Sundar, Durai

    2011-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 causes several infections in humans including cold sores and encephalitis. Previous antiviral studies on herpes viruses have focussed on developing nucleoside analogues that can inhibit viral polymerase and terminate the replicating viral DNA. However, these drugs bear an intrinsic non-specificity as they can also inhibit cellular polymerase apart from the viral one. The present study is an attempt to elucidate the action mechanism of naturally occurring withaferin A in inhibiting viral DNA polymerase, thus providing an evidence for its development as a novel anti-herpetic drug. Withaferin A was found to bind very similarly to that of the previously reported 4-oxo-DHQ inhibitor. Withaferin A was observed binding to the residues Gln 617, Gln 618, Asn 815 and Tyr 818, all of which are crucial to the proper functioning of the polymerase. A comparison of the conformation obtained from docking and the molecular dynamics simulations shows that substantial changes in the binding conformations have occurred. These results indicate that the initial receptor-ligand interaction observed after docking can be limited due to the receptor rigid docking algorithm and that the conformations and interactions observed after simulation runs are more energetically favoured. We have performed docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies to elucidate the binding mechanism of prospective herbal drug withaferin A onto the structure of DNA polymerase of Herpes simplex virus. Our docking simulations results give high binding affinity of the ligand to the receptor. Long de novo MD simulations for 10 ns performed allowed us to evaluate the dynamic behaviour of the system studied and corroborate the docking results, as well as identify key residues in the enzyme-inhibitor interactions. The present MD simulations support the hypothesis that withaferin A is a potential ligand to target/inhibit DNA polymerase of the Herpes simplex virus. Results of these studies

  8. Non-nucleosidic inhibition of Herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase: mechanistic insights into the anti-herpetic mode of action of herbal drug withaferin A

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 causes several infections in humans including cold sores and encephalitis. Previous antiviral studies on herpes viruses have focussed on developing nucleoside analogues that can inhibit viral polymerase and terminate the replicating viral DNA. However, these drugs bear an intrinsic non-specificity as they can also inhibit cellular polymerase apart from the viral one. The present study is an attempt to elucidate the action mechanism of naturally occurring withaferin A in inhibiting viral DNA polymerase, thus providing an evidence for its development as a novel anti-herpetic drug. Results Withaferin A was found to bind very similarly to that of the previously reported 4-oxo-DHQ inhibitor. Withaferin A was observed binding to the residues Gln 617, Gln 618, Asn 815 and Tyr 818, all of which are crucial to the proper functioning of the polymerase. A comparison of the conformation obtained from docking and the molecular dynamics simulations shows that substantial changes in the binding conformations have occurred. These results indicate that the initial receptor-ligand interaction observed after docking can be limited due to the receptor rigid docking algorithm and that the conformations and interactions observed after simulation runs are more energetically favoured. Conclusions We have performed docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies to elucidate the binding mechanism of prospective herbal drug withaferin A onto the structure of DNA polymerase of Herpes simplex virus. Our docking simulations results give high binding affinity of the ligand to the receptor. Long de novo MD simulations for 10 ns performed allowed us to evaluate the dynamic behaviour of the system studied and corroborate the docking results, as well as identify key residues in the enzyme-inhibitor interactions. The present MD simulations support the hypothesis that withaferin A is a potential ligand to target/inhibit DNA polymerase of the Herpes simplex

  9. The biology of herpes simplex virus infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Baringer, J R

    1976-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus is a frequent cause of recurrent ocular, oral, genital or cutaneous eruptions in man. Lesions are highly localized and tend to recur at the same site. Among the most consistent factors provoking recurrence is root section of the trigeminal nerve. Clinical and experimental data suggest that herpes simplex virus is commonly resident within the trigeminal ganglia of man, where it may be responsible for recurrent oral or lip lesions, and is less frequently a resident of the second or third sacral ganglia where it might be responsible for genital eruptions. Generally, the trigeminal virus is type 1 and the sacral virus is type 2; the virus is only rarely recoverable from other sensory ganglia. Factors provoking the reactivation from the virus' latent site and the mechanism for reactivation remain largely unknown. Further study is needed to understand the behavior of HSV and other viruses in nervous system tissue.

  10. Identification of a herpes simplex labialis susceptibility region on human chromosome 21.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Maurine R; Jones, Brandt B; Otterud, Brith E; Leppert, Mark; Kriesel, John D

    2008-02-01

    Most of the United States population is infected with either herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), herpes simplex virus type 2, or both. Reactivations of HSV-1 infection cause herpes simplex labialis (HSL; cold sores or fever blisters), which is the most common recurring viral infection in humans. To investigate the possibility of a human genetic component conferring resistance or susceptibility to cold sores (i.e., a HSL susceptibility gene), we conducted a genetic linkage analysis that included serotyping and phenotyping 421 individuals from 39 families enrolled in the Utah Genetic Reference Project. Linkage analysis identified a 2.5-Mb nonrecombinant region of interest on the long arm of human chromosome 21, with a multipoint logarithm of odds score of 3.9 noted near marker abmc65 (D21S409). Nonparametric linkage analysis of the data also provided strong evidence for linkage (P = .0005). This region of human chromosome 21 contains 6 candidate genes for herpes susceptibility. The development of frequent cold sores is associated with a region on the long arm of human chromosome 21. This region contains several candidate genes that could influence the frequency of outbreaks of HSL.

  11. Characterization of herpes simplex virus type 2 latency-associated transcription in human sacral ganglia and in cell culture.

    PubMed

    Croen, K D; Ostrove, J M; Dragovic, L; Straus, S E

    1991-01-01

    The ability of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) to establish latency in and reactivate from sacral dorsal root sensory ganglia is the basis for recurrent genital herpes. The expression of HSV-2 genes in latently infected human sacral ganglia was investigated by in situ hybridization. Hybridizations with a probe from the long repeat region of HSV-2 revealed strong nuclear signals overlying neurons in sacral ganglia from five of nine individuals. The RNA detected overlaps with the transcript for infected cell protein O but in the opposite, or "anti-sense," orientation. These observations mimic those made previously with HSV-1 in human trigeminal ganglia and confirm the recent findings during latency in HSV-2-infected mice and guinea pigs. Northern hybridization of RNA from infected Vero cells showed that an HSV-2 latency-associated transcript was similar in size to the larger (1.85 kb) latency transcript of HSV-1. Thus, HSV-1 and HSV-2 latency in human sensory ganglia are similar, if not identical, in terms of their cellular localization and pattern of transcription.

  12. Prevalence of herpes simplex, Epstein Barr and human papilloma viruses in oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, Benay; Sengüven, Burcu; Demir, Cem

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of Herpes Simplex virus, Epstein Barr virus and Human Papilloma virus -16 in oral lichen planus cases and to evaluate whether any clinical variant, histopathological or demographic feature correlates with these viruses. The study was conducted on 65 cases. Viruses were detected immunohistochemically. We evaluated the histopathological and demographic features and statistically analysed correlation of these features with Herpes Simplex virus, Epstein Barr virus and Human Papilloma virus-16 positivity. Herpes Simplex virus was positive in six (9%) cases and this was not statistically significant. The number of Epstein Barr virus positive cases was 23 (35%) and it was statistically significant. Human Papilloma virus positivity in 14 cases (21%) was statistically significant. Except basal cell degeneration in Herpes Simplex virus positive cases, we did not observe any significant correlation between virus positivity and demographic or histopathological features. However an increased risk of Epstein Barr virus and Human Papilloma virus infection was noted in oral lichen planus cases. Taking into account the oncogenic potential of both viruses, oral lichen planus cases should be detected for the presence of these viruses.

  13. Herpes viruses and human papilloma virus in nasal polyposis and controls.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, Dimitrios; Lachanas, Vasileios A; Florou, Zoe; Bizakis, John G; Petinaki, Efthymia; Skoulakis, Charalampos E

    2015-01-01

    Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps is a multifactorial disease entity with an unclear pathogenesis. Contradictory data exist in the literature on the potential implication of viral elements in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. To compare the prevalence of human herpes viruses (1-6) and Human Papilloma Virus in adult patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls. Viral DNA presence was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction application to nasal polyps specimens from 91 chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps patients and nasal turbinate mucosa from 38 healthy controls. Epstein-Barr virus positivity was higher in nasal polyps (24/91; 26.4%) versus controls (4/38; 10.5%), but the difference did not reach significance (p=0.06). Human herpes virus-6 positivity was lower in nasal polyps (13/91; 14.29%) versus controls (10/38; 26.32%, p=0.13). In chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps group, 1 sample was herpes simplex virus-1-positive (1/91; 1.1%), and another was cytomegalovirus-positive (1/91; 1.1%), versus none in controls. No sample was positive for herpes simplex virus-2, varicella-zoster virus, high-risk-human papilloma viruses (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59) and low-risk-human papilloma viruses (6, 11). Differences in Epstein-Barr virus and human herpes virus-6 positivity among patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps and healthy controls are not statistically significant, weakening the likelihood of their implication in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps pathogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Glycoprotein Targeted Therapeutics: A New Era of Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Antoine, Thessicar; Park, Paul J.; Shukla, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is among the most common human pathogens worldwide. Its entry into host cells is an intricate process that relies heavily on the ability of the viral glycoproteins to bind host cellular proteins and to efficiently mediate fusion of the virus envelope with the cell membrane. Acquisition of HSV-1 results in a lifelong latent infection. Due to the cycles of reactivation from a latent state, much emphasis has been placed on the management of infection through the use of DNA synthesis inhibitors. However, new methods are needed to provide more effective treatment at earlier phases of the viral infection and to prevent the development of drug resistance by the virus. This review outlines the infection process and the common therapeutics currently used against the fundamental stages of HSV-1 replication and fusion. The remainder of this article will focus on a new approach for HSV-1 infection control and management, the concept of glycoprotein-receptor targeting. PMID:23440920

  15. Studies on the constituents of seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus and their anti herpes simplex virus (HSV) activities.

    PubMed

    Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Lipipun, Vimolmas; Ruangrungsi, Nijsiri; Watanabe, Toshiko; Ishikawa, Tsutomu

    2002-04-01

    Studies on the chemical constituents of the seeds of Pachyrrhizus erosus (Leguminosae) resulted in the isolation of nine known components: five rotenoids [dolineone (3), pachyrrhizone (5), 12a-hydroxydolineone (7), 12a-hydroxypachyrrhizone (9), and 12a-hydroxyrotenone (2)], two isoflavonoids [neotenone (4) and dehydroneotenone (8)], one phenylfuranocoumarin [pachyrrhizine (6)], and a monosaccharide (dulcitol). The full 1H- and 13C-NMR assignments for the isolated products except a sugar, including revision of previous assignments in the literature, are reported. Moderate anti herpes simplex virus (HSV) activity was observed in 12a-hydroxydolineone (7) and 12a-hydroxypachyrrhizone (9) among the isolated products.

  16. Herpes - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes - resources; Resources - genital herpes ... following organizations are good resources for information on genital herpes : March of Dimes -- www.marchofdimes.org/complications/sexually- ...

  17. Association of anti-herpes simplex virus IgG in tears and serum with clinical presentation in patients with presumed herpetic simplex keratitis.

    PubMed

    Borderie, Vincent M; Gineys, Raquel; Goldschmidt, Pablo; Batellier, Laurence; Laroche, Laurent; Chaumeil, Christine

    2012-11-01

    To assess the clinical relevance of tear anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) antibody measurement for the diagnosis of herpes simplex keratitis. Records of 364 patients clinically suspect of HSV-related keratitis who had tear anti-HSV IgG assessment (tear-quantified anti-HSV IgG/filtrated IgG ratio) in our institution between January 2000 and August 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into 4 groups as follows: group 1, anti-HSV IgG negative in serum and tears; group 2, anti-HSV IgG negative in tears and positive in serum; group 3, anti-HSV IgG nonsignificantly positive in tears and positive in serum; and group 4, anti-HSV IgG significantly positive in serum and tears. Randomly selected patient charts from each group were reviewed for clinical data. The prevalence of anti-HSV IgG in blood increased with age from >70% before 20 years to 95% after 70 years. The prevalence of anti-HSV IgG in tears increased with age from 20% before 20 years to >50% after 70 years. The presence (either significant or not) of anti-HSV IgG in tears was significantly associated with decreased corneal sensation, presence of stromal opacities, and with neurotrophic keratitis. Logistic regression showed no significant association between age and clinical signs except for herpetic ulcers and herpetic necrotizing keratitis. Tear production of anti-HSV IgG increases with age, and it is associated with sequelae of herpes simplex keratitis. Conversely, it is poorly associated with clinical signs of acute herpes simplex keratitis.

  18. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... have the herpes virus? Glossary What is genital herpes? Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) . It ... there more than one virus that can cause genital herpes? There are two types of HSV that can ...

  19. Surgical excision for recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) anogenital infection in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).

    PubMed

    Arinze, Folasade; Shaver, Aaron; Raffanti, Stephen

    2017-10-01

    Recurrent anogenital herpes simplex virus infections are common in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), of whom approximately 5% develop resistance to acyclovir. We present a case of a 49-year-old man with HIV who had an 8-year history of recurrent left inguinal herpes simplex virus type 2 ulcerations. He initially responded to oral acyclovir, but developed resistance to acyclovir and eventually foscarnet. The lesion progressed to a large hypertrophic mass that required surgical excision, which led to resolution without recurrences. Our case highlights the importance of surgical excision as a treatment option in refractory herpes simplex virus anogenital infections.

  20. Human Asymptomatic Epitope Peptide/CXCL10-Based Prime/Pull Vaccine Induces Herpes Simplex Virus-Specific Gamma Interferon-Positive CD107+ CD8+ T Cells That Infiltrate the Cornea and Trigeminal Ganglia of Humanized HLA Transgenic Rabbits and Protect against Ocular Herpes Challenge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif A; Srivastava, Ruchi; Vahed, Hawa; Roy, Soumyabrata; Walia, Sager S; Kim, Grace J; Fouladi, Mona A; Yamada, Taikun; Ly, Vincent T; Lam, Cynthia; Lou, Anthony; Nguyen, Vivianna; Boldbaatar, Undariya; Geertsema, Roger; Fraser, Nigel W; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2018-06-13

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a prevalent human pathogen that infects the cornea causing potentially blinding herpetic disease. A clinical herpes vaccine is still lacking. In the present study, a novel prime/pull vaccine was tested in Human Leukocyte Antigen- (HLA-) transgenic rabbit model of ocular herpes (HLA Tg rabbit). Three asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptide epitopes were selected from the HSV-1 membrane glycoprotein C (UL44 400-408 ), the DNA replication binding helicase (UL9 196-204 ), and the tegument protein (UL25 572-580 ), all preferentially recognized by CD8 + T cells from "naturally protected" HSV-1-seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who never had recurrent corneal herpetic disease). HLA Tg rabbits were immunized with a mixture of these three ASYMP CD8 + T cell peptide epitopes (UL44 400-408 , UL9 196-204 and UL25 572-580 ), delivered subcutaneously with CpG 2007 adjuvant (prime). Fifteen days later, half of the rabbits received a topical ocular treatment with a recombinant neurotropic AAV8 vector, expressing the T cell-attracting CXCL10 chemokine (pull). The frequency, function of HSV-specific CD8 + T cells induced by the prime/pull vaccine were assessed in peripheral blood, cornea, and trigeminal ganglia (TG). Compared to peptides alone, the peptides/CXCL10 prime/pull vaccine generated frequent polyfunctional gamma interferon-positive (IFN-γ + ) CD107 + CD8 + T cells that infiltrated both the cornea and TG. CD8 + T cells mobilization into cornea and TG of prime/pull- vaccinated rabbits was associated with a significant reduction in corneal herpes infection and disease following an ocular HSV-1 challenge (McKrae). These findings draw attention to the novel prime/pull vaccine strategy to mobilize anti-viral CD8 + T cells into tissues protecting them against herpes infection and disease. IMPORTANCE There is an urgent need for a vaccine against widespread herpes simplex virus infections. The present study demonstrates that immunization of HLA

  1. Indirect micro-immunofluorescence test for detecting type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Forsey, T; Darougar, S

    1980-02-01

    A rapid indirect micro-immunofluorescence test capable of detecting and differentiating type-specific antibodies to herpes simplex virus is described. The test proved highly sensitive and, in 80 patients with active herpes ocular infection, antibody was detected in 94%. No anti-herpes antibody was detected in a control group of 20 patients with adenovirus infections. Testing of animal sera prepared against herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 and of human sera from cases of ocular and genital herpes infections showed that the test can differentiate antibodies to the infecting serotypes. Specimens of whole blood, taken by fingerprick, and eye secretions, both collected on cellulose sponges, could be tested by indirect micro-immunofluorescence. Anti-herpes IgG, IgM, and IgA can also be detected.

  2. Evolution and Diversity in Human Herpes Simplex Virus Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Gatherer, Derek; Ochoa, Alejandro; Greenbaum, Benjamin; Dolan, Aidan; Bowden, Rory J.; Enquist, Lynn W.; Legendre, Matthieu; Davison, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) causes a chronic, lifelong infection in >60% of adults. Multiple recent vaccine trials have failed, with viral diversity likely contributing to these failures. To understand HSV-1 diversity better, we comprehensively compared 20 newly sequenced viral genomes from China, Japan, Kenya, and South Korea with six previously sequenced genomes from the United States, Europe, and Japan. In this diverse collection of passaged strains, we found that one-fifth of the newly sequenced members share a gene deletion and one-third exhibit homopolymeric frameshift mutations (HFMs). Individual strains exhibit genotypic and potential phenotypic variation via HFMs, deletions, short sequence repeats, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms, although the protein sequence identity between strains exceeds 90% on average. In the first genome-scale analysis of positive selection in HSV-1, we found signs of selection in specific proteins and residues, including the fusion protein glycoprotein H. We also confirmed previous results suggesting that recombination has occurred with high frequency throughout the HSV-1 genome. Despite this, the HSV-1 strains analyzed clustered by geographic origin during whole-genome distance analysis. These data shed light on likely routes of HSV-1 adaptation to changing environments and will aid in the selection of vaccine antigens that are invariant worldwide. PMID:24227835

  3. Prevalence of human papilloma virus and human herpes virus types 1-7 in human nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Zaravinos, Apostolos; Bizakis, John; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus-1/-2 (HSV-1/-2), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6/-7 (HHV-6/-7) in 23 human nasal polyps by applying PCR. Two types of control tissues were used: adjacent inferior/middle turbinates from the patients and inferior/middle turbinates from 13 patients undergoing nasal corrective surgery. EBV was the virus most frequently detected (35%), followed by HPV (13%), HSV-1 (9%), and CMV (4%). The CMV-positive polyp was simultaneously positive for HSV-1. HPV was also detected in the adjacent turbinates (4%) and the adjacent middle turbinate (4%) of one of the HPV-positive patients. EBV, HSV, and CMV were not detected in the adjacent turbinates of the EBV-, HSV- or CMV-positive patients. All mucosae were negative for the VZV, HHV-6, and HHV-7. This is the first study to deal with the involvement of a comparable group of viruses in human nasal polyposis. The findings support the theory that the presence of viral EBV markedly influences the pathogenesis of these benign nasal tumors. The low incidence of HPV detected confirms the hypothesis that HPV is correlated with infectious mucosal lesions to a lesser extent than it is with proliferative lesions, such as inverted papilloma. The low incidence of HSV-1 and CMV confirms that these two herpes viruses may play a minor role in the development of nasal polyposis. Double infection with HSV-1 and CMV may also play a minor, though causative, role in nasal polyp development. VZV and HHV-6/-7 do not appear to be involved in the pathogenesis of these mucosal lesions.

  4. Detection of Human Herpes Virus 8 in Kaposi’s sarcoma tissues at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Tembo, Rabecca; Kaile, Trevor; Kafita, Doris; Chisanga, Chrispin; Kalonda, Annie; Zulu, Ephraim; Samutela, Mulemba; Polepole, Pascal; Kwenda, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Human herpes virus-8, a γ2-herpes virus, is the aetiological agent of Kaposi sarcoma. Recently, Kaposi's sarcoma cases have increased in Zambia. However, the diagnosis of this disease is based on morphological appearance of affected tissues using histological techniques, and the association with its causative agent, Human Herpes virus 8 is not sought. This means poor prognosis for affected patients since the causative agent is not targeted during diagnosis and KS lesions may be mistaken for other reactive and neoplastic vascular proliferations when only histological techniques are used. Therefore, this study was aimed at providing evidence of Human Herpes virus 8 infection in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. Methods One hundred and twenty suspected Kaposi's sarcoma archival formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues stored from January 2013 to December 2014 in the Histopathology Laboratory at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia were analysed using histology and Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting the ORF26 gene of Human Herpes virus 8. Results The predominant histological type of Kaposi's sarcoma detected was the Nodular type (60.7%) followed by the plaque type (22.6%) and patch type (16.7%). The nodular lesion was identified mostly in males (40.5%, 34/84) than females (20.2%, 17/84) (p=0.041). Human Herpes virus 8 DNA was detected in 53.6% (45/84) and mostly in the nodular KS lesions (60%, 27/84) (p=0.035). Conclusion The findings in this study show that the Human Herpes virus-8 is detectable in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues, and, as previously reported in other settings, is closely associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. The study has provided important baseline data for use in the diagnosis of this disease and the identification of the virus in the tissues will aid in targeted therapy. PMID:28904666

  5. Detection of Human Herpes Virus 8 in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Tembo, Rabecca; Kaile, Trevor; Kafita, Doris; Chisanga, Chrispin; Kalonda, Annie; Zulu, Ephraim; Samutela, Mulemba; Polepole, Pascal; Kwenda, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Human herpes virus-8, a γ2-herpes virus, is the aetiological agent of Kaposi sarcoma. Recently, Kaposi's sarcoma cases have increased in Zambia. However, the diagnosis of this disease is based on morphological appearance of affected tissues using histological techniques, and the association with its causative agent, Human Herpes virus 8 is not sought. This means poor prognosis for affected patients since the causative agent is not targeted during diagnosis and KS lesions may be mistaken for other reactive and neoplastic vascular proliferations when only histological techniques are used. Therefore, this study was aimed at providing evidence of Human Herpes virus 8 infection in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia. One hundred and twenty suspected Kaposi's sarcoma archival formalin-fixed paraffin-wax embedded tissues stored from January 2013 to December 2014 in the Histopathology Laboratory at the University Teaching Hospital, Lusaka, Zambia were analysed using histology and Polymerase Chain Reaction targeting the ORF26 gene of Human Herpes virus 8. The predominant histological type of Kaposi's sarcoma detected was the Nodular type (60.7%) followed by the plaque type (22.6%) and patch type (16.7%). The nodular lesion was identified mostly in males (40.5%, 34/84) than females (20.2%, 17/84) (p=0.041). Human Herpes virus 8 DNA was detected in 53.6% (45/84) and mostly in the nodular KS lesions (60%, 27/84) (p=0.035). The findings in this study show that the Human Herpes virus-8 is detectable in Kaposi's sarcoma tissues, and, as previously reported in other settings, is closely associated with Kaposi's sarcoma. The study has provided important baseline data for use in the diagnosis of this disease and the identification of the virus in the tissues will aid in targeted therapy.

  6. Mimicking herpes simplex virus 1 and herpes simplex virus 2 mucosal behavior in a well-characterized human genital organ culture.

    PubMed

    Steukers, Lennert; Weyers, Steven; Yang, Xiaoyun; Vandekerckhove, Annelies P; Glorieux, Sarah; Cornelissen, Maria; Van den Broeck, Wim; Temmerman, Marleen; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2014-07-15

    We developed and morphologically characterized a human genital mucosa explant model (endocervix and ectocervix/vagina) to mimic genital herpes infections caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Subsequent analysis of HSV entry receptor expression throughout the menstrual cycle in genital tissues was performed, and the evolution of HSV-1/-2 mucosal spread over time was assessed. Nectin-1 and -2 were expressed in all tissues during the entire menstrual cycle. Herpesvirus entry mediator expression was limited mainly to some connective tissue cells. Both HSV-1 and HSV-2 exhibited a plaque-wise mucosal spread across the basement membrane and induced prominent epithelial syncytia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV). It can cause sores on ... also infect their babies during childbirth. Symptoms of herpes are called outbreaks. You usually get sores near ...

  8. Herpes Simplex

    MedlinePlus

    ... sores around the mouth or face. Genital herpes affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD). It affects the genitals, buttocks or anal area. Other herpes ...

  9. Genital herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... herpes URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000857.htm Genital herpes To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection. It ...

  10. Latent herpes simplex virus 1 infection does not induce apoptosis in human trigeminal Ganglia.

    PubMed

    Himmelein, Susanne; Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina

    2015-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8(+) T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection Does Not Induce Apoptosis in Human Trigeminal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Hüfner, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) can establish lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia. Latently infected ganglia contain CD8+ T cells, which secrete granzyme B and are thus capable of inducing neuronal apoptosis. Using immunohistochemistry and single-cell reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), higher frequency and transcript levels of caspase-3 were found in HSV-1-negative compared to HSV-1-positive ganglia and neurons, respectively. No terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay-positive neurons were detected. The infiltrating T cells do not induce apoptosis in latently infected neurons. PMID:25762734

  12. High Efficiency Latency and Activation of Herpes Simplex Virus in Human Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wigdahl, Brian L.; Scheck, Adrienne C.; de Clercq, Erik; Rapp, Fred

    1982-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) exists in humans in a latent form that can be activated. To characterize the molecular basis of the cell-virus interactions and to analyze the state of the latent HSV genome, an in vitro model system was established. In this system a large fraction of the latently infected cells contain an HSV genome that can be activated. Cell survival was reduced minimally after repression of high multiplicity HSV type 1 (HSV-1) infection of human fibroblast cells with (E)-5-(2-bromovinyl)-2'-deoxyuridine in combination with human leukocyte interferon (IFN-α ). A minimum of 1 to 3 percent of the surviving cells contained an HSV genome that could be activated either by human cytomegalovirus superinfection or reduction in incubation temperature.

  13. [Distribution of herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 genomes in the human spinal ganglia].

    PubMed

    Obara, Y

    1994-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is well known for its propensity to cause recurrent oral or genital mucosal infections in humans. HSV-1 is involved primarily in oral lesions, whereas HSV-2 is more frequently involved in genital lesions. Based on this, it is thought that HSV-1 may produce latent infections in trigeminal ganglia, and HSV-2 in the sacral ganglia. However the distribution pattern of latent HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections in spinal ganglia remains unknown. Using the polymerase chain reaction we detected latent herpes HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human spinal ganglia obtained from autopsy material. A pair of primers which were specific for a part of the HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNA polymerase domain were employed. HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNAs were detected in 11 of 40 (28%) and 15 of 40 (38%) cervical ganglia, respectively, 52 of 103 (50%) and 47 of 103 (46%) thoracic ganglia, 16 of 53 (30%) and 17 of 53 (32%) lumbar ganglia, and 3 of 20 (15%) and 3 of 20 (15%) sacral ganglia. These findings suggest that latent HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections have a widespread distribution from the cervical ganglia to sacral ganglia. Importantly this study demonstrated latent HSV-1 infection of both the lumbar and sacral ganglia for the first time.

  14. Herpes simplex virus-mediated human hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene transfer into neuronal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Palella, T.D.; Silverman, L.J.; Schroll, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    The virtually complete deficiency of the purine salvage enzyme hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) results in a devastating neurological disease, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome. Transfer of the HPRT gene into fibroblasts and lymphoblasts in vitro and into hematopoietic cells in vivo has been accomplished by other groups with retroviral-derived vectors. It appears to be necessary, however, to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal cells to correct the neurological dysfunction of this disorder. The neurotropic virus herpes simplex virus type 1 has features that make it suitable for use as a vector to transfer the HPRT gene into neuronal tissue. This report describes the isolationmore » of an HPRT-deficient rat neuroma cell line, designated B103-4C, and the construction of a recombinant herpes simplex virus type 1 that contained human HPRT cDNA. These recombinant viruses were used to infect B103-4C cells. Infected cells expressed HPRT activity which was human in origin.« less

  15. Human cytomegalovirus renders cells non-permissive for replication of herpes simplex viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Cockley, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    The herpes simplex virus (HSV) genome during production infection in vitro may be subject to negative regulation which results in modification of the cascade of expression of herpes virus macromolecular synthesis leading to establishment of HSV latency. In the present study, human embryonic lung (HEL) cells infected with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) restricted the replication of HSV type-1 (HSV-1). A delay in HSV replication of 15 hr as well as a consistent, almost 1000-fold inhibition of HSV replication in HCMV-infected cell cultures harvested 24 to 72 hr after superinfection were observed compared with controls infected with HSV alone. HSV type-2 (HSV-2)more » replication was similarly inhibited in HCMV-infected HEL cells. Prior ultraviolet-irradiation (UV) of HCMV removed the block to HSV replication, demonstrating the requirement for an active HCMV genome. HCMV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) negative temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants inhibited HSV replications as efficiently as wild-type (wt) HCMV at the non-permissive temperature. Evidence for penetration and replication of superinfecting HSV into HCMV-infected cells was provided by blot hybridization of HSV DNA synthesized in HSV-superinfected cell cultures and by cesium chloride density gradient analysis of ({sup 3}H)-labeled HSV-1-superinfected cells.« less

  16. The role of human papilloma virus and herpes viruses in the etiology of nasal polyposis.

    PubMed

    Koçoğlu, Mücahide Esra; Mengeloğlu, Fırat Zafer; Apuhan, Tayfun; Özsoy, Şeyda; Yilmaz, Beyhan

    2016-02-17

    The aim of this study was to investigate the etiological role of human papilloma virus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) and -7 (HHV-7) in the occurrence of nasal polyposis. Nasal polyp samples from 30 patients with nasal polyposis and normal nasal mucosa from 10 patients without nasal polyps were obtained. DNA was extracted from tissues. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed for all runs. No HSV-1, HSV-2, or VZV was detected in the samples. Among the patient samples, EBV and HHV-7 DNA were detected in 18 (60%), HHV-6 was detected in 20 (66.7%), and HPV was detected in 4 (13.3%) samples. Among the controls, CMV DNA was positive in one (10%). EBV was positive in 5 (50%), HHV-6 and HHV-7 were positive in 7 (70%), and HPV was positive in 2 (20%) samples. No significant difference was found among the groups with any test in terms of positivity. The association of Herpesviridae and HPV with the pathogenesis of nasal polyps was investigated in this study and no relationship was found. Thus, these viruses do not play a significant role in the formation of nasal polyps.

  17. Anti-herpes simplex virus 1 and immunomodulatory activities of a poly-γ- glutamic acid from Bacillus horneckiae strain APA of shallow vent origin.

    PubMed

    Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Papaianni, Emanuela; Maugeri, Teresa L; Zammuto, Vincenzo; Spanò, Antonio; Nicolaus, Barbara; Poli, Annarita; Di Donato, Paola; Mosca, Claudia; Mastino, Antonio; Gugliandolo, Concetta

    2017-10-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is responsible of common and widespread viral infections in humans through the world, and of rare, but extremely severe, clinical syndromes in the central nervous system. The emergence of resistant strains to drugs actually in use encourages the searching for novel antiviral compounds, including those of natural origin. In this study, the recently described poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA-APA), produced by the marine thermotolerant Bacillus horneckiae strain APA, and previously shown to possess biological and antiviral activity, was evaluated for its anti-HSV-1 and immunomodulatory properties. The biopolymer hindered the HSV-1 infection in the very early phase of virus replication. In addition, the γ-PGA-APA was shown to exert low cytotoxicity and noticeable immunomodulatory activities towards TNF-α and IL-1β gene expression. Moreover, the capacity to positively modulate the transcriptional activity of the cytokine genes was paired with increased level of activation of the transcription factor NF-kB by γ-PGA-APA. Overall, as non-cytotoxic biopolymer able to contribute in the antiviral defense against HSV-1, γ-PGA-APA could lead to the development of novel natural drugs for alternative therapies.

  18. Split T-cell tolerance in herpes simplex virus-infected mice and its implication for anti-viral immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Nash, A A; Ashford, N P

    1982-01-01

    Mice simultaneously injected intravenously and subcutaneously with herpes simplex virus fail to adoptively transfer delayed hypersensitivity (DH) to syngeneic recipients. The transferred lymph node cells also failed to rapidly eliminate infectious herpes from the pinna, despite the presence of cytotoxic T cells in the transferred suspension. Both primary and secondary cytotoxic cell responses in the draining lymph node were unaffected by the inhibition of DH. The lymph nodes from DH tolerized mice also contain lymphocytes capable of undergoing a proliferative response in vitro to herpes antigens. In addition, a neutralizing antibody response with IgG antibodies against herpes are also present in DH tolerized mice. These data suggest a form of split T-cell tolerance in which only DH responses are directly compromised. The implication of these findings for the pathogenesis of herpes simplex virus is discussed. PMID:6279490

  19. College Students' Perceptions of and Experiences with Human Papillomavirus and Herpes: Implications for College Sexual Health Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschler, Christopher; Hope, Andrea; Myers, Jaime L.

    2015-01-01

    Sexually transmitted infections spread through skin-to-skin contact represent unique prevention challenges. This study examines how college students perceive safer sex practices with respect to human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes. Qualitative and quantitative data (n = 275) were collected using an online questionnaire. College students'…

  20. Superior efficacy of helicase-primase inhibitor BAY 57-1293 for herpes infection and latency in the guinea pig model of human genital herpes disease.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, Judith; Fischer, Ruediger; Eckenberg, Peter; Henninger, Kerstin; Ruebsamen-Waigmann, Helga; Kleymann, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of BAY 57-1293, a novel non-nucleosidic inhibitor of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), bovine herpesvirus and pseudorabies virus, was studied in the guinea pig model of genital herpes in comparison with the licensed drug valaciclovir (Valtrex). Early therapy with BAY 57-1293 almost completely suppressed the symptoms of acute HSV-2 infection, and reduced virus shedding and viral load in the sacral dorsal root ganglia by up to three orders of magnitude, resulting in decreased latency and a greatly diminished frequency of subsequent recurrent episodes. In contrast, valaciclovir showed only moderate effects in this set of experiments. When treatment was initiated late during the course of disease after symptoms were apparent, that is, a setting closer to most clinical situations, the efficacy of therapy with BAY 57-1293 was even more pronounced. Compared with valaciclovir, BAY 57-1293 halved the time necessary for complete healing. Moreover, the onset of action was fast, so that only very few animals developed new lesions after treatment commenced. Finally, in a study addressing the treatment of recurrent disease in animals whose primary infection had remained untreated BAY 57-1293 was efficient in suppressing the episodes. In summary, superior potency and efficacy of BAY 57-1293 over standard treatment with valaciclovir was demonstrated in relevant animal models of human genital herpes disease in terms of abrogating an HSV infection, reducing latency and the frequency of subsequent recurrences. Furthermore, BAY 57-1293 shortens the time to healing even if initiation of therapy is delayed.

  1. In vitro anti-herpes simplex virus-2 activity of Salvia desoleana Atzei & V. Picci essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Cinzia; Cagliero, Cecilia; Ballero, Mauro; Civra, Andrea; Donalisio, Manuela; Bicchi, Carlo; Lembo, David

    2017-01-01

    Salvia desoleana Atzei & V. Picci is an indigenous species in Sardinia island used in folk medicine to treat menstrual, digestive and central nervous system diseases. Nowadays, it is widely cultivated for the pleasant smell of its essential oil (EO), whose antimicrobial and antifungal activities have already been screened. This study evaluated the in vitro anti-Herpes Simplex Virus-2 (HSV-2) activity of S. desoleana EO, fractions and main components: linalyl acetate, alpha terpinyl acetate, and germacrene D. Phytochemical composition of S. desoleana EO was studied by GC-FID/MS analysis and the active fraction(s) and/or compounds in S. desoleana EO were identified with a bioassay-guided fractionation procedure through in vitro assays on cell viability and HSV-2 and RSV inhibition. S. desoleana EO inhibits both acyclovir sensitive and acyclovir resistant HSV-2 strains with EC50 values of 23.72 μg/ml for the former and 28.57 μg/ml for the latter. Moreover, a significant suppression of HSV-2 replication was observed with an EC50 value of 33.01 μg/ml (95% CI: 26.26 to 41.49) when the EO was added post-infection. Among the fractions resulting from flash column chromatography on silica gel, the one containing 54% of germacrene D showed a similar spectrum of activity of S. desoleana EO with a stronger suppression in post-infection stage. These results indicated that S. desoleana EO can be of interest to develop new and alternative anti-HSV-2 products active also against acyclovir-resistant HSV-2 strains. PMID:28207861

  2. Anti-herpes virus activities of bioactive fraction and isolated pure constituent of Mallotus peltatus: an ethnomedicine from Andaman Islands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral infections, particularly the infections caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), represent one of the most serious public health concerns globally because of their devastating impact. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral potential of methanolic crude extract of an ethnomedicine Mallotus peltatus, its active fraction and pure compound, against HSV-1 F and HSV-2 G. Result The cytotoxicity (CC50, the concentration of 50% cellular toxicity), antiviral effective concentration (EC50, the concentration required to achieve 50% protection against virus-induced cytopathic effect), plaque reduction and the selectivity index (SI, the ratio of CC50 and EC50) was determined. Results showed that the crude methanolic extract of M. peltatus possessed weak anti-HSV activity. In contrast, the active fraction A and isolated ursolic acid from fraction A exhibited potent antiherpesvirus activity against both HSV-1 (EC50 = 7.8 and 5.5 μg/ml; SI = 22.3 and 20) and HSV-2 (EC50 = 8.2 and 5.8 μg/ml, and SI = 21.2 and 18.97). The fraction A and isolated ursolic acid (10 μg/ml) inhibited plaque formation of HSV-1 and HSV-2 at more than 80% levels, with a dose dependent antiviral activity, compared to acyclovir. The time response study revealed that the anti-HSV activity of fraction A and isolated ursolic acid is highest at 2–5 h post-infection. Moreover, the time kinetics study by indirect immunofluorescence assay showed a characteristic pattern of small foci of single fluorescent cells in fraction A- treated virus infected cells at 2 h and 4 h post-infection, suggesting drug inhibited viral dissemination. Further, the PCR study with infected cell cultures treated with fraction A and isolated ursolic acid at various time intervals, failed to show amplification at 48–72 h, like acyclovir treated HSV-infected cells. Moreover, fraction A or isolated ursolic acid showed no interaction in combination with acyclovir. Conclusion

  3. Human TRAF3 adaptor molecule deficiency leads to impaired Toll-like receptor 3 response and susceptibility to herpes simplex encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    de Diego, Rebeca Pérez; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Lorenzo, Lazaro; Puel, Anne; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Picard, Capucine; Herman, Melina; Cardon, Annabelle; Durandy, Anne; Bustamante, Jacinta; Vallabhapurapu, Sivakumar; Bravo, Jerónimo; Warnatz, Klaus; Chaix, Yves; Cascarrigny, Françoise; Lebon, Pierre; Rozenberg, Flore; Karin, Michael; Tardieu, Marc; Al-Muhsen, Saleh; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Zhang, Shen-Ying; Abel, Laurent; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) functions downstream of multiple receptors that induce interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN–β and IFN-λ production, including Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), which is deficient in some patients with herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis (HSE). Mice lacking TRAF3 die in the neonatal period, preventing direct investigation of the role of TRAF3 in immune responses and host defenses in vivo. Here we reported the autosomal dominant, human TRAF3 deficiency in a young adult with a history of HSE in childhood. The TRAF3 mutant allele was a loss-of-expression, loss-of-function, dominant-negative phenotype, and was associated with impaired, but not abolished TRAF3-dependent responses upon stimulation of both TNF receptors and receptors that induce IFN production. TRAF3 deficiency was associated with a clinical phenotype limited to HSE resulting from the impairment of TLR3-dependent induction of IFN. Thus, TLR3-mediated immunity against primary infection by HSV-1 in the central nervous system is critically dependent on TRAF3. Highlight sentence Autosomal dominant TRAF3 deficiency is a genetic etiology of herpes simplex encephalitis. Highlight sentence R118W TRAF3 allele is loss-of-function, loss-of-expression, and dominant-negative. Highlight sentence Human TRAF3 deficiency impairs the TLR3-dependent induction of anti-viral interferons. PMID:20832341

  4. Prevalence of human herpes virus types 1-7 in the semen of men attending an infertility clinic and correlation with semen parameters.

    PubMed

    Neofytou, Eirini; Sourvinos, George; Asmarianaki, Maria; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Makrigiannakis, Antonios

    2009-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of herpes viruses in the semen of an asymptomatic male cohort with and without infertility problems and its association with altered semen parameters. A prospective randomized study. Medical school and IVF clinic. One hundred seventy-two male patients undergoing routine semen analysis: 80 with normal semen parameters (control group) and 92 with abnormal semen parameters. Semen samples were collected by masturbation. The DNA from the Herpesviridae family (herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1], herpes simplex virus 2 [HSV-2], Varicella zoster virus [VZV], Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], cytomegalovirus [CMV], human herpes virus type 6 [HHV-6], human herpes virus type 7 [HHV-7]) and routine semen parameters. Viral DNA was detected in 143/172 (83.1%) of the total samples for at least one herpes virus: HSV-1, 2.5%; VZV, 1.2%; EBV, 45%; CMV, 62.5%; HHV-6, 70%; HHV-7, 0% in the normal semen samples and HSV-1, 2.1%; VZV, 3.2%; EBV, 39.1%; CMV, 56.5%; HHV-6, 66.3%; HHV-7, 0% in the abnormal semen samples. No association was found between the presence of viral DNA and semen parameters. Interestingly, a statistical significance between leukocytospermia and the presence of EBV DNA was observed. The DNA of herpes viruses is frequently detected in the semen of asymptomatic fertile and infertile male patients. Further studies are required to investigate the role of herpes viruses in male factor infertility.

  5. Innate-like behavior of human invariant natural killer T cells during herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Novakova, Lucie; Nevoralova, Zuzana; Novak, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells, CD1d restricted T cells, are involved in the immune responses against various infection agents. Here we describe their behavior during reactivation of human herpes simplex virus (HSV). iNKT cells exhibit only discrete changes, which however, reached statistically significant level due to the relatively large patient group. Higher percentage of iNKT cells express NKG2D. iNKT cells down-regulate NKG2A in a subset of patients. Finally, iNKT cells enhance their capacity to produce TNF-α. Our data suggests that iNKT cells are involved in the immune response against HSV and contribute mainly to its early, innate phase. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A random PCR screening system for the identification of type 1 human herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuelian; Shi, Bisheng; Gong, Yan; Zhang, Xiaonan; Shen, Silan; Qian, Fangxing; Gu, Shimin; Hu, Yunwen; Yuan, Zhenghong

    2009-10-01

    Several viral diseases exhibit measles-like symptoms. Differentiation of suspected cases of measles with molecular epidemiological techniques in the laboratory is useful for measles surveillance. In this study, a random PCR screening system was undertaken for the identification of isolates from patients with measles-like symptoms who exhibited cytopathic effects, but who had negative results for measles virus-specific reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and indirect immunofluorescence assays. Sequence analysis of random amplified PCR products showed that they were highly homologous to type 1 human herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The results were further confirmed by an HSV-1-specific TaqMan real-time PCR assay. The random PCR screening system described in this study provides an efficient procedure for the identification of unknown viral pathogens. Measles-like symptoms can also be caused by HSV-1, suggesting the need to include HSV-1 in differential diagnoses of measles-like diseases.

  7. Directed Selection of Recombinant Human Monoclonal Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins from Phage Display Libraries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanna, Pietro Paolo; Williamson, R. Anthony; de Logu, Alessandro; Bloom, Floyd E.; Burton, Dennis R.

    1995-07-01

    Human monoclonal antibodies have considerable potential in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral disease. However, only a few such antibodies suitable for clinical use have been produced to date. We have previously shown that large panels of human recombinant monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of infectious agents, including herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, can be established from phage display libraries. Here we demonstrate that facile cloning of recombinant Fab fragments against specific viral proteins in their native conformation can be accomplished by panning phage display libraries against viral glycoproteins "captured" from infected cell extracts by specific monoclonal antibodies immobilized on ELISA plates. We have tested this strategy by isolating six neutralizing recombinant antibodies specific for herpes simplex glycoprotein gD or gB, some of which are against conformationally sensitive epitopes. By using defined monoclonal antibodies for the antigen-capture step, this method can be used for the isolation of antibodies to specific regions and epitopes within the target viral protein. For instance, monoclonal antibodies to a nonneutralizing epitope can be used in the capture step to clone antibodies to neutralizing epitopes, or antibodies to a neutralizing epitope can be used to clone antibodies to a different neutralizing epitope. Furthermore, by using capturing antibodies to more immunodominant epitopes, one can direct the cloning to less immunogenic ones. This method should be of value in generating antibodies to be used both in the prophylaxis and treatment of viral infections and in the characterization of the mechanisms of antibody protective actions at the molecular level.

  8. Cell culture replication of herpes simplex virus and, or human cytomegalovirus is inhibited by 3,7-dialkoxylated, 1-hydroxyacridone derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lowden, C T; Bastow, K F

    2003-08-01

    The synthetic acridone compound, 5-chloro-1,3-dihydroxyacridone inhibits herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication by inducing the formation of defective viral (B-type) capsids [Antiviral Res. 53 (2002) 113]. In this report, synthetic elaboration of the 1-hydroxyacridone scaffold coupled with antiviral testing led to the identification of 3,7-dimethoxy-1-hydroxy-acridone (2) as an inhibitor of low multiplicity human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection (ED(50) value of 1.4 microM (0.5 microg/ml); greater than 35-fold selectivity). Compound 2 was inactive against HSV replication and the efficacy as an anti-HCMV agent at higher viral loads was only apparent if host cells were replicated in the presence of the compound prior to infection. Interestingly, the 3,5-dimethoxy regioisomer inhibited cell replication (mean CC(50) 33 microM) and was inactive as a selective anti-herpes agent. A limited parallel synthesis and testing of ten 3,7-dialkoxylated compounds closely related to compound 2 led to the discovery of the 3-ethoxy-, 3-propoxy-, 3-isopropoxy- and 3-allyloxy-derivatives as dual inhibitors of both HSV and HCMV (selectivity of the 3-allyloxy analog was greater than 10- and 36-fold, respectively). The 3-benzyloxy-derivative was active (ED(50) value of 6.9 microM) against HCMV only. Moreover, the corresponding C-7 variable alkoxylated parallel series were either weakly active or inactive antiviral agents suggesting an apparent requirement for a C-7 methoxy substituent in the active structure. Exploratory mode of action studies showed that dual inhibitors were most active against a low multiplicity HSV infection and potent inhibition of viral release likely contributed to this. Furthermore, suppression of late viral protein synthesis by dual inhibitors did not correlate with anti-HSV activity. On the basis of the present findings, the 1-hydroxyacridone scaffold is further expanded as a useful template for the discovery of investigational anti-herpes agents. As a group, the

  9. The potential application of a transcriptionally regulated oncolytic herpes simplex virus for human cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Miao, L; Fraefel, C; Sia, K C; Newman, J P; Mohamed-Bashir, S A; Ng, W H; Lam, P Y P

    2014-01-01

    Background: Emerging studies have shown the potential benefit of arming oncolytic viruses with therapeutic genes. However, most of these therapeutic genes are placed under the regulation of ubiquitous viral promoters. Our goal is to generate a safer yet potent oncolytic herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) for cancer therapy. Methods: Using bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) recombineering, a cell cycle-regulatable luciferase transgene cassette was replaced with the infected cell protein 6 (ICP6) coding region (encoded for UL39 or large subunit of ribonucleotide reductase) of the HSV-1 genome. These recombinant viruses, YE-PC8, were further tested for its proliferation-dependent luciferase gene expression. Results: The ability of YE-PC8 to confer proliferation-dependent transgene expression was demonstrated by injecting similar amount of viruses into the tumour-bearing region of the brain and the contralateral normal brain parenchyma of the same mouse. The results showed enhanced levels of luciferase activities in the tumour region but not in the normal brain parenchyma. Similar findings were observed in YE-PC8-infected short-term human brain patient-derived glioma cells compared with normal human astrocytes. intratumoural injection of YE-PC8 viruses resulted in 77% and 80% of tumour regression in human glioma and human hepatocellular carcinoma xenografts, respectively. Conclusion: YE-PC8 viruses confer tumour selectivity in proliferating cells and may be developed further as a feasible approach to treat human cancers. PMID:24196790

  10. Herpes - oral

    MedlinePlus

    ... items such as towels and linens in boiling hot water after each use. Do not share utensils, straws, glasses, or other items if someone has oral herpes. Do not have oral sex if you have oral herpes, especially if you ...

  11. Mechanical Barriers Restrict Invasion of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Human Oral Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Thier, Katharina; Petermann, Philipp; Rahn, Elena; Rothamel, Daniel; Bloch, Wilhelm; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2017-11-15

    Oral mucosa is one of the main target tissues of the human pathogen herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). How the virus overcomes the protective epithelial barriers and penetrates the tissue to reach its receptors and initiate infection is still unclear. Here, we established an ex vivo infection assay with human oral mucosa that allows viral entry studies in a natural target tissue. The focus was on the susceptibility of keratinocytes in the epithelium and the characterization of cellular receptors that mediate viral entry. Upon ex vivo infection of gingiva or vestibular mucosa, we observed that intact human mucosa samples were protected from viral invasion. In contrast, the basal layer of the oral epithelium was efficiently invaded once the connective tissue and the basement membrane were removed. Later during infection, HSV-1 spread from basal keratinocytes to upper layers, demonstrating the susceptibility of the stratified squamous epithelium to HSV-1. The analysis of potential receptors revealed nectin-1 on most mucosal keratinocytes, whereas herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) was found only on a subpopulation of cells, suggesting that nectin-1 acts as primary receptor for HSV-1 in human oral mucosa. To mimic the supposed entry route of HSV-1 via microlesions in vivo , we mechanically wounded the mucosa prior to infection. While we observed a limited number of infected keratinocytes in some wounded mucosa samples, other samples showed no infected cells. Thus, we conclude that mechanical wounding of mucosa is insufficient for the virus to efficiently overcome epithelial barriers and to make entry-mediating receptors accessible. IMPORTANCE To invade the target tissue of its human host during primary infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) must overcome the epithelial barriers of mucosa, skin, or cornea. For most viruses, the mechanisms underlying the invasion into the target tissues of their host organism are still open. Here, we established an ex vivo infection model of

  12. Mechanical Barriers Restrict Invasion of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 into Human Oral Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Thier, Katharina; Petermann, Philipp; Rahn, Elena; Rothamel, Daniel; Bloch, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral mucosa is one of the main target tissues of the human pathogen herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). How the virus overcomes the protective epithelial barriers and penetrates the tissue to reach its receptors and initiate infection is still unclear. Here, we established an ex vivo infection assay with human oral mucosa that allows viral entry studies in a natural target tissue. The focus was on the susceptibility of keratinocytes in the epithelium and the characterization of cellular receptors that mediate viral entry. Upon ex vivo infection of gingiva or vestibular mucosa, we observed that intact human mucosa samples were protected from viral invasion. In contrast, the basal layer of the oral epithelium was efficiently invaded once the connective tissue and the basement membrane were removed. Later during infection, HSV-1 spread from basal keratinocytes to upper layers, demonstrating the susceptibility of the stratified squamous epithelium to HSV-1. The analysis of potential receptors revealed nectin-1 on most mucosal keratinocytes, whereas herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) was found only on a subpopulation of cells, suggesting that nectin-1 acts as primary receptor for HSV-1 in human oral mucosa. To mimic the supposed entry route of HSV-1 via microlesions in vivo, we mechanically wounded the mucosa prior to infection. While we observed a limited number of infected keratinocytes in some wounded mucosa samples, other samples showed no infected cells. Thus, we conclude that mechanical wounding of mucosa is insufficient for the virus to efficiently overcome epithelial barriers and to make entry-mediating receptors accessible. IMPORTANCE To invade the target tissue of its human host during primary infection, herpes simplex virus (HSV) must overcome the epithelial barriers of mucosa, skin, or cornea. For most viruses, the mechanisms underlying the invasion into the target tissues of their host organism are still open. Here, we established an ex vivo infection

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Antiviral Activity of Camel, Bovine, and Human Lactoperoxidases Against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1.

    PubMed

    El-Fakharany, Esmail M; Uversky, Vladimir N; Redwan, Elrashdy M

    2017-05-01

    Lactoperoxidase is a milk hemoprotein that acts as a non-immunoglobulin protective protein and shows strong antimicrobial activity. Bovine milk contains about 15 and 7 times higher levels of lactoperoxidase than human colustrum and camel milk, respectively. Human, bovine, and camel lactoperoxidases (hLPO, bLPO, and cLPO, respectively) were purified as homogeneous samples with specific activities of 4.2, 61.3, and 8.7 u/mg, respectively. The optimal working pH was 7.5 (hLPO and bLPO) and 6.5 (cLPO), whereas the optimal working temperature for these proteins was 40 °C. The K m of hLPO, cLPO, and bLPO were 17, 16, and 19 mM, and their corresponding V max values were 2, 1.7, and 2.7 μmol/min ml. However, in the presence of H 2 O 2 , the K m values were 11 mM for hLPO and cLPO and 20 mM for bLPO, while the corresponding V max values were 1.17 for hLPO and 1.4 μmol/min ml for cLPO and bLPO. All three proteins were able to inhibit the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in Vero cell line model. The relative antiviral activities were proportional to the protein concentrations. The highest anti-HSV-1 activity was exhibited by bLPO that inhibited the HSV particles at a concentration of 0.5 mg/ml with the relative activity of 100%.

  14. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Genital Herpes KidsHealth / For Teens / Genital Herpes What's in this article? What Is It? ... Appear? Someone who has been exposed to genital herpes will notice genital itching and/or pain about 2 to 20 ...

  15. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... herpes is spread through: Vaginal, oral, or anal sex. The herpes virus is usually spread through contact with open sores. But you also can get herpes from someone without any symptoms or sores. Genital touching Childbirth from a mother to her baby Breastfeeding if a baby touches ...

  16. Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis after Herpes simplex virus-associated encephalitis: an emerging disease with diagnosis and therapeutic challenges.

    PubMed

    Schein, Flora; Gagneux-Brunon, Amandine; Antoine, Jean-Christophe; Lavernhe, Sylvie; Pillet, Sylvie; Paul, Stéphane; Frésard, Anne; Boutet, Claire; Grange, Rémi; Cazorla, Céline; Lucht, Frédéric; Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth

    2017-08-01

    Morbidity and mortality of Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) remain high. Relapses of neurological signs may occur after initial clinical improvement under acyclovir treatment. We report here a case of post-HSE anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor-mediated encephalitis in an adult and perform a systematic search on PubMed to identify other cases in adults. We identified 11 previously published cases, to discuss diagnostic and therapeutic management. Symptoms in adults are often inappropriate behaviors, confusion and agitation. Diagnosis of anti-NMDA-R encephalitis after HSE is often delayed. Treatment consists in steroids, plasma exchange, and rituximab. Prognosis is often favorable. Anti-NMDA-R antibodies should be searched in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with unexpected evolution of HSE. This emerging entity reopens the hot debate about steroids in HSE.

  17. Herpes simplex virus-induced anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis: a systematic literature review with analysis of 43 cases.

    PubMed

    Nosadini, Margherita; Mohammad, Shekeeb S; Corazza, Francesco; Ruga, Ezia Maria; Kothur, Kavitha; Perilongo, Giorgio; Frigo, Anna Chiara; Toldo, Irene; Dale, Russell C; Sartori, Stefano

    2017-08-01

    To conduct a systematic literature review on patients with biphasic disease with herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis followed by anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis. We conducted a case report and systematic literature review (up to 10 December 2016), focused on differences between herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and anti-NMDAR encephalitis phases, age-related characteristics of HSV-induced anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and therapy. For statistical analyses, McNemar's test, Fisher's test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used (two-tailed significance level set at 5%). Forty-three patients with biphasic disease were identified (31 children). Latency between HSE and anti-NMDAR encephalitis was significantly shorter in children than adults (median 24 vs 40.5d; p=0.006). Compared with HSE, anti-NMDAR encephalitis was characterized by significantly higher frequency of movement disorder (2.5% vs 75% respectively; p<0.001), and significantly lower rate of seizures (70% vs 30% respectively; p=0.001). Compared with adults, during anti-NMDAR encephalitis children had significantly more movement disorders (86.7% children vs 40% adults; p=0.006), fewer psychiatric symptoms (41.9% children vs 90.0% adults; p=0.025), and a slightly higher median modified Rankin Scale score (5 in children vs 4 in adults; p=0.015). During anti-NMDAR encephalitis, 84.6 per cent of patients received aciclovir (for ≤7d in 22.7%; long-term antivirals in 18.0% only), and 92.7 per cent immune therapy, but none had recurrence of HSE clinically or using cerebrospinal fluid HSV polymerase chain reaction (median follow-up 7mo). Our review suggests that movement disorder may help differentiate clinically an episode of HSV-induced anti-NMDAR encephalitis from HSE relapse. Compared with adults, children have shorter latency between HSE and anti-NMDAR encephalitis and, during anti-NMDAR encephalitis, more movement disorder, fewer psychiatric symptoms, and slightly more severe disease

  18. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    PubMed Central

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. Objective: To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. Materials and Methods: The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus–host interaction was conducted by the same assay. Results: CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. Conclusion: The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. SUMMARY Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes

  19. In vitro Cytotoxicity and Anti-herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds from Stem Bark of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi.

    PubMed

    Nocchi, Samara Requena; de Moura-Costa, Gislaine Franco; Novello, Claudio Roberto; Rodrigues, Juliana; Longhini, Renata; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Filho, Benedito Prado Dias; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is associated with orofacial infections and is transmitted by direct contact with infected secretions. Several efforts have been expended in the search for drugs to the treatment for herpes. Schinus terebinthifolius is used in several illnesses and among them, for the topical treatment of skin wounds, especially wounds of mucous membranes, whether infected or not. To evaluate the cytotoxicity and anti-HSV-1 activity of the crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) from the stem bark of S. terebinthifolius, as well as its fractions and isolated compounds. The CHE was subjected to bioguided fractionation. The anti-HSV-1 activity and the cytotoxicity of the CHE, its fractions, and isolated compounds were evaluated in vitro by SRB method. A preliminar investigation of the action of CHE in the virus-host interaction was conducted by the same assay. CHE presented flavan-3-ols and showed anti-HSV-1 activity, better than its fractions and isolated compounds. The class of substances found in CHE can bind to proteins to form unstable complexes and enveloped viruses, as HSV-1 may be vulnerable to this action. Our results suggest that the CHE interfered with virion envelope structures, masking viral receptors that are necessary for adsorption or entry into host cells. The plant investigated exhibited potential for future development treatment against HSV-1, but further tests are necessary, especially to elucidate the mechanism of action of CHE, as well as preclinical and clinical studies to confirm its safety and efficacy. Crude hydroethanolic extract (CHE) presents promising activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV 1), with selectivity index (SI) = 22.50CHE has flavan-3-ols in its composition, such as catechin and gallocatechinThe fractions and isolated compounds obtained from CHE by bioguided fractionation are less active than the CHE against HSV-1CHE interferes with viral entry process in the host cell and acts directly on the viral

  20. Genome-wide prediction of vaccine targets for human herpes simplex viruses using Vaxign reverse vaccinology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are the most common infectious agents of humans. No safe and effective HSV vaccines have been licensed. Reverse vaccinology is an emerging and revolutionary vaccine development strategy that starts with the prediction of vaccine targets by informatics analysis of genome sequences. Vaxign (http://www.violinet.org/vaxign) is the first web-based vaccine design program based on reverse vaccinology. In this study, we used Vaxign to analyze 52 herpesvirus genomes, including 3 HSV-1 genomes, one HSV-2 genome, 8 other human herpesvirus genomes, and 40 non-human herpesvirus genomes. The HSV-1 strain 17 genome that contains 77 proteins was used as the seed genome. These 77 proteins are conserved in two other HSV-1 strains (strain F and strain H129). Two envelope glycoproteins gJ and gG do not have orthologs in HSV-2 or 8 other human herpesviruses. Seven HSV-1 proteins (including gJ and gG) do not have orthologs in all 40 non-human herpesviruses. Nineteen proteins are conserved in all human herpesviruses, including capsid scaffold protein UL26.5 (NP_044628.1). As the only HSV-1 protein predicted to be an adhesin, UL26.5 is a promising vaccine target. The MHC Class I and II epitopes were predicted by the Vaxign Vaxitop prediction program and IEDB prediction programs recently installed and incorporated in Vaxign. Our comparative analysis found that the two programs identified largely the same top epitopes but also some positive results predicted from one program might not be positive from another program. Overall, our Vaxign computational prediction provides many promising candidates for rational HSV vaccine development. The method is generic and can also be used to predict other viral vaccine targets. PMID:23514126

  1. Molecular detection of cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus 2, human papillomavirus 16-18 in Turkish pregnants.

    PubMed

    Dinc, Bedia; Bozdayi, Gulendam; Biri, Aydan; Kalkanci, Ayse; Dogan, Bora; Bozkurt, Nuray; Rota, Seyyal

    2010-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common cause of viral intrauterine infections in the world. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the main agents of viral sexually transmitted diseases, which cause genital ulcers and genital warts, respectively. HPV infection has been linked to the majority of the anogenital malignancies. The aim of this study was to detect the existence of CMV, HSV-2 and HPV type 16-18 in Turkish pregnants by using sensitive molecular assays. One hundred thirty-four women (18-41 years old; mean age ± SD: 27 ± 8) applied to outpatient clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, in between 18th - 22nd weeks of their pregnancy and a control group of 99 healthy women (15-39 years old; mean age ± SD: 24 ± 8) were included in the study. Cervical smear samples were used for DNA extraction. CMV, HSV-2 and HPV 16-18 detections were carried out by real time PCR and in house PCR method, respectively. Three patients (3/134; 2.2%) were found to be positive for each HPV and HSV-2. Dual infection with HPV and HSV was found in just one patient. HPV 18 was detected in all positive samples. CMV was found to be positive in two patients (2/134; 1.4 %). HPV, HSV and CMV must be screened due to high prevalence of these viruses in pregnants by using sensitive molecular methods.

  2. Pregnancy and herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... and may pass the virus to their baby. Herpes type 2 (genital herpes) is the most common cause of herpes infection ... prenatal visit if you have a history of genital herpes. If you have frequent herpes outbreaks, you'll ...

  3. Primate Neural Retina Upregulates IL-6 and IL-10 in Response to a Herpes Simplex Vector Suggesting the Presence of a Pro-/Anti-inflammatory Axis

    PubMed Central

    Sauter, Monica M.; Brandt, Curtis R.

    2016-01-01

    Injection of herpes simplex virus vectors into the vitreous of primate eyes induces an acute, transient uveitis. The purpose of this study was to characterize innate immune responses of macaque neural retina tissue to the herpes simplex virus type 1-based gene delivery vector hrR3. PCR array analysis demonstrated the induction of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, following hrR3 exposure. Secretion of IL-6 was detected by ELISA and cone photoreceptors and Muller cells were the predominant IL-6 positive cell types. RNA in situ hybridization confirmed that IL-6 was expressed in photoreceptor and Muller cells. The IL-10 positive cells in the inner nuclear layer were identified as amacrine cells by immunofluorescence staining with calretinin antibody. hrR3 challenge resulted in activation of NFκB (p65) in Muller glial cells, but not in cone photoreceptors, suggesting a novel regulatory mechanism for IL-6 expression in cone cells. hrR3 replication was not required for IL-6 induction or NFκB (p65) activation. These data suggest a pro-inflammatory (IL-6)/anti-inflammatory (IL-10) axis exists in neural retina and the severity of acute posterior uveitis may be determined by this interaction. Further studies are needed to identify the trigger for IL-6 and IL-10 induction and the mechanism of IL-6 induction in cone cells. PMID:27170050

  4. Anti-Human Trafficking Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davy, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Since the early 2000s, a significant number of programs and policies have been developed and implemented to prevent and combat human trafficking. At the international, regional and national levels, government, and international, and nongovernment organizations have established plans of action, conducted training, developed policy tools, and…

  5. Intratypic variability of a tandem repeat locus within the DNA polymerase gene of human herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yongjiang; Chan, Roy Kum Wah; Tan, Suat Hoon

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the irntratypic variability of a tandem repeat locus within the DNA polymerase (pol) gene of human herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) was uncovered. The locus contained variable numbers of tandem dodecanucleotide (5'-GAC GAG GAC GGG-3') repetitive units. Our result showed that approximately 95% of analyzed HSV2 clinical isolates and the current GenBank HSV2 strains contained two copies of the repetitive units. From genital herpes specimens, three new HSV2 strains, which respectively contained 1, 3, and 4 copies of the repetitive units, were identified. This variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) locus is absent in HSV1, and thus it also contributes to the intertypic variability of HSV1 and HSV2. The intratypic variability of the locus may be useful for HSV2 strain genotyping and this application is discussed.

  6. Herpes simplex virus downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor enhances human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

    PubMed

    Skeate, Joseph G; Porras, Tania B; Woodham, Andrew W; Jang, Julie K; Taylor, Julia R; Brand, Heike E; Kelly, Thomas J; Jung, Jae U; Da Silva, Diane M; Yuan, Weiming; Kast, W Martin

    2016-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) was originally implicated in the aetiology of cervical cancer, and although high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) is now the accepted causative agent, the epidemiological link between HSV and HPV-associated cancers persists. The annexin A2 heterotetramer (A2t) has been shown to mediate infectious HPV type 16 (HPV16) uptake by human keratinocytes, and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), an endogenous A2t ligand, inhibits HPV16 uptake and infection. Interestingly, HSV infection induces a sustained downregulation of SLPI in epithelial cells, which we hypothesized promotes HPV16 infection through A2t. Here, we show that in vitro infection of human keratinocytes with HSV-1 or HSV-2, but not with an HSV-1 ICP4 deletion mutant that does not downregulate SLPI, leads to a >70% reduction of SLPI mRNA and a >60% decrease in secreted SLPI protein. Consequently, we observed a significant increase in the uptake of HPV16 virus-like particles and gene transduction by HPV16 pseudovirions (two- and 2.5-fold, respectively) in HSV-1- and HSV-2-infected human keratinocyte cell cultures compared with uninfected cells, whereas exogenously added SLPI reversed this effect. Using a SiMPull (single-molecule pulldown) assay, we demonstrated that endogenously secreted SLPI interacts with A2t on epithelial cells in an autocrine/paracrine manner. These results suggested that ongoing HSV infection and resultant downregulation of local levels of SLPI may impart a greater susceptibility for keratinocytes to HPV16 infection through the host cell receptor A2t, providing a mechanism that may, in part, provide an explanation for the aetiological link between HSV and HPV-associated cancers.

  7. Biophysical Characterization of Nucleophosmin Interactions with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Rev and Herpes Simplex Virus US11

    PubMed Central

    Nouri, Kazem; Moll, Jens M.; Milroy, Lech-Gustav; Hain, Anika; Dvorsky, Radovan; Amin, Ehsan; Lenders, Michael; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Howe, Sebastian; Smits, Sander H. J.; Hengel, Hartmut; Schmitt, Lutz; Münk, Carsten; Brunsveld, Luc; Ahmadian, Mohammad R.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleophosmin (NPM1, also known as B23, numatrin or NO38) is a pentameric RNA-binding protein with RNA and protein chaperon functions. NPM1 has increasingly emerged as a potential cellular factor that directly associates with viral proteins; however, the significance of these interactions in each case is still not clear. In this study, we have investigated the physical interaction of NPM1 with both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Rev and Herpes Simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) US11, two functionally homologous proteins. Both viral proteins show, in mechanistically different modes, high affinity for a binding site on the N-terminal oligomerization domain of NPM1. Rev, additionally, exhibits low-affinity for the central histone-binding domain of NPM1. We also showed that the proapoptotic cyclic peptide CIGB-300 specifically binds to NPM1 oligomerization domain and blocks its association with Rev and US11. Moreover, HIV-1 virus production was significantly reduced in the cells treated with CIGB-300. Results of this study suggest that targeting NPM1 may represent a useful approach for antiviral intervention. PMID:26624888

  8. Enhanced mutagenesis parallels enhanced reactivation of herpes virus in a human cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, C D; Knott, D C

    1982-01-01

    U.v. irradiation of human NB-E cells results in enhanced mutagenesis and enhanced reactivation of u.v.-irradiated H-1 virus grown in those cells ( Cornelis et al., 1982). This paper reports a similar study using herpes simplex virus (HSV) in NB-E cells. The mutation frequency of HSV (resistance of virus plaque formation to 40 micrograms/ml iododeoxycytidine ) increased approximately linearly with exposure of the virus to u.v. radiation. HSV grown in unirradiated cells gave a slope of 1.8 X 10(-5)m2/J, with 3.2 X 10(-5)m2/J for HSV grown in cells irradiated (3 J/m2) 24 h before infection. There was no evidence for mutagenesis of unirradiated virus by irradiated cells, as seen with H-1 virus. Enhanced reactivation of irradiated HSV in parallel cultures increased virus survival, manifested as a change in slope of the final component of the two-component survival curve from a D0 of 27 J/m2 in unirradiated cells to 45 J/m2 in irradiated cells. Thus, enhanced mutagenesis and enhanced reactivation occurred for irradiated HSV in NB-E cells. The difference in the enhanced mutagenesis of HSV (dependent on damaged DNA sites) and of H-1 virus (primarily independent of damaged DNA sites) is discussed in terms of differences in DNA polymerases. PMID:6329698

  9. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in Korean commercial sex workers.

    PubMed

    Yun, Haesun; Park, Jeongjoo; Choi, Inkyung; Kee, Meekyung; Choi, Byeongsun; Kim, Sungsoon

    2008-02-01

    In order to investigate the prevalence of sexually transmitted viruses such as human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) in Korean commercial sex workers (CSWs), we selected 188 CSWs (age range 20-44 years, median age 24 years) who regularly visited one public health center in Seoul, Korea. HPV genotypes were analyzed by using a HPV DNA chip, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect type-specific IgG against HSV2 antibody identifying seropositivity for HSV2 infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed with specific primers to detect HPV and HSV1/2 in cervical swabs from the CSWs. The prevalence of HPV infection was 83.5% in 188 cervical swab specimens and the main high-risk HPV genotypes were HPV16, 18, 56, and 58. The principal low-risk HPV genotypes were HPV6 and 11. The prevalence of HSV1/2 DNA was 13.8% and HSV2 seroprevalence was 86.2%. These results suggest that high frequencies of HPV and HSV2 infection might contribute to the rapid spread of STD viruses in CSWs in Korea. Additionally, an understanding of why high-risk HPV genotypes are so prevalent could provide guidelines for prophylactic vaccine development in Korea.

  10. Polyploidization on SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cells infected with herpes simplex virus 1.

    PubMed

    Karalyan, Zaven; Izmailyan, Roza; Karalova, Elena; Abroyan, Liana; Hakobyan, Lina; Avetisyan, Aida; Semerjyan, Zara

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidization is one of the most dramatic changes occurring within cell genome owing to various reasons including under many viral infections. We examined the impact of herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) on SK-N-MC human neuroblastoma cell line. The infected cells were followed from 6 hours up to 96 hours post infection (hpi). A large number of polyploid cells with giant nuclei was observed under the influence of HSV-1 at 24 hpi with the DNA content of 32c to 64c or more, in comparison with control SK-N-MC cells that were characterized by relatively moderate values of ploidy, i.e. 8с to 16с (where 1c is the haploid amount of nuclear DNA found in normal diploid populations in G0/G1). After 48-96 hpi, the population of polyploid cells with giant nuclei decreased to the benchmark level. The SK-NMC cells infected with HSV-1 for 24 hours were stained with gallocyanine and monitored for cytological features. The infected cells underwent virus induced cellcell and nuclei fusion with the formation of dense nuclei syncytium. The metabolic activity of HSV-1 infected cells was higher in both nuclei and nucleoli when compared to control cells.

  11. Enhanced replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.S.; Smith, K.O.

    1991-02-01

    The effects of DNA-damaging agents on the replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) were assessed in vitro. Monolayers of human lung fibroblast cell lines were exposed to DNA-damaging agents (methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), methyl methanethiosulfonate (MMTS), ultraviolet light (UV), or gamma radiation (GR)) at specific intervals, before or after inoculation with low levels of HSV-1. The ability of cell monolayers to support HSV-1 replication was measured by direct plaque assay and was compared with that of untreated control samples. In this system, monolayers of different cell lines infected with identical HSV-1 strains demonstrated dissimilar levels of recovery of themore » infectious virus. Exposure of DNA-repair-competent cell cultures to DNA-damaging agents produced time-dependent enhanced virus replication. Treatment with agent before virus inoculation significantly (p less than 0.025) increased the number of plaques by 10 to 68%, compared with untreated control cultures, while treatment with agent after virus adsorption significantly increased (p less than 0.025) the number of plaques by 7 to 15%. In a parallel series of experiments, cells deficient in DNA repair (xeroderma pigmentosum) failed to support enhanced virus replication. These results suggest that after exposure to DNA-damaging agents, fibroblasts competent in DNA repair amplify the replication of HSV-1, and that DNA-repair mechanisms that act on a variety of chromosomal lesions may be involved in the repair and biological activation of HSV-1 genomes.« less

  12. A Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Human Asymptomatic CD8+ T-Cell Epitopes-Based Vaccine Protects Against Ocular Herpes in a “Humanized” HLA Transgenic Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A.; Huang, Jiawei; Nesburn, Anthony B.; Wechsler, Steven L.; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A clinical vaccine that protects from ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infection and disease still is lacking. In the present study, preclinical vaccine trials of nine asymptomatic (ASYMP) peptides, selected from HSV-1 glycoproteins B (gB), and tegument proteins VP11/12 and VP13/14, were performed in the “humanized” HLA–transgenic rabbit (HLA-Tg rabbit) model of ocular herpes. We recently reported that these peptides are highly recognized by CD8+ T cells from “naturally” protected HSV-1–seropositive healthy ASYMP individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Methods. Mixtures of three ASYMP CD8+ T-cell peptides derived from either HSV-1 gB, VP11/12, or VP13/14 were delivered subcutaneously to different groups of HLA-Tg rabbits (n = 10) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant, twice at 15-day intervals. The frequency and function of HSV-1 epitope-specific CD8+ T cells induced by these peptides and their protective efficacy, in terms of survival, virus replication in the eye, and ocular herpetic disease were assessed after an ocular challenge with HSV-1 (strain McKrae). Results. All mixtures elicited strong and polyfunctional IFN-γ– and TNF-α–producing CD107+CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, associated with a significant reduction in death, ocular herpes infection, and disease (P < 0.015). Conclusions. The results of this preclinical trial support the screening strategy used to select the HSV-1 ASYMP CD8+ T-cell epitopes, emphasize their valuable immunogenic and protective efficacy against ocular herpes, and provide a prototype vaccine formulation that may be highly efficacious for preventing ocular herpes in humans. PMID:26098469

  13. Effects of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 on herpes simplex virus and human immunodeficiency virus replication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; McGrath, M. S.; Hanks, D.; Erickson, S.; Pulliam, L.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated the direct effect of dimethyl prostaglandin A1 (dmPGA1) on the replication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). dmPGA1 significantly inhibited viral replication in both HSV and HIV infection systems at concentrations of dmPGA1 that did not adversely alter cellular DNA synthesis. The 50% inhibitory concentration (ID50) for several HSV type 1 (HSV-1) strains ranged from 3.8 to 5.6 micrograms/ml for Vero cells and from 4.6 to 7.3 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. The ID50s for two HSV-2 strains varied from 3.8 to 4.5 micrograms/ml for Vero cells; the ID50 was 5.7 micrograms/ml for human foreskin fibroblasts. We found that closely related prostaglandins did not have the same effect on the replication of HSV; dmPGE2 and dmPGA2 caused up to a 60% increase in HSV replication compared with that in untreated virus-infected cells. HIV-1 replication in acutely infected T cells (VB line) and chronically infected macrophages was assessed by quantitative decreases in p24 concentration. The effective ID50s were 2.5 micrograms/ml for VB cells acutely infected with HIV-1 and 5.2 micrograms/m for chronically infected macrophages. dmPGA1 has an unusual broad-spectrum antiviral activity against both HSV and HIV-1 in vitro and offers a new class of potential therapeutic agents for in vivo use.

  14. Global Secretome Characterization of Herpes Simplex Virus 1-Infected Human Primary Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Juho J.; Matikainen, Sampsa

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a common pathogen infecting the majority of people worldwide at some stage in their lives. The early host response to viral infection is initiated by the cells of the innate immune response, including macrophages. Here, we have characterized the secretome of HSV-1-infected human primary macrophages using high-throughput quantitative proteomics. We identified and quantified 516 distinct human proteins with high confidence from the macrophage secretome upon HSV-1 infection, and the secretion of 411 proteins was >2-fold increased upon beta interferon (IFN-β) priming and/or HSV-1 infection. Bioinformatics analysis of the secretome data revealed that most of the secreted proteins were intracellular, and almost 80% of the proteins whose secretion increased more than 2-fold were known exosomal proteins. This strongly suggests that nonclassical, vesicle-mediated protein secretion is activated in IFN-β-primed and HSV-1-infected macrophages. Proteins related to immune and inflammatory responses, interferon-induced proteins, and endogenous danger signal proteins were efficiently secreted upon IFN-β priming and HSV-1 infection. The secreted IFN-induced proteins include interferon-induced tetratricopeptide protein 2 (IFIT2), IFIT3, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), implicating that these proteins also have important extracellular antiviral functions. Proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β was not released by HSV-1-infected macrophages, demonstrating that HSV-1 can antagonize inflammasome function. In conclusion, our results provide a global view of the secretome of HSV-1-infected macrophages, revealing host factors possibly having a role in antiviral defense. PMID:22973042

  15. [Detection of herpes virus and human enterovirus in pathology samples using low-density arrays].

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Martínez, Sofía; Gervás Ríos, Ruth; Franco Rodríguez, Yoana; González Velasco, Cristina; Cruz Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Abad Hernández, María Del Mar

    Despite the frequency of infections with herpesviridae family, only eight subtypes affect humans (Herpex Simplex Virus types 1 and 2, Varicella Zoster Virus, Epstein-Barr Virus, Citomegalovirus and Human Herpes Virus types 6, 7 and 8). Amongst enteroviruses infections, the most important are Poliovirus, Coxackievirus and Echovirus. Symptoms can vary from mild to severe and early diagnosis is of upmost importance. Nowadays, low-density arrays can detect different types of viruses in a single assay using DNA extracted from biological samples. We analyzed 70 samples of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue, searching for viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2, VZV, CMV, EBV, HHV-6, HHV-7 y HHV-8, Poliovirus, Echovirus and Coxsackievirus) using the kit CLART ® ENTHERPEX. Out of the total of 70 samples, 29 were positive for viral infection (41.43%), and only 4 of them showed cytopathic effect (100% correlation between histology and the test). 47.6% of GVHD samples were positive for virus; 68.75% of IBD analyzed showed positivity for viral infection; in colitis with ulcers (neither GVHD nor IBD), the test was positive in 50% of the samples and was also positive in 50% of ischemic lesions. The high sensitivity of the technique makes it a useful tool for the pathologist in addition to conventional histology-based diagnosis, as a viral infection may affect treatment. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Anatomía Patológica. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Herpes Simplex Virus Suppressive Therapy in Herpes Simplex Virus-2/Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Coinfected Women Is Associated With Reduced Systemic CXCL10 But Not Genital Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Andersen-Nissen, Erica; Chang, Joanne T; Thomas, Katherine K; Adams, Devin; Celum, Connie; Sanchez, Jorge; Coombs, Robert W; McElrath, M Juliana; Baeten, Jared M

    2016-12-01

    Herpes simplex virus type-2 (HSV-2) may heighten immune activation and increase human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replication, resulting in greater infectivity and faster HIV-1 disease progression. An 18-week randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial of 500 mg valacyclovir twice daily in 20 antiretroviral-naive women coinfected with HSV-2 and HIV-1 was conducted and HSV-2 suppression was found to significantly reduce both HSV-2 and HIV-1 viral loads both systemically and the endocervical compartment. To determine the effect of HSV-2 suppression on systemic and genital mucosal inflammation, plasma specimens, and endocervical swabs were collected weekly from volunteers in the trial and cryopreserved. Plasma was assessed for concentrations of 31 cytokines and chemokines; endocervical fluid was eluted from swabs and assayed for 14 cytokines and chemokines. Valacyclovir significantly reduced plasma CXCL10 but did not significantly alter other cytokine concentrations in either compartment. These data suggest genital tract inflammation in women persists despite HSV-2 suppression, supporting the lack of effect on transmission seen in large scale efficacy trials. Alternative therapies are needed to reduce persistent mucosal inflammation that may enhance transmission of HSV-2 and HIV-1.

  17. Genital herpes: gynaecological aspects.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah; Steben, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide recommendations to gynaecology health care providers on optimal management of genital herpes. More effective prevention of complications and transmission of genital herpes. Medline was searched for articles published in French and English related to genital herpes and gynaecology. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. 1. Up to 70% of all genital HSV-2 infections are transmitted during asymptomatic shedding; therefore, the use of condoms is recommended to lessen the likelihood of disease transmission. (II-A) 2. A laboratory-based diagnosis of genital herpes is essential for its effective management. (II-A) 3. Suppressive treatment is suggested for patients who have * at least 6 recurrences per year * significant complications, but fewer than 6 recurrences per year * their quality of life significantly affected * social and sexual dysfunction * to lower the risk of transmission to a sexual partner or fetus/neonate. (II-B) 4. The use of the anti-viral valacyclovir, coupled with condoms and safer sex counselling, is recommended for individuals with proven genital herpes. (I-B) 5. Routine or targeted HSV screening is not indicated.

  18. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50 Anti-Human...

  19. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50 Anti-Human...

  20. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50 Anti-Human...

  1. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Anti-Human Globulin. 660.50 Section 660.50 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR DIAGNOSTIC SUBSTANCES FOR LABORATORY TESTS Anti-Human Globulin § 660.50 Anti-Human...

  2. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... The chance your baby will get HSV is much higher if you have your first herpes outbreak around the time of birth. You should avoid having sex with a partner who you know or think has herpes during your third trimester (last 3 months) of pregnancy. Your provider ...

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid cyto-/chemokine profile during acute herpes simplex virus induced anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor encephalitis and in chronic neurological sequelae.

    PubMed

    Kothur, Kavitha; Gill, Deepak; Wong, Melanie; Mohammad, Shekeeb S; Bandodkar, Sushil; Arbunckle, Susan; Wienholt, Louise; Dale, Russell C

    2017-08-01

    To examine the cytokine/chemokine profile of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during acute herpes simplex virus-induced N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) autoimmunity and in chronic/relapsing post-herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSE) neurological syndromes. We measured longitudinal serial CSF cyto-/chemokines (n=34) and a glial marker (calcium-binding astroglial protein, S100B) in one patient during acute HSE and subsequent anti-NMDAR encephalitis, and compared the results with those from two patients with anti-NMDAR encephalitis without preceding HSE. We also compared cyto-/chemokines in cross-sectional CSF samples from three children with previous HSE who had ongoing chronic or relapsing neurological symptoms (2yr 9 mo-16y after HSE) with those in a group of children having non-inflammatory neurological conditions (n=20). Acute HSE showed elevation of a broad range of all T-helper-subset-related cyto-/chemokines and S100B whereas the post-HSE anti-NMDAR encephalitis phase showed persistent elevation of two of five T-helper-1 (chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 9 [CXCL9], CXCL10), three of five predominantly B-cell (CXCL13, CCL19, a proliferation-inducing ligand [APRIL])-mediated cyto-/chemokines, and interferon-α. The post-HSE anti-NMDAR encephalitis inflammatory response was more pronounced than anti-NMDAR encephalitis. All three chronic post-HSE cases showed persistent elevation of CXCL9, CXCL10, and interferon-α, and there was histopathological evidence of chronic lymphocytic inflammation in one biopsied case 7 years after HSE. Two of three chronic cases showed a modest response to immune therapy. HSE-induced anti-NMDAR encephalitis is a complex and pronounced inflammatory syndrome. There is persistent CSF upregulation of cyto-/chemokines in chronic or relapsing post-HSE neurological symptoms, which may be modifiable with immune therapy. The elevated cyto-/chemokines may be targets of monoclonal therapies. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies and human sera directed to the secreted glycoprotein G of herpes simplex virus type 2 recognize type-specific antigenic determinants.

    PubMed

    Liljeqvist, Jan-Ake; Trybala, Edward; Hoebeke, Johan; Svennerholm, Bo; Bergström, Tomas

    2002-01-01

    Glycoprotein G-2 (gG-2) of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) is cleaved to a secreted amino-terminal portion (sgG-2) and to a cell-associated carboxy-terminal portion which is further O-glycosylated to constitute the mature gG-2 (mgG-2). In contrast to mgG-2, which is known to elicit a type-specific antibody response in the human host, information on the immunogenic properties of sgG-2 is lacking. Here the sgG-2 protein was purified on a heparin column and used for production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Four anti-sgG-2 mAbs were mapped using a Pepscan technique and identified linear epitopes which localized to the carboxy-terminal part of the protein. One additional anti-sgG-2 mAb, recognizing a non-linear epitope, was reactive to three discrete peptide stretches where the most carboxy-terminally located stretch was constituted by the amino acids (320)RRAL(323). Although sgG-2 is rapidly secreted into the cell-culture medium after infection, the anti-sgG-2 mAbs identified substantial amounts of sgG-2 in the cytoplasm of HSV-2-infected cells. All of the anti-sgG-2 mAbs were HSV-2 specific showing no cross-reactivity to HSV-1 antigen or to HSV-1-infected cells. Similarly, sera from 50 HSV-2 isolation positive patients were all reactive to sgG-2 in an enzyme immunoassay whilst no reactivity was seen in 25 sera from HSV-1 isolation positive patients or in 25 serum samples from HSV-negative patients suggesting that sgG-2 is a novel antigen potentially suitable for type-discriminating serodiagnosis.

  5. Human cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex type I virus can engage RNA polymerase I for transcription of immediate early genes

    PubMed Central

    Kostopoulou, Ourania N.; Wilhelmi, Vanessa; Raiss, Sina; Ananthaseshan, Sharan; Lindström, Mikael S.; Bartek, Jiri; Söderberg-Naucler, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) utilizes RNA polymerase II to transcribe viral genes and produce viral mRNAs. It can specifically target the nucleolus to facilitate viral transcription and translation. As RNA polymerase I (Pol I)-mediated transcription is active in the nucleolus, we investigated the role of Pol I, along with relative contributions of the human Pol II and Pol III, to early phases of viral transcription in HCMV infected cells, compared with Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) and Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV). Inhibition of Pol I with siRNA or the Pol I inhibitors CX-5461 or Actinomycin D (5nM) resulted in significantly decreased IE and pp65 mRNA and protein levels in human fibroblasts at early times post infection. This initially delayed replication was compensated for later during the replication process, at which stage it didn’t significantly affect virus production. Pol I inhibition also reduced HSV-1 ICP0 and gB transcripts, suggesting that some herpesviruses engage Pol I for their early transcription. In contrast, inhibition of Pol I failed to affect MCMV transcription. Collectively, our results contribute to better understanding of the functional interplay between RNA Pol I-mediated nucleolar events and the Herpes viruses, particularly HCMV whose pathogenic impact ranges from congenital malformations and potentially deadly infections among immunosuppressed patients, up to HCMV’s emerging oncomodulatory role in human tumors. PMID:29228551

  6. Dissection of the Antibody Response against Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoproteins in Naturally Infected Humans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen-Yu; Whitbeck, J. Charles; Ponce de Leon, Manuel; Lou, Huan; Wald, Anna; Krummenacher, Claude; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Relatively little is known about the extent of the polyclonal antibody (PAb) repertoire elicited by herpes simplex virus (HSV) glycoproteins during natural infection and how these antibodies affect virus neutralization. Here, we examined IgGs from 10 HSV-seropositive individuals originally classified as high or low virus shedders. All PAbs neutralized virus to various extents. We determined which HSV entry glycoproteins these PAbs were directed against: glycoproteins gB, gD, and gC were recognized by all sera, but fewer sera reacted against gH/gL. We previously characterized multiple mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and mapped those with high neutralizing activity to the crystal structures of gD, gB, and gH/gL. We used a biosensor competition assay to determine whether there were corresponding human antibodies to those epitopes. All 10 samples had neutralizing IgGs to gD epitopes, but there were variations in which epitopes were seen in individual samples. Surprisingly, only three samples contained neutralizing IgGs to gB epitopes. To further dissect the nature of these IgGs, we developed a method to select out gD- and gB-specific IgGs from four representative sera via affinity chromatography, allowing us to determine the contribution of antibodies against each glycoprotein to the overall neutralization capacity of the serum. In two cases, gD and gB accounted for all of the neutralizing activity against HSV-2, with a modest amount of HSV-1 neutralization directed against gC. In the other two samples, the dominant response was to gD. IMPORTANCE Antibodies targeting functional epitopes on HSV entry glycoproteins mediate HSV neutralization. Virus-neutralizing epitopes have been defined and characterized using murine monoclonal antibodies. However, it is largely unknown whether these same epitopes are targeted by the humoral response to HSV infection in humans. We have shown that during natural infection, virus-neutralizing antibodies are principally

  7. Interleukin 10 mediated by herpes simplex virus vectors suppresses neuropathic pain induced by human immunodeficiency virus gp120 in rats.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenwen; Huang, Wan; Liu, Shue; Levitt, Roy C; Candiotti, Keith A; Lubarsky, David A; Hao, Shuanglin

    2014-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy is a common neurological complication of HIV infection affecting up to 30% of HIV-positive individuals. However, the exact neuropathological mechanisms remain unknown, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments for HIV-related neuropathic pain (NP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of proinflammatory factors with overexpression of interleukin (IL)-10 reduces HIV-related NP in a rat model. NP was induced by the application of recombinant HIV-1 envelope protein gp120 into the sciatic nerve. The hindpaws of rats were inoculated with nonreplicating herpes simplex virus (HSV) vectors expressing anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 or control vector. Mechanical threshold was tested using von Frey filaments before and after treatments with the vectors. The mechanical threshold response was assessed over time using the area under curves. The expression of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated kinase, tumor necrosis factor-α, stromal cell-derived factor-1α, and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 in both the lumbar spinal cord and the L4/5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), was examined at 14 and 28 days after vector inoculation using Western blots. We found that in the gp120-induced NP model, IL-10 overexpression mediated by the HSV vector resulted in a significant elevation of the mechanical threshold that was apparent on day 3 after vector inoculation compared with the control vector (P < 0.001). The antiallodynic effect of the single HSV vector inoculation expressing IL-10 lasted >28 days. The area under curve in the HSV vector expressing IL-10 was increased compared with that in the control vector (P < 0.0001). HSV vectors expressing IL-10 reversed the upregulation of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated kinase, tumor necrosis factor-α, stromal cell-derived factor-1α, and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 expression at 14 and/or 28 days in the DRG and/or the spinal dorsal horn. Our

  8. Serum herpes simplex antibodies

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes cold sores (oral herpes). HSV-2 causes genital herpes. How the Test is Performed A blood sample ... person has ever been infected with oral or genital herpes . It looks for antibodies to herpes simplex virus ...

  9. Genital Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... serology is performed for their patients . 11 Several ELISA-based serologic tests are FDA approved and available ... The most commonly used test, HerpeSelect HSV-2 Elisa might be falsely positive at low index values ( ...

  10. Herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Schmader, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis Herpes zoster afflicts millions of older adults annually worldwide and causes significant suffering due to acute and chronic pain, or postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Herpes zoster is caused by the reactivation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in sensory ganglia in the setting of age, disease and drug-related decline in cellular immunity to VZV. VZV-induced neuronal destruction and inflammation causes the principal problems of pain, interference with activities of daily living and reduced quality of life in older adults. To address these problems, the optimal treatment of herpes zoster requires early antiviral therapy and careful pain management. For patients who develop PHN, evidence-based pharmacotherapy using topical lidocaine patch, gabapentin, pregabalin, tricyclic antidepressants, and/or opiates can reduce pain burden. The live attenuated zoster vaccine is effective in reducing pain burden and preventing herpes zoster and PHN in older adults. PMID:17631237

  11. Correlation of high-risk human papilloma viruses but not of herpes viruses or Chlamydia trachomatis with endometriosis lesions.

    PubMed

    Oppelt, Peter; Renner, Stefan P; Strick, Reiner; Valletta, Daniela; Mehlhorn, Grit; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Strissel, Pamela L

    2010-04-01

    To investigate whether sexually transmitted viruses or prokaryotes, like human papilloma viruses (HPV), herpes viruses, and Chlamydia trachomatis, are associated with endometriosis lesions. Sixty-six endometriosis lesions from 56 patients, including 49 peritoneum, 16 ovarian, and one endometrium, were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction-based ELISA and Invader technology. Thirty control tissues including endometrium and peritoneum from patient-matched (n = 13) and patients without endometriosis (n = 13) and one cervical carcinoma were tested for HPV DNA. University hospital. Seventy individual patients with and without endometriosis. Laparoscopy or laparotomy was performed, and endometriotic lesions were isolated. Herpes viruses and Chlamydia trachomatis were not detected in endometriosis lesions. High-risk and medium-risk HPV were detected in 11.3% of lesions, corresponding to 13.2% of patients. In addition, 27.5% of control tissues were positive for HPV high and medium risk. One HPV18-positive ovarian endometriosis also associated with an ovarian carcinoma. Associating clinical history with HPV-positive endometriosis and control tissues, all patients had a prior HPV cervical infection. HPV infection in endometriosis lesions including control tissues supports spreading of the virus or HPV-infected endometrial cells via retrograde menstruation. Owing to an association of HPV in carcinomas, we propose that persistent HPV infection of endometriosis lesions could contribute to malignant progression. Copyright 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Topical application of polyethylenimine as a candidate for novel prophylactic therapeutics against genital herpes caused by herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kyoko; Onoue, Hiroki; Sasaki, Kohei; Lee, Jung-Bum; Kumar, Penmetcha K R; Gopinath, Subash C B; Maitani, Yoshie; Kai, Takashi; Hayashi, Toshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2) cause genital herpes, which can enhance the acquisition of human immunodeficiency virus. The development of anti-HSV agents with novel mechanisms of action is urgently required in the topical therapy of genital herpes. In this study, the in vitro and in vivo anti-HSV effects of Epomin SP-012(®), a highly cationic polyethylenimine, were evaluated. When the in vitro antiviral effects of SP-012 were assessed, this compound showed potent activity against HSV-1 and HSV-2. It inhibited the attachment of HSV-2 to host cells and cell-to-cell spread of infection in a concentration-dependent manner and exerted a virucidal effect. No SP-012-resistant HSV-2 was found when the virus was successively passaged in the presence of SP-012. In a mouse genital herpes model, topically administered SP-012 inhibited the progression of the disease caused by HSV infection. These data illustrate that SP-012 may be a novel class of HSV inhibitor that would be acceptable for long-term topical application.

  13. Absent anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor NR1a antibodies in herpes simplex virus encephalitis and varicella zoster virus infections.

    PubMed

    Berger, Benjamin; Pytlik, Maximilian; Hottenrott, Tilman; Stich, Oliver

    2017-02-01

    A 2012 report and subsequent case series described anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antibodies in patients during the acute phase and relapse of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1) encephalitis (HSV1E). However, the prevalence of this phenomenon is unknown and systematic studies on other viral infections of the nervous system are missing. We retrospectively analyzed serial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples of consecutive patients treated for neurological HSV1, HSV2 and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infections in our tertiary care university hospital between 2003 and 2013 for the presence of antibodies directed against the NR1a subunit of the NMDAR using indirect immunofluorescence. In total, 88 patients with the following infections were identified through an electronic database search: HSV1 (24 with encephalitis), HSV2 (6 with meningitis, 3 with encephalitis and 1 with myelitis), or VZV (3 with meningitis, 33 with encephalitis, 17 with radiculitis and 1 with myelitis). Two patients with HSV1E and HSV2E, respectively, experienced a clinical relapse. Clinical follow-up was for up to 85 months, and repetitive serum and CSF analyses for up to 43 months. However, at no time did any of the 88 patients exhibit anti-NMDAR NR1a antibodies. In this study, we did not detect anti-NMDAR NR1a antibodies in serial CSF and serum samples of HSV1E patients or patients with other viral infections (HSV2 and VZV). However, the presence of antibodies directed against other epitopes of the NMDAR and other neuronal cell surface antigens cannot be excluded, necessitating further studies.

  14. An Anti-Inflammatory Role of VEGFR2/Src Kinase Inhibitor in Herpes Simplex Virus 1-Induced Immunopathology▿

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shalini; Mulik, Sachin; Kumar, Naveen; Suryawanshi, Amol; Rouse, Barry T.

    2011-01-01

    Corneal neovascularization represents a key step in the blinding inflammatory stromal keratitis (SK) lesion caused by ocular infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV). In this report, we describe a novel approach for limiting the angiogenesis caused by HSV infection of the mouse eye. We show that topical or systemic administration of the Src kinase inhibitor (TG100572) that inhibits downstream molecules involved in the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway resulted in markedly diminished levels of HSV-induced angiogenesis and significantly reduced the severity of SK lesions. Multiple mechanisms were involved in the inhibitory effects. These included blockade of IL-8/CXCL1 involved in inflammatory cells recruitment that are a source of VEGF, diminished cellular infiltration in the cornea, and reduced proliferation and migration of CD4+ T cells into the corneas. As multiple angiogenic factors (VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF]) play a role in promoting angiogenesis during SK and since Src kinases are involved in signaling by many of them, the use of Src kinase inhibition represents a promising way of limiting the severity of SK lesions the most common cause of infectious blindness in the Western world. PMID:21471229

  15. The genome of herpesvirus papio 2 is closely related to the genomes of human herpes simplex viruses.

    PubMed

    Bigger, John E; Martin, David W

    2003-06-01

    Infection of baboons (Papio species) with herpesvirus papio 2 (HVP-2) produces a disease that is clinically similar to herpes simplex virus (HSV-1 and HSV-2) infection of humans. The development of a primate model of simplexvirus infection based on HVP-2 would provide a powerful resource to study virus biology and test vaccine strategies. In order to characterize the molecular biology of HVP-2 and justify further development of this model system we have constructed a physical map of the HVP-2 genome. The results of these studies have identified the presence of 26 reading frames that closely resemble HSV homologues. Furthermore, the HVP-2 genome shares a collinear arrangement with the genome of HSV. These studies further validate the development of the HVP-2 model as a surrogate system to study the biology of HSV infections.

  16. Genital Herpes: A Review.

    PubMed

    Groves, Mary Jo

    2016-06-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted disease, affecting more than 400 million persons worldwide. It is caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) and characterized by lifelong infection and periodic reactivation. A visible outbreak consists of single or clustered vesicles on the genitalia, perineum, buttocks, upper thighs, or perianal areas that ulcerate before resolving. Symptoms of primary infection may include malaise, fever, or localized adenopathy. Subsequent outbreaks, caused by reactivation of latent virus, are usually milder. Asymptomatic shedding of transmissible virus is common. Although HSV-1 and HSV-2 are indistinguishable visually, they exhibit differences in behavior that may affect management. Patients with HSV-2 have a higher risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Polymerase chain reaction assay is the preferred method of confirming HSV infection in patients with active lesions. Treatment of primary and subsequent outbreaks with nucleoside analogues is well tolerated and reduces duration, severity, and frequency of recurrences. In patients with HSV who are HIV-negative, treatment reduces transmission of HSV to uninfected partners. During pregnancy, antiviral prophylaxis with acyclovir is recommended from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in women with a history of genital herpes. Elective cesarean delivery should be performed in laboring patients with active lesions to reduce the risk of neonatal herpes.

  17. Chemical composition and anti-herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) activity of extracts from Cornus canadensis.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Serge; Côté, Isabelle; Pichette, André; Gauthier, Charles; Ouellet, Michaël; Nagau-Lavoie, Francine; Mshvildadze, Vakhtang; Legault, Jean

    2017-02-22

    Many plants of boreal forest of Quebec have been used by Native Americans to treat a variety of microbial infections. However, the antiviral activities of these plants have been seldom evaluated on cellular models to validate their in vitro efficiencies. In this study, Cornus canadensis L. (Cornaceae), a plant used in Native American traditional medicine to treat possible antiviral infections, has been selected for further examination. The plant was extracted by decoction and infusion with water, water/ethanol 1:1 and ethanol to obtain extracts similar to those used by Native Americans. The effects of the extracts were tested on herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) using a plaque reduction assay. Moreover, bioassay-guided fractionation was achieved to isolate bioactive compounds. Water/ethanol 1:1 infusion of C. canadensis leaves were the most active extracts to inhibit virus absorption with EC 50 of about 9 μg mL -1 , whereas for direct mode, both extraction methods using water or water/ethanol 1:1 as solvent were relatively similar with EC 50 ranging from 11 to 17 μg mL -1 . The fractionation led to the identification of active fractions containing hydrolysable tannins. Tellimagrandin I was found the most active compound with an EC 50 of 2.6 μM for the direct mode and 5.0 μM for the absorption mode. Altogether, the results presented in this work support the antiviral activity of Cornus canadensis used in Native American traditional medicine.

  18. Entry Pathways of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 into Human Keratinocytes Are Dynamin- and Cholesterol-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Mei-Ju; Rixon, Frazer J.; Knebel-Mörsdorf, Dagmar

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) can enter cells via endocytic pathways or direct fusion at the plasma membrane depending on the cell line and receptor(s). Most studies into virus entry have used cultured fibroblasts but since keratinocytes represent the primary entry site for HSV-1 infection in its human host, we initiated studies to characterize the entry pathway of HSV-1 into human keratinocytes. Electron microscopy studies visualized free capsids in the cytoplasm and enveloped virus particles in vesicles suggesting viral uptake both by direct fusion at the plasma membrane and by endocytic vesicles. The ratio of the two entry modes differed in primary human keratinocytes and in the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT. Inhibitor studies further support a role for endocytosis during HSV-1 entry. Infection was inhibited by the cholesterol-sequestering drug methyl-β-cyclodextrin, which demonstrates the requirement for host cholesterol during virus entry. Since the dynamin-specific inhibitor dynasore and overexpression of a dominant-negative dynamin mutant blocked infection, we conclude that the entry pathways into keratinocytes are dynamin-mediated. Electron microscopy studies confirmed that virus uptake is completely blocked when the GTPase activity of dynamin is inhibited. Ex vivo infection of murine epidermis that was treated with dynasore further supports the essential role of dynamin during entry into the epithelium. Thus, we conclude that HSV-1 can enter human keratinocytes by alternative entry pathways that require dynamin and host cholesterol. PMID:22022400

  19. Ultraviolet-B radiation induces modulation of antigen presentation of herpes simplex virus by human epidermal cells.

    PubMed

    van der Molen, R G; Out-Luiting, C; Claas, F H; Norval, M; Koerten, H K; Mommaas, A M

    2001-06-01

    Although ultraviolet (UV) B radiation is known to be immunosuppressive, there is little information regarding a relevant immunological endpoint to assess human subjects in vivo. Therefore, we have examined the effect of in vivo UV radiation on the ability of human epidermal cells (EC) to present herpes simplex virus (HSV) antigens to memory T cells. Human volunteers, who were seropositive for HSV, were exposed to one minimal erythemal dose (MED) for four consecutive days. EC, prepared from suction blister roofs, were co-cultured with autologous T cells in the presence of HSV. HSV antigen presentation by UV-exposed EC was increased compared with control, nonexposed EC. This up-regulation correlated with an influx of macrophages into the epidermis, which are considered to be associated with UV-induced tolerance. Altering the UV protocol to a sub-erythemal UV dose for four consecutive days or to a single high dose of 2 MED, resulted in suppressed HSV antigen presentation, without the influx of the UV-macrophages. One of the goals of the present study was to eventually use this HSV system to investigate sunscreen immunoprotection. A pilot study with a TiO2-containing sunscreen suggested that the endpoint for UV-induced immunosuppression presented here is promising to be used for human in vivo sunscreen immunoprotection studies.

  20. In Vivo Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Activity of a Sulfated Derivative of Agaricus brasiliensis Mycelial Polysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Cardozo, F. T. G. S.; Larsen, I. V.; Carballo, E. V.; Jose, G.; Stern, R. A.; Brummel, R. C.; Camelini, C. M.; Rossi, M. J.; Simões, C. M. O.

    2013-01-01

    Agaricus brasiliensis (syn. A. subrufescens), a basidiomycete fungus native to the Atlantic forest in Brazil, contains cell walls rich in glucomannan polysaccharides. The β-(1→2)-gluco-β-(1→3)-mannan was isolated from A. brasiliensis mycelium, chemically modified by sulfation, and named MI-S. MI-S has multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) attachment, entry, and cell-to-cell spread (F. T. G. S. Cardozo, C. M. Camelini, A. Mascarello, M. J. Rossi, R. J. Nunes, C. R. Barardi, M. M. de Mendonça, and C. M. O. Simões, Antiviral Res. 92:108–114, 2011). The antiherpetic efficacy of MI-S was assessed in murine ocular, cutaneous, and genital infection models of HSV. Groups of 10 mice were infected with HSV-1 (strain KOS) or HSV-2 (strain 333). MI-S was given either topically or by oral gavage under various pre- and posttreatment regimens, and the severity of disease and viral titers in ocular and vaginal samples were determined. No toxicity was observed in the uninfected groups treated with MI-S. The topical and oral treatments with MI-S were not effective in reducing ocular disease. Topical application of MI-S on skin lesions was also not effective, but cutaneously infected mice treated orally with MI-S had significantly reduced disease scores (P < 0.05) after day 9, suggesting that healing was accelerated. Vaginal administration of MI-S 20 min before viral challenge reduced the mean disease scores on days 5 to 9 (P < 0.05), viral titers on day 1 (P < 0.05), and mortality (P < 0.0001) in comparison to the control groups (untreated and vehicle treated). These results show that MI-S may be useful as an oral agent to reduce the severity of HSV cutaneous and mucosal lesions and, more importantly, as a microbicide to block sexual transmission of HSV-2 genital infections. PMID:23507287

  1. Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells Provide a Reductionist Model of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Neurotropism.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Mackenzie M; Mangold, Colleen A; Kuny, Chad V; Szpara, Moriah L

    2017-12-01

    Neuron-virus interactions that occur during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection are not fully understood. Neurons are the site of lifelong latency and are a crucial target for long-term suppressive therapy or viral clearance. A reproducible neuronal model of human origin would facilitate studies of HSV and other neurotropic viruses. Current neuronal models in the herpesvirus field vary widely and have caveats, including incomplete differentiation, nonhuman origins, or the use of dividing cells that have neuropotential but lack neuronal morphology. In this study, we used a robust approach to differentiate human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells over 2.5 weeks, producing a uniform population of mature human neuronal cells. We demonstrate that terminally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells have neuronal morphology and express proteins with subcellular localization indicative of mature neurons. These neuronal cells are able to support a productive HSV-1 infection, with kinetics and overall titers similar to those seen in undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells and the related SK-N-SH cell line. However, terminally differentiated, neuronal SH-SY5Y cells release significantly less extracellular HSV-1 by 24 h postinfection (hpi), suggesting a unique neuronal response to viral infection. With this model, we are able to distinguish differences in neuronal spread between two strains of HSV-1. We also show expression of the antiviral protein cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, which is the first demonstration of the presence of this protein in nonepithelial cells. These data provide a model for studying neuron-virus interactions at the single-cell level as well as via bulk biochemistry and will be advantageous for the study of neurotropic viruses in vitro IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus (HSV) affects millions of people worldwide, causing painful oral and genital lesions, in addition to a multitude of more severe symptoms such as eye disease, neonatal infection, and, in rare

  2. Differentiated Human SH-SY5Y Cells Provide a Reductionist Model of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Neurotropism

    PubMed Central

    Mangold, Colleen A.; Kuny, Chad V.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neuron-virus interactions that occur during herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection are not fully understood. Neurons are the site of lifelong latency and are a crucial target for long-term suppressive therapy or viral clearance. A reproducible neuronal model of human origin would facilitate studies of HSV and other neurotropic viruses. Current neuronal models in the herpesvirus field vary widely and have caveats, including incomplete differentiation, nonhuman origins, or the use of dividing cells that have neuropotential but lack neuronal morphology. In this study, we used a robust approach to differentiate human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells over 2.5 weeks, producing a uniform population of mature human neuronal cells. We demonstrate that terminally differentiated SH-SY5Y cells have neuronal morphology and express proteins with subcellular localization indicative of mature neurons. These neuronal cells are able to support a productive HSV-1 infection, with kinetics and overall titers similar to those seen in undifferentiated SH-SY5Y cells and the related SK-N-SH cell line. However, terminally differentiated, neuronal SH-SY5Y cells release significantly less extracellular HSV-1 by 24 h postinfection (hpi), suggesting a unique neuronal response to viral infection. With this model, we are able to distinguish differences in neuronal spread between two strains of HSV-1. We also show expression of the antiviral protein cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, which is the first demonstration of the presence of this protein in nonepithelial cells. These data provide a model for studying neuron-virus interactions at the single-cell level as well as via bulk biochemistry and will be advantageous for the study of neurotropic viruses in vitro. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus (HSV) affects millions of people worldwide, causing painful oral and genital lesions, in addition to a multitude of more severe symptoms such as eye disease, neonatal infection, and

  3. Association of interferon lambda-1 with herpes simplex viruses-1 and -2, Epstein-Barr virus, and human cytomegalovirus in chronic periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Muzammil; Jayanthi, D; Faizuddin, Mohamed; Noor Ahamadi, H M

    2017-05-01

    Periodontal tissues facilitate the homing of herpes viruses that elicit the immune-inflammatory response releasing the interferons (IFN). IFN lambda-1 (λ1) can suppress the replication of viruses, and induces the antiviral mechanism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between IFN-λ1 and periodontal herpes viruses in the immunoregulation of chronic periodontal disease. The cross-sectional study design included 30 chronic periodontitis patients with a mean age of 42.30 ± 8.63 years. Gingival crevicular fluid collected was assessed for IFN-λ1 using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and four herpes viruses were detected using multiplex polymerase chain reaction technique. IFN-λ1 levels were compared between virus-positive and -negative patients for individual and total viruses. Fifty per cent (n = 15) of patients were positive for the four herpes viruses together; 50% (n = 15), 30% (n = 9), 26.7% (n = 8), and 40% (n = 12) were positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1, Epstein-Barr virus, HSV-2, and human cytomegalovirus, respectively. The mean concentrations of IFN-λ1 in virus-positive patients (14.38 ± 13.95) were lower than those of virus-negative patients (228.26 ± 215.35). INF-λ1 levels in individual virus groups were also lower in virus-positive patients compared to virus-negative patients, with P < 0.001. These results suggest that IFN-λ1 could have antiviral and therapeutic value against the viruses in the pathogenesis of chronic periodontitis. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Repertoire of epitopes recognized by serum IgG from humans vaccinated with herpes simplex virus 2 glycoprotein D.

    PubMed

    Whitbeck, J Charles; Huang, Zhen-Yu; Cairns, Tina M; Gallagher, John R; Lou, Huan; Ponce-de-Leon, Manuel; Belshe, Robert B; Eisenberg, Roselyn J; Cohen, Gary H

    2014-07-01

    The results of a clinical trial of a subunit vaccine against genital herpes were recently reported (R. B. Belshe, P. A. Leone, D. I. Bernstein, A. Wald, M. J. Levin, J. T. Stapleton, I. Gorfinkel, R. L. Morrow, M. G. Ewell, A. Stokes-Riner, G. Dubin, T. C. Heineman, J. M. Schulte, C. D. Deal, N. Engl. J. Med. 366: 34-43, 2012, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1103151). The vaccine consisted of a soluble form of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) with adjuvant. The goal of the current study was to examine the composition of the humoral response to gD2 within a selected subset of vaccinated individuals. Serum samples from 30 vaccine recipients were selected based upon relative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers against gD2; 10 samples had high titers, 10 had medium titers, and the remaining 10 had low ELISA titers. We employed a novel, biosensor-based monoclonal antibody (MAb)-blocking assay to determine whether gD2 vaccination elicited IgG responses against epitopes overlapping those of well-characterized MAbs. Importantly, IgGs from the majority of gD2-immunized subjects competed for gD binding with four antigenically distinct virus-neutralizing MAbs (MC2, MC5, MC23, and DL11). Screening of patient IgGs against overlapping peptides spanning the gD2 ectodomain revealed that about half of the samples contained antibodies against linear epitopes within the N and C termini of gD2. We found that the virus-neutralizing abilities of the 10 most potent samples correlated with overall gD-binding activity and to an even greater extent with the combined content of IgGs against the epitopes of MAbs MC2, MC5, MC23, and DL11. This suggests that optimal virus-neutralizing activity is achieved by strong and balanced responses to the four major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD2. Importance: Several herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine studies have been conducted in human subjects using a recombinant form of HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD2). Although

  5. Repertoire of Epitopes Recognized by Serum IgG from Humans Vaccinated with Herpes Simplex Virus 2 Glycoprotein D

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhen-Yu; Cairns, Tina M.; Gallagher, John R.; Lou, Huan; Ponce-de-Leon, Manuel; Belshe, Robert B.; Eisenberg, Roselyn J.; Cohen, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The results of a clinical trial of a subunit vaccine against genital herpes were recently reported (R. B. Belshe, P. A. Leone, D. I. Bernstein, A. Wald, M. J. Levin, J. T. Stapleton, I. Gorfinkel, R. L. Morrow, M. G. Ewell, A. Stokes-Riner, G. Dubin, T. C. Heineman, J. M. Schulte, C. D. Deal, N. Engl. J. Med. 366:34–43, 2012, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1103151). The vaccine consisted of a soluble form of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) glycoprotein D (gD2) with adjuvant. The goal of the current study was to examine the composition of the humoral response to gD2 within a selected subset of vaccinated individuals. Serum samples from 30 vaccine recipients were selected based upon relative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titers against gD2; 10 samples had high titers, 10 had medium titers, and the remaining 10 had low ELISA titers. We employed a novel, biosensor-based monoclonal antibody (MAb)-blocking assay to determine whether gD2 vaccination elicited IgG responses against epitopes overlapping those of well-characterized MAbs. Importantly, IgGs from the majority of gD2-immunized subjects competed for gD binding with four antigenically distinct virus-neutralizing MAbs (MC2, MC5, MC23, and DL11). Screening of patient IgGs against overlapping peptides spanning the gD2 ectodomain revealed that about half of the samples contained antibodies against linear epitopes within the N and C termini of gD2. We found that the virus-neutralizing abilities of the 10 most potent samples correlated with overall gD-binding activity and to an even greater extent with the combined content of IgGs against the epitopes of MAbs MC2, MC5, MC23, and DL11. This suggests that optimal virus-neutralizing activity is achieved by strong and balanced responses to the four major discontinuous neutralizing epitopes of gD2. IMPORTANCE Several herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) subunit vaccine studies have been conducted in human subjects using a recombinant form of HSV-2 glycoprotein D (gD2

  6. Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Tropism for Human Sensory Ganglion Neurons in the Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Mouse Model of Neuropathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Che, Xibing; Reichelt, Mike; Qiao, Yanli; Gu, Haidong; Arvin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The tropism of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) for human sensory neurons infected in vivo was examined using dorsal root ganglion (DRG) xenografts maintained in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). In contrast to the HSV-1 lytic infectious cycle in vitro, replication of the HSV-1 F strain was restricted in human DRG neurons despite the absence of adaptive immune responses in SCID mice, allowing the establishment of neuronal latency. At 12 days after DRG inoculation, 26.2% of human neurons expressed HSV-1 protein and 13.1% expressed latency-associated transcripts (LAT). Some infected neurons showed cytopathic changes, but HSV-1, unlike varicella-zoster virus (VZV), only rarely infected satellite cells and did not induce fusion of neuronal and satellite cell plasma membranes. Cell-free enveloped HSV-1 virions were observed, indicating productive infection. A recombinant HSV-1-expressing luciferase exhibited less virulence than HSV-1 F in the SCID mouse host, enabling analysis of infection in human DRG xenografts for a 61-day interval. At 12 days after inoculation, 4.2% of neurons expressed HSV-1 proteins; frequencies increased to 32.1% at 33 days but declined to 20.8% by 61 days. Frequencies of LAT-positive neurons were 1.2% at 12 days and increased to 40.2% at 33 days. LAT expression remained at 37% at 61 days, in contrast to the decline in neurons expressing viral proteins. These observations show that the progression of HSV-1 infection is highly restricted in human DRG, and HSV-1 genome silencing occurs in human neurons infected in vivo as a consequence of virus-host cell interactions and does not require adaptive immune control. PMID:23269807

  7. In vivo production of cytokines and beta (C-C) chemokines in human recurrent herpes simplex lesions--do herpes simplex virus-infected keratinocytes contribute to their production?

    PubMed

    Mikloska, Z; Danis, V A; Adams, S; Lloyd, A R; Adrian, D L; Cunningham, A L

    1998-04-01

    Recurrent human herpes simplex lesions are infiltrated by macrophages and CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, which secrete cytokines and chemokines. Vesicle fluid was examined by ELISA for the presence of cytokines and beta (C-C) chemokines. On the first day of the lesion, high concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-6, moderate concentrations of IL-1alpha and IL-10, and low concentrations of IL-12 and beta chemokines were found; levels of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta were significantly higher than levels of MIP-1alpha and RANTES. At day 3, the concentrations of IL-1beta, IL-6, and MIP-1beta were lower, whereas the levels of IL-10, IL-12, and MIP-1alpha remained similar, and the level of tumor necrosis factor-alpha was now detectable. Herpes simplex virus infection of keratinocytes in vitro stimulated production of beta chemokines followed by IL-12 and then IL-10, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6, indicating a potential role for these events in early recruitment, activation, and interferon-gamma production of CD4 cells in herpetic lesions.

  8. Meet the Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Describes some of the characteristics of "herps" (amphibians and reptiles). Contains teaching activities dealing with ancient herps, learning stations that encourage sensory experiences with herps, and games, puzzles, and a dramatic play about herps. Includes reproducible handouts designed to be used with the activities, as well as a quiz. (TW)

  9. Triple retinal infection with human immunodeficiency virus type 1, cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 1. Light and electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Rummelt, V; Rummelt, C; Jahn, G; Wenkel, H; Sinzger, C; Mayer, U M; Naumann, G O

    1994-02-01

    This report describes the histopathologic and virologic findings of the retina from a 55-year-old bisexual patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had concurrent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) retinitis, and was treated with ganciclovir. The eyes were obtained at autopsy and processed for light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical stains for HSV-1, CMV, HIV-1, varicella zoster virus, and glial fibrillary acidic protein were carried out using the peroxidase-antiperoxidase and streptavidin-biotin-alkaline phosphatase techniques. For in situ hybridization, a radiolabeled CMV DNA probe (Eco-RI-Y fragment of strain AD 169) was used. Results of histopathologic examination showed a full-thickness necrotizing retinitis with cytomegalic and herpes viral intranuclear inclusions in cells of the neurosensory retina, retinal vascular endothelium, and the retinal pigment epithelium. Some areas of the retina were replaced by glial tissue. The choroid contained only a few chronic inflammatory cells. Immunoperoxidase studies disclosed CMV antigens diffusely distributed throughout all layers of the retina and the retinal pigment epithelium. Herpes simplex virus type 1 antigens were present in retinal cells and the retinal vascular endothelium. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 antigens were found in mononuclear cells in all layers of the sensory retina. Dual infections with HIV-1 and CMV of individual multinucleated giant cells of glial origin were demonstrated immunohistochemically. Transmission electron microscopy showed herpes viral particles in the vascular endothelium of the retinal vessels and the choriocapillaris. Human immunodeficiency virus particles were identified in the endothelium of the choriocapillaris. The possibility of multiple viral infections of the retina, mimicking classic CMV retinitis, should be considered in the clinical and

  10. Vaccinia virus, herpes simplex virus, and carcinogens induce DNA amplification in a human cell line and support replication of a helpervirus dependent parvovirus

    SciTech Connect

    Schlehofer, J.R.; Ehrbar, M.; zur Hausen, H.

    1986-07-15

    The SV40-transformed human kidney cell line, NB-E, amplifies integrated as well as episomal SV40 DNA upon treatment with chemical (DMBA) or physical (uv irradiation) carcinogens (initiators) as well as after infection with herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 or with vaccinia virus. In addition it is shown that vaccinia virus induces SV40 DNA amplification also in the SV40-transformed Chinese hamster embryo cell line, CO631. These findings demonstrate that human cells similar to Chinese hamster cells amplify integrated DNA sequences after treatment with carcinogens or infection with specific viruses. Furthermore, a poxvirus--vaccinia virus--similar to herpes group viruses induces DNA amplification. Asmore » reported for other systems, the vaccinia virus-induced DNA amplification in NB-E cells is inhibited by coinfection with adeno-associated virus (AAV) type 5. This is in line with previous studies on inhibition of carcinogen- or HSV-induced DNA amplification in CO631 cells. The experiments also demonstrate that vaccinia virus, in addition to herpes and adenoviruses acts as a helper virus for replication and structural antigen synthesis of AAV-5 in NB-E cells.« less

  11. 21 CFR 660.50 - Anti-Human Globulin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Globulin. (a) Proper name and definition. The proper name of this product shall be Anti-Human Globulin... in tissue cultures or in secondary hosts. [50 FR 5579, Feb. 11, 1985, as amended at 65 FR 77499, Dec...

  12. Identification of Viral MicroRNAs Expressed in Human Sacral Ganglia Latently Infected with Herpes Simplex Virus 2▿

    PubMed Central

    Umbach, Jennifer L.; Wang, Kening; Tang, Shuang; Krause, Philip R.; Mont, Erik K.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.; Cullen, Bryan R.

    2010-01-01

    Deep sequencing of small RNAs isolated from human sacral ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) was used to identify HSV-2 microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed during latent infection. This effort resulted in the identification of five distinct HSV-2 miRNA species, two of which, miR-H3/miR-I and miR-H4/miR-II, have been previously reported. Three novel HSV-2 miRNAs were also identified, and two of these, miR-H7 and miR-H9, are derived from the latency-associated transcript (LAT) and are located antisense to the viral transcript encoding transactivator ICP0. A third novel HSV-2 miRNA, miR-H10, is encoded within the unique long (UL) region of the genome, 3′ to the UL15 open reading frame, and is presumably excised from a novel, latent HSV-2 transcript distinct from LAT. PMID:19889786

  13. Identification of viral microRNAs expressed in human sacral ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus 2.

    PubMed

    Umbach, Jennifer L; Wang, Kening; Tang, Shuang; Krause, Philip R; Mont, Erik K; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Cullen, Bryan R

    2010-01-01

    Deep sequencing of small RNAs isolated from human sacral ganglia latently infected with herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) was used to identify HSV-2 microRNAs (miRNAs) expressed during latent infection. This effort resulted in the identification of five distinct HSV-2 miRNA species, two of which, miR-H3/miR-I and miR-H4/miR-II, have been previously reported. Three novel HSV-2 miRNAs were also identified, and two of these, miR-H7 and miR-H9, are derived from the latency-associated transcript (LAT) and are located antisense to the viral transcript encoding transactivator ICP0. A third novel HSV-2 miRNA, miR-H10, is encoded within the unique long (U(L)) region of the genome, 3' to the U(L)15 open reading frame, and is presumably excised from a novel, latent HSV-2 transcript distinct from LAT.

  14. Multicentric intraepithelial neoplasia involving the vulva. Clinical features and association with human papillomavirus and herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, J; Kaufman, R H; Adam, E; Adler-Storthz, K

    1988-10-15

    Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) with Grade 3 vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN 3) were found to have an additional site of lower genital tract squamous cell neoplasia, primarily in the cervix. The frequency of multicentricity decreased significantly with age. In addition, patients with multicentric disease (involving the vagina and/or cervix in addition to the vulva) had a significantly higher frequency of multifocal disease involving the vulva (involving more than one location on the vulva) and of recurrence than patients without multicentric disease. Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in 81% of the women with multicentric squamous cell neoplasia. No significant difference was noticed between patients with multicentric and unicentric squamous cell neoplasia in the detection rate of papillomavirus antigen, HPV DNA, the various HPV types, herpes simplex virus Type 2 (HSV2)-related antigen, type-specific antibodies to HSV, and dual HPV and HSV2 infections. These findings suggest that HPV and HSV2, although strongly associated with VIN 3, do not influence the development pattern of squamous cell neoplasia, and that all patients with VIN 3, especially if they are younger than 50 years of age, should be evaluated periodically for additional centers of lower genital tract squamous cell neoplasia.

  15. [Knowledge about herpes simplex virus type 2 and human papillomavirus, and risk perception to acquire infections among college students].

    PubMed

    Herrera-Ortiz, Antonia; Arriaga-Demeza, Carlos Rodolfo; Conde-González, Carlos Jesús; Sánchez-Alemán, Miguel Ángel

    2013-01-01

    herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the most frequent sexually transmitted infections (STI) among college students 18-24 years old. Educational interventions for STI prevention can help to decrease viral STI prevalence among students. to know the change in knowledge, perception of risk and sexual behavior among 182 students of the Autonomous University of the State of Morelos. a community intervention trial (before-after) was carried out, using brochures for prevention of HSV-2 and HPV, including information about these STI, with emphasis on the risk factors identified in students of the same university. we found a change in the perception of STI risk during the intervention (56.5 before vs. 67.7% after intervention), possibly the brochures assisted students to learn more about their own risk behaviors. Likewise, there was an increase in knowledge in both HPV and HSV-2. it is necessary to increase the sample size in future interventions to assess further the change in knowledge, sexual behaviors and the prevalence of infections.

  16. The use of human cornea organotypic cultures to study herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced inflammation.

    PubMed

    Drevets, Peter; Chucair-Elliott, Ana; Shrestha, Priyadarsini; Jinkins, Jeremy; Karamichos, Dimitrios; Carr, Daniel J J

    2015-10-01

    To determine the utility of human organotypic cornea cultures as a model to study herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced inflammation and neovascularization. Human organotypic cornea cultures were established from corneas with an intact limbus that were retrieved from donated whole globes. One cornea culture was infected with HSV-1 (10(4) plaque-forming units), while the other cornea from the same donor was mock-infected. Supernatants were collected at intervals post-culture with and without infection to determine viral titer (by plaque assay) and pro-angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokine concentration by suspension array analysis. In some experiments, the cultured corneas were collected and evaluated for HSV-1 antigens by immunohistochemical means. Another set of experiments measured susceptibility of human three-dimensional cornea fibroblast constructs, in the presence and absence of TGF-β1, to HSV-1 infection in terms of viral replication and the inflammatory response to infection as a comparison to the organotypic cornea cultures. Organotypic cornea cultures and three-dimensional fibroblast constructs exhibited varying degrees of susceptibility to HSV-1. Fibroblast constructs were more susceptible to infection in terms of infectious virus recovered in a shorter period of time. There were changes in the levels of select pro-angiogenic or proinflammatory cytokines that were dictated as much by the cultures producing them as by whether they were infected with HSV-1 or treated with TGF-β1. Organotypic cornea and three-dimensional fibroblast cultures are likely useful for the identification and short-term study of novel antiviral compounds and virus replication, but are limited in the study of the local immune response to infection.

  17. Genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Garland, Suzanne M; Steben, Marc

    2014-10-01

    Genital herpes is a relatively common infection caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV) type one or two (HSV-1, HSV-2) respectively. It is acquired most commonly via sexual activity. More recently there has been an increase in infections due to HSV-1. Most new cases of genital HSV are not diagnosed due to HSV infections having short-lived signs and symptoms, or in many instances are asymptomatic. Hence many people infected with HSV are unaware that they have it. The risk of transmission to a partner is highest during outbreak periods, when there are visible lesions, although genital HSV can also be transmitted during asymptomatic periods. Use of condoms and antiviral medications assist in preventing transmission. Antiviral agents are effective in controlling clinical episodes, but do not eradicate infection, which remains latent for the life of a patient. Despite the surge in vaccine research, there is unfortunately no readily available preventative or therapeutic vaccine for HSV to date. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Herpes Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, A.; St Leger, A.; Jeon, S.; Dhaliwal, D.K.; Knickelbein, J.E.; Hendricks, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    Herpes Simplex Virus-1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the world’s population. These infections are often asymptomatic, but ocular HSV-1 infections cause multiple pathologies with perhaps the most destructive being Herpes Stromal Keratitis (HSK). HSK lesions, which are immunoinflammatory in nature, can recur throughout life and often cause progressive corneal scaring resulting in visual impairment. Current treatment involves broad local immunosuppression with topical steroids along with antiviral coverage. Unfortunately, the immunopathologic mechanisms defined in animal models of HSK have not yet translated into improved therapy. Herein, we review the clinical epidemiology and pathology of the disease and summarize the large amount of basic research regarding the immunopathology of HSK. We examine the role of the innate and adaptive immune system in the clearance of virus and the destruction of the normal corneal architecture that is typical of HSK. Our goal is to define current knowledge of the pathogenic mechanisms and recurrent nature of HSK and identify areas that require further study. PMID:22944008

  19. Interleukin-33 is expressed in the lesional epidermis in herpes virus infection but not in verruca vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Jin, Meijuan; Komine, Mayumi; Tsuda, Hidetoshi; Oshio, Tomoyuki; Ohtsuki, Mamitaro

    2018-04-25

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is released on cell injury and activates the immune reaction. IL-33 is involved in antiviral reaction in herpes virus infection, but the source that secretes IL-33 has not been identified. We speculate that keratinocytes injured in herpes virus infection secrete IL-33. In order to detect IL-33 in the lesional epidermis of patients with herpes virus infection, we immunostained several cutaneous herpes virus infection samples with an anti-IL-33 antibody, and compared them with cutaneous human papilloma virus (HPV) infection samples. We observed strong nuclear and mild cytoplasmic staining in epidermal keratinocytes of the lesional skin samples with herpes simplex virus and varicella zoster virus infections. However, staining was not observed in the epidermis of verruca vulgaris (VV) samples. We assumed that the strong immune reaction to herpes virus infection may depend on strong IL-33 expression in the epidermis, while very weak immune reaction in samples from patients with VV may be due to low or no expression of IL-33 in the lesional epidermis. © 2018 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  20. Bacterial vaginosis, human papilloma virus and herpes viridae do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding in women living with HIV in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Wessman, Maria; Thorsteinsson, Kristina; Jensen, Jørgen S; Storgaard, Merete; Rönsholt, Frederikke F; Johansen, Isik S; Pedersen, Gitte; Nørregård Nielsen, Lars; Bonde, Jesper; Katzenstein, Terese L; Weis, Nina; Lebech, Anne-Mette

    2017-05-31

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been found to be associated with HIV acquisition and transmission. This is suggested to be due to higher HIV RNA levels in cervicovaginal fluids in women living with HIV (WLWH) with BV, as bacteria associated with BV may induce viral replication and shedding in the genital tract despite undetectable HIV RNA plasma viral load. We examined the prevalence and diagnostic predictors of BV and HIV-1 RNA vaginal shedding in women living with HIV (WLWH) in Denmark, taking into account the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and herpes viridae. WLWH between 18-51 years were recruited from six Departments of Infectious Diseases in Denmark during enrolment in the SHADE cohort; a prospective cohort study of WLWH attending regular outpatient care. BV was diagnosed by microscopy of vaginal swabs and PCR was used for detection of BV-associated bacteria, HPV, herpes viridae, and vaginal HIV viral load. Median age of the 150 included women was 41 years; ethnicity was predominantly White (35%) or Black (47%). The majority (96%) was on ART and had undetectable (85%) plasma HIV RNA (<40 copies/mL). BV was diagnosed in 32%. Overall, 11% had detectable vaginal HIV RNA. Both before and after adjustment for BV, age, ethnicity, plasma HIV RNA, CD4 cell count, herpes viridae and HPV, we found no significant predictors of HIV RNA vaginal shedding. In well-treated WLWH, BV, herpes viridae or HPV do not predict vaginal HIV RNA shedding. This implies that HIV shedding does not seem to be increased by BV.

  1. Characterization of Neuronal Populations in the Human Trigeminal Ganglion and Their Association with Latent Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Anja K. E.; Sinicina, Inga; Strupp, Michael; Brandt, Thomas; Theil, Diethilde; Hüfner, Katharina

    2013-01-01

    Following primary infection Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency in the neurons of human sensory ganglia. Upon reactivation HSV-1 can cause neurological diseases such as facial palsy, vestibular neuritis or encephalitis. Certain populations of sensory neurons have been shown to be more susceptible to latent infection in the animal model, but this has not been addressed in human tissue. In the present study, trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons expressing six neuronal marker proteins were characterized, based on staining with antibodies against the GDNF family ligand receptor Ret, the high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor TrkA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the antibody RT97 against 200kDa neurofilament, calcitonin gene-related peptide and peripherin. The frequencies of marker-positive neurons and their average neuronal sizes were assessed, with TrkA-positive (61.82%) neurons being the most abundant, and Ret-positive (26.93%) the least prevalent. Neurons positive with the antibody RT97 (1253 µm2) were the largest, and those stained against peripherin (884 µm2) were the smallest. Dual immunofluorescence revealed at least a 4.5% overlap for every tested marker combination, with overlap for the combinations TrkA/Ret, TrkA/RT97 and Ret/nNOS lower, and the overlap between Ret/CGRP being higher than would be expected by chance. With respect to latent HSV-1 infection, latency associated transcripts (LAT) were detected using in situ hybridization (ISH) in neurons expressing each of the marker proteins. In contrast to the mouse model, co-localization with neuronal markers Ret or CGRP mirrored the magnitude of these neuron populations, whereas for the other four neuronal markers fewer marker-positive cells were also LAT-ISH+. Ret and CGRP are both known to label neurons related to pain signaling. PMID:24367603

  2. Variability of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in the female genital reservoir during genital reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    LeGoff, J; Roques, P; Jenabian, M-A; Charpentier, C; Brochier, C; Bouhlal, H; Gresenguet, G; Frost, E; Pepin, J; Mayaud, P; Belec, L

    2015-09-01

    Clinical and subclinical genital herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivations have been associated with increases in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 genital shedding. Whether HSV-2 shedding contributes to the selection of specific genital HIV-1 variants remains unknown. We evaluated the genetic diversity of genital and blood HIV-1 RNA and DNA in 14 HIV-1/HSV-2-co-infected women, including seven with HSV-2 genital reactivation, and seven without as controls. HIV-1 DNA and HIV-1 RNA env V1-V3 sequences in paired blood and genital samples were compared. The HSV-2 selection pressure on HIV was estimated according to the number of synonymous substitutions (dS), the number of non-synonymous substitutions (dN) and the dS/dN ratio within HIV quasi-species. HIV-1 RNA levels in cervicovaginal secretions were higher in women with HSV-2 replication than in controls (p0.02). Plasma HIV-1 RNA and genital HIV-1 RNA and DNA were genetically compartmentalized. No differences in dS, dN and the dS/dN ratio were observed between the study groups for either genital HIV-1 RNA or plasma HIV-1 RNA. In contrast, dS and dN in genital HIV-1 DNA were significantly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital reactivation (p <0.01 and p <0.05, respectively). The mean of the dS/dN ratio in genital HIV-1 DNA was slightly higher in patients with HSV-2 genital replication, indicating a trend for purifying selection (p 0.056). HSV-2 increased the genetic diversity of genital HIV-1 DNA. These observations confirm molecular interactions between HSV-2 and HIV-1 at the genital tract level. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Human herpes virus type 6 can cause skin lesions at the BCG inoculation site similar to Kawasaki Disease.

    PubMed

    Kakisaka, Yosuke; Ohara, Tomoichiro; Katayama, Saori; Suzuki, Tasuku; Sasai, Shu; Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Kure, Shigeo

    2012-12-01

    Kawasaki Disease (KD) is acute, febrile, multisystem vasculitis of early childhood, the detailed mechanism of which is still unclear. Skin symptoms occur in KD, such as edema of the hands and feet with subsequent desquamation and redness at the inoculation site of bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG). The change at the BCG inoculation site has been considered as a specific feature of KD, although its mechanism is not fully understood. We present an 11-month-old boy who developed fever with redness of the BCG site due to infection with human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6). At the age of 3 months, the patient received BCG. His fever remitted 7 days after the onset of skin redness, with sequential desquamation at the BCG site and extremities, which is not a common feature of HHV6 infection that typically lasts for 3 days. The final diagnosis was exanthema subitum. Characteristically, the HHV6 infection in our patient appeared to be associated with the invigoration of the T cell system, as represented by the elevated serum levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptor (3,490 U/ml vs. normal range 145-519 U/ml). This patient clearly showed redness and crusting at the BCG inoculation site, suggesting that HHV6 infection might cause skin changes similar to those of KD via an unknown mechanism. In addition, we suggest that the activation of the T cell system may account for the skin lesions in KD, characterized by redness and subsequent crusting of the BCG inoculation site and desquamation of the extremities.

  4. Microgravity Analogues of Herpes Virus Pathogenicity: Human Cytomegalovirus (hCMV) and Varicella Zoster (VZV) Infectivity in Human Tissue Like Assemblies (TLAs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; McCarthy, M.; Albrecht, T.; Cohrs, R.

    2009-01-01

    The old adage we are our own worst enemies may perhaps be the most profound statement ever made when applied to man s desire for extraterrestrial exploration and habitation of Space. Consider the immune system protects the integrity of the entire human physiology and is comprised of two basic elements the adaptive or circulating and the innate immune system. Failure of the components of the adaptive system leads to venerability of the innate system from opportunistic microbes; viral, bacteria, and fungal, which surround us, are transported on our skin, and commonly inhabit the human physiology as normal and imunosuppressed parasites. The fine balance which is maintained for the preponderance of our normal lives, save immune disorders and disease, is deregulated in microgravity. Thus analogue systems to study these potential Risks are essential for our progress in conquering Space exploration and habitation. In this study we employed two known physiological target tissues in which the reactivation of hCMV and VZV occurs, human neural and lung systems created for the study and interaction of these herpes viruses independently and simultaneously on the innate immune system. Normal human neural and lung tissue analogues called tissue like assemblies (TLAs) were infected with low MOIs of approximately 2 x 10(exp -5) pfu hCMV or VZV and established active but prolonged low grade infections which spanned .7-1.5 months in length. These infections were characterized by the ability to continuously produce each of the viruses without expiration of the host cultures. Verification and quantification of viral replication was confirmed via RT_PCR, IHC, and confocal spectral analyses of the respective essential viral genomes. All host TLAs maintained the ability to actively proliferate throughout the entire duration of the experiments as is analogous to normal in vivo physiological conditions. These data represent a significant advance in the ability to study the triggering

  5. Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Shingles (Herpes Zoster) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... United States will develop shingles, also known as herpes zoster, in their lifetime. There are an estimated ...

  6. Of Mice and not Humans: How Reliable are Animal Models for Evaluation of Herpes CD8+-T cell-Epitopes-Based Immunotherapeutic Vaccine Candidates?

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Gargi; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) -specific CD8+ T cells that reside in sensory ganglia, appears to control recurrent herpetic disease by aborting or reducing spontaneous and sporadic reactivations of latent virus. A reliable animal model is the ultimate key factor to test the efficacy of therapeutic vaccines that boost the level and the quality of sensory ganglia-resident CD8+ T cells against spontaneous herpes reactivation from sensory neurons, yet its relevance has been often overlooked. Herpes vaccinologists are hesitant about using mouse as a model in pre-clinical development of therapeutic vaccines because they do not adequately mimic spontaneous viral shedding or recurrent symptomatic diseases, as occurs in human. Alternatives to mouse models are rabbits and guinea pigs in which reactivation arise spontaneously with clinical features relevant to human disease. However, while rabbits and guinea pigs develop spontaneous HSV reactivation and recurrent ocular and genital disease none of them can mount CD8+ T cell responses specific to Human Leukocyte Antigen- (HLA-) restricted epitopes. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of these animal models and describe a novel “humanized” HLA transgenic rabbit, which shows spontaneous HSV-1 reactivation, recurrent ocular disease and mounts CD8+ T cell responses to HLA-restricted epitopes. Adequate investments are needed to develop reliable preclinical animal models, such as HLA class I and class II double transgenic rabbits and guinea pigs to balance the ethical and financial concerns associated with the rising number of unsuccessful clinical trials for therapeutic vaccine formulations tested in unreliable mouse models. PMID:21718746

  7. [Four cases of urinary dysfunction associated with sacral herpes zoster].

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tomohiro; Oba, Kojiro; Miyata, Yasuyoshi; Igawa, Tsukasa; Sakai, Hideki

    2014-02-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by the infection of Varicella-Zoster virus. The anatomical distribution of herpes zoster in the sacral area is only 6. 9%1). Moreover, the onset rate of herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction is 0.6%1). The lesion sites of herpes zoster which cause urinary dysfunction are almost lumber and sacral areas. We describe four cases of sacral herpes zoster with urinary dysfunction in this report. All patients were elderly people (66-84 years old), and all patients were administered anti-virus drugs and alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockers. Because of urinary retention, three patients have performed clean intermittent self-catheterization (CIC) for several weeks. As the lesions of herpes zoster healed, each patient recovered from urinary dysfunction.

  8. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome secondary to antituberculosis drugs and associated with human herpes virus-7 (HHV-7).

    PubMed

    Draz, Nehal; Datta, Sumona; Webster, Daniel P; Cropley, Ian

    2013-07-31

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a serious reaction to drugs with a clinical presentation of rash, fever, lymph node enlargement and internal organ involvement. Reports have described the reactivation of human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) and other HHVs in association with this syndrome. We report a 41-year-old woman who developed a rash, fever, liver dysfunction, eosinophilia and atypical monocytosis 21 days after initiation of the quadruple therapy for tuberculous cervical lymphadnitis. HHV-7 DNA was detected in blood by PCR suggesting infection with or more likely reactivation of HHV-7 as a contributing factor or consequence of this serious adverse drug reaction.

  9. Computer-aided active-site-directed modeling of the Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and human thymidine kinase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folkers, Gerd; Trumpp-Kallmeyer, Susanne; Gutbrod, Oliver; Krickl, Sabine; Fetzer, Jürgen; Keil, Günther M.

    1991-10-01

    Thymidine kinase (TK), which is induced by Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV1), plays a key role in the antiviral activity of guanine derivatives such as aciclovir (ACV). In contrast, ACV shows only low affinity to the corresponding host cell enzyme. In order to define the differences in substrate binding of the two enzymes on molecular level, models for the three-dimensional (3-D) structures of the active sites of HSV1-TK and human TK were developed. The reconstruction of the active sites started from primary and secondary structure analysis of various kinases. The results were validated to homologous enzymes with known 3-D structures. The models predict that both enzymes consist of a central core β-sheet structure, connected by loops and α-helices very similar to the overall structure of other nucleotide binding enzymes. The phosphate binding is made up of a highly conserved glycine-rich loop at the N-terminus of the proteins and a conserved region at the C-terminus. The thymidine recognition site was found about 100 amino acids downstream from the phosphate binding loop. The differing substrate specificity of human and HSV1-TK can be explained by amino-acid substitutions in the homologous regions. To achieve a better understanding of the structure of the active site and how the thymidine kinase proteins interact with their substrates, the corresponding complexes of thymidine and dihydroxypropoxyguanine (DHPG) with HSV1 and human TK were built. For the docking of the guanine derivative, the X-ray structure of Elongation Factor Tu (EF-Tu), co-crystallized with guanosine diphosphate, was taken as reference. Fitting of thymidine into the active sites was done with respect to similar interactions found in thymidylate kinase. To complement the analysis of the 3-D structures of the two kinases and the substrate enzyme interactions, site-directed mutagenesis of the thymidine recognition site of HSV1-TK has been undertaken, changing Asp162 in the thymidine recognition site

  10. Anti-tumor immunity induced by an anti-idiotype antibody mimicking human Her-2/neu.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Kartik; Saha, Asim; Pal, Smarajit; Mallick, Palash; Chatterjee, Sunil K; Foon, Kenneth A; Bhattacharya-Chatterjee, Malaya

    2007-07-01

    Our goal is to apply an anti-idiotype (Id) antibody based vaccine approach for the treatment of Her-2/neu-positive human cancer. Amplification and/or over-expression of Her-2/neu occur in multiple human malignancies and are associated with poor prognosis. Her-2/neu proto-oncogene is a suitable target for cancer immunotherapy. We have developed and characterized a murine monoclonal anti-Id antibody, 6D12 that mimics a specific epitope of Her-2/neu and can be used as a surrogate antigen for Her-2/neu. In this study, the efficacy of 6D12 as a tumor vaccine was evaluated in a murine tumor model. Immunization of immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice with 6D12 conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and mixed with Freund's adjuvant or 6D12 combined with the adjuvant QS21 induced anti-6D12 as well as anti-Her-2/neu immunity. Her-2/neu-positive human breast carcinoma cells, SK-BR-3 reacted with immunized mice sera as determined by ELISA and flow cytometry. Flow cytometry analysis also demonstrated strong reactivity of immunized mice sera with human Her-2/neu transfected EL4 cells (EL4-Her-2), but no reactivity with nontransfected parental EL4 cells. Antibody dependent cellular cytotoxicity against EL4-Her-2 cells was also observed in presence of immune sera. Mice immunized with 6D12 were protected against a challenge with lethal doses of EL4-Her-2 cells, whereas no protection was observed against parental EL4 cells or when mice were immunized with an unrelated anti-Id antibody and challenged with EL4-Her-2 cells. These data suggest that anti-Id 6D12 vaccine can induce protective Her-2/neu specific antitumor immunity and may serve as a potential network antigen for the treatment of patients with Her-2/neu-positive tumors.

  11. Prevalence of HIV, human papillomavirus type 16 and herpes simplex virus type 2 among female sex workers in Guinea and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Aho, Joséphine; Koushik, Anita; Coutlée, François; Diakité, Soumaïla Laye; Rashed, Sélim

    2014-03-01

    Female sex workers are at high risk for HIV infection. Sexually transmitted infections are known to be co-factors for HIV infection. Our aims were (1) to assess the prevalence of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections in this population; (2) to determine the association between sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural variables, and variables related to HIV prevention and HIV infection. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Conakry, Guinea, among a convenience sample of 223 female sex workers. A questionnaire on sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors, and exposure to prevention was administered. Screening for HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and Chlamydia trachomatis was performed. Prevalences of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus type 16, N. gonorrhoeae, and C. trachomatis were 35.3%, 84.1%, 12.2%, 9.0%, and 13.6%, respectively. Having a child, lubricant use, and human papillomavirus type 16 infection were associated with HIV infection. Interventions that promote screening and treatment of sexually transmitted infections are needed in order to achieve successful interventions to prevent HIV among female sex workers in resource-limited settings.

  12. Herpes zoster in childhood.

    PubMed

    Leung, Alexander K C; Robson, W Lane M; Leong, Alexander G

    2006-01-01

    Herpes zoster is caused by reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus that resides in a dorsal root ganglion. Herpes zoster can develop any time after a primary infection. Because varicella vaccine is a live attenuated virus, herpes zoster can develop in a vaccine recipient. The incidence of herpes zoster among vaccine recipients is about 14 cases per 100,000 person-years. In young children, herpes zoster has a predilection for areas supplied by the cervical and sacral dermatomes. The most common complications are secondary bacterial infection, depigmentation, and scarring. Although the diagnosis of herpes zoster is based on a distinct clinical appearance, viral DNA analysis of the lesion by polymerase chain reaction or restriction fragment length polymorphism is necessary to differentiate wild from vaccine-type viruses. Acyclovir is the treatment of choice for herpes zoster.

  13. Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) and the immunocompromised: a clinical and autopsy study of HSE in the settings of cancer and human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Schiff, D; Rosenblum, M K

    1998-03-01

    Although herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is not regarded as an opportunistic infection, the occurrence of HSE in immunocompromised patients has been documented and the suggestion made that unusual clinical and neuropathologic features characterize the disorder in this population. To further characterize HSE as it affects the immunodeficient, the authors reviewed the clinical and pathological findings in three immunocompromised patients with autopsy-proven HSE. Two patients had cancer (one with lymphoma and another with glioblastoma multiforme), one was known to be human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1)-seropositive and a second was suspected of harboring underlying HIV-1 infection. Two were receiving dexamethasone at onset of HSE. All had fever, mental status changes and new, focal neurological deficits or worsening of established deficits. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis was absent or minimal and head computerized tomographic (CT) scans, performed in all cases, were unrevealing. No patient was clinically suspected of having HSE, only one received acyclovir (for concurrent mucocutaneous herpes) and HSE played a major role in all deaths. Autopsy revealed an unusual form of HSE characterized by a noninflammatory, pseudoischemic histological presentation and the unexpected persistence of viral antigens in abundance despite survival beyond the clinical stage during which inflammatory responses usually peak and productive brain infection wanes. The incidence of HSE in the immunocompromised may be underestimated. Preexistent neurological disease, a noninflammatory CSF profile and negative CT scan may confound the diagnosis in this population, a typical clinical presentation notwithstanding. Increased clinical suspicion, the use of magnetic resonance imaging and polymerase chain reaction analysis of CSF for herpes simplex virus nucleic acid sequences may permit more rapid diagnosis and treatment. The absence of inflammatory infiltrates in some fatal cases of

  14. Human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and epstein barr virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma from eight different countries.

    PubMed

    Jalouli, Jamshid; Jalouli, Miranda M; Sapkota, Dipak; Ibrahim, Salah O; Larsson, Per-Anders; Sand, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major health problem in many parts of the world, and the major causative agents are thought to be the use of alcohol and tobacco. Oncogenic viruses have also been suggested to be involved in OSCC development. This study investigated the prevalence of human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in 155 OSCC from eight different countries from different ethnic groups, continents and with different socioeconomic backgrounds. 41 A total of OSCCs were diagnosed in the tongue (26%) and 23 in the floor of the mouth (15%); the other 91 OSCCs were diagnosed in other locations (59%). The patients were also investigated regarding the use of alcohol and smoking and smokeless tobacco habits. Tissue samples were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of the OSCC. DNA was extracted and the viral genome was examined by single, nested and semi-nested PCR assays. Sequencing of double-stranded DNA from the PCR product was carried out. Following sequencing of the HPV-, HSV- and EBV-positive PCR products, 100% homology between the sampels was found. Of all the 155 OSCCs examined, 85 (55%) were positive for EBV, 54 (35%) for HPV and 24 (15%) for HSV. The highest prevalence of HPV was seen in Sudan (65%), while HSV (55%) and EBV (80%) were most prevalent in the UK. In 34% (52/155) of all the samples examined, co-infection by two (46/155=30%) or three (6/155=4%) virus specimens was detected. The most frequent double infection was HPV with EBV in 21% (32/155) of all OSCCs. There was a statistically significant higher proportion of samples with HSV (p=0.026) and EBV (p=0.015) in industrialized countries (Sweden, Norway, UK and USA) as compared to developing countries (Sudan, India, Sri Lanka and Yemen). Furthermore, there was a statistically significant higher co-infection of HSV and EBV in samples from industrialized countries (p=0.00031). No firm conclusions could be drawn regarding the

  15. Evidence for an involvement of thymidine kinase in the excision repair of ultraviolet-irradiated herpes simplex virus in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Intine, R.V.; Rainbow, A.J.

    1990-01-01

    A wild-type strain of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1:KOS) encoding a functional thymidine kinase (tk+) and a tk- mutant strain (HSV-1:PTK3B) were used to study the role of the viral tk in the repair of UV-irradiated HSV-1 in human cells. UV survival of HSV-1:PTK3B was substantially reduced compared with that of HSV-1:KOS when infecting normal human cells. In contrast, the UV survival of HSV-1:PTK3B was similar to that of HSV-1:KOS when infecting excision repair-deficient cells from a xeroderma pigmentosum patient from complementation group A. These results suggest that the repair of UV-irradiated HSV-1 in human cells depends, in partmore » at least, on expression of the viral tk and that the repair process influenced by tk activity is excision repair or a process dependent on excision repair.« less

  16. [Folliculitis barbae in herpes simplex infection].

    PubMed

    Löhrer, R; Rübben, A

    2004-01-01

    A 60-year-old male athlete developed a folliculitis in the beard region after several competitions. After identification of herpes simplex antigen within the lesions, systemic therapy with acyclovir led to rapid improvement. In folliculitis resistant to antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy, viral and mycotic infections as well as eosinophilic folliculitis should be considered as differential diagnostic possibilities.

  17. Herpes simplex virus and cytomegalovirus co-infection presenting as exuberant genital ulcer in a woman infected with human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Gouveia, A I; Borges-Costa, J; Soares-Almeida, L; Sacramento-Marques, M; Kutzner, H

    2014-12-01

    In patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), genital herpes can result in severe and atypical clinical presentations, and can become resistant to aciclovir treatment. Rarely, these manifestations may represent concurrent herpes simplex virus (HSV) with other agents. We report a 41-year-old black woman with HIV who presented with extensive and painful ulceration of the genitalia. Histological examination of a biopsy sample was suggestive of herpetic infection, and intravenous aciclovir was started, but produced only partial improvement. PCR was performed on the biopsy sample, and both HSV and cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA was detected. Oral valganciclovir was started with therapeutic success. CMV infection is common in patients infected with HIV, but its presence in mucocutaneous lesions is rarely reported. This case exemplifies the difficulties of diagnosis of genital ulcers in patients infected with HIV. The presence of exuberant and persistent HSV genital ulcers in patients with HIV should also raise suspicions of the presence of co-infection with other organisms such as CMV. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  18. Evaluation of CMV/human herpes virus-6 positivity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids as early detection of acute GVHD following BMT: evidence of a significant relationship.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Y; Takatsuka, H; Wada, H; Mori, A; Saheki, K; Okada, M; Tamura, S; Fujimori, Y; Okamoto, T; Kakishita, E; Kanamaru, A

    2000-07-01

    We evaluated the relationship between CMV and human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) reactivation and the incidence of grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD post BMT. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples extracted from 54 BMT recipients on post-BMT day 35 were analyzed by PCR for detection of CMV DNA, HHV-6 DNA and CMV plus HHV-6 DNA. CMV DNA was detected in 26 patients and 13 (50%) developed grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD. Of the 28 who were CMV negative, only six (21.4%) developed grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD. HHV-6 was detected in 18 patients, and 11 (61.1%) developed grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD. Of the 36 who were HHV-6 negative, only eight (22.2%) developed grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD. CMV and HHV-6 were detected in 13 patients, and eight (61.5%) developed grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD. Of the 23 who were negative for both CMV and HHV-6, only three (13%) developed grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD. In all experiments, the difference between the groups was significant (P<0.05, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). We conclude that herpes virus infection, in particular CMV concurrent with HHV-6 reactivation, is predictive of moderate to severe acute GVHD.

  19. Bovine lactoferricin is anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic in human articular cartilage and synovium.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dongyao; Chen, Di; Shen, Jie; Xiao, Guozhi; van Wijnen, Andre J; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2013-02-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multi-functional peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of bovine lactoferrin. LfcinB was found to antagonize the biological effects mediated by angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in endothelial cells. However, the effect of LfcinB on human articular cartilage remained unknown. Here, our findings demonstrate that LfcinB restored the proteoglycan loss promoted by catabolic factors (interleukin-1β) IL-1β and FGF-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Mechanistically, LfcinB attenuated the effects of IL-1β and FGF-2 on the expression of cartilage-degrading enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13), destructive cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6), and inflammatory mediators (iNOS and TLR2). LfcinB induced protective cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10), and downregulated aggrecanase basal expression. LfcinB specifically activated ERK MAPK and Akt signaling pathways, which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. We also revealed that LfcinB exerted similar protective effects on human synovial fibroblasts challenged by IL-1β, with minimal cytotoxicity. Collectively, our results suggest that LfcinB possesses potent anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities in human articular tissues, and may be utilized for the prevention and/or treatment of OA in the future. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Anti-leukemic activity and tolerability of anti-human CD47 monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, E C; Dong, J; Cardoso, R; Zhang, X; Chin, D; Hawkins, R; Dinh, T; Zhou, M; Strake, B; Feng, P-H; Rocca, M; Santos, C Dos; Shan, X; Danet-Desnoyers, G; Shi, F; Kaiser, E; Millar, H J; Fenton, S; Swanson, R; Nemeth, J A; Attar, R M

    2017-01-01

    CD47, a broadly expressed cell surface protein, inhibits cell phagocytosis via interaction with phagocyte-expressed SIRPα. A variety of hematological malignancies demonstrate elevated CD47 expression, suggesting that CD47 may mediate immune escape. We discovered three unique CD47-SIRPα blocking anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with low nano-molar affinity to human and cynomolgus monkey CD47, and no hemagglutination and platelet aggregation activity. To characterize the anti-cancer activity elicited by blocking CD47, the mAbs were cloned into effector function silent and competent Fc backbones. Effector function competent mAbs demonstrated potent activity in vitro and in vivo, while effector function silent mAbs demonstrated minimal activity, indicating that blocking CD47 only leads to a therapeutic effect in the presence of Fc effector function. A non-human primate study revealed that the effector function competent mAb IgG1 C47B222-(CHO) decreased red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit and hemoglobin by >40% at 1 mg/kg, whereas the effector function silent mAb IgG2σ C47B222-(CHO) had minimal impact on RBC indices at 1 and 10 mg/kg. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting CD47 is an attractive therapeutic anti-cancer approach. However, the anti-cancer activity observed with anti-CD47 mAbs is Fc effector dependent as are the side effects observed on RBC indices. PMID:28234345

  1. Novel Composite Efficacy Measure To Demonstrate the Rationale and Efficacy of Combination Antiviral–Anti-Inflammatory Treatment for Recurrent Herpes Simplex Labialis

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Tyring, Stephen K.; Spruance, Spotswood L.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, the primary target for research and treatment of recurrent herpes simplex labialis (HSL) has been limited to inhibiting herpes simplex virus (HSV) replication. Antiviral monotherapy, however, has proven only marginally effective in curtailing the duration and severity of recurrent lesions. Recently, the role of inflammation in the progression and resolution of recurrences has been identified as an additional target. This was evaluated in a randomized study comparing combination topical 5% acyclovir-1% hydrocortisone cream (AHC) with 5% acyclovir alone (AC; in the AHC vehicle) and the vehicle. The efficacy of each topical therapy was evaluated for cumulative lesion size—a novel composite efficacy endpoint incorporating episode duration, lesion area, and proportion of nonulcerative lesions. In that study, cumulative lesion area was significantly decreased with AHC compared with AC (25% decrease; P < 0.05) and the vehicle (50% decrease; P < 0.0001). As research continues in this arena, cumulative lesion area should be included as a measure of efficacy in clinical trials of recurrent HSL therapies. PMID:24342632

  2. Herpes zoster following cryosurgery.

    PubMed

    Lee, Michael R; Ryman, William

    2005-02-01

    A 56-year-old man developed reactivation of herpes zoster infection on his right forehead after treatment of several solar keratoses with cryosurgery. The rash was blistering and painful. Treatment with oral aciclovir was instituted and the lesions healed within 2 weeks. Known risk factors for reactivation include age and decreased immunity. Previous case reports have indicated trauma may be a risk factor in herpes zoster. We report a case of herpes zoster as a complication of cryosurgery.

  3. Understanding the interaction between human serum albumin and anti-bacterial/ anti-cancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Md Tabish; Khan, Asad U

    2015-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most important carrier of exogenous and endogenous molecules in human plasma. Understanding and characterizing the interaction of drugs with HSA has attracted enormous research interests from decades. The nature and magnitude of these bindings have direct consequence on drug delivery, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, therapeutic efficacy and drug designing. An overview of HSA and antibacterial/ anti-cancer ligands interaction is the need of the hour as these drugs together constitute more than half of the total drug consumption in the world. In this review, the information on the number of binding sites, binding strength, the nature of binding interactions and the location of binding sites of such drugs on the HSA are summarised. The effect of such drugs on the overall conformation, stability and function of HSA is also reviewed. This review will help to gain useful insights into the significance of the binding of anti-bacterial and anti-cancer drugs with plasma protein and the effect of binding on its overall distribution and pharmacological activities.

  4. [QUANTITATIVE DNA EVALUATION OF THE HIGH CARCINOGENIC RISK OF HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUSES AND HUMAN HERPES VIRUSES IN MALES WITH FERTILITY DISORDERS].

    PubMed

    Evdokimov, V V; Naumenko, V A; Tulenev, Yu A; Kurilo, L F; Kovalyk, V P; Sorokina, T M; Lebedeva, A L; Gomberg, M A; Kushch, A A

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is an actual medical and social problem. In 50% of couples it is associated with the male factor and in more than 50% of cases the etiology of the infertility remains insufficiently understood. The goal of this work was to study the prevalence and to perform quantitative analysis of the human herpes viruses (HHV) and high carcinogenic risk papilloma viruses (HR HPV) in males with infertility, as well as to assess the impact of these infections on sperm parameters. Ejaculate samples obtained from 196 males fall into 3 groups. Group 1 included men with the infertility of unknown etiology (n = 112); group 2, patients who had female partners with the history of spontaneous abortion (n = 63); group 3 (control), healthy men (n = 21). HHV and HR HPV DNA in the ejaculates were detected in a total of 42/196 (21.4%) males: in 31 and 11 patients in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p > 0.05) and in none of healthy males. HHV were detected in 24/42; HR HPV, in 18/42 males (p > 0.05) without significant difference between the groups. Among HR HPV genotypes of the clade A9 in ejaculate were more frequent (14/18, p = 0.04). Comparative analysis of the sperm parameters showed that in the ejaculates of the infected patients sperm motility as well as the number of morphologically normal cells were significantly reduced compared with the healthy men. The quantification of the viral DNA revealed that in 31% of the male ejaculates the viral load was high: > 3 Ig10/100000 cells. Conclusion. The detection of HHV and HR HPV in the ejaculate is associated with male infertility. Quantification of the viral DNA in the ejaculate is a useful indicator for monitoring viral infections in infertility and for decision to start therapy.

  5. Detection of human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6) in the skin of a patient with primary HHV 6 infection and erythroderma.

    PubMed Central

    Sumiyoshi, Y; Akashi, K; Kikuchi, M

    1994-01-01

    Human herpes virus 6 (HHV 6) has been implicated as the causative agent of exanthema subitum in young children. Recently, we reported two cases of a severe, infectious, mononucleosis-like syndrome resulting from a primary HHV 6 infection in immunocompetent adults. Both of these patients had the skin condition generally referred to as "erythroderma". A skin-biopsy specimen from one of them, a 43 year old man, was examined. Using immunohistochemical staining and in situ hybridisation, lymphocytes infected with HHV 6 were found in the skin. It is proposed that the erythroderma in immunocompetent adults infected with primary HHV 6 is provoked by infiltration of infected inflammatory cells or infected neoplastic lymphocytes into the dermis. Images PMID:7962635

  6. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome secondary to antituberculosis drugs and associated with human herpes virus-7 (HHV-7)

    PubMed Central

    Draz, Nehal; Datta, Sumona; Webster, Daniel P; Cropley, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a serious reaction to drugs with a clinical presentation of rash, fever, lymph node enlargement and internal organ involvement. Reports have described the reactivation of human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) and other HHVs in association with this syndrome. We report a 41-year-old woman who developed a rash, fever, liver dysfunction, eosinophilia and atypical monocytosis 21 days after initiation of the quadruple therapy for tuberculous cervical lymphadnitis. HHV-7 DNA was detected in blood by PCR suggesting infection with or more likely reactivation of HHV-7 as a contributing factor or consequence of this serious adverse drug reaction. PMID:23904426

  7. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes...

  9. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes...

  10. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes...

  11. 21 CFR 866.3305 - Herpes simplex virus serological assays.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Herpes simplex virus serological assays. 866.3305 Section 866.3305 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3305 Herpes...

  12. Genital herpes simplex.

    PubMed

    Tummon, I S; Dudley, D K; Walters, J H

    1981-07-01

    Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the herpes simplex virus. Following the initial infection the virus becomes latent in the sacral ganglia. Approximately 80% of patients are then subject to milder but unpredictable recurrences and may shed the virus even when they are asymptomatic. The disorder causes concern because genital herpes in the mother can result in rare but catastrophic neonatal infection and because of a possible association between genital herpes and cancer of the cervix. No effective treatment is as yet available. Weekly monitoring for virus by cervical culture from 32 weeks' gestation is recommended for women with a history of genital herpes and for those whose sexual partner has such a history.

  13. Anti-complement activities of human breast-milk.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, M O

    1999-08-01

    It has long been observed that the human milk possesses significant anti-inflammatory properties, while simultaneously protecting the infant against many intestinal and respiratory pathogens. There is, however, a paucity of information on the degree and extent of this anti-inflammatory activity. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of different fractions of human milk on serum complement activity were analysed. Colostrum and milk samples from healthy voluntary lactating donors at different postpartum ages were obtained and pooled normal human serum was used as source of complement in a modified CH50 assay. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also investigated by measuring the deposition of an activated C3 fragment on a serum-sensitive bacteria, and by haemolytic assays. Most whole- and defatted-milk samples consistently showed a dose-dependent inhibition of the serum complement activity. This inhibition was greater in mature milk compared to transitional milk samples. It was enhanced by inactivation of milk complement, and diminished by centrifugation of milk samples, which partly removed fat and larger protein components including casein micelles. Inherent complement activity in human milk was also demonstrated by haemolysis of sensitised sheep erythrocytes and deposition of C3 fragments on solid-phase bacteria. These activities were highest in the colostrum and gradually decreased as lactation proceeded. Several natural components abundant in the fluid phase of the human breast-milk have been shown to be inhibitors of complement activation in vitro. Their physiological significance probably reside in their ability to prevent inflammatory-induced tissue damage of the delicate immature gastrointestinal tract of the new-born as well as the mammary gland itself, which may arise from ongoing complement activation.

  14. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis: an Update.

    PubMed

    Gnann, John W; Whitley, Richard J

    2017-03-01

    The goal of this review is to provide an update on current thinking regarding herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), emphasizing new information about pathogenesis, diagnosis, and immune responses. Specific questions to be addressed are the following: (1) Is there a genetic predisposition to HSE? (2) What clinical approaches have the greatest impact on improving the long-term outcomes in patients with HSE? And (3) are there immune-mediated mechanisms that may account for relapsing HSE? Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR 3) plays an important role in innate immune responses, including generation of interferons. Multiple single-gene errors in TLR 3 interferon pathways have recently been described in children that result in increased susceptibility to HSE. Conversely, studies in both animal models and humans indicate that both cytolytic viral replication and immune-mediated responses (including cytotoxic T lymphocytes and immune mechanisms mediated by TLR 2) contribute to the pathology of HSV, suggesting possible new therapeutic approaches. In terms of treatment, data clearly indicate that a longer duration between onset of symptoms and initiation of effective antiviral therapy correlates directly with less favorable clinical outcome. Recurrent or relapsing HSE may occasionally occur, but recent observations indicate that many instances of "relapsing HSE", especially in children, are more often anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) encephalitis triggered by the antecedent HSV infection. Innate immune responses are critical for defense against HSV; genetic defects in this system may predispose patients to HSE. During acute HSE, exuberant immune responses may contribute to the CNS pathology, suggesting that selective immunosuppressive therapy, coupled with potent antiviral drugs, may eventually play a role in the therapeutic management of HSV. While overall clinical outcomes of HSE remain suboptimal, the initiation of high-dose acyclovir therapy as early as possible in the

  15. [Update on Herpes Simplex Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), which is caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV), is a severe neuro-infectious disease characterized by high mortality and morbidity. We reviewed the pathomechanism, diagnosis, and treatment of HSE based on recent progress in the field. The highlighted mechanism of HSE in this review is immune-mediated tissue damage caused by host immunity. Major symptoms of HSE include psychiatric alteration, Klüver-Bucy syndrome, and amnesia, caused by frequent involvement of the limbic system. An important differential diagnosis of HSE is autoimmune limbic encephalitis, including anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis, and anti-voltage-gated K+ channel encephalitis. HSE is definitely diagnosed based on the detection of HSV-DNA by polymerase chain reaction and/or the detection of HSV-IgG antibody in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Repeated CSF examinations are required for the accurate diagnosis of HSE. Acyclovir (ACV) plays a central role in the treatment of HSE, and its early initiation is essential for good outcome in patients with HSE. Acute administration of corticosteroids for HSE is controversial; a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of add-on corticosteroids to ACV is ongoing.

  16. The Viral Hypothesis of Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy - Is Human Herpes Virus-6 the Missing Link? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wipfler, P; Dunn, N; Beiki, O; Trinka, E; Fogdell-Hahn, A

    2018-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a common epileptic disorder. Although likely multifactorial, the mechanisms underlying the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease remains unknown in majority of patients. Viruses, particularly Human Herpes Virus 6A and B (HHV-6), two neurotropic herpes viruses, have been implicated in MTLE due to their ubiquitous nature and ability to establish lifelong latency with risk of reactivation. However, the results of studies investigating this relationship are conflicting. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the relationship between HHV-6 DNA (not specifying if A or B) in brain tissue and MTLE based on the current evidence. Two independent assessors carried out a comprehensive electronic search to identify all relevant studies. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to determine the overall odds ratio. A total of 10 studies met the inclusion criteria for the systematic review and eight for the meta-analysis. In 19.6% of all MTLE patients HHV-6 DNA was detected in brain tissue compared to 10.3% of all controls (p >0.05). The pooled odds ratio of HHV-6 positive cases in MTLE patients was 2.016 [95%-CI: 1.16-3.50] in the fixed effect model. The results of this meta-analysis indicate an association between HHV-6 DNA and MTLE surgically resected tissue samples, unspecified if A or B or both. However, the casual relationship and possible pathological role of HHV-6 in MTLE are yet to be elucidated. This study's results provide a basis for future studies continuing the investigation into pathological implications of HHV-6. Copyright © 2017 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Akt-mediated anti-apoptotic effects of substance P in Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis of human tenocytes

    PubMed Central

    Backman, Ludvig J; Danielson, Patrik

    2013-01-01

    Substance P (SP) and its receptor, the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1 R), are expressed by human tenocytes, and they are both up-regulated in cases of tendinosis, a condition associated with excessive apoptosis. It is known that SP can phosphorylate/activate the protein kinase Akt, which has anti-apoptotic effects. This mechanism has not been studied for tenocytes. The aims of this study were to investigate if Anti-Fas treatment is a good apoptosis model for human tenocytes in vitro, if SP protects from Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis, and by which mechanisms SP mediates an anti-apoptotic response. Anti-Fas treatment resulted in a time- and dose-dependent release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), i.e. induction of cell death, and SP dose-dependently reduced the Anti-Fas-induced cell death through a NK-1 R specific pathway. The same trend was seen for the TUNEL assay, i.e. SP reduced Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis via NK-1 R. In addition, it was shown that SP reduces Anti-Fas-induced decrease in cell viability as shown with crystal violet assay. Protein analysis using Western blot confirmed that Anti-Fas induces cleavage/activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP; both of which were inhibited by SP via NK-1 R. Finally, SP treatment resulted in phosphorylation/activation of Akt as shown with Western blot, and it was confirmed that the anti-apoptotic effect of SP was, at least partly, induced through the Akt-dependent pathway. In conclusion, we show that SP reduces Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis in human tenocytes and that this anti-apoptotic effect of SP is mediated through NK-1 R and Akt-specific pathways. PMID:23577779

  18. Akt-mediated anti-apoptotic effects of substance P in Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis of human tenocytes.

    PubMed

    Backman, Ludvig J; Danielson, Patrik

    2013-06-01

    Substance P (SP) and its receptor, the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1 R), are expressed by human tenocytes, and they are both up-regulated in cases of tendinosis, a condition associated with excessive apoptosis. It is known that SP can phosphorylate/activate the protein kinase Akt, which has anti-apoptotic effects. This mechanism has not been studied for tenocytes. The aims of this study were to investigate if Anti-Fas treatment is a good apoptosis model for human tenocytes in vitro, if SP protects from Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis, and by which mechanisms SP mediates an anti-apoptotic response. Anti-Fas treatment resulted in a time- and dose-dependent release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), i.e. induction of cell death, and SP dose-dependently reduced the Anti-Fas-induced cell death through a NK-1 R specific pathway. The same trend was seen for the TUNEL assay, i.e. SP reduced Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis via NK-1 R. In addition, it was shown that SP reduces Anti-Fas-induced decrease in cell viability as shown with crystal violet assay. Protein analysis using Western blot confirmed that Anti-Fas induces cleavage/activation of caspase-3 and cleavage of PARP; both of which were inhibited by SP via NK-1 R. Finally, SP treatment resulted in phosphorylation/activation of Akt as shown with Western blot, and it was confirmed that the anti-apoptotic effect of SP was, at least partly, induced through the Akt-dependent pathway. In conclusion, we show that SP reduces Anti-Fas-induced apoptosis in human tenocytes and that this anti-apoptotic effect of SP is mediated through NK-1 R and Akt-specific pathways. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine Published by Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Herpes B Virus Utilizes Human Nectin-1 but Not HVEM or PILRα for Cell-Cell Fusion and Virus Entry

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Qing; Amen, Melanie; Harden, Mallory; Severini, Alberto; Griffiths, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the requirements of herpesvirus entry and fusion, the four homologous glycoproteins necessary for herpes simplex virus (HSV) fusion were cloned from herpes B virus (BV) (or macacine herpesvirus 1, previously known as cercopithecine herpesvirus 1) and cercopithecine herpesvirus 2 (CeHV-2), both related simian simplexviruses belonging to the alphaherpesvirus subfamily. Western blots and cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed that glycoproteins gB, gD, and gH/gL were expressed in whole-cell lysates and on the cell surface. Cell-cell fusion assays indicated that nectin-1, an HSV-1 gD receptor, mediated fusion of cells expressing glycoproteins from both BV and CeHV-2. However, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), another HSV-1 gD receptor, did not facilitate BV- and CeHV-2-induced cell-cell fusion. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor alpha (PILRα), an HSV-1 gB fusion receptor, did not mediate fusion of cells expressing glycoproteins from either simian virus. Productive infection with BV was possible only with nectin-1-expressing cells, indicating that nectin-1 mediated entry while HVEM and PILRα did not function as entry receptors. These results indicate that these alphaherpesviruses have differing preferences for entry receptors. The usage of the HSV-1 gD receptor nectin-1 may explain interspecies transfer of the viruses, and altered receptor usage may result in altered virulence, tropism, or pathogenesis in the new host. A heterotypic cell fusion assay resulting in productive fusion may provide insight into interactions that occur to trigger fusion. These findings may be of therapeutic significance for control of deadly BV infections. PMID:22345445

  20. A new class of dual-targeted antivirals: monophosphorylated acyclovir prodrug derivatives suppress both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Vanpouille, Christophe; Lisco, Andrea; Derudas, Marco; Saba, Elisa; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Brichacek, Beda; Scrimieri, Francesca; Schinazi, Raymond; Schols, Dominique; McGuigan, Christopher; Balzarini, Jan; Margolis, Leonid

    2010-02-15

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are responsible for 2 intersecting epidemics in which the disease caused by 1 virus facilitates the transmission of and pathogenesis by the other. Therefore, suppression of one virus infection will affect the other. Acyclovir, a common antiherpetic drug, was shown to directly suppress both viruses in coinfected tissues. However, both antiviral activities of acyclovir are dependent on phosphorylation by the nucleoside kinase activity of coinfecting human herpesviruses. We developed acyclovir ProTides, monophosphorylated acyclovir with the phosphate group masked by lipophilic groups to allow efficient cellular uptake, and investigated their antiviral potential in cell lines and in human tissues ex vivo. Acyclovir ProTides suppressed both HIV-1 and HSV-2 at median effective concentrations in the submicromolar range in ex vivo lymphoid and cervicovaginal human tissues and at 3-12 micromol/L in CD4(+) T cells. Acyclovir ProTides retained activity against acyclovir-resistant HSV-2. Acyclovir ProTides represent a new class of antivirals that suppress both HIV-1 and HSV-2 by directly and independently blocking the key replicative enzymes of both viruses. Further optimization of such compounds may lead to double-targeted antivirals that can prevent viral transmission and treat the 2 synergistic diseases caused by HIV-1 and HSV-2. To our knowledge, the acyclovir ProTides described here represent the first example of acyclic nucleoside monophosphate prodrugs being active against HIV-1.

  1. Exposure to herpes simplex virus type 1 and cognitive impairments in individuals with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Konasale M; Watson, Annie M M; Dickerson, Faith B; Yolken, Robert H; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L

    2012-11-01

    Latent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV1), has been generally considered benign in most immunocompetent individuals except for rare cases of encephalitis. However, several recent studies have shown impaired cognitive functions among individuals with schizophrenia exposed to HSV1 compared with schizophrenia patients not exposed to HSV1. Such impairments are robust and are prominently observed in working memory, verbal memory, and executive functions. Brain regions that play a key role in the regulation of these domains have shown smaller volumes, along with correlation between these morphometric changes and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. One study noted temporal decline in executive function and gray matter loss among HSV1-exposed first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept double-blind placebo-controlled trial indicated improvement in cognitive performance following supplemental anti-herpes-specific medication among HSV1 seropositive schizophrenia patients. Cross-sectional studies have also identified an association between HSV1 exposure and lesser degrees of cognitive impairment among healthy control individuals and patients with bipolar disorder. These studies fulfill several Bradford-Hill criteria, suggesting etiological links between HSV1 exposure and cognitive impairment. Exposure to other human herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) may also be associated with cognitive impairment, but the data are less consistent. These studies are reviewed critically and further lines of enquiry recommended. The results are important from a public health perspective, as HSV1 exposure is highly prevalent in many populations.

  2. Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julie L; Amzat, Rianot; Martin, Nicolle

    2015-09-01

    Herpes zoster is a commonly encountered disorder. It is estimated that there are approximately 1 million new cases of herpes zoster in the United States annually, with an incidence of 3.2 per 1000 person-years. Patients with HIV have the greatest risk of developing herpes zoster ophthalmicus compared with the general population. Other risk factors include advancing age, use of immunosuppressive medications, and primary infection in infancy or in utero. Vaccination against the virus is a primary prevention modality. Primary treatments include antivirals, analgesics, and anticonvulsants. Management may require surgical intervention and comanagement with pain specialists, psychiatrists, and infectious disease specialists. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Vidarabine, an Anti-Herpes Virus Agent, Protects Against the Development of Heart Failure With Relatively Mild Side-Effects on Cardiac Function in a Canine Model of Pacing-Induced Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takashi; Fujita, Takayuki; Kishimura, Megumi; Suita, Kenji; Hidaka, Yuko; Cai, Wenqian; Umemura, Masanari; Yokoyama, Utako; Uechi, Masami; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro

    2016-11-25

    In heart failure patients, chronic hyperactivation of sympathetic signaling is known to exacerbate cardiac dysfunction. In this study, the cardioprotective effect of vidarabine, an anti-herpes virus agent, which we identified as a cardiac adenylyl cyclase inhibitor, in dogs with pacing-induced dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) was evaluated. In addition, the adverse effects of vidarabine on basal cardiac function was compared to those of the β-blocker, carvedilol.Methods and Results:Vidarabine and carvedilol attenuated the development of pacing-induced systolic dysfunction significantly and with equal effectiveness. Both agents also inhibited the development of cardiac apoptosis and fibrosis and reduced the Na + -Ca 2+ exchanger-1 protein level in the heart. Importantly, carvedilol significantly enlarged the left ventricle and atrium; vidarabine, in contrast, did not. Vidarabine-treated dogs maintained cardiac response to β-AR stimulation better than carvedilol-treated dogs did. Vidarabine may protect against pacing-induced DCM with less suppression of basal cardiac function than carvedilol in a dog model. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2496-2505).

  4. Mitochondrial Haplogroups as a Risk Factor for Herpes Zoster.

    PubMed

    Levinson, Rebecca T; Hulgan, Todd; Kalams, Spyros A; Fessel, Joshua P; Samuels, David C

    2016-10-01

    Background.  Herpes zoster, or shingles, is a common, painful reactivation of latent varicella zoster virus infection. Understanding host factors that predispose to herpes zoster may permit development of more effective prevention strategies. Our objective was to examine mitochondrial haplogroups as a potential host factor related to herpes zoster incidence. Methods.  Study participants were drawn from BioVU, a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biobank connected to deidentified electronic medical records (EMRs) from Vanderbilt University Medical Center. Our study used 9691 Caucasian individuals with herpes zoster status determined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes 053-053.9. Cases and controls were matched on sex and date of birth within 5 years. Mitochondrial haplogroups were defined from mitochondrial DNA variants genotyped on the Illumina 660W or Illumina Infinium Human-Exome Beadchip. Sex and date of birth were extracted from the EMR. Results.  European mitochondrial haplogroup H had a protective association with herpes zoster status (odds ratio [OR] = .82; 95% confidence interval [CI], .71-.94; P = .005), whereas haplogroup clade IWX was a risk factor for herpes zoster status (OR = 1.38; 95% CI, 1.07-1.77; P = .01). Conclusions.  Mitochondrial haplogroup influences herpes zoster risk. Knowledge of a patient's mitochondrial haplogroup could allow for a precision approach to the management of herpes zoster risk through vaccination strategies and management of other modifiable risk factors.

  5. Rapid localized spread and immunologic containment define Herpes simplex virus-2 reactivation in the human genital tract.

    PubMed

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Swan, David; Al Sallaq, Ramzi; Magaret, Amalia; Johnston, Christine; Mark, Karen E; Selke, Stacy; Ocbamichael, Negusse; Kuntz, Steve; Zhu, Jia; Robinson, Barry; Huang, Meei-Li; Jerome, Keith R; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2013-04-16

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is shed episodically, leading to occasional genital ulcers and efficient transmission. The biology explaining highly variable shedding patterns, in an infected person over time, is poorly understood. We sampled the genital tract for HSV DNA at several time intervals and concurrently at multiple sites, and derived a spatial mathematical model to characterize dynamics of HSV-2 reactivation. The model reproduced heterogeneity in shedding episode duration and viral production, and predicted rapid early viral expansion, rapid late decay, and wide spatial dispersion of HSV replication during episodes. In simulations, HSV-2 spread locally within single ulcers to thousands of epithelial cells in <12 hr, but host immune responses eliminated infected cells in <24 hr; secondary ulcers formed following spatial propagation of cell-free HSV-2, allowing for episode prolongation. We conclude that HSV-2 infection is characterized by extremely rapid virological growth and containment at multiple contemporaneous sites within genital epithelium. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00288.001.

  6. Rapid localized spread and immunologic containment define Herpes simplex virus-2 reactivation in the human genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Schiffer, Joshua T; Swan, David; Al Sallaq, Ramzi; Magaret, Amalia; Johnston, Christine; Mark, Karen E; Selke, Stacy; Ocbamichael, Negusse; Kuntz, Steve; Zhu, Jia; Robinson, Barry; Huang, Meei-Li; Jerome, Keith R; Wald, Anna; Corey, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is shed episodically, leading to occasional genital ulcers and efficient transmission. The biology explaining highly variable shedding patterns, in an infected person over time, is poorly understood. We sampled the genital tract for HSV DNA at several time intervals and concurrently at multiple sites, and derived a spatial mathematical model to characterize dynamics of HSV-2 reactivation. The model reproduced heterogeneity in shedding episode duration and viral production, and predicted rapid early viral expansion, rapid late decay, and wide spatial dispersion of HSV replication during episodes. In simulations, HSV-2 spread locally within single ulcers to thousands of epithelial cells in <12 hr, but host immune responses eliminated infected cells in <24 hr; secondary ulcers formed following spatial propagation of cell-free HSV-2, allowing for episode prolongation. We conclude that HSV-2 infection is characterized by extremely rapid virological growth and containment at multiple contemporaneous sites within genital epithelium. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00288.001 PMID:23606943

  7. Susceptibility of human Plasmodium knowlesi infections to anti-malarials

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo remains zoonotic, meaning anti-malarial drug resistance is unlikely to have developed in the absence of drug selection pressure. Therefore, adequate response to available anti-malarial treatments is assumed. Methods Here the ex vivo sensitivity of human P. knowlesi isolates in Malaysian Borneo were studied, using a WHO schizont maturation assay modified to accommodate the quotidian life cycle of this parasite. The in vitro sensitivities of P. knowlesi H strain adapted from a primate infection to in vitro culture (by measuring the production of Plasmodium lactate dehydrogenase) were also examined together with some assays using Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Results Plasmodium knowlesi is uniformly highly sensitive to artemisinins, variably and moderately sensitive to chloroquine, and less sensitive to mefloquine. Conclusions Taken together with reports of clinical failures when P. knowlesi is treated with mefloquine, the data suggest that caution is required if using mefloquine in prevention or treatment of P. knowlesi infections, until further studies are undertaken. PMID:24245918

  8. In Situ Detection of Regulatory T Cells in Human Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Reactivation and Their Influence on Spontaneous HSV-2 Reactivation.

    PubMed

    Milman, Neta; Zhu, Jia; Johnston, Christine; Cheng, Anqi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M; Huang, Meei-Li; Jin, Lei; Klock, Alexis; Layton, Erik D; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivation is accompanied by a sustained influx of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells that persist in genital tissue for extended periods. While CD4(+) T cells have long been recognized as being present in herpetic ulcerations, their role in subclinical reactivation and persistence is less well known, especially the role of CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs). We characterized the Treg (CD4(+)Foxp3(+)) population during human HSV-2 reactivation in situ in sequential genital skin biopsy specimens obtained from HSV-2-seropositive subjects at the time of lesion onset up to 8 weeks after healing. High numbers of Tregs infiltrated to the site of viral reactivation and persisted in proximity to conventional CD4(+) T cells (Tconvs) and CD8(+) T cells. Treg density peaked during the lesion stage of the reactivation. The number of Tregs from all time points (lesion, healed, 2 weeks after healing, 4 weeks after healing, and 8 weeks after healing) was significantly higher than in control biopsy specimens from unaffected skin. There was a direct correlation between HSV-2 titer and Treg density. The association of a high Treg to Tconv ratio with high viral shedding suggests that the balance between regulatory and effector T cells influences human HSV-2 disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in humanized HIV-transgenic mice triggers HIV shedding and is associated with greater neurological disease.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Briana; Fakioglu, Esra; Stefanidou, Martha; Wang, Yanhua; Dutta, Monica; Goldstein, Harris; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-02-15

    Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Higher HIV-1 loads are observed in coinfected individuals, and conversely, HIV-1 is associated with more-severe herpetic disease. A small animal model of coinfection would facilitate identification of the biological mechanisms underlying this synergy and provide the opportunity to evaluate interventions. Mice transgenic for HIV-1 provirus and human cyclin T1 under the control of a CD4 promoter (JR-CSF/hu-cycT1) were intravaginally infected with HSV-2 and evaluated for disease progression, HIV shedding, and mucosal immune responses. HSV-2 infection resulted in higher vaginal HIV loads and genital tissue expression of HIV RNA, compared with HSV-uninfected JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice. There was an increase in genital tract inflammatory cells, cytokines, chemokines, and interferons in response to HSV-2, although the kinetics of the response were delayed in HIV-transgenic, compared with control mice. Moreover, the JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice exhibited earlier and more-severe neurological disease. The latter was associated with downregulation of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor expression in neuronal tissue, a molecule with antiinflammatory, antiviral, and neuroprotective properties. JR-CSF/hu-cycT1 mice provide a valuable model to study HIV/HSV-2 coinfection and identify potential mechanisms by which HSV-2 facilitates HIV-1 transmission and HIV modulates HSV-2-mediated disease.

  10. In Situ Detection of Regulatory T Cells in Human Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2) Reactivation and Their Influence on Spontaneous HSV-2 Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Milman, Neta; Zhu, Jia; Johnston, Christine; Cheng, Anqi; Magaret, Amalia; Koelle, David M.; Huang, Meei-Li; Jin, Lei; Klock, Alexis; Layton, Erik D.; Corey, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Background. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactivation is accompanied by a sustained influx of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that persist in genital tissue for extended periods. While CD4+ T cells have long been recognized as being present in herpetic ulcerations, their role in subclinical reactivation and persistence is less well known, especially the role of CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). Methods. We characterized the Treg (CD4+Foxp3+) population during human HSV-2 reactivation in situ in sequential genital skin biopsy specimens obtained from HSV-2–seropositive subjects at the time of lesion onset up to 8 weeks after healing. Results. High numbers of Tregs infiltrated to the site of viral reactivation and persisted in proximity to conventional CD4+ T cells (Tconvs) and CD8+ T cells. Treg density peaked during the lesion stage of the reactivation. The number of Tregs from all time points (lesion, healed, 2 weeks after healing, 4 weeks after healing, and 8 weeks after healing) was significantly higher than in control biopsy specimens from unaffected skin. There was a direct correlation between HSV-2 titer and Treg density. Conclusions. The association of a high Treg to Tconv ratio with high viral shedding suggests that the balance between regulatory and effector T cells influences human HSV-2 disease. PMID:27117511

  11. Microarray profiling analysis uncovers common molecular mechanisms of rubella virus, human cytomegalovirus, and herpes simplex virus type 2 infections in ECV304 cells.

    PubMed

    Mo, X; Xu, L; Yang, Q; Feng, H; Peng, J; Zhang, Y; Yuan, W; Wang, Y; Li, Y; Deng, Y; Wan, Y; Chen, Z; Li, F; Wu, X

    2011-08-01

    To study the common molecular mechanisms of various viruses infections that might result in congential cardiovascular diseases in perinatal period, changes in mRNA expression levels of ECV304 cells infected by rubella virus (RUBV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) were analyzed using a microarray system representing 18,716 human genes. 99 genes were found to exhibit differential expression (80 up-regulated and 19 down-regulated). Biological process analysis showed that 33 signaling pathways including 22 genes were relevant significantly to RV, HCMV and HSV-II infections. Of these 33 biological processes, 28 belong to one-gene biological processes and 5 belong to multiple-gene biological processes. Gene annotation indicated that the 5 multiple-gene biological processes including regulation of cell growth, collagen fibril organization, mRNA transport, cell adhesion and regulation of cell shape, and seven down- or up-regulated genes [CRIM1 (cysteine rich transmembrane BMP regulator 1), WISP2 (WNT1 inducible signaling pathway protein 2), COL12A1 (collagen, type XII, alpha 1), COL11A2 (collagen, type XI, alpha 2), CNTN5 (contactin 5), DDR1 (discoidin domain receptor tyrosine kinase 1), VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor precursor)], are significantly correlated to RUBV, HCMV and HSV-2 infections in ECV304 cells. The results obtained in this study suggested the common molecular mechanisms of viruses infections that might result in congential cardiovascular diseases.

  12. Accumulation of a soluble form of human nectin-2 is required for exerting the resistance against herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in transfected cells.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Y; Ozaki, K; Iwamori, N; Takakuwa, H; Ono, E

    2016-03-01

    Cell entry of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) requires the interaction of viral glycoprotein D (gD) with the receptor nectin-1 and herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM). In addition, it is known that nectin-2 is also functional as a receptor for HSV-2, although the binding to the gD is weak. To examine an antiviral potential of a soluble form of human nectin-2 (hNectin-2Ig), transfected Vero cells expressing the entire ectodomain of nectin-2 fused to the Fc portion of human IgG were established. Specific binding of hNectin-2Ig to HSV-2 gD was confirmed by ELISA. Competitive ELISA demonstrated that accumulation of hNectin-2Ig in transfected cells increased significantly in a cell culture time dependent manner. Viral growth of several HSV-2 strains was significantly inhibited in the transfected cells that were cultured for 72 hr compared with control Vero cells, but not in cells that were cultured for 24 hr. These results indicate that accumulation of a soluble form of nectin-2 is required for exerting the resistance against HSV-2 infection.

  13. Herpes simplex virus type 2 glycoprotein H interacts with integrin αvβ3 to facilitate viral entry and calcium signaling in human genital tract epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cheshenko, Natalia; Trepanier, Janie B; González, Pablo A; Eugenin, Eliseo A; Jacobs, William R; Herold, Betsy C

    2014-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) entry requires multiple interactions at the cell surface and activation of a complex calcium signaling cascade. Previous studies demonstrated that integrins participate in this process, but their precise role has not been determined. These studies were designed to test the hypothesis that integrin αvβ3 signaling promotes the release of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) stores and contributes to viral entry and cell-to-cell spread. Transfection of cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting integrin αvβ3, but not other integrin subunits, or treatment with cilengitide, an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) mimetic, impaired HSV-induced Ca2+ release, viral entry, plaque formation, and cell-to-cell spread of HSV-1 and HSV-2 in human cervical and primary genital tract epithelial cells. Coimmunoprecipitation studies and proximity ligation assays indicated that integrin αvβ3 interacts with glycoprotein H (gH). An HSV-2 gH-null virus was engineered to further assess the role of gH in the virus-induced signaling cascade. The gH-2-null virus bound to cells and activated Akt to induce a small Ca2+ response at the plasma membrane, but it failed to trigger the release of cytoplasmic Ca2+ stores and was impaired for entry and cell-to-cell spread. Silencing of integrin αvβ3 and deletion of gH prevented phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and the transport of viral capsids to the nuclear pore. Together, these findings demonstrate that integrin signaling is activated downstream of virus-induced Akt signaling and facilitates viral entry through interactions with gH by activating the release of intracellular Ca2+ and FAK phosphorylation. These findings suggest a new target for HSV treatment and suppression. Herpes simplex viruses are the leading cause of genital disease worldwide, the most common infection associated with neonatal encephalitis, and a major cofactor for HIV acquisition and transmission. There is no effective vaccine. These

  14. Potential anti-inflammatory and anti-infectious effects of human milk oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Kunz, C; Rudloff, S

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing evidence of the local effects within the gastro intestinal tract and the systemic functions of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO). In addition to the vast majority of in vitro data, animal studies underline the high potential of HMO to influence very different processes. HMO probably influence the composition of the gut microflora through effects on the growth of bifidus bacteria. Whether the concomitant low number of pathogenic microorganisms in breastfed infants is also caused by HMO is an intriguing question that still has yet to be proven. Due to the similarity of HMO to epithelial cell surface carbohydrates, an inhibitory effect on the adhesion of pathogens to the cell surface is most likely. If this could be shown in humans, HMO would provide a new way to prevent or treat certain infections. It would also indicate supplementing infant formula based on cow's milk with HMO, as those oligosaccharides are either not detectable or present only in low numbers in bovine milk. As some HMO can be absorbed and circulate in blood, systemic effects may also be influenced. Due to their similarities to selectin ligands, HMO have been tested in in vitro studies demonstrating their anti-inflammatory abilities. For example, it has been shown that sialic acid-containing oligosaccharides reduce the adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells, an indication for an immune regulatory effect of certain HMO. We cover these topics after a short introduction on the structures of HMO, with a particular emphasis on their blood group and secretor specificity.

  15. Immunoglobulin gene usage in the human anti-pathogen response.

    PubMed

    Newkirk, M M; Rioux, J D

    1995-09-01

    The human antibody response to foreign pathogens is generated to a relatively small number of target surface proteins and carbohydrates that nonetheless have an extensive array of epitopes. The study of human monoclonal antibodies to different pathogens shows that there are a diversity of mechanisms used to generate a sufficient repertoire of antibodies to combat the invading pathogens. Although many different immunoglobulin gene elements are used to construct the anti-pathogen response, some elements are used more often than would be expected if all elements were used randomly. For example, the immune response to Haemophilus influenzae polysaccharide appears to be quite narrow, being restricted primarily to a specific heavy-chain gene, 3-15, and a lambda light-chain family II member, 4A. In contrast, for the immune response to cytomegalovirus proteins, a wider group of gene elements is needed. It is also surprising that despite an investigator bias for IgG- rather than IgM-secreting immortal B cells (because of their high affinity and neutralizing abilities), 26% of light chains and 13% of heavy chains showed a very low level of somatic mutation, equivalent to an IgM molecule that has not undergone affinity maturation. Although some highly mutated IgG molecules are present in the anti-pathogen response, most of the monoclonal antibodies specific for viruses or bacteria have a level of somatic hypermutation similar to that of the adult IgM repertoire. A number of studies have shown that there are similarities in the antibody responses to pathogens and to self (autoantibodies).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Anti-oxidative and anti-genotoxic effects of methanolic extract of Mentha pulegium on human lymphocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Alpsoy, Lokman; Sahin, Hilal; Karaman, Seyda

    2011-08-01

    In the present work, methanolic extract of Mentha pulegium from Erzurum, Turkey, was used in order to report the results of anti-oxidant capacity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-genotoxic effects. The total antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content were measured by using CUPRAC, ABTS and Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric methods. The total phenolic content was higher than the total antioxidant capacity (for the results of both the CUPRAC and ABTS methods) of methanolic extract of M pulegium (ME). Also, we evaluated the anti-oxidant enzyme activity such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutation peroxidase, total glutation (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in human lymphocyte culture. In CCl₄-treated group, the activity of SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and GSH decreased significantly and the level of MDA increased significantly. A significant increase in the activity of SOD, GPx and the level of GSH were seen when supplemented with ME to CCl₄-treated group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the level of MDA was observed when compared with CCl₄ alone treated group. In addition, anti-genotoxic effect of ME was studied by using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) method. As a result, ME has shown anti-genotoxic effect depend on anti-oxidative effect on human lymphocyte culture.

  17. Herpes zoster (shingles) disseminated (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes zoster (shingles) normally occurs in a limited area that follows a dermatome (see the "dermatome" picture). In individuals with damaged immune systems, herpes zoster may be widespread (disseminated), causing serious illness. ...

  18. Herpes Simplex Virus-based gene Therapy Enhances the Efficacy of Mitomycin-C in the Treatment of Human Bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mullerad, Michael; Bochner, Bernard H.; Adusumilli, Prasad S.; Bhargava, Amit; Kikuchi, Eiji; Hui-Ni, Chen; Kattan, Michael W.; Chou, Ting-Chao; Fong, Yuman

    2005-01-01

    Purpose Oncolytic replication-competent herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV) mutants have the ability to replicate in and kill malignant cells. We have previously demonstrated the ability of replication-competent HSV to control bladder cancer growth in an orthotopic murine model. We hypothesized that a combination of a chemotherapeutic agent used for intravesical treatment - mitomycin-C (MMC) - and oncolytic HSV would exert a synergistic effect in the treatment of human transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Materials and Methods We used the mutant HSV NV1066, which is deleted for viral genes ICP0 and ICP4 and selectively infects cancer cells, to treat TCC lines, KU19-19 and SKUB. Cell survival was determined by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for each agent as well as for drug-viral combinations from days 1 to 5. The isobologram method and the combination index method of Chou-Talalay were used to assess for synergistic effect. Results NV1066 enhanced MMC mediated cytotoxicity at all combinations tested for both KU19-19 and SKUB. Combination of both agents demonstrated a synergistic effect and allowed dose reduction by 12 and 10.4 times (NV1066) and by 3 and 156 times (MMC) in the treatment of KU19-19 and SKUB respectively, while achieving an estimated 90% cell kill. Conclusion These data provide the cellular basis for the clinical investigation of combined mitomycin-C and oncolytic HSV therapy in the treatment of bladder cancer. PMID:16006968

  19. Distribution of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 genomes in human spinal ganglia studied by PCR and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Obara, Y; Furuta, Y; Takasu, T; Suzuki, S; Suzuki, H; Matsukawa, S; Fujioka, Y; Takahashi, H; Kurata, T; Nagashima, K

    1997-06-01

    Clinical data indicate that the recurring herpes simplex virus (HSV) from oro-labial lesions is HSV subtype 1 and that the virus from genital lesions is HSV-2. This suggests that HSV-1 and HSV-2 reside in latent forms in the trigeminal ganglia and sacral ganglia, respectively. However, the distribution of latent HSV-1 and HSV-2 infections in human spinal ganglia has not been fully examined. This report concerns the application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) to such a study. By using PCR and employing the respective primers, HSV-1 and HSV-2 DNAs were detected in 207 of 524 samples from 262 spinal ganglia (from the cervical to the sacral ganglia) examined on both sides. The percentages of HSV-1 and HSV-2 detected in a given set of ganglia were similar, indicating an absence of site preference. By ISH, few but positive hybridization signals were detected evenly in sacral ganglia sections. The data suggest that regional specificity of recurrent HSV infections is not due to regional distribution of latent virus, but that local host factors may be important for recurrences.

  20. Tissue-Specific Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus Thymidine Kinase Gene Delivered by Adeno-Associated Virus Inhibits the Growth of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Athymic Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hua; Lu, Ronghua; Chang, Judy C.; Kan, Yuet Wai

    1997-12-01

    About 70% of hepatocellular carcinomas are known to express α -fetoprotein, which is normally expressed in fetal but not in adult livers. To induce herpes simplex virus-thymidine kinase expression in these cancer cells, we constructed an adeno-associated viral vector containing the HSV-TK gene under the control of the α -fetoprotein enhancer and albumin promoter. We previously demonstrated in vitro that although this vector can transduce a variety of human cells, only transduced AFP and albumin-expressing hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were sensitive to killing by ganciclovir (GCV). In the present study, we explored the effect of this vector on hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vivo. Subcutaneous tumors generated in nude mice by implanting hepatocellular carcinoma cells previously transduced with this vector shrank dramatically after treatment with GCV. Bystander effect was also observed on the tumors generated by mixing transduced and untransduced cells. To test whether the tumor cells can be transduced by the virus in vivo, we injected the recombinant adeno-associated virus into tumors generated by untransduced hepatocarcinoma cell line. Tumor growth were retarded after treatment with GCV. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo transduction of tumor cell with rAAV.

  1. Marine organisms as a therapeutic source against herpes simplex virus infection.

    PubMed

    Vo, Thanh-Sang; Ngo, Dai-Hung; Ta, Quang Van; Kim, Se-Kwon

    2011-09-18

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a member of the Herpesviridae family that causes general communicable infections in human populations throughout the world, the most common being genital and orolabial disease. The current treatments for HSV infections are nucleoside analogs such as acyclovir, valacyclovir and famciclovir. Despite the safety and efficacy, extensive clinical use of these drugs has led to the emergence of resistant viral strains, mainly in immunocompromised patients. To counteract these problems, alternative anti-HSV agents from natural products have been reported. Recently, a great deal of interest has been expressed regarding marine organisms such as algae, sponges, tunicates, echinoderms, mollusks, shrimp, bacteria, and fungus as promising anti-HSV agents. This contribution presents an overview of potential anti-HSV agents derived from marine organisms and their promising application in HSV therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of Herpes Simplex Virus 1-Encoded MicroRNAs in Human Trigeminal Ganglia and Their Relation to Local T-Cell Infiltrates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Held, Kathrin; Junker, Andreas; Dornmair, Klaus; Meinl, Edgar; Sinicina, Inga; Brandt, Thomas; Theil, Diethilde; Derfuss, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus which establishes lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia (TG). Currently, two nonexclusive control mechanisms of HSV-1 latency are discussed: antiviral CD8+ T cells and viral microRNAs (miRNAs) encoded by the latency associated transcript (LAT). We investigate here to what extent these mechanisms may contribute to the maintenance of HSV-1 latency. We show that only a small proportion of LAT+ neurons is surrounded by T cells in human TG. This indicates that viral latency in human TG might be controlled by other mechanisms such as viral miRNAs. Therefore, we assessed TG sections for the presence of HSV-1 miRNA, DNA, and mRNA by combining LAT in situ hybridization, T-cell immunohistochemistry, and single cell analysis of laser-microdissected sensory neurons. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) revealed that LAT+ neurons with or without surrounding T cells were always positive for HSV-1 miRNAs and DNA. Furthermore, ICP0 mRNA could rarely be detected only in LAT+ neurons, as analyzed by single-cell RT-PCR. In contrast, in LAT− neurons that were surrounded by T cells, neither miRNAs nor the DNA of HSV-1, HSV-2, or varicella-zoster virus could be detected. These data indicate that the majority of LAT+ neurons is not directly controlled by T cells. However, miRNA expression in every latently infected neuron would provide an additional checkpoint before viral replication is initiated. PMID:21795359

  3. Short communication: a repeated simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase/herpes simplex virus type 2 cochallenge macaque model for the evaluation of microbicides.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Aravantinou, Meropi; Kleinbeck, Kyle; Frank, Ines; Gettie, Agegnehu; Grasperge, Brooke; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that prevalent herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases the risk of HIV acquisition, underscoring the need to develop coinfection models to evaluate promising prevention strategies. We previously established a single high-dose vaginal coinfection model of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)/HSV-2 in Depo-Provera (DP)-treated macaques. However, this model does not appropriately mimic women's exposure. Repeated limiting dose SHIV challenge models are now used routinely to test prevention strategies, yet, at present, there are no reports of a repeated limiting dose cochallenge model in which to evaluate products targeting HIV and HSV-2. Herein, we show that 20 weekly cochallenges with 2-50 TCID50 simian human immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT) and 10(7) pfu HSV-2 results in infection with both viruses (4/6 SHIV-RT, 6/6 HSV-2). The frequency and level of vaginal HSV-2 shedding were significantly greater in the repeated exposure model compared to the single high-dose model (p<0.0001). We used this new model to test the Council's on-demand microbicide gel, MZC, which is active against SHIV-RT in DP-treated macaques and HSV-2 and human papillomavirus (HPV) in mice. While MZC reduced SHIV and HSV-2 infections in our repeated limiting dose model when cochallenging 8 h after each gel application, a barrier effect of carrageenan (CG) that was not seen in DP-treated animals precluded evaluation of the significance of the antiviral activity of MZC. Both MZC and CG significantly (p<0.0001) reduced the frequency and level of vaginal HSV-2 shedding compared to no gel treatment. This validates the use of this repeated limiting dose cochallenge model for testing products targeting HIV and HSV-2.

  4. An efficient deletion mutant packaging system for defective herpes simplex virus vectors: Potential applications to human gene therapy and neuronal physiology

    SciTech Connect

    Geller, A.I.; Keyomarsi, K.; Bryan, J.

    1990-11-01

    The authors have previously described a defective herpes simplex virus (HSV-1) vector system that permits that introduction of virtually any gene into nonmitotic cells. pHSVlac, the prototype vector, stably expresses Escherichia coli {beta}-galactosidase from a constitutive promoter in many human cell lines, in cultured rat neurons from throughout the nervous system, and in cells in the adult rat brain. HSV-1 vectors expressing other genes may prove useful for studying neuronal physiology or performing human gene therapy for neurological diseases, such as Parkinson disease or brain tumors. A HSV-1 temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant, ts K, has been used as helper virus; tsmore » mutants revert to wild type. In contrast, HSV-1 deletion mutants essentially cannot revert to wild type; therefore, use of a deletion mutant as helper virus might permit human gene therapy with HSV-1 vectors. They now report an efficient packaging system for HSV-1 VECTORS USING A DELETION MUTANT, d30EBA, as helper virus; virus is grown on the complementing cell line M64A. pHSVlac virus prepared using the deletion mutant packaging system stably expresses {beta}-galactosidase in cultured rat sympathetic neurons and glia. Both D30EBA and ts K contain a mutation in the IE3 gene of HSV-1 strain 17 and have the same phenotype; therefore, changing the helper virus from ts K to D30EBA does not alter the host range or other properties of the HSV-1 vector system.« less

  5. Discovery of Herpes B Virus-Encoded MicroRNAs▿

    PubMed Central

    Besecker, Michael I.; Harden, Mallory E.; Li, Guanglin; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Griffiths, Anthony

    2009-01-01

    Herpes B virus (BV) naturally infects macaque monkeys and is a close relative of herpes simplex virus. BV can zoonotically infect humans to cause a rapidly ascending encephalitis with ∼80% mortality. Therefore, BV is a serious danger to those who come into contact with these monkeys or their tissues and cells. MicroRNAs are regulators of gene expression, and there have been reports of virus-encoded microRNAs. We hypothesize that BV-encoded microRNAs are important for the regulation of viral and cellular genes. Herein, we report the discovery of three herpes B virus-encoded microRNAs. PMID:19144716

  6. Decline in Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 Among Non-Injecting Heroin and Cocaine Users in New York City, 2005 to 2014: Prospects for Avoiding a Resurgence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, Don C; Arasteh, Kamyar; Feelemyer, Jonathan; McKnight, Courtney; Tross, Susan; Perlman, David C; Campbell, Aimee N C; Hagan, Holly; Cooper, Hannah L F

    2017-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection increases both susceptibility to and transmissibility of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and HSV-2 and HIV are often strongly associated in HIV epidemics. We assessed trends in HSV-2 prevalence among non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) when HIV prevalence declined from 16% to 8% among NIDUs in New York City. Subjects were current non-injecting users of heroin and/or cocaine and who had never injected illicit drugs. Three thousand one hundred fifty-seven NIDU subjects were recruited between 2005 and 2014 among persons entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel substance use treatment programs. Structured interviews, HIV, and HSV-2 testing were administered. Change over time was assessed by comparing 2005 to 2010 with 2011 to 2014 periods. Herpes simplex virus type 2 incidence was estimated among persons who participated in multiple years. Herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence was strongly associated with HIV prevalence (odds ratio, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.9-5.1) from 2005 to 2014. Herpes simplex virus type 2 prevalence declined from 60% to 56% (P = 0.01). The percentage of NIDUs with neither HSV-2 nor HIV infection increased from 37% to 43%, (P < 0.001); the percentage with HSV-2/HIV coinfection declined from 13% to 6% (P < 0.001). Estimated HSV-2 incidence was 1 to 2/100 person-years at risk. There were parallel declines in HIV and HSV-2 among NIDUs in New York City from 2005 to 2014. The increase in the percentage of NIDUs with neither HSV-2 nor HIV infection, the decrease in the percentage with HSV-2/HIV coinfection, and the low to moderate HSV-2 incidence suggest some population-level protection against resurgence of HIV. Prevention efforts should be strengthened to end the combined HIV/HSV-2 epidemic among NIDUs in New York City.

  7. Aminosugar derivatives as potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus agents.

    PubMed Central

    Karpas, A; Fleet, G W; Dwek, R A; Petursson, S; Namgoong, S K; Ramsden, N G; Jacob, G S; Rademacher, T W

    1988-01-01

    Recent data suggest that aminosugar derivatives which inhibit glycoprotein processing have potential anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity. These inhibitory effects may be due to disruption of cell fusion and subsequent cell-cell transmission of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) virus. Free virus particles able to bind CD4-positive cells are still produced in the presence of these compounds with only partial reduction of infectivity. We now report a method to score in parallel both the degree of antiviral activity and the effect on cell division of aminosugar derivatives. We find that (i) the compounds 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-arabinitol and N-(5-carboxymethyl-1-pentyl)-1,5-imino-L-fucitol partially inhibit the cytopathic effect (giant cell formation, etc.) of HIV and yield of infectious virus; (ii) the compounds N-methyldeoxynojirimycin and N-ethyldeoxynojirimycin reduce the yield of infectious HIV by an order of four and three logarithms, respectively; and (iii) one compound, N-butyldeoxynojirimycin, of the 47 compounds previously screened reduces infectious viral particles by a logarithmic order greater than five at noncytotoxic concentrations. In addition, long-term growth of infected cells in the presence of N-butyldeoxynojirimycin gradually decreases the proportion of infected cells, leading to eventual elimination of HIV from culture. This result suggests that replication is associated with cytolysis. The ability to break the cycle of replication and reinfection has important implications in the chemotherapy of AIDS. PMID:3264071

  8. Mucosal Herpes Immunity and Immunopathology to Ocular and Genital Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chentoufi, Aziz Alami; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2012-01-01

    Herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are amongst the most common human infectious viral pathogens capable of causing serious clinical diseases at every stage of life, from fatal disseminated disease in newborns to cold sores genital ulcerations and blinding eye disease. Primary mucocutaneous infection with HSV-1 & HSV-2 is followed by a lifelong viral latency in the sensory ganglia. In the majority of cases, herpes infections are clinically asymptomatic. However, in symptomatic individuals, the latent HSV can spontaneously and frequently reactivate, reinfecting the muco-cutaneous surfaces and causing painful recurrent diseases. The innate and adaptive mucosal immunities to herpes infections and disease remain to be fully characterized. The understanding of innate and adaptive immune mechanisms operating at muco-cutaneous surfaces is fundamental to the design of next-generation herpes vaccines. In this paper, the phenotypic and functional properties of innate and adaptive mucosal immune cells, their role in antiherpes immunity, and immunopathology are reviewed. The progress and limitations in developing a safe and efficient mucosal herpes vaccine are discussed. PMID:23320014

  9. Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD): A collection of plants with anti-human cancer activities.

    PubMed

    Al-Zahrani, Ateeq Ahmed

    2018-01-30

    Several anticancer drugs have been developed from natural products such as plants. Successful experiments in inhibiting the growth of human cancer cell lines using Saudi plants were published over the last three decades. Up to date, there is no Saudi anticancer plants database as a comprehensive source for the interesting data generated from these experiments. Therefore, there was a need for creating a database to collect, organize, search and retrieve such data. As a result, the current paper describes the generation of the Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD). The database contains most of the reported information about the naturally growing Saudi anticancer plants. SACPD comprises the scientific and local names of 91 plant species that grow naturally in Saudi Arabia. These species belong to 38 different taxonomic families. In Addition, 18 species that represent16 family of medicinal plants and are intensively sold in the local markets in Saudi Arabia were added to the database. The website provides interesting details, including plant part containing the anticancer bioactive compounds, plants locations and cancer/cell type against which they exhibit their anticancer activity. Our survey revealed that breast, liver and leukemia were the most studied cancer cell lines in Saudi Arabia with percentages of 27%, 19% and 15%, respectively. The current SACPD represents a nucleus around which more development efforts can expand to accommodate all future submissions about new Saudi plant species with anticancer activities. SACPD will provide an excellent starting point for researchers and pharmaceutical companies who are interested in developing new anticancer drugs. SACPD is available online at https://teeqrani1.wixsite.com/sapd.

  10. Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD): A collection of plants with anti-human cancer activities

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zahrani, Ateeq Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Several anticancer drugs have been developed from natural products such as plants. Successful experiments in inhibiting the growth of human cancer cell lines using Saudi plants were published over the last three decades. Up to date, there is no Saudi anticancer plants database as a comprehensive source for the interesting data generated from these experiments. Therefore, there was a need for creating a database to collect, organize, search and retrieve such data. As a result, the current paper describes the generation of the Saudi anti-human cancer plants database (SACPD). The database contains most of the reported information about the naturally growing Saudi anticancer plants. SACPD comprises the scientific and local names of 91 plant species that grow naturally in Saudi Arabia. These species belong to 38 different taxonomic families. In Addition, 18 species that represent16 family of medicinal plants and are intensively sold in the local markets in Saudi Arabia were added to the database. The website provides interesting details, including plant part containing the anticancer bioactive compounds, plants locations and cancer/cell type against which they exhibit their anticancer activity. Our survey revealed that breast, liver and leukemia were the most studied cancer cell lines in Saudi Arabia with percentages of 27%, 19% and 15%, respectively. The current SACPD represents a nucleus around which more development efforts can expand to accommodate all future submissions about new Saudi plant species with anticancer activities. SACPD will provide an excellent starting point for researchers and pharmaceutical companies who are interested in developing new anticancer drugs. SACPD is available online at https://teeqrani1.wixsite.com/sapd PMID:29774137

  11. Exposure to Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 and Cognitive Impairments in Individuals With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, Konasale M.; Watson, Annie M. M.; Dickerson, Faith B.; Yolken, Robert H.; Nimgaonkar, Vishwajit L.

    2012-01-01

    Latent infection with neurotropic herpes viruses, such as herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV1), has been generally considered benign in most immunocompetent individuals except for rare cases of encephalitis. However, several recent studies have shown impaired cognitive functions among individuals with schizophrenia exposed to HSV1 compared with schizophrenia patients not exposed to HSV1. Such impairments are robust and are prominently observed in working memory, verbal memory, and executive functions. Brain regions that play a key role in the regulation of these domains have shown smaller volumes, along with correlation between these morphometric changes and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. One study noted temporal decline in executive function and gray matter loss among HSV1-exposed first-episode antipsychotic-naïve schizophrenia patients. Furthermore, a proof-of-concept double-blind placebo-controlled trial indicated improvement in cognitive performance following supplemental anti-herpes–specific medication among HSV1 seropositive schizophrenia patients. Cross-sectional studies have also identified an association between HSV1 exposure and lesser degrees of cognitive impairment among healthy control individuals and patients with bipolar disorder. These studies fulfill several Bradford-Hill criteria, suggesting etiological links between HSV1 exposure and cognitive impairment. Exposure to other human herpes viruses such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV2) may also be associated with cognitive impairment, but the data are less consistent. These studies are reviewed critically and further lines of enquiry recommended. The results are important from a public health perspective, as HSV1 exposure is highly prevalent in many populations. PMID:22490995

  12. PROPERTIES OF VARIOUS ANTI-γ-GLOBULIN FACTORS IN HUMAN SERA

    PubMed Central

    Harboe, Morten; Rau, Barbara; Aho, Kimmo

    1965-01-01

    The serological and physicochemical properties of the following three forms of human anti-γ-globulin factors were compared: (a) rheumatoid factors; (b) Milgrom type anti-γ-globulin factors; and (c) factors directed against an antigen in human γG-globulin that is hidden in the intact molecule and revealed by enzymatic digestion at low pH. The property common to these factors is ability to interact with human γG-globulin; they are distinguishable because they react with different antigenic groups on this molecule. In all of five sera, the Milgrom type anti-γ-globulin factors were γM-globulins. They reacted with various human γG-globulin antibodies but failed to interact with γM-globulin type antibodies in agglutination and absorption experiments. When isolated from other anti-γ-globulin factors, they agglutinated red cells coated with intact anti-Rh antibodies, but failed to react with cells cells coated with pepsin-digested anti-Rh antibody. These observations indicate that the agglutinator reacts with the crystallizable, inert fragment of γG-globulin. Anti-γ-globulin activity directed against an antigen in human γG-globulin revealed by pepsin digestion was demonstrated in γG-, γA-, and γM-globulins. This anti-γ-globulin factor could be absorbed by antigen-antibody precipitates containing human antibody, which shows that the hidden antigen in human γG-globulin is revealed not only by enzymatic digestion at low pH, but also when γG-globulin is present as antibody in an antigen-antibody precipitate. Rheumatoid factors and Milgrom type anti-γ-globulin factors were also absorbed by antigen-antibody precipitates containing human antibody. The results indicate that the three distinct forms of antiγ-globulin factors may all be produced as a result of antigenic stimulation by autologous antigen-antibody complexes. PMID:14276773

  13. Hands-on Herps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Presents a hands-on activity to help primary, intermediate, and advanced students learn about and compare the general characteristics of reptiles and amphibians. Suggests "herp stations" to provide experiences. Details materials, background and procedures necessary for using this activity. (CW)

  14. Human herpes virus-6 infection in marrow graft recipients: role in pathogenesis of graft-versus-host disease. Newcastle upon Tyne Bone Marrow Transport Group.

    PubMed

    Appleton, A L; Sviland, L; Peiris, J S; Taylor, C E; Wilkes, J; Green, M A; Pearson, A D; Kelly, P J; Malcolm, A J; Proctor, S J

    1995-12-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that target organ infection with human herpes virus-6 (HHV-6) exacerbates the clinical severity of GVHD, skin and rectal biopsies from 34 allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients and 23 comparative autologous recipients were studied. Biopsies and heparinised blood samples were obtained from all patients prior to and at regular intervals after BMT, and whenever GVHD was suspected. HHV-6 antigen was detected in cryostat sections by immunohistochemistry, and HHV-6 DNA in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) and biopsies by nested PCR. Twenty-eight (90%) of the 31 patients who engrafted developed clinical GVHD, which was mild in five, moderately severe in nine and severe in 14. Overall, HHV-6 DNA was detected in PBl in 74% of autologous recipients and 76% of allogeneic recipients, and in biopsy tissue in 48% of autos and 71% of allos. However, HHV-6 DNA was detected in skin and/or rectal biopsies more frequently in allogeneic recipients with severe GVHD (92%) than in those with either moderate (55%) or mild GVHD (22%), suggesting an association (P = 0.004) between HHV-6 DNA in biopsy tissue and GVHD severity. A significant linear trend (P = 0.03) was identified between detection of HHV-6 DNA in biopsy tissue obtained prior to or concomitant with the onset of GVHD and increased GVHD severity, suggesting that HHV-6 was causally linked to GVHD rather than reactivated as a consequence of GVHD therapy. Thus this study supports a role for HHV-6 in the initiation and/or exacerbation of GVHD, and suggests that the presence of HHV-6 DNA in the skin or rectum may be a factor in determining GVHD severity. If confirmed, these findings may have implications for the management of allogeneic BMT recipients.

  15. Detection of cytomegalovirus, human parvovirus B19, and herpes simplex virus-1/2 in women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ya; Bian, Guohui; Zhou, Qiongxiu; Gao, Zhan; Liao, Pu; Liu, Yu; He, Miao

    2015-10-01

    The relationship between viral infections and first-trimester spontaneous abortions is not well-understood. The study aim was to investigate the prevalence of cytomegalovirus (CMV), human parvovirus B19 (B19V), and herpes simplex virus-1/2 (HSV-1/2) infection by molecular and serological techniques in women experiencing spontaneous miscarriage in the first trimester of pregnancy. Plasma samples were examined for CMV, B19V, and HSV-1/2 DNA using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Real-time qPCR), and for specific IgG antibodies against B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 using serological assays. The abortion group consisted of women (n = 1,716) with a history of two or more first-trimester spontaneous abortions. Women younger than 30 years possess higher portion to experience spontaneous abortion. No specimens were positive for B19V or CMV DNA. Seven out of the 1,716 specimens were positive for HSV-1/2 DNA. By serology, 47.24% of patients were positive for B19V IgG, 39.66% for HSV IgG, 79.31% for CMV IgG, and 9.31% for B19V IgM. The high rate of positivity for CMV IgG suggests that the majority of women with first-trimester spontaneous abortions are not susceptible to primary CMV infection. The lack of virus DNA in the majority of cases indicates that B19V, CMV, and HSV-1/2 infection is not commonly associated with first-trimester spontaneous abortion. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Presence of human papilloma virus, herpes simplex virus and Epstein-Barr virus DNA in oral biopsies from Sudanese patients with regard to toombak use.

    PubMed

    Jalouli, Jamshid; Ibrahim, Salah O; Sapkota, Dipak; Jalouli, Miranda M; Vasstrand, Endre N; Hirsch, Jan M; Larsson, Per-Anders

    2010-09-01

    Using PCR/DNA sequencing, we investigated the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA in brush biopsies obtained from 150 users of Sudanese snuff (toombak) and 25 non-users of toombak in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples obtained from 31 patients with oral dysplasias (25 toombak users and 6 non-users), and from 217 patients with oral cancers (145 toombak users and 72 non-users). In the brush tissue samples from toombak users, HPV was detected in 60 (40%), HSV in 44 (29%) and EBV in 97 (65%) of the samples. The corresponding figures for the 25 samples from non-users were 17 (68%) positive for HPV, 6 (24%) positive for HSV and 21 (84%) for EBV. The formalin-fixed samples with oral dysplasias were all negative for HPV. In the 145 oral cancer samples from toombak users, HPV was detected in 39 (27%), HSV in 15 (10%) and EBV in 53 (37%) of the samples. The corresponding figures for the samples from non-users were 15 (21%) positive for HPV, 5 (7%) for HSV and 16 (22%) for EBV. These findings illustrate that prevalence of HSV, HPV and EBV infections are common and may influence oral health and cancer development. It is not obvious that cancer risk is increased in infected toombak users. These observations warrant further studies involving toombak-associated oral lesions, to uncover the possible mechanisms of these viral infections in the development of oral cancer, and the influence of toombak on these viruses. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Herpes simplex virus 2 modulates apoptosis and stimulates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation during infection in human epithelial HEp-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yedowitz, Jamie C.; Blaho, John A.

    2005-11-25

    Virus-mediated apoptosis is well documented in various systems, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-2 is closely related to HSV-1 but its apoptotic potential during infection has not been extensively scrutinized. We report that (i) HEp-2 cells infected with HSV-2(G) triggered apoptosis, assessed by apoptotic cellular morphologies, oligosomal DNA laddering, chromatin condensation, and death factor processing when a translational inhibitor (CHX) was added at 3 hpi. Thus, HSV-2 induced apoptosis but was unable to prevent the process from killing cells. (ii) Results from a time course of CHX addition experiment indicated that infected cell protein produced between 3 and 5more » hpi, termed the apoptosis prevention window, are required for blocking virus-induced apoptosis. This corresponds to the same prevention time frame as reported for HSV-1. (iii) Importantly, CHX addition prior to 3 hpi led to less apoptosis than that at 3 hpi. This suggests that proteins produced immediately upon infection are needed for efficient apoptosis induction by HSV-2. This finding is different from that observed previously with HSV-1. (iv) Infected cell factors produced during the HSV-2(G) prevention window inhibited apoptosis induced by external TNF{alpha} plus cycloheximide treatment. (v) NF-{kappa}B translocated to nuclei and its presence in nuclei correlated with apoptosis prevention during HSV-2(G) infection. (vi) Finally, clinical HSV-2 isolates induced and prevented apoptosis in HEp-2 cells in a manner similar to that of laboratory strains. Thus, while laboratory and clinical HSV-2 strains are capable of modulating apoptosis in human HEp-2 cells, the mechanism of HSV-2 induction of apoptosis differs from that of HSV-1.« less

  18. Seroprevalence and seroincidence of herpes simplex virus (2006-2010), syphilis (2006-2010), and vaccine-preventable human papillomavirus subtypes (2000-2010) among US military personnel.

    PubMed

    Masel, Jennifer; Deiss, Robert G; Wang, Xun; Sanchez, Jose L; Ganesan, Anuradha; Macalino, Grace E; Gaydos, Joel C; Kortepeter, Mark G; Agan, Brian K

    2015-05-01

    Sexually transmitted infections have historically been burdensome in military populations. We describe the seroprevalence and seroincidence of vaccine-preventable human papillomavirus (VP-HPV) subtypes in a sample of 200 servicemen, along with the seroprevalence and seroincidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2) and syphilis in a sample of 200 men and 200 women. Sera from 200 men, along with associated demographic data, were obtained and tested for HPV serotypes at service entry and 10 years later. Similarly, 200 active-duty men and 200 active-duty women were tested for HSV-1/2 at entry to service and 4 years later. The baseline prevalence of VP-HPV subtypes was 14.5%, and cumulative seroincidence of new infection was 34% over a 10-year period (n = 68). Of these, 63% (n = 43) represented HPV-6, HPV-11, or both; 18% of new infections were either HPV-16 or HPV-18, and 19% (n = 13) were a mixture of all 4 strains. At entry to military service, 33.5% of men were seropositive for HSV-1 and 1.5% were positive for HSV-2; seroincidence was 3.4 and 1.1 per 100 person-years, respectively. Among women, 39% were seropositive for HSV-1 and 4.0% for HSV-2; seroincidence was 5.5 and 3.3 per 100 person-years, respectively. There were 2 prevalent and 3 incident cases of syphilis. Sexually transmitted infections in military populations are highly prevalent, incident, and epidemiologically distinct. Our data show the rates of HPV and HSV-1/2 acquisition that are higher than those seen in the general public, again highlighting the need for continued preventive efforts. Consideration of universal HPV vaccination among men is warranted.

  19. Association of herpes simplex virus type 2 infection and syphilis with human immunodeficiency virus infection among men who have sex with men in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lama, Javier R; Lucchetti, Aldo; Suarez, Luis; Laguna-Torres, Victor A; Guanira, Juan V; Pun, Monica; Montano, Silvia M; Celum, Connie L; Carr, Jean K; Sanchez, Jorge; Bautista, Christian T; Sanchez, Jose L

    2006-11-15

    We evaluated associations between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection, and syphilis among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru. A surveillance survey of 3280 MSM was conducted; sexual behavior was assessed with a structured computer-assisted self-interview, and serum antibody testing was performed for HIV, HSV-2, and Treponema pallidum. HIV, HSV-2, and syphilis seroprevalences of 13.9%, 46.3%, and 13.4% were detected, respectively. HSV-2 seroprevalence was twice as high in HIV-infected subjects (80.5%) than it was in HIV-uninfected subjects (40.8%) (P < .01), and HSV-2 seropositivity (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 5.66) was found to be strongly associated with HIV infection. In addition, homosexual self-definition (AOR, 3.12), exchange of sex for money (AOR, 1.61), unprotected sex (no condom) (AOR, 2.81), history of sex work (AOR, 1.89), oral receptive sex (AOR, 1.43), and cocaine use before/during sex (AOR, 2.53) within the preceding 6 months, as well as such sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and STI syndromes as proctitis (AOR, 2.80), genital ulcer disease (GUD) (AOR, 2.06), prior syphilis (AOR, 2.64), genital warts (AOR, 1.70), and self-reported STIs within the preceding 6 months (AOR, 1.61), were also found to be significant predictors of HIV infection. We found a strong association between HSV-2 seropositivity and HIV infection. Intervention measures against GUD due to HSV-2 infection and syphilis, such as routine testing, early detection, HSV-2 suppressive treatment, and condom distribution, need to be enhanced as part of STI prevention strategies at a national level to effectively reduce HIV infection among MSM in Peru.

  20. Herpes Zoster and Recurrent Herpes Zoster

    PubMed Central

    Toyama, Nozomu; Daikoku, Tohru; Yajima, Misako

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. The incidence of recurrent herpes zoster (HZ) and the relationship between initial and recurrent HZ are not clear. Methods. The Miyazaki Dermatologist Society has surveyed ~5000 patients with HZ annually since 1997. A questionnaire regarding HZ and its recurrence was completed by the dermatologists. Results. A total of 34 877 patients with HZ were registered at 43 clinics between June 2009 and November 2015. Among 16 784 patients seen at 10 of the 43 clinics, 1076 patients (6.41%) experienced recurrence. Herpes zoster was more frequent in female than in male patients (5.27 vs 4.25 in 1000 person-years, P < .001), as was HZ recurrence (7.63% vs 4.73%, P < .001). Two and three recurrences were observed in 49 and 3 patients, respectively. Recurrence in the same dermatome was observed in 16.3% of patients, and more frequently this occurred in the left side (P = .027). The number of HZ-experienced persons increased with age, and one third of the population had experienced HZ by the age of 80. Conclusions. Recurrent HZ was observed in 6.41% of patients, with a higher incidence in women. Moreover, HZ experience reduced the HZ incidence to 31.7% of the incidence in the HZ-naive population. PMID:28480280

  1. Transfer of Anti-Rotavirus Antibodies during Pregnancy and in Milk Following Maternal Vaccination with a Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Amplicon Vector

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Anita F.; Suter, Mark; Schraner, Elisabeth M.; Humbel, Bruno M.; Tobler, Kurt; Ackermann, Mathias; Laimbacher, Andrea S.

    2017-01-01

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are important enteric pathogens of newborn humans and animals, causing diarrhea and in rare cases death, especially in very young individuals. Rotavirus vaccines presently used are modified live vaccines that lack complete biological safety. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that vaccines based on in situ produced, non-infectious rotavirus-like particles (RVLPs) are efficient while being entirely safe. However, using either vaccine, active mucosal immunization cannot induce protective immunity in newborns due to their immature immune system. We therefore hypothesized that offspring from vaccinated dams are passively immunized either by transfer of maternal antibodies during pregnancy or by taking up antibodies from milk. Using a codon optimized polycistronic gene expression cassette packaged into herpesvirus particles, the simultaneous expression of the RV capsid genes led to the intracellular formation of RVLPs in various cell lines. Vaccinated dams developed a strong RV specific IgG antibody response determined in sera and milk of both mother and pups. Moreover, sera of naïve pups nursed by vaccinated dams also had RV specific antibodies suggesting a lactogenic transfer of antibodies. Although full protection of pups was not achieved in this mouse model, our observations are important for the development of improved vaccines against RV in humans as well as in various animal species. PMID:28212334

  2. Transfer of Anti-Rotavirus Antibodies during Pregnancy and in Milk Following Maternal Vaccination with a Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Amplicon Vector.

    PubMed

    Meier, Anita F; Suter, Mark; Schraner, Elisabeth M; Humbel, Bruno M; Tobler, Kurt; Ackermann, Mathias; Laimbacher, Andrea S

    2017-02-16

    Rotaviruses (RVs) are important enteric pathogens of newborn humans and animals, causing diarrhea and in rare cases death, especially in very young individuals. Rotavirus vaccines presently used are modified live vaccines that lack complete biological safety. Previous work from our laboratory suggested that vaccines based on in situ produced, non-infectious rotavirus-like particles (RVLPs) are efficient while being entirely safe. However, using either vaccine, active mucosal immunization cannot induce protective immunity in newborns due to their immature immune system. We therefore hypothesized that offspring from vaccinated dams are passively immunized either by transfer of maternal antibodies during pregnancy or by taking up antibodies from milk. Using a codon optimized polycistronic gene expression cassette packaged into herpesvirus particles, the simultaneous expression of the RV capsid genes led to the intracellular formation of RVLPs in various cell lines. Vaccinated dams developed a strong RV specific IgG antibody response determined in sera and milk of both mother and pups. Moreover, sera of naïve pups nursed by vaccinated dams also had RV specific antibodies suggesting a lactogenic transfer of antibodies. Although full protection of pups was not achieved in this mouse model, our observations are important for the development of improved vaccines against RV in humans as well as in various animal species.

  3. Bovine lactoferricin, an antimicrobial peptide, is anti-inflammatory and anti-catabolic in human articular cartilage and synovium

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Dongyao; Chen, Di; Shen, Jie; Xiao, Guozhi; van Wijnen, Andre J; Im, Hee-Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Bovine lactoferricin (LfcinB) is a multi-functional peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of bovine lactoferrin. LfcinB was found to antagonize the biological effects mediated by angiogenic growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2) in endothelial cells. However, the effect of LfcinB on human articular cartilage remained unknown. Here, our findings demonstrate that LfcinB restored the proteoglycan loss promoted by catabolic factors (interleukin-1 β) IL-1β and FGF-2 in vitro and ex vivo. Mechanistically, LfcinB attenuated the effects of IL-1β and FGF-2 on the expression of cartilage-degrading enzymes (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13), destructive cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6), and inflammatory mediators (iNOS and TLR2). LfcinB induced protective cytokine expression (IL-4 and IL-10), and downregulated aggrecanase basal expression. LfcinB specifically activated ERK MAPK and Akt signaling pathways, which may account for its anti-inflammatory activity. We also revealed that LfcinB exerted similar protective effects on human synovial fibroblasts challenged by IL-1β, with minimal cytotoxicity. Collectively, our results suggest that LfcinB possesses potent anti-catabolic and anti-inflammatory bioactivities in human articular tissues, and may be utilized for the prevention and/or treatment of OA in the future. PMID:22740381

  4. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Pulmonary Infection in Humanized Mice Induces Human Anti-RSV Immune Responses and Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anurag; Wu, Wenzhu; Sung, Biin; Huang, Jing; Tsao, Tiffany; Li, Xiangming; Gomi, Rika; Tsuji, Moriya

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract disease, which causes high rates of morbidity and mortality in infants and the elderly. Models of human RSV pulmonary disease are needed to better understand RSV pathogenesis and to assess the efficacy of RSV vaccines. We assessed the RSV-specific human innate, humoral, and cellular immune responses in humanized mice (mice with a human immune system [HIS mice]) with functional human CD4+ T and B cells. These mice were generated by introduction of HLA class II genes, various human cytokines, and human B cell activation factor into immunodeficient NOD scid gamma (NSG) mice by the use of an adeno-associated virus vector, followed by engraftment of human hematopoietic stem cells. During the first 3 days of infection, HIS mice lost more weight and cleared RSV faster than NSG mice. Human chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3 (CCL3) and human interleukin-1β (IL-1β) expression was detected in the RSV-infected HIS mice. The pathological features induced by RSV infection in HIS mice included peribronchiolar inflammation, neutrophil predominance in the bronchioalveolar lavage fluid, and enhanced airway mucus production. Human anti-RSV IgG and RSV-neutralizing antibodies were detected in serum and human anti-RSV mucosal IgA was detected in bronchioalveolar lavage fluid for up to 6 weeks. RSV infection induced an RSV-specific human gamma interferon response in HIS mouse splenocytes. These results indicate that human immune cells can induce features of RSV lung disease, including mucus hyperplasia, in murine lungs and that HIS mice can be used to elicit human anti-RSV humoral and cellular immunity. IMPORTANCE Infections with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are common and can cause severe lung disease in infants and the elderly. The lack of a suitable animal model with disease features similar to those in humans has hampered efforts to predict the efficacy of novel anti-RSV therapies and

  5. Herpes Zoster Optic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Aaron R; Myers, Eileen M; Moster, Mark L; Stanley, Jordan; Kline, Lanning B; Golnik, Karl C

    2018-06-01

    Herpes zoster optic neuropathy (HZON) is a rare manifestation of herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO). The aim of our study was to better characterize the clinical features, therapeutic choices, and visual outcomes in HZON. A retrospective chart review was performed at multiple academic eye centers with the inclusion criteria of all eyes presenting with optic neuropathy within 1 month of cutaneous zoster of the ipsilateral trigeminal dermatome. Data were collected regarding presenting features, treatment regimen, and visual acuity outcomes. Six patients meeting the HZON inclusion criteria were identified. Mean follow-up was 2.75 months (range 0.5-4 months). Herpes zoster optic neuropathy developed at a mean of 14.1 days after initial rash (range 6-30 days). Optic neuropathy was anterior in 2 eyes and retrobulbar in 4 eyes. Other manifestations of HZO included keratoconjunctivitis (3 eyes) and iritis (4 eyes). All patients were treated with systemic antiviral therapy in addition to topical and/or systemic corticosteroids. At the last follow-up, visual acuity in 3 eyes had improved relative to presentation, 2 eyes had worsened, and 1 eye remained the same. The 2 eyes that did not receive systemic corticosteroids had the best observed final visual acuity. Herpes zoster optic neuropathy is an unusual but distinctive complication of HZO. Visual recovery after HZON is variable. Identification of an optimal treatment regiment for HZON could not be identified from our patient cohort. Systemic antiviral agents are a component of HZON treatment regimens. Efficacy of systemic corticosteroids for HZON remains unclear and should be considered on a case-by-case basis.

  6. Antibody treatment of human tumor xenografts elicits active anti-tumor immunity in nude mice

    PubMed Central

    Liebman, Meredith A.; Roche, Marly I.; Williams, Brent R.; Kim, Jae; Pageau, Steven C.; Sharon, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Athymic nude mice bearing subcutaneous tumor xenografts of the human anti-colorectal cancer cell line SW480 were used as a preclinical model to explore anti-tumor immunotherapies. Intratumor or systemic treatment of the mice with murine anti-SW480 serum, recombinant anti-SW480 polyclonal antibodies, or the anti-colorectal cancer monoclonal antibody CO17-1A, caused retardation or regression of SW480 tumor xenografts. Interestingly, when mice that had regressed their tumors were re-challenged with SW480 cells, these mice regressed the new tumors without further antibody treatment. Adoptive transfer of spleen cells from mice that had regressed their tumors conferred anti-tumor immunity to naïve nude mice. Pilot experiments suggest that the transferred anti-tumor immunity is mediated by T cells of both γδ and αβ lineages. These results demonstrate that passive anti-tumor immunotherapy can elicit active immunity and support a role for extra-thymic γδ and αβ T cells in tumor rejection. Implications for potential immunotherapies include injection of tumor nodules in cancer patients with anti-tumor antibodies to induce anti-tumor T cell immunity. PMID:17920694

  7. Anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody type 1 recognizes human cytochrome P450 db1.

    PubMed

    Gueguen, M; Yamamoto, A M; Bernard, O; Alvarez, F

    1989-03-15

    Anti-liver-kidney microsome antibody type 1 (LKM1), present in the sera of a group of children with autoimmune hepatitis, was recently shown to recognize a 50 kDa protein identified as rat liver cytochromes P450 db1 and db2. High homology between these two members of the rat P450 IID subfamily and human P450 db1 suggested that anti-LKM1 antibody is directed against this human protein. To test this hypothesis, a human liver cDNA expression library in phage lambda GT-11 was screened using rat P450 db1 cDNA as a probe. Two human cDNA clones were found to be identical to human P450 db1 by restriction mapping. Immunoblot analysis using as antigen, the purified fusion protein from one of the human cDNA clones showed that only anti-LKM1 with anti-50 kDa reactivity recognized the fusion protein. This fusion protein was further used to develop an ELISA test that was shown to be specific for sera of children with this disease. These results: 1) identify the human liver antigen recognized by anti-LKM1 auto-antibodies as cytochrome P450 db1, 2) allow to speculate that mutation on the human P450 db1 gene could alter its expression in the hepatocyte and make it auto-antigenic, 3) provide a simple and specific diagnostic test for this disease.

  8. Impaired STING Pathway in Human Osteosarcoma U2OS Cells Contributes to the Growth of ICP0-Null Mutant Herpes Simplex Virus.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Thibaut; Kalamvoki, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread pathogen, with 80% of the population being latently infected. To successfully evade the host, the virus has evolved strategies to counteract antiviral responses, including the gene-silencing and innate immunity machineries. The immediately early protein of the virus, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), plays a central role in these processes. ICP0 blocks innate immunity, and one mechanism is by degrading hostile factors with its intrinsic E3 ligase activity. ICP0 also functions as a promiscuous transactivator, and it blocks repressor complexes to enable viral gene transcription. For these reasons, the growth of a ΔICP0 virus is impaired in most cells, except cells of the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS, and it is only partially impaired in cells of the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2. We found that the two human osteosarcoma cell lines that supported the growth of the ΔICP0 virus failed to activate innate immune responses upon treatment with 2'3'-cyclic GAMP (2'3'-cGAMP), the natural agonist of STING (i.e., stimulator of interferon genes) or after infection with the ΔICP0 mutant virus. Innate immune responses were restored in these cells by transient expression of the STING protein but not after overexpression of interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Restoration of STING expression resulted in suppression of ΔICP0 virus gene expression and a decrease in viral yields. Overexpression of IFI16 also suppressed ΔICP0 virus gene expression, albeit to a lesser extent than STING. These data suggest that the susceptibility of U2OS and Saos-2 cells to the ΔICP0 HSV-1 is in part due to an impaired STING pathway. IMPORTANCE The DNA sensor STING plays pivotal role in controlling HSV-1 infection both in cell culture and in mice. The HSV-1 genome encodes numerous proteins that are dedicated to combat host antiviral responses. The immediate early protein of the virus ICP0 plays major role in this process as it targets

  9. Impaired STING Pathway in Human Osteosarcoma U2OS Cells Contributes to the Growth of ICP0-Null Mutant Herpes Simplex Virus

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Thibaut

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a widespread pathogen, with 80% of the population being latently infected. To successfully evade the host, the virus has evolved strategies to counteract antiviral responses, including the gene-silencing and innate immunity machineries. The immediately early protein of the virus, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), plays a central role in these processes. ICP0 blocks innate immunity, and one mechanism is by degrading hostile factors with its intrinsic E3 ligase activity. ICP0 also functions as a promiscuous transactivator, and it blocks repressor complexes to enable viral gene transcription. For these reasons, the growth of a ΔICP0 virus is impaired in most cells, except cells of the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS, and it is only partially impaired in cells of the human osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2. We found that the two human osteosarcoma cell lines that supported the growth of the ΔICP0 virus failed to activate innate immune responses upon treatment with 2′3′-cyclic GAMP (2′3′-cGAMP), the natural agonist of STING (i.e., stimulator of interferon genes) or after infection with the ΔICP0 mutant virus. Innate immune responses were restored in these cells by transient expression of the STING protein but not after overexpression of interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16). Restoration of STING expression resulted in suppression of ΔICP0 virus gene expression and a decrease in viral yields. Overexpression of IFI16 also suppressed ΔICP0 virus gene expression, albeit to a lesser extent than STING. These data suggest that the susceptibility of U2OS and Saos-2 cells to the ΔICP0 HSV-1 is in part due to an impaired STING pathway. IMPORTANCE The DNA sensor STING plays pivotal role in controlling HSV-1 infection both in cell culture and in mice. The HSV-1 genome encodes numerous proteins that are dedicated to combat host antiviral responses. The immediate early protein of the virus ICP0 plays major role in this

  10. Accumulation of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Early and Leaky-Late Proteins Correlates with Apoptosis Prevention in Infected Human HEp-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aubert, Martine; Rice, Stephen A.; Blaho, John A.

    2001-01-01

    We previously reported that a recombinant ICP27-null virus stimulated, but did not prevent, apoptosis in human HEp-2 cells during infection (M. Aubert and J. A. Blaho, J. Virol. 73:2803–2813, 1999). In the present study, we used a panel of 15 recombinant ICP27 mutant viruses to determine which features of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) replication are required for the apoptosis-inhibitory activity. Each virus was defined experimentally as either apoptotic, partially apoptotic, or nonapoptotic based on infected HEp-2 cell morphologies, percentages of infected cells with condensed chromatin, and patterns of specific cellular death factor processing. Viruses d27-1, d1-5, d1-2, M11, M15, M16, n504R, n406R, n263R, and n59R are apoptotic or partially apoptotic in HEp-2 cells and severely defective for growth in Vero cells. Viruses d2-3, d3-4, d4-5, d5-6, and d6-7 are nonapoptotic, demonstrating that ICP27 contains a large amino-terminal region, including its RGG box RNA binding domain, which is not essential for apoptosis prevention. Accumulations of viral TK, VP16, and gD but not gC, ICP22, or ICP4 proteins correlated with prevention of apoptosis during the replication of these viruses. Of the nonapoptotic viruses, d4-5 did not produce gC, indicating that accumulation of true late gene products is not necessary for the prevention process. Analyses of viral DNA synthesis in HEp-2 cells indicated that apoptosis prevention by HSV-1 requires that the infection proceeds to the stage in which viral DNA replication takes place. Infections performed in the presence of the drug phosphonoacetic acid confirmed that the process of viral DNA synthesis and the accumulation of true late (γ2) proteins are not required for apoptosis prevention. Based on our results, we conclude that the accumulation of HSV-1 early (β) and leaky-late (γ1) proteins correlates with the prevention of apoptosis in infected HEp-2 cells. PMID:11134315

  11. High seroprevalence of human herpesvirus 8 and herpes simplex virus 2 infections in men who have sex with men in Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhenqiu; Fang, Qiwen; Zuo, Jialu; Wang, Jun; Chen, Yue; Minhas, Veenu; Wood, Charles; He, Na; Zhang, Tiejun

    2017-05-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are an important risk group for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and at high-risk of herpesvirus infection. However, limited information on epidemiologic patterns of HHV8 and HSV2 among MSM is available in mainland China. A cross-sectional study of 486 participants was performed in Shanghai, China from January 2013 to December 2014 to explore epidemiologic features of HHV8 and HSV2 among MSM. Serum samples were collected and tested for HHV8 by immunofluoresence assay and HSV2 antibodies by ELISA. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the risk factors of HHV8 and HSV2 infections, respectively. The overall seroprevalence was 23.0% for HHV8 infection and 22.4% for HSV2 infection. HHV8 seropositivity was significantly associated with being a money boy (odds ratio (OR) = 1.64; 95%CI: 1.04-2.58), having a steady sex partner (OR = 0.52; 95%CI: 0.31-0.87), having ever had anal sex with men (OR = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.09-3.86), and being HSV2 positive (OR = 2.14; 95%CI: 1.22-3.76). HSV2 seropositivity was significantly associate with being positive for HIV (OR = 2.12; 95%CI: 1.01-4.42), syphilis (OR = 1.98; 95%CI: 1.12-3.52), HHV8 (OR = 2.17; 95%CI: 1.24-3.83), and was marginally associated with being a money boy (OR = 1. 61; 95%CI: 0.97-2.86), and having ever had unprotected casual sex (OR = 1. 72; 95%CI: 0.99-2.99). HHV8 and HSV2 infections are common in Chinese MSM. It is important to implement programs for preventing herpes virus infection among MSM, particularly high-risk groups such as money buys. And protected sexual intercourse should be propagated. J. Med. Virol. 89:887-894, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. APP Processing Induced by Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1) Yields Several APP Fragments in Human and Rat Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Civitelli, Livia; Argnani, Rafaela; Piacentini, Roberto; Ripoli, Cristian; Manservigi, Roberto; Grassi, Claudio; Garaci, Enrico; Palamara, Anna Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Lifelong latent infections of the trigeminal ganglion by the neurotropic herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) are characterized by periodic reactivation. During these episodes, newly produced virions may also reach the central nervous system (CNS), causing productive but generally asymptomatic infections. Epidemiological and experimental findings suggest that HSV-1 might contribute to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This multifactorial neurodegenerative disorder is related to an overproduction of amyloid beta (Aβ) and other neurotoxic peptides, which occurs during amyloidogenic endoproteolytic processing of the transmembrane amyloid precursor protein (APP). The aim of our study was to identify the effects of productive HSV-1 infection on APP processing in neuronal cells. We found that infection of SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells and rat cortical neurons is followed by multiple cleavages of APP, which result in the intra- and/or extra-cellular accumulation of various neurotoxic species. These include: i) APP fragments (APP-Fs) of 35 and 45 kDa (APP-F35 and APP-F45) that comprise portions of Aβ; ii) N-terminal APP-Fs that are secreted; iii) intracellular C-terminal APP-Fs; and iv) Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42. Western blot analysis of infected-cell lysates treated with formic acid suggests that APP-F35 may be an Aβ oligomer. The multiple cleavages of APP that occur in infected cells are produced in part by known components of the amyloidogenic APP processing pathway, i.e., host-cell β-secretase, γ-secretase, and caspase-3-like enzymes. These findings demonstrate that HSV-1 infection of neuronal cells can generate multiple APP fragments with well-documented neurotoxic potentials. It is tempting to speculate that intra- and extracellular accumulation of these species in the CNS resulting from repeated HSV-1 reactivation could, in the presence of other risk factors, play a co-factorial role in the development of AD. PMID:21085580

  13. Herpes simplex virus type 2 (Mollaret's) meningitis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Abu Khattab, Mohammed; Al Soub, Hussam; Al Maslamani, Mona; Al Khuwaiter, Jameela; El Deeb, Yasser

    2009-11-01

    Mollaret's meningitis is an unusual and under-appreciated syndrome of benign, recurrent aseptic meningitis. The available literature indicates that the causative agent is herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in the majority of cases and much less frequently herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). We report the case of a 49-year-old Indian female who had four attacks of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis (Mollaret's meningitis) occurring over a 7-year period. The diagnosis of herpes simplex meningitis was made at the time of the fourth episode by a positive PCR for herpes simplex virus infection in the cerebrospinal fluid. During the first three episodes, the patient was treated with anti-tuberculous drugs and antibiotics for bacterial meningitis; however for the last episode, once the diagnosis of herpes simplex meningitis was confirmed, only symptomatic treatment was given. No long-term suppressive therapy was given and no recurrence has been experienced so far. Mollaret's meningitis should be suspected in all cases of recurrent lymphocytic meningitis. Early diagnosis may prevent prolonged hospital admissions, unnecessary investigations, and exposure to unnecessary medications, with the associated considerable costs. Treatment with acyclovir may be beneficial in decreasing the severity and duration of attacks and in preventing further episodes. [Au?1].

  14. Intracerebral propagation of Alzheimer's disease: strengthening evidence of a herpes simplex virus etiology

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Melvyn J.; Lukiw, Walter J.; Kammerman, Eli M.; Hill, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Background A faulty human protein, abnormally phosphorylated tau, was recently publicized to spread “like a virus” from neuron to neuron in Alzheimer patients' brains. For several decades, we have been amassing arguments showing that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), not p-tau, propagates this inter-neuronal, trans-synaptic pathological cascade. Methods We reiterate convincing data from our own (and other) laboratories, reviewing the first anatomic foothold neurofibrillary tangles gain in brainstem and/or entorhinal cortex; the chronic immunosurveillance cellularity of the trigeminal ganglia wherein HSV-1 awakens from latency to reactivate; the inabilities of p-tau protein's physical properties to promote it to jump synapses; the amino-acid homology between human p-tau and VP22, a key target for phosphorylation by HSV serine/threonine-protein kinase UL13; and the exosomic secretion of HSV-1-infected cells' L-particles, attesting to the cell-to-cell passage of microRNAs of herpes viruses. Results The now-maturing construct that reactivated HSV-1 best accounts for the intracerebral propagation of AD changes in the human brain should at last seem highly attractive. This hypothesis might even explain statins' apparent mechanism in some studies for lowering AD incidence. Conclusion Provided that funding agencies will quickly ignite a new realm of investigation, the rejuvenated enthusiasm for testing this optimistic construct holds incalculable potential for rapid, efficacious clinical application, through already available and relatively safe anti-viral therapeutics. PMID:23159044

  15. Enrichment of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) reactive mucosal T cells in the human female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Posavad, C M; Zhao, L; Dong, L; Jin, L; Stevens, C E; Magaret, A S; Johnston, C; Wald, A; Zhu, J; Corey, L; Koelle, D M

    2017-09-01

    Local mucosal cellular immunity is critical in providing protection from HSV-2. To characterize and quantify HSV-2-reactive mucosal T cells, lymphocytes were isolated from endocervical cytobrush and biopsy specimens from 17 HSV-2-infected women and examined ex vivo for the expression of markers associated with maturation and tissue residency and for functional T-cell responses to HSV-2. Compared with their circulating counterparts, cervix-derived CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were predominantly effector memory T cells (CCR7-/CD45RA-) and the majority expressed CD69, a marker of tissue residency. Co-expression of CD103, another marker of tissue residency, was highest on cervix-derived CD8+ T cells. Functional HSV-2 reactive CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in cervical samples and a median of 17% co-expressed CD103. HSV-2-reactive CD4+ T cells co-expressed IL-2 and were significantly enriched in the cervix compared with blood. This first direct ex vivo documentation of local enrichment of HSV-2-reactive T cells in the human female genital mucosa is consistent with the presence of antigen-specific tissue-resident memory T cells. Ex vivo analysis of these T cells may uncover tissue-specific mechanisms of local control of HSV-2 to assist the development of vaccine strategies that target protective T cells to sites of HSV-2 infection.

  16. The humanized anti-human AMHRII mAb 3C23K exerts an anti-tumor activity against human ovarian cancer through tumor-associated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bougherara, Houcine; Némati, Fariba; Nicolas, André; Massonnet, Gérald; Pugnière, Martine; Ngô, Charlotte; Le Frère-Belda, Marie-Aude; Leary, Alexandra; Alexandre, Jérôme; Meseure, Didier; Barret, Jean-Marc; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pèlegrin, André; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Prost, Jean-François; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Decaudin, Didier

    2017-11-21

    Müllerian inhibiting substance, also called anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of AMH type II receptor-positive tumor cells, such as human ovarian cancers (OCs). On this basis, a humanized glyco-engineered monoclonal antibody (3C23K) has been developed. The aim of this study was therefore to experimentally confirm the therapeutic potential of 3C23K in human OCs. We first determined by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and cytofluorometry analyses the expression of AMHRII in patient's tumors and found that a majority (60 to 80% depending on the detection technique) of OCs were positive for this marker. We then provided evidence that the tumor stroma of OC is enriched in tumor-associated macrophages and that these cells are responsible for 3C23K-induced killing of tumor cells through ADCP and ADCC mechanisms. In addition, we showed that 3C23K reduced macrophages induced-T cells immunosuppression. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of 3C23K alone and in combination with a carboplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy in a panel of OC Patient-Derived Xenografts. In those experiments, we showed that 3C23K significantly increased the proportion and the quality of chemotherapy-based in vivo responses. Altogether, our data support the potential interest of AMHRII targeting in human ovarian cancers and the evaluation of 3C23K in further clinical trials.

  17. The humanized anti-human AMHRII mAb 3C23K exerts an anti-tumor activity against human ovarian cancer through tumor-associated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Bougherara, Houcine; Némati, Fariba; Nicolas, André; Massonnet, Gérald; Pugnière, Martine; Ngô, Charlotte; Le Frère-Belda, Marie-Aude; Leary, Alexandra; Alexandre, Jérôme; Meseure, Didier; Barret, Jean-Marc; Navarro-Teulon, Isabelle; Pèlegrin, André; Roman-Roman, Sergio; Prost, Jean-François; Donnadieu, Emmanuel; Decaudin, Didier

    2017-01-01

    Müllerian inhibiting substance, also called anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of AMH type II receptor-positive tumor cells, such as human ovarian cancers (OCs). On this basis, a humanized glyco-engineered monoclonal antibody (3C23K) has been developed. The aim of this study was therefore to experimentally confirm the therapeutic potential of 3C23K in human OCs. We first determined by immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry and cytofluorometry analyses the expression of AMHRII in patient’s tumors and found that a majority (60 to 80% depending on the detection technique) of OCs were positive for this marker. We then provided evidence that the tumor stroma of OC is enriched in tumor-associated macrophages and that these cells are responsible for 3C23K-induced killing of tumor cells through ADCP and ADCC mechanisms. In addition, we showed that 3C23K reduced macrophages induced-T cells immunosuppression. Finally, we evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of 3C23K alone and in combination with a carboplatin-paclitaxel chemotherapy in a panel of OC Patient-Derived Xenografts. In those experiments, we showed that 3C23K significantly increased the proportion and the quality of chemotherapy-based in vivo responses. Altogether, our data support the potential interest of AMHRII targeting in human ovarian cancers and the evaluation of 3C23K in further clinical trials. PMID:29245952

  18. Herpes viral culture of lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... grow in the laboratory dish and the skin sample used in the test did not contain any herpes virus. Be aware that a normal (negative) culture does not always mean that you do not have a herpes infection or have not had one in the past.

  19. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk

    2013-07-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed.

  20. Genital herpes - self-care

    MedlinePlus

    Herpes - genital - self-care; Herpes simplex - genital - self-care; Herpesvirus 2 - self-care; HSV-2 - self-care ... Call your health care provider if you have any of the following: Symptoms of an outbreak that worsen despite medicine and self-care ...

  1. Herpes zoster vaccine in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia deteriorate the quality of life because of severe pain and complications, and cause considerable social and economic burden of disease. In 2012, herpes zoster vaccine was released in Korea. The efficacy of herpes zoster vaccine is known to be 51.3-66.5% among the aged over 60 and 69.8-72.4% among adults between 50 and 59. It is also known that preventive efficacy is maintained for at least 5 years. Although there can be local reactions such as redness, pain and swelling at the site of injection and systemic reaction such as headache and eruption after herpes zoster vaccination, most of the adverse reactions are minor and disappear within days by themselves. As it is a live vaccine, persons with severe immune-suppression and pregnant women should not be vaccinated with the vaccine. Currently, Korean Society of Infectious Diseases recommended for the aged over 60 to be vaccinated with herpes zoster vaccine by subcutaneous route. In this article, clinical aspects and burden of disease of herpes zoster, efficacy and effects of herpes zoster vaccine, and herpes zoster vaccine recommendation by Korean Society of Infectious Diseases are discussed. PMID:23858399

  2. Genital herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M S

    1979-09-01

    In recent years, a great increase in interest in genital herpes has been stimulated partly by the rising prevalence of this disease and partly by observations suggesting that genital herpes is a cause of cervical cancer. The clinical pictures produced by genital herpes simplex virus infections are similar in men and women. In contrast to recurrent attacks, initial episodes of infection are generally more extensive, last longer, and are more often associated with regional lymphadenopathy and systemic symptoms. Genital herpes in pregnancy may pose a serious threat to the newborn infant. Although the data suggesting genital herpes simplex virus infection is a cause of cervical cancer are quite extensive, the evidence is largely circumstantial. In spite of these more serious aspects of genital herpes simplex virus infection, episodes of genital herpes are almost always self-limited and benign. Frequent recurrences pose the major therapeutic and management problem. At present, there is no satisfactory treatment for recurrent genital herpes simplex virus in fection. Many of the suggested therapies, although some sound very promising, are potentially dangerous and should be used only under carefully controlled conditions.

  3. Extending the Human Life Span: An Exploratory Study of Pro- and Anti-Longevity Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kogan, Nathan; Tucker, Jennifer; Porter, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Successful efforts by biologists to substantially increase the life span of non-human animals has raised the possibility of extrapolation to humans, which in turn has given rise to bioethical argumentation, pro and con. The present study converts these arguments into pro- and anti-longevity items on a questionnaire and examines the structure and…

  4. Herpes zoster in children.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Nathan; Goodman, Seth; Peterson, Michael; Peterson, Warren

    2016-08-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) in immunocompetent children is quite uncommon. Initial exposure to the varicella-zoster virus (VZV) may be from a wild-type or vaccine-related strain. Either strain may cause a latent infection and subsequent eruption of HZ. We present a case of HZ in a 15-month-old boy after receiving the varicella vaccination at 12 months of age. A review of the literature regarding the incidence, clinical characteristics, and diagnosis of HZ in children also is provided.

  5. Herpes simplex encephalitis : from virus to therapy.

    PubMed

    Rozenberg, Flore; Deback, Claire; Agut, Henri

    2011-06-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is the cause of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE), a devastating human disease which occurs in 2-4 cases per million/year. HSE results either from a primary infection or virus reactivation, in accordance with the common pattern of HSV infection which is a chronic lifelong process. However its pathophysiology remains largely unknown and its poor prognosis is in contrast with the usually good tolerance of most clinical herpetic manifestations. HSE is due to HSV type 1 (HSV-1) in most cases but HSV type 2 (HSV-2) may be also implicated, especially in infants in the context of neonatal herpes. Polymerase chain reaction detection of HSV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid is the diagnosis of choice for HSE. Acyclovir, a nucleoside analogue which inhibits viral DNA polymerase activity, is the reference treatment of HSE while foscarnet constitutes an alternative therapy and the efficacy of cidofovir is currently uncertain in that context. The emergence of HSV resistance to acyclovir, a phenomenon which is mainly observed among immunocompromised patients, is a current concern although no case of HSE due to an acyclovir-resistant HSV strain has been reported to date. Nevertheless the identification and development of novel therapeutic strategies against HSV appears to be a non dispensable objective for future research in virology.

  6. Herpes Can Happen to Anyone: Share Facts, Not Fears

    MedlinePlus

    ... promiscuous. Links Oral Herpes Sexually Transmitted Diseases Genital Herpes (CDC) Genital Herpes Fact Sheet (CDC) What You Need to Know About Genital Herpes Video (CDC) References Vaccination to Reduce Reactivation of ...

  7. New phytochemicals as potential human anti-aging compounds: Reality, promise, and challenges.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Rúbia C G; Peralta, Rosane M; Haminiuk, Charles W I; Maciel, Giselle Maria; Bracht, Adelar; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2018-04-13

    Aging is an inevitable process influenced by genetic, lifestyle, and environmental factors. Indirect evidence shows that several phytochemicals can have anti-aging capabilities, although direct evidence in this field is still limited. This report aims to provide a critical review on aspects related to the use of novel phytochemicals as anti-aging agents, to discuss the obstacles found when performing most anti-aging study protocols in humans, and to analyze future perspectives. In addition to the extensively studied resveratrol, epicatechin, quercetin, and curcumin, new phytochemicals have been reported to act as anti-aging agents, such as the amino acid L-theanine isolated from green tea, and the lignans arctigenin and matairesinol isolated from Arctium lappa seeds. Furthermore, this review discusses the application of several new extracts rich in phytochemicals with potential use in anti-aging therapies. Finally, this review also discusses the most important biomarkers to test anti-aging interventions, the necessity of conducting epidemiological studies and the need of clinical trials with adequate study protocols for humans.

  8. The Significance of Herpes Simplex for School Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensor, Deirdre

    2005-01-01

    Herpes simplex is a common recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus. The two closely related but distinct viruses that cause herpes simplex infections are herpes simplex 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex 2 (HSV-2). HSV-1 is commonly associated with infections around the oral mucosa and is the cause of herpes labialis, often referred…

  9. Chimpanzees Immunized with Recombinant Soluble CD4 Develop Anti-Self CD4 Antibody Responses with Anti-Human Immunodeficiency Virus Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Mamoru; Boyson, Jonathan E.; Lord, Carol I.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1992-06-01

    In view of the efficiency with which human immunodeficiency virus replication can be blocked in vitro with anti-CD4 antibodies, the elicitation of an anti-CD4 antibody response through active immunization might represent a useful therapeutic strategy for AIDS. Here we demonstrate that immunization of chimpanzees with recombinant soluble human CD4 elicited an anti-CD4 antibody response. The elicited antibody bound self CD4 on digitonin-treated but not freshly isolated lymphocytes. Nevertheless, this antibody blocked human immunodeficiency virus replication in chimpanzee and human lymphocytes. These observations suggest that immunization with recombinant soluble CD4 from human immunodeficiency virus-infected humans may be feasible and therapeutically beneficial.

  10. Syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL): A case report with serial electroencephalography (EEG) recordings.. Is there an association with human herpes virus type 7 (HHV-7) infection?

    PubMed

    Stelten, Bianca Ml; Venhovens, Jeroen; van der Velden, Lieven Bj; Meulstee, Jan; Verhagen, Wim Im

    2016-11-01

    Introduction The syndrome of transient headache and neurological deficits with cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis (HaNDL) is a diagnosis made by exclusion. In the literature, different etiological explanations are proposed for HaNDL, including an immune-mediated reaction after a viral infection. Case description We present a case of a 23-year-old woman with several episodes of transient headache, neurological deficits and cerebrospinal fluid lymphocytosis. All diagnostic criteria for the HaNDL syndrome were fulfilled; however, additional cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed a positive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for human herpes virus type 7 (HHV-7). Discussion The possible role of a (prodromal) viral infection in the etiology of HaNDL is discussed. Also the role of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings is discussed. Serial EEG recordings showed generalized slowing, frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity (FIRDA) and symmetric triphasic frontal waves with a dilation lag.

  11. Human serum-derived hydroxy long-chain fatty acids exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Circulating levels of novel long-chain hydroxy fatty acids (called GTAs) were recently discovered in the serum of healthy subjects which were shown to be reduced in subjects with colorectal cancer (CRC), independent of tumor burden or disease stage. The levels of GTAs were subsequently observed to exhibit an inverse association with age in the general population. The current work investigates the biological activity of these fatty acids by evaluating the effects of enriched human serum extracts on cell growth and inflammation. Methods GTAs were extracted from commercially available bulk human serum and then chromatographically separated into enriched (GTA-positive) and depleted (GTA-negative) fractions. SW620, MCF7 and LPS stimulated RAW264.7 cells were treated with various concentrations of the GTA-positive and GTA-negative extracts, and the effects on cell growth and inflammation determined. Results Enriched fractions resulted in poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage, suppression of NFκB, induction of IκBα, and reduction in NOS2 mRNA transcript levels. In RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells, incubation with enriched fractions prior to treatment with LPS blocked the induction of several pro-inflammatory markers including nitric oxide, TNFα, IL-1β, NOS2 and COX2. Conclusions Our results show that human serum extracts enriched with endogenous long-chain hydroxy fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative activity. These findings support a hypothesis that the reduction of these metabolites with age may result in a compromised ability to defend against uncontrolled cell growth and inflammation, and could therefore represent a significant risk for the development of CRC. PMID:21586136

  12. Reading Recovery Following Herpes Encephalitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, C. D.; Peters, Phyllis

    1979-01-01

    The article presents the medical, psychological, and reading diagnoses of a 24-year-old man with herpes encephalitis, an acute neurological disease. Test results are reported and the client's response to learning disability remedial techniques are reviewed. (SBH)

  13. The anti-papillomavirus activity of human and bovine lactoferricin.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Nitesh; Drobni, Peter; Näslund, Jonas; Sunkari, Vivekananda Gupta; Jenssen, Håvard; Evander, Magnus

    2007-09-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) cause common warts, laryngeal papilloma and genital condylomata and is necessary for the development of cervical cancer. We have previously found that lactoferrin has antiviral activity against HPV-16 and others have demonstrated that lactoferricin, an N-terminal fragment of lactoferrin, has inhibitory activities against several viruses. Two cell lines and two virus types, HPV-5 and HPV-16, were used to study if lactoferrin and lactoferricin could inhibit HPV pseudovirus (PsV) infection. We demonstrated that bovine lactoferrin (bLf) and human lactoferrin (hLf) were both potent inhibitors of HPV-5 and -16 PsV infections. Among the four lactoferricin derivatives we analyzed, a 15 amino acid peptide from bovine lactoferricin (bLfcin) 17-31 was the most potent inhibitor of both HPV-5 and HPV-16 PsV infection. Among the other derivatives, the human lactoferricin (hLfcin) 1-49 showed some antiviral activity against HPV PsV infection while bLfcin 17-42 inhibited only HPV-5 PsV infection in one of the cell lines. When we studied initial attachment of HPV-16, only bLfcin 17-42 and hLfcin 1-49 had an antiviral effect. This is the first time that lactoferricin was demonstrated to have an inhibitory effect on HPV infection and the antiviral activity differed depending on size, charge and structures of the lactoferricin.

  14. Herpes zoster and the search for an effective vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV), an exclusively human neurotrophic alphaherpsesvirus, results in varicella, known more commonly as chickenpox. Like other alphaherpesviruses, VZV establishes latency in the sensory ganglia and can reactivate to cause herpes zoster (also known as shingles), a painful and debilitating disease, especially in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The overall incidence of herpes zoster in Europe and the United States is three per 1000 people, but increases sharply after 60 years of age to 10 per 1000 people. Zostavax® is a vaccine approved by the Federal Drug Administration for the prevention of herpes zoster. Unfortunately, this vaccine reduces the incidence of disease by only 51% and the incidence of post‐herpetic neuralgia by 66·5% when administered to those aged 60 and older. Moreover, it is contraindicated for individuals who are immunocompromised or receiving immunosuppressant treatments, although they are at higher risk for herpes zoster compared to immune‐competent older individuals. This paper reviews VZV pathogenesis, host responses and current vaccines available to prevent herpes zoster. PMID:27164323

  15. Cationic polypeptides contribute to the anti-HIV-1 activity of human seminal plasma

    PubMed Central

    Martellini, Julie A.; Cole, Amy L.; Venkataraman, Nitya; Quinn, Gerry A.; Svoboda, Pavel; Gangrade, Bhushan K.; Pohl, Jan; Sørensen, Ole E.; Cole, Alexander M.

    2009-01-01

    Mucosal surfaces of the reproductive tract as well as their secretions have important roles in preventing sexual transmission of HIV-1. In the current study, the majority of the intrinsic anti-HIV-1 activity of human seminal plasma (SP) was determined to reside in the cationic polypeptide fraction. Antiviral assays utilizing luciferase reporter cells and lymphocytic cells revealed the ability of whole SP to prevent HIV-1 infection, even when SP was diluted 3200-fold. Subsequent fractionation by continuous flow acid-urea (AU)-PAGE and antiviral testing revealed that cationic polypeptides within SP were responsible for the majority of anti-HIV-1 activity. A proteomic approach was utilized to resolve and identify 52 individual cationic polypeptides that contribute to the aggregate anti-HIV-1 activity of SP. One peptide fragment of semenogelin I, termed SG-1, was purified from SP by a multistep chromatographic approach, protein sequenced, and determined to exhibit anti-HIV-1 activity against HIV-1. Anti-HIV-1 activity was transient, as whole SP incubated for prolonged time intervals exhibited a proportional decrease in anti-HIV-1 activity that was directly attributed to the degradation of semenogelin I peptides. Collectively, these results indicate that the cationic polypeptide fraction of SP is active against HIV-1, and that semenogelin-derived peptides contribute to the intrinsic anti-HIV-1 activity of SP.—Martellini, J. A., Cole, A. C., Venkataraman, N., Quinn, G. A., Svoboda, P., Gangrade, B. K., Pohl, J., Sørensen, O. E., Cole, A. M. Cationic polypeptides contribute to the anti-HIV-1 activity of human seminal plasma. PMID:19487309

  16. 2017 European guidelines for the management of genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Rajul; Kennedy, Oliver J; Clarke, Emily; Geretti, Anna; Nilsen, Arvid; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Green, John; Donders, Gilbert; van der Meijden, Willem; Gomberg, Mikhail; Moi, Harald; Foley, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    Genital herpes is one of the commonest sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Using the best available evidence, this guideline recommends strategies for diagnosis, management, and follow-up of the condition as well as for minimising transmission. Early recognition and initiation of therapy is key and may reduce the duration of illness or avoid hospitalisation with complications, including urinary retention, meningism, or severe systemic illness. The guideline covers a range of common clinical scenarios, such as recurrent genital herpes, infection during pregnancy, and co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus.

  17. The challenge of developing a herpes simplex virus 2 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Dropulic, Lesia K; Cohen, Jeffrey I

    2013-01-01

    HSV infections are prevalent worldwide. A vaccine to prevent genital herpes would have a significant impact on this disease. Several vaccines have shown promise in animal models; however, so far these have not been successful in human clinical studies. Prophylactic HSV vaccines to prevent HSV infection or disease have focused primarily on eliciting antibody responses. Potent antibody responses are needed to result in sufficiently high levels of virus-specific antibody in the genital tract. Therapeutic vaccines that reduce recurrences need to induce potent T-cell responses at the site of infection. With the increasing incidence of HSV-1 genital herpes, an effective herpes vaccine should protect against both HSV-1 and HSV-2. Novel HSV vaccines, such as replication-defective or attenuated viruses, have elicited humoral and cellular immune responses in preclinical studies. These vaccines and others hold promise in future clinical studies. PMID:23252387

  18. Cumulative effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures and their relevance to human health risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Kembra L. Howdeshell and L. Earl Gray, Jr.Toxicological studies of defined chemical mixtures assist human health risk assessment by characterizing the joint action of chemicals. This presentation will review the effects of anti-androgenic chemical mixtures on reproductive tract d...

  19. Powassan virus encephalitis resembling herpes simplex encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Embil, J A; Camfield, P; Artsob, H; Chase, D P

    1983-02-01

    A boy from New York traveling in Nova Scotia had olfactory hallucinations and other signs of temporal lobe involvement, leading to a diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. The patient was treated with vidarabine and made a complete recovery. However, hemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, and neutralization tests identified Powassan virus (POW) as the pathogen. Shortly before his trip to Nova Scotia, the patient had traveled in an area where POW encephalitis had occurred in humans (the eastern part of the state of New York), and he also came in contact with a known reservoir of POW infection (a groundhog) at home.

  20. Designing herpes viruses as oncolytics

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Cole; Rabkin, Samuel D

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV) was one of the first genetically-engineered oncolytic viruses. Because HSV is a natural human pathogen that can cause serious disease, it is incumbent that it can be genetically-engineered or significantly attenuated for safety. Here, we present a detailed explanation of the functions of HSV-1 genes frequently mutated to endow oncolytic activity. These genes are nonessential for growth in tissue culture cells but are important for growth in postmitotic cells, interfering with intrinsic antiviral and innate immune responses or causing pathology, functions dispensable for replication in cancer cells. Understanding the function of these genes leads to informed creation of new oHSVs with better therapeutic efficacy. Virus infection and replication can also be directed to cancer cells through tumor-selective receptor binding and transcriptional- or post-transcriptional miRNA-targeting, respectively. In addition to the direct effects of oHSV on infected cancer cells and tumors, oHSV can be “armed” with transgenes that are: reporters, to track virus replication and spread; cytotoxic, to kill uninfected tumor cells; immune modulatory, to stimulate antitumor immunity; or tumor microenvironment altering, to enhance virus spread or to inhibit tumor growth. In addition to HSV-1, other alphaherpesviruses are also discussed for their oncolytic activity. PMID:26462293

  1. Tranylcypromine Reduces Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hui-Wen; Lin, Pin-Hung; Shen, Fang-Hsiu; Perng, Guey-Chuen; Tung, Yuk-Ying

    2014-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infects the majority of the human population and establishes latency by maintaining viral genomes in neurons of sensory ganglia. Latent virus can undergo reactivation to cause recurrent infection. Both primary and recurrent infections can cause devastating diseases, including encephalitis and corneal blindness. Acyclovir is used to treat patients, but virus resistance to acyclovir is frequently reported. Recent in vitro findings reveal that pretreatment of cells with tranylcypromine (TCP), a drug widely used in the clinic to treat neurological disorders, restrains HSV-1 gene transcription by inhibiting the histone-modifying enzyme lysine-specific demethylase 1. The present study was designed to examine the anti-HSV-1 efficacy of TCP in vivo because of the paucity of reports on this issue. Using the murine model, we found that TCP decreased the severity of wild-type-virus-induced encephalitis and corneal blindness, infection with the acyclovir-resistant (thymidine kinase-negative) HSV-1 mutant, and tissue viral loads. Additionally, TCP blocked in vivo viral reactivation in trigeminal ganglia. These results support the therapeutic potential of TCP for controlling HSV-1 infection. PMID:24590478

  2. Establishment of Anti-Human ATRX Monoclonal Antibody AMab-6

    PubMed Central

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Kaneko, Mika K.; Oki, Hiroharu; Sabit, Hemragul; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Ichimura, Koichi; Komori, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas are the most frequently occurring brain tumors with a heterogeneous molecular background. The molecular subgrouping of gliomas more prognostically stratifies patients into distinct groups compared with conventional histological classification. The most important molecules for the subtype diagnosis of diffuse gliomas are mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), TERT promoter, and α-thalassemia/mental-retardation-syndrome-X-linked (ATRX) and the codeletion of 1p/19q. Among them, IDH and ATRX mutations can be diagnosed using specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We have developed many mAbs against IDH mutants, including HMab-1/HMab-2 against IDH1-R132H and multispecific mAbs MsMab-1/MsMab-2 against IDH1/2 mutations. In contrast, highly sensitive mAbs against ATRX remain to be established. In this study, we immunized mice with recombinant human ATRX and developed a novel mAb, AMab-6. The dissociation constant of AMab-6 was determined to be 9.7 × 10−10 M, indicating that the binding affinity of AMab-6 is very high. Furthermore, AMab-6 sensitively detects ATRX in Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses, indicating that AMab-6 could become the standard marker to determine the ATRX mutation status of gliomas in immunohistochemical analyses. PMID:27788029

  3. Establishment of Anti-Human ATRX Monoclonal Antibody AMab-6.

    PubMed

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Fujii, Yuki; Kaneko, Mika K; Oki, Hiroharu; Sabit, Hemragul; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Ichimura, Koichi; Komori, Takashi; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-10-01

    Gliomas are the most frequently occurring brain tumors with a heterogeneous molecular background. The molecular subgrouping of gliomas more prognostically stratifies patients into distinct groups compared with conventional histological classification. The most important molecules for the subtype diagnosis of diffuse gliomas are mutations of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH), TERT promoter, and α-thalassemia/mental-retardation-syndrome-X-linked (ATRX) and the codeletion of 1p/19q. Among them, IDH and ATRX mutations can be diagnosed using specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We have developed many mAbs against IDH mutants, including HMab-1/HMab-2 against IDH1-R132H and multispecific mAbs MsMab-1/MsMab-2 against IDH1/2 mutations. In contrast, highly sensitive mAbs against ATRX remain to be established. In this study, we immunized mice with recombinant human ATRX and developed a novel mAb, AMab-6. The dissociation constant of AMab-6 was determined to be 9.7 × 10 -10 M, indicating that the binding affinity of AMab-6 is very high. Furthermore, AMab-6 sensitively detects ATRX in Western blot and immunohistochemical analyses, indicating that AMab-6 could become the standard marker to determine the ATRX mutation status of gliomas in immunohistochemical analyses.

  4. Use of Anti-Idiotypes and Synthetic Peptides for Control of Human T- Lymphotropic Virus Type 3 Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-28

    peptides, anti-idiotypes, vaccines, 06 03 human immunodeficiency virus, chimpanzees, RAI, Virology, 06 13 HTLV III, Immunology 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on...idiotypes (anti-Id for con- trolling HIV infection. We have identified four regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type I HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein...analogous to amino acid sequences from the feline leukemia virus / transmembrane glycoprotein. Studies have utilized an affinity purified chimpanzee anti

  5. Anti-herpesvirus activity profile of 4'-thioarabinofuranosyl purine and uracil nucleosides and activity of 1-beta-D-2'-fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl guanine and 2,6-diaminopurine against clinical isolates of human cytomegalovirus.

    PubMed

    Machida, H; Ashida, N; Miura, S; Endo, M; Yamada, K; Kitano, K; Yoshimura, Y; Sakata, S; Ijichi, O; Eizuru, Y

    1998-08-01

    Newly synthesized 4'-thio- and 2'-fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl purine and pyrimidine nucleosides were compared with the corresponding 4'-oxo type arabinosyl nucleosides for anti-herpesvirus and anti-cell proliferative potencies. 4'-Thioarabinosyl- and 2'-fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl 5-substituted uracils had selective antiviral activities, but were not superior to 4'-oxo nucleosides, except for the activity of 5-ethyl-uracil 4'-thio nucleosides against herpes simplex virus. Furthermore, 4'-thio substituted derivatives of sorivudine (BV-araU) and related compounds, and 2'-fluoro-5-methyl-arabinosyluracil exhibited reduced activity against varicella-zoster virus compared with the parent compounds. The 4'-thioarabinosyluracils, except for 5-methyluracil derivatives, were inactive against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). 4'-Thioarabinofuranosyl guanine and diaminopurine had the most potent anti-HCMV and anti-proliferative activities, whereas arabinosyl guanine and diaminopurine had only marginal antiviral activity. 2'-Fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosyl derivatives of guanine (4'-thio-FaraG) and 2,6-diaminopurine (4'-thio-FaraDAP), however, had particularly high activity against all herpesviruses tested with anti-proliferative activity equipotent to that of arabinosyl guanine and diaminopurine. 4'-Thio- and 2'-fluoro-4'-thioarabinofuranosyladenines exhibited biological activities similar to that of arabinosyladenine. Both 4'-thio-FaraG and 4'-thio-FaraDAP had a 6-fold lower ED50 than ganciclovir against clinical isolates of HCMV. A ganciclovir-resistant isolate, obtained from a patient who had received long-term ganciclovir-treatment, was susceptible to 4'-thio-FaraG and 4'-thio-FaraDAP.

  6. Induction of interferon-λ contributes to TLR3 and RIG-I activation-mediated inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 2 replication in human cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Liu, Jin-Biao; Zhuang, Ke; Gao, Jian-Feng; Liu, Shi; Sang, Ming; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Is it possible to immunologically activate human cervical epithelial cells to produce antiviral factors that inhibit herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) replication? Our results indicate that human cervical epithelial cells possess a functional TLR3/RIG-I signaling system, the activation of which can mount an Interferon-λ (IFN-λ)-mediated anti-HSV-2 response. There is limited information about the role of cervical epithelial cells in genital innate immunity against HSV-2 infection. We examined the expression of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid-inducible I (RIG-I) in End1/E6E7 cells by real-time PCR. The IFN-λ induced by TLR3 and RIG-I activation of End1/E6E7 cells was also examined by real-time PCR and ELISA. HSV-2 infection of End1/E6E7 cells was evaluated by the real-time PCR detection of HSV-2 gD expression. The antibody to IL-10Rβ was used to determine whether IFN-λ contributes to TLR3/RIG-I mediated HSV-2 inhibition. Expression of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), IRF7, IFN-stimulated gene 56 (ISG56), 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase I (OAS-1) and myxovirus resistance A (MxA) were determined by the real-time PCR and western blot. End1/E6E7 cells were transfected with shRNA to knockdown the IRF3, IRF7 or RIG-I expression. Student's t-test and post Newman-Keuls test were used to analyze stabilized differences in the immunological parameters above between TLR3/RIG-I-activated cells and control cells. Human cervical epithelial cells expressed functional TLR3 and RIG-I, which could be activated by poly I:C and 5'ppp double-strand RNAs (5'ppp dsRNA), resulting in the induction of endogenous interferon lambda (IFN-λ). The induced IFN-λ contributed to TLR3/RIG-I-mediated inhibition of HSV-2 replication in human cervical epithelial cells, as an antibody to IL-10Rβ, an IFN-λ receptor subunit, could compromise TLR3/RIG-I-mediated inhibition of HSV-2. Further studies showed that TLR3/RIG-I signaling in the cervical epithelial cells by ds

  7. Performance of two commercial ELISAs for detecting IgA anti-human and anti-guinea pig tissue transglutaminase antibodies.

    PubMed

    Abrantes-Lemos, Clarice Pires; Nakhle, Maria Cristina; Damiao, Aderson Omar Mourao Cintra; Sipahi, Aytan Miranda; Carrilho, Flair José; Cancado, Eduardo Luiz R

    2010-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity of anti-human tissue transglutaminase antibodies (anti-htTGA) seem to be superior to those of anti-tissue transglutaminase of guinea pig (anti-gptTGA) for screening patients with celiac disease (CD), but there are still controversies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of two INOVA ELISA kits to detect IgA anti-htTGA and anti-gptTGA in patients with and without CD. The study groups were comprised of 49 anti-endomysial antibody (EMA)-positive untreated-CD, and 123 controls (EMA-negative treated CD, EMA-negative chronic diarrhea, autoimmune hepatitis, inflammatory bowel disease and healthy people). The agreement between the two ELISAs was statistically significant in all study groups and there was no significant difference between them (92.7% agreement; kappa = 0.70; kappa p = 0.001; McNemar p = 1). All patients with serum reactivity of more than 100 units had histologic diagnosis of CD. In seven of 10 patients with treated-CD who had control biopsies, villous atrophy was still present in four who tested positive by both kits. Two of three celiacs with histologic remission tested positive for both anti-tTGA. the anti-gptTGA and anti-htTGA determination were equally efficient in identifying patients with untreated-CD with high titers of EMA. Whatever the anti-tTGA ELISA used, the reactivity above 100 units was always related to active CD diagnosed by histologic alterations in intestinal biopsies. The anti-tTGA reactivity by both kits was not only similar in determining histologic activity in the follow-up of CD after a gluten free diet, but also in identifying positive sera from the control groups, regardless if CD has been confirmed by duodenal biopsies.

  8. Sialic acid content in human saliva and anti-influenza activity against human and avian influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Limsuwat, Nattavatchara; Suptawiwat, Ornpreya; Boonarkart, Chompunuch; Puthavathana, Pilaipan; Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Auewarakul, Prasert

    2016-03-01

    It was shown previously that human saliva has higher antiviral activity against human influenza viruses than against H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses, and that the major anti-influenza activity was associated with sialic-acid-containing molecules. To further characterize the differential susceptibility to saliva among influenza viruses, seasonal influenza A and B virus, pandemic H1N1 virus, and 15 subtypes of avian influenza virus were tested for their susceptibility to human and chicken saliva. Human saliva showed higher hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization (NT) titers against seasonal influenza A virus and the pandemic H1N1 viruses than against influenza B virus and most avian influenza viruses, except for H9N2 and H12N9 avian influenza viruses, which showed high HI and NT titers. To understand the nature of sialic-acid-containing anti-influenza factors in human saliva, α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acid was measured in human saliva samples using a lectin binding and dot blot assay. α2,6-linked sialic acid was found to be more abundant than α2,3-linked sialic acid, and a seasonal H1N1 influenza virus bound more efficiently to human saliva than an H5N1 virus in a dot blot analysis. These data indicated that human saliva contains the sialic acid type corresponding to the binding preference of seasonal influenza viruses.

  9. CSF herpes virus and autoantibody profiles in the evaluation of encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Linnoila, Jenny J.; Binnicker, Matthew J.; Majed, Masoud; Klein, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To report the frequency of coexisting herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus 1 [HSV-1] or HSV-2, varicella zoster virus, Epstein-Barr virus [EBV], cytomegalovirus, or human herpes virus 6 [HHV-6]) and autoantibodies in patients with encephalitis (herpes or autoimmune) in clinical laboratory service. Methods: Three groups were evaluated for herpes viruses and antibodies: group 1—patients whose CSF was positive for a herpes virus by real-time PCR over a period of 6 months; group 2—patients whose CSF was positive for an autoimmune encephalitis–associated antibody over 5 years (e.g., NMDA receptor [NMDA-R] antibody), and the same number of controls without autoimmune/infectious disease; and group 3—incidental autoimmune parainfectious encephalitis cases encountered over 1 year. Results: In group 1, antibodies were detected in 27 of 100 herpes PCR-positive CSF specimens (CSFs), either unclassified neural or nonneural in all but one patient with NMDA-R antibody detected after EBV infection. Antibodies were also detected in 3 of 7 CSFs submitted for repeat PCR testing (unclassified, 2; AMPA receptor, 1). In group 2, herpes viruses were detected in 1 of 77 controls (HHV-6) and 4 of 77 patients with autoimmune encephalitis (EBV, 2; HHV-6, 2); autoantibodies targeted NMDA-R in 3/4 and GABAB-R in 1/4. In group 3, NMDA-R antibody was detected in 7 patients post–HSV-1 encephalitis. Of the remaining 3 patients, 2 had unclassified neural antibodies detected, and one had GABAB-R autoimmunity. Concomitant neoplasms were discovered in 2 patients each from groups 2 and 3. Conclusions: Autoantibodies and herpes virus DNA frequently coexist in encephalitic CSF. Some patients develop parainfectious autoimmunity following viral CNS infection (usually HSV-1 encephalitis). The significance of detecting herpes nucleic acids in others remains unclear. PMID:27308306

  10. A Fusogenic Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Virus for Therapy of Advanced Ovarian Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    to demonstrate that fusogenic oncolytic HSVs are a potent anti -tumor agent for advanced ovarian cancer; 2) to prove that fusogenic oncolytic HSVs...oncolytic herpes simplex virus (HSV) can significantly enhance the anti -tumor effect of the virus. Three specific aims have been proposed and they are: 1...have the same safety profile as their non-fusogenic counterparts; 3) to explore novel delivery strategies that can evade host’s anti -viral immunity

  11. Human Albumin Fragments Nanoparticles as PTX Carrier for Improved Anti-cancer Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Liang; You, Xinru; Huang, Jun; Chen, Yuejian; Chen, Li; Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Xiqiang; Wu, Jun; Hai, Qian

    2018-01-01

    For enhanced anti-cancer performance, human serum albumin fragments (HSAFs) nanoparticles (NPs) were developed as paclitaxel (PTX) carrier in this paper. Human albumins were broken into fragments via degradation and crosslinked by genipin to form HSAF NPs for better biocompatibility, improved PTX drug loading and sustained drug release. Compared with crosslinked human serum albumin NPs, the HSAF-NPs showed relative smaller particle size, higher drug loading, and improved sustained release. Cellular and animal results both indicated that the PTX encapsulated HSAF-NPs have shown good anti-cancer performance. And the anticancer results confirmed that NPs with fast cellular internalization showed better tumor inhibition. These findings will not only provide a safe and robust drug delivery NP platform for cancer therapy, but also offer fundamental information for the optimal design of albumin based NPs. PMID:29946256

  12. Oxidative stress favours herpes virus infection in vertebrates: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sebastiano, Manrico; Chastel, Olivier; de Thoisy, Benoît; Eens, Marcel; Costantini, David

    2016-08-01

    Herpes viruses are responsible for a variety of pathological effects in humans and in both wild and domestic animals. One mechanism that has been proposed to facilitate replication and activity of herpes viruses is oxidative stress (OS). We used meta-analytical techniques to test the hypotheses that (1) herpes virus infection causes OS and (2) supplementation of antioxidants reduces virus load, indicating that replication is favoured by a state of OS. Results based on studies on mammals, including humans, and birds show that (1) OS is indeed increased by herpes virus infection across multiple tissues and species, (2) biomarkers of OS may change differently between tissues, and (3) the effect size does not differ among different virus strains. In addition, the increase of oxidative damage in blood (tissue commonly available in ecological studies) was similar to that in the tissues most sensitive to the herpes virus. Our results also show that administration of antioxidants reduces virus yield, indicating that a condition of OS is favorable for the viral replication. In addition, some antioxidants may be more efficient than others in reducing herpes virus yield. Our results point to a potential mechanism linking herpes virus infection to individual health status.

  13. Transient neuropathic bladder following herpes simplex genitalis.

    PubMed

    Riehle, R A; Williams, J J

    1979-08-01

    A case of transient bladder dysfunction and urinary retention concomitant with herpes genitalis is presented. The protean manifestations of the herpes simplex virus, the similar neurotropic behavior of simplex and zoster, and the neurologic sequelae of the cutaneous simplex eruption are discussed. The possibility of sacral radiculopathy after herpes genitalis must be considered when evaluating acute or episodic neurogenic bladders.

  14. Vaccinia Virus Recombinant Expressing Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Glycoprotein D Prevents Latent Herpes in Mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremer, Kenneth J.; Mackett, Michael; Wohlenberg, Charles; Notkins, Abner Louis; Moss, Bernard

    1985-05-01

    In humans, herpes simplex virus causes a primary infection and then often a latent ganglionic infection that persists for life. Because these latent infections can recur periodically, vaccines are needed that can protect against both primary and latent herpes simplex infections. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that contain the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) glycoprotein D gene under control of defined early or late vaccinia virus promoters were constructed. Tissue culture cells infected with these recombinant viruses synthesized a glycosylated protein that had the same mass (60,000 daltons) as the glycoprotein D produced by HSV-1. Immunization of mice with one of these recombinant viruses by intradermal, subcutaneous, or intraperitoneal routes resulted in the production of antibodies that neutralized HSV-1 and protected the mice against subsequent lethal challenge with HSV-1 or HSV-2. Immunization with the recombinant virus also protected the majority of the mice against the development of a latent HSV-1 infection of the trigeminal ganglia. This is the first demonstration that a genetically engineered vaccine can prevent the development of latency.

  15. Herpes zoster ophthalmicus.

    PubMed

    Sanjay, Srinivasan; Huang, Philemon; Lavanya, Raghavan

    2011-02-01

    The management of herpes zoster (HZ) usually involves a multidisciplinary approach aiming to reduce complications and morbidity. Patients with herpes zoster ophthalmicus (HZO) are referred to ophthalmologists for prevention or treatment of its potential complications. Without prompt detection and treatment, HZO can lead to substantial visual disability. In our practice, we usually evaluate patients with HZO for corneal complications such as epithelial, stromal, and disciform keratitis; anterior uveitis; necrotizing retinitis; and cranial nerve palsies in relation to the eye. These are acute and usually sight-threatening. We recommend oral acyclovir in conjunction with topical 3% acyclovir ointment, lubricants, and steroids for conjunctival, corneal, and uveal inflammation associated with HZO. Persistent vasculitis and neuritis may result in chronic ocular complications, the most important of which are neurotrophic keratitis, mucus plaque keratitis, and lipid degeneration of corneal scars. Postherpetic complications, especially postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), are observed in well over half of patients with HZO. The severe, debilitating, chronic pain of PHN is treated locally with cold compresses and lidocaine cream (5%). These patients also receive systemic treatment with NSAIDs, and our medical colleagues cooperate in managing their depression and excruciating pain. Pain is the predominant symptom in all phases of HZ disease, being reported by up to 90% of patients. Ocular surgery for HZO-related complications is performed only after adequately stabilizing pre-existing ocular inflammation, raised intraocular pressure, dry eye, neurotrophic keratitis, and lagophthalmos. Cranial nerve palsies are common and most often involve the facial nerve, although palsy of the oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves may occur in isolation or (rarely) simultaneously. In our setting, complete ophthalmoplegia is seen more often than isolated palsies, but recovery is usually

  16. Shingrix: The New Adjuvanted Recombinant Herpes Zoster Vaccine.

    PubMed

    James, Stephanie F; Chahine, Elias B; Sucher, Allana J; Hanna, Cassandra

    2018-02-01

    To review the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) for use in adult patients for the prevention of shingles. A literature search through PubMed was conducted (June 2008 to October 2017) using the terms shingles vaccine and varicella zoster virus. References from retrieved articles and the prescribing information were also reviewed for any additional material. The literature search was limited to human studies published in English. Randomized controlled, multicenter trials were reviewed and included to evaluate the safety and efficacy of HZ/su. Literature on the epidemiology and pathology of herpes zoster virus infections and recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) were also reviewed. HZ/su is a new adjuvanted recombinant vaccine approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the prevention of herpes zoster in adults 50 years of age and older. HZ/su significantly reduced the risk of developing herpes zoster by more than 90% as compared with placebo and displayed a comparable adverse effect profile. The most common local adverse events were injection site pain, redness, and swelling, and the most common systemic adverse events were myalgia, fatigue, and headache. The ACIP recommends the routine use of HZ/su as the preferred vaccine for the prevention of herpes zoster in immunocompetent adults 50 years of age and older. Based on published immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety data, as well as the recent recommendations by the ACIP, HZ/su should be included on both hospital and community pharmacy formularies and recommended to all immunocompetent patients older than 50 years to prevent herpes zoster.

  17. The Challenges and Opportunities for Development of a T-Cell Epitope-Based Herpes Simplex Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tiffany; Wang, Christine; Badakhshan, Tina; Chilukuri, Sravya; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2014-01-01

    The infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 (HSV-1 & HSV-2) have been prevalent since the ancient Greek times. To this day, they still affect a staggering number of over a half billion individuals worldwide. HSV-2 infections cause painful genital herpes, encephalitis, and death in newborns. HSV-1 infections are more prevalent than HSV-2 infections and cause potentially blinding ocular herpes, oro-facial herpes and encephalitis. While genital herpes in mainly caused by HSV-2 infections, in recent years, there is an increase in the proportion of genital herpes caused by HSV-1 infections in young adults, which reach 50% in some western societies. While prophylactic and therapeutic HSV vaccines remain urgently needed for centuries their development has been notoriously difficult. During the most recent National Institute of Health (NIH) workshop titled "Next Generation Herpes Simplex Virus Vaccines: The Challenges and Opportunities", basic researchers, funding agencies, and pharmaceutical representatives gathered: (i) to assess the status of herpes vaccine research; and (ii) to identify the gaps and propose alternative approaches in developing a safe and efficient herpes vaccine. One “common denominator” among previously failed clinical herpes vaccine trials is that they either used a whole virus or whole viral proteins, which contain both pathogenic “symptomatic” and protective “asymptomatic” antigens/epitopes. In this report, we continue to advocate that using an “asymptomatic” epitope-based vaccine strategy that selectively incorporates protective epitopes which: (i) are exclusively recognized, in vitro, by effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ TEM cells from “naturally” protected seropositive asymptomatic individuals; and (ii) protect, in vivo, human leukocyte antigen (HLA) transgenic animal models from ocular and genital herpes infections and diseases, could be the answer to many of the scientific challenges facing HSV vaccine

  18. The anti-oxidant effects of melatonin derivatives on human gingival fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Phiphatwatcharaded, Chawapon; Puthongking, Ploenthip; Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Johns, Nutjaree Pratheepawanit; Sakolchai, Sumon; Mahakunakorn, Pramote

    2017-07-01

    Aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the anti-oxidant activity of indole ring modified melatonin derivatives as compared with melatonin in primary human gingival fibroblast (HGF) cells. Anti-oxidant activity of melatonin (MLT), acetyl-melatonin (AMLT) and benzoyl-melatonin (BMLT) was evaluated by5 standard methods as follows: 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH); ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP); superoxide anion scavenging; nitric oxide (NO) scavenging; and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs).Evaluation of cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) and protectivity against H 2 O 2 induced cellular damage was performed via MTT assay in HGF cells. According to the standard anti-oxidant assays, the antioxidant power of AMLT and BMLT were slightly less than MLT in FRAP and superoxide scavenging assays. In the NO scavenging and TBARs assays, BMLT and AMLT were more potent than MLT, whereas DPPH assays demonstrated that MLT was more potent than others. BMLT and AMLT had more potent anti-oxidant and protective activities against H 2 O 2 in HGF cells as compared with MLT. MLT derivatives demonstrated different anti-oxidant activities as compared with MLT, depending upon assays. These findings imply that N-indole substitution of MLT may help to improve hydrogen atom transfer to free radicals but electron transfer property is slightly decreased. Anti-oxidant and protective effects of melatonin derivatives (AMLT and BMLT) on human gingival fibroblasts imply the potential use of these molecules as alternative therapeutics for chronic inflammatory oral diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical significance of serum anti-human papillomavirus 16 and 18 antibodies in cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Chay, Doo Byung; Cho, Hanbyoul; Kim, Bo Wook; Kang, Eun Suk; Song, Eunseop; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-02-01

    To estimate the clinical significance of serum anti-human papillomavirus (HPV) antibodies and high-risk cervical HPV DNA in cervical neoplasia. The study population comprised patients who were histopathologically diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 (n=64), CIN 2 and 3 (n=241), cervical cancer (n=170), and normal control participants (n=975). Cervical HPV DNA tests were performed through nucleic acid hybridization assay tests, and serum anti-HPV 16 and 18 antibodies were measured by competitive immunoassay. The associations of HPV DNA and anti-HPV antibodies were evaluated with demographic characteristics and compared according to the levels of disease severity. Anti-HPV antibodies were also investigated with clinicopathologic parameters, including survival data. Among various demographic characteristics, factors involving sexual behavior had a higher tendency of HPV DNA positivity and HPV seropositivity. Human papillomavirus DNA mean titer and positivity were both increased in patients with cervical neoplasia compared with those with normal control participants, but there was no statistical difference among types of cervical neoplasia. Serum anti-HPV 16 antibodies were also able to differentiate cervical neoplasia from a normal control participant and furthermore distinguished CIN 1 from CIN 2 and 3 (odd ratio 2.87 [1.43-5.78], P=.002). In cervical cancer, HPV 16 seropositivity was associated with prolonged disease-free survival according to the univariable analysis (hazard ratio=0.12 [0.01-0.94], P=.044). Serum anti-HPV 16 antibodies can distinguish cervical neoplasia from a normal control and has the advantage of identifying high-grade CIN. Moreover, in cervical cancer, HPV 16 seropositivity may be associated with a more favorable prognosis. II.

  20. Herpes zoster: A clinicocytopathological insight.

    PubMed

    Shah, Snehal; Singaraju, Sasidhar; Einstein, A; Sharma, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Herpes zoster or shingles is reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that had entered the cutaneous nerve endings during an earlier episode of chicken pox traveled to the dorsal root ganglia and remained in a latent form. This condition is characterized by occurrence of multiple, painful, unilateral vesicles and ulceration which shows a typical single dermatome involvement. In this case report, we present a patient with herpes zoster involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve, with unilateral vesicles over the right side of lower third of face along the trigeminal nerve tract, with intraoral involvement of buccal mucosa, labial mucosa and the tongue of the same side. Cytopathology revealed classic features of herpes infection including inclusion bodies, perinuclear halo and multinucleated cells.

  1. Fulminant anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) concomitant with primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) infection together with Epstein-Barr-virus (EBV) reactivation in a patient with asymptomatic HIV-infection.

    PubMed

    Grützmeier, Sven; Porwit, Anna; Schmitt, Corinna; Sandström, Eric; Åkerlund, Börje; Ernberg, Ingemar

    2016-01-01

    Most malignant lymphomas in HIV-patients are caused by reactivation of EBV-infection. Some lymphomas have a very rapid fulminant course. HHV-8 has also been reported to be a cause of lymphoma. The role of CMV in the development of lymphoma is not clear, though both CMV and HHV-8 have been reported in tissues adjacent to the tumour in Burkitt lymphoma patients. Here we present a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection, that contracted a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) infection. Three weeks before onset of symptoms the patient had unprotected sex which could be possible source of his CMV and also HHV-8 infection He deteriorated rapidly and died with a generalized anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). A Caucasian homosexual male with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection contracted a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) infection. He deteriorated rapidly and died with a generalized anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). Clinical and laboratory records were compiled. Immunohistochemistry was performed on lymphoid tissues, a liver biopsy, a bone marrow aspirate and the spleen during the illness and at autopsy. Serology and PCR for HIV, CMV, EBV, HHV-1-3 and 6-8 was performed on blood drawn during the course of disease. The patient presented with an acute primary CMV infection. Biopsies taken 2 weeks before death showed a small focus of ALCL in one lymph node of the neck. Autopsy demonstrated a massive infiltration of ALCL in lymph nodes, liver, spleen and bone marrow. Blood samples confirmed primary CMV- infection, a HHV-8 infection together with reactivation of Epstein- Barr-virus (EBV). Primary CMV-infection and concomitant HHV-8 infection correlated with reactivation of EBV. We propose that these two viruses influenced the development and progression of the lymphoma. Quantitative PCR blood analysis for EBV, CMV and HHV-8 could be valuable in diagnosis and treatment of

  2. Untangling the Roles of Anti-Apoptosis in Regulating Programmed Cell Death using Humanized Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Caitlin; Portt, Liam; Khoury, Chamel; Sheibani, Sara; Eid, Rawan; Greenwood, Matthew; Vali, Hojatollah; Mandato, Craig A.; Greenwood, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    -apoptosis, we screened a human heart cDNA expression library in yeast cells undergoing PCD due to the conditional expression of a mammalian pro-apoptotic Bax cDNA. Analysis of the multiple Bax suppressors identified revealed several previously known as well as a large number of clones representing potential novel anti-apoptotic sequences. The focus of this review is to report on recent achievements in the use of humanized yeast in genetic screens to identify novel stress-induced PCD suppressors, supporting the use of yeast as a unicellular model organism to elucidate anti-apoptotic and cell survival mechanisms. PMID:22708116

  3. Interaction studies reveal specific recognition of an anti-inflammatory polyphosphorhydrazone dendrimer by human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Ledall, Jérémy; Fruchon, Séverine; Garzoni, Matteo; Pavan, Giovanni M; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Blanzat, Muriel; Poupot, Rémy

    2015-11-14

    Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes.

  4. [Recurrent herpes zoster with neuralgia].

    PubMed

    Schwickert, Myriam; Saha, Joyonto

    2006-06-01

    We present the case of a 40-year-old female patient suffering from recurrent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia. Herpes zoster has recurred several times per year for more than 15 years. At admission, rash localised on the right sacral region and accompanied by neuralgia had lasted for 3 months. Standard out-patient treatment remained unsuccessful. A multimodal integrative therapy regimen including fasting, hydrotherapy, leech application and treatment with autologous blood led to rapid healing of herpetic lesions and persistent pain relief. The case is discussed.

  5. Human Anti-Plague Monoclonal Antibodies Protect Mice from Yersinia pestis in a Bubonic Plague Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dankmeyer, Jennifer L.; Wormald, Michael M.; Fast, Randy L.; Worsham, Patricia L.; Cote, Christopher K.; Amemiya, Kei; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2010-01-01

    Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr) V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252) and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254) by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans. PMID:20976274

  6. Human anti-plague monoclonal antibodies protect mice from Yersinia pestis in a bubonic plague model.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xiaodong; Zhu, Zhongyu; Dankmeyer, Jennifer L; Wormald, Michael M; Fast, Randy L; Worsham, Patricia L; Cote, Christopher K; Amemiya, Kei; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2010-10-13

    Yersinia pestis is the etiologic agent of plague that has killed more than 200 million people throughout the recorded history of mankind. Antibiotics may provide little immediate relief to patients who have a high bacteremia or to patients infected with an antibiotic resistant strain of plague. Two virulent factors of Y. pestis are the capsid F1 protein and the low-calcium response (Lcr) V-protein or V-antigen that have been proven to be the targets for both active and passive immunization. There are mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the F1- and V-antigens that can passively protect mice in a murine model of plague; however, there are no anti-Yersinia pestis monoclonal antibodies available for prophylactic or therapeutic treatment in humans. We identified one anti-F1-specific human mAb (m252) and two anti-V-specific human mAb (m253, m254) by panning a naïve phage-displayed Fab library against the F1- and V-antigens. The Fabs were converted to IgG1s and their binding and protective activities were evaluated. M252 bound weakly to peptides located at the F1 N-terminus where a protective mouse anti-F1 mAb also binds. M253 bound strongly to a V-antigen peptide indicating a linear epitope; m254 did not bind to any peptide from a panel of 53 peptides suggesting that its epitope may be conformational. M252 showed better protection than m253 and m254 against a Y, pestis challenge in a plague mouse model. A synergistic effect was observed when the three antibodies were combined. Incomplete to complete protection was achieved when m252 was given at different times post-challenge. These antibodies can be further studied to determine their potential as therapeutics or prophylactics in Y. pestis infection in humans.

  7. Seroprevalence of human herpes simplex, hepatitis B and epstein-barr viruses in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in southern iran.

    PubMed

    Mahjour, Seyed Babak; Ghaffarpasand, Fariborz; Fattahi, Mohammad Javad; Ghaderi, Abbas; Fotouhi Ghiam, Alireza; Karimi, Mehran

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Viruses (HSV1 and HSV2), Ebstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in southern Iran. 90 patients with ALL and 90 age-sex matched healthy participants were enrolled in this study. Antibodies (IgG) against HBsAg, HSV1, HSV2, EBV different antigens including Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1), viral capsid antigen (VCA) and early antigen (EA) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). There were 54 (60%) male and 36 (40%) female in both study groups with mean age of 8.47 ± 3.61 and 8.61 ± 2.84 years in case and control group respectively (P = 0.812). The prevalence of antibodies against HBsAg (P = 0.002), HSV1 (P < 0.0001), VCA (P = 0.021) and EA (P < 0.0001) antigens of EBV were significantly higher in ALL patients. With the results of this study, we could not exclude a connection between these viral infections and later leukemogenesis in childhood ALL, although nor latent infection nor congenital infection cannot be excluded by this method.

  8. Recognition of Naegleriae ameba surface protein epitopes by anti-human CD45 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ravine, Terrence J; Polski, Jacek M; Jenkins, James

    2010-04-01

    Phagocytosis is a highly conserved mechanism exhibited by both free-living amebas and mammalian blood cells. Similarities demonstrated by either cell type during engulfment of the same bacterial species may imply analogous surface proteins involved in receptor-mediated endocytosis. The increased availability of anti-human leukocyte antibodies or clusters of differentiation (CD) markers used in conjunction with flow cytometric (FCM) and/or immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis provides investigators with a relatively easy method to screen different cell populations for comparable plasma membrane proteins. In this study, we incubated Naegleria and Acanthamoeba amebas with several directly conjugated anti-human leukocyte monoclonal antibodies (mAb) for similarly recognized amebic epitopes. CD marker selection was based upon a recognized role of each mAb in phagocyte activation and/or uptake of bacteria. These included CD14, CD45, and CD206. In FCM, only one CD45 antibody demonstrated strong reactivity with both Naegleria fowleri and Naegleria gruberi that was not expressed in similarly tested Acanthamoeba species. Additional testing of N. gruberi by IHC demonstrated reactivity to a different CD45 antibody. Our results suggest a possible utility of using anti-human leukocyte antibodies to screen amebic cells for similarly expressed protein epitopes. In doing so, several important items must be considered when selecting potential mAbs for testing to increase the probability of a positive result.

  9. Function-blocking antibodies to human vascular adhesion protein-1: a potential anti-inflammatory therapy.

    PubMed

    Kirton, Christopher M; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Nieminen, Antti; Merinen, Marika; Stolen, Craig M; Armour, Kathryn; Smith, David J; Salmi, Marko; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Clark, Michael R

    2005-11-01

    Human vascular adhesion protein-1 (VAP-1) is a homodimeric 170-kDa sialoglycoprotein that is expressed on the surface of endothelial cells and functions as a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase and as an adhesion molecule. Blockade of VAP-1 has been shown to reduce leukocyte adhesion and transmigration in in vivo and in vitro models, suggesting that VAP-1 is a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapy. In this study we have constructed mouse-human chimeric antibodies by genetic engineering in order to circumvent the potential problems involved in using murine antibodies in man. Our chimeric anti-VAP-1 antibodies, which were designed to lack Fc-dependent effector functions, bound specifically to cell surface-expressed recombinant human VAP-1 and recognized VAP-1 in different cell types in tonsil. Furthermore, the chimeric antibodies prevented leukocyte adhesion and transmigration in vitro and in vivo. Hence, these chimeric antibodies have the potential to be used as a new anti-inflammatory therapy.

  10. Normally Occurring Human Anti-GM1 Immunoglobulin M Antibodies and the Immune Response to Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Alaniz, María E.; Lardone, Ricardo D.; Yudowski, Silvia L.; Farace, María I.; Nores, Gustavo A.

    2004-01-01

    Anti-GM1 antibodies of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) isotype are normal components of the antibody repertoire of adult human serum. Using a sensitive high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) immunostaining assay, we found that these antibodies were absent in the umbilical vein and children <1 month of age but could be detected after 1 month of age. Although most of the children older than 6 months of age were positive, there were still a few negative children. The appearance of anti-GM1 IgM antibodies showed a perfect concordance with two well-characterized antibacterial antibodies, anti-Forssman and anti-blood group A, which indicates a similar origin. We also studied IgM reactivity with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) from gram-negative bacteria isolated from stool samples from healthy babies and from Escherichia coli HB101 in serum from individuals of different ages. We found a positive reaction with both LPSs in all the children more than 1 month of age analyzed, even in those that were negative for anti-GM1 antibodies. Anti-GM1 IgM antibodies were purified from adult serum by affinity chromatography and tested for the ability to bind LPSs from different bacteria. This highly specific preparation showed reactivity only with LPS from a strain of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from a patient with diarrhea. We conclude that normally occurring IgM antibodies are generated after birth, probably during the immune defense against specific bacterial strains. PMID:15039337

  11. Anti-aging effects of vitamin C on human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Young; Ku, Seung-Yup; Huh, Yul; Liu, Hung-Ching; Kim, Seok Hyun; Choi, Young Min; Moon, Shin Yong

    2013-10-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have arisen as a source of cells for biomedical research due to their developmental potential. Stem cells possess the promise of providing clinicians with novel treatments for disease as well as allowing researchers to generate human-specific cellular metabolism models. Aging is a natural process of living organisms, yet aging in human heart cells is difficult to study due to the ethical considerations regarding human experimentation as well as a current lack of alternative experimental models. hPSC-derived cardiomyocytes (CMs) bear a resemblance to human cardiac cells and thus hPSC-derived CMs are considered to be a viable alternative model to study human heart cell aging. In this study, we used hPSC-derived CMs as an in vitro aging model. We generated cardiomyocytes from hPSCs and demonstrated the process of aging in both human embryonic stem cell (hESC)- and induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC)-derived CMs. Aging in hESC-derived CMs correlated with reduced membrane potential in mitochondria, the accumulation of lipofuscin, a slower beating pattern, and the downregulation of human telomerase RNA (hTR) and cell cycle regulating genes. Interestingly, the expression of hTR in hiPSC-derived CMs was not significantly downregulated, unlike in hESC-derived CMs. In order to delay aging, vitamin C was added to the cultured CMs. When cells were treated with 100 μM of vitamin C for 48 h, anti-aging effects, specifically on the expression of telomere-related genes and their functionality in aging cells, were observed. Taken together, these results suggest that hPSC-derived CMs can be used as a unique human cardiomyocyte aging model in vitro and that vitamin C shows anti-aging effects in this model.

  12. The DNA helicase–primase complex as a target for herpes viral infection

    PubMed Central

    Weller, Sandra K; Kuchta, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The Herpesviridae are responsible for debilitating acute and chronic infections, and some members of this family are associated with human cancers. Conventional anti-herpesviral therapy targets the viral DNA polymerase and has been extremely successful; however, the emergence of drug-resistant virus strains, especially in neonates and immunocompromised patients, underscores the need for continued development of anti-herpes drugs. In this article, we explore an alternative target for antiviral therapy, the HSV helicase/primase complex. Areas covered This review addresses the current state of knowledge of HSV DNA replication and the important roles played by the herpesvirus helicase–primase complex. In the last 10 years several helicase/primase inhibitors (HPIs) have been described, and in this article, we discuss and contrast these new agents with established inhibitors. Expert opinion The outstanding safety profile of existing nucleoside analogues for a-herpesvirus infection make the development of new therapeutic agents a challenge. Currently used nucleoside analogues exhibit few side effects and have low occurrence of clinically relevant resistance. For HCMV, however, existing drugs have significant toxicity issues and the frequency of drug resistance is high, and no antiviral therapies are available for EBV and KSHV. The development of new anti-herpesvirus drugs is thus well worth pursuing especially for immunocompromised patients and those who develop drug-resistant infections. Although the HPIs are promising, limitations to their development into a successful drug strategy remain. PMID:23930666

  13. A human cytochrome P-450 is recognized by anti-liver/kidney microsome antibodies in autoimmune chronic hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kiffel, L; Loeper, J; Homberg, J C; Leroux, J P

    1989-02-28

    1- Anti-liver/kidney microsome autoantibodies type 1 (anti-LKM1), observed in some children with chronic active hepatitis, were used to isolate their antigen in human liver microsomes. A protein, called P-LKM1 was thus purified. This protein was recognized by a rabbit antiserum directed against the related human cytochromes P-450 bufI and P-450 bufII. 2- A human liver microsomal protein immunoprecipitated with anti-LKM1 sera was also recognized by anti cytochromes P-450 bufI/II antibodies. 3- Anti-LKM1 antibodies potently inhibited microsomal bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation. These results displayed the possible identity between cytochrome P-450 bufI/II and LKM1 antigen.

  14. Human anti-CD30 recombinant antibodies by guided phage antibody selection using cell panning

    PubMed Central

    Klimka, A; Matthey, B; Roovers, R C; Barth, S; Arends, J-W; Engert, A; Hoogenboom, H R

    2000-01-01

    In various clinical studies, Hodgkin’s patients have been treated with anti-CD30 immunotherapeutic agents and have shown promising responses. One of the problems that appeared from these studies is the development of an immune response against the non-human therapeutics, which limits repeated administration and reduces efficacy. We have set out to make a recombinant, human anti-CD30 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, which may serve as a targeting moiety with reduced immunogenicity and more rapid tumour penetration in similar clinical applications. Rather than selecting a naive phage antibody library on recombinant CD30 antigen, we used guided selection of a murine antibody in combination with panning on the CD30-positive cell line L540. The murine monoclonal antibody Ki-4 was chosen as starting antibody, because it inhibits the shedding of the extracellular part of the CD30 antigen. This makes the antibody better suited for CD30-targeting than most other anti-CD30 antibodies. We have previously isolated the murine Ki-4 scFv by selecting a mini-library of hybridoma-derived phage scFv-antibodies via panning on L540 cells. Here, we report that phage display technology was successfully used to obtain a human Ki-4 scFv version by guided selection. The murine variable heavy (VH) and light (VL) chain genes of the Ki-4 scFv were sequentially replaced by human V gene repertoires, while retaining only the major determinant for epitope-specificity: the heavy-chain complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) of murine Ki-4. After two rounds of chain shuffling and selection by panning on L540 cells, a fully human anti-CD30 scFv was selected. It competes with the parental monoclonal antibody Ki-4 for binding to CD30, inhibits the shedding of the extracellular part of the CD30 receptor from L540 cells and is thus a promising candidate for the generation of anti-CD30 immunotherapeutics. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10901379

  15. The apoptotic and anti-proliferative activity of Origanum majorana extracts on human leukemic cell line.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Massih, Roula M; Fares, Rida; Bazzi, Samer; El-Chami, Nisrine; Baydoun, Elias

    2010-08-01

    Scientists are constantly searching for phytochemicals and compounds with anti-cancer and antioxidant activity. In this study, the anti-proliferative activity of plant extracts from Origanum majorana (marjoram) was tested on human lymphoblastic leukemia cell line Jurkat. Cytotoxicity was examined using non-radioactive cytotoxicity assay and the IC(50) was calculated. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, the viability of cells decreased with increase of concentration of plant extract. The anti-proliferative effect was also found to be dose-dependent. Analysis via flow cytometry shows that marjoram extracts stimulated apoptosis. Induction of apoptosis was caused by an up-regulation of p53 protein levels and down-regulation of Bcl-2alpha. Marjoram exhibited a strong scavenging activity (SC(50)=0.03mg dry weight). The conclusions from this study suggest that marjoram extracts exhibit anti-proliferative effect and high antioxidant activity. For that it merits further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Anti-Melanogenic Activity and Cytotoxicity of Pistacia vera Hull on Human Melanoma SKMEL-3 Cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkhail, Parisa; Salimi, Mona; Sarkheil, Pantea; Mostafapour Kandelous, Hirsa

    2017-07-01

    Pistacia vera seed is a common food and medicinal seed in Iran. It's hull (outer skin) as a significant byproduct of pistachio, is traditionally used as tonic, sedative and antidiarrheal and has been shown to be a rich source of antioxidants. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the anti-melanogenic activity of the pistachio hulls in order to discover a new alternative herbal agent to treat skin hyperpigmentation disorders. In this work, antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase activity of MeOH extract from Pistacia vera hull (MPH) were evaluated in vitro, respectively, by DPPH radical scavenging and mushroom tyrosinase activity assays. Then the effect of MPH on the melanin content, cellular tyrosinase activity and cytotoxicity (MTT assay) on human melanoma SKMEL-3 cell were determined followed by 72 h incubation. The results indicated that MPH had valuable DPPH radical scavenging effect and weak anti-tyrosinase activity when compared to the well-known antioxidant (BHT) and tyrosinase inhibitor (kojic acid), respectively. MPH, at a high dose (0.5 mg/mL), showed significant cytotoxic activity (~63%) and strong anti-melanogenic effect (~57%) on SKMEL-3 cells. The effect of MPH in the reduction of melanin content may be related to its cytotoxicity. The results obtained suggest that MPH can be used as an effective agent in the treatment of some skin hyperpigmentation disorders such as melanoma.

  17. Herpes Simplex Virus Infections of the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Whitley, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    This article summarizes knowledge of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections of the central nervous system (CNS). Disease pathogenesis, detection of DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for diagnosis and prognosis, and approaches to therapy warrant consideration. HSV infection of the CNS is one of few treatable viral diseases. Clinical trials indicate that outcome following neonatal herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the CNS is significantly improved when 6 months of suppressive oral acyclovir therapy follows IV antiviral therapy. In contrast, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections of the brain do not benefit from extended oral antiviral therapy. This implies a difference in disease pathogenesis between HSV-2 and HSV-1 infections of the brain. PCR detection of viral DNA in the CSF is the gold standard for diagnosis. Use of PCR is now being adopted as a basis for determining the duration of therapy in the newborn. HSV infections are among the most common encountered by humans; seropositivity occurs in 50% to 90% of adult populations. Herpes simplex encephalitis, however, is an uncommon result of this infection. Since no new antiviral drugs have been introduced in nearly 3 decades, much effort has focused on learning how to better use acyclovir and how to use existing databases to establish earlier diagnosis.

  18. Herpes virus infection of the peripheral nervous system.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Among the human herpes viruses, three are neurotropic and capable of producing severe neurological abnormalities: herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) and varicella-zoster virus (VZV). Both the acute, primary infection and the reactivation from the site of latent infection, the dorsal sensory ganglia, are associated with severe human morbidity and mortality. The peripheral nervous system is one of the major loci affected by these viruses. The present review details the virology and molecular biology underlying the human infection. This is followed by detailed description of the symtomatology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, course, therapy, and prognosis of disorders of the peripheral nervous system caused by these viruses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Current thinking on genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Hofstetter, Annika M; Rosenthal, Susan L; Stanberry, Lawrence R

    2014-02-01

    Genital herpes has a high global prevalence and burden of disease. This manuscript highlights recent advances in our understanding of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Studies demonstrate a changing epidemiological landscape with an increasing proportion of genital herpes cases associated with HSV type 1. There is also growing evidence that the majority of infected individuals exhibit frequent, brief shedding episodes that are most often asymptomatic, which likely contribute to high HSV transmission rates. Given this finding as well as readily available serological assays, some have proposed that routine HSV screening be performed; however, this remains controversial and is not currently recommended. Host immune responses, particularly local CD4 and CD8 T cell activity, are crucial for HSV control and clearance following initial infection, during latency and after reactivation. Prior HSV immunity may also afford partial protection against HSV reinfection and disease. Although HSV vaccine trials have been disappointing to date and existing antiviral medications are limited, novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities are currently in development. Although much remains unknown about genital herpes, improved knowledge of HSV epidemiology, pathogenesis and host immunity may help guide new strategies for disease prevention and control.

  20. Let's Hear It for Herps!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Let's Hear It for the Herps!" Contents are organized into the…

  1. Herpes: Removing Fact from Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glover, Elbert D.

    1984-01-01

    Factual information dealing with the virus herpes is provided in hopes of allaying the public fears that have recently appeared because of misinformation presented by the media. Symptoms, types, and new developments in treatment are explored. Recommendations for obtaining additional information are offered. (DF)

  2. Human Antiviral Protein IFIX Suppresses Viral Gene Expression during Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Infection and Is Counteracted by Virus-induced Proteasomal Degradation.

    PubMed

    Crow, Marni S; Cristea, Ileana M

    2017-04-01

    The interferon-inducible protein X (IFIX), a member of the PYHIN family, was recently recognized as an antiviral factor against infection with herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). IFIX binds viral DNA upon infection and promotes expression of antiviral cytokines. How IFIX exerts its host defense functions and whether it is inhibited by the virus remain unknown. Here, we integrated live cell microscopy, proteomics, IFIX domain characterization, and molecular virology to investigate IFIX regulation and antiviral functions during HSV-1 infection. We find that IFIX has a dynamic localization during infection that changes from diffuse nuclear and nucleoli distribution in uninfected cells to discrete nuclear puncta early in infection. This is rapidly followed by a reduction in IFIX protein levels. Indeed, using immunoaffinity purification and mass spectrometry, we define IFIX interactions during HSV-1 infection, finding an association with a proteasome subunit and proteins involved in ubiquitin-proteasome processes. Using synchronized HSV-1 infection, microscopy, and proteasome-inhibition experiments, we demonstrate that IFIX co-localizes with nuclear proteasome puncta shortly after 3 h of infection and that its pyrin domain is rapidly degraded in a proteasome-dependent manner. We further demonstrate that, in contrast to several other host defense factors, IFIX degradation is not dependent on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the viral protein ICP0. However, we show IFIX degradation requires immediate-early viral gene expression, suggesting a viral host suppression mechanism. The IFIX interactome also demonstrated its association with transcriptional regulatory proteins, including the 5FMC complex. We validate this interaction using microscopy and reciprocal isolations and determine it is mediated by the IFIX HIN domain. Finally, we show IFIX suppresses immediate-early and early viral gene expression during infection. Altogether, our study demonstrates that IFIX antiviral

  3. The Anti-Inflammatory Cytokine Interleukin-19 Is Expressed in and Angiogenic for Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Surbhi; Gabunia, Khatuna; Kelemen, Sheri E.; Panetti, Tracee S.; Autieri, Michael V.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The expression and effects of anti-inflammatory interleukins on endothelial cell (EC) activation and development of angiogenesis is uncharacterized. The purpose of this study is to characterize the expression and function of Interleukin-19 (IL-19), a recently described Th2 anti-inflammatory interleukin on EC pathophysiology. METHODS and RESULTS We demonstrate by immunohistochemistry and immunoblot that IL-19 is expressed in inflamed, but not normal human coronary endothelium, and can be induced in cultured human EC by serum and bFGF. IL-19 is mitogenic, chemotactic, and promotes cell EC spreading. IL-19 activates the signaling proteins STAT3, p44/42, and Rac1. In functional ex vivo studies, IL-19 promotes cord-like structure formation of cultured EC and also enhances microvessel sprouting in the mouse aortic ring assay. IL-19 induces tube formation in matrigel plugs in vivo. CONCLUSIONS These data are the first to report expression of the anti-inflammatory interleukin IL-19 in EC, and the first to indicate that IL-19 is mitogenic and chemotactic for EC, and can induce the angiogenic potential of EC. PMID:20966397

  4. Enhanced barrier functions and anti-inflammatory effect of cultured coconut extract on human skin.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soomin; Jang, Ji Eun; Kim, Jihee; Lee, Young In; Lee, Dong Won; Song, Seung Yong; Lee, Ju Hee

    2017-08-01

    Natural plant oils have been used as a translational alternative to modern medicine. Particularly, virgin coconut oil (VCO) has gained popularity because of its potential benefits in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and cosmetic applications. Cultured coconut extract (CCE) is an alternative end product of VCO, which undergoes a further bacterial fermentation process. This study aimed to investigate the effects of CCE on human skin. We analyzed the expression of skin barrier molecules and collagens after applying CCE on human explanted skin. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory properties of CCE, the expression of inflammatory markers was analyzed after ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation. The CCE-treated group showed increased expression of cornified cell envelope components, which contribute to protective barrier functions of the stratum corneum. Further, the expression of inflammatory markers was lower in the CCE-treated group after exposure to UVB radiation. These results suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of CCE against UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. Additionally, the CCE-treated group showed increased collagen and hyaluronan synthase-3 expression. In our study, CCE showed a barrier-enhancing effect and anti-inflammatory properties against ex vivo UVB irradiation-induced inflammation. The promising effect of CCE may be attributed to its high levels of polyphenols and fatty acid components. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of embelin in A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Lee, In-Seung; Cho, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, Ki-Suk; Kim, Kang-Hoon; Park, Jiyoung; Kim, Yumi; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Kwanil; Jung, Hee-Jae; Jang, Hyeung-Jin

    2018-02-01

    Allergic asthma is the most common type in asthma, which is defined as a chronic inflammatory disease of the lung. In this study, we investigated whether embelin (Emb), the major component of Ardisia japonica BL. (AJB), exhibits anti-inflammatory effects on allergic asthma via inhibition of NF-κB activity using A549 cells and asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. Inflammation was induced in A549 cells, a human airway epithelial cell line, by IL-1β (10 ng/ml) treatment for 4 h. The effects of Emb on NF-κB activity and COX-2 protein expression in inflamed airway epithelial cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues were analyzed via western blot. The secretion levels of NF-κB-mediated cytokines/chemokines, including IL-4, 6, 9, 13, TNF-α and eotaxin, were measured by a multiplex assay. Emb significantly blocked NF-κB activity in IL-1β-treated A549 cells and human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues. COX-2 expression was also reduced in both IL-1β-treated A549 cells and asthmatic tissues Emb application. Emb significantly reduced the secretion of IL-4, IL-6 and eotaxin in human asthmatic airway epithelial tissues by inhibiting activity of NF-κB. The results of this study suggest that Emb may be used as an anti-inflammatory agent via inhibition of NF-κB and related cytokines.

  6. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of a Fully Human Anti-PDGFRβ Antibody That Suppresses Growth of Human Tumor Xenografts and Enhances Antitumor Activity of an Anti-VEGFR2 Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Juqun; Vil, Marie Danielle; Prewett, Marie; Damoci, Chris; Zhang, Haifan; Li, Huiling; Jimenez, Xenia; Deevi, Dhanvanthri S; Iacolina, Michelle; Kayas, Anthony; Bassi, Rajiv; Persaud, Kris; Rohoza-Asandi, Anna; Balderes, Paul; Loizos, Nick; Ludwig, Dale L; Tonra, James; Witte, Larry; Zhu, Zhenping

    2009-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor receptor β (PDGFRβ) is upregulated in most of solid tumors. It is expressed by pericytes/smooth muscle cells, fibroblast, macrophage, and certain tumor cells. Several PDGF receptor-related antagonists are being developed as potential antitumor agents and have demonstrated promising antitumor activity in both preclinical and clinical settings. Here, we produced a fully human neutralizing antibody, IMC-2C5, directed against PDGFRβ from an antibody phage display library. IMC-2C5 binds to both human and mouse PDGFRβ and blocks PDGF-B from binding to the receptor. IMC-2C5 also blocks ligand-stimulated activation of PDGFRβ and downstream signaling molecules in tumor cells. In animal studies, IMC-2C5 significantly delayed the growth of OVCAR-8 and NCI-H460 human tumor xenografts in nude mice but failed to show antitumor activities in OVCAR-5 and Caki-1 xenografts. Our results indicate that the antitumor efficacy of IMC-2C5 is primarily due to its effects on tumor stroma, rather than on tumor cells directly. Combination of IMC-2C5 and DC101, an anti-mouse vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 antibody, resulted in significantly enhanced antitumor activity in BxPC-3, NCI-H460, and HCT-116 xenografts, compared with DC101 alone, and the trend of additive effects to DC101 treatment in several other tumor models. ELISA analysis of NCI-H460 tumor homogenates showed that IMC-2C5 attenuated protein level of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor elevated by DC101 treatment. Finally, IMC-2C5 showed a trend of additive effects when combined with DC101/chemotherapy in MIA-PaCa-2 and NCI-H460 models. Taken together, these results lend great support to the use of PDGFRβ antagonists in combination with other antiangiogenic agents in the treatment of a broad range of human cancers. PMID:19484148

  8. In vitro effects of preserved and unpreserved anti-allergic drugs on human corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Aranguez, Ana; Calvo, Patricia; Ropero, Inés; Pintor, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Treatment with topical eye drops for long-standing ocular diseases like allergy can induce detrimental side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro cytotoxicity of commercially preserved and unpreserved anti-allergic eye drops on the viability and barrier function of monolayer and stratified human corneal-limbal epithelial cells. Cells were treated with unpreserved ketotifen solution, benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-containing anti-allergic drugs (ketotifen, olopatadine, levocabastine) as well as BAC alone. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine cell viability. Effects of compounds on barrier function were analyzed measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) to determine paracellular permeability and rose bengal assays to evaluate transcellular barrier formation. The BAC-preserved anti-allergic formulations and BAC alone significantly reduced cell viability, monolayer cultures being more sensitive to damage by these solutions. Unpreserved ketotifen induced the least diminution in cell viability. The extent of decrease of cell viability was clearly dependent of BAC presence, but it was also affected by the different types of drugs when the concentration of BAC was low and the short time of exposure. Treatment with BAC-containing anti-allergic drugs and BAC alone resulted in increased paracellular permeability and loss of transcellular barrier function as indicated by TEER measurement and rose bengal assays. The presence of the preservative BAC in anti-allergic eye drop formulations contributes importantly to the cytotoxic effects induced by these compounds. Stratified cell cultures seem to be a more relevant model for toxicity evaluation induced on the ocular surface epithelia than monolayer cultures.

  9. Potential Role for a Carbohydrate Moiety in Anti-Candida Activity of Human Oral Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Steele, Chad; Leigh, Janet; Swoboda, Rolf; Ozenci, Hatice; Fidel, Paul L.

    2001-01-01

    Candida albicans is both a commensal and a pathogen at the oral mucosa. Although an intricate network of host defense mechanisms are expected for protection against oropharyngeal candidiasis, anti-Candida host defense mechanisms at the oral mucosa are poorly understood. Our laboratory recently showed that primary epithelial cells from human oral mucosa, as well as an oral epithelial cell line, inhibit the growth of blastoconidia and/or hyphal phases of several Candida species in vitro with a requirement for cell contact and with no demonstrable role for soluble factors. In the present study, we show that oral epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity is resistant to gamma-irradiation and is not mediated by phagocytosis, nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, and superoxide oxidative inhibitory pathways or by nonoxidative components such as soluble defensin and calprotectin peptides. In contrast, epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity was sensitive to heat, paraformaldehyde fixation, and detergents, but these treatments were accompanied by a significant loss in epithelial cell viability. Treatments that removed existing membrane protein or lipid moieties in the presence or absence of protein synthesis inhibitors had no effect on epithelial cell inhibitory activity. In contrast, the epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity was abrogated after treatment of the epithelial cells with periodic acid, suggesting a role for carbohydrates. Adherence of C. albicans to oral epithelial cells was unaffected, indicating that the carbohydrate moiety is exclusively associated with the growth inhibition activity. Subsequent studies that evaluated specific membrane carbohydrate moieties, however, showed no role for sulfated polysaccharides, sialic acid residues, or glucose- and mannose-containing carbohydrates. These results suggest that oral epithelial cell-mediated anti-Candida activity occurs exclusively with viable epithelial cells through contact with C. albicans by

  10. In Vitro Effects of Preserved and Unpreserved Anti-Allergic Drugs on Human Corneal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Patricia; Ropero, Inés; Pintor, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Treatment with topical eye drops for long-standing ocular diseases like allergy can induce detrimental side effects. The purpose of this study was to investigate in vitro cytotoxicity of commercially preserved and unpreserved anti-allergic eye drops on the viability and barrier function of monolayer and stratified human corneal-limbal epithelial cells. Methods: Cells were treated with unpreserved ketotifen solution, benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-containing anti-allergic drugs (ketotifen, olopatadine, levocabastine) as well as BAC alone. 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine cell viability. Effects of compounds on barrier function were analyzed measuring transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) to determine paracellular permeability and rose bengal assays to evaluate transcellular barrier formation. Results: The BAC-preserved anti-allergic formulations and BAC alone significantly reduced cell viability, monolayer cultures being more sensitive to damage by these solutions. Unpreserved ketotifen induced the least diminution in cell viability. The extent of decrease of cell viability was clearly dependent of BAC presence, but it was also affected by the different types of drugs when the concentration of BAC was low and the short time of exposure. Treatment with BAC-containing anti-allergic drugs and BAC alone resulted in increased paracellular permeability and loss of transcellular barrier function as indicated by TEER measurement and rose bengal assays. Conclusions: The presence of the preservative BAC in anti-allergic eye drop formulations contributes importantly to the cytotoxic effects induced by these compounds. Stratified cell cultures seem to be a more relevant model for toxicity evaluation induced on the ocular surface epithelia than monolayer cultures. PMID:25100331

  11. Trans activation of plasmid-borne promoters by adenovirus and several herpes group viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Everett, R D; Dunlop, M

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes experiments to test the ability of a number of viruses of the Herpes group, and also Adenovirus-2 and SV40, to activate transcription from the Herpes simplex virus-1 glycoprotein D and the rabbit beta-globin promoters. Plasmids containing these genes were transfected into HeLa cells which were then infected with various viruses. Transcriptional activation in trans of the plasmid-borne promoters was monitored by quantitative S1 nuclease analysis of total cytoplasmic RNA isolated after infection. The results showed that Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Pseudorabies virus, Variella Zoster virus, Human Cytomegalovirus, Equine herpes virus-1 and Adenovirus-2 activate transcription from both promoters tested. In contrast, SV40 did not activate transcription in trans in this assay. The possible mechanisms of this activation are discussed. Images PMID:6089105

  12. A human anti-neuronal autoantibody against GABA B receptor induces experimental autoimmune agrypnia.

    PubMed

    Frisullo, Giovanni; Della Marca, Giacomo; Mirabella, Massimiliano; Caggiula, Marcella; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Rubino, Marco; Mennuni, Gioacchino; Tonali, Pietro Attilio; Batocchi, Anna Paola

    2007-04-01

    In the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with recurrent acute episodes of respiratory crises, autonomic symptoms and total insomnia (agrypnia), we identified a novel anti-neural complement fixing antibody directed against GABA(B) receptor (GABA(B)R). Patient purified IgG recognized a band of approximately 110 kDa on protein extracts of mouse cerebellum, cortex and brainstem and immunolabelled cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, transfected with human GABA(B)R1 and rat GABA(B)R2 receptors. Western blot analysis of transfected CHO homogenates showed the same band using both patient purified IgG and anti-GABA(B)R1 antibody. In order to verify the pathogenic role of these purified antibodies, we injected patient IgG intrathecally into cisterna magna of C57BL/6 mice pre-implanted with EEG electrodes and we observed severe ataxia followed by breathing depression and total suppression of slow wave sleep, as evidenced by EEG recording, in a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemistry on brain sections of mice injected with patient IgG showed the simultaneous presence of bound human IgG and C5b-9 deposits on Purkinje cells and cerebellar granular layer. After incubation with anti-GABA(B)R antibody, a marked reduction of receptor immunostaining was found with relative sparing of neuronal architecture. In conclusion we recognized an anti-neuronal autoantibody directed against GABA(B)R that is associated with autoimmune agrypnia and we showed that our patient purified IgG was able to induce in mice experimental autoimmune agrypnia characterized by a complex neurological syndrome affecting several CNS functions.

  13. Donor-Specific Anti-HLA Antibodies in Huntington's Disease Recipients of Human Fetal Striatal Grafts.

    PubMed

    Porfirio, Berardino; Paganini, Marco; Mazzanti, Benedetta; Bagnoli, Silvia; Bucciantini, Sandra; Ghelli, Elena; Nacmias, Benedetta; Putignano, Anna Laura; Rombolà, Giovanni; Saccardi, Riccardo; Lombardini, Letizia; Di Lorenzo, Nicola; Vannelli, Gabriella B; Gallina, Pasquale

    2015-01-01

    Fetal grafting in a human diseased brain was thought to be less immunogenic than other solid organ transplants, hence the minor impact on the efficacy of the transplant. How much prophylactic immune protection is required for neural allotransplantation is also debated. High-sensitive anti-HLA antibody screening in this field has never been reported. Sixteen patients with Huntington's disease underwent human fetal striatal transplantation in the frame of an open-label observational trial, which is being carried out at Florence University. All patients had both brain hemispheres grafted in two separate robotic-stereotactic procedures. The trial started in February 2006 with the first graft to the first patient (R1). R16 was given his second graft on March 2011. All patients received triple immunosuppressive treatment. Pre- and posttransplant sera were analyzed for the presence of anti-HLA antibodies using the multiplexed microsphere-based suspension array Luminex xMAP technology. Median follow-up was 38.5 months (range 13-85). Six patients developed anti-HLA antibodies, which turned out to be donor specific. Alloimmunization occurred in a time window of 0-49 months after the first neurosurgical procedure. The immunogenic determinants were non-self-epitopes from mismatched HLA antigens. These determinants were both public epitopes shared by two or more HLA molecules and private epitopes unique to individual HLA molecules. One patient had non-donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies in her pretransplant serum sample, possibly due to previous sensitization events. Although the clinical significance of donor-specific antibodies is far from being established, particularly in the setting of neuronal transplantation, these findings underline the need of careful pre- and posttransplant immunogenetic evaluation of patients with intracerebral grafts.

  14. In vivo immune signatures of healthy human pregnancy: Inherently inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Caroline; Chooniedass, Rishma; Stefura, William P.; Becker, Allan B.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Mandhane, Piush J.; Subbarao, Padmaja

    2017-01-01

    Changes in maternal innate immunity during healthy human pregnancy are not well understood. Whether basal immune status in vivo is largely unaffected by pregnancy, is constitutively biased towards an inflammatory phenotype (transiently enhancing host defense) or exhibits anti-inflammatory bias (reducing potential responsiveness to the fetus) is unclear. Here, in a longitudinal study of healthy women who gave birth to healthy infants following uncomplicated pregnancies within the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) cohort, we test the hypothesis that a progressively altered bias in resting innate immune status develops. Women were examined during pregnancy and again, one and/or three years postpartum. Most pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, including CCL2, CXCL10, IL-18 and TNFα, was reduced in vivo during pregnancy (20–57%, p<0.0001). Anti-inflammatory biomarkers (sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, and IL-1Ra) were elevated by ~50–100% (p<0.0001). Systemic IL-10 levels were unaltered during vs. post-pregnancy. Kinetic studies demonstrate that while decreased pro-inflammatory biomarker expression (CCL2, CXCL10, IL-18, and TNFα) was constant, anti-inflammatory expression increased progressively with increasing gestational age (p<0.0001). We conclude that healthy resting maternal immune status is characterized by an increasingly pronounced bias towards a systemic anti-inflammatory innate phenotype during the last two trimesters of pregnancy. This is resolved by one year postpartum in the absence of repeat pregnancy. The findings provide enhanced understanding of immunological changes that occur in vivo during healthy human pregnancy. PMID:28636613

  15. Interaction studies reveal specific recognition of an anti-inflammatory polyphosphorhydrazone dendrimer by human monocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledall, Jérémy; Fruchon, Séverine; Garzoni, Matteo; Pavan, Giovanni M.; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Turrin, Cédric-Olivier; Blanzat, Muriel; Poupot, Rémy

    2015-10-01

    Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti-inflammatory properties leading to efficient therapeutic control of inflammatory diseases in animal models. These properties are mainly prompted through activation of monocytes. Here, we disclose new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory activation of human monocytes by ABP-capped PPH dendrimers. Following an interdisciplinary approach, we have characterized the physicochemical and biological behavior of the lead ABP dendrimer with model and cell membranes, and compared this experimental set of data to predictive computational modelling studies. The behavior of the ABP dendrimer was compared to the one of an isosteric analog dendrimer capped with twelve azabiscarboxylate (ABC) end groups instead of twelve ABP end groups. The ABC dendrimer displayed no biological activity on human monocytes, therefore it was considered as a negative control. In detail, we show that the ABP dendrimer can bind both non-specifically and specifically to the membrane of human monocytes. The specific binding leads to the internalization of the ABP dendrimer by human monocytes. On the contrary, the ABC dendrimer only interacts non-specifically with human monocytes and is not internalized. These data indicate that the bioactive ABP dendrimer is recognized by specific receptor(s) at the surface of human monocytes.Dendrimers are nano-materials with perfectly defined structure and size, and multivalency properties that confer substantial advantages for biomedical applications. Previous work has shown that phosphorus-based polyphosphorhydrazone (PPH) dendrimers capped with azabisphosphonate (ABP) end groups have immuno-modulatory and anti

  16. Characterizing interspecies uncertainty using data from studies of anti-neoplastic agents in animals and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Price, Paul S.; Keenan, Russell E.; Swartout, Jeffrey C.

    For most chemicals, the Reference Dose (RfD) is based on data from animal testing. The uncertainty introduced by the use of animal models has been termed interspecies uncertainty. The magnitude of the differences between the toxicity of a chemical in humans and test animals and its uncertainty can be investigated by evaluating the inter-chemical variation in the ratios of the doses associated with similar toxicological endpoints in test animals and humans. This study performs such an evaluation on a data set of 64 anti-neoplastic drugs. The data set provides matched responses in humans and four species of test animals: mice,more » rats, monkeys, and dogs. While the data have a number of limitations, the data show that when the drugs are evaluated on a body weight basis: 1) toxicity generally increases with a species' body weight; however, humans are not always more sensitive than test animals; 2) the animal to human dose ratios were less than 10 for most, but not all, drugs; 3) the current practice of using data from multiple species when setting RfDs lowers the probability of having a large value for the ratio. These findings provide insight into inter-chemical variation in animal to human extrapolations and suggest the need for additional collection and analysis of matched toxicity data in humans and test animals.« less

  17. Herpes virus seroepidemiology in the adult Swedish population.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Jan; Kok, Eloise; Adolfsson, Rolf; Lövheim, Hugo; Elgh, Fredrik

    2017-01-01

    Herpes viruses establish a life-long latency and can cause symptoms during both first-time infection and later reactivation. The aim of the present study was to describe the seroepidemiology of Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV1), Herpes simplex type 2 (HSV2), Cytomegalovirus (CMV), Varicella Zoster virus (VZV) and Human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6) in an adult Swedish population (35-95 years of age). Presence of antibodies against the respective viruses in serum from individuals in the Betula study was determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Singular samples from 535 persons (53.9% women, mean age at inclusion 62.7 ± 14.4 years) collected 2003-2005 were analyzed for the five HHVs mentioned above. In addition, samples including follow-up samples collected 1988-2010 from 3,444 persons were analyzed for HSV. Prevalence of HSV1 was 79.4%, HSV2 12.9%, CMV 83.2%, VZV 97.9%, and HHV6 97.5%. Herpes virus infections were more common among women ( p  = 0.010) and a lower age-adjusted HSV seroprevalence was found in later birth cohorts ( p  < 0.001). The yearly incidence of HSV infection was estimated at 14.0/1000. Women are more often seropositive for HHV, especially HSV2. Age-adjusted seroprevalence for HSV was lower in later birth cohorts indicating a decreasing childhood and adolescent risk of infection.

  18. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease.

  19. Optimal management of genital herpes: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    As one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases, genital herpes is a global medical problem with significant physical and psychological morbidity. Genital herpes is caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary and/or recurrent infection. This manuscript provides an overview about the fundamental knowledge on the virus, its epidemiology, and infection. Furthermore, the current possibilities of antiviral therapeutic interventions and laboratory diagnosis of genital herpes as well as the present situation and perspectives for the treatment by novel antivirals and prevention of disease by vaccination are presented. Since the medical management of patients with genital herpes simplex virus infection is often unsatisfactory, this review aims at all physicians and health professionals who are involved in the care of patients with genital herpes. The information provided would help to improve the counseling of affected patients and to optimize the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of this particular disease. PMID:27358569

  20. Herpes folliculitis masquerading as cutaneous lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Bae-Harboe, Yoon-Soo C; Bhawan, Jag; Demierre, Marie-France; Goldberg, Lynne J

    2013-08-01

    Herpes virus infections presenting as folliculitis are uncommon. We describe a 48-year-old white man with a distant history of a childhood gastric lymphoma and renal cell carcinoma presenting with an itchy eruption. He was concerned about recurrence. A punch biopsy revealed interface dermatitis with a dense atypical superficial and deep perivascular and periadnexal lymphohistiocytic infiltrate with occasional eosinophils extending to the subcutis, with destruction of vessel walls. It was composed of predominantly CD3-positive lymphocytes with scattered CD56-positive cells and CD20-positive cells, concerning for lymphoma. A T-cell gene rearrangement study was negative. Deeper sections uncovered multinucleated giant keratinocytes in the follicular epithelium of 1 hair follicle, consistent with herpes folliculitis. Cutaneous herpes infections can exhibit several variable clinical and histopathological features. Knowledge of alternative presentations of herpes infections, histological clues to the presence of herpes infections, and careful clinicopathological correlation are necessary to differentiate herpes infections from cutaneous lymphomas and other inflammatory dermatoses.

  1. First human study of a chimeric anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Misty W; Henry, Ralph L; Owens, S Michael; Schutz, Ralph; Gentry, W Brooks

    2014-01-01

    This first-in-human study examined the safety and pharmacokinetics of ch-mAb7F9, an anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody, in healthy volunteers. Single, escalating doses of ch-mAb7F9 over the range of 0.2 to 20 mg/kg were administered to 42 subjects who were followed for 147 d. Safety was measured by physical examinations, adverse events, vital signs, electrocardiograms, and clinical laboratory testing. Serum ch-mAb7F9 concentration and immunogenicity analyses were performed. There were no serious adverse reactions or discontinuations from the study due to adverse events. No trends emerged in the frequency, relatedness, or severity of adverse events with increased dose or between active and placebo treated subjects. Ch-mAb7F9 displayed expected IgG pharmacokinetic parameters, including a half-life of 17-19 d in the 3 highest dose groups and volume of distribution of 5-6 L, suggesting the antibody is confined primarily to the vascular compartment. Four (12.5%) of the 32 subjects receiving ch-mAb7F9 were confirmed to have developed a human anti-chimeric antibody response by the end of the study; however, this response did not appear to be dose related. Overall, no apparent safety or tolerability concerns were identified; a maximum tolerated dose was not reached in this Phase 1 study. Ch-mAb7F9 therefore appears safe for human administration.

  2. α-Mangostin: Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Metabolism by Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Orozco, Fabiola; Chitchumroonchokchai, Chureeporn; Lesinski, Gregory B.; Suksamrarn, Sunit; Failla, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    Information about the anti-inflammatory activity and metabolism of α-mangostin (α-MG), the most abundant xanthone in mangosteen fruit, in human cells is limited. On the basis of available literature, we hypothesized that α-MG will inhibit the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators by control and activated macrophage-like THP-1, hepatic HepG2, enterocyte-like Caco-2, and colon HT-29 human cell lines, as well as primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM), and that such activity would be influenced by the extent of metabolism of the xanthone. α-MG attenuated TNF-α and IL-8 secretion by the various cell lines but increased TNF-α output by both quiescent and LPS-treated MDM. The relative amounts of free and phase II metabolites of α-MG and other xanthones present in media 24 h after addition of α-MG was shown to vary by cell type and inflammatory insult. Increased transport of xanthones and their metabolites across Caco-2 cell monolayers suggests enhanced absorption during an inflammatory episode. The anti-inflammatory activities of xanthones and their metabolites in different tissues merit consideration. PMID:23578285

  3. Anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of resveratrol nanoethosomes against human HepG2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Zhen; Chen, Tong-sheng; Wang, Yi-fei; Wang, Zhi-ping

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Resveratrol (Res) has been widely investigated with its strong anti-tumor activity. However, its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this study, we prepared resveratrol nanoethosomes (ResN) via ethanol injection method. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of ResN relative to efficacy of bulk Res were evaluated on proliferation and apoptosis of human HepG2 cells. ResN were spherical vesicles and its particle diameter, zeta potential were (115.8 +/- 1.3) nm and (-12.8 +/- 1.9) mV, respectively. ResN exhibited significant inhibitory effects against human HepG2 cells by MTT assay, and the IC50 value was 49.2 μg/ml (105.4 μg/ml of Res bulk solution). By flow cytometry assay, there was an increase in G2/M phase cells treated with ResN. The results demonstrated ResN could effectively block the G2/M phase of HepG2 cells, which can also enhance the inhibitory effect of Res against HepG2 cells.

  4. No. 207-Genital Herpes: Gynaecological Aspects.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah; Steben, Marc

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this guideline is to provide recommendations to gynaecology health care providers on optimal management of genital herpes. More effective prevention of complications and transmission of genital herpes. Medline was searched for articles published in French and English related to genital herpes and gynaecology. Additional articles were identified through the references of these articles. All study types and recommendation reports were reviewed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells in uveitis.

    PubMed

    Bermudez, Maria A; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Seoane, Samuel; Eiro, Noemi; Gonzalez, Francisco; Saa, Jorge; Vizoso, Francisco; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESCs) in uveitis. To do that, uveitis was induced in rats after footpad injection of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccaride (LPS). Human retinal pigment epithelial (ARPE-19) cells after LPS challenge were used to test anti-inflammatory effect of CM-hUCESCs 'ìn vitro'. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interkeukin-6, interkeukin-8, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and the anti-inflammatory interkeukin-10. Leucocytes from aqueous humor (AqH) were quantified in a Neubauer chamber, and eye histopathological analysis was done with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Additionally, using a human cytokine antibody array we evaluated CM-hUCESCs to determine mediating proteins. Results showed that administration of CM-hUCESCs significantly reduced LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines both 'in vitro' and 'in vivo', and decreased leucocytes in AqH and ocular tissues. High levels of cytokines with anti-inflammatory effects were found in CM-hUCESCs, suggesting a possible role of these factors in reducing intraocular inflammation. In summary, treatment with CM-hUCESCs significantly reduces inflammation in uveitis. Our data indicate that CM-hUCESCs could be regarded as a potential therapeutic agent for patients suffering from ocular inflammation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Predominant antitumor effects by fully human anti-TRAIL-receptor2 (DR5) monoclonal antibodies in human glioma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nagane, Motoo; Shimizu, Saki; Mori, Eiji; Kataoka, Shiro; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2010-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor–related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL/Apo2 L) preferentially induces apoptosis in human tumor cells through its cognate death receptors DR4 or DR5, thereby being investigated as a potential agent for cancer therapy. Here, we applied fully human anti-human TRAIL receptor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to specifically target one of death receptors for TRAIL in human glioma cells, which could also reduce potential TRAIL-induced toxicity in humans. Twelve human glioma cell lines treated with several fully human anti-human TRAIL receptor mAbs were sensitive to only anti-DR5 mAbs, whereas they were totally insensitive to anti-DR4 mAb. Treatment with anti-DR5 mAbs exerted rapid cytotoxicity and lead to apoptosis induction. The cellular sensitivity was closely associated with cell-surface expression of DR5. Expression of c-FLIPL, Akt, and Cyclin D1 significantly correlated with sensitivity to anti-DR5 mAbs. Primary cultures of glioma cells were also relatively resistant to anti-DR5 mAbs, exhibiting both lower DR5 and higher c-FLIPL expression. Downregulation of c-FLIPL expression resulted in the sensitization of human glioma cells to anti-DR5 mAbs, whereas overexpression of c-FLIPL conferred resistance to anti-DR5 mAb. Treatment of tumor-burden nude mice with the direct agonist anti-DR5 mAb KMTR2 significantly suppressed growth of subcutaneous glioma xenografts leading to complete regression. Similarly, treatment of nude mice bearing intracerebral glioma xenografts with KMTR2 significantly elongated lifespan without tumor recurrence. These results suggest that DR5 is the predominant TRAIL receptor mediating apoptotic signals in human glioma cells, and sensitivity to anti-DR5 mAbs was determined at least in part by the expression level of c-FLIPL and Akt. Specific targeting of death receptor pathway through DR5 using fully human mAbs might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for intractable malignant gliomas. PMID:20511188

  7. Molecular basis of retinol anti-ageing properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shao, Y; He, T; Fisher, G J; Voorhees, J J; Quan, T

    2017-02-01

    Retinoic acid has been shown to improve the aged-appearing skin. However, less is known about the anti-ageing effects of retinol (ROL, vitamin A), a precursor of retinoic acid, in aged human skin in vivo. This study aimed to investigate the molecular basis of ROL anti-ageing properties in naturally aged human skin in vivo. Sun-protected buttock skin (76 ± 6 years old, n = 12) was topically treated with 0.4% ROL and its vehicle for 7 days. The effects of topical ROL on skin epidermis and dermis were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, Northern analysis, real-time RT-PCR and Western analysis. Collagen fibrils nanoscale structure and surface topology were analysed by atomic force microscopy. Topical ROL shows remarkable anti-ageing effects through three major types of skin cells: epidermal keratinocytes, dermal endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Topical ROL significantly increased epidermal thickness by stimulating keratinocytes proliferation and upregulation of c-Jun transcription factor. In addition to epidermal changes, topical ROL significantly improved dermal extracellular matrix (ECM) microenvironment; increasing dermal vascularity by stimulating endothelial cells proliferation and ECM production (type I collagen, fibronectin and elastin) by activating dermal fibroblasts. Topical ROL also stimulates TGF-β/CTGF pathway, the major regulator of ECM homeostasis, and thus enriched the deposition of ECM in aged human skin in vivo. 0.4% topical ROL achieved similar results as seen with topical retinoic acid, the biologically active form of ROL, without causing noticeable signs of retinoid side effects. 0.4% topical ROL shows remarkable anti-ageing effects through improvement of the homeostasis of epidermis and dermis by stimulating the proliferation of keratinocytes and endothelial cells, and activating dermal fibroblasts. These data provide evidence that 0.4% topical ROL is a promising and safe treatment to improve the naturally aged human skin

  8. Education for Humanism in a Pro-White, Anti-Black Society

    PubMed Central

    Butts, Hugh F.

    1979-01-01

    Humanism has been defined as “any system or way of thought or action concerned with the interests and ideals of people.” Racism has been defined as “pro-white, anti-black paranoia.” This paper treats the factors in the American racist society that serve to erode humanistic values. This erosion is especially pronounced in a racist, capitalistic society that subjugates blacks and engages in exploitation based on profit-making. The author poses six hypotheses that define the problems, implicit in which reside solutions. PMID:529313

  9. Generating protective immunity against genital herpes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be critical in limiting the spread of disease. In this review, we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. PMID:24012144

  10. Disease burden of herpes zoster in Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won Suk; Noh, Ji Yun; Huh, Joong Yeon; Jo, Yu Mi; Lee, Jacob; Song, Joon Young; Kim, Woo Joo; Cheong, Hee Jin

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of herpes zoster can deteriorate the quality of life considerably, resulting in high disease burden. While Korea is assumed to have high disease burden of herpes zoster, there has been no researches analyzing this. We performed this study to investigate the disease burden of herpes zoster in the Korean population as a whole. We used the database of the Health Insurance Review & Assessment Service of Korea and analyzed the data of patients who had herpes zoster as a principal diagnosis during the period from 2003 to 2007. We investigated the annual prevalence, rate of clinical visits, rate of hospitalization, and the pattern of medical services use. The socioeconomic burden of herpes zoster was calculated by a conversion into cost. Rates of clinic visits and hospitalizations due to herpes zoster during the 5-year period from 2003 to 2007 were 7.93-12.54 per 1000 population and 0.22-0.32 per 1000 population, respectively. Prevalence rates according to age increased sharply after 50 years and reached a peak at 70 years. The total socioeconomic cost of herpes zoster was $75.9-143.8 million per year, increasing every year by 14-20%. There is a heavy socioeconomic burden due to herpes zoster in Korea and indicate that appropriate policies need to be established to reduce this burden. Additional researches are also necessary to assess the safety, efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a herpes zoster vaccine in the Korean population. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Herpes simplex virus following stab phlebectomy.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Caitlin W; Lum, Ying Wei; Heller, Jennifer A

    2017-03-01

    Herpes simplex virus infection following surgery is an unusual postoperative phenomenon. Many mechanisms have been suggested, with the most likely explanation related to latent virus reactivation due to a proinflammatory response in the setting of local trauma. Here, we present a case of herpes simplex virus reactivation in an immunocompetent female following a conventional right lower extremity stab phlebectomy. Salient clinical and physical examination findings are described, and management strategies for herpes simplex virus reactivation are outlined. This is the first known case report of herpes simplex virus reactivation following lower extremity phlebectomy.

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of fisetin in human gingival fibroblasts treated with lipopolysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Venegas, Gloria; Contreras-Sánchez, Anabel; Ventura-Arroyo, Jairo Agustín

    2014-10-01

    Fisetin is an anti-inflammatory flavonoid; however, its anti-inflammatory mechanism is not yet understood. In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of fisetin and its association with mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-beta pathways in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) obtained from Porphyromonas gingivalis. The cell signaling, cell viability, and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression of HGFs treated with various concentrations (0, 1, 5, 10, and 15 μM) of fisetin were measured by cell viability assay (MTT), Western blotting, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis on COX-2. We found that fisetin significantly reduced the synthesis and expression of prostaglandin E2 in HGFs treated with LPS. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 MAPK was suppressed consistently by fisetin in HGFs treated with LPS. The data indicate that fisetin inhibits MAPK activation and COX-2 expression without affecting cell viability. These findings may be valuable for understanding the mechanism of the effect of fisetin on periodontal disease.

  13. Persistence in herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed Central

    Longson, M.

    1978-01-01

    Diseases of man caused by the virus of herpes simplex fall into two broad categories. The primary disease occurs only once in any individual's life and is caused by transmission of virus from an already infected human. Thereafter, the individual may be subject to recurrent herpetic disease, the manifestations of which are different from the primary disease. Recurrent disease varies in severity from trivial, to incapacitating and frankly lethal (as in diseases resulting from the virus's neurotropic and oncogenic properties). The source of the virus in recurrent herpetic disease has never been conclusively resolved, but is almost certainly endogenous to the patient. Theories, case reports and experiments exist to show that endogenous virus may, in periods of clinical quiescence, be latent (or persistent) at the site of the recurrent lesions itself, or more remotely in nerve tissues related to the site of recurrence. Images Fig. 1 PMID:214773

  14. Resveratrol glucuronides as the metabolites of resveratrol in humans: characterization, synthesis, and anti-HIV activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai-Xi; Heredia, Alonso; Song, Haijing; Zhang, Zhaojun; Yu, Biao; Davis, Charles; Redfield, Robert

    2004-10-01

    Resveratrol is a natural product with diverse biological activities. We have previously reported that resveratrol possesses potent synergistic inhibitory activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection in combination with nucleoside analogs (Heredia et al. 2000. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 25:246-255). As a part of our program in developing resveratrol as a component for anti-HIV chemotherapy, we describe in this article the characterization, chemical synthesis, and biological effects of the human metabolites of resveratrol. We found that resveratrol was metabolized in humans into two metabolites, which were characterized as resveratrol-3-O- and 4'-O-glucuronides. For further biological studies, we reported two simple, alternative methods for the synthesis of the metabolites. The cytotoxic and antiviral activities of resveratrol and its metabolites were compared in cell culture experiments using human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Whereas resveratrol was cytotoxic at > or =30 microM, no cytotoxicity was observed for the metabolites at concentrations as high as 300 microM. However, resveratrol showed strong synergistic anti-HIV activity with didanosine at 10 microM, but no synergistic effects were observed for either of the metabolites at up to 300 microM. Nevertheless, the in vitro activity of the metabolites (resveratrol glucuronides) may not necessarily reflect their in vivo function, given the fact that the ubiquitously existing human beta-glucuronidase could convert the metabolites back to resveratrol locally or systematically in vivo. The present studies have implications for future development of resveratrol and/or its derivatives as a chemotherapeutic agent. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  15. Prevention strategies for herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Gershon, Anne A.; Dworkin, Robert H.; Brisson, Marc; Stanberry, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY Impairment of varicella zoster virus (VZV)-specific cell-mediated immunity, including impairment due to immunosenescence, is associated with an increased risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ), whereas levels of anti-VZV antibodies do not correlate with HZ risk. This crucial role of VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity suggests that boosting these responses by vaccination will be an effective strategy for reducing the burden of HZ. Other strategies focus on preventing the major complication of HZ – post-herpetic neuralgia. These strategies include pre-emptive treatment with drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants, anticonvulsants and analgesics. PMID:20510262

  16. Helicase-primase inhibitor amenamevir for herpesvirus infection: Towards practical application for treating herpes zoster.

    PubMed

    Shiraki, K

    2017-11-01

    Valacyclovir and famciclovir enabled successful systemic therapy for treating herpes simplex virus (HSV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection by their phosphorylation with viral thymidine kinase. Helicase-primase inhibitors (HPIs) inhibit the progression of the replication fork, an initial step in DNA synthesis to separate the double strand into two single strands. The HPIs amenamevir and pritelivir have a novel mechanism of action, once-daily administration with nonrenal excretory characteristics, and clinical efficacy for genital herpes. Amenamevir exhibits anti-VZV and anti-HSV activity while pritelivir only has anti-HSV activity. A clinical trial of amenamevir for herpes zoster has been completed, and amenamevir has been licensed and successfully used in 20,000 patients with herpes zoster so far in Japan. We have characterized the features of the antiviral action of amenamevir and, unlike acyclovir, the drug's antiviral activity is not influenced by the viral replication cycle. Amenamevir is opening a new era of antiherpes therapy. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  17. Anti-glycation and anti-oxidative effects of a phenolic-enriched maple syrup extract and its protective effects on normal human colon cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weixi; Wei, Zhengxi; Ma, Hang; Cai, Ang; Liu, Yongqiang; Sun, Jiadong; DaSilva, Nicholas A; Johnson, Shelby L; Kirschenbaum, Louis J; Cho, Bongsup P; Dain, Joel A; Rowley, David C; Shaikh, Zahir A; Seeram, Navindra P

    2017-02-22

    Oxidative stress and free radical generation accelerate the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) which are linked to several chronic diseases. Published data suggest that phenolic-rich plant foods, show promise as natural anti-AGEs agents due to their anti-oxidation capacities. A phenolic-enriched maple syrup extract (MSX) has previously been reported to show anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects but its anti-AGE effects remain unknown. Therefore, herein, we investigated the anti-glycation and anti-oxidation effects of MSX using biochemical and biophysical methods. MSX (500 μg mL -1 ) reduced the formation of AGEs by 40% in the bovine serum albumin (BSA)-fructose assay and by 30% in the BSA-methylglyoxal (MGO) assay. MSX also inhibited the formation of crosslinks typically seen in the late stage of glycation. Circular dichroism and differential scanning calorimeter analyses demonstrated that MSX maintained the structure of BSA during glycation. In the anti-oxidant assays, MSX (61.7 μg mL -1 ) scavenged 50% of free radicals (DPPH assay) and reduced free radical generation by 20% during the glycation process (electron paramagnetic resonance time scan). In addition, the intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide induced reactive oxygen species were reduced by 27-58% with MSX (50-200 μg mL -1 ) in normal/non-tumorigenic human colon CCD-18Co cells. Moreover, in AGEs and MGO challenged CCD-18Co cells, higher cellular viabilities and rapid extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation were observed in MSX treated cells, indicating its protective effects against AGEs-induced cytotoxicity. Overall, this study supports the biological effects of MSX, and warrants further investigation of its potential as a dietary agent against diseases mediated by oxidative stress and inflammation.

  18. Anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of the polyphenol curcumin on human fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

    PubMed

    Kloesch, Burkhard; Becker, Tatjana; Dietersdorfer, Elisabeth; Kiener, Hans; Steiner, Guenter

    2013-02-01

    It has recently been reported that the polyphenol curcumin has pronounced anti-carcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties. This study investigated possible anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of curcumin on the human synovial fibroblast cell line MH7A, and on fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) derived from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). MH7A cells and RA-FLS were stimulated either with interleukin (IL)-1β or phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), and treated simultaneously or sequentially with increasing concentrations of curcumin. Release of interleukin (IL)-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). In MH7A cells, modulation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) such as p38 and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) were analysed by a reporter gene assay and Western blot, respectively. Pro-apoptotic events were monitored by Annexin-V/7-AAD based assay. Cleavage of pro-caspase-3 and -7 was checked with specific antibodies. Curcumin effectively blocked IL-1β and PMA-induced IL-6 expression both in MH7A cells and RA-FLS. VEGF-A expression could only be detected in RA-FLS and was induced by PMA, but not by IL-1β. Furthermore, curcumin inhibited activation of NF-κB and induced dephosphorylation of ERK1/2. Treatment of FLS with high concentrations of curcumin was associated with a decrease in cell viability and induction of apoptosis. The natural compound curcumin represents strong anti-inflammatory properties and induces apoptosis in FLS. This study provides an insight into possible molecular mechanisms of this substance and suggests it as a natural remedy for the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases like RA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-idiotypic antibodies to poliovirus antibodies in commercial immunoglobulin preparations, human serum, and milk.

    PubMed

    Hahn-Zoric, M; Carlsson, B; Jeansson, S; Ekre, H P; Osterhaus, A D; Roberton, D; Hanson, L A

    1993-05-01

    Our previous studies have suggested that fetal antibody production can be induced by maternal antiidiotypic antibodies transferred to the fetus via the placenta. We tested commercial Ig, sera, and milk for the presence of anti-idiotypic antibodies to poliovirus type 1, using affinity chromatography combined with ELISA systems and virus neutralization techniques. Our results indicate that commercial Ig, serum, and milk samples contain antibodies recognizing idiotypic determinants on antibodies to poliovirus. Several lines of evidence support this conclusion. Thus, in an ELISA with poliovirus as a solid phase, binding of specific antibodies could be inhibited by addition of an eluate from the Ig preparation containing anti-idiotypic antibodies against poliovirus type 1. Also, antiidiotypic antibodies from pooled human Ig, serum, and colostrum samples against poliovirus bound directly to solid-phase-attached MAb against poliovirus type 1. In addition, in a competitive inhibition ELISA, where antiidiotypic antibodies isolated from the Ig preparation competed with the poliovirus antigen for binding to monoclonal or polyclonal idiotypic antibodies on the solid phase, inhibition of antigen binding was seen at low antigen concentrations. When single-donor serum or milk was used, this inhibition was even more pronounced and could be demonstrated at almost all antigen concentrations. The finding that anti-idiotypes are present in maternal serum and milk imply, in agreement with our previous studies, that anti-idiotypes may actively induce a specific immune response in the fetus without previous exposure to the antigen by being transferred across the placenta or by being passively transferred to the newborn via mother's milk.

  20. Targeted Proteomics to Assess the Response to Anti-Angiogenic Treatment in Human Glioblastoma (GBM).

    PubMed

    Demeure, Kevin; Fack, Fred; Duriez, Elodie; Tiemann, Katja; Bernard, Amandine; Golebiewska, Anna; Bougnaud, Sébastien; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Domon, Bruno; Niclou, Simone P

    2016-02-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive primary brain tumor with dismal outcome for affected patients. Because of the significant neo-angiogenesis exhibited by GBMs, anti-angiogenic therapies have been intensively evaluated during the past years. Recent clinical studies were however disappointing, although a subpopulation of patients may benefit from such treatment. We have previously shown that anti-angiogenic targeting in GBM increases hypoxia and leads to a metabolic adaptation toward glycolysis, suggesting that combination treatments also targeting the glycolytic phenotype may be effective in GBM patients. The aim of this study was to identify marker proteins that are altered by treatment and may serve as a short term readout of anti-angiogenic therapy. Ultimately such proteins could be tested as markers of efficacy able to identify patient subpopulations responsive to the treatment. We applied a proteomics approach based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to precisely quantify targeted protein candidates, selected from pathways related to metabolism, apoptosis and angiogenesis. The workflow was developed in the context of patient-derived intracranial GBM xenografts developed in rodents and ensured the specific identification of human tumor versus rodent stroma-derived proteins. Quality control experiments were applied to assess sample heterogeneity and reproducibility of SRM assays at different levels. The data demonstrate that tumor specific proteins can be precisely quantified within complex biological samples, reliably identifying small concentration differences induced by the treatment. In line with previous work, we identified decreased levels of TCA cycle enzymes, including isocitrate dehydrogenase, whereas malectin, calnexin, and lactate dehydrogenase A were augmented after treatment. We propose the most responsive proteins of our subset as potential novel biomarkers to assess treatment response after anti-angiogenic therapy that warrant future

  1. Targeted Proteomics to Assess the Response to Anti-Angiogenic Treatment in Human Glioblastoma (GBM)*

    PubMed Central

    Demeure, Kevin; Fack, Fred; Duriez, Elodie; Tiemann, Katja; Bernard, Amandine; Golebiewska, Anna; Bougnaud, Sébastien; Bjerkvig, Rolf; Domon, Bruno; Niclou, Simone P.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a highly aggressive primary brain tumor with dismal outcome for affected patients. Because of the significant neo-angiogenesis exhibited by GBMs, anti-angiogenic therapies have been intensively evaluated during the past years. Recent clinical studies were however disappointing, although a subpopulation of patients may benefit from such treatment. We have previously shown that anti-angiogenic targeting in GBM increases hypoxia and leads to a metabolic adaptation toward glycolysis, suggesting that combination treatments also targeting the glycolytic phenotype may be effective in GBM patients. The aim of this study was to identify marker proteins that are altered by treatment and may serve as a short term readout of anti-angiogenic therapy. Ultimately such proteins could be tested as markers of efficacy able to identify patient subpopulations responsive to the treatment. We applied a proteomics approach based on selected reaction monitoring (SRM) to precisely quantify targeted protein candidates, selected from pathways related to metabolism, apoptosis and angiogenesis. The workflow was developed in the context of patient-derived intracranial GBM xenografts developed in rodents and ensured the specific identification of human tumor versus rodent stroma-derived proteins. Quality control experiments were applied to assess sample heterogeneity and reproducibility of SRM assays at different levels. The data demonstrate that tumor specific proteins can be precisely quantified within complex biological samples, reliably identifying small concentration differences induced by the treatment. In line with previous work, we identified decreased levels of TCA cycle enzymes, including isocitrate dehydrogenase, whereas malectin, calnexin, and lactate dehydrogenase A were augmented after treatment. We propose the most responsive proteins of our subset as potential novel biomarkers to assess treatment response after anti-angiogenic therapy that warrant future

  2. The effect of cryopreservation on anti-cancer activity of human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Modaresifar, Khashayar; Azizian, Sara; Zolghadr, Maryam; Moravvej, Hamideh; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Niknejad, Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Human amniotic membrane (AM) is an appropriate candidate for treatment of cancer due to special properties, such as inhibition of angiogenesis and secretion of pro-apoptotic factors. This research was designed to evaluate the impact of cryopreservation on cancer cell death induction and anti-angiogenic properties of the AM. Cancer cells were treated with fresh and cryopreserved amniotic condition medium during 24 h and cancer cell viability was determined by MTT assay. To evaluate angiogenesis, the rat aorta ring assay was performed for both fresh and cryopreserved AM within 7 days. In addition, four anti-angiogenic factors Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 and 2 (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2), Thrombospondin, and Endostatin were measured by ELISA assay before and after cryopreservation. The results showed that the viability of cultured cancer cells dose-dependently decreased after treatment with condition medium of fresh and cryopreserved tissue and no significant difference was observed between the fresh and cryopreserved AM. The results revealed that the amniotic epithelial stem cells inhibit the penetration of fibroblast-like cells and angiogenesis. Moreover, the penetration of fibroblast-like cells in both epithelial and mesenchymal sides of fresh and cryopreserved AM was observed after removing of epithelial cells. The cryopreservation procedure significantly decreased anti-angiogenic factors TIMP-1, TIMP-2, Thrombospondin, and Endostatin which shows that angio-modulatory property is not fully dependent on proteomic and metabolomic profiles of the AM. These promising results demonstrate that cancer cell death induction and anti-angiogenic properties of the AM were maintained within cryopreservation; a procedure which can circumvent limitations of the fresh AM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hereditary orotic aciduria, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, and xeroderma pigmentosum probed by herpes simplex virus: /sup 125/I-iododeoxycytidine incorporation as an assay for viral growth. [Human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, J.; Hafner, J.; Boorstein, R.

    /sup 125/I-Iododeoxycytidine (/sup 125/IdC) incorporation into acid-insoluble material was a sensitive, rapid, and quantitative assay for the growth of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in human fibroblasts. Cellular utilization of the isotope was 10 to 25% of the incorporation by infected cells and could be 80% inhibited by tetrahydrouridine (THU). Viral utilization was inhibited by acycloguanosine, thioguanine (TG), and cytosine arabinoside. Isotope was incorporated equally well by growing or quiescent infected cells. HSV-1 was used to probe the metabolic capabilities of three mutant human fibroblast strains. /sup 125/IdC incorporation quantitatively measured the ability of the virus to grow inmore » these cells. Viral /sup 125/IdC incorporation was sensitive to TG in normal fibroblasts but showed a 8- to 10-fold greater resistance to TG in fibroblasts derived from patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LN). Similarly, the growth of ultraviolet irradiated HSV-1 in normal fibroblasts was 5-fold greater than in fibroblasts derived from patients with xeroderma pigmentosum. In fibroblasts derived from patients with hereditary orotic aciduria, viral /sup 125/IdC incorporation was sensitive to adenosine (AD) at concentrations which were slightly stimulatory in normal fibroblasts. This was a 2-fold difference in AD sensitivity, which the radioassay reliably and quantitatively documented. HSV-1 infected cells could be individually identified by their incorporated /sup 125/IdC; such cells had blackened nuclei in autoradiograms prepared 12 hr after infection. Normal cells infected in the presence of TG had many fewer labeled nuclei than LN cells similarly infected in the presence of the drug. (JMT)« less

  4. Disabled infectious single cycle herpes simplex virus (DISC-HSV) is a candidate vector system for gene delivery/expression of GM-CSF in human prostate cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Richard J; Mian, Shahid; Bishop, Michael C; Gray, Trevor; Li, Geng; McArdle, Stephanie E B; Ali, Selman; Rees, Robert C

    2003-06-15

    DISC-HSV is a replication incompetent herpes simplex virus that is a highly efficient vector for the transduction of genes in vivo and in vitro. We examine the ability of DISC-HSV to infect human prostate cancer cell-lines and xenograft tumor models, and induce expression of reporter and therapeutic cytokine genes. Infection was confirmed by cellular staining for the beta-galactosidase reporter gene product, and by EM. Human GM-CSF production following DISC-hGMCSF infection was measured using ELISA. The metabolic activity of infected cells was determined by NADP/NADPH assay. Cell death was estimated by cell-cycle analysis using flow cytometry with propidium iodide staining. Infection of DU145, PC3 and LNCaP cells with DISC-HSV was dose dependent. Cells infected with DISC-hGM-CSF released significant levels of hGM-CSF for 3 days. NADP/NADPH assay suggested that infected cells continued to be metabolically active for 3 days post-infection, which was consistent with flow cytometry findings that cell death did not occur within 7 days of infection. Tumor xenografts injected with DISC-HSV expressed beta-galactosidase, and intracellular viral particles were demonstrated using EM. We have previously reported the rejection of established tumors following intra-tumoral injection of DISC-GMCSF. This study demonstrates the ability of DISC-HSV to infect prostate cancer and express GMCSF at significant levels. We suggest that prostate cancer is a potential target for therapy using DISC-HSV containing GM-CSF. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. Analysis of Select Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Proteins for Restriction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1): HSV-1 gM Protein Potently Restricts HIV-1 by Preventing Intracellular Transport and Processing of Env gp160.

    PubMed

    Polpitiya Arachchige, Sachith; Henke, Wyatt; Pramanik, Ankita; Kalamvoki, Maria; Stephens, Edward B

    2018-01-15

    Virus-encoded proteins that impair or shut down specific host cell functions during replication can be used as probes to identify potential proteins/pathways used in the replication of viruses from other families. We screened nine proteins from herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) for the ability to enhance or restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. We show that several HSV-1 proteins (glycoprotein M [gM], US3, and UL24) potently restricted the replication of HIV-1. Unlike UL24 and US3, which reduced viral protein synthesis, we observed that gM restriction of HIV-1 occurred through interference with the processing and transport of gp160, resulting in a significantly reduced level of mature gp120/gp41 released from cells. Finally, we show that an HSV-1 gM mutant lacking the majority of the C-terminal domain (HA-gM[Δ345-473]) restricted neither gp160 processing nor the release of infectious virus. These studies identify proteins from heterologous viruses that can restrict viruses through novel pathways. IMPORTANCE HIV-1 infection of humans results in AIDS, characterized by the loss of CD4 + T cells and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Both HIV-1 and HSV-1 can infect astrocytes and microglia of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, the identification of HSV-1 proteins that directly restrict HIV-1 or interfere with pathways required for HIV-1 replication could lead to novel antiretroviral strategies. The results of this study show that select viral proteins from HSV-1 can potently restrict HIV-1. Further, our results indicate that the gM protein of HSV-1 restricts HIV-1 through a novel pathway by interfering with the processing of gp160 and its incorporation into virus maturing from the cell. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  6. A Thr/Ser dual residue motif in the cytoplasmic tail of human CD1d is important for the down-regulation of antigen presentation following a herpes simplex virus 1 infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jianyun; Glosson, Nicole L; Du, Wenjun; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn; Brutkiewicz, Randy R

    2013-01-01

    CD1d-restricted T (natural killer T; NKT) cells are important for controlling herpesvirus infections. Interestingly, herpes simplex virus (HSV) can down-regulate CD1d-mediated activation of NKT cells. We have previously shown that the Thr322 residue in the cytoplasmic tail of human CD1d is important for its intracellular trafficking and functional expression. We proposed that the phosphorylation of T322 is a signal for CD1d lysosomal targeting and subsequent degradation. In the current study, we generated dual mutants by substituting the T322 and S323 residues of wild-type (WT) CD1d with Ala (non-phosphorylatable) or Asp (mimicking phosphorylation) and ectopically expressed them in human embryonic kidney 293 cells. We found that the surface expression levels of the CD1d mutants was in this order: T322AS323A > WT > T322A > S323A > S323D > T322D > T322DS323D. Our results therefore suggest that mimicking the phosphorylation of both T322 and S323 has a cumulative negative effect on the functional expression of CD1d. As previously reported, we also found that upon an HSV infection, antigen presentation by WT CD1d is reduced and the CD1d molecule is degraded. Interestingly, the T322A/S323A double mutation inhibited CD1d degradation and rescued CD1d-mediated antigen presentation following an HSV-1 infection. This suggests that the T322/S323 dyad may be phosphorylated, which then targets CD1d for lysosomal degradation post-infection as a means of immune evasion, explaining (at least in part) the reduced antigen presentation observed. Hence, our findings strongly suggest that T322 and S323 form a dual residue motif that can regulate the functional expression of CD1d during a viral infection. PMID:23710894

  7. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin interfere with intracellular trafficking of Herpes simplex virus-1.

    PubMed

    Marr, A K; Jenssen, H; Moniri, M Roshan; Hancock, R E W; Panté, N

    2009-01-01

    Although both lactoferrin (Lf), a component of the innate immune system of living organisms, and its N-terminal pepsin cleavage product lactoferricin (Lfcin) have anti-herpes activity, the precise mechanisms by which Lf and Lfcin bring about inhibition of herpes infections are not fully understood. In the present study, experiments were carried out to characterize the activity of bovine Lf and Lfcin (BLf and BLfcin) against the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. In comparison to the untreated infected control cells, both the BLf- and BLfcin-treated cells showed a significant reduction in HSV-1 cellular uptake. The few virus particles that were internalized appeared to have a delayed intracellular trafficking. Thus, in addition to their interference with the uptake of the virus into host cells, Lf and Lfcin also exert their antiviral effect intracellularly.

  8. Metformin and Anti-Cancer Therapeutics: Hopes for a More Enhanced Armamentarium Against Human Neoplasias?

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Maria-Ioanna; Scorilas, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Metformin, a natural product from Galega officinalis, is an oral drug, now in the forefront of the therapeutic management of type-2 diabetes mellitus. A series of clinical observations of the last decades, support that metformin may contribute to lowering the risk of cancer development in diabetic patients, and also to improvement of response-to-therapy and survival in individuals with certain types of malignancies. Moreover, several preclinical in vitro and in vivo data indicate that metformin indeed exerts anti-proliferative capacities upon tumor cells mediated through a variety of mechanisms. Interestingly, metformin has been shown to act in synergy with certain anti-cancer agents and also to overcome chemo- and/or radio-resistance of various types of tumors, providing a hopeful rationale for novel therapeutic strategies against cancer development and progression. However, this remains an issue of controversy, since significant contradictions exist among the available data. Limitations of preclinical studies and caveats of epidemiological works, together with significant variances among the several types of cancer and the fact that the mode of metformin's action is largely unknown, make longitudinal surveys urgently needed. Now, a plethora of large clinical trials are active worldwide, aiming at determining the effect of metformin in the prevention or prognosis of a variety of human cancers. If encouraging results arise, metformin will be an attractive candidate adjuvant in the management of human neoplasias, due to its safety, tolerability and low-cost, expected to mitigate adverse effects and no-response parameters of current anti-cancer therapeutics, thus improving the quality of life and survival of cancer patients. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Prediction of conserved sites and domains in glycoproteins B, C and D of herpes viruses.

    PubMed

    Rasheed, Muhammad Asif; Ansari, Abdur Rahman; Ihsan, Awais; Navid, Muhammad Tariq; Ur-Rehman, Shahid; Raza, Sohail

    2018-03-01

    Glycoprotein B (gB), C (gC) and D (gD) of herpes simplex virus are implicated in virus adsorption and penetration. The gB, gC and gD are glycoproteins for different processes of virus binding and attachment to the host cells. Moreover, their expression is necessary and sufficient to induce cell fusion in the absence of other glycoproteins. Egress of herpes simplex virus (HSV) and other herpes viruses from cells involves extensive modification of cellular membranes and sequential envelopment, de-envelopment and re-envelopment steps. Viral glycoproteins are important in these processes, and frequently two or more glycoproteins can largely suffice in any step. Hence, we target the 3 important glycoproteins (B, C and D) of eight different herpes viruses of different species. These species include human (HSV1 and 2), bovine (BHV1), equine (EHV1 and 4), chicken (ILT1 and MDV2) and pig (PRV1). By applying different bioinformatics tools, we highlighted the conserved sites in these glycoproteins which might be most significant regarding attachment and infection of the viruses. Moreover the conserved domains in these glycoproteins are also highlighted. From this study, we will able to analyze the role of different viral glycoproteins of different species during herpes virus adsorption and penetration. Moreover, this study will help to construct the antivirals that target the glycoproteins of different herpes viruses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and basic molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Wang, Y; Xie, Z; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y; Wan, X

    2014-10-01

    Many researchers have reported that obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several forms of cancer (such as breast, colon and prostate), pulmonary, osteoarticular and metabolic diseases in the past decades. Recently, the hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects of green tea in animals and humans have slowly become a hot topic in nutritional and food science research. This review will up-date the information of the anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and animal studies. During recent years, an increasing number of clinical trials have confirmed the beneficial effects of green tea on obesity. However, the optimal dose has not yet been established owing to the very different results from studies with a similar design, which may be caused by differences in the extent of obesity, dietary intake, physical activity intensity, the strength of subjects' compliance to test instruction, the genetic background of populations, body composition and dietary habits. Therefore, further investigations on a larger scale and with longer periods of observation and tighter controls are needed to define optimal doses in subjects with varying degrees of metabolic risk factors and to determine differences in beneficial effects among diverse populations. Moreover, data from laboratory studies have shown that green tea has important roles in fat metabolism by reducing food intake, interrupting lipid emulsification and absorption, suppressing adipogenesis and lipid synthesis and increasing energy expenditure via thermogenesis, fat oxidation and fecal lipid excretion. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain elusive.

  11. Anti-stress Effect of Green Tea with Lowered Caffeine on Humans: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Unno, Keiko; Yamada, Hiroshi; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ishida, Hitoshi; Iwao, Yasunori; Morita, Akio; Nakamura, Yoriyuki

    2017-01-01

    Theanine, an amino acid in tea, has significant anti-stress effects on animals and humans. However, the effect of theanine was blocked by caffeine and gallate-type catechins, which are the main components in tea. We examined the anti-stress effect of green tea with lowered caffeine, low-caffeine green tea, on humans. The study design was a single-blind group comparison and participants (n=20) were randomly assigned to low-caffeine or placebo tea groups. These teas (≥500 mL/d), which were eluted with room temperature water, were taken from 1 week prior to pharmacy practice and continued for 10 d in the practice period. The participants ingested theanine (ca. 15 mg/d) in low-caffeine green tea. To assess the anxiety of participants, the state-trait anxiety inventory test was used before pharmacy practice. The subjective stress of students was significantly lower in the low-caffeine-group than in the placebo-group during pharmacy practice. The level of salivary α-amylase activity, a stress marker, increased significantly after daily pharmacy practice in the placebo-group but not in the low-caffeine-group. These results suggested that the ingestion of low-caffeine green tea suppressed the excessive stress response of students. This study was registered at the University Hospital Medical Information Network (ID No. UMIN14942).

  12. Anti-inflammatory activity of clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) essential oil in human dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Han, Xuesheng; Parker, Tory L

    2017-12-01

    Clove (Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. [Myrtaceae]) essential oil (CEO) has been shown to possess antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. However, few studies have focused on its topical use. We investigated the biological activity of a commercially available CEO in a human skin disease model. We evaluated the effect of CEO on 17 protein biomarkers that play critical roles in inflammation and tissue remodelling in a validated human dermal fibroblast system, which was designed to model chronic inflammation and fibrosis. Four concentrations of CEO (0.011, 0.0037, 0.0012, and 0.00041%, v/v) were studied. The effect of 0.011% CEO on genome-wide gene expression was also evaluated. CEO at a concentration of 0.011% showed robust antiproliferative effects on human dermal fibroblasts. It significantly inhibited the increased production of several proinflammatory biomarkers such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), interferon γ-induced protein 10 (IP-10), interferon-inducible T-cell α chemoattractant (I-TAC), and monokine induced by γ interferon (MIG). CEO also significantly inhibited tissue remodelling protein molecules, namely, collagen-I, collagen-III, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2). Furthermore, it significantly modulated global gene expression and altered signalling pathways critical for inflammation, tissue remodelling, and cancer signalling processes. CEO significantly inhibited VCAM-1 and collagen III at both protein and gene expression levels. This study provides important evidence of CEO-induced anti-inflammatory and tissue remodelling activity in human dermal fibroblasts. This study also supports the anticancer properties of CEO and its major active component eugenol.

  13. Intramuscular Immunization of Mice with the Live-Attenuated Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Vaccine Strain VC2 Expressing Equine Herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) Glycoprotein D Generates Anti-EHV-1 Immune Responses in Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shiliang A; Stanfield, Brent A; Chouljenko, Vladimir N; Naidu, Shan; Langohr, Ingeborg; Del Piero, Fabio; Ferracone, Jacqueline; Roy, Alma A; Kousoulas, Konstantin G

    2017-06-15

    Vaccination remains the best option to combat equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) infection, and several different strategies of vaccination have been investigated and developed over the past few decades. Herein, we report that the live-attenuated herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) VC2 vaccine strain, which has been shown to be unable to enter into neurons and establish latency in mice, can be utilized as a vector for the heterologous expression of EHV-1 glycoprotein D (gD) and that the intramuscular immunization of mice results in strong antiviral humoral and cellular immune responses. The VC2-EHV-1-gD recombinant virus was constructed by inserting an EHV-1 gD expression cassette under the control of the cytomegalovirus immediate early promoter into the VC2 vector in place of the HSV-1 thymidine kinase (UL23) gene. The vaccines were introduced into mice through intramuscular injection. Vaccination with both the VC2-EHV-1-gD vaccine and the commercially available vaccine Vetera EHV XP 1/4 (Vetera; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) resulted in the production of neutralizing antibodies, the levels of which were significantly higher in comparison to those in VC2- and mock-vaccinated animals ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). Analysis of EHV-1-reactive IgG subtypes demonstrated that vaccination with the VC2-EHV-1-gD vaccine stimulated robust IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies after three vaccinations ( P < 0.001). Interestingly, Vetera-vaccinated mice produced significantly higher levels of IgM than mice in the other groups before and after challenge ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Vaccination with VC2-EHV-1-gD stimulated strong cellular immune responses, characterized by the upregulation of both interferon- and tumor necrosis factor-positive CD4 + T cells and CD8 + T cells. Overall, the data suggest that the HSV-1 VC2 vaccine strain may be used as a viral vector for the vaccination of horses as well as, potentially, for the vaccination of other economically important animals. IMPORTANCE A novel virus

  14. Anthocyanin contents in the seed coat of black soya bean and their anti-human tyrosinase activity and antioxidative activity.

    PubMed

    Jhan, J-K; Chung, Y-C; Chen, G-H; Chang, C-H; Lu, Y-C; Hsu, C-K

    2016-06-01

    The seed coat of black soya bean (SCBS) contains high amount of anthocyanins and shows antioxidant and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. The objectives of this study were to analyse the anthocyanins in SCBS with different solvents and to find the relationship between anthocyanin profile with anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. SCBS was extracted with hot water, 50 and 80% ethanol, 50 and 80% acetone and 50 and 80% acidified acetone. Total phenol and total flavonoid contents in the extracts were determined. Anthocyanins in the extracts were analysed using HPLC and LC/MS/MS. A genetically engineered human tyrosinase was used to evaluate the anti-tyrosinase potential of the extracts from SCBS. 80% acetone extract from SCBS obtained the highest total phenol, total flavonoid and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) contents among all the extracts, whereas the hot water extract showed the lowest antioxidant contents. Three anthocyanin compounds were found in all the extracts from SCBS, and the analysis of HPLC and LC/MS/MS indicated that they were C3G, delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (D3G) and peonidin-3-O-glucoside (P3G). The ratios of C3G (2.84 mg g(-1) ), D3G (0.34 mg g(-1) ) and P3G (0.35 mg g(-1) ) in 80% acidified acetone extract were 76.6, 9.1 and 9.3%, respectively. All the extracts from SCBS possessed anti-human tyrosinase activity. Moreover, a good correlation was found between the anti-human tyrosinase activities and C3G contents in the extracts. Antioxidants in SCBS also possess anti-human and anti-mushroom tyrosinase activities. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Therapeutic immunization with a mixture of herpes simplex virus 1 glycoprotein D-derived “asymptomatic” human CD8+ T-cell epitopes decreases spontaneous ocular shedding in latently infected HLA transgenic rabbits: association with low frequency of local PD-1+ TIM-3+ CD8+ exhausted T cells.

    PubMed

    Khan, Arif A; Srivastava, Ruchi; Chentoufi, Aziz A; Geertsema, Roger; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Dasgupta, Gargi; Osorio, Nelson; Kalantari, Mina; Nesburn, Anthony B; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-07-01

    Most blinding ocular herpetic disease is due to reactivation of herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) from latency rather than to primary acute infection. No herpes simplex vaccine is currently available for use in humans. In this study, we used the HLA-A*02:01 transgenic (HLA Tg) rabbit model of ocular herpes to assess the efficacy of a therapeutic vaccine based on HSV-1 gD epitopes that are recognized mainly by CD8(+) T cells from "naturally" protected HLA-A*02:01-positive, HSV-1-seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease). Three ASYMP CD8(+) T-cell epitopes (gD(53-61), gD(70-78), and gD(278-286)) were linked with a promiscuous CD4(+) T-cell epitope (gD(287-317)) to create 3 separate pairs of CD4-CD8 peptides, which were then each covalently coupled to an Nε-palmitoyl-lysine moiety, a Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR-2) ligand. This resulted in the construction of 3 CD4-CD8 lipopeptide vaccines. Latently infected HLA Tg rabbits were immunized with a mixture of these 3 ASYMP lipopeptide vaccines, delivered as eye drops in sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). The ASYMP therapeutic vaccination (i) induced HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells that prevent HSV-1 reactivation ex vivo from latently infected explanted trigeminal ganglia (TG), (ii) significantly reduced HSV-1 shedding detected in tears, (iii) boosted the number and function of HSV-1 gD epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells in draining lymph nodes (DLN), conjunctiva, and TG, and (iv) was associated with fewer exhausted HSV-1 gD-specific PD-1(+) TIM-3+ CD8(+) T cells. The results underscore the potential of an ASYMP CD8(+) T-cell epitope-based therapeutic vaccine strategy against recurrent ocular herpes. Seventy percent to 90% of adults harbor herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), which establishes lifelong latency in sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia. This latent state sporadically switches to spontaneous reactivation, resulting in viral shedding in tears. Most blinding

  16. The Amphibian Antimicrobial Peptide Temporin B Inhibits In Vitro Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection.

    PubMed

    Marcocci, M E; Amatore, D; Villa, S; Casciaro, B; Aimola, P; Franci, G; Grieco, P; Galdiero, M; Palamara, A T; Mangoni, M L; Nencioni, L

    2018-05-01

    The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is widespread in the population, and in most cases its infection is asymptomatic. The currently available anti-HSV-1 drugs are acyclovir and its derivatives, although long-term therapy with these agents can lead to drug resistance. Thus, the discovery of novel antiherpetic compounds deserves additional effort. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent an interesting class of molecules with potential antiviral properties. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first demonstration of the in vitro anti-HSV-1 activity of temporin B (TB), a short membrane-active amphibian AMP. In particular, when HSV-1 was preincubated with 20 μg/ml TB, significant antiviral activity was observed (a 5-log reduction of the virus titer). Such an effect was due to the disruption of the viral envelope, as demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, TB partially affected different stages of the HSV-1 life cycle, including the attachment and the entry of the virus into the host cell, as well as the subsequent postinfection phase. Furthermore, its efficacy was confirmed on human epithelial cells, suggesting TB as a novel approach for the prevention and/or treatment of HSV-1 infections. Copyright © 2018 Marcocci et al.

  17. Infected cell protein 0 functional domains and their coordination in herpes simplex virus replication

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a ubiquitous human pathogen that establishes latent infection in ganglia neurons. Its unique life cycle requires a balanced “conquer and compromise” strategy to deal with the host anti-viral defenses. One of HSV-1 α (immediate early) gene products, infected cell protein 0 (ICP0), is a multifunctional protein that interacts with and modulates a wide range of cellular defensive pathways. These pathways may locate in different cell compartments, which then migrate or exchange factors upon stimulation, for the purpose of a concerted and effective defense. ICP0 is able to simultaneously attack multiple host pathways by either degrading key restrictive factors or modifying repressive complexes. This is a viral protein that contains an E3 ubiquitin ligase, translocates among different cell compartments and interacts with major defensive complexes. The multiple functional domains of ICP0 can work independently and at the same time coordinate with each other. Dissecting the functional domains of ICP0 and delineating the coordination of these domains will help us understand HSV-1 pathogenicity as well as host defense mechanisms. This article focuses on describing individual ICP0 domains, their biochemical properties and their implication in HSV-1 infection. By putting individual domain functions back into the picture of host anti-viral defense network, this review seeks to elaborate the complex interactions between HSV-1 and its host. PMID:26870669

  18. Topical treatment of herpes simplex virus infection with enzymatically created siRNA swarm.

    PubMed

    Paavilainen, Henrik; Lehtinen, Jenni; Romanovskaya, Alesia; Nygårdas, Michaela; Bamford, Dennis H; Poranen, Minna M; Hukkanen, Veijo

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common human pathogen. Despite current antivirals, it causes a significant medical burden. Drug resistant strains exist and they are especially prevalent in immunocompromised patients and in HSV eye infections. New treatment modalities are needed. BALB/c mice were corneally infected with HSV and subsequently treated with a swarm of enzymatically created, Dicer-substrate small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules that targeted the HSV gene UL29. Two infection models were used, one in which the infection was predominantly peripheral and another in which it spread to the central nervous system. Mouse survival, as well as viral spread, load, latency and peripheral shedding, was studied. The anti-HSV-UL29 siRNA swarm alleviated HSV infection symptoms, inhibited viral shedding and replication and had a favourable effect on mouse survival. Treatment with anti-HSV-UL29 siRNA swarm reduced symptoms and viral spread in HSV infection of mice and also inhibited local viral replication in mouse corneas.

  19. Synergistic Anti-arrhythmic Effects in Human Atria with Combined Use of Sodium Blockers and Acacetin

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Haibo; Whittaker, Dominic G.; Wang, Wei; Giles, Wayne R.; Narayan, Sanjiv M.; Zhang, Henggui

    2017-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Developing effective and safe anti-AF drugs remains an unmet challenge. Simultaneous block of both atrial-specific ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium (K+) current (IKur) and the Na+ current (INa) has been hypothesized to be anti-AF, without inducing significant QT prolongation and ventricular side effects. However, the antiarrhythmic advantage of simultaneously blocking these two channels vs. individual block in the setting of AF-induced electrical remodeling remains to be documented. Furthermore, many IKur blockers such as acacetin and AVE0118, partially inhibit other K+ currents in the atria. Whether this multi-K+-block produces greater anti-AF effects compared with selective IKur-block has not been fully understood. The aim of this study was to use computer models to (i) assess the impact of multi-K+-block as exhibited by many IKur blokers, and (ii) evaluate the antiarrhythmic effect of blocking IKur and INa, either alone or in combination, on atrial and ventricular electrical excitation and recovery in the setting of AF-induced electrical-remodeling. Contemporary mathematical models of human atrial and ventricular cells were modified to incorporate dose-dependent actions of acacetin (a multichannel blocker primarily inhibiting IKur while less potently blocking Ito, IKr, and IKs). Rate- and atrial-selective inhibition of INa was also incorporated into the models. These single myocyte models were then incorporated into multicellular two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) anatomical models of the human atria. As expected, application of IKur blocker produced pronounced action potential duration (APD) prolongation in atrial myocytes. Furthermore, combined multiple K+-channel block that mimicked the effects of acacetin exhibited synergistic APD prolongations. Synergistically anti-AF effects following inhibition of INa and combined IKur/K+-channels were also observed. The attainable maximal

  20. Evasion of Early Antiviral Responses by Herpes Simplex Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Suazo, Paula A.; Ibañez, Francisco J.; Retamal-Díaz, Angello R.; Paz-Fiblas, Marysol V.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.; González, Pablo A.

    2015-01-01

    Besides overcoming physical constraints, such as extreme temperatures, reduced humidity, elevated pressure, and natural predators, human pathogens further need to overcome an arsenal of antimicrobial components evolved by the host to limit infection, replication and optimally, reinfection. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infect humans at a high frequency and persist within the host for life by establishing latency in neurons. To gain access to these cells, herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) must replicate and block immediate host antiviral responses elicited by epithelial cells and innate immune components early after infection. During these processes, infected and noninfected neighboring cells, as well as tissue-resident and patrolling immune cells, will sense viral components and cell-associated danger signals and secrete soluble mediators. While type-I interferons aim at limiting virus spread, cytokines and chemokines will modulate resident and incoming immune cells. In this paper, we discuss recent findings relative to the early steps taking place during HSV infection and replication. Further, we discuss how HSVs evade detection by host cells and the molecular mechanisms evolved by these viruses to circumvent early antiviral mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuron infection and the establishment of latency. PMID:25918478

  1. Topical herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccination with human papillomavirus vectors expressing gB/gD ectodomains induces genital-tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells and reduces genital disease and viral shedding after HSV-2 challenge.

    PubMed

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Wang, Kening; Goodman, Kyle N; Pang, Yuk Ying; Thompson, Cynthia D; Lowy, Douglas R; Cohen, Jeffrey I; Schiller, John T

    2015-01-01

    No herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. HSV-2 glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and T cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HSV-2 gB and gD in adjuvants have not been effective. Here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-defective human papillomavirus pseudovirus (HPV PsV) expressing HSV-2 gB (HPV-gB) or gD (HPV-gD) constructs to target different subcellular compartments. HPV PsV expressing a secreted ectodomain of gB (gBsec) or gD (gDsec), but not PsV expressing a cytoplasmic or membrane-bound form, induced circulating and intravaginal-tissue-resident memory CD8(+) T cells that were able to secrete gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as moderate levels of serum HSV neutralizing antibodies. Combined immunization with HPV-gBsec and HPV-gDsec (HPV-gBsec/gDsec) vaccines conferred longer survival after vaginal challenge with HSV-2 than immunization with HPV-gBsec or HPV-gDsec alone. HPV-gBsec/gDsec ivag vaccination was associated with a reduced severity of genital lesions and lower levels of viral shedding in the genital tract after HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a soluble truncated gD protein (gD2t) in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and improved survival but did not reduce genital lesions and viral shedding. Vaccination combining ivag HPV-gBsec/gDsec and i.m. gD2t-alum-MPL improved survival and reduced genital lesions and viral shedding. Finally, high levels of circulating HSV-2-specific CD8(+) T cells, but not serum antibodies, correlated with reduced viral shedding. Taken together, our data underscore the potential of HPV PsV as a platform for a topical mucosal vaccine to control local manifestations of primary HSV-2 infection. Genital herpes is a highly prevalent chronic disease caused by

  2. Topical Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) Vaccination with Human Papillomavirus Vectors Expressing gB/gD Ectodomains Induces Genital-Tissue-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells and Reduces Genital Disease and Viral Shedding after HSV-2 Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Çuburu, Nicolas; Wang, Kening; Goodman, Kyle N.; Pang, Yuk Ying; Thompson, Cynthia D.; Lowy, Douglas R.; Cohen, Jeffrey I.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT No herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) vaccine has been licensed for use in humans. HSV-2 glycoproteins B (gB) and D (gD) are targets of neutralizing antibodies and T cells, but clinical trials involving intramuscular (i.m.) injection of HSV-2 gB and gD in adjuvants have not been effective. Here we evaluated intravaginal (ivag) genetic immunization of C57BL/6 mice with a replication-defective human papillomavirus pseudovirus (HPV PsV) expressing HSV-2 gB (HPV-gB) or gD (HPV-gD) constructs to target different subcellular compartments. HPV PsV expressing a secreted ectodomain of gB (gBsec) or gD (gDsec), but not PsV expressing a cytoplasmic or membrane-bound form, induced circulating and intravaginal-tissue-resident memory CD8+ T cells that were able to secrete gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as moderate levels of serum HSV neutralizing antibodies. Combined immunization with HPV-gBsec and HPV-gDsec (HPV-gBsec/gDsec) vaccines conferred longer survival after vaginal challenge with HSV-2 than immunization with HPV-gBsec or HPV-gDsec alone. HPV-gBsec/gDsec ivag vaccination was associated with a reduced severity of genital lesions and lower levels of viral shedding in the genital tract after HSV-2 challenge. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a soluble truncated gD protein (gD2t) in alum and monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) elicited high neutralizing antibody titers and improved survival but did not reduce genital lesions and viral shedding. Vaccination combining ivag HPV-gBsec/gDsec and i.m. gD2t-alum-MPL improved survival and reduced genital lesions and viral shedding. Finally, high levels of circulating HSV-2-specific CD8+ T cells, but not serum antibodies, correlated with reduced viral shedding. Taken together, our data underscore the potential of HPV PsV as a platform for a topical mucosal vaccine to control local manifestations of primary HSV-2 infection. IMPORTANCE Genital herpes is a highly prevalent chronic

  3. Psychosocial Treatment for Recurrent Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longo, David J.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Assigned 21 individuals with recurrent genital herpes to psychosocial intervention, social support, or waiting-list control conditions. Those receiving psychosocial intervention (herpes simplex virus information, relaxation training, stress management instructions, and an imagery technique) reported significantly greater reductions in herpes…

  4. Experiential Interventions for Clients with Genital Herpes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Anne L.

    1999-01-01

    Explores potential benefits of incorporating concepts and interventions from experimental therapy to help clients with psychosocial difficulties in learning to live with genital herpes. Recommends experimental counseling of two-chair dialog, empty chair, and metaphor for helping clients with emotional sequelae of genital herpes. Presents case…

  5. Herpes in Dyadic Relationships: Patterns and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drob, Sanford; Bernard, Harold S.

    1985-01-01

    Explores how dyadic relationships can be affected when one partner suffers from genital herpes. Six patterns are described: When One Partner Does Not Know, The Compromise Relationship, The Enraged Partner, The Mark of Guilt, Problems in Risk Management, and Herpes Used as Weapon. Treatment strategies for dealing with patterns are offered.…

  6. [Herpes zoster infection with acute urinary retention].

    PubMed

    Jakab, G; Komoly, S; Juhász, E

    1990-03-11

    The history of a young female patient is presented. She developed urine retention of sudden onset as a complication of herpes zoster infection manifested in the sacral dermatomes. Symptomatic and antiviral treatments were introduced with full recovery of bladder function. The correct diagnosis of this rare and benign complication of herpes zoster infection can help to avoid unnecessary and invasive examinations.

  7. Autism and Herpes Simplex Encephalitis. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaziuddin, Mohammad; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents two case studies of children who developed herpes virus infection in the intrauterine or early postnatal period and presented with features of autism around two years of age. Other research suggesting a link between herpes and autism is reviewed. (DB)

  8. Hydrocephalus in herpes simplex type 2 meningitis.

    PubMed

    Yap, Elaine; Ellis-Pegler, Rod

    2006-08-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented to hospital with symptoms of meningitis, later confirmed to be due to herpes simplex virus type 2. She developed hydrocephalus on day 2 of her admission. We describe the first case of hydrocephalus associated with herpes simplex type 2 meningitis in an adult.

  9. Curcumin conjugated with PLGA potentiates sustainability, anti-proliferative activity and apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Waghela, Bhargav N; Sharma, Anupama; Dhumale, Suhashini; Pandey, Shashibahl M; Pathak, Chandramani

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric, exhibits a variety of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Despite its imperative biological activities, chemical instability, photo-instability and poor bioavailability limits its utilization as an effective therapeutic agent. Therefore, enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin may improve its therapeutic index for clinical setting. In the present study, we have conjugated curcumin with a biodegradable polymer Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and evaluated its apoptotic potential in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). The results show that curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently inhibits cell proliferation and cell survival in human colon carcinoma cells as compared to native curcumin. Additionally, curcumin conjugated with PLGA shows improved cellular uptake and exhibits controlled release at physiological pH as compared to native curcumin. The curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently activates the cascade of caspases and promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, the results suggest that conjugation potentiates the sustainability, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of curcumin. This approach could be a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic index of cancer therapy.

  10. Curcumin Conjugated with PLGA Potentiates Sustainability, Anti-Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Waghela, Bhargav N.; Sharma, Anupama; Dhumale, Suhashini; Pandey, Shashibahl M.; Pathak, Chandramani

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric, exhibits a variety of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Despite its imperative biological activities, chemical instability, photo-instability and poor bioavailability limits its utilization as an effective therapeutic agent. Therefore, enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin may improve its therapeutic index for clinical setting. In the present study, we have conjugated curcumin with a biodegradable polymer Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and evaluated its apoptotic potential in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). The results show that curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently inhibits cell proliferation and cell survival in human colon carcinoma cells as compared to native curcumin. Additionally, curcumin conjugated with PLGA shows improved cellular uptake and exhibits controlled release at physiological pH as compared to native curcumin. The curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently activates the cascade of caspases and promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, the results suggest that conjugation potentiates the sustainability, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of curcumin. This approach could be a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic index of cancer therapy. PMID:25692854

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of the extract of indigo naturalis in human neutrophils.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yin-Ku; Leu, Yann-Lii; Huang, Tse-Hung; Wu, Yi-Hsiu; Chung, Pei-Jen; Su Pang, Jong-Hwei; Hwang, Tsong-Long

    2009-08-17

    Indigo naturalis is used by traditional Chinese medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. Topical indigo naturalis ointment showed efficacy in treating psoriasis in our previous clinical studies. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the extract of indigo naturalis (QD) and its main components indirubin, indigo, and tryptanthrin in human neutrophils. Superoxide anion (O2(.-)) generation and elastase release were measured by spectrophotometry. Some important signals including mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), cAMP, and calcium were studied by Western blot analysis, an enzyme immunoassay, and spectrofluorometry. QD significantly inhibited O2(.-) generation and elastase release in formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine (FMLP)-activated human neutrophils in a concentration-dependent fashion, while neither indirubin, indigo, nor tryptanthrin produced a comparable result. QD attenuated the FMLP-induced phosphorylation of extracellular regulated kinase, p38 MAPK, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Furthermore, QD inhibited calcium mobilization caused by FMLP. However, QD did not affect cellular cAMP levels. On the other hand, neither indirubin, indigo, nor tryptanthrin produced similar changes in human neutrophils. Taken collectively, these findings indicate that QD, but not indirubin, indigo, or tryptanthrin, inhibited O2(.-) generation and elastase release in FMLP-induced human neutrophils, which was at least partially mediated by the inhibition of MAPK activation and regulation of calcium mobilization.

  12. TOPICAL TENOFOVIR, A MICROBICIDE EFFECTIVE AGAINST HIV, INHIBITS HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS-2 REPLICATION

    PubMed Central

    Andrei, Graciela; Lisco, Andrea; Vanpouille, Christophe; Introini, Andrea; Balestra, Emanuela; van den Oord, Joost; Cihlar, Tomas; Perno, Carlo-Federico; Snoeck, Robert; Margolis, Leonid; Balzarini, Jan

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY The HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitor tenofovir, was recently formulated into a vaginal gel for use as a microbicide. In human trials, a 1% tenofovir gel inhibited HIV sexual transmission by 39% and surprisingly herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) transmission by 51%. We demonstrate that the concentration achieved intravaginally with a 1% tenofovir topical gel has direct anti-herpetic activity. Tenofovir inhibits the replication of HSV clinical isolates in human embryonic fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and organotypic epithelial 3D-rafts, decreases HSV replication in human lymphoid and cervical tissues ex vivo, and delays HSV-induced lesions and death of topically treated HSV-infected mice. The active tenofovir metabolite inhibits HSV DNA-polymerase and HIV reverse transcriptase. Tenofovir must be topically administered to achieve concentrations, which are higher than systemic levels after oral treatment, that exert these dual antiviral effects. These findings indicate that a single topical treatment, like tenofovir, can inhibit the transmission of HIV and its co-pathogens. PMID:22018238

  13. The chemokine CXCL12 mediates the anti-amyloidogenic action of painless human nerve growth factor.

    PubMed

    Capsoni, Simona; Malerba, Francesca; Carucci, Nicola Maria; Rizzi, Caterina; Criscuolo, Chiara; Origlia, Nicola; Calvello, Mariantonietta; Viegi, Alessandro; Meli, Giovanni; Cattaneo, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    Nerve growth factor is a therapeutic candidate for Alzheimer's disease. Due to its pain-inducing activity, in current clinical trials nerve growth factor is delivered locally into the brain by neurosurgery, but data on the efficacy of local nerve growth factor delivery in decreasing amyloid-β deposition are not available. To reduce the nerve growth factor pain-inducing side effects, thus avoiding the need for local brain injection, we developed human painless nerve growth factor (hNGFp), inspired by the human genetic disease hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type V. hNGFp has identical neurotrophic potency as wild-type human nerve growth factor, but a 10-fold lower pain sensitizing activity. In this study we first mimicked, in the 5xFAD mouse model, the intraparenchymal delivery of hNGFp used in clinical trials and found it to be ineffective in decreasing amyloid-β plaque load. On the contrary, the same dose of hNGFp delivered intranasally, which was widely biodistributed in the brain and did not induce pain, showed a potent anti-amyloidogenic action and rescued synaptic plasticity and memory deficits. We found that hNGFp acts on glial cells, modulating inflammatory proteins such as the soluble TNFα receptor II and the chemokine CXCL12. We further established that the rescuing effect by hNGFp is mediated by CXCL12, as pharmacological inhibition of CXCL12 receptor CXCR4 occludes most of hNGFp effects. These findings have significant therapeutic implications: (i) we established that a widespread exposure of the brain is required for nerve growth factor to fully exert its neuroprotective actions; and (ii) we have identified a new anti-neurodegenerative pathway as a broad target for new therapeutic opportunities for neurodegenerative diseases. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M.; Ricciardolo, Fabio L. M.; Varahram, Mohammad; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Folkerts, Gert; Garssen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS) as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COPD involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as CXCL-8 and IL-1β which are important mediators for neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages are an important source of these mediators in COPD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Befidobacterium breve (B. breve) attenuate the development of ‘allergic asthma’ in animals but their effects in COPD are unknown. Objective To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on CS and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. Design We stimulated the human macrophage cell line THP-1 with CS extract in the presence and absence of L. rhamnosus and B. breve and measured the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. An activity assay and Western blotting were used to examine NF-κB activation. Results Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve were efficiently phagocytized by human macrophages. L. rhamnosus and B. breve significantly suppressed the ability of CS to induce the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-23, TNFα, CXCL-8 and HMGB1 release (all p<0.05) in human THP-1 macrophages. Similar suppression of TLR4- and TLR9-induced CXCL8 expression was also observed (p<0.05). The effect of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on inflammatory mediator release was associated with the suppression of CS-induced NF-κB activation (p<0.05). Conclusions This data indicate that these probiotics may be useful anti-inflammatory agents in CS-associated disease such as COPD. PMID:26317628

  15. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Lactobacillus Rahmnosus and Bifidobacterium Breve on Cigarette Smoke Activated Human Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mortaz, Esmaeil; Adcock, Ian M; Ricciardolo, Fabio L M; Varahram, Mohammad; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Velayati, Ali Akbar; Folkerts, Gert; Garssen, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major global health problem with cigarette smoke (CS) as the main risk factor for its development. Airway inflammation in COPD involves the increased expression of inflammatory mediators such as CXCL-8 and IL-1β which are important mediators for neutrophil recruitment. Macrophages are an important source of these mediators in COPD. Lactobacillus rhamnosus (L. rhamnosus) and Befidobacterium breve (B. breve) attenuate the development of 'allergic asthma' in animals but their effects in COPD are unknown. To determine the anti-inflammatory effects of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on CS and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation. We stimulated the human macrophage cell line THP-1 with CS extract in the presence and absence of L. rhamnosus and B. breve and measured the expression and release of inflammatory mediators by RT-qPCR and ELISA respectively. An activity assay and Western blotting were used to examine NF-κB activation. Both L. rhamnosus and B. breve were efficiently phagocytized by human macrophages. L. rhamnosus and B. breve significantly suppressed the ability of CS to induce the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-23, TNFα, CXCL-8 and HMGB1 release (all p<0.05) in human THP-1 macrophages. Similar suppression of TLR4- and TLR9-induced CXCL8 expression was also observed (p<0.05). The effect of L. rhamnosus and B. breve on inflammatory mediator release was associated with the suppression of CS-induced NF-κB activation (p<0.05). This data indicate that these probiotics may be useful anti-inflammatory agents in CS-associated disease such as COPD.

  16. Gene therapy of uterine leiomyoma: adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir treatment inhibits growth of human and rat leiomyoma cells in vitro and in a nude mouse model.

    PubMed

    Salama, S A; Kamel, M; Christman, G; Wang, H Q; Fouad, H M; Al-Hendy, A

    2007-01-01

    Uterine leiomyomas (LM) affect a high percentage of reproductive-age women. They develop as discrete, well-defined tumors that are easily accessible with imaging techniques--making this disease ideal for localized gene therapy approaches. In this study, we determined the efficacy of adenovirus-mediated herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase gene transfer in combination with ganciclovir (Ad-TK/GCV) as a potential therapy for LM. Rat ELT-3 LM cells and human LM cells were transfected with different multiplicity of infections (10-100 plaque forming units [PFU]/cell) of Ad-TK and treated with GCV (5, 10, or 20 microg/ml) for 5 days. To test the bystander effect, Ad-TK-transfected ELT-3 cells (100 PFU/cell) or LM cells (10 PFU/cell) were cocultured with corresponding nontransfected cells at increasing percentages and treated with GCV followed by cell counting. In ELT-3 cells transfected with Ad-TK/GCV (10, 20, 50, or 100 PFU/cell), the cell count was reduced by 24, 42, 77, and 87%, respectively, compared with the control cells (transfected with Ad-Lac Z/GCV). Similarly, in LM cells transfected with Ad-TK/GCV (10, 50, or 100 PFU/cell), the cell count was reduced by 31, 62, and 82%, respectively, compared with the control. A strong bystander effect was noted in both ELT-3 and LM cells with significant killing (p = 0.001) at a ratio of infected:uninfected cells of only 1:99 and maximal killing at 1:4. This study demonstrates the potential efficacy of the Ad-TK/GCV gene therapy approach as a viable nonsurgical alternative treatment for uterine LM.

  17. Prevalence and Determinants of Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2 (HSV-2)/Syphilis Co-Infection and HSV-2 Mono-Infection among Human Immunodeficiency Virus Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: a Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing-Hai; Xu, Jun-Jie; Chu, Zhen-Xing; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Yan-Qiu; Yu, Huan; Ding, Hai-Bo; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Geng, Wen-Qing; Wang, Ning; Shang, Hong

    2017-05-24

    This study assessed the prevalence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)/syphilis co-infection and HSV-2 mono-infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 545 HIV-positive MSM in Shenyang between February 2009 and October 2014. Participants underwent physical examinations and serological tests for HSV-2 and syphilis. A multinomial logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors associated with HSV-2/syphilis co-infection and HSV-2 mono-infection. The prevalence of HSV-2 mono-infection, syphilis mono-infection, and HSV-2/syphilis co-infection (95% confidence interval) was 48.6% (44.4-52.8%), 34.3% (30.3-38.3%), and 22.9% (19.4-26.5%), respectively. After controlling within HSV-2/syphilis-seropositive cases, regression analysis revealed that the related factors for HSV-2/syphilis co-infection included age (25-50 vs. ≤ 24 years: adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 4.55; > 50 vs. ≤ 24 years: aOR, 43.02), having regular female sexual partner(s) in the past 6 months (aOR, 0.43), and age at first MSM experience (≤ 18 vs. > 18 years: aOR, 2.59) (all P < 0.05). The high prevalence of HSV-2 mono infection and HSV-2/syphilis co-infection in HIV-positive MSM indicates a high secondary HIV transmission risk. A campaign for detection and treatment of HSV-2 and syphilis is urgently required for HIV-positive MSM in China.

  18. A Combination Microbicide Gel Protects Macaques Against Vaginal Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Reverse Transcriptase Infection, But Only Partially Reduces Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Infection After a Single High-Dose Cochallenge

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Mayla; Aravantinou, Meropi; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D.; Fernández-Romero, Jose A.; Zydowsky, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection increases HIV susceptibility. We previously established a rhesus macaque model of vaginal HSV-2 preexposure followed by cochallenge with HSV-2 and simian/human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT). Using this model, we showed that a gel containing the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 in carrageenan (CG) reduced SHIV-RT infection. To evaluate the efficacy of new generation microbicides against both viruses, we first established dual infection after single vaginal cochallenge with SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in HSV-2-naive macaques. All animals (6/6) became HSV-2 infected, with 4/6 coinfected with SHIV-RT. In a control group cochallenged with SHIV-RT and UV-inactivated HSV-2, 2/4 became SHIV-RT infected, and none had detectable HSV-2. Low-level HSV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses were detected in some HSV-2-infected animals. To test a CG gel containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate (MZC), which provided naive animals full protection from SHIV-RT for at least 8 h, MZC (vs. CG) was applied daily for 14 days followed by cochallenge 8 h later. MZC prevented SHIV-RT infection (0/9 infected, p=0.04 vs. 3/6 in CG controls), but only reduced HSV-2 infection by 20% (6/9 infected vs. 5/6 in CG, p=0.6). In HSV-2-infected animals, none of the gel-treated animals seroconverted, and only the CG controls had measurable HSV-2-specific T cell responses. This study shows the promise of MZC to prevent immunodeficiency virus infection (even in the presence of HSV-2) and reduce HSV-2 infection after exposure to a high-dose inoculum. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential of a macaque coinfection model to evaluate broad-spectrum microbicides. PMID:24117013

  19. A combination microbicide gel protects macaques against vaginal simian human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase infection, but only partially reduces herpes simplex virus-2 infection after a single high-dose cochallenge.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Mayla; Aravantinou, Meropi; Menon, Radhika; Seidor, Samantha; Goldman, Daniel; Kenney, Jessica; Derby, Nina; Gettie, Agegnehu; Blanchard, James; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Fernández-Romero, Jose A; Zydowsky, Thomas M; Robbiani, Melissa

    2014-02-01

    Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) infection increases HIV susceptibility. We previously established a rhesus macaque model of vaginal HSV-2 preexposure followed by cochallenge with HSV-2 and simian/human immunodeficiency virus-reverse transcriptase (SHIV-RT). Using this model, we showed that a gel containing the nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 in carrageenan (CG) reduced SHIV-RT infection. To evaluate the efficacy of new generation microbicides against both viruses, we first established dual infection after single vaginal cochallenge with SHIV-RT and HSV-2 in HSV-2-naive macaques. All animals (6/6) became HSV-2 infected, with 4/6 coinfected with SHIV-RT. In a control group cochallenged with SHIV-RT and UV-inactivated HSV-2, 2/4 became SHIV-RT infected, and none had detectable HSV-2. Low-level HSV-2-specific antibody and T cell responses were detected in some HSV-2-infected animals. To test a CG gel containing MIV-150 and zinc acetate (MZC), which provided naive animals full protection from SHIV-RT for at least 8 h, MZC (vs. CG) was applied daily for 14 days followed by cochallenge 8 h later. MZC prevented SHIV-RT infection (0/9 infected, p=0.04 vs. 3/6 in CG controls), but only reduced HSV-2 infection by 20% (6/9 infected vs. 5/6 in CG, p=0.6). In HSV-2-infected animals, none of the gel-treated animals seroconverted, and only the CG controls had measurable HSV-2-specific T cell responses. This study shows the promise of MZC to prevent immunodeficiency virus infection (even in the presence of HSV-2) and reduce HSV-2 infection after exposure to a high-dose inoculum. Additionally, it demonstrates the potential of a macaque coinfection model to evaluate broad-spectrum microbicides.

  20. The replication defect of ICP0-null mutant herpes simplex virus 1 can be largely complemented by the combined activities of human cytomegalovirus proteins IE1 and pp71.

    PubMed

    Everett, Roger D; Bell, Adam J; Lu, Yongxu; Orr, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early protein ICP0 is required for efficient lytic infection and productive reactivation from latency and induces derepression of quiescent viral genomes. Despite being unrelated at the sequence level, ICP0 and human cytomegalovirus proteins IE1 and pp71 share some functional similarities in their abilities to counteract antiviral restriction mediated by components of cellular nuclear structures known as ND10. To investigate the extent to which IE1 and pp71 might substitute for ICP0, cell lines were developed that express either IE1 or pp71, or both together, in an inducible manner. We found that pp71 dissociated the hDaxx-ATRX complex and inhibited accumulation of these proteins at sites juxtaposed to HSV-1 genomes but had no effect on the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) or Sp100. IE1 caused loss of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-conjugated forms of PML and Sp100 and inhibited the recruitment of these proteins to HSV-1 genome foci but had little effect on hDaxx or ATRX in these assays. Both IE1 and pp71 stimulated ICP0-null mutant plaque formation, but neither to the extent achieved by ICP0. The combination of IE1 and pp71, however, inhibited recruitment of all ND10 proteins to viral genome foci, stimulated ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 plaque formation to near wild-type levels, and efficiently induced derepression of quiescent HSV-1 genomes. These results suggest that ND10-related intrinsic resistance results from the additive effects of several ND10 components and that the effects of IE1 and pp71 on subsets of these components combine to mirror the overall activities of ICP0.

  1. The Replication Defect of ICP0-Null Mutant Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Can Be Largely Complemented by the Combined Activities of Human Cytomegalovirus Proteins IE1 and pp71

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Adam J.; Lu, Yongxu; Orr, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate-early protein ICP0 is required for efficient lytic infection and productive reactivation from latency and induces derepression of quiescent viral genomes. Despite being unrelated at the sequence level, ICP0 and human cytomegalovirus proteins IE1 and pp71 share some functional similarities in their abilities to counteract antiviral restriction mediated by components of cellular nuclear structures known as ND10. To investigate the extent to which IE1 and pp71 might substitute for ICP0, cell lines were developed that express either IE1 or pp71, or both together, in an inducible manner. We found that pp71 dissociated the hDaxx-ATRX complex and inhibited accumulation of these proteins at sites juxtaposed to HSV-1 genomes but had no effect on the promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) or Sp100. IE1 caused loss of the small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-conjugated forms of PML and Sp100 and inhibited the recruitment of these proteins to HSV-1 genome foci but had little effect on hDaxx or ATRX in these assays. Both IE1 and pp71 stimulated ICP0-null mutant plaque formation, but neither to the extent achieved by ICP0. The combination of IE1 and pp71, however, inhibited recruitment of all ND10 proteins to viral genome foci, stimulated ICP0-null mutant HSV-1 plaque formation to near wild-type levels, and efficiently induced derepression of quiescent HSV-1 genomes. These results suggest that ND10-related intrinsic resistance results from the additive effects of several ND10 components and that the effects of IE1 and pp71 on subsets of these components combine to mirror the overall activities of ICP0. PMID:23135716

  2. Seroprevalence and Seroincidence of Herpes Simplex Virus (2006–2010), Syphilis (2006–2010) and Vaccine-Preventable Human Papilloma Virus Subtypes (2000–2010) Among United States Military Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Masel, J.; Deiss, R.G.; Wang, X.; Sanchez, J.L.; Ganesan, A.; Macalino, G.E.; Gaydos, J.C.; Kortepeter, M.G.; Agan, B.K

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections (STI) have historically been burdensome in military populations. We describe the seroprevalence and seroincidence of vaccine-preventable human papillomavirus (VP-HPV) subtypes in a sample of 200 servicemen along with the seroprevalence and seroincidence of herpes simplex virus (HSV-1/2) and syphilis in a sample of 200 males and 200 females. Methods Sera from 200 males along with associated demographic data were obtained and tested for HPV serotypes at service entry and ten years later. Similarly, 200 active-duty males and 200 active-duty females were tested for HSV-1/2 at entry to service and four years later. Results The baseline prevalence of VP-HPV subtypes was 14.5%, and cumulative seroincidence of new infection was 34% over a 10-year period (n=68). Of these, 63% (n=43) represented HPV-6, HPV-11 or both; 18% of new infections were either HPV-16 or HPV-18, and 19% (n=13) were a mixture of all four strains. At entry to military service, 33.5% of males were seropositive for HSV-1 and 1.5% positive for HSV-2; seroincidence was 3.4 and 1.1 per 100 person-years, respectively. Among females, 39% were seropositive for HSV-1 and 4.0% for HSV-2; seroincidence was 5.5 and 3.3. per 100 person-years, respectively. There were two prevalent and three incident cases of syphilis. Conclusions STIs in military populations are highly prevalent, incident, and epidemiologically distinct. Our data show rates of HPV and HSV-1/2 acquisition that are higher than those seen in the general public, again highlighting the need for continued preventive efforts. Consideration of universal HPV vaccination among males is warranted. PMID:25868137

  3. Comparison of humanized IgG and FvFc anti-CD3 monoclonal antibodies expressed in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Serpieri, Flavia; Inocencio, Andre; de Oliveira, Jose Marcelino; Pimenta, Alécio A; Garbuio, Angélica; Kalil, Jorge; Brigido, Marcelo M; Moro, Ana Maria

    2010-07-01

    Two humanized monoclonal antibody constructs bearing the same variable regions of an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, whole IgG and FvFc, were expressed in CHO cells. Random and site-specific integration were used resulting in similar expression levels. The transfectants were selected with appropriate selection agent, and the surviving cells were plated in semi-solid medium for capture with FITC-conjugated anti-human IG antibody and picked with the robotic ClonePix FL. Conditioned media from selected clones were purified by affinity chromatography and characterized by SDS-PAGE, Western-blot, SEC-HPLC, and isoelectric focusing. Binding to the target present in healthy human mononuclear cells was assessed by flow cytometry, as well as by competition between the two constructs and the original murine monoclonal antibody. The humanized constructs were not able to dislodge the murine antibody while the murine anti-CD3 antibody could dislodge around 20% of the FvFc or IgG humanized versions. Further in vitro and in vivo pre-clinical analyses will be carried out to verify the ability of the humanized versions to demonstrate the immunoregulatory profile required for a humanized anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody.

  4. Long term persistence of herpes simplex virus-specific CD8+ CTL in persons with frequently recurring genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Posavad, C M; Huang, M L; Barcy, S; Koelle, D M; Corey, L

    2000-07-15

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) establishes a lifelong infection in humans. Reactivation of latent virus occurs intermittently so that the immune system is frequently exposed to viral Ag, providing an opportunity to evaluate memory T cells to a persistent human pathogen. We studied the persistence of genital herpes lesion-derived HSV-specific CD8+ CTL from three immunocompetent individuals with frequently recurring genital HSV-2 infection. All CTL clones were HSV-2 type specific and only one to three unique clonotypes were identified from any single biopsy specimen. The TCRBV genes utilized by these clonotypes were sequenced, and clonotype-specific probes were used to longitudinally track these clonotypes in PBMC and genital lesions. CTL clonotypes were consistently detected in PBMC and lesions for at least 2 and up to 7 years, and identical clonotypes infiltrated herpes lesions spaced as long as 7.5 years apart. Moreover, these clones were functionally lytic in vivo over these time periods. Additionally, CTL clones killed target cells infected with autologous viral isolates obtained 6.5 years after CTL clones were established, suggesting that selective pressure by these CTL did not result in the mutation of CTL epitopes. Thus, HSV recurs in the face of persistent CD8+ CTL with no evidence of clonal exhaustion or mutation of CTL epitopes as mechanisms of viral persistence.

  5. Variables influencing anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralizing human monoclonal antibody (NhMAb) production among infected Thais.

    PubMed

    Akapirat, Siriwat; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Schuetz, Alexandra; Ramasoota, Pongrama; Luplertlop, Natthanej; Ono, Ken-Ichiro; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi; Utachee, Piraporn; Kameoka, Masanori; Leaungwutiwong, Pornsawan

    2013-09-01

    We conducted this study to determine the clinical variables associated with the production of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies (NhMAbs) using a hybridoma technique. This cross sectional study was performed in 20 asymptomatic HIV-1-infected Thais. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from each study participant and fused with SPYMEG cells. Culture supernatant collected from growing hybridomas was tested for neutralizing activity against HIV-1 CRF01_AE Env-recombinant viruses. Fifty hybridomas expressing anti-HIV-1 NhMAbs with strong neutralizing activity against at least 1 CRF01_AE Env-recombinant virus were found. A positive association between the numbers of hybridomas produced and the CD4 counts of study participants (p = 0.019) was observed. NhMAb-producing hybridomas with strong neutralizing activity were mostly found in participans diagnosed with HIV-1 infection within the previous 1 year. The HIV-1 viral load was not significantly correlated with the numbers of either established hybridomas or clones expressing anti-HIV-1 NhMAbs with strong neutralizing activity. To our knowledge, this is the first study of NhMAb-producing hybridomas obtained from HIV-1 CRF01_AE-infected populations identified by antibody binding to HIV-1 V3 loop peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or TRUGENE HIV-1 Genotyping Assay (HIV-1 pol sequence). It provides important criterion to slect study participants with high CD4 counts who produce large numbers of hybridoma clones. The results are valuable for further studies related to nurtalizing antibodies production and HIV-1 vaccine development.

  6. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity.

    PubMed

    Jadoon, Saima; Karim, Sabiha; Bin Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan; Akram, Muhammad Rouf; Khan, Abida Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye; Murtaza, Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed.

  7. Restoring Effects of Natural Anti-Oxidant Quercetin on Cellular Senescent Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Eun-Ju; Kim, Jung Min; Kang, Se-Hui; Kwon, Joseph; An, Hyun Joo; Sung, Jung-Suk; Cho, Kyung A; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon

    2018-05-08

    The oxidative damage initiated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a major contributor to the functional decline and disability that characterizes aging. The anti-oxidant flavonoid, quercetin, is a plant polyphenol that may be beneficial for retarding the aging process. We examined the restoring properties of quercetin on human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs). Quercetin directly reduced either intracellular or extracellular ROS levels in aged HDFs. To find the aging-related target genes by quercetin, microarray analysis was performed and two up-regulated genes LPL and KCNE2 were identified. Silencing LPL increased the expression levels of senescence proteins such as p16 INK4A and p53 and silencing KCNE2 reversed gene expressions of EGR1 and p-ERK in quercetin-treated aged HDFs. Silencing of LPL and KCNE2 decreased the expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and catalase. Also, the mitochondrial dysfunction in aged HDFs was ameliorated by quercetin treatment. Taken together, these results suggest that quercetin has restoring effect on the cellular senescence by down-regulation of senescence activities and up-regulation of the gene expressions of anti-oxidant enzymes in aged HDFs.

  8. Three human chromosomal autoantigens are recognized by sera from patients with anti-centromere antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Earnshaw, W; Bordwell, B; Marino, C; Rothfield, N

    1986-01-01

    We have identified 39 individuals with anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) in our patient population, all of whom have Raynaud's syndrome or disease. We have used sera from the ACA-positive patients and from 123 controls (22 normal individuals and 101 additional patients with either Raynaud's disease or Raynaud's syndrome plus an associated connective tissue disease) to screen the proteins of highly purified human (HeLa) mitotic chromosomes by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Three antigens were recognized by the sera from the ACA-positive patients. These were centromere protein (CENP)-B (80,000 mol wt--recognized by all ACA-positive sera), CENP-A (17,000 mol wt--recognized by 38 of 39 ACA-positive sera), and CENP-C (140,000 mol wt--recognized by 37 of 39 ACA-positive sera). None of these antigens were recognized by any of the 123 control sera, although binding was occasionally seen to other chromosomal antigens. Therefore the ACA response is highly uniform in our patient population. Antibody to CENP-B shows a 100% correlation with anti-centromere staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Images PMID:3511098

  9. Three human chromosomal autoantigens are recognized by sera from patients with anti-centromere antibodies.

    PubMed

    Earnshaw, W; Bordwell, B; Marino, C; Rothfield, N

    1986-02-01

    We have identified 39 individuals with anti-centromere antibodies (ACA) in our patient population, all of whom have Raynaud's syndrome or disease. We have used sera from the ACA-positive patients and from 123 controls (22 normal individuals and 101 additional patients with either Raynaud's disease or Raynaud's syndrome plus an associated connective tissue disease) to screen the proteins of highly purified human (HeLa) mitotic chromosomes by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Three antigens were recognized by the sera from the ACA-positive patients. These were centromere protein (CENP)-B (80,000 mol wt--recognized by all ACA-positive sera), CENP-A (17,000 mol wt--recognized by 38 of 39 ACA-positive sera), and CENP-C (140,000 mol wt--recognized by 37 of 39 ACA-positive sera). None of these antigens were recognized by any of the 123 control sera, although binding was occasionally seen to other chromosomal antigens. Therefore the ACA response is highly uniform in our patient population. Antibody to CENP-B shows a 100% correlation with anti-centromere staining by indirect immunofluorescence.

  10. Anti-Aging Potential of Phytoextract Loaded-Pharmaceutical Creams for Human Skin Cell Longetivity

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Sabiha; Asad, Muhammad Hassham Hassan Bin; Kalsoom Khan, Abida; Malik, Arif; Chen, Chunye

    2015-01-01

    The exposure to ultraviolet radiations (UVR) is the key source of skin sunburn; it may produce harmful entities, reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to aging. The skin can be treated and protected from the injurious effects of ROS by using various pharmaceutical formulations, such as cream. Cream can be loaded with antioxidants to quench ROS leading to photo-protective effects. Moreover, modern medicines depend on ethnobotanicals for protection or treatment of human diseases. This review article summarizes various in vivo antioxidant studies on herbal creams loaded with phyto-extracts. These formulations may serve as cosmeceuticals to protect skin against injurious effects of UVR. The botanicals studied for dermatologic use in cream form include Acacia nilotica, Benincasa hispida, Calendula officinalis, Camellia sinensis, Camellia sinensis, Nelumbo nucifera, Capparis decidua, Castanea sativa, Coffea arabica, Crocus sativus, Emblica officinalis Gaertn, Foeniculum vulgare, Hippophae rhamnoides, Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Malus domestica, Matricaria chamomilla L., Moringa oleifera, Morus alba, Ocimum basilicum, Oryza sativa, Polygonum minus, Punica granatum, Silybum marianum, Tagetes erecta Linn., Terminalia chebula, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Vitis vinifera. The observed anti-aging effects of cream formulations could be an outcome of a coordinating action of multiple constituents. Of numerous botanicals, the phenolic acids and flavonoids appear effective against UVR-induced damage; however the evidence-based studies for their anti-aging effects are still needed. PMID:26448818

  11. DaMab-2: Anti-Human DGKα Monoclonal Antibody for Immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Tomoyuki; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Hozumi, Yasukazu; Mizuno, Satoru; Satoh, Eri; Sakane, Fumio; Okada, Naoki; Taketomi, Akinobu; Honma, Ryusuke; Nakamura, Takuro; Saidoh, Noriko; Yanaka, Miyuki; Itai, Shunsuke; Handa, Saori; Chang, Yao-Wen; Yamada, Shinji; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari; Goto, Kaoru

    2017-08-01

    Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) is responsible for the enzymatic conversion of diacylglycerol to phosphatidic acid. Since both diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid serve as signaling molecules, DGK is regarded as a hub between diacylglycerol-mediated and phosphatidic acid-mediated signaling. One of the 10 DGK isozymes, DGKα, is shown to be involved in T cell function. Transfection studies using tagged expression vectors revealed that DGKα localizes to the cytoplasm and nucleus and translocates to the plasma membrane in response to T cell receptor stimulation. However, a limited number of studies reported the localization of native protein of DGKα in tissues and cells. In this study, we immunized mice with recombinant DGKα and developed several anti-DGKα monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). One of the established anti-DGKα mAbs is a clone DaMab-2 (mouse IgG 1 , kappa). In enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, DaMab-2 recognized only DGKα, and did not react with the other isozymes, such as DGKγ, DGKζ, DGKη, and DGKδ. Importantly, DaMab-2 is very useful in immunocytochemical analysis of human cultured cells, indicating that DaMab-2 is advantageous to analyze the localization and function of DGKα.

  12. Aronia melanocarpa fruit extract exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in human aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zapolska-Downar, D; Bryk, D; Małecki, M; Hajdukiewicz, K; Sitkiewicz, D

    2012-08-01

    Altered expression of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) has been implicated in a variety of chronic inflammatory conditions, including atherosclerosis. Regulation of adhesion molecule expression by specific redox-sensitive mechanisms has been reported. Additionally, it has been observed that the extract of Aronia melanocarpa (A. Melanocarpa) fruits, rich in polyphenols, exhibits potent anti-oxidant properties and displays cardioprotective activity. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were pretreated with various concentrations (primarily 50 μg/mL) of Aronia Melanocarpa fruit extract prior to treatment with TNFα (10 ng/mL) for various periods of time. The surface protein and mRNA expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were determined using flow cytometry and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear leucocytes (PBMLs) to TNFα-treated HAECs was evaluated by an adhesion assay. Activation of NF-κB was evaluated by measuring NF-κB p65 phosphorylation using flow cytometry. ROS production was determined by reduction in fluorescent 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). Tested A. Melanocarpa extract significantly inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, attenuated the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 and decreased intracellular ROS production in TNFα-treated HAECs. We conclude that A. Melanocarpa fruit extract exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in HAECs by inhibiting the expression of endothelial CAMs, activation of NF-κB and production of ROS.

  13. Evaluation of anti-hepatocarcinoma capacity of puerarin nanosuspensions against human HepG2 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Xiang-Ping; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Yi-Fei; Wang, Zhi-ping; Chen, Tong-sheng

    2017-02-01

    Hepatocarcinoma, a malignant cancer, threaten human life badly. It is a current issue to seek the effective natural remedy from plant to treat cancer due to the resistance of the advanced hepatocarcinoma to chemotherapy. Puerarin (Pue), a major active ingredient in the traditional Chinese medicine Gegen, has a wide range of pharmacological properties and is considered to have anti-hepatocarcinoma effects. However its low oral bioavailability restricts its wide application. In this report, Pue nanosuspension (Pue-NS) composed of Pue and poloxamer 188 was prepared by high pressure homogenization technique. The in vitro anti-hepatocarcinoma effects of Pue-NS relative to efficacy of bulk Pue were evaluated. The particle size and zeta potential of Pue-NS were 218.5 nm and -18.8 mV, respectively. MTT assay showed that Pue-NS effectively inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells, and the corresponding IC50 values of Pue-NS and bulk Pue were 3.39 and 5.73 μg/ml. These results suggest that the delivery of Pue-NS is a promising approach for treating tumors.

  14. Immunotherapy of Alzheimer's disease (AD): from murine models to anti-amyloid beta (Abeta) human monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Geylis, Valeria; Steinitz, Michael

    2006-01-01

    The deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) protein is a key pathological feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In murine models of AD, both active and passive immunization against Abeta induce a marked reduction in amyloid brain burden and an improvement in cognitive functions. Preliminary results of a prematurely terminated clinical trial where AD patients were actively vaccinated with aggregated Abeta bear resemblance to those documented in murine models. Passive immunization of AD patients with anti-Abeta antibodies, in particular human antibodies, is a strategy that provides a more cautious management and control of any undesired side effects. Sera of all healthy adults contain anti-Abeta IgG autoimmune antibodies. Hence antigen-committed human B-cells are easily immortalized by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) into anti-Abeta secreting cell lines. Two anti-Abeta human monoclonal antibodies which we recently prepared bind to the N-terminus of Abeta peptide and were shown to stain amyloid plaques in non-fixed brain sections from an AD patient. It is anticipated that specifically selected anti-Abeta human monoclonal antibodies could reduce and inhibit deposits of amyloid in brain while avoiding the cognitive decline that characterizes AD. In the future, this type of antibody may prove to be a promising immune therapy for the disease.

  15. QSAR modeling for anti-human African trypanosomiasis activity of substituted 2-Phenylimidazopyridines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masand, Vijay H.; El-Sayed, Nahed N. E.; Mahajan, Devidas T.; Mercader, Andrew G.; Alafeefy, Ahmed M.; Shibi, I. G.

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, sixty substituted 2-Phenylimidazopyridines previously reported with potent anti-human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) activity were selected to build genetic algorithm (GA) based QSAR models to determine the structural features that have significant correlation with the activity. Multiple QSAR models were built using easily interpretable descriptors that are directly associated with the presence or the absence of a structural scaffold, or a specific atom. All the QSAR models have been thoroughly validated according to the OECD principles. All the QSAR models are statistically very robust (R2 = 0.80-0.87) with high external predictive ability (CCCex = 0.81-0.92). The QSAR analysis reveals that the HAT activity has good correlation with the presence of five membered rings in the molecule.

  16. Expression of Anti-apoptotic Protein BAG3 in Human Sebaceous Gland Carcinoma of the Eyelid.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Tatsuya; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), has been shown to play a role in anti-apoptosis of various malignant tumors. In this study, the expression of BAG3 was examined in human sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. The expression of BAG3 was evaluated by immunohistochemistry of surgical samples from 5 patients with sebaceous gland carcinoma in the eyelid. BAG3 was positive diffusely in the cytoplasm in all patients. The average positive rate of BAG3 was 73.0±26.0% in tumor cells of all patients. BAG3 was highly expressed in sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. BAG3 may play an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of sebaceous gland carcinoma of the eyelid. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Ta1722, an anti-angiogenesis inhibitor targeted on VEGFR-2 against human hepatoma.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Lei; He, Xu; Ma, Weina; Dai, Bingling; Zhan, Yingzhuan; Zhang, Yanmin

    2012-10-01

    In order to investigate the anti-angiogenesis potential and related mechanisms of Ta1722 (a novel taspine derivative compound), a series of experiments in vivo and in vitro were carried out. The proliferation on human cell lines of SMMC-7721, A549, MCF-7, Lovo, and ECV304 was examined by MTT. Angiogenesis inhibition was examined by chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) angiogenesis and tube formation assays. Related angiogenesis proteins and their mRNA expression were determined by western blotting and RT-PCR. In addition, the SMMC-7721 nude mouse xenotransplant model was used to evaluate the inhibition of tumor growth. The results showed that Ta1722 inhibited cell proliferation, angiogenesis of CAM and tube formation, and downregulated related positive angiogenesis proteins. The above indicated Ta1722 could serve as a promising candidate of angiogenesis inhibitors by interrupting the VEGF/VEGFR-2 pathway. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Amino acids exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in human monocytic leukemia cell line, THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Shunji; Ichiyama, Takashi; Sonaka, Ichiro; Ohsaki, Ayami; Hirano, Reiji; Haneda, Yasuhiro; Fukano, Reiji; Hara, Masami; Furukawa, Susumu

    2011-11-01

    The elemental diet is one of the effective therapies for inflammatory bowel disease. However, the mechanism remains unclear, and there have never been reports about the inhibitory effects of amino acids in human monocytes/macrophages. We investigated the inhibitory effects of amino acids on cytokine production or expression of adhesion molecules that are involved in inflammatory diseases, in human monocytes/macrophages. We examined the inhibitory effects of cysteine, histidine or glycine on the induction of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54) and production of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in THP-1 cells, a human monocytic leukemia cell line, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Cysteine, histidine and glycine significantly reduced the activation of NF-κB in THP-1 cells stimulated with TNF-α. In addition, cysteine and histidine significantly inhibited the expression of ICAM-1 and production of IL-8 in THP-1 cells and PBMCs. Our results suggest that cysteine and histidine exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells, and may be responsible for the efficacy of treatment in inflammatory bowel diseases.

  19. Structural basis for the antibody neutralization of Herpes simplex virus

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Cheng-Chung; Lin, Li-Ling; Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan

    2013-10-01

    The gD–E317-Fab complex crystal revealed the conformational epitope of human mAb E317 on HSV gD, providing a molecular basis for understanding the viral neutralization mechanism. Glycoprotein D (gD) of Herpes simplex virus (HSV) binds to a host cell surface receptor, which is required to trigger membrane fusion for virion entry into the host cell. gD has become a validated anti-HSV target for therapeutic antibody development. The highly inhibitory human monoclonal antibody E317 (mAb E317) was previously raised against HSV gD for viral neutralization. To understand the structural basis of antibody neutralization, crystals of the gD ectodomain bound to the E317more » Fab domain were obtained. The structure of the complex reveals that E317 interacts with gD mainly through the heavy chain, which covers a large area for epitope recognition on gD, with a flexible N-terminal and C-terminal conformation. The epitope core structure maps to the external surface of gD, corresponding to the binding sites of two receptors, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and nectin-1, which mediate HSV infection. E317 directly recognizes the gD–nectin-1 interface and occludes the HVEM contact site of gD to block its binding to either receptor. The binding of E317 to gD also prohibits the formation of the N-terminal hairpin of gD for HVEM recognition. The major E317-binding site on gD overlaps with either the nectin-1-binding residues or the neutralizing antigenic sites identified thus far (Tyr38, Asp215, Arg222 and Phe223). The epitopes of gD for E317 binding are highly conserved between two types of human herpesvirus (HSV-1 and HSV-2). This study enables the virus-neutralizing epitopes to be correlated with the receptor-binding regions. The results further strengthen the previously demonstrated therapeutic and diagnostic potential of the E317 antibody.« less

  20. Docking of anti-HIV-1 oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone derivatives as potential HSV-1 DNA polymerase inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoneda, Julliane Diniz; Albuquerque, Magaly Girão; Leal, Kátia Zaccur; Santos, Fernanda da Costa; Batalha, Pedro Netto; Brozeguini, Leonardo; Seidl, Peter R.; de Alencastro, Ricardo Bicca; Cunha, Anna Cláudia; de Souza, Maria Cecília B. V.; Ferreira, Vitor F.; Giongo, Viveca A.; Cirne-Santos, Cláudio; Paixão, Izabel C. P.

    2014-09-01

    Although there are many antiviral drugs available for the treatment of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections, still the synthesis of new anti-HSV candidates is an important strategy to be pursued, due to the emergency of resistant HSV strains mainly in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infected patients. Some 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinolines, such as PNU-183792 (1), show a broad spectrum antiviral activity against human herpes viruses, inhibiting the viral DNA polymerase (POL) without affecting the human POLs. Thus, on an ongoing antiviral research project, our group has synthesized ribonucleosides containing the 1,4-dihydro-4-oxoquinoline (quinolone) heterocyclic moiety, such as the 6-Cl derivative (2), which is a dual antiviral agent (HSV-1 and HIV-1). Molecular dynamics simulations of the complexes of 1 and 2 with the HSV-1 POL suggest that structural modifications of 2 should increase its experimental anti-HSV-1 activity, since its ribosyl and carboxyl groups are highly hydrophilic to interact with a hydrophobic pocket of this enzyme. Therefore, in this work, comparative molecular docking simulations of 1 and three new synthesized oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone HIV-1 inhibitors (3-5), which do not contain those hydrophilic groups, were carried out, in order to access these modifications in the proposition of new potential anti-HSV-1 agents, but maintaining the anti-HIV-1 activity. Among the docked compounds, the oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone 3 is the best candidate for an anti-HSV-1 agent, and, in addition, it showed anti-HIV-1 activity (EC50 = 3.4 ± 0.3 μM). Compounds 2 and 3 were used as templates in the design of four new oxoquinoline-acylhydrazones (6-9) as potential anti-HSV-1 agents to increase the antiviral activity of 2. Among the docked compounds, oxoquinoline-acylhydrazone 7 was selected as the best candidate for further development of dual anti-HIV/HSV activity.

  1. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    James, Scott H; Kimberlin, David W

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex virus (HSV) 1 and HSV-2 infections are highly prevalent worldwide and are characterized by establishing lifelong infection with periods of latency interspersed with periodic episodes of reactivation. Acquisition of HSV by an infant during the peripartum or postpartum period results in neonatal HSV disease, a rare but significant infection that can be associated with severe morbidity and mortality, especially if there is dissemination or central nervous system involvement. Diagnostic and therapeutic advances have led to improvements in mortality and, to a lesser extent, neurodevelopmental outcomes, but room exists for further improvement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Neonatal herpes simplex virus infections.

    PubMed

    Pinninti, Swetha G; Kimberlin, David W

    2018-04-01

    Neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV) is an uncommon but devastating infection in the newborn, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The use of PCR for identification of infected infants and acyclovir for treatment has significantly improved the prognosis for affected infants. The subsequent use of suppressive therapy with oral acyclovir following completion of parenteral treatment of acute disease has further enhanced the long-term prognosis for these infants. This review article will discuss the epidemiology, risk factors and routes of acquisition, clinical presentation, and evaluation of an infant suspected to have the infection, and treatment of proven neonatal HSV disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Herpes Mastitis: Diagnosis and Management.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Arnaud; Simonson, Colin; Valla, Christian

    2016-05-01

    Herpetic lesions most frequently occur on oral and genital areas. However, herpes simplex virus (HSV) can be a rare cause of breast infection. In few published articles, the route of transmission is predominantly from infant to mother. We report two cases about simultaneous mammary and extramammary (oral and genital) herpetic infection in nonlactating women. In both cases, HSV breast lesions were acquired by sexual contacts with partners who were asymptomatic HSV carriers. Through a review of literature, we highlight clinical signs for an early diagnosis. We also emphasize the advantage of the valacyclovir for treating this uncommon pathology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity in the Low Molecular Weight Fraction of Commercial Human Serum Albumin (LMWF5A).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Gregory W; Rael, Leonard T; Mains, Charles W; Slone, Denetta; Carrick, Matthew M; Bar-Or, Raphael; Bar-Or, David

    2016-01-01

    The innate immune system is increasingly being recognized as a critical component in osteoarthritis (OA) pathophysiology. An ex vivo immunoassay utilizing human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was developed in order to assess the OA anti-inflammatory properties of the low molecular weight fraction (<5 kDa) of commercial human serum albumin (LMWF5A). PBMC from various donors were pre-incubated with LMWF5A before LPS stimulation. TNFα release was measured by ELISA in supernatants after an overnight incubation. A ≥ 30% decrease in TNFα release was observed. This anti-inflammatory effect is potentially useful in assessing potency of LMWF5A for the treatment of OA.

  5. The establishment of a WHO Reference Reagent for anti-malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) human serum.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Donna; Silva, Nilupa; Rigsby, Peter; Dougall, Thomas; Corran, Patrick; Bowyer, Paul W; Ho, Mei Mei

    2017-08-05

    At a World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored meeting it was concluded that there is an urgent need for a reference preparation that contains antibodies against malaria antigens in order to support serology studies and vaccine development. It was proposed that this reference would take the form of a lyophilized serum or plasma pool from a malaria-endemic area. In response, an immunoassay standard, comprising defibrinated human plasma has been prepared and evaluated in a collaborative study. A pool of human plasma from a malaria endemic region was collected from 140 single plasma donations selected for reactivity to Plasmodium falciparum apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) and merozoite surface proteins (MSP-1 19 , MSP-1 42 , MSP-2 and MSP-3). This pool was defibrinated, filled and freeze dried into a single batch of ampoules to yield a stable source of naturally occurring antibodies to P. falciparum. The preparation was evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a collaborative study with sixteen participants from twelve different countries. This anti-malaria human serum preparation (NIBSC Code: 10/198) was adopted by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in October 2014, as the first WHO reference reagent for anti-malaria (Plasmodium falciparum) human serum with an assigned arbitrary unitage of 100 units (U) per ampoule. Analysis of the reference reagent in a collaborative study has demonstrated the benefit of this preparation for the reduction in inter- and intra-laboratory variability in ELISA. Whilst locally sourced pools are regularly use for harmonization both within and between a few laboratories, the presence of a WHO-endorsed reference reagent should enable optimal harmonization of malaria serological assays either by direct use of the reference reagent or calibration of local standards against this WHO reference. The intended uses of this reference reagent, a multivalent preparation, are (1) to allow cross

  6. The reactivities of human erythrocyte autoantibodies anti-Pr2, anti-Gd, Fl and Sa with gangliosides in a chromatogram binding assay.

    PubMed Central

    Uemura, K; Roelcke, D; Nagai, Y; Feizi, T

    1984-01-01

    The thin layer chromatogram binding assay was used to study the reaction of several natural-monoclonal autoantibodies which recognize sialic acid-dependent antigens of human erythrocytes. Immunostaining of gangliosides derived from human and bovine erythrocytes was achieved with four autoantibodies designated anti-Pr2, anti-Gd, Sa and Fl, each of which has a different haemagglutination pattern with untreated and proteinase-treated erythrocytes and with cells of I and i antigen types. From the chromatogram binding patterns of anti-Pr2 with gangliosides of the neolacto and the ganglio series, it is deduced that this antibody reacts best with N-acetylneuraminic acid when it is alpha 2-3- or alpha 2-6-linked to a terminal Gal(beta 1-4)Glc/GlcNAc GlcNAc sequence and to a lesser extent when it is alpha 2-3-linked to a terminal Gal(beta 1-3)GalNAc sequence or to an internal galactose and when it is alpha 2-8-linked to another, internal N-acetylneuraminic acid residue. The other three antibodies differ from anti-Pr2 in their lack of reaction with glycolipids of the ganglio series. They react with the NeuAc(alpha 2-3)Gal(beta 1-4)Glc/GlcNAc sequence as found in GM3 and in glycolipids of the neolacto series, but show a preference for the latter, longer sequences. Thus all four antibodies react with sialylated oligosaccharides containing i type (linear) and I type (branched) neolacto backbones. Fl antibody differs from the other three in its stronger reaction with branched neolacto sequences in accordance with its stronger agglutination of erythrocytes of I rather than i type. The four antibodies show a specificity for N-acetyl- rather than N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6204642

  7. The genital herpes problem in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Guerra, B; Puccetti, C; Cervi, F

    2012-10-01

    Genital herpes is a common sexually transmitted infection. In reproductive age it involves the additional risk of vertical transmission to the neonate. Rates of transmission are affected by the viral type and whether the infection around delivery is primary or recurrent. Neonatal herpes is a rare but very severe complication of genital herpes infection and is caused by contact with infected genital secretions at the time of labor. Maternal acquisition of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in the third trimester of pregnancy carries the highest risk of neonatal transmission. Prevention of neonatal herpes depends on preventing acquisition of genital HSV infection during late pregnancy and avoiding exposure of the infant to herpetic lesions during delivery. Uninfected woman should be counselled about the need of avoiding sexual contact during the third trimester. Elective caesarean section before the onset of labor is the choice mode of delivery for women with genital lesions or with prodromal symptoms near the term, even if it offers only a partial protection against neonatal infection. Antiviral suppressive therapy is used from 36 weeks of gestation until delivery in pregnant women with recurrences to prevent genital lesions at the time of labor so reducing the need of caesarean sections. Currently, routine maternal serologic screening is not yet recommended. Because most mothers of infants who acquire neonatal herpes lack histories of clinically evident genital herpes, researchers should focus on the recognition of asymptomatic primary genital HSV infections.

  8. MAFB Determines Human Macrophage Anti-Inflammatory Polarization: Relevance for the Pathogenic Mechanisms Operating in Multicentric Carpotarsal Osteolysis.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Víctor D; Anta, Laura; Samaniego, Rafael; Orta-Zavalza, Emmanuel; Vladimir de la Rosa, Juan; Baujat, Geneviève; Domínguez-Soto, Ángeles; Sánchez-Mateos, Paloma; Escribese, María M; Castrillo, Antonio; Cormier-Daire, Valérie; Vega, Miguel A; Corbí, Ángel L

    2017-03-01

    Macrophage phenotypic and functional heterogeneity derives from tissue-specific transcriptional signatures shaped by the local microenvironment. Most studies addressing the molecular basis for macrophage heterogeneity have focused on murine cells, whereas the factors controlling the functional specialization of human macrophages are less known. M-CSF drives the generation of human monocyte-derived macrophages with a potent anti-inflammatory activity upon stimulation. We now report that knockdown of MAFB impairs the acquisition of the anti-inflammatory profile of human macrophages, identify the MAFB-dependent gene signature in human macrophages and illustrate the coexpression of MAFB and MAFB-target genes in CD163 + tissue-resident and tumor-associated macrophages. The contribution of MAFB to the homeostatic/anti-inflammatory macrophage profile is further supported by the skewed polarization of monocyte-derived macrophages from multicentric carpotarsal osteolysis (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man #166300), a pathology caused by mutations in the MAFB gene. Our results demonstrate that MAFB critically determines the acquisition of the anti-inflammatory transcriptional and functional profiles of human macrophages. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  9. A human anti-dsDNA monoclonal antibody caused hyaline thrombi formation in kidneys of ‘leaky’ SCID mice

    PubMed Central

    Mason, L J; Ravirajan, C T; Latchman, D S; Isenberg, D A

    2001-01-01

    There are few studies assessing the pathogenicity of human monoclonal anti-DNA antibodies. The use of SCID mice avoids the problem of rejection of the human hybridoma cells thus allowing in vivo assessment of human immunoglobulins. Using electron microscopy we have shown that the human IgG anti-dsDNA monoclonal antibody, RH14, is nephritogenic in SCID mice, causing morphological changes in the kidney due to immunoglobulin deposition. The problem with using SCID mice is that they have an abnormal immune system; normally they are used at about 2 months of age, at which time they have virtually no functional T or B cells. It is known that older SCID mice become increasingly ‘leaky’, that is they develop some mature lymphocyte clones. Our aim was to assess if implanting anti-DNA antibodies into older ‘leaky’ SCID mice would result in pathology which was observable by light microscopy. Eight-month-old SCID mice were implanted with human hybridoma cells secreting either RH14 an anti-dsDNA IgG, CL24, an antiphospholipid antibody or an irrelevant human IgG control. As previously, RH14 deposited in the kidney and caused proteinuria but unexpectedly we also observed hyaline thrombi in the kidney glomeruli and peritubular capillaries. These thrombi occurred only in the case of RH14 implanted mice and were found to stain positively for human IgG and fibrin. However, apart from the interesting thrombi, we did not observe any greater pathological damage resulting from the anti-dsDNA antibody deposition than we had seen in the younger mice; indeed, the electron microscopic findings were more limited. PMID:11678910

  10. Latent Herpes Viruses Reactivation in Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Pierson, Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight has many adverse effects on human physiology. Changes in multiple systems, including the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, endocrine, and immune systems have occurred (12, 32, 38, 39). Alterations in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics (12), nutritional needs (31), renal stone formation (40), and microbial flora (2) have also been reported. Evidence suggests that the magnitude of some changes may increase with time in space. A variety of changes in immunity have been reported during both short (.16 days) and long (>30 days) space missions. However, it is difficult to determine the medical significance of these immunological changes in astronauts. Astronauts are in excellent health and in superb physical condition. Illnesses in astronauts during space flight are not common, are generally mild, and rarely affect mission objectives. In an attempt to clarify this issue, we identified the latent herpes viruses as medically important indicators of the effects of space flight on immunity. This chapter demonstrates that space flight leads to asymptomatic reactivation of latent herpes viruses, and proposes that this results from marked changes in neuroendocrine function and immunity caused by the inherent stressfullness of human space flight. Astronauts experience uniquely stressful environments during space flight. Potential stressors include confinement in an unfamiliar, crowded environment, isolation, separation from family, anxiety, fear, sleep deprivation, psychosocial issues, physical exertion, noise, variable acceleration forces, increased radiation, and others. Many of these are intermittent and variable in duration and intensity, but variable gravity forces (including transitions from launch acceleration to microgravity and from microgravity to planetary gravity) and variable radiation levels are part of each mission and contribute to a stressful environment that cannot be duplicated on Earth. Radiation outside the Earth

  11. Human Asymptomatic Epitopes Identified from the Herpes Simplex Virus Tegument Protein VP13/14 (UL47) Preferentially Recall Polyfunctional Effector Memory CD44high CD62Llow CD8+ TEM Cells and Protect Humanized HLA-A*02:01 Transgenic Mice against Ocular Herpesvirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A; Garg, Sumit; Syed, Sabrina A; Furness, Julie N; Vahed, Hawa; Pham, Tiffany; Yu, Howard T; Nesburn, Anthony B; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2017-01-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is widespread among humans. The HSV-1 virion protein 13/14 (VP13/14), also known as UL47, is a tegument antigen targeted by CD8 + T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether VP13/14-specific CD8 + T cells play a role in the natural protection seen in asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (individuals who have never had a clinical herpetic disease) has not been elucidated. Using predictive computer-assisted algorithms, we identified 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8 + T-cell epitopes from the 693-amino-acid sequence of the VP13/14 protein. Three out of 10 epitopes exhibited a high to moderate affinity of binding to soluble HLA-A*02:01 molecules. The phenotype and function of CD8 + T cells specific for each epitope were compared in HLA-A*02:01-positive ASYMP individuals and symptomatic (SYMP) individuals (individuals who have frequent clinical herpetic diseases) using determination of a combination of tetramer frequency and the levels of granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, gamma interferon, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and interleukin-2 production and CD107 a/b cytotoxic degranulation. High frequencies of multifunctional CD8 + T cells directed against three epitopes, VP13/14 from amino acids 286 to 294 (VP13/14 286-294 ), VP13/14 from amino acids 504 to 512 (VP13/14 504-512 ), and VP13/14 from amino acids 544 to 552 (VP13/14 544-552 ), were detected in ASYMP individuals, while only low frequencies were detected in SYMP individuals. The three epitopes also predominantly recalled more CD45RA low CD44 high CCR7 low CD62L low CD8 + effector memory T cells (T EM cells) in ASYMP individuals than SYMP individuals. Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three CD8 + T EM -cell epitopes from ASYMP individuals induced robust and polyfunctional HSV-specific CD8 + T EM cells associated with strong protective immunity against ocular herpesvirus infection and disease. Our findings outline the phenotypic

  12. Update on herpes zoster vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Marla; Kvern, Brent; Watson, Peter; Guenther, Lyn; McElhaney, Janet; McGeer, Allison

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To answer frequently asked questions surrounding the use of the new herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine. Sources of information Published results of clinical trials and other studies, recommendations from the Canadian National Advisory Committee on Immunization, and the US Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices; data were also obtained from the vaccine’s Health Canada–approved product monograph. Main message Herpes zoster results from reactivation of the varicella-zoster virus; postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is its most common and serious complication. The incidence of PHN after HZ is directly related to age, with 50% of affected individuals older than 60 years experiencing persistent and unrelieved pain. The live virus HZ vaccine reduces the incidence of HZ by about 50% and the occurrence of PHN by two-thirds, with vaccinated individuals experiencing attenuated or shortened symptoms. The vaccine is contraindicated in many immunocompromised patients and might not be effective in patients taking antiviral medications active against the HZ virus. Physicians should be aware of the different recommendations for these groups. Conclusion The HZ vaccine is a safe and effective preventive measure for reducing the overall burden and severity of HZ in older adults. The vaccine appears to be cost-effective when administered to adults aged 60 years and older. PMID:21998225

  13. Urinary retention associated with herpes zoster infection.

    PubMed

    Cohen, L M; Fowler, J F; Owen, L G; Callen, J P

    1993-01-01

    Herpes zoster infection particularly involving the sacral dermatomes has been associated with bladder and bowel dysfunction, most commonly urinary retention. We report two patients who developed acute urinary retention, one of whom also had constipation, within days of herpes zoster skin lesions of the S2-S4 dermatomes. Herpes zoster is a reversible cause of neurogenic bladder and bowel dysfunction and should be considered in a patient that presents with acute urinary retention and/or constipation. Sensory abnormalities and flaccid detrusor paralysis are most likely involved in the pathogenesis.

  14. Genital herpes simplex virus infections in adults.

    PubMed

    Mertz, G; Corey, L

    1984-02-01

    With the decline in prevalence of childhood-acquired oral-labial herpes simplex type 1 infections in some populations and the increasing incidence of genital herpes infections in adults, clinicians are more likely to see patients with severe primary, first-episode genital herpes infections. Complications of these primary infections may include aseptic meningitis and urine retention secondary to sacral radiculopathy or autonomic dysfunction. Presented are the clinical course of first-episode and recurrent infections, complications, diagnostic laboratory methods, and results of controlled clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of topical, intravenous, and oral preparations of acyclovir.

  15. Vibrio vulnificus necrotizing fasciitis preceding herpes zoster

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Kelli Y.; Tyring, Stephen K.

    2013-01-01

    A 74-year-old white man presented with unilateral radicular pain extending across the left side of his chest and back. A diagnosis of postherpetic neuralgia, a sequela of herpes zoster, was made. Herpes zoster represents a reactivation of the varicella zoster virus that lies dormant in patients with past chickenpox. Risk factors for the disease include advanced age, stress, immunodeficiency, and immunosuppression. Treatment of herpes zoster entails traditional antiviral medications, while prevention may be achieved with a new prophylactic vaccine. PMID:23382617

  16. Anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract in human chondrocytes and macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shengqian Q; Otero, Miguel; Unger, Frank M; Goldring, Mary B; Phrutivorapongkul, Ampai; Chiari, Catharina; Kolb, Alexander; Viernstein, Helmut; Toegel, Stefan

    2011-11-18

    Caesalpinia sappan is a common remedy in Traditional Chinese Medicine and possesses diverse biological activities including anti-inflammatory properties. Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease with an inflammatory component that drives the degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix. In order to provide a scientific basis for the applicability of Caesalpinia sappan in arthritic diseases, the present study aimed to assess the effects of an ethanolic Caesalpinia sappan extract (CSE) on human chondrocytes and macrophages. Primary human chondrocytes were isolated from cartilage specimens of OA patients. Primary cells, SW1353 chondrocytes and THP-1 macrophages were serum-starved and pretreated with different concentrations of CSE prior to stimulation with 10 ng/ml of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Following viability tests, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were evaluated by Griess assay and ELISA, respectively. Using validated real-time PCR assays, mRNA levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were quantified. SW1353 cells were cotransfected with a COX-2 luciferase reporter plasmid and nuclear factor-kappa-B (NF-κB) p50 and p65 expression vectors in the presence or absence of CSE. CSE dose-dependently inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes and LPS-stimulated THP-1 macrophages. CSE further suppressed the synthesis of NO in primary OA chondrocytes by blocking iNOS mRNA expression. The inhibition of COX-2 transcription was found to be related with the CSE inhibition of the p65/p50-driven transactivation of the COX-2 promoter. The present report is first to demonstrate the anti-inflammatory activity of CSE in an in vitro cell model of joint inflammation. CSE can effectively abrogate the IL-1β-induced over-expression of inflammatory mediators at the transcriptional level in human

  17. Tyrosol and its metabolites as antioxidative and anti-inflammatory molecules in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Muriana, Francisco J G; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Lucas, Ricardo; Bermudez, Beatriz; Jaramillo, Sara; Morales, Juan C; Abia, Rocio; Lopez, Sergio

    2017-08-01

    Tyrosol (Tyr) is a phenolic compound found in virgin olive oil. After ingestion, Tyr undergoes extensive first pass intestinal/hepatic metabolism. However, knowledge about the biological effects of Tyr metabolites is scarce. We chemically synthesized Tyr glucuronate (Tyr-GLU) and sulphate (Tyr-SUL) metabolites and explored their properties against oxidative stress and inflammation in TNF-α-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (hECs). Tyr and Tyr-SUL prevented the rise of reactive oxygen species, the depletion of glutathione, and the down-regulation of glutathione peroxidase 1, glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit, and heme oxygenase-1 genes. Tyr-SUL and to a lower extent Tyr and Tyr-GLU prevented the phosphorylation of NF-κB signaling proteins. Tyr-GLU and Tyr-SUL also prevented the over-expression of adhesion molecules at gene, protein, and secretory levels, and the adhesion (Tyr-SUL > Tyr-GLU) of human monocytes to hECs. In vivo, Tyr, and most notably Tyr-SUL in a dose-dependent manner, ameliorated plantar and ear edemas in mice models of acute and chronic inflammation. This study demonstrates the antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory properties of Tyr metabolites, with Tyr-SUL being the most effective.

  18. Production and characterization of anti-human IgG F(ab')2 antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Valedkarimi, Zahra; Nasiri, Hadi; Aghebati-Maleki, Leili; Abdolalizadeh, Jalal; Esparvarinha, Mojghan; Majidi, Jafar

    2018-04-10

    In present study an optimized protocol for the separation of antibodies into antigen-binding fragments F(ab')2 using pepsin digestion was investigated. The production of these fragments is a consequential step in the development of medical research, treatment and diagnosis. For production of polyclonal antibody rabbit received antigen in four steps. The rabbit serum at 1/128000 dilution showed high absorbance in reaction with human IgG at the designed ELISA method. Rabbit IgG was purified by Ion-Exchange Chromatography (IEC) method. Purity was assessed by SDS-PAGE method. In non-reduced condition only one band was seen in about 150 kDa MW position and in reduced form, two bands were seen in 50 and 25 kDa MW positions. Rabbit IgG was digested by pepsin enzyme. The antibody fragments solution was applied to Gel filtration column to isolate the F(ab')2. Non-reduced SDS-PAGE for determining the purity of F(ab')2 fragment resulted in one band in 100 kDa corresponds to F(ab')2 fragment and a band in 150 kDa MW position corresponds to undigested IgG antibodies. The activities of FITC conjugated F(ab')2 fragment and commercial ones were compared using flowcytometry method. The activity results implied that the FITC conjugated- anti human F(ab')2 fragment worked as efficiently as the commercial one.

  19. Novel anti-angiogenic effects of formononetin in human colon cancer cells and tumor xenograft.

    PubMed

    Auyeung, Kathy Ka-Wai; Law, Pui-Ching; Ko, Joshua Ka-Shun

    2012-12-01

    Formononetin is a novel herbal isoflavonoid isolated from Astragalus membranaceus, a medicinal plant that possesses antitumorigenic properties. Our previous findings demonstrated that formononetin initiates growth-inhibitory and pro-apoptotic activities in human colon cancer cells. In the present study, we aimed to further examine the potential of formononetin in controlling angiogenesis and tumor cell invasiveness in human colon cancer cells and tumor xenografts. The results showed that formononetin downregulated the expression of the key pro-angiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases. We also discovered that the invasiveness of metastatic colon cancer cells was alleviated following drug treatment. The potential anti-angiogenic effect of formononetin was examined in nude mouse xenografts. The tumor size and the number of proliferating cells were reduced in the tumor tissues obtained from the formononetin-treated group. The serum VEGF level was also reduced in the drug-treated animals when compared to the controls. These findings suggest that formononetin inhibits angiogenesis and tumor cell invasion, and thus support its use in the treatment of advanced and metastatic colon cancers.

  20. Herpes B Virus, Macacine Herpesvirus 1, Breaks Simplex Virus Tradition via Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I Expression in Cells from Human and Macaque Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Vasireddi, Mugdha

    2012-01-01

    B virus of the family Herpesviridae is endemic to rhesus macaques but results in 80% fatality in untreated humans who are zoonotically infected. Downregulation of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I in order to evade CD8+ T-cell activation is characteristic of most herpesviruses. Here we examined the cell surface presence and total protein expression of MHC class I molecules in B virus-infected human foreskin fibroblast cells and macaque kidney epithelial cells in culture, which are representative of foreign and natural host initial target cells of B virus. Our results show <20% downregulation of surface MHC class I molecules in either type of host cells infected with B virus, which is statistically insignificantly different from that observed in uninfected cells. We also examined the surface expression of MHC class Ib molecules, HLA-E and HLA-G, involved in NK cell inhibition. Our results showed significant upregulation of HLA-E and HLA-G in host cells infected with B virus relative to the amounts observed in other herpesvirus-infected cells. These results suggest that B virus-infected cell surfaces maintain normal levels of MHC class Ia molecules, a finding unique among simplex viruses. This is a unique divergence in immune evasion for B virus, which, unlike human simplex viruses, does not inhibit the transport of peptides for loading onto MHC class Ia molecules because B virus ICP47 lacks a transporter-associated protein binding domain. The fact that MHC class Ib molecules were significantly upregulated has additional implications for host-pathogen interactions. PMID:22973043

  1. The ectodomain of a novel member of the immunoglobulin subfamily related to the poliovirus receptor has the attributes of a bona fide receptor for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 in human cells.

    PubMed

    Cocchi, F; Menotti, L; Mirandola, P; Lopez, M; Campadelli-Fiume, G

    1998-12-01

    We report on the functional cloning of a hitherto unknown member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily selected for its ability to confer susceptibility to herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection on a highly resistant cell line (J1.1-2 cells), derived by exposure of BHKtk- cells to a recombinant HSV-1 expressing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha). The sequence of herpesvirus Ig-like receptor (HIgR) predicts a transmembrane protein with an ectodomain consisting of three cysteine-bracketed domains, one V-like and two C-like. HIgR shares its ectodomain with and appears to be an alternative splice variant of the previously described protein PRR-1 (poliovirus receptor-related protein). Both HIgR and PRR-1 conferred on J1.1-2 cells susceptibility to HSV-1, HSV-2, and bovine herpesvirus 1. The viral ligand of HIgR and PRR-1 is glycoprotein D, a constituent of the virion envelope long known to mediate viral entry into cells through interaction with cellular receptor molecules. Recently, PRR-1, renamed HveC (herpesvirus entry mediator C), and the related PRR-2, renamed HveB, were reported to mediate the entry of HSV-1, HSV-2, and bovine herpesvirus 1, and the homologous poliovirus receptor was reported to mediate the entry of pseudorabies virus (R. J. Geraghty, C. Krummenacher, G. H. Cohen, R. J. Eisenberg, and P. G. Spear, Science 280:1618-1620, 1998; M. S. Warner, R. J. Geraghty, W. M. Martinez, R. I. Montgomery, J. C. Whitbeck, R. Xu, R. J. Eisenberg, G. H. Cohen, and P. G. Spear, Virology 246:179-189, 1998). Here we further show that HIgR or PRR-1 proteins detected by using a monoclonal antibody to PRR-1 are widely distributed among human cell lines susceptible to HSV infection and commonly used for HSV studies. The monoclonal antibody neutralized virion infectivity in cells transfected with HIgR or PRR-1 cDNA, as well as in the human cell lines, indicating a direct interaction of virions with the receptor molecule, and preliminarily mapping this function to the

  2. A synthetic cryptochrome inhibitor induces anti-proliferative effects and increases chemosensitivity in human breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Sung Kook; Department of Biological Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747; Department of Brain & Cognitive Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747

    Disruption of circadian rhythm is a major cause of breast cancer in humans. Cryptochrome (CRY), a circadian transcription factor, is a risk factor for initiation of breast cancer, and it is differentially expressed between normal and breast cancer tissues. Here, we evaluated the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of KS15, a recently discovered small-molecule inhibitor of CRY, in human breast cancer cells. First, we investigated whether KS15 treatment could promote E-box-mediated transcription by inhibiting the activity of CRY in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Protein and mRNA levels of regulators of cell cycle and apoptosis, as well as core clock genes,more » were differentially modulated in response to KS15. Next, we investigated whether KS15 could inhibit proliferation and increase sensitivity to anti-tumor drugs in MCF-7 cells. We found that KS15 decreased the speed of cell growth and increased the chemosensitivity of MCF-7 cells to doxorubicin and tamoxifen, but had no effect on MCF-10A cells. These findings suggested that pharmacological inhibition of CRY by KS15 exerts an anti-proliferative effect and increases sensitivity to anti-tumor drugs in a specific type of breast cancer. - Highlights: • Cryptochrome inhibitor (KS15) has anti-tumor activity to human breast cancer cells. • KS15 induces differential changes in cell cycle regulators and pro-apoptotic genes. • KS15 inhibits MCF-7 cell growth and enhances susceptibility to anti-tumor drugs.« less

  3. Cysteine, histidine and glycine exhibit anti-inflammatory effects in human coronary arterial endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, S; Ichiyama, T; Sonaka, I; Ohsaki, A; Okada, S; Wakiguchi, H; Kudo, K; Kittaka, S; Hara, M; Furukawa, S

    2012-02-01

    The activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in vascular endothelial cells may be involved in vascular pathogeneses such as vasculitis or atherosclerosis. Recently, it has been reported that some amino acids exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the inhibitory effects of a panel of amino acids on cytokine production or expression of adhesion molecules that are involved in inflammatory diseases in various cell types. The activation of NF-κB was determined in human coronary arterial endothelial cells (HCAECs) because NF-κB modulates the production of many cytokines and the expression of adhesion molecules. We examined the inhibitory effects of the amino acids cysteine, histidine and glycine on the induction of NF-κB activation, expression of CD62E (E-selectin) and the production of interleukin (IL)-6 in HCAECs stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Cysteine, histidine and glycine significantly reduced NF-κB activation and inhibitor κBα (IκBα) degradation in HCAECs stimulated with TNF-α. Additionally, all the amino acids inhibited the expression of E-selectin and the production of IL-6 in HCAECs, and the effects of cysteine were the most significant. Our results show that glycine, histidine and cysteine can inhibit NF-κB activation, IκBα degradation, CD62E expression and IL-6 production in HCAECs, suggesting that these amino acids may exhibit anti-inflammatory effects during endothelial inflammation. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Immunology © 2012 British Society for Immunology.

  4. Novel Imidazopyridine Derivatives Possess Anti-Tumor Effect on Human Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Muniyan, Sakthivel; D’Cunha, Napoleon; Robinson, Tashika; Hoelting, Kyle; Dwyer, Jennifer G.; Bu, Xiu R.; Batra, Surinder K.; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death afflicting United States males. Most treatments to-date for metastatic PCa include androgen-deprivation therapy and second-generation anti-androgens such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. However, a majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies and relapse into the lethal, castration-resistant form of PCa to which no adequate treatment option remains. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop effective therapeutic agents toward this patient population. Imidazopyridines have recently been shown to possess Akt kinase inhibitory activity; thus in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of novel imidazopyridine derivatives HIMP, M-MeI, OMP, and EtOP on different human castration-resistant PCa cells. Among these compounds, HIMP and M-MeI were found to possess selective dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition: they reduced castration-resistant PCa cell proliferation and spared benign prostate epithelial cells. Using LNCaP C-81 cells as the model system, these compounds also reduced colony formation as well as cell adhesion and migration, and M-MeI was the most potent in all studies. Further investigation revealed that while HIMP primarily inhibits PCa cell growth via suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, M-MeI can inhibit both PI3K/Akt and androgen receptor pathways and arrest cell growth in the G2 phase. Thus, our results indicate the novel compound M-MeI to be a promising candidate for castration-resistant PCa therapy, and future studies investigating the mechanism of imidazopyridine inhibition may aid to the development of effective anti-PCa agents. PMID:26121643

  5. Novel Imidazopyridine Derivatives Possess Anti-Tumor Effect on Human Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Matthew A; Lyons, Anastesia S; Muniyan, Sakthivel; D'Cunha, Napoleon; Robinson, Tashika; Hoelting, Kyle; Dwyer, Jennifer G; Bu, Xiu R; Batra, Surinder K; Lin, Ming-Fong

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer-related death afflicting United States males. Most treatments to-date for metastatic PCa include androgen-deprivation therapy and second-generation anti-androgens such as abiraterone acetate and enzalutamide. However, a majority of patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies and relapse into the lethal, castration-resistant form of PCa to which no adequate treatment option remains. Hence, there is an immediate need to develop effective therapeutic agents toward this patient population. Imidazopyridines have recently been shown to possess Akt kinase inhibitory activity; thus in this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of novel imidazopyridine derivatives HIMP, M-MeI, OMP, and EtOP on different human castration-resistant PCa cells. Among these compounds, HIMP and M-MeI were found to possess selective dose- and time-dependent growth inhibition: they reduced castration-resistant PCa cell proliferation and spared benign prostate epithelial cells. Using LNCaP C-81 cells as the model system, these compounds also reduced colony formation as well as cell adhesion and migration, and M-MeI was the most potent in all studies. Further investigation revealed that while HIMP primarily inhibits PCa cell growth via suppression of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, M-MeI can inhibit both PI3K/Akt and androgen receptor pathways and arrest cell growth in the G2 phase. Thus, our results indicate the novel compound M-MeI to be a promising candidate for castration-resistant PCa therapy, and future studies investigating the mechanism of imidazopyridine inhibition may aid to the development of effective anti-PCa agents.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of flavonoids isolated from Lycium barbarum Linnaeus on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Bin; Hung, Dian-Kun; Chang, Fung-Wei; Ong, Eng-Thaim; Chen, Bing-Huei

    2012-10-01

    Anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects of flavonoids isolated from Lycium barbarum fruits, a traditional Chinese medicine, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated. Initially, flavonoids were extracted with 80% ethanol and separated using a Cosmosil 140 C18-OPN column, with the acidic fraction eluted with deionized water being composed of chlorogenic acid, caffeoyl quinic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid and the neutral fraction eluted with methanol composed of quercetin-diglycoside, rutin and kaempferol-O-rutinoside. Flavonoid extract was effective in inhibiting expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM-1) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs. The RT-PCR analysis indicated that ICAM-1 mRNA induced by TNF-α was inhibited by flavonoid extract. The flavonoid extract attenuated TNF-α-induced IκB phosphorylation as well as NF-κB, p65 and p50 translocation from cytosol to nucleus, through inhibition on TNF-α- and H(2)O(2)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. For the anti-angiogenic study, the flavonoid extract inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced cell proliferation and migration in HUVECs, as well as angiogenesis. However, the flavonoid extract did not inhibit VEGF signaling. Surprisingly, HUVECs adhesion to the extracellular matrix was compromised and adhesion-induced signaling was retarded by the flavonoid extract.

  7. Repertoire of BALB/c Mice Natural Anti-Carbohydrate Antibodies: Mice vs. Humans Difference, and Otherness of Individual Animals

    PubMed Central

    Bello-Gil, Daniel; Khasbiullina, Nailya; Shilova, Nadezhda; Bovin, Nicolai; Mañez, Rafael

    2017-01-01

    One of the most common genetic backgrounds for mice used as a model to investigate human diseases is the inbred BALB/c strain. This work is aimed to characterize the pattern of natural anti-carbohydrate antibodies present in the serum of 20 BALB/c mice by printed glycan array technology and to compare their binding specificities with that of human natural anti-carbohydrate antibodies. Natural antibodies (NAbs) from the serum of BALB/c mice interacted with 71 glycans from a library of 419 different carbohydrate structures. However, only seven of these glycans were recognized by the serum of all the animals studied, and other five glycans by at least 80% of mice. The pattern of the 12 glycans mostly recognized by the circulating antibodies of BALB/c mice differed significantly from that observed with natural anti-carbohydrate antibodies in humans. This lack of identical repertoires of natural anti-carbohydrate antibodies between individual inbred mice, and between mice and humans, should be taken into consideration when mouse models are intended to be used for investigation of NAbs in biomedical research. PMID:29163519

  8. Anti-hIgE gene therapy of peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a humanized murine model of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Pagovich, Odelya E; Wang, Bo; Chiuchiolo, Maria J; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Sondhi, Dolan; Jose, Clarisse L; Price, Christina C; Brooks, Sarah F; Mezey, Jason G; Crystal, Ronald G

    2016-12-01

    Peanuts are the most common food to provoke fatal or near-fatal anaphylactic reactions. Treatment with an anti-hIgE mAb is efficacious but requires frequent parenteral administration. Based on the knowledge that peanut allergy is mediated by peanut-specific IgE, we hypothesized that a single administration of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer vector encoding for anti-hIgE would protect against repeated peanut exposure in the host with peanut allergy. We developed a novel humanized murine model of peanut allergy that recapitulates the human anaphylactic response to peanuts in NOD-scid IL2Rgamma null mice transferred with blood mononuclear cells from donors with peanut allergy and then sensitized with peanut extract. As therapy, we constructed an adeno-associated rh.10 serotype vector coding for a full-length, high-affinity, anti-hIgE antibody derived from the Fab fragment of the anti-hIgE mAb omalizumab (AAVrh.10anti-hIgE). In the reconstituted mice peanut-specific IgE was induced by peanut sensitization and hypersensitivity, and reactions were provoked by feeding peanuts to mice with symptoms similar to those of human subjects with peanut allergy. A single administration of AAVrh.10anti-hIgE vector expressed persistent levels of anti-hIgE. The anti-hIgE vector, administered either before sensitization or after peanut sensitization and manifestation of the peanut-induced phenotype, blocked IgE-mediated alterations in peanut-induced histamine release, anaphylaxis scores, locomotor activity, and free IgE levels and protected animals from death caused by anaphylaxis. If this degree of persistent efficacy translates to human subjects, AAVrh.10anti-hIgE could be an effective 1-time preventative therapy for peanut allergy and possibly other severe, IgE-mediated allergies. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Use of Anti-Idiotypes and Synthetic Peptides for Control of Human T- Lymphotropic Virus Type 3 Infections

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-10-28

    FIELD GROUP SUBAGROUP Synthetic peptides, anti-idiotypes, vaccines, 06 03 human immunodeficiency virus, chimpanzees, RAI, Virology, 06 13 HTLV III...suppressive effects have been reported previously with a synthetic peptide analogous to amino acid sequences from the feline leukemia virus...on the use of synthetic peptides in human immunodeficiency virus infection. In Advances in Biotechnological Processes (A. Mizrahi, ed.), Alan R. Liss

  10. Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-human leukocyte antigen antibody: a case report.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, M; Yagihashi, A; Kobayashi, D; Watanabe, N; Fujikawa, T; Chiba, S; Sato, S; Morishita, K; Sekimoto, T; Ikeda, H

    2001-12-01

    Anti-HLA antibodies reportedly exist in 31% of pregnant women. However, few ocurrences of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT) caused by anti-HLA antibody have been reported. In this study, maternal anti-HLA B60 and B61 antibodies were identified in patient serum at birth, but no anti-platelet antibodies were present. No maternal anti-HLA A2, A24, B51, or B52 antibodies were detected in patient serum. Platelet transfusion from the third donor was effective because these platelets expressed HLA A24 and B52 but not B60 or B61. Cross-matching tests between patient leukocytes or platelets and maternal serum were strongly positive, indicating that maternal anti-HLA antibodies were responsible for NAIT. This report is the first to demonstrate NAIT probably caused by maternal anti-HLA A24 and B52.

  11. Herpes zoster sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis: a case report.

    PubMed

    Koda, Masao; Mannoji, Chikato; Oikawa, Makiko; Murakami, Masazumi; Okamoto, Yuzuru; Kon, Tamiyo; Okawa, Akihiko; Ikeda, Osamu; Yamazaki, Masashi; Furuya, Takeo

    2015-07-29

    Symptom of herpes zoster is sometimes difficult to distinguish from sciatica induced by spinal diseases, including lumbar disc herniation and spinal canal stenosis. Here we report a case of sciatica mimicking lumbar canal stenosis. A 74-year-old Chinese male patient visited our hospital for left-sided sciatic pain upon standing or walking for 5 min of approximately 1 month's duration. At the first visit to our hospital, there were no skin lesions. A magnetic resonance imaging showed spinal canal stenosis between the 4th and 5th lumbar spine. Thus, we diagnosed the patient with sciatica induced by spinal canal stenosis. We considered decompression surgery for the stenosis of 4th and 5th lumbar spine because conservative therapy failed to relieve the patient's symptom. At that time, the patient complained of a skin rash involving his left foot for several days. A vesicular rash and erythema were observed on the dorsal and plantar surfaces of the great toe and lateral malleolus. The patient was diagnosed with herpes zoster in the left 5th lumbar spinal nerve area based on clinical findings, including the characteristics of the pain and vesicular rash and erythema in the 5th lumbar spinal dermatome. The patient was treated with famciclovir (1,500 mg/day) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. After 1 week of medication, the skin rash resolved and pain relief was obtained. In conclusion, spinal surgeons should keep in mind herpes zoster infection as one of the possible differential diagnoses of sciatica, even if there is no typical skin rash.

  12. Induction of a systemic lupus erythematosus-like disease in mice by a common human anti-DNA idiotype

    SciTech Connect

    Mendlovic, S.; Brocke, S.; Meshorer, A.

    1988-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered to be the quintessential autoimmune disease. It has not been possible to induce SLE in animal models by DNA immunization or by challenge with anti-DNA antibodies. The authors report a murine model of SLE-like disease induced by immunization of C3H.SW female mice with a common human monoclonal anti-DNA idiotype (16/6 idiotype). Following a booster injection with the 16/6 idiotype, high levels of murine anti-16/6 and anti-anti-16/6 antibodies (associated with anti-DNA activity) were detected in the sera of the immunized mice. Elevated titers of autoantibodies reacting with DNA, poly(I), poly(dT), ribonucleoprotein, autoantigens (Sm, SS-A (Ro),more » and SS-B (La)), and cardiolipin were noted. The serological findings were associated with increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukopenia, proteinuria, immune complex deposition in the glomerular mesangium, and sclerosis of the glomeruli. The immune complexes in the kidneys were shown to contain the 16/6 idiotype. This experimental SLE-like model may be used to elucidate the mechanisms underlying SLE.« less

  13. The active natural anti-oxidant properties of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacterial components in human skin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Mamalis, Andrew; Nguyen, Duc-Huy; Brody, Neil; Jagdeo, Jared

    2013-07-01

    The number of skin cancers continues to rise, accounting for approximately 40% of all cancers reported in the United States and approximately 9,500 deaths per year. Studies have shown reactive oxygen species (ROS) type free radicals are linked to skin cancer and aging. Therefore, it is important for us to identify agents that have anti-oxidant properties to protect skin against free radical damage. The purpose of this research is to investigate the anti-oxidant properties of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin that are components from chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria, respectively. We measured the ability of bisabolol, silymarin, and ectoin to modulate the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced upregulation of ROS free radicals in normal human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Using a flow cytometry-based assay, we demonstrated that varying concentrations of these natural components were able to inhibit upregulation of H2O2-generated free radicals in human skin fibroblasts in vitro. Our results indicate components of chamomile, milk thistle, and halophilic bacteria exhibit anti-oxidant capabilities and warrant further study in clinical trials to characterize their anti-cancer and anti-aging capabilities.

  14. Generating protective immunity against genital herpes.

    PubMed

    Shin, Haina; Iwasaki, Akiko

    2013-10-01

    Genital herpes is an incurable, chronic disease that affects millions of people worldwide. Not only does genital herpes cause painful, recurrent symptoms, it is also a significant risk factor for the acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections such as HIV-1. Antiviral drugs are used to treat herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection, but they cannot stop viral shedding and transmission. Thus, developing a vaccine that can prevent or clear infection will be crucial in limiting the spread of disease. In this review we outline recent studies that improve our understanding of host responses against HSV infection, discuss past clinical vaccine trials, and highlight new strategies for vaccine design against genital herpes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  16. Herpes Genitalis: Diagnosis, Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Sauerbrei, A.

    2016-01-01

    Herpes genitalis is caused by the herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 and can manifest as primary or recurrent infection. It is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections and due to associated physical and psychological morbidity it constitutes a considerable, often underestimated medical problem. In addition to providing the reader with basic knowledge of the pathogen and clinical presentation of herpes genitalis, this review article discusses important aspects of the laboratory diagnostics, antiviral therapy and prophylaxis. The article is aimed at all health-care workers managing patients with herpes genitalis and attempts to improve the often suboptimal counselling, targeted use of laboratory diagnostics, treatment and preventive measures provided to patients. PMID:28017972

  17. Human adipose mesenchymal stem cells as potent anti-fibrosis therapy for systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Maria, Alexandre T J; Toupet, Karine; Maumus, Marie; Fonteneau, Guillaume; Le Quellec, Alain; Jorgensen, Christian; Guilpain, Philippe; Noël, Danièle

    2016-06-01

    Displaying immunosuppressive and trophic properties, mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are being evaluated as promising therapeutic options in a variety of autoimmune and degenerative diseases. Although benefits may be expected in systemic sclerosis (SSc), a rare autoimmune disease with fibrosis-related mortality, MSC have yet to be evaluated in this specific condition. While autologous approaches could be inappropriate because of functional alterations in MSC from patients, the objective of the present study was to evaluate allogeneic and xenogeneic MSC in the HOCl-induced model of diffuse SSc. We also questioned the source of human MSC and compared bone marrow- (hBM-MSC) and adipose-derived MSC (hASC). HOCl-challenged BALB/c mice received intravenous injection of BM-MSC from syngeneic BALB/c or allogeneic C57BL/6 mice, and xenogeneic hBM-MSC or hASC (3 donors each). Skin thickness was measured during the experiment. At euthanasia, histology, immunostaining, collagen determination and RT-qPCR were performed in skin and lungs. Xenogeneic hBM-MSC were as effective as allogeneic or syngeneic BM-MSC in decreasing skin thickness, expression of Col1, Col3, α-Sma transcripts, and collagen content in skin and lungs. This anti-fibrotic effect was not associated with MSC migration to injured skin or with long-term MSC survival. Interestingly, compared with hBM-MSC, hASC were significantly more efficient in reducing skin fibrosis, which was related to a stronger reduction of TNFα, IL1β, and enhanced ratio of Mmp1/Timp1 in skin and lung tissues. Using primary cells isolated from 3 murine and 6 human individuals, this preclinical study demonstrated similar therapeutic effects using allogeneic or xenogeneic BM-MSC while ASC exerted potent anti-inflammatory and remodeling properties. This sets the proof-of-concept prompting to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of allogeneic ASC in SSc patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of Microvesicles in the Spread of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 in Oligodendrocytic Cells.

    PubMed

    Bello-Morales, Raquel; Praena, Beatriz; de la Nuez, Carmen; Rejas, María Teresa; Guerra, Milagros; Galán-Ganga, Marcos; Izquierdo, Manuel; Calvo, Víctor; Krummenacher, Claude; López-Guerrero, José Antonio

    2018-05-15

    Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic pathogen that can infect many types of cells and establishes latent infections in the neurons of sensory ganglia. In some cases, the virus spreads into the central nervous system, causing encephalitis or meningitis. Cells infected with several different types of viruses may secrete microvesicles (MVs) containing viral proteins and RNAs. In some instances, extracellular microvesicles harboring infectious virus have been found. Here we describe the features of shedding microvesicles released by the human oligodendroglial HOG cell line infected with HSV-1 and their participation in the viral cycle. Using transmission electron microscopy, we detected for the first time microvesicles containing HSV-1 virions. Interestingly, the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line, which is resistant to infection by free HSV-1 virions, was susceptible to HSV-1 infection after being exposed to virus-containing microvesicles. Therefore, our results indicate for the first time that MVs released by infected cells contain virions, are endocytosed by naive cells, and lead to a productive infection. Furthermore, infection of CHO cells was not completely neutralized when virus-containing microvesicles were preincubated with neutralizing anti-HSV-1 antibodies. The lack of complete neutralization and the ability of MVs to infect nectin-1/HVEM-negative CHO-K1 cells suggest a novel way for HSV-1 to spread to and enter target cells. Taken together, our results suggest that HSV-1 could spread through microvesicles to expand its tropism and that microvesicles could shield the virus from neutralizing antibodies as a possible mechanism to escape the host immune response. IMPORTANCE Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic pathogen that can infect many types of cells and establishes latent infections in neurons. Extracellular vesicles are a heterogeneous group of membrane vesicles secreted by most cell types. Microvesicles, which are extracellular

  19. Dendritic cells in the cornea during Herpes simplex viral infection and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min S; Carnt, Nicole A; Truong, Naomi R; Pattamatta, Ushasree; White, Andrew J; Samarawickrama, Chameen; Cunningham, Anthony L

    Herpes simplex keratitis is commonly caused by Herpes simplex virus type 1, which primarily infects eyelids, corneas, or conjunctiva. Herpes simplex virus type 1-through sophisticated interactions with dendritic cells (DCs), a type of antigen-presenting cell)-initiates proinflammatory responses in the cornea. Corneas were once thought to be an immune-privileged region; however, with the recent discovery of DCs that reside in the cornea, this long-held conjecture has been overturned. Therefore, evaluating the clinical, preclinical, and cell-based studies that investigate the roles of DCs in corneas infected with Herpes simplex virus is critical. With in vivo confocal microscopy, animal models, and cell culture experiments, we may further the understanding of the sophisticated interactions of Herpes simplex virus with DCs in the cornea and the molecular mechanism associated with it. It has been shown that specific differentiation of DCs using immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and polymerase chain reaction analysis in both human and mice tissues and viral tissue infections are integral to increasing understanding. As for in vivo confocal microscopy, it holds promise as it is the least invasive and a real-time investigation. These tools will facilitate the discovery of various targets to develop new treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Protein sequences clustering of herpes virus by using Tribe Markov clustering (Tribe-MCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustamam, A.; Siswantining, T.; Febriyani, N. L.; Novitasari, I. D.; Cahyaningrum, R. D.

    2017-07-01

    The herpes virus can be found anywhere and one of the important characteristics is its ability to cause acute and chronic infection at certain times so as a result of the infection allows severe complications occurred. The herpes virus is composed of DNA containing protein and wrapped by glycoproteins. In this work, the Herpes viruses family is classified and analyzed by clustering their protein-sequence using Tribe Markov Clustering (Tribe-MCL) algorithm. Tribe-MCL is an efficient clustering method based on the theory of Markov chains, to classify protein families from protein sequences using pre-computed sequence similarity information. We implement the Tribe-MCL algorithm using an open source program of R. We select 24 protein sequences of Herpes virus obtained from NCBI database. The dataset consists of three types of glycoprotein B, F, and H. Each type has eight herpes virus that infected humans. Based on our simulation using different inflation factor r=1.5, 2, 3 we find a various number of the clusters results. The greater the inflation factor the greater the number of their clusters. Each protein will grouped together in the same type of protein.

  1. The use of FTIR microscopy for evaluation of herpes viruses infection development kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erukhimovitch, Vitaly; Mukmanov, Igor; Talyshinsky, Marina; Souprun, Yelena; Huleihel, Mahmoud

    2004-08-01

    The kinetics of Herpes simplex infection development was studied using an FTIR microscopy (FTIR-M) method. The family of herpes viruses includes several members like H. simplex types I and II (HSV I, II), Varicella zoster (VZV) viruses which are involved in various human and animal infections of different parts of the body. In our previous study, we found significant spectral differences between normal uninfected cells in cultures and cells infected with herpes viruses at early stages of the infection. In the present study, cells in cultures were infected with either HSV-I or VZV and at various times post-infection they were examined either by optical microscopy or by advanced FTIR-M. Spectroscopic measurements show a consistent decrease in the intensity of the carbohydrate peak in correlation with the viral infection development, observed by optical microscopy. This decrease in cellular carbohydrate level was used as indicator for herpes viruses infection kinetics. This parameter could be used as a basis for applying a spectroscopic method for the evaluation of herpes virus infection development. Our results show also that the development kinetics of viral infection has an exponential character for these viruses.

  2. Association of Depressed Mood With Herpes Simplex Virus-2 Immunoglobulin-G Levels in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Pao-Chu; Yolken, Robert H; Postolache, Teodor T; Beckie, Theresa M; Munro, Cindy L; Groer, Maureen W

    2016-10-01

    Depressed mood is common in pregnancy, is associated with stress, and could result in immune suppression that may lead to latent herpes viral reactivation. This study investigated whether depressed mood is associated with higher herpes viral IgG levels in pregnant women. Complete cross-sectional data from 247 pregnant women were available for this substudy. The data included demographics, scores on the Perceived Stress Scale and Profile of Mood States (POMS), and a panel of serum IgG levels for human herpesviruses. Only the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) (genital herpes) IgG level was associated with Perceived Stress Scale and POMS-Depression/Dejection (POMS-D) score. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to examine the association of POMS-D with herpesviral IgG levels adjusting for demographic variables. In the final model, African American race (β = .251, p < .001), older age (β = .199, p = .002), single marital status (β = -.304, p < .001), and depressed mood (β = .122, p = .04) were associated with HSV-2 IgG levels. In logistic regression, the strongest correlates of HSV IgG positivity were single marital status, followed by POMS-D scores and African American race. Genital herpes is a concern in pregnancy. Antibody titers may indicate asymptomatic viral shedding, viral reactivation, or primary viral infection. Antibody levels may be higher because of the immune changes during pregnancy and potential immune effects of depressed mood causing reactivation of latent HSV-2.

  3. STUDY OF THE ADSORPTION ON AND DESORPTION FROM POLYSTYRENE-HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN CONJUGATES OF RABBIT ANTI-HUMAN SERUM ALBUMIN ANTIBODIES HAVING DIFFERENT SPECIFICITIES

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Tom; Lapresle, Claude

    1961-01-01

    An insoluble specific adsorbent for anti-human serum albumin antibodies was prepared by coupling human serum albumin (H.S.A.) to polystyrene by azo bonds. Rabbit anti-H.S.A. immune serum was passed through a column of the adsorbent. It was shown that different volumes of the immune serum were required for the saturation of the different determinant groups of H.S.A. by their corresponding antibodies. The elution of the anti-H.S.A. antibodies adsorbed on the column was achieved by passing successively through the column an acetate buffer pH 3.0 and a solution of 0.1 N HCl in 0.15 M NaCl. The antibodies were eluted in three different fractions, each of which was composed of γ-globulins only. These three fractions contained different proportions of antibodies of different specificities. PMID:13783579

  4. Detection of Signal Regulatory Protein α in Saimiri sciureus (Squirrel Monkey) by Anti-Human Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Hugo Amorim dos Santos; Costa-Correa, Edmar Henrique; Bianco-Junior, Cesare; Andrade, Márcia Cristina Ribeiro; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa; Pratt-Riccio, Lilian Rose; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Totino, Paulo Renato Rivas

    2017-01-01

    Non-human primates (NHP) are suitable models for studying different aspects of the human system, including pathogenesis and protective immunity to many diseases. However, the lack of specific immunological reagents for neo-tropical monkeys, such as Saimiri sciureus, is still a major factor limiting studies in these models. An alternative strategy to circumvent this obstacle has been the selection of immunological reagents directed to humans, which present cross-reactivity with NHP molecules. In this context and considering the key role of inhibitory immunoreceptors—such as the signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα)—in the regulation of immune responses, in the present study, we attempted to evaluate the ability of anti-human SIRPα monoclonal antibodies to recognize SIRPα in antigen-presenting S. sciureus peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). As shown by flow cytometry analysis, the profile of anti-SIRPα staining as well as the levels of SIRPα-positive cells in PBMC from S. sciureus were similar to those observed in human PBMC. Furthermore, using anti-SIRPα monoclonal antibody, it was possible to detect a decrease of the SIRPα levels on surface of S. sciureus cells after in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharides. Finally, using computed-based analysis, we observed a high degree of conservation of SIRPα across six species of primates and the presence of shared epitopes in the extracellular domain between humans and Saimiri genus that could be targeted by antibodies. In conclusion, we have identified a commercially available anti-human monoclonal antibody that is able to detect SIRPα of S. sciureus monkeys and that, therefore, can facilitate the study of the immunomodulatory role of SIRPα when S. sciureus is used as a model. PMID:29312325

  5. Recurrent Cutaneous Herpes Simplex in Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Gerald E.; Weed, Sheldon D.

    1974-01-01

    Passively immunized hairless mice were inoculated cutaneously with herpes simplex virus. Thirty-nine days later, when the primary cutaneous lesions had completely healed, the mice were treated subcutaneously with prednisone. Within 12 to 30 days after starting prednisone treatment, herpesvirus was recovered by skin swabs from 12 of 71 (17%) of the treated mice. This new model has potential application for understanding and treating recurrent cutaneous herpes infections. PMID:4372171

  6. Herpes zoster and vaccination: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Adams, Erin N; Parnapy, Sarah; Bautista, Philip

    2010-05-01

    Herpes zoster, herpes zoster vaccine, and the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine are reviewed. Herpes zoster infection is estimated to affect one in three people during their lifetime. Two thirds of people who develop this disease are over age 60 years. Postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) is the most common complication of herpes zoster, occurring in 10-18% of patients. The associated chronic pain can be very debilitating, affecting patients' quality of life. The pain may last for months or years and is difficult to treat, leading to increased health care costs and morbidity. To prevent herpes zoster, a live attenuated vaccine was developed and approved for marketing in 2006 for individuals age > or = 60 years. The safety and efficacy of the vaccine were evaluated in the Shingles Prevention Study in 38,546 adults age > or = 60 years. Compared with placebo, administration of the vaccine resulted in a 51.3% reduction in the incidence of herpes zoster and a 66.5% reduction in the incidence of PHN (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). A single dose of the vaccine is approximately $162 and is not covered by all insurance plans. Several studies evaluated the cost-effectiveness of the vaccine, which was found to be most beneficial in individuals age 70 years or older. The use of the vaccine appears to reduce health care costs and protect the public health. The herpes zoster vaccine is effective in preventing herpes zoster and decreasing the incidence of complications. However, insurance coverage may hinder eligible patients from receiving the vaccination.

  7. Urinary retention due to herpes virus infections.

    PubMed

    Yamanishi, T; Yasuda, K; Sakakibara, R; Hattori, T; Uchiyama, T; Minamide, M; Ito, H

    1998-01-01

    Urinary retention is uncommon in patients with herpes zoster and anogenital herpes simplex. Seven patients (four men, three women) with a mean age of 68.1 years (range, 35-84) with urinary retention due to herpes zoster (n = 6) or anogenital herpes simplex (n = 1) were studied. Six patients had unilateral skin eruption in the saddle area (S2-4 dermatome) and one patient with herpes zoster had a skin lesion in the L4-5 dermatome. All patients had detrusor areflexia without bladder sensation, and two of them had inactive external sphincter on electromyography at presentation. Clean intermittent catheterization was performed, and voiding function was recovered in 4-6 weeks (average, 5.4) in all patients. Urodynamic study was repeated after recovery of micturition in three patients, and they returned to normal on cystometrography and external sphincter electromyography. Acute urinary retention associated with anogenital herpes infection has been thought to occur when the meninges or sacral spinal ganglia were involved, and, in conclusion, this condition may be considered to be reversible.

  8. HERPES ZOSTER FOLLOWING ROENTGEN IRRADIATION (in Hungarian)

    SciTech Connect

    Vetro, E.

    1963-06-01

    This report describes the appearance of herpes zoster in six female patients following x irradiation therapy with total doses of 1400 to 3000 r. Five of the patients received the treatment as postoperative treatment for breast cancer, the sixth patient was treated for rheumatoid anthritis. It is noted that this occurrence of herpes zoster following postoperative irradiation treatment for breast cancer is 100 times its incidence in the normal population where it occurs in an average of 0.025%. In the cases described, herpes appeared on the irradiated side of the body, in one instance it was very severe in amore » patient who had received prior hydrocortisone treatment, which might have accounted for the herpes in this case. It is possible that the herpes virus entered through the incision caused by the operation on the breast, although this has not been proven. The frequent occurrence of herpes zoster following irradiation is not coincidental, and further studies are under way, including measurements of radiation damage to the spinal cord ganglia. (BBB)« less

  9. The Type I Interferon Response and Age-Dependent Susceptibility to Herpes Simplex Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, Daniel; Wilcox, Douglas R; Longnecker, Richard

    2017-05-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a highly prevalent human neurotropic pathogen. HSV-1 infection is associated with a variety of diseases ranging from benign orolabial lesions to more serious and even life-threatening conditions such as herpes simplex keratitis and herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE). HSE is a rare occurrence among healthy adult individuals, but newborns are a particularly susceptible population. Type I IFN signaling has been identified as a crucial component of the innate immune response to the control of HSV-1 infection. In this study, we review the contribution of the type I IFN response to controlling HSV-1 infection, and differences in the early host response between adults and newborns that may contribute to the increased susceptibility to infection and central nervous system disease in newborns.

  10. A Co-Receptor Independent Transgenic Human TCR Mediates Anti-Tumor and Anti-Self Immunity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mehrotra, Shikhar; Al-Khami, Amir A.; Klarquist, Jared; Husain, Shahid; Naga, Osama; Eby, Jonathan M.; Murali, Anuradha K.; Lyons, Gretchen E.; Li, Mingli; Spivey, Natali D.; Norell, Håkan; Martins da Palma, Telma; Onicescu, Georgiana; Diaz-Montero, C. Marcela; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Cole, David J.; Le Poole, I. Caroline; Nishimura, Michael I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in T cell immunotherapy suggest that T cells engineered with high affinity T cell receptors (TCR) can offer better tumor regression. However, whether a high affinity TCR alone is sufficient to control tumor growth, or the T cell subset bearing the TCR is also important remains unclear. Using the human tyrosinase epitope reactive, CD8 independent, high affinity TCR isolated from MHC class-I restricted CD4+ T cells obtained from tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of a metastatic melanoma patient, we developed a novel TCR transgenic mouse with a C57BL/6 background. This HLA-A2 restricted TCR was positively selected on both CD4+ and CD8+ single-positive (SP) cells. However, when the TCR transgenic mouse was developed with an HLA-A2 background, the transgenic TCR was primarily expressed by CD3+CD4-CD8- double-negative (DN) T cells. TIL 1383I TCR transgenic CD4+, CD8+ and CD4-CD8- T cells were functional and retained the ability to control tumor growth without the need for vaccination or cytokine support in vivo. Furthermore, the HLA-A2+/human tyrosinase TCR double transgenic mice developed spontaneous hair depigmentation and had visual defects that progressed with age. Our data show that the expression of the high affinity TIL 1383I TCR alone in CD3+ T cells is sufficient to control the growth of murine and human melanoma and the presence or absence of CD4 and CD8 co-receptors had little effect on its functional capacity. PMID:22798675

  11. Antiviral Activity of Trappin-2 and Elafin In Vitro and In Vivo against Genital Herpes

    PubMed Central

    Drannik, Anna G.; Nag, Kakon; Sallenave, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Serine protease inhibitor elafin (E) and its precursor, trappin-2 (Tr), have been associated with mucosal resistance to HIV-1 infection. We recently showed that Tr/E are among principal anti-HIV-1 molecules in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) fluid, that E is ∼130 times more potent than Tr against HIV-1, and that Tr/E inhibited HIV-1 attachment and transcytosis across human genital epithelial cells (ECs). Since herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is a major sexually transmitted infection and risk factor for HIV-1 infection and transmission, we assessed Tr/E contribution to defense against HSV-2. Our in vitro studies demonstrated that pretreatment of endometrial (HEC-1A) and endocervical (End1/E6E7) ECs with human Tr-expressing adenovirus (Ad/Tr) or recombinant Tr/E proteins before or after HSV-2 infection resulted in significantly reduced virus titers compared to those of controls. Interestingly, E was ∼7 times more potent against HSV-2 infection than Tr. Conversely, knockdown of endogenous Tr/E by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly increased HSV-2 replication in genital ECs. Recombinant Tr and E reduced viral attachment to genital ECs by acting indirectly on cells. Further, lower viral replication was associated with reduced secretion of proinflammatory interleukin 8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and decreased NF-κB nuclear translocation. Additionally, protected Ad/Tr-treated ECs demonstrated enhanced interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) nuclear translocation and increased antiviral IFN-β in response to HSV-2. Lastly, in vivo studies of intravaginal HSV-2 infection in Tr-transgenic mice (Etg) showed that despite similar virus replication in the genital tract, Etg mice had reduced viral load and TNF-α in the central nervous system compared to controls. Collectively, this is the first experimental evidence highlighting anti-HSV-2 activity of Tr/E in female genital mucosa. PMID:23637403

  12. Cross-neutralizing human anti-poliovirus antibodies bind the recognition site for cellular receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhaochun; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Kouiavskaia, Diana; Hansen, Bryan T.; Ludtke, Steven J.; Bidzhieva, Bella; Makiya, Michelle; Agulto, Liane; Purcell, Robert H.; Chumakov, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    Most structural information about poliovirus interaction with neutralizing antibodies was obtained in the 1980s in studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies. Recently we have isolated a number of human/chimpanzee anti-poliovirus antibodies and demonstrated that one of them, MAb A12, could neutralize polioviruses of both serotypes 1 and 2. This communication presents data on isolation of an additional cross-neutralizing antibody (F12) and identification of a previously unknown epitope on the surface of poliovirus virions. Epitope mapping was performed by sequencing of antibody-resistant mutants and by cryo-EM of complexes of virions with Fab fragments. The results have demonstrated that both cross-neutralizing antibodies bind the site located at the bottom of the canyon surrounding the fivefold axis of symmetry that was previously shown to interact with cellular poliovirus receptor CD155. However, the same antibody binds to serotypes 1 and 2 through different specific interactions. It was also shown to interact with type 3 poliovirus, albeit with about 10-fold lower affinity, insufficient for effective neutralization. Antibody interaction with the binding site of the cellular receptor may explain its broad reactivity and suggest that further screening or antibody engineering could lead to a universal antibody capable of neutralizing all three serotypes of poliovirus. PMID:24277851

  13. Screening of multiple myeloma by polyclonal rabbit anti-human plasmacytoma cell immunoglobulin.

    PubMed

    Mu, Bo; Zhang, Huan; Cai, Xiaoming; Yang, Junbao; Shen, Yuewu; Chen, Baofeng; Liang, Suhua

    2013-01-01

    Antibody-based immunotherapy has been effectively used for tumor treatment. However, to date, only a few tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) or therapeutic targets have been identified. Identification of more immunogenic antigens is essential for improvements in multiple myeloma (MM) diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we synthesized a polyclonal antibody (PAb) by immunizing rabbits with whole human plasmacytoma ARH-77 cells and identified MM-associated antigens, including enlonase, adipophilin, and HSP90s, among others, via proteomic technologies. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay showed that 200 µg/mL PAb inhibits the proliferation of ARH-77 cells by over 50% within 48 h. Flow cytometric assay indicated that PAb treatment significantly increases the number of apoptotic cells compared with other treatments (52.1% vs. NS, 7.3% or control rabbit IgG, 9.9%). In vivo, PAb delayed tumor growth and prolonged the lifespan of mice. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay showed that PAb also induces statistically significant changes in apoptosis compared with other treatments (P<0.05). We therefore conclude that PAb could be used for the effective screening and identification of TAA. PAb may have certain anti-tumor functions in vitro and in vivo. As such, its combination with proteomic technologies could be a promising approach for sieving TAA for the diagnosis and therapy of MM.

  14. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates

    PubMed Central

    Noy-Porat, Tal; Rosenfeld, Ronit; Ariel, Naomi; Epstein, Eyal; Alcalay, Ron; Zvi, Anat; Kronman, Chanoch; Ordentlich, Arie; Mazor, Ohad

    2016-01-01

    Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, against which there is no available antidote. To date, the use of neutralizing antibodies is the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-ricin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. Two non-human primates were immunized with either a ricin-holotoxin- or subunit-based vaccine, to ensure the elicitation of diverse high affinity antibodies. By using a comprehensive set of primers, immune scFv phage-displayed libraries were constructed and panned. A panel of 10 antibodies (five directed against the A subunit of ricin and five against the B subunit) was isolated and reformatted into a full-length chimeric IgG. All of these antibodies were found to neutralize ricin in vitro, and several conferred full protection to ricin-intoxicated mice when given six hours after exposure. Six antibodies were found to possess exceptionally high affinity toward the toxin, with KD values below pM (koff < 1 × 10−7 s−1) that were well correlated with their ability to neutralize ricin. These antibodies, alone or in combination, could be used for the development of a highly-effective therapeutic preparation for post-exposure treatment of ricin intoxication. PMID:26950154

  15. Isolation of Anti-Ricin Protective Antibodies Exhibiting High Affinity from Immunized Non-Human Primates.

    PubMed

    Noy-Porat, Tal; Rosenfeld, Ronit; Ariel, Naomi; Epstein, Eyal; Alcalay, Ron; Zvi, Anat; Kronman, Chanoch; Ordentlich, Arie; Mazor, Ohad

    2016-03-03

    Ricin, derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis, is one of the most potent and lethal toxins known, against which there is no available antidote. To date, the use of neutralizing antibodies is the most promising post-exposure treatment for ricin intoxication. The aim of this study was to isolate high affinity anti-ricin antibodies that possess potent toxin-neutralization capabilities. Two non-human primates were immunized with either a ricin-holotoxin- or subunit-based vaccine, to ensure the elicitation of diverse high affinity antibodies. By using a comprehensive set of primers, immune scFv phage-displayed libraries were constructed and panned. A panel of 10 antibodies (five directed against the A subunit of ricin and five against the B subunit) was isolated and reformatted into a full-length chimeric IgG. All of these antibodies were found to neutralize ricin in vitro, and several conferred full protection to ricin-intoxicated mice when given six hours after exposure. Six antibodies were found to possess exceptionally high affinity toward the toxin, with KD values below pM (k(off )< 1 × 10(-7) s(-1)) that were well correlated with their ability to neutralize ricin. These antibodies, alone or in combination, could be used for the development of a highly-effective therapeutic preparation for post-exposure treatment of ricin intoxication.

  16. Overexpression of the anti-apoptotic protein BAG3 in human choroidal melanoma: A case report.

    PubMed

    Yunoki, Tatsuya; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Ishii, Yoko; Hayashi, Atsushi

    2017-06-01

    Bcl-2-associated athanogene 3 (BAG3), a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), exerts anti-apoptotic effects in various malignant tumors. However, relationships between choroidal melanoma and BAG3 are poorly studied. This study investigated the expression of BAG3 in a case of human choroidal melanoma. Funduscopy, computed tomography, and single-photon emission computed tomography with the intravenous injection of N-isopropyl-p-[ 123 I] iodoamphetamine strongly indicated choroidal melanoma in a 68-year-old woman. Accordingly, we carried out an enucleation and pathological diagnosis. Proteins and total RNA were extracted from normal retinochoroidal and tumor tissues. Proteins were also extracted from ocular nevus tissues of other patients. We examined the expression of BAG3 protein and mRNA using Western blotting and the real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Immunohistochemical stains were positive for melan-A, HMB-45, and S-100. Histopathology confirmed a choroidal melanoma. The expression of BAG3 protein and mRNA in the choroidal melanoma tissue was upregulated with respect to both normal retinochoroidal tissue and ocular nevus tissues from other patients. Because BAG3 may inhibit apoptosis of choroidal melanoma and facilitate its survival, overexpression of this gene product may be a prognostic marker and therapeutic target.

  17. Anti-inflammatory effects of zinc in PMA-treated human gingival fibroblast cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sangwoo; Jeon, Sangmi; Hui, Zheng; Kim, Young; Im, Yeonggwan; Lim, Wonbong; Kim, Changsu; Choi, Hongran; Kim, Okjoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Abnormal cellular immune response has been considered to be responsible for oral lesions in recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Zinc has been known to be an essential nutrient metal that is necessary for a broad range of biological activities including antioxidant, immune mediator, and anti-inflammatory drugs in oral mucosal disease. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of zinc in a phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-treated inflammatory model on human gingival fibroblast cells (hGFs). Study Design: Cells were pre-treated with zinc chloride, followed by PMA in hGFs. The effects were assessed on cell viability, cyclooxygenease-1,2(COX-1/2) protein expression, PGE2 release, ROS production and cytokine release, Results: The effects were assessed on cell viability, COX1/2 protein expression, PGE2 release, ROS production, cytokine release. The results showed that, in the presence of PMA, zinc treatment leads to reduce the production of ROS, which results in decrease of COX-2 expression and PGE2 release. Conclusions: Thus, we suggest that zinc treatment leads to the mitigation of oral inflammation and may prove to be an alternative treatment for recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Key words:Zinc, inflammatory response, cytokines, phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate, gingival fibroblasts cells. PMID:25662537

  18. HLA-A02:01-restricted epitopes identified from the herpes simplex virus tegument protein VP11/12 preferentially recall polyfunctional effector memory CD8+ T cells from seropositive asymptomatic individuals and protect humanized HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice against ocular herpes.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Khan, Arif A; Spencer, Doran; Vahed, Hawa; Lopes, Patricia P; Thai, Nhi Thi Uyen; Wang, Christine; Pham, Thanh T; Huang, Jiawei; Scarfone, Vanessa M; Nesburn, Anthony B; Wechsler, Steven L; BenMohamed, Lbachir

    2015-03-01

    The HSV type 1 tegument virion phosphoprotein (VP) 11/12 (VP11/12) is a major Ag targeted by CD8(+) T cells from HSV-seropositive individuals. However, whether and which VP11/12 epitope-specific CD8(+) T cells play a role in the "natural" protection seen in seropositive healthy asymptomatic (ASYMP) individuals (who have never had clinical herpes disease) remain to be determined. In this study, we used multiple prediction computer-assisted algorithms to identify 10 potential HLA-A*02:01-restricted CD8(+) T cell epitopes from the 718-aa sequence of VP11/12. Three of 10 epitopes exhibited high-to-moderate binding affinity to HLA-A*02:01 molecules. In 10 sequentially studied HLA-A*02:01-positive and HSV-1-seropositive ASYMP individuals, the most frequent, robust, and polyfunctional effector CD8(+) T cell responses, as assessed by a combination of tetramer frequency, granzyme B, granzyme K, perforin, CD107(a/b) cytotoxic degranulation, IFN-γ, and multiplex cytokines assays, were predominantly directed against three epitopes: VP11/1266-74, VP11/12220-228, and VP11/12702-710. Interestingly, ASYMP individuals had a significantly higher proportion of CD45RA(low)CCR7(low)CD44(high)CD62L(low)CD27(low)CD28(low)CD8(+) effector memory CD8(+) T cells (TEMs) specific to the three epitopes, compared with symptomatic individuals (with a history of numerous episodes of recurrent ocular herpetic disease). Moreover, immunization of HLA-A*02:01 transgenic mice with the three ASYMP CD8(+) TEM cell epitopes induced robust and polyfunctional epitope-specific CD8(+) TEM cells that were associated with a strong protective immunity against ocular herpes infection and disease. Our findings outline phenotypic and functional features of protective HSV-specific CD8(+) T cells that should guide the development of an effective T cell-based herpes vaccine. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  19. 75 FR 59670 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0429] Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus... proposed that 21 CFR part 866 be amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 1. The...

  20. 75 FR 59611 - Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2009-N-0344] Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of Herpes Simplex Virus Types 1 and 2 Serological Assays; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Direct...

  1. 76 FR 48715 - Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus Serological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 866 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0429] Immunology and Microbiology Devices; Reclassification of the Herpes Simplex Virus... CFR part 866 is amended as follows: PART 866--IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES 0 1. The authority...

  2. Selective anti-herpesvirus agents.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Erik

    2013-01-23

    This review article focuses on the anti-herpesvirus agents effective against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus and cytomegalovirus, which have either been licensed for clinical use (idoxuridine, trifluridine, brivudin, acyclovir, valaciclovir, valganciclovir, famciclovir and foscarnet) or are under clinical development (CMX001 [the hexadecyloxypropyl prodrug of cidofovir], the helicase-primase inhibitor BAY 57-1293 [now referred to as AIC316], FV-100 [the valine ester of Cf 1743] and the terminase inhibitor letermovir [AIC246]).

  3. Herpes simplex virus 2 : a boon to develop other sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Chopra, Shimpi; Devi, Pushpa; Devi, Bimla

    2013-04-01

    Genital herpes is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections. Though, mostly asymptomatic, it acts as a potential risk factor for acquisition of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The present study was undertaken to know sero-prevalence of herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV2), syphilis and HIV among STI clinic attendees and to detect the diagnostic utility of HSV2 IgM antibodies. The study group included 170 individuals attending STI clinic irrespective of their presenting complaints. Their sera were subjected to enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of HSV2 IgM antibodies. The samples were also screened for HIV and syphilis. Twenty-seven (15.88%) out of 170 persons were found to be seropositive for HSV2 IgM antibodies. Syphilis was detected in 13 individuals (7.65%). Twelve individuals (7.06%) were found to be reactive for anti HIV I antibodies. Ten of the genital herpes patients (37.04%), did not have any complaint of genital ulcer. Eight HSV2 patients (29.63%) had coinfection with HIV I, 6 (22.22%) with syphilis and 2 (07.41%) had co-infection with both HIV and syphilis. A significant proportion of the patients with genital herpes presented without the history of genital ulcers. Thus, its detection and treatment among asymptomatic patients is significant so as to reduce its transmission and other STIs.

  4. Oncolytic Herpes Simplex Viral Therapy: A Stride toward Selective Targeting of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Sanchala, Dhaval S; Bhatt, Lokesh K; Prabhavalkar, Kedar S

    2017-01-01

    Oncolytic viral therapy, which makes use of replication-competent lytic viruses, has emerged as a promising modality to treat malignancies. It has shown meaningful outcomes in both solid tumor and hematologic malignancies. Advancements during the last decade, mainly genetic engineering of oncolytic viruses have resulted in improved specificity and efficacy of oncolytic viruses in cancer therapeutics. Oncolytic viral therapy for treating cancer with herpes simplex virus-1 has been of particular interest owing to its range of benefits like: (a) large genome and power to infiltrate in the tumor, (b) easy access to manipulation with the flexibility to insert multiple transgenes, (c) infecting majority of the malignant cell types with quick replication in the infected cells and (d) as Anti-HSV agent to terminate HSV replication. This review provides an exhaustive list of oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 along with their genetic alterations. It also encompasses the major developments in oncolytic herpes simplex-1 viral therapy and outlines the limitations and drawbacks of oncolytic herpes simplex viral therapy.

  5. Herpes zoster vaccine in older adults and the risk of subsequent herpes zoster disease.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Hung Fu; Smith, Ning; Harpaz, Rafael; Bialek, Stephanie R; Sy, Lina S; Jacobsen, Steven J

    2011-01-12

    Approximately 1 million episodes of herpes zoster occur annually in the United States. Although prelicensure data provided evidence that herpes zoster vaccine works in a select study population under idealized circumstances, the vaccine needs to be evaluated in field conditions. To evaluate risk of herpes zoster after receipt of herpes zoster vaccine among individuals in general practice settings. A retrospective cohort study from January 1, 2007, through December 31, 2009, of individuals enrolled in the Kaiser Permanente Southern California health plan. Participants were immunocompetent community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or older. The 75,761 members in the vaccinated cohort were age matched (1:3) to 227,283 unvaccinated members. Incidence of herpes zoster. Herpes zoster vaccine recipients were more likely to be white, women, with more outpatient visits, and fewer chronic diseases. The number of herpes zoster cases among vaccinated individuals was 828 in 130,415 person-years (6.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9-6.8), and for unvaccinated individuals it was 4606 in 355,659 person-years (13.0 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 12.6-13.3). In adjusted analysis, vaccination was associated with a reduced risk of herpes zoster (hazard ratio [HR], 0.45; 95% CI, 0.42-0.48); this reduction occurred in all age strata and among individuals with chronic diseases. Risk of herpes zoster differed by vaccination status to a greater magnitude than the risk of unrelated acute medical conditions, suggesting results for herpes zoster were not due to bias. Ophthalmic herpes zoster (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.23-0.61) and hospitalizations coded as herpes zoster (HR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.24-0.51) were less likely among vaccine recipients. Among immunocompetent community-dwelling adults aged 60 years or older, receipt of the herpes zoster vaccine was associated with a lower incidence of herpes zoster. The risk was reduced among all age strata and among individuals with

  6. Herpes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testing Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) Antibody Tests Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) Erythropoietin Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) ... Available online at http://health.lifestyle.yahoo.ca/channel_section_details.asp?text_id=1364&channel_id= ...

  7. Understanding the Role of Chemokines and Cytokines in Experimental Models of Herpes Simplex Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Azher, Tayaba N.; Yin, Xiao-Tang

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis is a disease of the cornea caused by HSV-1. It is a leading cause of corneal blindness in the world. Underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown, but experimental models have helped give a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathology. Cytokines and chemokines are small proteins released by cells that play an important proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory role in modulating the disease process. Cytokines such as IL-17, IL-6, IL-1α, and IFN-γ and chemokines such as MIP-2, MCP-1, MIP-1α, and MIP-1β have proinflammatory role in the destruction caused by HSV including neutrophil infiltration and corneal inflammation, and other chemokines and cytokines such as IL-10 and CCL3 can have a protective role. Most of the damage results from neutrophil infiltration and neovascularization. While many more studies are needed to better understand the role of these molecules in both experimental models and human corneas, current studies indicate that these molecules hold potential to be targets of future therapy. PMID:28491875

  8. Understanding the Role of Chemokines and Cytokines in Experimental Models of Herpes Simplex Keratitis.

    PubMed

    Azher, Tayaba N; Yin, Xiao-Tang; Stuart, Patrick M

    2017-01-01

    Herpes simplex keratitis is a disease of the cornea caused by HSV-1. It is a leading cause of corneal blindness in the world. Underlying molecular mechanism is still unknown, but experimental models have helped give a better understanding of the underlying molecular pathology. Cytokines and chemokines are small proteins released by cells that play an important proinflammatory or anti-inflammatory role in modulating the disease process. Cytokines such as IL-17, IL-6, IL-1 α , and IFN- γ and chemokines such as MIP-2, MCP-1, MIP-1 α , and MIP-1 β have proinflammatory role in the destruction caused by HSV including neutrophil infiltration and corneal inflammation, and other chemokines and cytokines such as IL-10 and CCL3 can have a protective role. Most of the damage results from neutrophil infiltration and neovascularization. While many more studies are needed to better understand the role of these molecules in both experimental models and human corneas, current studies indicate that these molecules hold potential to be targets of future therapy.

  9. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus DNA polymerase by purine ribonucleoside monophosphates.

    PubMed

    Frank, K B; Cheng, Y C

    1986-02-05

    Purine ribonucleoside monophosphates were found to inhibit chain elongation catalyzed by herpes simplex virus (HSV) DNA polymerase when DNA template-primer concentrations were rate-limiting. Inhibition was fully competitive with DNA template-primer during chain elongation; however, DNA polymerase-associated exonuclease activity was inhibited noncompetitively with respect to DNA. Combinations of 5'-GMP and phosphonoformate were kinetically mutually exclusive in dual inhibitor studies. Pyrimidine nucleoside monophosphates and deoxynucleoside monophosphates were less inhibitory than purine riboside monophosphates. The monophosphates of 9-beta-D-arabinofuranosyladenine, Virazole (1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide), 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine, and 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl)guanine exerted little or no inhibition. In contrast to HSV DNA polymerase, human DNA polymerase alpha was not inhibited by purine ribonucleoside monophosphates. These studies suggest the possibility of a physiological role of purine ribonucleoside monophosphates as regulators of herpesvirus DNA synthesis and a new approach to developing selective anti-herpesvirus compounds.

  10. Houttuynia cordata Targets the Beginning Stage of Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Pei-Yun; Ho, Bing-Ching; Lee, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Sui-Yuan; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Lee, Chun-Nan

    2015-01-01