Science.gov

Sample records for anti-dumping measures applicable

  1. 76 FR 52045 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Diamond...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-19

    ... on Diamond Sawblades and Parts Thereof From China AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... (``WTO Agreement'') concerning anti-dumping measures regarding diamond sawblades and parts thereof from... on diamond sawblades and parts thereof from China, referring in particular to the use of what...

  2. 76 FR 17985 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Frozen...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office OFFICE OF THE UNITED STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States--Anti- Dumping Measures on Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From China AGENCY: Office of the United States...

  3. 76 FR 11553 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti Dumping Measures on Corrosion...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From Korea AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade... (``WTO Agreement'') concerning antidumping measures regarding corrosion- resistant carbon steel flat... concerning antidumping measures regarding corrosion-resistant carbon steel flat products from Korea....

  4. 78 FR 58378 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Measures on Large...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-23

    ... of Article 2.1 of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (``SCM Agreement''), and... public bodies within the meaning of Article 1.1(a)(1)(i) of the SCM Agreement as well as Commerce's... benefit within the meaning of [Article 1.2 and Article 14 of the SCM Agreement].'' Korea...

  5. 76 FR 12400 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Countervailing and Anti-Dumping Duties on Grain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China--Countervailing and Anti-Dumping... countervailing and anti-dumping duties on Grain Oriented Flat-rolled Electrical Steel (``GOES'') from the United... measures imposing countervailing duties and anti-dumping duties on GOES from the United States...

  6. 77 FR 2119 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duty Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... via www.regulations.gov , enter docket number USTR-2011-0022 on the home page and click ``search... ``How to Use This Site'' on the left side of the home page.) The www.regulations.gov site provides the option of providing comments by filling in a ``Type Comments'' field, or by attaching a document using an...

  7. 77 FR 19745 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States; Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... on Certain Shrimp from Viet Nam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... the Department of Commerce on imports of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam (Investigation A... a sunset review conducted by the Department of Commerce on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...

  8. 77 FR 46788 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding China-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-06

    ... Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures (``SCM Agreement''). China's actions which appear to be... of the GATT 1994, the AD Agreement, and the SCM Agreement: 1. Articles 5.3 and 5.4 of the AD Agreement, and Articles 11.3 and 11.4 of the SCM Agreement, because: (a) China failed to examine the...

  9. 75 FR 20670 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Use of Zeroing in Anti-Dumping Measures...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... Issues Raised by Korea In its request for establishment of a panel, Korea challenges the use by the U.S... Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils (``SSPC'') from the... of Sales at Less Than Fair Value: Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From the Republic of Korea;...

  10. 76 FR 68809 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Diamond Sawblades From China AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice... affirmative final LTFV determination in the antidumping investigation concerning diamond sawblades and...

  11. 78 FR 16754 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-18

    ... on Certain Shrimp From Vietnam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... Department of Commerce on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam. Specifically, Vietnam challenges: the... Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final ] Results and Partial Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

  12. 75 FR 8177 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-23

    ... on Certain Shrimp From Viet Nam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... conducted by the Department of Commerce on imports of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam... on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam, referring in particular to the use of what it...

  13. 75 FR 32533 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping Measures on Certain Shrimp...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-08

    ... on Certain Shrimp From Viet Nam AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION... reviews conducted by the Department of Commerce on imports of certain frozen warmwater shrimp from Vietnam... reviews, and sunset review conducted by the Department of Commerce on certain frozen warmwater shrimp from...

  14. Topography measurements and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Junfeng; Vorburger, Theodore

    2006-11-01

    Based on auto- and cross-correlation functions (ACF and CCF), a new surface parameter called profile (or topography) difference, D s, has been developed for quantifying differences between 2D profiles or between 3D topographies with a single number. When D s = 0, the two compared 2D profiles or 3D topographies must be exactly the same (point by point). A 2D and 3D topography measurement system was established at NIST. This system includes data acquisition stations using a stylus instrument and a confocal microscope, and a correlation program using the proposed parameters D s and the cross-correlation function maximum CCF max. Applications in forensic science and surface metrology are described; those include profile signature measurements for 40 NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) 2460 standard bullets, and comparisons of profile measurements with four different techniques. An approach to optimizing the Gaussian filter long wavelength cutoff, λc, is proposed for topography measurements.

  15. 40 CFR 80.101 - Standards applicable to refiners and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Anti-Dumping § 80.101 Standards applicable to.... (3) Complex model standards. (i) Annual average levels of exhaust toxics emissions and NOX emissions... not exceed the refiner's or importer's compliance baseline for exhaust toxics and NOX...

  16. 40 CFR 80.101 - Standards applicable to refiners and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Anti-Dumping § 80.101 Standards applicable to.... (3) Complex model standards. (i) Annual average levels of exhaust toxics emissions and NOX emissions... not exceed the refiner's or importer's compliance baseline for exhaust toxics and NOX...

  17. 40 CFR 80.101 - Standards applicable to refiners and importers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Anti-Dumping § 80.101 Standards applicable to.... (3) Complex model standards. (i) Annual average levels of exhaust toxics emissions and NOX emissions... not exceed the refiner's or importer's compliance baseline for exhaust toxics and NOX...

  18. 75 FR 31762 - Foreign-Trade Zone 203; Application for Subzone Authority; REC Silicon; Invitation for Public...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 203; Application for Subzone Authority; REC Silicon... Corporation to establish a subzone at the REC Silicon facility in Moses Lake, Washington (Docket 22-2009). The... admission of foreign status silicon metal subject to an anti-dumping duty (AD) or countervailing duty...

  19. Environmental applications of magnetic measurements.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R; Stober, J C; Turner, G M; Oldfield, F; Bloemendal, J; Dearing, J A; Rummery, T A

    1980-02-01

    A wide range of examples of the application of magnetic measurements to environmental studies illustrate the advantages of magnetic techniques over conventional methods. Magnetic measurements, in both the field and the laboratory, are particularly useful for reconnaissance work because of their spee and flexibility, Quantification as well as simple diagnosis of the transformation and movement of magnetic minerals within and between the atmosphere, lithosphere, and hydrosphere is practical. Techniques of investigating intrinsic and mineral magnetic properties, in addition to paleomagnetic remanence, are described in subjects as diverse as meteorology, hydrology, sedimentology, geophysics, and ecology.

  20. Ultrasound propagation measurements and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnworth, L. C.; Papadakis, E. P.; Fowler, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews three systems designed for accurately measuring the propagation of ultrasonic pulses. The three systems are presented in order of velocity-measuring precision: + or - 100 ns, + or - 1 ns, + or - 0.2 ns. Also included is a brief discussion of phase and group velocities, with reference to dispersive, highly attenuating materials. Measurement of attenuation by pulse-echo buffer rod techniques is described briefly. These techniques and instruments have been used to measure sound velocity and attenuation in a variety of materials and shapes, over a wide temperature range.

  1. Ultrasound propagation measurements and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynnworth, L. C.; Papadakis, E. P.; Fowler, K. A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews three systems designed for accurately measuring the propagation of ultrasonic pulses. The three systems are presented in order of velocity-measuring precision: + or - 100 ns, + or - 1 ns, + or - 0.2 ns. Also included is a brief discussion of phase and group velocities, with reference to dispersive, highly attenuating materials. Measurement of attenuation by pulse-echo buffer rod techniques is described briefly. These techniques and instruments have been used to measure sound velocity and attenuation in a variety of materials and shapes, over a wide temperature range.

  2. Level measurement solutions for coal handling applications

    SciTech Connect

    Koeneman, D.; Sholette, W.

    2006-06-15

    The article looks at the range and applications of level measurement technology for coal handling and related fly ash operations. Point level or on/off measurement instrumentation indicates the presence or absence of material in a surge bin storage silo or on a conveyor belt. Point level switches at high or low level turn on or turn off pumps and conveyors. Continuous level or proportional measurement indicates the level in a vessel over the full span of measurement. The article describes types of technologies in typical locations in a coal-fired power plant where point and continuous level measurements are taken. 1 fig.

  3. Reflectometric measurement of plasma imaging and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mase, A.; Ito, N.; Oda, M.; Komada, Y.; Nagae, D.; Zhang, D.; Kogi, Y.; Tobimatsu, S.; Maruyama, T.; Shimazu, H.; Sakata, E.; Sakai, F.; Kuwahara, D.; Yoshinaga, T.; Tokuzawa, T.; Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Tsuji-Iio, S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G.; Lee, W.; Padhi, S.; Kim, K. W.

    2012-01-01

    Progress in microwave and millimeter-wave technologies has made possible advanced diagnostics for application to various fields, such as, plasma diagnostics, radio astronomy, alien substance detection, airborne and spaceborne imaging radars called as synthetic aperture radars, living body measurements. Transmission, reflection, scattering, and radiation processes of electromagnetic waves are utilized as diagnostic tools. In this report we focus on the reflectometric measurements and applications to biological signals (vital signal detection and breast cancer detection) as well as plasma diagnostics, specifically by use of imaging technique and ultra-wideband radar technique.

  4. Power Measurement Methods for Energy Efficient Applications

    PubMed Central

    Calandrini, Guilherme; Gardel, Alfredo; Bravo, Ignacio; Revenga, Pedro; Lázaro, José L.; Toledo-Moreo, F. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Energy consumption constraints on computing systems are more important than ever. Maintenance costs for high performance systems are limiting the applicability of processing devices with large dissipation power. New solutions are needed to increase both the computation capability and the power efficiency. Moreover, energy efficient applications should balance performance vs. consumption. Therefore power data of components are important. This work presents the most remarkable alternatives to measure the power consumption of different types of computing systems, describing the advantages and limitations of available power measurement systems. Finally, a methodology is proposed to select the right power consumption measurement system taking into account precision of the measure, scalability and controllability of the acquisition system. PMID:23778191

  5. Measuring emotional intelligence of medical school applicants.

    PubMed

    Carrothers, R M; Gregory, S W; Gallagher, T J

    2000-05-01

    To discuss the development, pilot testing, and analysis of a 34-item semantic differential instrument for measuring medical school applicants' emotional intelligence (the EI instrument). The authors analyzed data from the admission interviews of 147 1997 applicants to a six-year BS/MD program that is composed of three consortium universities. They compared the applicants' scores on traditional admission criteria (e.g., GPA and traditional interview assessments) with their scores on the EI instrument (which comprised five dimensions of emotional intelligence), breaking the data out by consortium university (each of which has its own educational ethos) and gender. They assessed the EI instrument's reliability and validity for assessing noncognitive personal and interpersonal qualities of medical school applicants. The five dimensions of emotional intelligence (maturity, compassion, morality, sociability, and calm disposition) indicated fair to excellent internal consistency: reliability coefficients were .66 to .95. Emotional intelligence as measured by the instrument was related to both being female and matriculating at the consortium university that has an educational ethos that values the social sciences and humanities. Based on this pilot study, the 34-item EI instrument demonstrates the ability to measure attributes that indicate desirable personal and interpersonal skills in medical school applicants.

  6. Impact of Measurement Error on Synchrophasor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yilu; Gracia, Jose R.; Ewing, Paul D.; Zhao, Jiecheng; Tan, Jin; Wu, Ling; Zhan, Lingwei

    2015-07-01

    Phasor measurement units (PMUs), a type of synchrophasor, are powerful diagnostic tools that can help avert catastrophic failures in the power grid. Because of this, PMU measurement errors are particularly worrisome. This report examines the internal and external factors contributing to PMU phase angle and frequency measurement errors and gives a reasonable explanation for them. It also analyzes the impact of those measurement errors on several synchrophasor applications: event location detection, oscillation detection, islanding detection, and dynamic line rating. The primary finding is that dynamic line rating is more likely to be influenced by measurement error. Other findings include the possibility of reporting nonoscillatory activity as an oscillation as the result of error, failing to detect oscillations submerged by error, and the unlikely impact of error on event location and islanding detection.

  7. Application of TDR to water level measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, A.; Hansen, B.; Schelde, K.

    2000-09-01

    A specialised time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe for measuring water level in tanks collecting surface runoff was developed, calibrated and field-tested. The water level probe — in the form of a slightly modified soil moisture probe — was developed as part of a TDR measuring system designed for continuous monitoring of soil water content and surface runoff in plot studies of water erosion and sediment transport. A computer algorithm for the analysis of TDR traces from the new probe was developed and incorporated into existing software for automated acquisition and analysis of TDR data. Laboratory calibration showed that water level could be measured with sufficient accuracy (standard deviation <2 mm) for a range of applications in hydrology. Soil erosion is typically a short duration process closely linked to soil moisture content and rainfall intensity. A major benefit of integrating time critical measurements of surface runoff and soil moisture into a single system is the synchronisation of measurements. Measurements were made on a regular schedule except during rainfall events when the measuring rate depended on rainfall intensity. In a parallel calibration study it was shown that the performance of the TDR probe was comparable to a commercial ultrasonic liquid level sensor used for measuring runoff at an erosion site not instrumented for automated TDR measurements.

  8. Measurement and Applications of Radiation Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dakang; Garrett, Joseph; Murray, Joseph; Munday, Jeremy; Munday Lab Team

    Light reflected off a material or absorbed within it exerts radiation pressure through the transfer of momentum. Measuring and utilizing radiation pressure have aroused growing interest in a wide spectrum of research fields. Micromechanical transducers and oscillators are good candidates for measuring radiation pressure, but accompanying photothermal effects often obscure the measurement. In this work, we investigate the accurate measurement of the radiation force on microcantilevers in ambient conditions and ways to separate radiation pressure and photothermal effects. Further, we investigate an optically broadband switchable device based on polymer dispersed liquid crystal which has potential applications in solar sails and maneuvering spacecraft without moving parts. The authors would like to thank NASA Early Career Faculty Award and NASA Smallsat Technology Partnership Award for their funding support.

  9. Global Precipitation Measurement: Methods, Datasets and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapiador, Francisco; Turk, Francis J.; Petersen, Walt; Hou, Arthur Y.; Garcia-Ortega, Eduardo; Machado, Luiz, A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Salio, Paola; Kidd, Chris; Huffman, George J.; hide

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the many aspects of precipitation measurement that are relevant to providing an accurate global assessment of this important environmental parameter. Methods discussed include ground data, satellite estimates and numerical models. First, the methods for measuring, estimating, and modeling precipitation are discussed. Then, the most relevant datasets gathering precipitation information from those three sources are presented. The third part of the paper illustrates a number of the many applications of those measurements and databases. The aim of the paper is to organize the many links and feedbacks between precipitation measurement, estimation and modeling, indicating the uncertainties and limitations of each technique in order to identify areas requiring further attention, and to show the limits within which datasets can be used.

  10. Surface texture measurement for dental wear applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austin, R. S.; Mullen, F.; Bartlett, D. W.

    2015-06-01

    The application of surface topography measurement and characterization within dental materials science is highly active and rapidly developing, in line with many modern industries. Surface measurement and structuring is used extensively within oral and dental science to optimize the optical, tribological and biological performance of natural and biomimetic dental materials. Although there has historically been little standardization in the use and reporting of surface metrology instrumentation and software, the dental industry is beginning to adopt modern areal measurement and characterization techniques, especially as the dental industry is increasingly adopting digital impressioning techniques in order to leverage CAD/CAM technologies for the design and construction of dental restorations. As dental treatment becomes increasingly digitized and reliant on advanced technologies such as dental implants, wider adoption of standardized surface topography and characterization techniques will become evermore essential. The dental research community welcomes the advances that are being made in surface topography measurement science towards realizing this ultimate goal.

  11. Advanced giant magnetoresistance technology for measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Roland; Mattheis, Roland; Reiss, Günter

    2013-08-01

    Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors are considered one of the first real applications of nanotechnology. They consist of nm-thick layered structures where ferromagnetic metals are sandwiched by nonmagnetic metals. Such multilayered films produce a large change in resistance (typically 10 to 20%) when subjected to a magnetic field, compared with a maximum change of a few per cent for other types of magnetic sensors. This technology has been intensively used in read heads for hard disk drives and now increasingly finds applications due to the high sensitivity and signal-to-noise ratio. Additionally these sensors are compatible with miniaturization and thus offer a high spatial resolution combined with a frequency range up to the 100 MHz regime and simple electronic conditioning. In this review, we first discuss the basics of the underlying magnetoresistance effects in layered structures and then present three prominent examples for future applications: in the field of current sensing the new GMR sensors offer high bandwidth and good accuracy in a space-saving open loop measurement configuration. In rotating systems they can be used for multiturn angle measurements, and in biotechnology the detection of magnetic particles enables the quantitative measurement of biomolecule concentrations.

  12. Efficient 41Ca measurements for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Schulze-König, T.; Synal, H.-A.; Aeberli, I.; Zimmermann, M. B.

    2015-10-01

    We present the performance of 41Ca measurements using low-energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at the 500 kV facility TANDY at ETH Zurich. We optimized the measurement procedure for biomedical applications where reliability and high sample throughput is required. The main challenge for AMS measurements of 41Ca is the interfering stable isobar 41K. We use a simplified sample preparation procedure to produce calcium fluoride (CaF2) and extract calcium tri-fluoride ions (CaF3-) ions to suppress the stable isobar 41K. Although 41K is not completely suppressed we reach 41Ca/40Ca background level in the 10-12 range which is adequate for biomedical studies. With helium as a stripper gas we can use charge state 2+ at high transmission (∼50%). The new measurement procedure with the approximately 10 × improved efficiency and the higher accuracy due to 41K correction allowed us to measure more than 600 samples for a large biomedical study within only a few weeks of measurement time.

  13. Practical application of in situ aerosol measurement

    SciTech Connect

    O`Hern, T.J.; Rader, D.J.

    1993-09-01

    The use of in situ, real-time measurement techniques permits the characterization of airborne droplets and particles under conditions where traditional sampling methods can fail. For example, sampling method rely on the ability to sample and transport particles without biasing the properties of interest, and often are not applicable in harsh environment. Although in situ methods offer unique opportunities in these cases, these techniques introduce new concerns and must be used carefully if accurate measurement are to be made. Several in situ measurement techniques are reviewed here. As the field is rapidly evolving, the discussion is limited to those techniques which: (1) are commercially available, (2) provide real-time output, (3) measure the aerosol size distribution. Discussion is divided between single particle counters (which provide a flux-based or temporal measurement) and ensemble techniques (which provide a concentration-based or spatial measurement). Specific techniques discussed include phase Doppler, Mie scattering, and Fraunhofer diffraction, and commercial instruments based on these techniques.

  14. 46 CFR 69.159 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.159 Application for measurement services... required for the Standard Measurement System under § 69.105. The application must indicate whether a line... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.159 Section 69...

  15. Industrial and scientific applications of holographic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Vera M.

    1997-05-01

    The primary mission of the Holography Laboratory organized at the Opto-Physical Research Institute (YNIIOFI, Moscow, Russia) in 1966 was application of holography techniques in metrology [1]. The following basic tasks have been successfully accomplished [2-4]: (i) theoretical analysis of sources of measurement errors; (ii) development and batch production of optical holographic devices and reference instruments for their legal certification; (iii) development of methods and means for processing measurement data; specifically, the Radon transformation is applied for calculation of spatial distribution of refractive index in transparent objects; (iv) a method and device for stroboscopic measuring of 3D reconstructed images by a "periscope" technique; (v) utilization of holographic tomography and laser interferometry; (vi) instrumentation for microwave and ultrasonic holographometry, correlation-based techniques for rejection of imperfect products and for analysis ofpulsed signals. The developed holographic instrumentation has found widespread application at various scientific and industrial enterprises in the former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries. This report represents only a small selection of the total body of work accomplished in the laboratory.

  16. Application of ultrasonics to nonintrusive vibration measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Au-Yang, M.K. )

    1993-11-01

    This paper outlines a nonintrusive vibration measurement method using standard off-the-shelf commercial ultrasonic instruments designed for flaw detections, together with digital signal analysis techniques. This method was incorporated into a commercial package designed for nonintrusive check valve monitoring and has been extensively tested in both the laboratory and the field. It can detect valve disk flutter as small as 0.02-in. (0.50 mm) peak-to-peak, without disassembly of the valve. In simulated tests, it quantitatively measured, remotely and nonintrusively, stationary vibration amplitudes as small as 0.0001 in. (0.0025 mm). Other potential applications include in-service vibration monitoring of internal components of nuclear reactors, steam generators, heat exchangers, pumps and valves, and in the laboratory or in the field, when the vibration frequency is too low for accelerometers and the strain is too low for strain gages.

  17. MEMS Applications in Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, E.; Mehregany, M.; Bang, C.

    1998-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) embodies the integration of sensors, actuators, and electronics on a single substrate using integrated circuit fabrication techniques and compatible bulk and surface micromachining processes. Silicon and its derivatives form the material base for the MEMS technology. MEMS devices, including microsensors and microactuators, are attractive because they can be made small (characteristic dimension about 100 microns), be produced in large numbers with uniform performance, include electronics for high performance and sophisticated functionality, and be inexpensive. For aerodynamic measurements, it is preferred that sensors be small so as to approximate measurement at a point, and in fact, MEMS pressure sensors, wall shear-stress sensors, heat flux sensors and micromachined hot wires are nearing application. For the envisioned application to wind tunnel models, MEMS sensors can be placed on the surface or in very shallow grooves. MEMS devices have often been fabricated on stiff, flat silicon substrates, about 0.5 mm thick, and therefore were not easily mounted on curved surfaces. However, flexible substrates are now available and heat-flux sensor arrays have been wrapped around a curved turbine blade. Electrical leads can also be built into the flexible substrate. Thus MEMS instrumented wind tunnel models do not require deep spanwise grooves for tubes and leads that compromise the strength of conventionally instrumented models. With MEMS, even the electrical leads can potentially be eliminated if telemetry of the signals to an appropriate receiver can be implemented. While semiconductor silicon is well known for its electronic properties, it is also an excellent mechanical material for MEMS applications. However, silicon electronics are limited to operations below about 200 C, and silicon's mechanical properties start to diminish above 400 C. In recent years, silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as the leading material candidate for

  18. MEMS Applications in Aerodynamic Measurement Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reshotko, E.; Mehregany, M.; Bang, C.

    1998-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) embodies the integration of sensors, actuators, and electronics on a single substrate using integrated circuit fabrication techniques and compatible bulk and surface micromachining processes. Silicon and its derivatives form the material base for the MEMS technology. MEMS devices, including microsensors and microactuators, are attractive because they can be made small (characteristic dimension about 100 microns), be produced in large numbers with uniform performance, include electronics for high performance and sophisticated functionality, and be inexpensive. For aerodynamic measurements, it is preferred that sensors be small so as to approximate measurement at a point, and in fact, MEMS pressure sensors, wall shear-stress sensors, heat flux sensors and micromachined hot wires are nearing application. For the envisioned application to wind tunnel models, MEMS sensors can be placed on the surface or in very shallow grooves. MEMS devices have often been fabricated on stiff, flat silicon substrates, about 0.5 mm thick, and therefore were not easily mounted on curved surfaces. However, flexible substrates are now available and heat-flux sensor arrays have been wrapped around a curved turbine blade. Electrical leads can also be built into the flexible substrate. Thus MEMS instrumented wind tunnel models do not require deep spanwise grooves for tubes and leads that compromise the strength of conventionally instrumented models. With MEMS, even the electrical leads can potentially be eliminated if telemetry of the signals to an appropriate receiver can be implemented. While semiconductor silicon is well known for its electronic properties, it is also an excellent mechanical material for MEMS applications. However, silicon electronics are limited to operations below about 200 C, and silicon's mechanical properties start to diminish above 400 C. In recent years, silicon carbide (SiC) has emerged as the leading material candidate for

  19. Power system applications for phasor measurement units

    SciTech Connect

    Burnett, R.O. Jr. ); Butts, M.M.; Sterlina, P.S.

    1994-01-01

    This article examines the applications for a system that can determine the state of the power system at a given instant over any area. The topics of the article include fault recording applications, disturbance recording applications, transmission and generation modeling verification applications, power system stabilizer test applications, and a discussion of future enhancements and applications.

  20. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications

    PubMed Central

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB. PMID:27069645

  1. Extragalactic background light measurements and applications.

    PubMed

    Cooray, Asantha

    2016-03-01

    This review covers the measurements related to the extragalactic background light intensity from γ-rays to radio in the electromagnetic spectrum over 20 decades in wavelength. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) remains the best measured spectrum with an accuracy better than 1%. The measurements related to the cosmic optical background (COB), centred at 1 μm, are impacted by the large zodiacal light associated with interplanetary dust in the inner Solar System. The best measurements of COB come from an indirect technique involving γ-ray spectra of bright blazars with an absorption feature resulting from pair-production off of COB photons. The cosmic infrared background (CIB) peaking at around 100 μm established an energetically important background with an intensity comparable to the optical background. This discovery paved the way for large aperture far-infrared and sub-millimetre observations resulting in the discovery of dusty, starbursting galaxies. Their role in galaxy formation and evolution remains an active area of research in modern-day astrophysics. The extreme UV (EUV) background remains mostly unexplored and will be a challenge to measure due to the high Galactic background and absorption of extragalactic photons by the intergalactic medium at these EUV/soft X-ray energies. We also summarize our understanding of the spatial anisotropies and angular power spectra of intensity fluctuations. We motivate a precise direct measurement of the COB between 0.1 and 5 μm using a small aperture telescope observing either from the outer Solar System, at distances of 5 AU or more, or out of the ecliptic plane. Other future applications include improving our understanding of the background at TeV energies and spectral distortions of CMB and CIB.

  2. 46 CFR 69.205 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Simplified Measurement System § 69.205 Application for measurement services. To apply for measurement under the Simplified Measurement System, the owner of the vessel must... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.205 Section 69...

  3. 46 CFR 69.17 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.17 Section 69.17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.17 Application for measurement services. (a) Applications...

  4. 46 CFR 69.17 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.17 Section 69.17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.17 Application for measurement services. (a) Applications for...

  5. 46 CFR 69.17 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.17 Section 69.17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS General § 69.17 Application for measurement services. (a) Applications for...

  6. Flight Acoustics Measurement Techniques and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preisser, J. S.; Marcolini, M. A.

    1998-01-01

    Careful consideration must be given to data acquisition and analysis techniques in the design of experiments for the measurement of noise generated by flight vehicles. Although noise measurement locations and data reduction procedures are specified for aircraft certification by FAA and ICAO directives, for example, there are virtually no established procedures for aircraft noise measurement for other purposes. To optimize the quality and quantity of information obtained in a flight acoustics experiment, microphone layout, data acquisition, and analysis must be tailored to the specific test objective. This paper will review flight acoustics technology at NASA Langley Research Center developed over the past decade. In particular, the paper will focus on flight experiments performed for three diverse objectives: (1) research applications, such as noise prediction code validation, (2) noise impact modeling, and (3) noise abatement flight procedures. To best achieve these diverse objectives, different deployments of microphone systems on the ground are required, and different data analysis techniques are needed. In all cases, accurate positioning of the aircraft synchronized in time with the data recording is necessary. However, there are some restrictions on flight operations unique to each case for the methods to properly work.

  7. Recurrence measure of conditional dependence and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Antônio M. T.; Builes-Jaramillo, Alejandro; Poveda, Germán; Goswami, Bedartha; Macau, Elbert E. N.; Kurths, Jürgen; Marwan, Norbert

    2017-05-01

    Identifying causal relations from observational data sets has posed great challenges in data-driven causality inference studies. One of the successful approaches to detect direct coupling in the information theory framework is transfer entropy. However, the core of entropy-based tools lies on the probability estimation of the underlying variables. Here we propose a data-driven approach for causality inference that incorporates recurrence plot features into the framework of information theory. We define it as the recurrence measure of conditional dependence (RMCD), and we present some applications. The RMCD quantifies the causal dependence between two processes based on joint recurrence patterns between the past of the possible driver and present of the potentially driven, excepting the contribution of the contemporaneous past of the driven variable. Finally, it can unveil the time scale of the influence of the sea-surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean on the precipitation in the Amazonia during recent major droughts.

  8. Recurrence measure of conditional dependence and applications.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Antônio M T; Builes-Jaramillo, Alejandro; Poveda, Germán; Goswami, Bedartha; Macau, Elbert E N; Kurths, Jürgen; Marwan, Norbert

    2017-05-01

    Identifying causal relations from observational data sets has posed great challenges in data-driven causality inference studies. One of the successful approaches to detect direct coupling in the information theory framework is transfer entropy. However, the core of entropy-based tools lies on the probability estimation of the underlying variables. Here we propose a data-driven approach for causality inference that incorporates recurrence plot features into the framework of information theory. We define it as the recurrence measure of conditional dependence (RMCD), and we present some applications. The RMCD quantifies the causal dependence between two processes based on joint recurrence patterns between the past of the possible driver and present of the potentially driven, excepting the contribution of the contemporaneous past of the driven variable. Finally, it can unveil the time scale of the influence of the sea-surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean on the precipitation in the Amazonia during recent major droughts.

  9. 46 CFR 69.105 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.105 Section 69.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.105 Application for measurement services...

  10. 46 CFR 69.55 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.55 Section 69.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.55 Application for measurement services...

  11. 46 CFR 69.105 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.105 Section 69.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.105 Application for measurement services...

  12. 46 CFR 69.55 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.55 Section 69.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.55 Application for measurement services...

  13. 46 CFR 69.55 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.55 Section 69.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.55 Application for measurement services...

  14. 46 CFR 69.105 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.105 Section 69.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.105 Application for measurement services...

  15. 46 CFR 69.105 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.105 Section 69.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.105 Application for measurement services...

  16. 46 CFR 69.55 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.55 Section 69.55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.55 Application for measurement services...

  17. 46 CFR 69.105 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.105 Section 69.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Standard Measurement System § 69.105 Application for measurement services...

  18. 46 CFR 69.205 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.205 Section 69.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Simplified Measurement System § 69.205 Application for measurement...

  19. 46 CFR 69.159 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.159 Section 69.159 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.159 Application for measurement...

  20. 46 CFR 69.159 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.159 Section 69.159 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.159 Application for measurement services...

  1. 46 CFR 69.159 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.159 Section 69.159 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Dual Measurement System § 69.159 Application for measurement services...

  2. 46 CFR 69.205 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.205 Section 69.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Simplified Measurement System § 69.205 Application for measurement services...

  3. 46 CFR 69.205 - Application for measurement services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application for measurement services. 69.205 Section 69.205 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Simplified Measurement System § 69.205 Application for measurement services...

  4. Measures and applications of quantum correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Bromley, Thomas R.; Cianciaruso, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Quantum information theory is built upon the realisation that quantum resources like coherence and entanglement can be exploited for novel or enhanced ways of transmitting and manipulating information, such as quantum cryptography, teleportation, and quantum computing. We now know that there is potentially much more than entanglement behind the power of quantum information processing. There exist more general forms of non-classical correlations, stemming from fundamental principles such as the necessary disturbance induced by a local measurement, or the persistence of quantum coherence in all possible local bases. These signatures can be identified and are resilient in almost all quantum states, and have been linked to the enhanced performance of certain quantum protocols over classical ones in noisy conditions. Their presence represents, among other things, one of the most essential manifestations of quantumness in cooperative systems, from the subatomic to the macroscopic domain. In this work we give an overview of the current quest for a proper understanding and characterisation of the frontier between classical and quantum correlations (QCs) in composite states. We focus on various approaches to define and quantify general QCs, based on different yet interlinked physical perspectives, and comment on the operational significance of the ensuing measures for quantum technology tasks such as information encoding, distribution, discrimination and metrology. We then provide a broader outlook of a few applications in which quantumness beyond entanglement looks fit to play a key role.

  5. Measurement of local stress for microelectronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dawei

    For quality control and reliability analysis in semiconductor manufacturing, it is crucial to access the localized stress in devices due to process integration in thin film deposition, etching, passivation and thermal treatment. Presented in this dissertation is the exploration of a new methodology to access localized stress in patterned microstructures. It is called the "micro-bending-beam method". In order to evaluate the residual stress distribution in a thin film pattern residing on a silicon wafer, the Si underlying the pattern was thinned down uniformly so that its deflection, caused by the residual stress, could be measured. If the etched-back surface remains optically flat and reflective, then the bending of the diaphragm would be equivalent to its surface profile, which could be readily measured by a Twyman-Green laser interferometer. A procedure called "numerical etching" was implemented to simulate the Si etching process, which linked the stress state of the microstructure on a bulk wafer to that on a Si diaphragm. An initial stress field in the pattern was assumed, its effect on the bending of the Si diaphragm beneath was calculated and compared to the measured value. The discrepancy between them was used to modify the initially assumed stress field and repeated until satisfactory matches were achieved at each diaphragm thickness. The applicability of the micro-bending-beam method was demonstrated by resolving the residual stress in an electroless Ni bump. It was found that for a relatively thick diaphragm, the "plate" effect dominated; for a relatively thin diaphragm, the "membrane" effect dominated; at intermediate thickness, both effects existed. A general algorithm to solve non-linear equations where both bending stiffness and residual stress in a diaphragm must be considered was invented, and named "non-linear sequential analysis". It was found that for a pre-stressed pattern sitting on a stress-free Si diaphragm starting at to and thinned down to

  6. Advanced (Measurement) Applications of Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Cummings, Kelli Dawn; Biancarosa, Gina; Fien, Hank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a commentary on the current state of several measurement issues pertaining to curriculum-based measures of reading (R-CBM). We begin by providing an overview of the utility of R-CBM, followed by a presentation of five specific measurements considerations: (a) the reliability of R-CBM oral reading fluency…

  7. Advanced (Measurement) Applications of Curriculum-Based Measurement in Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petscher, Yaacov; Cummings, Kelli Dawn; Biancarosa, Gina; Fien, Hank

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a commentary on the current state of several measurement issues pertaining to curriculum-based measures of reading (R-CBM). We begin by providing an overview of the utility of R-CBM, followed by a presentation of five specific measurements considerations: (a) the reliability of R-CBM oral reading fluency…

  8. Neutron Energy Measurements in Emergency Response Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed

    2009-09-11

    We present significant results in recent advances in the measurement of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of importance. At the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) of National Security Technologies, LLC, a series of materials, viz., liquid organic scintillator (LOS), Lithium Gadolinium Borate (LGB) or Li6Gd(BO3)3 in a plastic matrix, a recently developed crystal of Cesium Lithium Yttrium Chloride, Cs2LiYCl6: Ce (called CLYC)[1], and normal plastic scintillator (BC-408) with 3He tubes have been used to study their effectiveness as a portable neutron energy spectrometer. Comparisons illustrating the strengths of the various materials will be provided. Of these materials, LGB offers the ability to tailor its response to the neutron spectrum by varying the isotopic composition of the key constituents (Lithium, Gadolinium [Yttrium], and Boron). All three of the constituent elements possess large neutron capture cross section isotopes for highly exothermic reactions. These compounds of composition Li6Gd(Y)(BO3)3 can be activated by Cerium ions Ce3+. CLYC, on the other hand, has a remarkable gamma response in addition to superb neutron discrimination, comparable to that of Europium-doped Lithium Iodide (6LiI: Eu). Comparing these two materials, CLYC has higher light output (4500 phe/MeV) than that from 6LiI: Eu and shows better energy resolution for both gamma and neutron pulse heights. Using CLYC, gamma energy pulses can be discriminated from the neutron signals by simple pulse height separation. For the cases of both LGB and LOS, careful pulse shape discrimination is needed to separate the gamma energy signals from neutron pulses. Both analog and digital

  9. Neutron energy measurements in emergency response applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Hornish, Michael; Wilde, Scott; Stampahar, Tom; Reed, Michael

    2009-08-01

    We present significant results in recent advances in the measurement of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of importance. At the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) of National Security Technologies, LLC, a series of materials, viz., liquid organic scintillator (LOS), Lithium Gadolinium Borate (LGB) or Li6Gd(BO3)3 in a plastic matrix, a recently developed crystal of Cesium Lithium Yttrium Chloride, Cs2LiYCl6: Ce (called CLYC)[1], and normal plastic scintillator (BC-408) with 3He tubes have been used to study their effectiveness as a portable neutron energy spectrometer. Comparisons illustrating the strengths of the various materials will be provided. Of these materials, LGB offers the ability to tailor its response to the neutron spectrum by varying the isotopic composition of the key constituents (Lithium, Gadolinium [Yttrium], and Boron). All three of the constituent elements possess large neutron capture cross section isotopes for highly exothermic reactions. These compounds of composition Li6Gd(Y)(BO3)3 can be activated by Cerium ions Ce3+. CLYC, on the other hand, has a remarkable gamma response in addition to superb neutron discrimination, comparable to that of Europium-doped Lithium Iodide (6LiI: Eu). Comparing these two materials, CLYC has higher light output (4500 phe/MeV) than that from 6LiI: Eu and shows better energy resolution for both gamma and neutron pulse heights. Using CLYC, gamma energy pulses can be discriminated from the neutron signals by simple pulse height separation. For the cases of both LGB and LOS, careful pulse shape discrimination is needed to separate the gamma energy signals from neutron pulses. Both analog and digital

  10. Measurement: Problems of Theory and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick

    Deals with questions of measurement that have systematic or formal interest, but that diverge rather sharply from the mainstream of mathematics. Considered are several conceptually unsatisfactory developments about a theory of measurement directly related to standard structures in mathematics from the standpoint of applying theory in the social…

  11. Piagetian Assessment Measures Revisited: Issues and Applications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1982-01-01

    Reviews some better known Piagetian scales; analyzes and compares Piagetian-based and conventional intelligence measures. Reviews research comparing the two methods and examines whether racial groups' performance differs on Piagetian measures. Discusses the implications of Piagetian assessment procedures for school psychologists. (Author/RC)

  12. Software framework for nano- and microscale measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röning, Juha; Tuhkanen, Ville; Sipola, Risto; Vallius, Tero

    2011-01-01

    Development of new instruments and measurement methods has advanced research in the field of nanotechnology. Development of measurement systems used in research requires support from reconfigurable software. Application frameworks can be used to develop domain-specific application skeletons. New applications are specialized from the framework by filling its extension points. This paper presents an application framework for nano- and micro-scale applications. The framework consists of implementation of a robotic control architecture and components that implement features available in measurement applications. To ease the development of user interfaces for measurement systems, the framework also contains ready-to-use user interface components. The goal of the framework was to ease the development of new applications for measurement systems. Features of the implemented framework were examined through two test cases. Benefits gained by using the framework were analyzed by determining work needed to specialize new applications from the framework. Also the degree of reusability of specialized applications was examined. The work shows that the developed framework can be used to implement software for measurement systems and that the major part of the software can be implemented by using reusable components of the framework. When developing new software, a developer only needs to develop components related to the hardware used and performing the measurement task. Using the framework developing new software takes less time. The framework also unifies structure of developed software.

  13. Applications of adenine nucleotide measurements in oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holm-Hansen, O.; Hodson, R.; Azam, F.

    1975-01-01

    The methodology involved in nucleotide measurements is outlined, along with data to support the premise that ATP concentrations in microbial cells can be extrapolated to biomass parameters. ATP concentrations in microorganisms and nucleotide analyses are studied.

  14. PREFACE: Dielectrics 2009: Measurement Analysis and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Alun; Williams, Graham

    2009-07-01

    The conference Dielectrics 2009: Measurements, Analysis and Applications represents a significant milestone in the evolution of dielectrics research in the UK. It is reasonable to state that the academic study of dielectrics has led to many fundamental advances and that dielectric materials underpin the modern world in devices ranging from field effect transistors, which operate at extremely high fields, albeit low voltages, to the high voltage plants that provide the energy that powers our economy. The origins of the Dielectrics Group of the Institute of Physics (IOP), which organized this conference, can be traced directly back to the early 1960s, when Professor Mansel Davies was conducting research into the dielectric relaxation behaviour of polar liquids and solids at The Edward Davies Chemical Laboratories of the University College of Wales, Aberystwyth. He was already well-known internationally for his studies of molecular structure and bonding of small molecules, using infra-red-spectroscopy, and of the physical properties of hydrogen-bonded liquids and solids, using thermodynamic methods. Dielectric spectroscopy was a fairly new area for him and he realized that opportunities for scientists in the UK to gather together and discuss their research in this developing area of physical chemistry/chemical physics were very limited. He conceived the idea of forming a Dielectrics Discussion Group (DDG), which would act as a meeting point and provide a platform for dielectrics research in the UK and beyond and, as a result, a two-day Meeting was convened in the spring of 1968 at Gregynog Hall of the University of Wales, near Newtown, Montgomeryshire. It was organized by Mansel Davies, Alun Price and Graham Williams, all physical chemists from the UCW, Aberystwyth. Fifty scientists attended, being a mix of physical chemists, theoretical chemists, physicists, electrical engineers, polymer and materials scientists, all from the UK, except Dr Brendan Scaife of Trinity

  15. Corneal topography measurements for biometric applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Nathan D.

    The term biometrics is used to describe the process of analyzing biological and behavioral traits that are unique to an individual in order to confirm or determine his or her identity. Many biometric modalities are currently being researched and implemented including, fingerprints, hand and facial geometry, iris recognition, vein structure recognition, gait, voice recognition, etc... This project explores the possibility of using corneal topography measurements as a trait for biometric identification. Two new corneal topographers were developed for this study. The first was designed to function as an operator-free device that will allow a user to approach the device and have his or her corneal topography measured. Human subject topography data were collected with this device and compared to measurements made with the commercially available Keratron Piccolo topographer (Optikon, Rome, Italy). A third topographer that departs from the standard Placido disk technology allows for arbitrary pattern illumination through the use of LCD monitors. This topographer was built and tested to be used in future research studies. Topography data was collected from 59 subjects and modeled using Zernike polynomials, which provide for a simple method of compressing topography data and comparing one topographical measurement with a database for biometric identification. The data were analyzed to determine the biometric error rates associated with corneal topography measurements. Reasonably accurate results, between three to eight percent simultaneous false match and false non-match rates, were achieved.

  16. Classroom Applications of Educational Measurement. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oosterhof, Albert

    This book, designed as an introductory text in educational measurement, presents comprehensive and balanced coverage of all aspects of assessment relevant to classroom teachers, including construction and use of paper-and-pencil and alternative assessments. This edition expands the coverage of alternative assessments and includes a chapter on the…

  17. Measurement Strategies for Remote Sensing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Theiler, J.; Smith, B.; Love, S.P.; LaDelfe, P.C.; Cooke, B.J.; Clodius, W.B.; Borel, C.C.; Bender, S.C.

    1999-03-06

    Remote sensing has grown to encompass many instruments and observations, with concomitant data from a huge number of targets. As evidenced by the impressive growth in the number of published papers and presentations in this field, there is a great deal of interest in applying these capabilities. The true challenge is to transition from directly observed data sets to obtaining meaningful and robust information about remotely sensed targets. We use physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis techniques as a framework for such a transition. Our technique starts with quantified observables and signatures of a target. The signatures are propagated through representative atmospheres to realistically modeled sensors. Simulated data are then propagated through analysis routines, yielding measurements that are directly compared to the original target attributes. We use this approach to develop measurement strategies which ensure that our efforts provide a balanced approach to obtaining substantive information on our targets.

  18. Macroindentation hardness measurement-Modernization and applications.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sarsvat; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we first developed a modernized indentation technique for measuring tablet hardness. This technique is featured by rapid digital image capture, using a calibrated light microscope, and precise area-determination. We then systematically studied effects of key experimental parameters, including indentation force, speed, and holding time, on measured hardness of a very soft material, hydroxypropyl cellulose, and a very hard material, dibasic calcium phosphate, to cover a wide range of material properties. Based on the results, a holding period of 3min at the peak indentation load is recommended to minimize the effect of testing speed on H. Using this method, we show that an exponential decay function well describes the relationship between tablet hardness and porosity for seven commonly used pharmaceutical powders investigated in this work. We propose that H and H at zero porosity may be used to quantify the tablet deformability and powder plasticity, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Muon Fluence Measurements for Homeland Security Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ankney, Austin S.; Berguson, Timothy J.; Borgardt, James D.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2010-08-10

    This report focuses on work conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to better characterize aspects of backgrounds in RPMs deployed for homeland security purposes. Two polyvinyl toluene scintillators were utilized with supporting NIM electronics to measure the muon coincidence rate. Muon spallation is one mechanism by which background neutrons are produced. The measurements performed concentrated on a broad investigation of the dependence of the muon flux on a) variations in solid angle subtended by the detector; b) the detector inclination with the horizontal; c) depth underground; and d) diurnal effects. These tests were conducted inside at Building 318/133, outdoors at Building 331G, and underground at Building 3425 at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  20. Laser application on haptics: Tactile stiffness measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalise, L.; Memeo, M.; Cannella, F.; Valente, M.; Caldwell, D. G.; Tomasini, E. P.

    2012-06-01

    There is a great interest in exploring the proprieties of the sense of the touch, its detailed knowledge in fact is a key issue in the area of robotics, haptics and human-machine interaction. In this paper, the authors focus their attention on a novel measurement method for the assessment of the tactile stiffness based on a original test rig; tactile stiffness is defined as the ratio between force, exerted by the finger, and the displacement of the finger tip operated during the test. To reach this scope, the paper describes a specific experimental test-rig used for the evaluation of subject tactile sensitivity, where finger force applied during tests as well as displacement and velocity of displacement, operated by the subject under investigation, are measured. Results show that tactile stiffness is linear respect to stimuli spatial difference (which is proportional to the difficulty to detect the variation of them). In particular, it has been possible to relate the force and displacement measured during the tests. The relationship between the response of the subject to the grating, velocity and force is determined. These results permit to carry out the further experimental tests on the same subject avoiding the use of a load cell and therefore simplifying the measurement test rig and data post-processing. Indeed, the first aspect (use of a load cell) can be relevant, because the grating positions are different, requiring a specific re-calibration and setting before each trial; while the second aspect allows simplify the test rig complexity and the processing algorithm.

  1. Application of Uniform Measurement Error Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-18

    should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to any penalty for failing to comply with a collection of...Uniform Measurement Error Distribution 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Ghazarians, Alan; Jackson, Dennis...PFA), Probability of False Reject (PFR). 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT SAR 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 15 19a. NAME

  2. Clinical applications of cortisol measurements in hair.

    PubMed

    Wester, Vincent L; van Rossum, Elisabeth F C

    2015-10-01

    Cortisol measurements in blood, saliva and urine are frequently used to examine the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in clinical practice and in research. However, cortisol levels are subject to variations due to acute stress, the diurnal rhythm and pulsatile secretion. Cortisol measurements in body fluids are not always a reflection of long-term cortisol exposure. The analysis of cortisol in scalp hair is a relatively novel method to measure cumulative cortisol exposure over months up to years. Over the past years, hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) have been examined in association with a large number of somatic and mental health conditions. HCC can be used to evaluate disturbances of the HPA axis, including Cushing's syndrome, and to evaluate hydrocortisone treatment. Using HCC, retrospective timelines of cortisol exposure can be created which can be of value in diagnosing cyclic hypercortisolism. HCC have also been shown to increase with psychological stressors, including major life events, as well as physical stressors, such as endurance exercise and shift work. Initial studies show that HCC may be increased in depression, but decreased in general anxiety disorder. In posttraumatic stress disorder, changes in HCC seem to be dependent on the type of traumatic experience and the time since traumatization. Increased hair cortisol is consistently linked to obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Potentially, HCC could form a future marker for cardiovascular risk stratification, as well as serve as a treatment target.

  3. Measurement and application of fault latency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, K. G.; Lee, Y.-H.

    1986-01-01

    The time interval between the occurrence of a fault and the detection of the error caused by the fault is divided by the generation of that error into two parts: fault latency and error latency. Since the moment of error generation is not directly observable, all related works in the literature have dealt with only the sum of fault and error latencies, thereby making the analysis of their separate effects impossible. To remedy this deficiency, (1) a new methodology for indirectly measuring fault latency is presented; the distribution of fault latency is derived from the methodology; and (3) the knowledge of fault latency is applied to the analysis of two important examples. The proposed methodology has been implemented for measuring fault latency in the Fault-Tolerant Multiprocessor (FTMP) at the NASA Airlab. The experimental results show wide variations in the mean fault latencies of different function circuits within FTMP. Also, the measured distributions of fault latency are shown to have monotone hazard rates. Consequently, Gamma and Weibull distributions are selected for the least-squares fit as the distribution of fault latency.

  4. Pediatric applications of wideband acoustic immittance measures.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Lisa L; Prieve, Beth A; Kei, Joseph; Sanford, Chris A

    2013-07-01

    Wideband acoustic immittance (WAI) measures have potential capability to improve newborn hearing screening outcomes and middle ear diagnosis for infants and children. To fully capitalize on these immittance measures for pediatric hearing care, developmental and pathologic effects need to be fully understood. Published literature on wideband immittance (reflectance, absorbance, tympanometry, and acoustic reflexes) is reviewed in this article to determine pathologic effects in newborns, infants, and children relative to standard audiologic tests such as otoacoustic emissions (OAEs), standard tympanometry, air and bone conduction auditory brainstem response, and otoscopy. Infants and children with surgically confirmed otitis media with effusion have lower absorbance in the mid-frequency range (1 to 3 kHz) for the affected ear(s). Newborns that do not pass OAE screening at birth also have lower absorbance for frequencies from 1 to 3 kHz, suggesting that nonpass results are frequently associated with middle ear issues at birth. In Newborn Hearing Screening Programs, WAI may help to interpret hearing screening results. Conclusions are limited by the fact that the true status of the middle ear and cochlea are not known for newborns and infants in studies that use OAE or tympanometry as the reference standard. Likelihood ratios for reflectance against surgery gold standards range from diagnostically suggestive to informative. Although some of the results are promising, limited evidence and methodological considerations restrict the conclusions that can be drawn regarding the diagnostic accuracy of WAI technologies in infants and children. Additional investigations using stronger gold standard comparisons are needed to determine which tools can most accurately predict middle ear status in the pediatric population.

  5. Undergraduate Measurements For Fission Reactor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas (UD) have investigated elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections on structural materials important for criticality considerations in nuclear fission processes. Neutrons scattered off of 23Na and NatFe were detected using neutron time-of-flight techniques at the University of Kentucky Low-Energy Nuclear Accelerator Facility. These measurements are part of an effort to increase the efficiency of power generation from existing fission reactors in the US and in the design of new fission systems. Students have learned the basics of how to operate the Model CN Van de Graaff generator at the laboratory, setup detectors and electronics, use data acquisition systems, and they are currently analyzing the angular dependence of the scattered neutrons for incident neutron energies of 3.57 and 3.80 MeV. Most students participating in the project will use the research experience as the material for their undergraduate research thesis required for all Bachelor of Science students at the University of Dallas. The first student projects on this topic were completed during the summer of 2010; an overview of student participation in this investigation and their preliminary results will be presented.

  6. Undergraduate Measurements For Fission Reactor Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, S. F.; Kersting, L. J.; Lueck, C. J.; McDonough, P.; Crider, B. P.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Peters, E. E.; Vanhoy, J. R.

    2011-06-01

    Undergraduate students at the University of Dallas (UD) have investigated elastic and inelastic neutron scattering cross sections on structural materials important for criticality considerations in nuclear fission processes. Neutrons scattered off of {sup 23}Na and {sup Nat}Fe were detected using neutron time-of-flight techniques at the University of Kentucky Low-Energy Nuclear Accelerator Facility. These measurements are part of an effort to increase the efficiency of power generation from existing fission reactors in the US and in the design of new fission systems. Students have learned the basics of how to operate the Model CN Van de Graaff generator at the laboratory, setup detectors and electronics, use data acquisition systems, and they are currently analyzing the angular dependence of the scattered neutrons for incident neutron energies of 3.57 and 3.80 MeV. Most students participating in the project will use the research experience as the material for their undergraduate research thesis required for all Bachelor of Science students at the University of Dallas. The first student projects on this topic were completed during the summer of 2010; an overview of student participation in this investigation and their preliminary results will be presented.

  7. A measurement study of peer-to-peer applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Li, Zhitang; Tu, Hao

    2007-11-01

    P2P applications for file-sharing and video streaming have become tremendously popular in recent years, and it is now accounting for a significant share of the total network traffic. As P2P applications nowadays tend to use arbitrary ports to camouflage their communications, traditional methods like port-based identification have become highly inaccurate. In this paper, we propose a measurement system to detect and measure the real-time P2P traffic more reliably. The measurement methodology is based on using application level signatures implemented by netfilter extension as well as packet classifier. We further present the results from a P2P traffic analysis at a campus network, which show that this P2P traffic measurement system can provide the performance and scalability required for practical applications.

  8. Closed-loop snowplow applicator control using road condition measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdogan, Gurkan; Alexander, Lee; Rajamani, Rajesh

    2011-04-01

    Closed-loop control of a snowplow applicator, based on direct measurement of the road surface condition, is a valuable technology for the optimisation of winter road maintenance costs and for the protection of the environment from the negative impacts of excessive usage of de-icing chemicals. To this end, a novel friction measurement wheel is designed to provide a continuous measurement of road friction coefficient, which is, in turn, utilised to control the applicator automatically on a snowplow. It is desired that the automated snowplow applicator deploy de-icing materials right from the beginning of any slippery surface detected by the friction wheel, meaning that no portion of the slippery road surface should be left untreated behind, as the snowplow travels over it at a reasonably high speed. This paper describes the developed wheel-based measurement system, the friction estimation algorithm and the expected performance of the closed-loop applicator system. Conventional and zero velocity applicators are introduced and their hardware time delays are measured in addition to the time delay of the friction estimation algorithm. The overall performance of the closed-loop applicator control system is shown to be reliable at typical snowplowing speeds if the zero velocity applicator is used.

  9. Apt strain measurement technique for impulsive loading applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjan Nanda, Soumya; Kulkarni, Vinayak; Sahoo, Niranjan

    2017-03-01

    The necessity of precise measurement of strain time history for impulsive loading applications has been addressed in the present investigation. Finite element modeling is initially carried out for a hemispherical test model and stress bar assembly to arrive at an appropriate location for strain measurement. In dynamic calibration experiments, strain measurements are performed using two wire and three wire quarter bride arrangements along with half bridge circuit. Usefulness of these arrangements has been verified by analyzing strain signals in time and frequency domains. Comparison of recovered force time histories proved that the half bridge circuit is the most suitable for such applications. Actual shock tube testing of the instrumented hemispherical test model confirmed the applicability of half bridge circuit for short duration strain measurements.

  10. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique for Wind Tunnel Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrows, Danny A.

    2006-01-01

    Videogrammetric measurement technique developments at NASA Langley were driven largely by the need to quantify model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). This paper summarizes recent wind tunnel applications and issues at the NTF and other NASA Langley facilities including the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel, 31-Inch Mach 10 Tunnel, 8-Ft high Temperature Tunnel, and the 20-Ft Vertical Spin Tunnel. In addition, several adaptations of wind tunnel techniques to non-wind tunnel applications are summarized. These applications include wing deformation measurements on vehicles in flight, determining aerodynamic loads based on optical elastic deformation measurements, measurements on ultra-lightweight and inflatable space structures, and the use of an object-to-image plane scaling technique to support NASA s Space Exploration program.

  11. On digital image processing technology and application in geometric measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jiugen; Xing, Ruonan; Liao, Na

    2014-04-01

    Digital image processing technique is an emerging science that emerging with the development of semiconductor integrated circuit technology and computer science technology since the 1960s.The article introduces the digital image processing technique and principle during measuring compared with the traditional optical measurement method. It takes geometric measure as an example and introduced the development tendency of digital image processing technology from the perspective of technology application.

  12. Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E.; Rohrbaugh, John W.; Papadopoulos, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

  13. Novel Applications of Laser Doppler Vibration Measurements to Medical Imaging.

    PubMed

    Tabatabai, Habib; Oliver, David E; Rohrbaugh, John W; Papadopoulos, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) has been widely used in engineering applications involving non-contact vibration and sound measurements. This technique has also been used in some biomedical applications including hearing research. The detectable frequencies are in the range of near-DC to 1 GHz or higher. This paper reviews applications of LDV in biomedical engineering and proposes new medical imaging applications based on measuring surface vibrations of tissues and organs. Tests were conducted on human skin using single point and scanning laser vibrometers. These tests suggest that skin vibrations due to the forcing excitation from the heart can be used in imaging of blood flow. The results of these tests illustrate the potential of such vibration measurements in a variety of diagnostic medical imaging applications including blood flow/restrictions, real-time monitoring of blood pressure variations, wound healing, muscle movements, etc. The fact that the measurements can be conducted remotely (non-contact) is an important benefit that adds to the promise of this approach.

  14. Non-intrusive measurement techniques for hydroelectric applicants

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, R.; Lemon, D.

    1995-12-31

    Non-intrusive acoustic methods for measuring flows, originally developed for oceanographic applications, are being used in and around hydroelectric dams. The acoustic methods can be categorized as either back-scattering or forward-scattering. The first, using the back-scattered signal, measures the Doppler shift of the returning echo to determine the along-beam component of flow. These instruments are generally called Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP). Three beam solutions allow computation of the velocity components. Time gating the return provides a velocity profile with bin segments as small as 0.25 in. In areas of strong magnetic deviation, often the case beside large dams, a gyrocompass can be used to provide directional orientation. The velocity data can also be used to quickly compute river or channel discharge. Typical applications and several case studies are presented. The second acoustic technique is based on a forward-scattering phenomenon known as scintillation. This technique has been used on the Fraser River to monitor flows, and properties of the signal have recently been correlated with the biomass of upstream-migrating salmon. Acoustic scintillation flow measurements are well suited to applications with limited space in the along-flow direction. Applications to hydroelectric dams include turbine intake flow measurements, and a system has been developed to measure flow along fish diversion screens.

  15. Sound Power Determination Using Sound Intensity Measurements: Applications and Extensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shaobo

    1995-01-01

    The determination of sound power using sound intensity measurements is one of the most important developments in acoustics since the advent of digital signal processing techniques and FFT (fast Fourier transform) techniques in 1970's. Sound power determination using sound intensity measurements is the only way to precisely determine the sound power of noise sources in operating conditions when other noise sources are operating simultaneously. Sound power determination from sound intensity measurements largely obviates the need for special purpose test facilities, such as an anechoic room or a reverberation room. The determination of sound power from sound intensity measurements has many distinct advantages over the traditional determination of the sound power from sound pressure, and it will soon become the dominant method in the determination of the sound power of noise sources in-situ. Sound intensity measurements have been successfully applied to the determination of the sound power levels of noise sources in laboratory conditions, and of small machinery noise sources. The full scale application of this new technique to industrial machinery noise sources is certainly of importance for practical purposes. This dissertation mainly describes progress made in research on the application of sound intensity measurements for the determination of the sound power of noise sources. Results concerning the sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the following areas are discussed: sound power determination from sound intensity measurements at low frequency, error analysis of sound intensity estimates at low frequency, and sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the presence of air flow, sound power determination from sound intensity measurements in the presence of strong background noise and some practical considerations on the application of the sound intensity technique to in-situ sound power determination.

  16. Bayes' theorem application in the measure information diagnostic value assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orzechowski, Piotr D.; Makal, Jaroslaw; Nazarkiewicz, Andrzej

    2006-03-01

    The paper presents Bayesian method application in the measure information diagnostic value assessment that is used in the computer-aided diagnosis system. The computer system described here has been created basing on the Bayesian Network and is used in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) diagnosis. The graphic diagnostic model enables to juxtapose experts' knowledge with data.

  17. Application of an On-machine Gage for Diameter Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Kevin G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the design analysis and application of a laser based gage made specifically for measuring parts on the machine tool to a high accuracy. The tri-beam gage uses three beams of light to measure the local curvature of the part in a manner similar to a V-block gage. The properties of this design include: calibration that is independent of the machine tool scales, non-contact damage free operation, low cost of the gage, and the ability to measure parts in motion.

  18. Recent Applications of Heat Capacity Measurement in Physicochemical Investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshmikumar, S. T.; Gopal, E. S. R.

    This review discusses the recent experimental heat capacity measurements which have been very useful in physicochemical investigations. Areas reviewed include critical point phenomena in systems such as fluids, magnetic systems, liquid crystals, co-operative Jahn-Teller transitions, etc. The uses of Cp measurements in the study of discrete energy levels in solids, in glasses at very low temperatures, in thin films and at high pressures are discussed. Calorimetric investigations in A-15 and other superconducting materials and applications of Cp measurements for evaluation of thermodynamic parameters in several new classes of materials are then briefly described. Finally, examples of applications of calorimetry in areas of biophysics, biological sciences and clinical medicine are cited. Two hundred and seventy references are cited and 25 figures are used for illustration.

  19. Wavefront measurement of plastic lenses for mobile-phone applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Li-Ting; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Wang, Chung-Yen; Wang, Pei-Jen

    2016-08-01

    In camera lenses for mobile-phone applications, all lens elements have been designed with aspheric surfaces because of the requirements in minimal total track length of the lenses. Due to the diffraction-limited optics design with precision assembly procedures, element inspection and lens performance measurement have become cumbersome in the production of mobile-phone cameras. Recently, wavefront measurements based on Shack-Hartmann sensors have been successfully implemented on injection-molded plastic lens with aspheric surfaces. However, the applications of wavefront measurement on small-sized plastic lenses have yet to be studied both theoretically and experimentally. In this paper, both an in-house-built and a commercial wavefront measurement system configured on two optics structures have been investigated with measurement of wavefront aberrations on two lens elements from a mobile-phone camera. First, the wet-cell method has been employed for verifications of aberrations due to residual birefringence in an injection-molded lens. Then, two lens elements of a mobile-phone camera with large positive and negative power have been measured with aberrations expressed in Zernike polynomial to illustrate the effectiveness in wavefront measurement for troubleshooting defects in optical performance.

  20. Application of a virtual coordinate measuring machine for measurement uncertainty estimation of aspherical lens parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Küng, Alain; Meli, Felix; Nicolet, Anaïs; Thalmann, Rudolf

    2014-09-01

    Tactile ultra-precise coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) are very attractive for accurately measuring optical components with high slopes, such as aspheres. The METAS µ-CMM, which exhibits a single point measurement repeatability of a few nanometres, is routinely used for measurement services of microparts, including optical lenses. However, estimating the measurement uncertainty is very demanding. Because of the many combined influencing factors, an analytic determination of the uncertainty of parameters that are obtained by numerical fitting of the measured surface points is almost impossible. The application of numerical simulation (Monte Carlo methods) using a parametric fitting algorithm coupled with a virtual CMM based on a realistic model of the machine errors offers an ideal solution to this complex problem: to each measurement data point, a simulated measurement variation calculated from the numerical model of the METAS µ-CMM is added. Repeated several hundred times, these virtual measurements deliver the statistical data for calculating the probability density function, and thus the measurement uncertainty for each parameter. Additionally, the eventual cross-correlation between parameters can be analyzed. This method can be applied for the calibration and uncertainty estimation of any parameter of the equation representing a geometric element. In this article, we present the numerical simulation model of the METAS µ-CMM and the application of a Monte Carlo method for the uncertainty estimation of measured asphere parameters.

  1. Body measurements of Chinese males in dynamic postures and application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y J; Mok, P Y; Li, Y; Kwok, Y L

    2011-11-01

    It is generally accepted that there is a relationship between body dimensions, body movement and clothing wearing ease design, and yet previous research in this area has been neither sufficient nor systematic. This paper proposes a method to measure the human body in the static state and in 17 dynamic postures, so as to understand dimensional changes of different body parts during dynamic movements. Experimental work is carried out to collect 30 measurements of 10 male Chinese subjects in both static and dynamic states. Factor analysis is used to analyse body measurement data in a static state, and such key measurements describe the characteristics of different body figures. Moreover, one-way ANOVA is used to analyse how dynamic postures affect these key body measurements. Finally, an application of the research results is suggested: a dynamic block patternmaking method for high-performance clothing design.

  2. A modular, programmable measurement system for physiological and spaceflight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W.; Ricks, Robert D.; Miles, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA-Ames Sensors 2000! Program has developed a small, compact, modular, programmable, sensor signal conditioning and measurement system, initially targeted for Life Sciences Spaceflight Programs. The system consists of a twelve-slot, multi-layer, distributed function backplane, a digital microcontroller/memory subsystem, conditioned and isolated power supplies, and six application-specific, physiological signal conditioners. Each signal condition is capable of being programmed for gains, offsets, calibration and operate modes, and, in some cases, selectable outputs and functional modes. Presently, the system has the capability for measuring ECG, EMG, EEG, Temperature, Respiration, Pressure, Force, and Acceleration parameters, in physiological ranges. The measurement system makes heavy use of surface-mount packaging technology, resulting in plug in modules sized 125x55 mm. The complete 12-slot system is contained within a volume of 220x150x70mm. The system's capabilities extend well beyond the specific objectives of NASA programs. Indeed, the potential commercial uses of the technology are virtually limitless. In addition to applications in medical and biomedical sensing, the system might also be used in process control situations, in clinical or research environments, in general instrumentation systems, factory processing, or any other applications where high quality measurements are required.

  3. Electromagnetic Differential Measuring Method: Application in Microstrip Sensors Developing

    PubMed Central

    García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Electromagnetic radiation is energy that interacts with matter. The interaction process is of great importance to the sensing applications that characterize material media. Parameters like constant dielectric represent matter characteristics and they are identified using emission, interaction and reception of electromagnetic radiation in adapted environmental conditions. How the electromagnetic wave responds when it interacts with the material media depends on the range of frequency used and the medium parameters. Different disciplines use this interaction and provides non-intrusive applications with clear benefits, remote sensing, earth sciences (geology, atmosphere, hydrosphere), biological or medical disciplines use this interaction and provides non-intrusive applications with clear benefits. Electromagnetic waves are transmitted and analyzed in the receiver to determine the interaction produced. In this work a method based in differential measurement technique is proposed as a novel way of detecting and characterizing electromagnetic matter characteristics using sensors based on a microstrip patch. The experimental results, based on simulations, show that it is possible to obtain benefits from the behavior of the wave-medium interaction using differential measurement on reception of electromagnetic waves at different frequencies or environmental conditions. Differential method introduce advantages in measure processes and promote new sensors development. A new microstrip sensor that uses differential time measures is proposed to show the possibilities of this method. PMID:28718804

  4. Electromagnetic Differential Measuring Method: Application in Microstrip Sensors Developing.

    PubMed

    Ferrández-Pastor, Francisco Javier; García-Chamizo, Juan Manuel; Nieto-Hidalgo, Mario

    2017-07-18

    Electromagnetic radiation is energy that interacts with matter. The interaction process is of great importance to the sensing applications that characterize material media. Parameters like constant dielectric represent matter characteristics and they are identified using emission, interaction and reception of electromagnetic radiation in adapted environmental conditions. How the electromagnetic wave responds when it interacts with the material media depends on the range of frequency used and the medium parameters. Different disciplines use this interaction and provides non-intrusive applications with clear benefits, remote sensing, earth sciences (geology, atmosphere, hydrosphere), biological or medical disciplines use this interaction and provides non-intrusive applications with clear benefits. Electromagnetic waves are transmitted and analyzed in the receiver to determine the interaction produced. In this work a method based in differential measurement technique is proposed as a novel way of detecting and characterizing electromagnetic matter characteristics using sensors based on a microstrip patch. The experimental results, based on simulations, show that it is possible to obtain benefits from the behavior of the wave-medium interaction using differential measurement on reception of electromagnetic waves at different frequencies or environmental conditions. Differential method introduce advantages in measure processes and promote new sensors development. A new microstrip sensor that uses differential time measures is proposed to show the possibilities of this method.

  5. A New Era in Quality Measurement: The Development and Application of Quality Measures.

    PubMed

    Adirim, Terry; Meade, Kelley; Mistry, Kamila

    2017-01-01

    Quality measures are used for a variety of purposes in health care, including clinical care improvement, regulation, accreditation, public reporting, surveillance, and maintenance of certification. Most quality measures are 1 of 3 types: structure, process, or outcome. Health care quality measures should address the domains of quality across the continuum of care and reflect patient and family experience. Measure development for pediatric health care has a number of important challenges, including gaps in the evidence base; the fact that measures for most conditions must be age-specific; the long, resource-intensive development process; and the national focus on measure development for adult conditions. Numerous national organizations focus on the development and application of quality measures, including the Pediatric Quality Measures Program, which is focused solely on the development and implementation of pediatric-specific measures. Once a quality measure is developed for use in national measurement programs, the organization that develops and/or "stewards" the measure may submit the measure or set of measures for endorsement, which is recognition of the scientific soundness, usability, and relevance of the measure. Quality measures must then be disseminated and applied to improve care. Although pediatric health care providers and child health care institutions alike must continually balance time and resources needed to address multiple reporting requirements, quality measurement is an important tool for advancing high-quality and safe health care for children. This policy statement provides an overview of quality measurement and describes the opportunities for pediatric health care providers to apply quality measures to improve clinical quality and performance in the delivery of pediatric health care services. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  6. Application of infrared camera to bituminous concrete pavements: measuring vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janků, Michal; Stryk, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Infrared thermography (IR) has been used for decades in certain fields. However, the technological level of advancement of measuring devices has not been sufficient for some applications. Over the recent years, good quality thermal cameras with high resolution and very high thermal sensitivity have started to appear on the market. The development in the field of measuring technologies allowed the use of infrared thermography in new fields and for larger number of users. This article describes the research in progress in Transport Research Centre with a focus on the use of infrared thermography for diagnostics of bituminous road pavements. A measuring vehicle, equipped with a thermal camera, digital camera and GPS sensor, was designed for the diagnostics of pavements. New, highly sensitive, thermal cameras allow to measure very small temperature differences from the moving vehicle. This study shows the potential of a high-speed inspection without lane closures while using IR thermography.

  7. Biomass measurement from LANDSAT: Drought and energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory supporting the use of vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT data for the direct measurement of biomass is reviewed. The use of multispectral data to measure biomass is a natural and viable application since the photosynthetic production of biomass gives vegetation its unique spectral properties. Vegetation indices also perform a normalization function which tends to make them insensitive to atmospheric and soil color variations. Optical and digital LANDSAT products are discussed relative to the use of vegetation indices to monitor drought impact. Based on results obtained in Colorado, operational use of LANDSAT to monitor drought is cost effective, practical and ready for implementation today. The direct measurement of biomass energy resources may also benefit from LANDSAT technology. Measurement of total biomass and annual primary production may be feasible. Identification of that component of biomass resources available for energy use will require other sources of information, however.

  8. Biomass measurement from LANDSAT: Drought and energy applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maxwell, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The theory supporting the use of vegetation indices derived from LANDSAT data for the direct measurement of biomass is reviewed. The use of multispectral data to measure biomass is a natural and viable application since the photosynthetic production of biomass gives vegetation its unique spectral properties. Vegetation indices also perform a normalization function which tends to make them insensitive to atmospheric and soil color variations. Optical and digital LANDSAT products are discussed relative to the use of vegetation indices to monitor drought impact. Based on results obtained in Colorado, operational use of LANDSAT to monitor drought is cost effective, practical and ready for implementation today. The direct measurement of biomass energy resources may also benefit from LANDSAT technology. Measurement of total biomass and annual primary production may be feasible. Identification of that component of biomass resources available for energy use will require other sources of information, however.

  9. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    PubMed

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  10. Applications of fidelity measures to complex quantum systems

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We revisit fidelity as a measure for the stability and the complexity of the quantum motion of single-and many-body systems. Within the context of cold atoms, we present an overview of applications of two fidelities, which we call static and dynamical fidelity, respectively. The static fidelity applies to quantum problems which can be diagonalized since it is defined via the eigenfunctions. In particular, we show that the static fidelity is a highly effective practical detector of avoided crossings characterizing the complexity of the systems and their evolutions. The dynamical fidelity is defined via the time-dependent wave functions. Focusing on the quantum kicked rotor system, we highlight a few practical applications of fidelity measurements in order to better understand the large variety of dynamical regimes of this paradigm of a low-dimensional system with mixed regular–chaotic phase space. PMID:27140967

  11. [Bone-length measurement at low back and its application].

    PubMed

    Fang, Jin

    2015-06-01

    By reviewing some acupuncture literature regarding the settings of bone-length measurement at low back, it was found out that ancient and modern descriptions were not consistent. In China current acupuncture textbook, it was mostly described as "the horizontal distance between inner borders of two scapulas was 6 cun". However, after analysis, it was believed that this setting was not reasonable in the clinical application of acupuncture, and it was agreed with the opinion that "midpoint of inner borders of two scapulas when scapulas are in abduction position" should be taken as bone-length measurement of low back. Besides, a self-made bone-length scale was applied to locate acupoint at low back, which could provide references for its standardized application manipulation.

  12. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications*

    PubMed Central

    Vorburger, T V; Song, J; Petraco, N

    2016-01-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. PMID:27182440

  13. Application of laser velocimetry to aircraft wake-vortex measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciffone, D. L.; Orloff, K. L.

    1977-01-01

    The theory and use of a laser velocimeter that makes simultaneous measurements of vertical and longitudinal velocities while rapidly scanning a flow field laterally are described, and its direct application to trailing wake-vortex research is discussed. Pertinent measurements of aircraft wake-vortex velocity distributions obtained in a wind tunnel and water towing tank are presented. The utility of the velocimeter to quantitatively assess differences in wake velocity distributions due to wake dissipating devices and span loading changes on the wake-generating model is also demonstrated.

  14. Neutron Energy Measurements in Radiological Emergency Response Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sanjoy Mukhopadhyay, Paul Guss, Michael Hornish, Scott Wilde, Tom Stampahar, Michael Reed

    2009-04-30

    We present significant results in recent advances in the determination of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but very significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of paramount importance.

  15. Compressive measurement for target tracking in persistent, pervasive surveillance applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehm, Michael E.; Stenner, Michael D.

    2009-08-01

    Motion tracking in persistent surveillance applications enters an interesting regime when the movers are of a size on the order of the image resolution elements or smaller. In this case, for reasonable scenes, information about the movers is a natively sparse signal - in an observation of a scene at two closely separated time-steps, only a small number of locations (those associated with the movers) will have changed dramatically. Thus, this particular application is well-suited for compressive sensing techniques that attempt to efficiently measure sparse signals. Recently, we have been investigating two different approaches to compressive measurement for this application. The first, differential Combinatorial Group Testing (dCGT), is a natural extension of group testing ideas to situations where signal differences are sparse. The second methodology is an l-1-minimization based recovery approach centered on recent work in random (and designed) multiplex sensing. In this manuscript we will discuss these methods as they apply to the motion tracking problem, discuss various performance limits, present early simulation results, and discuss notional optical architectures for implementing a compressive measurement scheme.

  16. Applications of ultrasensitive magnetic measurement technologies (invited) (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschkoff, Eugene C.

    1993-05-01

    The development of reliable, easy-to-use magnetic measurement systems with significantly enhanced levels of sensitivity has opened up a number of broad new areas of application for magnetic sensing. Magnetometers based on optical pumping offer sensitivities at the picotesla level, while those that utilize superconducting quantum interference devices can operate at the femtotesla level. These systems are finding applications in areas as diverse as geophysical exploration, communications, and medical diagnostics. This review briefly surveys the capabilities and application areas for a number of magnetic sensing technologies. The emphasis then focuses on the application of the most sensitive of these to the field of medical diagnostics and functional imaging. Protocols for specific applications to noninvasive presurgical planning and to the noninvasive assay of cortical dysfunction in diseases ranging from epilepsy to migraine and schizophrenia will be described in detail. Data will be presented reporting independent validation of these techniques in ten patients who subsequently underwent surgery. Routine and reliable utilization of this ultrasensitive magnetic sensing technology in the clinic is now feasible and practical.

  17. Mathematical Model for Absolute Magnetic Measuring Systems in Industrial Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fügenschuh, Armin; Fügenschuh, Marzena; Ludszuweit, Marina; Mojsic, Aleksandar; Sokół, Joanna

    2015-09-01

    Scales for measuring systems are either based on incremental or absolute measuring methods. Incremental scales need to initialize a measurement cycle at a reference point. From there, the position is computed by counting increments of a periodic graduation. Absolute methods do not need reference points, since the position can be read directly from the scale. The positions on the complete scales are encoded using two incremental tracks with different graduation. We present a new method for absolute measuring using only one track for position encoding up to micrometre range. Instead of the common perpendicular magnetic areas, we use a pattern of trapezoidal magnetic areas, to store more complex information. For positioning, we use the magnetic field where every position is characterized by a set of values measured by a hall sensor array. We implement a method for reconstruction of absolute positions from the set of unique measured values. We compare two patterns with respect to uniqueness, accuracy, stability and robustness of positioning. We discuss how stability and robustness are influenced by different errors during the measurement in real applications and how those errors can be compensated.

  18. Virtual continuity of measurable functions and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershik, A. M.; Zatitskii, P. B.; Petrov, F. V.

    2014-12-01

    A classical theorem of Luzin states that a measurable function of one real variable is `almost' continuous. For measurable functions of several variables the analogous statement (continuity on a product of sets having almost full measure) does not hold in general. The search for a correct analogue of Luzin's theorem leads to a notion of virtually continuous functions of several variables. This apparently new notion implicitly appears in the statements of embedding theorems and trace theorems for Sobolev spaces. In fact it reveals the nature of such theorems as statements about virtual continuity. The authors' results imply that under the conditions of Sobolev theorems there is a well-defined integration of a function with respect to a wide class of singular measures, including measures concentrated on submanifolds. The notion of virtual continuity is also used for the classification of measurable functions of several variables and in some questions on dynamical systems, the theory of polymorphisms, and bistochastic measures. In this paper the necessary definitions and properties of admissible metrics are recalled, several definitions of virtual continuity are given, and some applications are discussed. Bibliography: 24 titles.

  19. Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Mission Applications: Activities, Challenges, and Vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirschbaum, Dalia; Hou, Arthur

    2012-01-01

    Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) is an international satellite mission to provide nextgeneration observations of rain and snow worldwide every three hours. NASA and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) will launch a "Core" satellite carrying advanced instruments that will set a new standard for precipitation measurements from space. The data they provide will be used to unify precipitation measurements made by an international network of partner satellites to quantify when, where, and how much it rains or snows around the world. The GPM mission will help advance our understanding of Earth's water and energy cycles, improve the forecasting of extreme events that cause natural disasters, and extend current capabilities of using satellite precipitation information to directly benefit society. Building upon the successful legacy of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), GPM's next-generation global precipitation data will lead to scientific advances and societal benefits within a range of hydrologic fields including natural hazards, ecology, public health and water resources. This talk will highlight some examples from TRMM's IS-year history within these applications areas as well as discuss some existing challenges and present a look forward for GPM's contribution to applications in hydrology.

  20. Applications of digital holography to measurements and optical characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Xinzhu; Yu, Chongxiu; Yu, Miao; Hsu, Dashsiung

    2011-09-01

    With recent advances in high-speed computer and video capture technology, holographic films used in classical holography can be replaced with charged-coupled devices (CCD) and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) image sensors to record and numerically reconstruct a hologram, which is now known as digital holography. Digital holography introduces something new to optical science. Wet chemical processing and other time-consuming procedures can be removed, so numerical recording and reconstruction can be realized in almost real time. It allows us to characterize the phase of a light field as well the intensity, and so the whole wave field can be measured and stored in a computer. Digital holography is expanding applications of holography and becoming a scientific and technological tool. Its use has now increased for measuring amplitude and the phase of object waves, displacement and three dimensional shape, particle distributions and motions, characterization of the refractive index and biological tissues, and vibration analysis, etc. Here, basic principles of digital holography for optical measurement and characterization are described. Taking into consideration the rapid advance in CCD and CMOS sensors as the background, the state-of-the-art applications of digital holography to optical measurement and characterization are presented.

  1. Measurements of Cuspal Slope Inclination Angles in Palaeoanthropological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaboutchian, A. V.; Knyaz, V. A.; Leybova, N. A.

    2017-05-01

    Tooth crown morphological features, studied in palaeoanthropology, provide valuable information about human evolution and development of civilization. Tooth crown morphology represents biological and historical data of high taxonomical value as it characterizes genetically conditioned tooth relief features averse to substantial changes under environmental factors during lifetime. Palaeoanthropological studies are still based mainly on descriptive techniques and manual measurements of limited number of morphological parameters. Feature evaluation and measurement result analysis are expert-based. Development of new methods and techniques in 3D imaging creates a background provides for better value of palaeoanthropological data processing, analysis and distribution. The goals of the presented research are to propose new features for automated odontometry and to explore their applicability to paleoanthropological studies. A technique for automated measuring of given morphological tooth parameters needed for anthropological study is developed. It is based on using original photogrammetric system as a teeth 3D models acquisition device and on a set of algorithms for given tooth parameters estimation.

  2. Applications of Non-Traditional Measurements for Computational Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treeaporn, Vicha

    Imaging systems play an important role in many diverse applications. Requirements for these applications, however, can lead to complex or sub-optimal designs. Traditionally, imaging systems are designed to yield a visually pleasing representation, or "pretty picture", of the scene or object. Often this is because a human operator is viewing the acquired image to perform a specific task. With digital computers increasingly being used for automation, a large number of algorithms have been designed to accept as input a pretty picture. This isomorphic representation however is neither necessary nor optimal for tasks such as data compression, transmission, pattern recognition or classification. This disconnect between optical measurement and post processing for the final system outcome has motivated an interest in computational imaging (CI). In a CI system the optical sub-system and post-processing sub-system is jointly designed to optimize system performance for a specific task. In these hybrid imagers, the measured image may no longer be a pretty picture but rather an intermediate non-traditional measurement. In this work, applications of non-traditional measurements are considered for computational imaging. Two systems for an image reconstruction task are studied and one system for a detection task is investigated. First, a CI system to extend the field of view is analyzed and an experimental prototype demonstrated. This prototype validates the simulation study and is designed to yield a 3x field of view improvement relative to a conventional imager. Second, a CI system to acquire time-varying natural scenes, i.e. video, is developed. A candidate system using 8 x 8 x16 spatiotemporal blocks yields about 292x compression compared to a conventional imager. Candidate electro-optical architectures, including charge-domain processing, to implement this approach are also discussed. Lastly, a CI system with x-ray pencil beam illumination is investigated for a detection task

  3. Novel atmospheric extinction measurement techniques for aerospace laser system applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabatini, Roberto; Richardson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Novel techniques for laser beam atmospheric extinction measurements, suitable for manned and unmanned aerospace vehicle applications, are presented in this paper. Extinction measurements are essential to support the engineering development and the operational employment of a variety of aerospace electro-optical sensor systems, allowing calculation of the range performance attainable with such systems in current and likely future applications. Such applications include ranging, weaponry, Earth remote sensing and possible planetary exploration missions performed by satellites and unmanned flight vehicles. Unlike traditional LIDAR methods, the proposed techniques are based on measurements of the laser energy (intensity and spatial distribution) incident on target surfaces of known geometric and reflective characteristics, by means of infrared detectors and/or infrared cameras calibrated for radiance. Various laser sources can be employed with wavelengths from the visible to the far infrared portions of the spectrum, allowing for data correlation and extended sensitivity. Errors affecting measurements performed using the proposed methods are discussed in the paper and algorithms are proposed that allow a direct determination of the atmospheric transmittance and spatial characteristics of the laser spot. These algorithms take into account a variety of linear and non-linear propagation effects. Finally, results are presented relative to some experimental activities performed to validate the proposed techniques. Particularly, data are presented relative to both ground and flight trials performed with laser systems operating in the near infrared (NIR) at λ = 1064 nm and λ = 1550 nm. This includes ground tests performed with 10 Hz and 20 kHz PRF NIR laser systems in a large variety of atmospheric conditions, and flight trials performed with a 10 Hz airborne NIR laser system installed on a TORNADO aircraft, flying up to altitudes of 22,000 ft.

  4. Measurement and Statistics of Application Business in Complex Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lei; Li, Yang; Li, Yipeng; Wu, Shuhang; Song, Shiji; Ren, Yong

    Owing to independent topologies and autonomic routing mechanism, the logical networks formed by Internet application business behavior cause the significant influence on the physical networks. In this paper, the backbone traffic of TUNET (Tsinghua University Networks) is measured, further more, the two most important application business: HTTP and P2P are analyzed at IP-packet level. It is shown that uplink HTTP and P2P packets behavior presents spatio-temporal power-law characteristics with exponents 1.25 and 1.53 respectively. Downlink HTTP packets behavior also presents power-law characteristics, but has more little exponents γ = 0.82 which differs from traditional complex networks research result. Moreover, downlink P2P packets distribution presents an approximate power-law which means that flow equilibrium profits little from distributed peer-to peer mechanism actually.

  5. Application of ultra-weak photon emission measurements in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kimihiko; Iyozumi, Hiroyuki; Kageyama, Chizuko; Inagaki, Hidehiro; Yamaguchi, Akira; Nukui, Hideki

    2014-10-05

    Here we report our two applications of ultra-weak photon emission (UPE) measurements in agriculture. One is to find new types of agrochemicals that potentiate plants' defense, so-called "plant activator". We first analyzed the relation between plant defense and Elicitor-Responsive Photon Emission (ERPE) using a combination of rice cells and a chitin elicitor. Pharmacological analyses clarified that ERPE was generated as a part of the chitin elicitor-responsive defense in close relation with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Then we successfully detected the activity of plant activators as the potentiation of ERPE, and developed a new screening system for plant activators based on this principle. Another UPE application is to distinguish herbicide-resistant weeds from susceptible ones by measuring UPE in weeds. In our study, it was revealed that the weed biotypes resistant to sulfonylurea (SU) herbicides, one of the major herbicide groups, showed stronger UPE than susceptible ones after an SU herbicide treatment. By further analysis with a pharmacological and RNAi study, we found that the detoxifying enzyme P450s contributed to the UPE increase in SU herbicide resistant weeds. It is considered that weeds resistant to herbicides other than SU might also be able to be distinguished from susceptible ones by UPE measurement, as long as the herbicides are subject to detoxification by P450s.

  6. Application of postured human model for SAR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vuchkovikj, M.; Munteanu, I.; Weiland, T.

    2013-07-01

    In the last two decades, the increasing number of electronic devices used in day-to-day life led to a growing interest in the study of the electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissues. The design of medical devices and wireless communication devices such as mobile phones benefits a lot from the bio-electromagnetic simulations in which digital human models are used. The digital human models currently available have an upright position which limits the research activities in realistic scenarios, where postured human bodies must be considered. For this reason, a software application called "BodyFlex for CST STUDIO SUITE" was developed. In its current version, this application can deform the voxel-based human model named HUGO (Dipp GmbH, 2010) to allow the generation of common postures that people use in normal life, ensuring the continuity of tissues and conserving the mass to an acceptable level. This paper describes the enhancement of the "BodyFlex" application, which is related to the movements of the forearm and the wrist of a digital human model. One of the electromagnetic applications in which the forearm and the wrist movement of a voxel based human model has a significant meaning is the measurement of the specific absorption rate (SAR) when a model is exposed to a radio frequency electromagnetic field produced by a mobile phone. Current SAR measurements of the exposure from mobile phones are performed with the SAM (Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin) phantom which is filled with a dispersive but homogeneous material. We are interested what happens with the SAR values if a realistic inhomogeneous human model is used. To this aim, two human models, a homogeneous and an inhomogeneous one, in two simulation scenarios are used, in order to examine and observe the differences in the results for the SAR values.

  7. Applications of Thin Film Thermocouples for Surface Temperature Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lisa C.; Holanda, Raymond

    1994-01-01

    Thin film thermocouples provide a minimally intrusive means of measuring surface temperature in hostile, high temperature environments. Unlike wire thermocouples, thin films do not necessitate any machining of the surface, therefore leaving intact its structural integrity. Thin films are many orders of magnitude thinner than wire, resulting in less disruption to the gas flow and thermal patterns that exist in the operating environment. Thin film thermocouples have been developed for surface temperature measurement on a variety of engine materials. The sensors are fabricated in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Thin Film Sensor Lab, which is a class 1000 clean room. The thermocouples are platinum-13 percent rhodium versus platinum and are fabricated by the sputtering process. Thin film-to-leadwire connections are made using the parallel-gap welding process. Thermocouples have been developed for use on superalloys, ceramics and ceramic composites, and intermetallics. Some applications of thin film thermocouples are: temperature measurement of space shuttle main engine turbine blade materials, temperature measurement in gas turbine engine testing of advanced materials, and temperature and heat flux measurements in a diesel engine. Fabrication of thin film thermocouples is described. Sensor durability, drift rate, and maximum temperature capabilities are addressed.

  8. Measurements and analysis in imaging for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoeller, Timothy L.

    2009-02-01

    A Total Quality Management (TQM) approach can be used to analyze data from biomedical optical and imaging platforms of tissues. A shift from individuals to teams, partnerships, and total participation are necessary from health care groups for improved prognostics using measurement analysis. Proprietary measurement analysis software is available for calibrated, pixel-to-pixel measurements of angles and distances in digital images. Feature size, count, and color are determinable on an absolute and comparative basis. Although changes in images of histomics are based on complex and numerous factors, the variation of changes in imaging analysis to correlations of time, extent, and progression of illness can be derived. Statistical methods are preferred. Applications of the proprietary measurement software are available for any imaging platform. Quantification of results provides improved categorization of illness towards better health. As health care practitioners try to use quantified measurement data for patient diagnosis, the techniques reported can be used to track and isolate causes better. Comparisons, norms, and trends are available from processing of measurement data which is obtained easily and quickly from Scientific Software and methods. Example results for the class actions of Preventative and Corrective Care in Ophthalmology and Dermatology, respectively, are provided. Improved and quantified diagnosis can lead to better health and lower costs associated with health care. Systems support improvements towards Lean and Six Sigma affecting all branches of biology and medicine. As an example for use of statistics, the major types of variation involving a study of Bone Mineral Density (BMD) are examined. Typically, special causes in medicine relate to illness and activities; whereas, common causes are known to be associated with gender, race, size, and genetic make-up. Such a strategy of Continuous Process Improvement (CPI) involves comparison of patient results

  9. Application of nitric oxide measurements in clinical conditions beyond asthma

    PubMed Central

    Malinovschi, Andrei; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Tufvesson, Ellen; Rolla, Giovanni; Bjermer, Leif; Alving, Kjell; Diamant, Zuzana

    2015-01-01

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a convenient, non-invasive method for the assessment of active, mainly Th2-driven, airway inflammation, which is sensitive to treatment with standard anti-inflammatory therapy. Consequently, FeNO serves as a valued tool to aid diagnosis and monitoring in several asthma phenotypes. More recently, FeNO has been evaluated in several other respiratory, infectious, and/or immunological conditions. In this short review, we provide an overview of several clinical studies and discuss the status of potential applications of NO measurements in clinical conditions beyond asthma. PMID:26672962

  10. Fundamentals of dielectric properties measurements and agricultural applications.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Stuart O

    2010-01-01

    Dielectrics and dielectric properties are defined generally and dielectric measurement methods and equipment are described for various frequency ranges from audio frequencies through microwave frequencies. These include impedance and admittance bridges, resonant frequency, transmission-line, and free-space methods in the frequency domain and time-domain and broadband techniques. Many references are cited describing methods in detail and giving sources of dielectric properties data. Finally a few applications for such data are presented and sources of tabulated and dielectric properties data bases are identified.

  11. Performance measures in the earth observations commercialization applications program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macauley, Molly K.

    1996-03-01

    Performance measures in the Earth Observations Commercialization Application Program (EOCAP) are key to its success and include net profitability; enhancements to industry productivity through generic innovations in industry practices, standards, and protocols; and documented contributions to public policy governing the newly developing remote sensing industry. Because EOCAP requires company co-funding, both parties to the agreement (the government and the corporate partner) have incentives to pursue these goals. Further strengthening progress towards these goals are requirements for business plans in the company's EOCAP proposal, detailed scrutiny given these plans during proposal selection, and regularly documented progress reports during project implementation.

  12. Laser-based strain measurements for high temperature applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lant, Christian T.

    1992-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Control Technology Division at NASA Lewis Research Center has developed a high performance optical strain measurement system for high temperature applications using wires and fibers. The system is based on Yamaguchi's two-beam speckle-shift strain measurement technique. The system automatically calculates surface strains at a rate of 5 Hz using a digital signal processor in a high speed micro-computer. The system is fully automated, and can be operated remotely. This report describes the speckle-shift technique and the latest NASA system design. It also shows low temperature strain test results obtained from small diameter tungsten, silicon carbide, and sapphire specimens. These specimens are of interest due to their roles in composite materials research at NASA Lewis.

  13. Topography measurements and applications in ballistics and tool mark identifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorburger, T. V.; Song, J.; Petraco, N.

    2016-03-01

    The application of surface topography measurement methods to the field of firearm and toolmark analysis is fairly new. The field has been boosted by the development of a number of competing optical methods, which has improved the speed and accuracy of surface topography acquisitions. We describe here some of these measurement methods as well as several analytical methods for assessing similarities and differences among pairs of surfaces. We also provide a few examples of research results to identify cartridge cases originating from the same firearm or tool marks produced by the same tool. Physical standards and issues of traceability are also discussed. Certain commercial equipment, instruments, or materials are identified in this paper to specify adequately the experimental procedure. Such identification does not imply recommendation or endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, nor does it imply that the materials or equipment identified are necessarily the best available for the purpose.

  14. Positron scattering measurements for application to medical physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, James

    2015-09-01

    While the use of positrons in medical imaging is now well established, there is still much to learn regarding the transport of positrons through the body, and the subsequent damage induced. Current models of dosimetry use only a crude approximation of the collision physics involved, and at low energies misrepresent the thermalisation process to a considerable degree. Recently, collaborative work has commenced to attempt to refine these models, incorporating a better representation of the underlying physics and trying to gain a better understanding of the damage done after the emission of a positron from a medical radioisotope. This problem is being attacked from several different angles, with new models being developed based upon established techniques in plasma and swarm physics. For all these models, a realistic representation of the collision processes of positrons with relevant molecular species is required. At the Australian National University, we have undertaken a program of measurements of positron scattering from a range of molecules that are important in biological systems, with a focus on analogs to DNA. This talk will present measurements of positron scattering from a range of these molecules, as well as describing the experimental techniques employed to make such measurements. Targets have been measured that are both liquid and solid at room temperature, and new approaches have been developed to get absolute cross section data. The application of the data to various models of positron thermalisation will also be described.

  15. Cross section measurements at LANSCE for defense, science and applications

    DOE PAGES

    Nelson, Ronald O.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has three neutron sources that are used for nuclear science measurements. These sources are driven by an 800 MeV proton linear accelerator and cover an energy range from sub-thermal to hundreds of MeV. Research at the facilities is performed under the auspices of a US DOE user program under which research proposals are rated for merit by a program advisory committee and are scheduled based on merit and availability of beam time. A wide variety of instruments is operated at the neutron flight paths at LANSCE including neutron detector arrays, gamma-ray detector arrays,more » fission fragment detectors, and charged particle detectors. These instruments provide nuclear data for multiple uses that range from increasing knowledge in fundamental science to satisfying data needs for diverse applications such as nuclear energy, global security, and industrial applications. In addition, highlights of recent research related to cross sections measurements are presented, and future research initiatives are discussed.« less

  16. Cross section measurements at LANSCE for defense, science and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, Ronald O.; Schwengner, R.; Zuber, K.

    2015-05-28

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has three neutron sources that are used for nuclear science measurements. These sources are driven by an 800 MeV proton linear accelerator and cover an energy range from sub-thermal to hundreds of MeV. Research at the facilities is performed under the auspices of a US DOE user program under which research proposals are rated for merit by a program advisory committee and are scheduled based on merit and availability of beam time. A wide variety of instruments is operated at the neutron flight paths at LANSCE including neutron detector arrays, gamma-ray detector arrays, fission fragment detectors, and charged particle detectors. These instruments provide nuclear data for multiple uses that range from increasing knowledge in fundamental science to satisfying data needs for diverse applications such as nuclear energy, global security, and industrial applications. In addition, highlights of recent research related to cross sections measurements are presented, and future research initiatives are discussed.

  17. Cross Section Measurements at LANSCE for Defense, Science and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Ronald O.

    2015-05-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) has three neutron sources that are used for nuclear science measurements. These sources are driven by an 800 MeV proton linear accelerator and cover an energy range from sub-thermal to hundreds of MeV. Research at the facilities is performed under the auspices of a US DOE user program under which research proposals are rated for merit by a program advisory committee and are scheduled based on merit and availability of beam time. A wide variety of instruments is operated at the neutron flight paths at LANSCE including neutron detector arrays, gamma-ray detector arrays, fission fragment detectors, and charged particle detectors. These instruments provide nuclear data for multiple uses that range from increasing knowledge in fundamental science to satisfying data needs for diverse applications such as nuclear energy, global security, and industrial applications. Highlights of recent research related to cross sections measurements are presented, and future research initiatives are discussed.

  18. Measures of Inequality: Application to Happiness in Nations

    PubMed Central

    Kalmijn, W. M.

    2010-01-01

    What is a good measure for happiness inequality? In the context of this question, we have developed an approach in which individual happiness values in a sample are considered as elements of a set and inequality as a binary relation on that set. The total number of inequality relations, each weighed by the distance on the scale of measurement between the pair partners, has been adopted as an indicator for the inequality of the distribution as a whole. For models in which the happiness occurs as a continuous latent variable, an analogous approach has been developed on the basis of differentials. In principle, this fundamental approach results in a (zero) minimum value, and, more importantly, also in a maximum value. In the case where happiness is measured using a k-points scale, the maximum inequality is obtained if all ½N sample members select the lowest possible rating (Eq. 1) and the other ½N the highest possible one (k). This finding even applies to the truly ordinal case, i.e., if the distances between the successive ratings on the scale are unknown. It is, however, impossible to quantify the inequality of some measured sample distribution, unless all distances of the k categories of the scale of measurement are known or at least estimated, either on an empirical basis or on the basis of assumptions. In general, the numerical application of the method to continuous distributions is very complicated. An exploration on the basis of a relatively simple model with a linear probability density function suggests that the inequality of a beta probability distribution with shape parameters a and b increases as the value of these parameters decreases. A contour plot, obtained by numerical integration, demonstrates this relationship in a quantitative way. This approach is applicable to judge the aptness of common statistics of dispersion, among which the standard deviation and the Gini coefficient. The former is shown to be more appropriate than the latter for

  19. Measures of Inequality: Application to Happiness in Nations.

    PubMed

    Kalmijn, W M; Arends, L R

    2010-10-01

    What is a good measure for happiness inequality? In the context of this question, we have developed an approach in which individual happiness values in a sample are considered as elements of a set and inequality as a binary relation on that set. The total number of inequality relations, each weighed by the distance on the scale of measurement between the pair partners, has been adopted as an indicator for the inequality of the distribution as a whole. For models in which the happiness occurs as a continuous latent variable, an analogous approach has been developed on the basis of differentials. In principle, this fundamental approach results in a (zero) minimum value, and, more importantly, also in a maximum value. In the case where happiness is measured using a k-points scale, the maximum inequality is obtained if all ½N sample members select the lowest possible rating (Eq. 1) and the other ½N the highest possible one (k). This finding even applies to the truly ordinal case, i.e., if the distances between the successive ratings on the scale are unknown. It is, however, impossible to quantify the inequality of some measured sample distribution, unless all distances of the k categories of the scale of measurement are known or at least estimated, either on an empirical basis or on the basis of assumptions. In general, the numerical application of the method to continuous distributions is very complicated. An exploration on the basis of a relatively simple model with a linear probability density function suggests that the inequality of a beta probability distribution with shape parameters a and b increases as the value of these parameters decreases. A contour plot, obtained by numerical integration, demonstrates this relationship in a quantitative way. This approach is applicable to judge the aptness of common statistics of dispersion, among which the standard deviation and the Gini coefficient. The former is shown to be more appropriate than the latter for

  20. Measuring child personality when child personality was not measured: Application of a thin-slice approach.

    PubMed

    Tackett, Jennifer L; Smack, Avanté J; Herzhoff, Kathrin; Reardon, Kathleen W; Daoud, Stephanie; Granic, Isabela

    2017-02-01

    Recent efforts have demonstrated that thin-slice (TS) assessment-or assessment of individual characteristics after only brief exposure to that individual's behaviour-can produce reliable and valid measurements of child personality traits. The extent to which this approach can be generalized to archival data not designed to measure personality, and whether it can be used to measure personality pathology traits in youth, is not yet known. Archival video data of a parent-child interaction task was collected as part of a clinical intervention trial for aggressive children (N = 177). Unacquainted observers independently watched the clips and rated children on normal-range (neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience) and pathological (callous-unemotional) personality traits. TS ratings of child personality showed strong internal consistency, valid associations with measures of externalizing problems and temperament, and revealed differentiated subgroups of children based on severity. As such, these findings demonstrate an ecologically valid application of TS methodology and illustrate how researchers and clinicians can extend their existing data by measuring child personality using TS methodology, even in cases where child personality was not originally measured. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Application of the microtremor measurements to a site effect study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei, Sadegh; Choobbasti, Asskar Janalizadeh

    2017-07-01

    Earthquake has left much life and property damages. The occurrence of such events necessitates the execution of plans for combating the earthquakes. One of the most important methods for combating earthquakes includes assessing dynamic characteristics of soil and site effect. One of the methods by which one can state dynamic characteristics of the soil of an area is the measurement of microtremors. Microtremors are small-scale vibrations that occur in the ground and have an amplitude range of about 0.1-1 microns. Microtremor measurement is fast, applicable, cost-effective. Microtremor measurements were taken at 15 stations in the Babol, north of Iran. Regarding H/V spectral ratio method, peak frequency and amplification factor were calculated for all microtremor stations. According to the analysis, the peak frequency varies from 0.67 to 8.10 Hz within the study area. Also, the authors investigated the validity of the results by comparing them with SESAME guidelines and geotechnical conditions of study area. The microtremor analysis results are consistent with SESAME guidelines and geotechnical condition of study area. The results show that the microtremor observations are acceptable methods for assessing dynamic characteristics of soil and site effect in the Babol City.

  2. IGBT-based kilovoltage pulsers for ultrasound measurement applications.

    PubMed

    Gammell, Paul M; Harris, Gerald R

    2003-12-01

    Two high-voltage pulser designs are presented that offer advantages in some ultrasound measurement applications, such as driving thick ultrasonic source transducers used for broadband measurements of attenuation or hydrophone frequency response and directivity. The pulsers use integrated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) as the switching devices, and in one design an output voltage pulse is produced that has a peak amplitude nearly twice that of the supply voltage. The pulsers are inexpensive and relatively easy to construct. The power supply need only provide the average current to charge the capacitors, as opposed to the much higher peak pulse current. With a 1200 V supply and a pulse repetition frequency of 200 Hz, the nondoubling and doubling pulsers provided peak voltages of greater than 1100 V and 2200 V, respectively, into loads ranging from 50 omega to 500 omega. For a 50 omega load, slewing rates of 38 V/ns and 23 V/ns were measured for the nondoubling and doubling pulsers, respectively. For a 500 omega load these values were 56 V/ns and 36 V/ns.

  3. The application of conditioning paradigms in the measurement of pain.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-Xu

    2013-09-15

    Pain is a private experience that involves both sensory and emotional components. Animal studies of pain can only be inferred by their responses, and therefore the measurement of reflexive responses dominates the pain literature for nearly a century. It has been argued that although reflexive responses are important to unveil the sensory nature of pain in organisms, pain affect is equally important but largely ignored in pain studies primarily due to the lack of validated animal models. One strategy to begin to understand pain affect is to use conditioning principles to indirectly reveal the affective condition of pain. This review critically analyzed several procedures that are thought to measure affective learning of pain. The procedures regarding the current knowledge, the applications, and their advantages and disadvantages in pain research are discussed. It is proposed that these procedures should be combined with traditional reflex-based pain measurements in future studies of pain, which could greatly benefit both the understanding of neural underpinnings of pain and preclinical assessment of novel analgesics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The application of conditioning paradigms in the measurement of pain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Xu

    2013-01-01

    Pain is a private experience that involves both sensory and emotional components. Animal studies of pain can only be inferred by their responses, and therefore the measurement of reflexive responses dominate the pain literature for nearly a century. It has been argued that although reflexive responses are important to unveil the sensory nature of pain in organisms, pain affect is equally important but largely ignored in pain studies primarily due to the lack of validated animal models. One strategy to begin to understand pain affect is to use conditioning principles to indirectly reveal the affective condition of pain. This review critically analyzed several procedures that are thought to measure affective learning of pain. The procedures regarding the current knowledge, the applications, and their advantages and disadvantages in pain research are discussed. It is proposed that these procedures should be combined with traditional reflex-based pain measurements in future studies of pain, which could greatly benefit both the understanding of neural underpinnings of pain and preclinical assessment of novel analgesics. PMID:23500202

  5. MicroRaman measurements for nuclear fuel reprocessing applications

    DOE PAGES

    Casella, Amanda; Lines, Amanda; Nelson, Gilbert; ...

    2016-12-01

    Treatment and reuse of used nuclear fuel is a key component in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Solvent extraction reprocessing methods that have been developed contain various steps tailored to the separation of specific radionuclides, which are highly dependent upon solution properties. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust, require little or no maintenance, and be able to withstand harsh environments such as high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices. Our group has been investigating the use of optical spectroscopy for the on-line monitoring of actinides, lanthanides, and acid strength within fuel reprocessing streams. This paper willmore » focus on the development and application of a new MicroRaman probe for on-line real-time monitoring of the U(VI)/nitrate ion/nitric acid in solutions relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Previous research has successfully demonstrated the applicability on the macroscopic scale, using sample probes requiring larger solution volumes. In an effort to minimize waste and reduce dose to personnel, we have modified this technique to allow measurement at the microfluidic scale using a Raman microprobe. Under the current sampling environment, Raman samples typically require upwards of 10 mL and larger. Using the new sampling system, we can sample volumes at 10 μL or less, which is a scale reduction of over 1,000 fold in sample size. Finally, this paper will summarize our current work in this area including: comparisons between the macroscopic and microscopic probes for detection limits, optimized channel focusing, and application in a flow cell with varying levels of HNO3, and UO2(NO3)2.« less

  6. MicroRaman measurements for nuclear fuel reprocessing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, Amanda; Lines, Amanda; Nelson, Gilbert; Bello, Job; Bryan, Samuel

    2016-12-01

    Treatment and reuse of used nuclear fuel is a key component in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Solvent extraction reprocessing methods that have been developed contain various steps tailored to the separation of specific radionuclides, which are highly dependent upon solution properties. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust, require little or no maintenance, and be able to withstand harsh environments such as high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices. Our group has been investigating the use of optical spectroscopy for the on-line monitoring of actinides, lanthanides, and acid strength within fuel reprocessing streams. This paper will focus on the development and application of a new MicroRaman probe for on-line real-time monitoring of the U(VI)/nitrate ion/nitric acid in solutions relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Previous research has successfully demonstrated the applicability on the macroscopic scale, using sample probes requiring larger solution volumes. In an effort to minimize waste and reduce dose to personnel, we have modified this technique to allow measurement at the microfluidic scale using a Raman microprobe. Under the current sampling environment, Raman samples typically require upwards of 10 mL and larger. Using the new sampling system, we can sample volumes at 10 μL or less, which is a scale reduction of over 1,000 fold in sample size. Finally, this paper will summarize our current work in this area including: comparisons between the macroscopic and microscopic probes for detection limits, optimized channel focusing, and application in a flow cell with varying levels of HNO3, and UO2(NO3)2.

  7. MicroRaman Measurements for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Casella, Amanda; Lines, Amanda; Nelson, Gilbert; Bello, Job; Bryan, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Treatment and reuse of used nuclear fuel is a key component in closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Solvent extraction reprocessing methods that have been developed contain various steps tailored to the separation of specific radionuclides, which are highly dependent upon solution properties. The instrumentation used to monitor these processes must be robust, require little or no maintenance, and be able to withstand harsh environments such as high radiation fields and aggressive chemical matrices. Our group has been investigating the use of optical spectroscopy for the on-line monitoring of actinides, lanthanides, and acid strength within fuel reprocessing streams. This paper will focus on the development and application of a new MicroRaman probe for on-line real-time monitoring of the U(VI)/nitrate ion/nitric acid in solutions relevant to used nuclear fuel reprocessing. Previous research has successfully demonstrated the applicability on the macroscopic scale, using sample probes requiring larger solution volumes. In an effort to minimize waste and reduce dose to personnel, we have modified this technique to allow measurement at the microfluidic scale using a Raman microprobe. Under the current sampling environment, Raman samples typically require upwards of 10 mL and larger. Using the new sampling system, we can sample volumes at 10 μL or less, which is a scale reduction of over 1,000 fold in sample size. This paper will summarize our current work in this area including: comparisons between the macroscopic and microscopic probes for detection limits, optimized channel focusing, and application in a flow cell with varying levels of HNO3, and UO2(NO3)2.

  8. Application and development of advanced laser diagnostics for flame measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Sukesh

    The application of hydrogen coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) for temperature measurements in low-pressure diamond-forming flames and the development of new polarization spectroscopy (PS) diagnostic techniques are the subjects of this Ph.D. dissertation research. The objectives of the low-pressure diamond-forming flame experiments were to measure detailed temperature profiles for comparison with a numerical flame model and to investigate the presence and magnitude of the temperature jump at the deposition substrate surface. Temperature jumps of approximately 100 K were observed in these rich, premixed oxy-acetylene flames ranging from 30 Torr to 125 Torr. The presence of this discontinuity in diamond-forming flames may have a significant effect on surface chemical model development. In these low-pressure flames, the ability to resolve fully the near-substrate temperature profiles will be extremely useful for the validation and improvement of surface chemistry models. The use of PS in the mid-infrared using a single-mode optical parametric generator (OPG) for the detection of CO2 has been demonstrated. Numerical modeling of the CO2 PS signal generation process has also been performed for comparison with the experimental PS signals. The experimental PS line shapes agree very well with the numerical calculations. These results are promising for using PS in detecting hydrocarbon molecules as hydrocarbon molecules have strong absorption resonances in the infrared region of the spectrum. The objectives of the theoretical work on short-pulse PS were to obtain fundamental insight into the physics of the short-pulse PS signal generation process and to investigate the diagnostic potential of the short-pulse PS for species concentration measurements. Short-pulse laser significantly decreases the collision-rate dependence of the PS signal compared with the long-laser pulse-length regime. For a saturating pump beam, the short-pulse PS signal was found to be nearly

  9. Turbine-engine applications of thermographic-phosphor temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Allison, S.W.

    1995-12-31

    The thermographic-phosphor (TP) method can measure temperature, heat flux, strain, and other physical quantities remotely in hostile and/or inaccessible environments such as the first-stage turbine components in turbine engines. It is especially useful in situations in which no other known method works well. This paper is a brief review of engine tests that demonstrated the utility of the TP method. For the most part, the results presented here are discussed only qualitatively. The papers in the bibliography describe these and other experiments and results in detail. The first viewgraph summarizes the many desirable features of the TP method. The second viewgraph describes TPs, and the third summarizes how the TP method works. To measure single-point temperatures in turbine-engine applications, we use the decay-time method, which depends on the fact that the luminescence following an impulse of ultraviolet excitation decays, with a characteristic decay time that. Is a monotonically decreasing function of temperature over some range of temperatures. The viewgraph is a set of calibration curves showing the behavior of some useful emission lines for ten important TPs. Consider Lu PO{sub 4}:Eu as an example. Below the {open_quotes}quenching{close_quotes} temperature near 900 Y, the decay time is nearly constant. Above it, the decay time decreases exponentially with the temperature. This strong functional dependence means that one can have a fairly large error in the lifetime measurement, as in environments with poor signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), yet still obtain high accuracy in the temperature measurement. Our more-recent data up to 1900 K show the same behavior.

  10. Implications of GRACE Satellite Gravity Measurements for Diverse Hydrological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yirdaw-Zeleke, Sitotaw

    Soil moisture plays a major role in the hydrologic water balance and is the basis for most hydrological models. It influences the partitioning of energy and moisture inputs at the land surface. Because of its importance, it has been used as a key variable for many hydrological studies such as flood forecasting, drought studies and the determination of groundwater recharge. Therefore, spatially distributed soil moisture with reasonable temporal resolution is considered a valuable source of information for hydrological model parameterization and validation. Unfortunately, soil moisture is difficult to measure and remains essentially unmeasured over spatial and temporal scales needed for a number of hydrological model applications. In 2002, the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite platform was launched to measure, among other things, the gravitational field of the earth. Over its life span, these orbiting satellites have produced time series of mass changes of the earth-atmosphere system. The subsequent outcome of this, after integration over a number of years, is a time series of highly refined images of the earth's mass distribution. In addition to quantifying the static distribution of mass, the month-to-month variation in the earth's gravitational field are indicative of the integrated value of the subsurface total water storage for specific catchments. Utilization of these natural changes in the earth's gravitational field entails the transformation of the derived GRACE geopotential spherical harmonic coefficients into spatially varying time series estimates of total water storage. These remotely sensed basin total water storage estimates can be routinely validated against independent estimates of total water storage from an atmospheric-based water balance approach or from well calibrated macroscale hydrologic models. The hydrological relevance and implications of remotely estimated GRACE total water storage over poorly gauged, wetland

  11. Near-realtime Cosmic Ray measurements for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steigies, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    In its FP7 program the European Commission has funded the creation of scientific databases. One successful project is the Neutron Monitor database NMDB which provides near-realtime access to ground-based Neutron Monitor measurements. In its beginning NMDB hosted only data from European and Asian participants, but it has recently grown to also include data from North American stations. We are currently working on providing also data from Australian stations. With the increased coverage of stations the accuracy of the NMDB applications to issue an alert of a ground level enhancement (GLE) or to predict the arrival of a coronal mass ejection (CME) is constantly improving. Besides the Cosmic Ray community and Airlines, that want to calculate radiation doses on flight routes, NMDB has also attracted users from outside the core field, for example hydrologists who compare local Neutron measurements with data from NMDB to determine soil humidity. By providing access to data from 50 stations, NMDB includes already data from the majority of the currently operating stations. However, in the future we want to include data from the few remaining stations, as well as historical data from stations that have been shut down.

  12. Spectral BRDF measurements of metallic samples for laser processing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitali, L.; Fustinoni, D.; Gramazio, P.; Niro, A.

    2015-11-01

    The spectral bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of metals plays an important role in industrial processing involving laser-surface interaction. In particular, in laser metal machining, absorbance is strongly dependent on the radiation incidence angle as well as on finishing and contamination grade of the surface, and in turn it can considerably affect processing results. Very recently, laser radiation is also used to structure metallic surfaces, in order to produce many particular optical effects, ranging from a high level polishing to angular color shifting. Of course, full knowledge of the spectral BRDF of these structured layers makes it possible to infer reflectance or color for any irradiation and viewing angles. In this paper, we present Vis-NIR spectral BRDF measurements of laser-polished metallic, opaque, flat samples commonly employed in such applications. The resulting optical properties seem to be dependent on the atmospheric composition during the polishing process in addition to the roughness. The measurements are carried out with a Perkin Elmer Lambda 950 double-beam spectrophotometer, equipped with the Absolute Reflectance/Transmittance Analyzer (ARTA) motorized goniometer.

  13. Application of ring down measurement approach to micro-cavities for bio-sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheema, M. I.; Kirk, Andrew G.

    2011-03-01

    Optical biosensors can detect biomarkers in the blood serum caused by either infections or exposure to toxins. Until now, most work on the micro-cavity biosensors has been based on measurement of the resonant frequency shift induced by binding of biomarkers to a cavity. However, frequency domain measurements are not precise for such high Q micro-cavities. We hypothesize that more accurate measurements and better noise tolerance can be achieved by the application of the ring down measurement approach to the micro-cavity in a biosensor. To test our hypothesis, we have developed a full vectorial finite element model of a silica toroidal micro-cavity immersed in water. Our modeling results show that a toroidal cavity with a major diameter of 70μm and a minor diameter of 6μm can achieve a sensitivity of 28.6μs/RIU refractive index units (RIU) at 580nm. Therefore, our sensor would achieve the resolution of 5 x 10-8 RIU by employing a detector with picosecond resolution. Hence we propose a micro-cavity ring down biosensor with high sensitivity which will find wide applications in real time and label free bio-sensing.

  14. Precision measurements and applications of femtosecond frequency combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, R. Jason

    2002-05-01

    The merging of femtosecond (fs) laser physics with the field of optical f requency metrology over recent years has had a profound impact on both di sciplines. Precision control of the broad frequency bandwidth from fs la sers has enabled new areas of exploration in ultrafast physics and revolu tionized optical frequency measurement and precision spectroscopy. Most recently, the transition frequency of the length standard at 514.7 nm,^ 127I2 P(13) 43-0 a3 has been measured in our lab with an improvement of more than 100 times in precision. Interesting molecular dynamics and s tructure are being explored using absolute frequency map of molecular tra nsitions over a large wavelength range. The iodine transition at 532 nm h as been used to establish an optical atomic clock with a fs comb providin g both an RF standard with stability comparable to the best atomic clocks and millions of optical frequencies across the visible and near IR spect rum, each stable to the Hz level. Work is presently underway to directly compare the iodine optical clocks at JILA with the Hg and Ca optical cloc ks currently being refined at NIST via a direct optical fiber link. A wi dely tunable single frequency laser in combination with a fs comb has bee n employed to realize an optical frequency synthesizer. Frequency combs of two independent ultrafast lasers have been coherently locked, enablin g several different avenues of application such as synthesis of arbitrary waveforms, coherent control of quantum systems, and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy. This talk will review these recent accompl ishments from our lab and discuss plans for further improving the control and precision of fs laser based measurements. te

  15. Phase-space dissimilarity measures for industrial and biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopescu, V. A.; Hively, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    its various points, corresponding to the baseline DF. Condition change is established by comparing the base line DFs to subsequent test case DFs via new, phase space dissimilarity measures (PSDM), namely the distance and - square statistics between two DFs. A clear trend in the dissimilarity measures over time indicates substantial departure from the baseline dynamics, thus signaling condition change. The severity of this departure can be interpreted as a "normal" fluctuation, abnormal behavior, impending failure, or complete breakdown. We illustrate the new approach on an assortment of machinery and biomedical examples. The machine data were collected during laboratory tests on industrial equipment, for diverse failure modes, via seeded faults and accelerated failures. The biomedical applications involve detection of physiological changes, such as epileptic seizures from EEG; ventricular fibrillation, fainting, and sepsis onset from ECG; and breathing difficulty from chest sounds. The PSDM show a consistent discrimination of normal-to-abnormal transitions, allowing earlier, more accurate, and more robust detection of the dynamical change for all of these applications in comparison to TNM.

  16. 77 FR 61818 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Anti-Dumping and Countervailing Duties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... on the home page and click ``search''. The site will provide a search-results page listing all...'' field, or by attaching a document using an ``Upload File'' field. It is expected that most comments will... attached'' in the ``Type Comments'' field. A person requesting that information contained in a comment...

  17. 77 FR 61819 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States-Countervailing and Anti-Dumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

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  18. 77 FR 73732 - WTO Dispute Settlement Proceeding Regarding United States ; Countervailing and Anti-Dumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Country Tubular Goods (C-570-944), Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand (C-570-946); Certain Steel... Cells, Whether or Not Assembled Into Modules, (C-570-980); Utility Scale Wind Towers (C-570-982); Drawn... Country Tubular Goods (A-570-943); Prestressed Concrete Steel Wire Strand (A-570-945); Certain...

  19. Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application

    SciTech Connect

    Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nunez, M.; Tropea, S. E.

    2008-01-21

    The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

  20. Application of clinical laboratory measurements to issues of environmental health.

    PubMed

    Rej, R; Silkworth, J B; DeCaprio, A P

    1992-03-13

    Monitoring of biochemical constituents in serum is an important component in revealing potential toxicity in humans and experimental animals due to exposure to a variety of xenobiotic agents. The relative toxicity of pure compounds, usually at large doses, has helped elucidate the mode of action of these compounds and their relative risk. However, most actual cases of environmental exposure present an extensive range of components and the potential for synergistic or inhibitory interactions. In this paper we review two such environmental cases: The Love Canal chemical dump site in Niagara Falls, NY, and the transformer fire at the State Office Building in Binghamton, NY. We focus on the clinical laboratory measurements obtained in these studies (including serum glucose, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, sodium and potassium), their usefulness, limitations, and application to such cases. Significant alterations in serum triglyceride and alanine aminotransferase levels were found in guinea pigs due to exposure to dioxins. These two tests were useful in estimating the 'equivalent' concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin in complex chemical mixtures.

  1. Theory and measurement of emittance properties for radiation thermometry applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some basic concepts of radiation physics are briefly reviewed to provide an introduction to the radiative properties - including emittance, reflectance, absorptance, and transmittance - their definitions, interrelations, theory and methods of measurement. Analyzed data showing typical characteristics of temperature and wavelength dependence, surface effects and environmental influences on the radiation properties of selected classes of materials are presented. Emphasis is placed on those emittance properties of particular interest to conventional radiation thermometry applications, but sufficient generality on all properties is presented to be useful for new or unusual techniques where a more detailed understanding of the behavior of materials is desirable. Data sources are identified to assist the reader in locating property information. It is the intention of the paper to give the reader a background to become more fully aware of the pitfalls, limitations, but of course, advantages in the use of data from the literature. The paper is written in the form of an abbreviated review fully documenting the more important topics and concepts which can only be treated briefly.

  2. Wide Range Neutron Flux Measuring Channel for Aerospace Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cibils, R. M.; Busto, A.; Gonella, J. L.; Martinez, R.; Chielens, A. J.; Otero, J. M.; Nuñez, M.; Tropea, S. E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of classical techniques for neutron flux measurements in nuclear reactors involves the switching between several detection chains as the power grows up to 10 decades. In space applications where mass and size constraints are of key significance, such volume of hardware represents a clear disadvantage. Instead of requiring different instruments for each reactor operating range (start-up, ramping-up, and nominal power), a single instrument chain should be desirable. A Wide Range Neutron Detector (WRND) system, combining a classic pulse Counting Channel with a Campbell's theorem based Fluctuation Channel can be implemented for the monitoring and control of a space nuclear reactor. Such an instrument will allow for a reduction in the complexity of space-based nuclear instrumentation and control systems. In this presentation we will discuss the criteria and tradeoffs involved in the development of such a system. We will focus particularly on the characteristics of the System On Chip (SOC) and the DSP board used to implement this instrument.

  3. Comet assay to measure DNA repair: approach and applications

    PubMed Central

    Azqueta, Amaya; Slyskova, Jana; Langie, Sabine A. S.; O’Neill Gaivão, Isabel; Collins, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cellular repair enzymes remove virtually all DNA damage before it is fixed; repair therefore plays a crucial role in preventing cancer. Repair studied at the level of transcription correlates poorly with enzyme activity, and so assays of phenotype are needed. In a biochemical approach, substrate nucleoids containing specific DNA lesions are incubated with cell extract; repair enzymes in the extract induce breaks at damage sites; and the breaks are measured with the comet assay. The nature of the substrate lesions defines the repair pathway to be studied. This in vitro DNA repair assay has been modified for use in animal tissues, specifically to study the effects of aging and nutritional intervention on repair. Recently, the assay was applied to different strains of Drosophila melanogaster proficient and deficient in DNA repair. Most applications of the repair assay have been in human biomonitoring. Individual DNA repair activity may be a marker of cancer susceptibility; alternatively, high repair activity may result from induction of repair enzymes by exposure to DNA-damaging agents. Studies to date have examined effects of environment, nutrition, lifestyle, and occupation, in addition to clinical investigations. PMID:25202323

  4. Theory and measurement of emittance properties for radiation thermometry applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewitt, D. P.; Hernicz, R. S.

    1972-01-01

    Some basic concepts of radiation physics are briefly reviewed to provide an introduction to the radiative properties - including emittance, reflectance, absorptance, and transmittance - their definitions, interrelations, theory and methods of measurement. Analyzed data showing typical characteristics of temperature and wavelength dependence, surface effects and environmental influences on the radiation properties of selected classes of materials are presented. Emphasis is placed on those emittance properties of particular interest to conventional radiation thermometry applications, but sufficient generality on all properties is presented to be useful for new or unusual techniques where a more detailed understanding of the behavior of materials is desirable. Data sources are identified to assist the reader in locating property information. It is the intention of the paper to give the reader a background to become more fully aware of the pitfalls, limitations, but of course, advantages in the use of data from the literature. The paper is written in the form of an abbreviated review fully documenting the more important topics and concepts which can only be treated briefly.

  5. Spatial effects in real networks: Measures, null models, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruzzenenti, Franco; Picciolo, Francesco; Basosi, Riccardo; Garlaschelli, Diego

    2012-12-01

    Spatially embedded networks are shaped by a combination of purely topological (space-independent) and space-dependent formation rules. While it is quite easy to artificially generate networks where the relative importance of these two factors can be varied arbitrarily, it is much more difficult to disentangle these two architectural effects in real networks. Here we propose a solution to this problem, by introducing global and local measures of spatial effects that, through a comparison with adequate null models, effectively filter out the spurious contribution of nonspatial constraints. Our filtering allows us to consistently compare different embedded networks or different historical snapshots of the same network. As a challenging application we analyze the World Trade Web, whose topology is known to depend on geographic distances but is also strongly determined by nonspatial constraints (degree sequence or gross domestic product). Remarkably, we are able to detect weak but significant spatial effects both locally and globally in the network, showing that our method succeeds in retrieving spatial information even when nonspatial factors dominate. We finally relate our results to the economic literature on gravity models and trade globalization.

  6. Application of symmetry operation measures in structural inorganic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Jorge; Alvarez, Santiago

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents an application of the recently proposed symmetry operation measures to the determination of the effective symmetry point group of coordination polyhedra in inorganic solids. Several structure types based on octahedra are found to present distinct distortion patterns each, not strictly attached to the crystallographic site symmetry. These include the (NH4)2[CuCl4], CdI2 (brucite), FeS2 (pyrite), TiO2 (rutile), CaCl2, GdFeO3, PbTiO3,LiNbO3, BiI3, CrCl3, Al2O3, and NiWO4 structures. It is shown that a similar analysis can be applied to the Bailar and tetragonal Jahn-Teller distortions of molecular transition metal complexes, as well as to solids based on tetrahedra, such as the ZnCl2, FeS, BeCl2, SiS2, and KFeS2 structure types.

  7. Flexible tools for interpreting tracer measurements and recent applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusyev, M.; Stewart, M.

    2012-04-01

    Steady increase of groundwater abstraction and nitrate concentrations in groundwater due to agricultural and industrial practices is a major concern for groundwater availability and deterioration of groundwater quality in New Zealand. Studies on groundwater in the Waimea Plains (for example) have shown effects of nitrate input from both diffuse and point sources since 1940. Groundwaters in gravel aquifers under Christchurch have also been studied since 1970 to characterise their flowpaths and recharge sources. In these and other cases, the mixing of waters from different recharge sources following different flow paths can be determined with the use of various tracers and the future course of nitrate concentration in the groundwaters predicted. The input of radionuclides to hydrological systems from nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s and 60s revealed that outflows from such systems often comprise mixtures of water with very wide ranges of ages. Many authors have described methods of deconvolving such outputs with the use of lumped parameter models (LPMs). LPMs are evaluated using specialized software or Excel spreadsheets to compute simulations to measurements of system outputs and therefore estimate parameters of the age distribution. Excel allows easy modification of the code to enable application to individual hydrological features and for a variety of isotopes and chemicals. For the New Zealand studies, Excel spreadsheets with coded Visual Basic functions are used to deduce age distributions based on stable isotope, SF6, CFCs, 3H and 14C data (in order of ages). In particular, 3H is becoming increasingly useful as an age tracer due to the decrease of ambiguity from nuclear testing provided that the measurements can be made with high accuracy (Stewart et al., 2012).These age distributions allow us to derive the input histories of chemicals (e.g. nitrate) and the groundwater recharge sources. In addition, recent developments in modelling groundwater flow and

  8. Application of GPS Measurements for Ionospheric and Tropospheric Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendra Prasad, P.; Abdu, M. A.; Furlan, Benedito. M. P.; Koiti Kuga, Hélio

    military navigation. The DOD's primary purposes were to use the system in precision weapon delivery and providing a capability that would help reverse the proliferation of navigation systems in military. Subsequently, it was very quickly realized that civil use and scientific utility would far outstrip military use. A variety of scientific applications are uniquely suited to precise positioning capabilities. The relatively high precision, low cost, mobility and convenience of GPS receivers make positioning attractive. The other applications being precise time measurement, surveying and geodesy purposes apart from orbit and attitude determination along with many user services. The system operates by transmitting radio waves from satellites to receivers on the ground, aircraft, or other satellites. These signals are used to calculate location very accurately. Standard Positioning Services (SPS) which restricts access to Coarse/Access (C/A) code and carrier signals on the L1 frequency only. The accuracy thus provided by SPS fall short of most of the accuracy requirements of users. The upper atmosphere is ionized by the ultra violet radiation from the sun. The significant errors in positioning can result when the signals are refracted and slowed by ionospheric conditions, the parameter of the ionosphere that produces most effects on GPS signals is the total number of electrons in the ionospheric propagation path. This integrated number of electrons, called Total Electron Content (TEC) varies, not only from day to night, time of the year and solar flux cycle, but also with geomagnetic latitude and longitude. Being plasma the ionosphere affects the radio waves propagating through it. Effects of scintillation on GPS satellite navigation systems operating at L1 (1.5754 GHz), L2 (1.2276 GHz) frequencies have not been estimated accurately. It is generally recognized that GPS navigation systems are vulnerable in the polar and especially in the equatorial region during the

  9. Invariant Measures for Dissipative Dynamical Systems: Abstract Results and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekroun, Mickaël D.; Glatt-Holtz, Nathan E.

    2012-12-01

    In this work we study certain invariant measures that can be associated to the time averaged observation of a broad class of dissipative semigroups via the notion of a generalized Banach limit. Consider an arbitrary complete separable metric space X which is acted on by any continuous semigroup { S( t)} t ≥ 0. Suppose that { S( t)} t ≥ 0 possesses a global attractor {{A}}. We show that, for any generalized Banach limit LIM T → ∞ and any probability distribution of initial conditions {{m}_0}, that there exists an invariant probability measure {{m}}, whose support is contained in {{A}}, such that intX \\varphi(x) d{m}(x) = \\underset{t rightarrow infty}LIM1/T int_0^T int_X \\varphi(S(t) x) d{m}_0(x) dt, for all observables φ living in a suitable function space of continuous mappings on X. This work is based on the framework of Foias et al. (Encyclopedia of mathematics and its applications, vol 83. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2001); it generalizes and simplifies the proofs of more recent works (Wang in Disc Cont Dyn Syst 23(1-2):521-540, 2009; Lukaszewicz et al. in J Dyn Diff Eq 23(2):225-250, 2011). In particular our results rely on the novel use of a general but elementary topological observation, valid in any metric space, which concerns the growth of continuous functions in the neighborhood of compact sets. In the case when { S( t)} t ≥ 0 does not possess a compact absorbing set, this lemma allows us to sidestep the use of weak compactness arguments which require the imposition of cumbersome weak continuity conditions and thus restricts the phase space X to the case of a reflexive Banach space. Two examples of concrete dynamical systems where the semigroup is known to be non-compact are examined in detail. We first consider the Navier-Stokes equations with memory in the diffusion terms. This is the so called Jeffery's model which describes certain classes of viscoelastic fluids. We then consider a family of neutral delay differential

  10. Nuclear Data Measurements for 21st Century Reactor Physics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rahmat Aryaeinejad; Jerald D. Cole; Mark W. Drigert; James K. Jewell; Christopher A. McGrath; David W. Nigg; Edward L. Reber

    2003-03-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) has embarked on a long-term program to significantly advance the science and technology of nuclear energy. This is in response to the overall national plan for accelerated development of domestic energy resources on several fronts, punctuated by recent dramatic events that have emphasized the need for the US to reduce its dependence on foreign petroleum supplies. Key aspects of the DOE-NE agenda are embodied in the Generation-IV (Gen-IV) advanced nuclear energy systems development program and in the Advanced Fuel Cycle (AFC) program. The planned efforts involve near-term and intermediate-term improvements in fuel utilization and recycling in current nuclear power reactor systems as well as the longer-term development of new nuclear energy systems that offer much improved fuel utilization and proliferation resistance, along with continued advances in operational safety. The success of the overall NE effort will depend not only on sophisticated system development and engineering, but also on the advances in the supporting sciences and technologies. Of these, one of the most important is the improvement of the relevant fundamental nuclear science data bases, especially the evaluated neutron interaction cross section files that serve as the foundation of all reactor system designs, operating strategies, and fuel cycle engineering activities. The new concepts for reactors and fuel cycles involve the use of transuranic nuclides that were previously of little interest, and where experimentally measured information is lacking. The current state of the cross section database for some of these nuclides is such that design computations for advanced fast-spectrum reactor systems and fuel cycles that incorporate such materials in significant quantities are meaningful only for approximate conceptual applications. No actual system could reliably be designed according to currently accepted standards, nor

  11. X-ray ablation measurements and modeling for ICF applications

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Andrew Thomas

    1996-09-01

    X-ray ablation of material from the first wall and other components of an ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) chamber is a major threat to the laser final optics. Material condensing on these optics after a shot may cause damage with subsequent laser shots. To ensure the successful operation of the ICF facility, removal rates must be predicted accurately. The goal for this dissertation is to develop an experimentally validated x-ray response model, with particular application to the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Accurate knowledge of the x-ray and debris emissions from ICF targets is a critical first step in the process of predicting the performance of the target chamber system. A number of 1-D numerical simulations of NIF targets have been run to characterize target output in terms of energy, angular distribution, spectrum, and pulse shape. Scaling of output characteristics with variations of both target yield and hohlraum wall thickness are also described. Experiments have been conducted at the Nova laser on the effects of relevant x-ray fluences on various materials. The response was diagnosed using post-shot examinations of the surfaces with scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope instruments. Judgments were made about the dominant removal mechanisms for each material. Measurements of removal depths were made to provide data for the modeling. The finite difference ablation code developed here (ABLATOR) combines the thermomechanical response of materials to x-rays with models of various removal mechanisms. The former aspect refers to energy deposition in such small characteristic depths (~ micron) that thermal conduction and hydrodynamic motion are significant effects on the nanosecond time scale. The material removal models use the resulting time histories of temperature and pressure-profiles, along with ancillary local conditions, to predict rates of surface vaporization and the onset of conditions that would lead to spallation.

  12. Application of Bayesian decision theory to airborne gamma snow measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bissell, V. C.

    1975-01-01

    Measured values of several variables are incorporated into the calculation of snow water equivalent as measured from an aircraft by snow attenuation of terrestrial gamma radiation. Bayesian decision theory provides a snow water equivalent measurement by taking into account the uncertainties in the individual measurement variables and filtering information about the measurement variables through prior notions of what the calculated variable (water equivalent) should be.

  13. Odor measurements for manure spreading using a subsurface deposition applicator.

    PubMed

    Lau, Anthony; Bittman, Shabtai; Lemus, Gladis

    2003-03-01

    Odor emissions during manure spreading events have become a source of concern, particularly where farms are located nearby urban areas. The objective of the present study was to compare odor concentrations and odor emission rates due to pig manure application using two different types of applicators, a sub-surface deposition system and a conventional splash-plate applicator. Air samples were collected using a Surface Isolation Flux Chamber and the "bag-in-vacuum chamber" techniques, at 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 hours after manure application. A three-station forced-choice dynamic dilution olfactometer was used by an odor panel for determining odor concentration. Preliminary results indicated that with the sub-surface deposition system applicator odor emission rate was reduced by 8% to 38% compared to that of the conventional splash-plate applicator. The highest reduction in odor strength and odor emission rate was observed in the most offensive period after manure application. The sub-surface deposition system may be a solution for hog producers who wish to reduce odor complaints from applying manure without the cost and problems associated with deep injection systems.

  14. Application of Raman spectroscopy to high-temperature analytical measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.P.; Dai, S.; Lee, Y.; Xizo, H.

    1997-01-01

    There are numerous analytical applications of scatter-emission and/or absorption spectroscopy applied to liquids and solids at 0 to 350 C. This paper describes an all-silica fiberoptic probe which is useful for spectral analyses from 0 to 1600 K and can be used in harsh chemical environments. The probe has been used for Raman spectral analyses of many molten salt and solid material systems to 1000 C. It has applications for such studies at higher temperature ranges. The instrumentation required along with the demonstrated and proposed applications of the all-silica probe are presented and discussed.

  15. Open Quantum Systems with Applications to Precision Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tieri, David

    A spectrally pure coherent light source is an important component in precision measurement applications, such as an atomic clock. The more spectrally pure the coherent light source, or the narrower the linewidth of its power spectrum, the better for atomic clock experiments. A coherent light light source, such as a laser, is intrinsically an open quantum system, meaning that it gains and loses energy from an external environment. The aim of this thesis is to study various open quantum systems in an attempt to discover a scheme in which an extremely spectrally pure coherent light source might be realized. Therefore, this thesis begins by introducing the two main approaches to treating open quantum systems, the quantum master equation approach, and the quantum Langevin equation approach. In addition to deriving these from first principles, many of the solution methods to these approaches are given and then demonstrated using computer simulations. These include the quantum jump algorithm, the quantum state diffusion algorithm, the cumulant expansion method, and the method of c-number Langevin equations. Using these methods, the theory of the crossover between lasing and steady state superradiance is presented. It is shown that lasing and steady state superradiance might be demonstrated in the same physical system, but in different parameter regimes. The parameter space between these two extreme limits is explored, and the benefits and drawbacks of operating a system at a given set of parameters, i.e. to achieve the most spectrally pure light source, are discussed. We also consider the phase stability of a laser that is locked to a cavity QED system comprised of atoms with an ultra-narrow optical transition. Although the atomic motion introduces Doppler broadening, the standing wave nature of the cavity causes saturated absorption, which can be used to achieve an extremely high degree of phase stabilization. The inhomogeneity introduced by finite atomic velocities can

  16. Tunable lasers for water vapor measurements and other lidar applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gammon, R. W.; Mcilrath, T. J.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1977-01-01

    A tunable dye laser suitable for differential absorption (DIAL) measurements of water vapor in the troposphere was constructed. A multi-pass absorption cell for calibration was also constructed for use in atmospheric DIAL measurements of water vapor.

  17. Application of PTR-MS for measuring odorant emissions from soil application of manure slurry.

    PubMed

    Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

    2015-01-09

    Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed.

  18. Application of PTR-MS for Measuring Odorant Emissions from Soil Application of Manure Slurry

    PubMed Central

    Feilberg, Anders; Bildsoe, Pernille; Nyord, Tavs

    2015-01-01

    Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) are emitted together with ammonia (NH3) from manure slurry applied as a fertilizer, but little is known about the composition and temporal variation of the emissions. In this work, a laboratory method based on dynamic flux chambers packed with soil has been used to measure emissions from untreated pig slurry and slurry treated by solid-liquid separation and ozonation. Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) was used to provide time resolved data for a range of VOC, NH3 and H2S. VOC included organic sulfur compounds, carboxylic acids, phenols, indoles, alcohols, ketones and aldehydes. H2S emission was remarkably observed to take place only in the initial minutes after slurry application, which is explained by its high partitioning into the air phase. Long-term odor effects are therefore assessed to be mainly due to other volatile compounds with low odor threshold values, such as 4-methylphenol. PTR-MS signal assignment was verified by comparison to a photo-acoustic analyzer (NH3) and to thermal desorption GC/MS (VOC). Due to initial rapid changes in odorant emissions and low concentrations of odorants, PTR-MS is assessed to be a very useful method for assessing odor following field application of slurry. The effects of treatments on odorant emissions are discussed. PMID:25585103

  19. Evaluation of the Aurora Application Shade Measurement Accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    2015-12-01

    Aurora is an integrated, Web-based application that helps solar installers perform sales, engineering design, and financial analysis. One of Aurora's key features is its high-resolution remote shading analysis.

  20. Advancing the application, quality and harmonization of implementation science measures.

    PubMed

    Rabin, Borsika A; Purcell, Peyton; Naveed, Sana; Moser, Richard P; Henton, Michelle D; Proctor, Enola K; Brownson, Ross C; Glasgow, Russell E

    2012-12-11

    The field of implementation science (IS) encompasses a broad range of constructs and uses measures from a variety of disciplines. However, there has been little standardization of measures or agreement on definitions of constructs across different studies, fields, authors, or research groups. We describe a collaborative, web-based activity using the United States National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) portal that uses a wiki platform to focus discussion and engage the research community to enhance the quality and harmonization of measures for IS health-related research and practice. We present the history, process, and preliminary data from the GEM Dissemination & Implementation (D&I) Campaign on IS measurement. The GEM D&I Campaign has been ongoing for eight weeks as of this writing, and has used a combination of expert opinion and crowd-sourcing approaches. To date it has listed definitions for 45 constructs and summarized information on 120 measures. Usage of the website peaked at a rate of 124 views from 89 visitors on week seven. Users from seven countries have contributed measures and/or constructs, shared experience in using different measures, contributed comments, and identified research gaps and needs. Thus far, this campaign has provided information about different IS measures, their associated characteristics, and comments. The next step is to rate these measures for quality and practicality. This resource and ongoing activity have potential to advance the quality and harmonization of IS measures and constructs, and we invite readers to contribute to the process.

  1. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis and its applications in OCD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vagos, Pedro; Hu, Jiangtao; Liu, Zhuan; Rabello, Silvio

    2009-03-01

    This article describes an Uncertainty & Sensitivity Analysis package, a mathematical tool that can be an effective time-shortcut for optimizing OCD models. By including real system noises in the model, an accurate method for predicting measurements uncertainties is shown. The assessment, in an early stage, of the uncertainties, sensitivities and correlations of the parameters to be measured drives the user in the optimization of the OCD measurement strategy. Real examples are discussed revealing common pitfalls like hidden correlations and simulation results are compared with real measurements. Special emphasis is given to 2 different cases: 1) the optimization of the data set of multi-head metrology tools (NI-OCD, SE-OCD), 2) the optimization of the azimuth measurement angle in SE-OCD. With the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis result, the right data set and measurement mode (NI-OCD, SE-OCD or NI+SE OCD) can be easily selected to achieve the best OCD model performance.

  2. Electrical current measurement system for energy harvesting applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, S.; Mueller, F.; Kroener, M.; Woias, P.

    2016-11-01

    The measurement of the dynamic power consumption is an important task in the field of energy harvesting regarding the characterization and optimization of low power systems. This paper reports on the development and characterization of a computer-controlled measurement system for the measurement of the dynamic current consumption of low power systems in a range from 100 nA to 100 μA, with a time resolution down to 1 μs.

  3. Application of white light Fresnel diffractometry to film thickness measurement.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Khosrow; Ashrafganjoie, Mehdi; Tavassoly, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present the theoretical background and experimental procedure to measure the thickness of thin films by analyzing Fresnel diffraction patterns obtained from polychromatic illumination of phase-step samples. As examples of this technique, we measured the thicknesses of thin aluminum layers on glass substrates using three different broad-spectrum light sources. The results are in excellent agreement with independent interferometric measurements within less than 5% relative uncertainties.

  4. Clinical Application Of The Direct Measurement Of Human Shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, J.; Vincent, R.; Marks, P.; English, M. J.

    1980-07-01

    A system is described for the recording and measurement of human body shape by a series of circular ultrasound scans. Computer manipulation of the echo data provides a graphic display of body contour, and a measurement of total body surface area and volume. The theoretical resolution for distance measurements using this device is 2.5 mm, a figure achieved in practical calibration experiments using a metal test object. Measurements from the body surface, although less precise, are sufficiently accurate and reproducible to enable useful clinical information to be obtained, particularly in recording the morphological changes associated with obesity and malnutrition.

  5. Thermopower of one-dimensional devices - measurement and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleyard, N. J.; Nicholls, J. T.; Tribe, W. R.; Simmons, M. Y.; Pepper, M.

    2000-02-01

    We have developed a technique to measure the thermopower of a mesoscopic device. Absolute calibration is possible, and we find that a constriction in a 2D electron gas obeys theoretical predictions sufficiently well that its thermopower can be used for electron thermometry. This has been applied to measure heat loss rates from the 2DEG at zero field, leading to the electron-phonon scattering rate. The same technique can determine the effect of a quantising magnetic field on the coupling, and the electron thermometry also allows a calibrated measurement of the thermal conductance of a mesoscopic device. We discuss how such measurements might be realised.

  6. Double threshold ultrasonic distance measurement technique and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weihua; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Jiangtao

    2014-04-01

    The double threshold method realized by hardware circuits and high performance timing chip TDC-GP21 was successfully adapted to solve the key problem of ultrasonic distance measurement, the accurate time-of-flight (TOF) measurement of ultrasonic wave. Compared with other techniques of TOF measurement, the double threshold method presented in this work can suppress noise in the received signal, and achieve a time resolution of around 22 ps and real-time. This method is easy to realize and pertains the advantage of low cost. To compensate temperature and pressure deviations, a temperature measurement module of 10 mK in precision as well as a pressure measurement module of 0.01% in accuracy was developed. The system designed in this work can be exactly used as a two paths ultrasonic gas flowmeter without any adjustment of the hardware circuit. The double threshold method was further corroborated using experiment results of both the ultrasonic distance measurement and ultrasonic gas flow measurement. In distance measurement, the maximum absolute deviation and the maximum relative error are 0.69 mm and 0.28%, respectively, for a target distance range of 100-600 mm. In flow measurement, the maximum absolute deviation and the worst repeatability are 1.16% and 0.65% for a flow in the range of 50-700 m3/h.

  7. Double threshold ultrasonic distance measurement technique and its application.

    PubMed

    Li, Weihua; Chen, Qiang; Wu, Jiangtao

    2014-04-01

    The double threshold method realized by hardware circuits and high performance timing chip TDC-GP21 was successfully adapted to solve the key problem of ultrasonic distance measurement, the accurate time-of-flight (TOF) measurement of ultrasonic wave. Compared with other techniques of TOF measurement, the double threshold method presented in this work can suppress noise in the received signal, and achieve a time resolution of around 22 ps and real-time. This method is easy to realize and pertains the advantage of low cost. To compensate temperature and pressure deviations, a temperature measurement module of 10 mK in precision as well as a pressure measurement module of 0.01% in accuracy was developed. The system designed in this work can be exactly used as a two paths ultrasonic gas flowmeter without any adjustment of the hardware circuit. The double threshold method was further corroborated using experiment results of both the ultrasonic distance measurement and ultrasonic gas flow measurement. In distance measurement, the maximum absolute deviation and the maximum relative error are 0.69 mm and 0.28%, respectively, for a target distance range of 100-600 mm. In flow measurement, the maximum absolute deviation and the worst repeatability are 1.16% and 0.65% for a flow in the range of 50-700 m(3)/h.

  8. Application of experimental poverty measures to the aged.

    PubMed

    Olsen, K A

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau recently released new, experimental measures of poverty based on a National Academy of Sciences (NAS) panel's recommendations. This article examines the effects of the experimental measures on poverty rates among persons aged 65 or older in order to help inform policy debate. Policymakers and analysts use poverty rates to measure the successes and failures of existing programs and to create and defend new policy initiatives. The Census Bureau computes the official rates of poverty using poverty thresholds and definitions of countable income that have changed little since the official poverty measure was adopted in 1965. Amid growing concerns about the adequacy of the official poverty measure, a NAS panel undertook a study of the concepts, methodology, and data needed to measure poverty. The panel concluded in its 1995 report that the current measure no longer provides an accurate picture of relative rates of poverty for different groups in the population or of changes in poverty over time. The panel recommended changes in establishing the poverty thresholds, defining family resources, and obtaining the required data. The Census Bureau report shows how estimated levels of poverty would differ from the official level as specific recommendations of the NAS panel are implemented individually and how estimated trends would differ when many recommendations are implemented simultaneously. It computes nonstandardized and standardized poverty rates. (The latter constrains the overall poverty rate under the experimental measures to match the official rate.) This article reports poverty rates that have not been standardized and provides considerably more detail than the Census report about the effects of the experimental measures on poverty among the aged. It examines the effects of changing the poverty thresholds and the items included or excluded from the definition of available resources. It also explores the effects of the experimental measures on

  9. Advancing the application, quality and harmonization of implementation science measures

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The field of implementation science (IS) encompasses a broad range of constructs and uses measures from a variety of disciplines. However, there has been little standardization of measures or agreement on definitions of constructs across different studies, fields, authors, or research groups. Methods We describe a collaborative, web-based activity using the United States National Cancer Institute’s (NCI) Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) portal that uses a wiki platform to focus discussion and engage the research community to enhance the quality and harmonization of measures for IS health-related research and practice. We present the history, process, and preliminary data from the GEM Dissemination & Implementation (D&I) Campaign on IS measurement. Results The GEM D&I Campaign has been ongoing for eight weeks as of this writing, and has used a combination of expert opinion and crowd-sourcing approaches. To date it has listed definitions for 45 constructs and summarized information on 120 measures. Usage of the website peaked at a rate of 124 views from 89 visitors on week seven. Users from seven countries have contributed measures and/or constructs, shared experience in using different measures, contributed comments, and identified research gaps and needs. Conclusion Thus far, this campaign has provided information about different IS measures, their associated characteristics, and comments. The next step is to rate these measures for quality and practicality. This resource and ongoing activity have potential to advance the quality and harmonization of IS measures and constructs, and we invite readers to contribute to the process. PMID:23231885

  10. Semiconductor Laser Line-width Measurements for Space Interferometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, D.; Guttierrez, R.; Dubovitsky, S.; Forouhar, S.

    1999-01-01

    This work discusses results using the self-heterodyne delay atechnique to measure 1.3 um InP based DFB lasers. We will also address practical issues concerning detection and elimination of back reflections, choice of fiber length and resolution, and measurement of laser 1/f and current supply noise.

  11. The application of information fusion in human eye aberration measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peiming; Chen, Jiabi; Cao, Liang; Zhuang, Songlin

    2008-12-01

    A novel human eye aberration measurement method based on information fusion is presented here. We built a combined subjective and objective human eye aberration measurement system which is composed by an objective measurement part which measure human eye aberration by using Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and a subjective view test part through which can test the subject's vision. The deformable mirror can compensate the high order aberrations of human eye, and thus, can improve the visual acuity of human eye. We had weighting process on Zernike coefficients of both psychology stimulated results and objective results by the method of information fusion, and got combined Zernike coefficients, and finally the combined wavefront aberrations. The result shows that information fusion can combine advantages of both subjective and objective measurement, can have more comprehensive to characterized human eye visual performance, thus providing a more detailed advice for ideal individual human eye.

  12. Sparse Measurement Systems: Applications, Analysis, Algorithms and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayanaswamy, Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with "large-scale" detection problems that arise in many real world applications such as sensor networks, mapping with mobile robots and group testing for biological screening and drug discovery. These are problems where the values of a large number of inputs need to be inferred from noisy observations and where the…

  13. Sparse Measurement Systems: Applications, Analysis, Algorithms and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayanaswamy, Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    This thesis deals with "large-scale" detection problems that arise in many real world applications such as sensor networks, mapping with mobile robots and group testing for biological screening and drug discovery. These are problems where the values of a large number of inputs need to be inferred from noisy observations and where the…

  14. A REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOLUMINESCENCE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review of the recent literature on environmental applications of bioluminescence systems will focus on in vivo and in vitro bioluminescence methods that have been utilized to elucidate properties of chemicals, toxic and mutagenic effects, and to estimate biomass. The unifyin...

  15. Application of the SIT vidicon to astronomical measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Review of the results of a detailed investigation of the properties and merits of silicon target (SIT) vidicon photometry, compared to previous photoelectric and photographic photometry, in astronomy applications. Following a description of the SIT-vidicon based photometry system and of its operating procedures, the data reduction methods are examined, and some of the results obtained are discussed.

  16. A REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS OF BIOLUMINESCENCE MEASUREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review of the recent literature on environmental applications of bioluminescence systems will focus on in vivo and in vitro bioluminescence methods that have been utilized to elucidate properties of chemicals, toxic and mutagenic effects, and to estimate biomass. The unifyin...

  17. A Rasch Measurement Example in Grant Application Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capa, Yesim; Loadman, William E.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a Rasch-based procedure to calibrate responses for funding applications. The data set included 112 proposals and 66 readers, who independently scored randomly assigned proposals using a scoring instrument. The data were analyzed using FACETS (Linacre, 1999). The analysis indicated that the…

  18. Bathymetry Inversion for Nearshore Applications Using Standoff Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesser, T.

    2015-12-01

    The bathymetry from the surfzone to the shoreline incurs active movement due to wave energy interacting with the seafloor. Measurement of the bathymetry is difficult without direct deployment of single-beam or multi-beam sonar mounted on a boat or jet ski. While these direct measurements are optimal, they are usually limited in space and time. Only a small section of a coastline can be measured during a collection, and it often can be years before another survey is conducted. In this work, we consider a framework for estimating bathymetry in the nearshore that combines model-based inversion with standoff measurement. Standoff measurements allow flexible deployment over large spatial ranges with longer look times than are available from satellite-based platforms, but often do not provide direct measurements of the seabed, necessitating an inverse model. The coupling of nearshore wave measurements with numerical models can provide continuously evolving bathymetry estimates with larger spatial coverage than is available with standard techniques. The considered framework incorporates a variety of sensors including X-band radar, LiDAR, and video imagery to provide measurements of wave height, wave speed, or energy dissipation in order to drive the inversion model. Here, we evaluate a test case at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility where we are able to constrain the inversion problem using a number of different data measurement methods. A methodology for handling both data sparse and data rich environments is examined to determine the impact on the resulting bathymetry. Additionally, reduced order modeling and sampling based frameworks are evaluated for potential performance improvements.

  19. Semiconductor Laser Linewidth Measurements for Space Interferometry Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dougherty, D. J.; Guttierrez, R. C.; Dubovitsky, S.; Forouhar, S.

    2000-01-01

    Narrow linewidth (<100KHz) semiconductor lasers are expected to be a key technology in NASA's stellar interferometry missions to search for planets around nearby stars. Long coherence length lasers are needed for precise (20 pm to 5 mn) measurements of the optical path difference. This work discusses results using the self-heterodyne delay technique to measure 1.3 micrometer InP based DFB lasers. We will also address practical issues concerning detection and elimination of back reflections, choice of fiber length and resolution, and measurement of laser 1/f and current supply noise.

  20. Measurement of Beam Lifetime and Applications for SPEAR3

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Xiaobiao; Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC

    2011-04-05

    Beam lifetime studies for the SPEAR3 storage ring are presented. The three lifetime components are separated with lifetime measurements under various combinations of beam currents and fill patterns and vertical scraper scans. Touschek lifetime is studied with rf voltage scans and with the horizontal or vertical scrapers inserted. The measurements are explained with calculations based on the calibrated lattice model. Quantum lifetime measurements are performed with reduced longitudinal and horizontal apertures, respectively, from which we deduce the radiation energy loss down to a few keV per revolution and the horizontal beam size.

  1. Site-specific solar resource measurements for industrial solar applications

    SciTech Connect

    Marion, W

    1994-06-01

    The solar industry can borrow solar radiation measuring equipment from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) as part of NREL`s Solar Industrial Program. This program provides assistance to qualified parties in quantifying the solar radiation resource at prospective sites to reduce the risks of deploying industrial solar energy systems. Up-to-date solar radiation measurements permit comparisons of fresh data with existing data to verify established data bases and also provide data based on actual measurements instead of on less accurate models. This report outlines the responsibilities and obligations of NREL and the solar industry participant. It also describes the equipment for measuring solar radiation, the data quality assessment procedures, and the format of the data provided.

  2. Application of a neural complexity measure to multichannel EEG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Putten, M. J. A. M.; Stam, C. J.

    2001-03-01

    We apply a recently suggested measure for neural complexity (G. Tononi, O. Sporns, G.M. Edelman, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 91 (1994) 5033), that is hypothesised to capture the interplay between two fundamental aspects of brain organisation, functional segregation and integration, to human EEG recordings. This measure is based on a weighted sum of entropy differences evaluated at different length scales of the system. A strong prediction is that this measure correlates with the conscious state of the subject, having lower values if consciousness is reduced (G. Tononi, G.M. Edelman, Science 282 (1998) 1846). It is found, however, that this neural complexity measure increases in neurological disorders where consciousness is severely reduced or absent. We discuss several possible explanations for this observation and suggest directions for future work.

  3. Application of BP neural network in acoustic wave measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Meifeng

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic wave measurement technology is the supporting technology in acoustic wave field. It is important to study acoustic wave with high precision and reliability testing equipment and scientific testing methods. The mathematical model of this acoustic wave measurement system was analyzed on the building of the system. The BP neural network algorithm was used in order to attain the higher accuracy for the acoustic wave measurement system. Frequency domain calibration was carried out by which the amplitude/frequency character curve of this system could be obtained. Then the model of the system was established by BP neural network algorithm. Finally, the validity of the established model was tested. The conclusion was that the math model reflected the original acoustic wave measurement system’s character through the regression result in the frequency domain.

  4. A Fiber-Optic Current Sensor for Lightning Measurement Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Truong X.; Ely, Jay J.; Szatkowski, George N.

    2015-01-01

    An optical-fiber sensor based on Faraday Effect is developed for measuring total lightning electric current. It has many unique capabilities not possible with traditional current sensors. Designed for aircraft installation, the sensor is lightweight, non-conducting, structure-conforming, and is immune to electromagnetic interference, hysteresis and saturation. It can also be used on windmills, lightning towers, and can help validate lightning detection network measurements. Faraday Effect causes light polarization to rotate when the fiber is exposed to a magnetic field in the direction of light propagation. Thus, the magnetic field strength can be determined from the light polarization change. By forming closed fiber loops and applying Ampere's law, measuring the total light rotation yields the total current enclosed. The broadband, dual-detector, reflective polarimetric scheme allows measurement of both DC component and AC waveforms with about 60 dB dynamic range. Three sensor systems were built with different sensitivities from different laser wavelengths. Operating at 850nm, the first system uses twisted single-mode fiber and has a 150 A - 150 KA range. The second system operates at 1550nm, uses spun polarization maintaining fiber, and can measure 400 A - 400 KA. Both systems were validated with rocket-triggered lightning measurements and achieved excellent results when compared to a resistive shunt. The third system operates at 1310nm, uses spun polarization maintaining fiber, and can measure approximately 300 A - 300 KA. High current measurements up to 200 KA were demonstrated at a commercial lightning test facility. The system was recently installed on an aircraft and flown near icing weather conditions.

  5. Application of acoustic doppler velocimeters for streamflow measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rehmel, M.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) principally has used Price AA and Price pygmy mechanical current meters for measurement of discharge. New technologies have resulted in the introduction of alternatives to the Price meters. One alternative, the FlowTracker acoustic Doppler velocimeter, was designed by SonTek/YSI to make streamflow measurements in wadeable conditions. The device measures a point velocity and can be used with standard midsection method algorithms to compute streamflow. The USGS collected 55 quality-assurance measurements with the FlowTracker at 43 different USGS streamflow-gaging stations across the United States, with mean depths from 0.05to0.67m, mean velocities from 13 to 60 cm/s, and discharges from 0.02 to 12.4m3/s. These measurements were compared with Price mechanical current meter measurements. Analysis of the comparisons shows that the FlowTracker discharges were not statistically different from the Price meter discharges at a 95% confidence level. ?? 2007 ASCE.

  6. An application of a measure for organization of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiev, Georgi; Daly, Michael

    2013-03-01

    In order to measure self-organization in complex networks a quantitative measure for organization is necessary. This will allow us to measure their degree of organization and rate of self-organization. We apply as a measure for quantity of organization the inverse of the average sum of physical actions of all elements in a system per unit motion multiplied by the Planck's constant, using the principle of least action. The meaning of quantity of organization here is the inverse of average number of quanta of action per one node crossing of an element of the system. We apply this measure to the central processing unit (CPU) of computers. The organization for several generations of CPUs shows a double exponential rate of change of organization with time. The exact functional dependence has, S-shaped structure, suggesting some of the mechanisms of self-organization. We also study the dependence of organization on the number of transistors. This method helps us explain the mechanism of increase of organization through quantity accumulation and constraint and curvature minimization with an attractor, the least average sum of actions of all elements and for all motions. This approach can help to describe, quantify, measure, manage, design and predict future behavior of complex systems to achieve the highest rates of self-organization to improve their quality.

  7. Longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures in physical activity research: An application to adolescent data.

    PubMed

    Roesch, Scott C; Norman, Greg J; Merz, Erin L; Sallis, James F; Patrick, Kevin

    2013-04-01

    The current study served as a practical and substantive guide to establishing longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures commonly used in adolescent physical activity (PA) research. Psychosocial data on an initial sample of 878 adolescents (ages 11 - 15) recruited through primary care providers were provided at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. The target measures included family support, peer support, decisional balance (pros, cons), self-efficacy, and behavioral strategies. Five of the six psychosocial measures exhibited strict longitudinal measurement invariance, with the 6th measure (self-efficacy) exhibiting strong longitudinal measurement invariance. These findings support the equivalence of these measures across time, and provide the foundation to substantively interpret group differences and associations involving these measures and PA.

  8. Longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures in physical activity research: An application to adolescent data

    PubMed Central

    Roesch, Scott C.; Norman, Greg J.; Merz, Erin L.; Sallis, James F.; Patrick, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The current study served as a practical and substantive guide to establishing longitudinal measurement invariance of psychosocial measures commonly used in adolescent physical activity (PA) research. Psychosocial data on an initial sample of 878 adolescents (ages 11 – 15) recruited through primary care providers were provided at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. The target measures included family support, peer support, decisional balance (pros, cons), self-efficacy, and behavioral strategies. Five of the six psychosocial measures exhibited strict longitudinal measurement invariance, with the 6th measure (self-efficacy) exhibiting strong longitudinal measurement invariance. These findings support the equivalence of these measures across time, and provide the foundation to substantively interpret group differences and associations involving these measures and PA. PMID:23734064

  9. Application of Spectroscopic Doppler Velocimetry for Measurement of Streamwise Vorticity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagan, Amy; Zaman, Khairul B.; Elam, Kristie A.; Clem, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    A spectroscopic Doppler velocimetry technique has been developed for measuring two transverse components of velocity and hence streamwise vorticity in free jet flows. The nonintrusive optical measurement system uses Mie scattering from a 200 mW green continuous-wave laser interacting with dust and other tracer particulates naturally present in the air flow to measure the velocities. Scattered light is collected in two opposing directions to provide measurements of two orthogonal velocity components. An air-spaced Fabry-Perot interferometer is used for spectral analysis to determine the optical frequency shift between the incident laser light and the Mie scattered light. This frequency shift is directly proportional to the velocity component in the direction of the bisector of the incident and scattered light wave propagation vectors. Data were acquired for jet Mach numbers of 1.73 and 0.99 using a convergent 1.27-cm diameter round nozzle fitted with a single triangular "delta-tab". The velocity components and the streamwise vorticity calculated from the measurements are presented. The results demonstrate the ability of this novel optical system to obtain velocity and vorticity data without any artificial seeding and using a low power laser system.

  10. Application of implicit attitude measures to the blood donation context.

    PubMed

    Warfel, Regina M; France, Christopher R; France, Janis L

    2012-02-01

    Past blood donation research has relied on explicit (self-report) measures to understand blood donation motivations, but has not yet considered the inherent implicit or automatic processing involved in decision-making. This study addresses this limitation by introducing and validating two novel implicit measures of blood donation attitudes. Healthy young adults (n = 253) performed both image and word versions of a Single Target Implicit Association Test (ST-IAT) and then completed self-report measures of blood donation attitudes, blood and needle fears, social desirability, and donation intention. These results affirmed the validity of the blood donation ST-IATs in at least three ways. First, as expected, nondonors demonstrated more negative implicit donation attitudes than donors. Second, the implicit measures were significantly related in expected directions with explicit measures of donation attitudes as well as blood and needle fears. Finally, implicit donation attitudes were significantly related to donation intention, and the Image ST-IAT (but not the Word ST-IAT) significantly enhanced prediction of donation intention over and above needle fears and marginally enhanced prediction over and above blood fears. Image and word versions of the blood donation ST-IAT offer a valid method of assessing underlying automatic attitudes toward blood donation. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  11. Quantitative measurement of the pivot shift, reliability, and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Ryosuke; Hoshino, Yuichi; Araki, Daisuke; Nishizawa, Yuichiro; Nagamune, Kouki; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Seiji; Matsushita, Takehiko; Kurosaka, Masahiro

    2012-04-01

    Static load-displacement measurement is unrelated to the dynamic knee function of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) insufficiency. Performing an accurate, dynamic functional evaluation is necessary not only for the primary ACL injury, but also as an outcome measurement in ACL reconstruction. The pivot shift test is commonly used for assessing dynamic rotatory knee laxity in ACL-insufficient knees and is related to subjective knee function. Residual pivot shift after ACL reconstruction is a crucial factor related to poor clinical outcome. However, the pivot shift test is subjectively determined by the examiners' hands. Not only 3-dimensional (3D) position displacement but also its 3D acceleration should be measured for quantitative evaluation of the pivot shift test and is currently feasible by using recent advanced technology, i.e., electromagnetic devices. We summarize the basic knowledge and current concepts of quantitative exploration of the dynamic knee movement during the pivot shift test.

  12. Measurement of resilience and its application to enterprise information systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. W.; Gao, F.; Ip, W. H.

    2010-05-01

    In this article, we present a measure for resilience in the context of enterprise information systems or service systems in a more general sense. Resilience of the system is a property of the system, which focuses on the recovery ability of the system after a partial damage of the system. Enterprise information systems such as enterprise resource planning, supply chain management, customer relationship management, manufacturing execution system, etc. play a critical role in the daily operation of modern enterprises by timely and sustainable delivery of information. Therefore, resilience is especially important for the enterprise information systems. The proposed measure for resilience is based on the recovery ability of the system, which departs from the existing approaches in literature and presents a unique contribution. An example is given to illustrate how the proposed measure works.

  13. Applications of radiation measurements in arms control and nonproliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leich, D.; Reinitz, K.; Barnette, S.; O'Connell, M.; Sheely, K.

    1994-12-01

    Radiation measurements play a vital role in the development and implementation of U.S. arms control and nonproliferation policy. The President's Nonproliferation and Export Control Policy reflects the changing realities of a post-Cold-War world and makes nonproliferation one of our nation's highest priorities. Key elements of the Policy concern international controls on plutonium and highly-enriched uranium. Current DOE work contributing to arms control and nonproliferation policy implementation is described with an emphasis on the role of radiation measurements.

  14. Application of Phosphor Thermometry to a Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System

    SciTech Connect

    Beshears, D.L.; Allison, S.W.; Andrews, W.H.; Cates, M.R.; Grann, E.B.; Manges, W.W.; McIntyre, T.J.; Scudiere, M.B.; Simpson, M.L.; Childs, R.M.; Vehec, J.; Zhang, L.

    1999-06-01

    The Galvanneal Temperature Measurement System (GTMS) was developed for the American Iron and Steel Institute by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory through a partnership with the National Steel Midwest Division in Portage, Indiana. The GTMS provides crucial on-line thermal process control information during the manufacturing of galvanneal steel. The system has been used with the induction furnaces to measure temperatures ranging from 840 to 1292 F with an accuracy of better than {+-}9 F. The GTMS provides accurate, reliable temperature information thus ensuring a high quality product, reducing waste, and saving energy. The production of uniform, high-quality galvanneal steel is only possible through strict temperature control.

  15. A validated rating scale for global mental workload measurement applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierwile, W. W.; Casali, J. G.

    1983-01-01

    The Cooper-Harper (1969) scale has been extensively used for evaluation of aircraft handling qualities and associated mental workload. The scale is a 10-point scale with a decision tree. A modified version of the scale, called the MCH scale, has been devised for the purpose of assessing workload in systems other than those where the human operator performs motor tasks; namely, where perceptual, mediational, and communications activity is preent. The MCH scale has been validated in three different experiments. The scale is recommended for applications in which overall mental workload is to be assessed.

  16. Lidar Measurements of Methane and Applications for Aircraft and Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riris, Haris; Numata, Kenji; Abshire, James; Li, Steve; Wu, Stewart; Krainak, Michael; Sun, Xiaoli

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric methane levels have remained relatively constant over the last decade around 1.78 parts per million (ppm) but observations since 2007 show that levels may be increasing. This trend may be caused by increased fossil fuel production, rice farming, livestock and landfills, but the underlying causes are quite uncertain. One hypothesis is that reservoirs of carbon trapped in the permafrost regions of northern Canada, Europe, and Siberia thaw as global temperatures rise and are releasing increasing amounts of methane. Another hypothesis points to increased production of methane by microbes as the permafrost warms. Currently most observations of greenhouse gases are limited to in-situ (surface and tower sites) and limited airborne in-situ measurements. Space column density measurements are starting to become available from the GOSAT mission. Although methane survives for a shorter time in the atmosphere than CO2, its impact on climate change per molecule is about 23 times than that of CO2. Accurate global observations of several greenhouse gases, including methane, are urgently needed in order to better understand climate change processes and to reduce the uncertainty in the carbon budget. Differential absorption lidar is a well-established technique to measure atmospheric gases, and methane has optical absorption bands near 1.65,2.2,3.4 and 7.8 micron. The near infrared overtones lines of CH4 near 1650 nm are relatively free of interference from other species. There are absorption lines near 1651 nm which are both temperature insensitive and have line strengths well suited for lidar measurements. We have developed a laser and demonstrated lidar measurements of CH4 using lines in this band. Our laser uses a narrow linewidth 1064 nm laser pulse passing through a nonlinear crystal. We generate the tunable laser signals near 1651 nm by using the optical parametric amplification (OPA) process. Inside the crystal the 1064 nm beam overlaps with an injection seed

  17. Authentication Assurance Level Application to the Inventory Sampling Measurement System

    SciTech Connect

    Devaney, Mike M.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Geelhood, Bruce D.

    2001-09-06

    This document concentrates on the identification of a standardized assessment approach for the verification of security functionality in specific equipment, the Inspection Sampling Measurement System (ISMS) being developed for MAYAK. Specifically, an Authentication Assurance Level 3 is proposed to be reached in authenticating the ISMS.

  18. Measures of Inequality: Application to Happiness in Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.

    2010-01-01

    What is a good measure for happiness inequality? In the context of this question, we have developed an approach in which individual happiness values in a sample are considered as elements of a set and inequality as a binary relation on that set. The total number of inequality relations, each weighed by the distance on the scale of measurement…

  19. Application of near infrared spectroscopy in cotton fiber micronaire measurement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The term “micronaire” describes an important cotton fiber property by characterizing the fiber maturity and fineness. In practice, micronaire is regularly measured in laboratories with well established high volume instrumentation (HVITM) protocol. Most often, cotton breeders/geneticists sent cotton ...

  20. ADAPTING FTIR MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY TO HOMELAND SECURITY APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) sensors have numerous advantages for measuring chemical plumes over wide areas compared to point detection sensors. Extractive FTIR sensors have been used for industrial stack monitoring and are attractive for building ventilation sy...

  1. Applications of an automated stem measurer for precision forestry

    Treesearch

    N. Clark

    2001-01-01

    Accurate stem measurements are required for the determination of many silvicultural prescriptions, i.e., what are we going to do with a stand of trees. This would only be amplified in a precision forestry context. Many methods have been proposed for optimal ways to evaluate stems for a variety of characteristics. These methods usually involve the acquisition of total...

  2. Measuring Viscosity with a Levitating Magnet: Application to Complex Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, C.; Bouquet, F.; Remond, J.; Deloche, B.

    2009-01-01

    As an experimental project proposed to students in fourth year of university, a viscometer was developed, consisting of a small magnet levitating in a viscous fluid. The viscous force acting on the magnet is directly measured: viscosities in the range 10-10[superscript 6] mPa s are obtained. This experiment is used as an introduction to complex…

  3. Measuring Viscosity with a Levitating Magnet: Application to Complex Fluids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, C.; Bouquet, F.; Remond, J.; Deloche, B.

    2009-01-01

    As an experimental project proposed to students in fourth year of university, a viscometer was developed, consisting of a small magnet levitating in a viscous fluid. The viscous force acting on the magnet is directly measured: viscosities in the range 10-10[superscript 6] mPa s are obtained. This experiment is used as an introduction to complex…

  4. Applications of acoustics in the measurement of coal slab thickness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadden, W. J., Jr.; Mills, J. M.; Pierce, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of the possibility of employing acoustic waves at ultrasonic frequencies for measurements of thicknesses of slabs of coal backed by shale is investigated. Fundamental information concerning the acoustical properties of coal, and the relationship between these properties and the structural and compositional parameters used to characterize coal samples was also sought. The testing device, which utilizes two matched transducers, is described.

  5. Measurement and Application of Intellectual Capital in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozbura, F. Tunc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the elements of intellectual capital of firms in Turkey and to empirically investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and market value of firms in Istanbul Stock Exchange. To create a suitable intellectual capital measurement model for this study, a wide literature research was made. In almost…

  6. Reliability and Applicability of Aerodynamic Measures in Dysphonia Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiu, Edwin M.-L.; Yuen, Yuet-Ming; Whitehill, Tara; Winkworth, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic measures are frequently used to analyse and document pathological voices. Some normative data are available for speakers from the English-speaking population. However, no data are available yet for Chinese speakers despite the fact that they are one of the largest populations in the world. The high variability of aerodynamic measures…

  7. Dimensional coordinate measurements: application in characterizing cervical spine motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weilong; Li, Linan; Wang, Shibin; Wang, Zhiyong; Shi, Nianke; Xue, Yuan

    2014-06-01

    Cervical spine as a complicated part in the human body, the form of its movement is diverse. The movements of the segments of vertebrae are three-dimensional, and it is reflected in the changes of the angle between two joint and the displacement in different directions. Under normal conditions, cervical can flex, extend, lateral flex and rotate. For there is no relative motion between measuring marks fixed on one segment of cervical vertebra, the cervical vertebrae with three marked points can be seen as a body. Body's motion in space can be decomposed into translational movement and rotational movement around a base point .This study concerns the calculation of dimensional coordinate of the marked points pasted to the human body's cervical spine by an optical method. Afterward, these measures will allow the calculation of motion parameters for every spine segment. For this study, we choose a three-dimensional measurement method based on binocular stereo vision. The object with marked points is placed in front of the CCD camera. Through each shot, we will get there two parallax images taken from different cameras. According to the principle of binocular vision we can be realized three-dimensional measurements. Cameras are erected parallelly. This paper describes the layout of experimental system and a mathematical model to get the coordinates.

  8. Measures of Inequality: Application to Happiness in Nations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, W. M.; Arends, L. R.

    2010-01-01

    What is a good measure for happiness inequality? In the context of this question, we have developed an approach in which individual happiness values in a sample are considered as elements of a set and inequality as a binary relation on that set. The total number of inequality relations, each weighed by the distance on the scale of measurement…

  9. ADAPTING FTIR MEASUREMENT TECHNOLOGY TO HOMELAND SECURITY APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) sensors have numerous advantages for measuring chemical plumes over wide areas compared to point detection sensors. Extractive FTIR sensors have been used for industrial stack monitoring and are attractive for building ventilation sy...

  10. A framework for modelling kinematic measurements in gravity field applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwarz, K. P.; Wei, M.

    1989-01-01

    To assess the resolution of the local gravity field from kinematic measurements, a state model for motion in the gravity field of the earth is formulated. The resulting set of equations can accommodate gravity gradients, specific force, acceleration, velocity and position as input data and can take into account approximation errors as well as sensor errors.

  11. On the Measurement of Achievement Goals: Critique, Illustration, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou

    2008-01-01

    The authors identified several specific problems with the measurement of achievement goals in the current literature and illustrated these problems, focusing primarily on A. J. Elliot and H. A. McGregor's (2001) Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ). They attended to these problems by creating the AGQ-Revised and conducting a study that examined…

  12. On the Measurement of Achievement Goals: Critique, Illustration, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou

    2008-01-01

    The authors identified several specific problems with the measurement of achievement goals in the current literature and illustrated these problems, focusing primarily on A. J. Elliot and H. A. McGregor's (2001) Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ). They attended to these problems by creating the AGQ-Revised and conducting a study that examined…

  13. Measuring Processes of Change: Applications to the Cessation of Smoking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prochaska, James O.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Subjects (N=970) in five stages of smoking cessation completed test measuring 10 change processes: consciousness raising, dramatic relief, self-liberation, social liberation, counterconditioning, stimulus control, self-reevaluation, environmental reevaluation, reinforcement management, and helping relationship. Assessed 770 subjects six months…

  14. Measurement and Application of Intellectual Capital in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozbura, F. Tunc

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to define the elements of intellectual capital of firms in Turkey and to empirically investigate the relationship between intellectual capital and market value of firms in Istanbul Stock Exchange. To create a suitable intellectual capital measurement model for this study, a wide literature research was made. In almost…

  15. Reliability and Applicability of Aerodynamic Measures in Dysphonia Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yiu, Edwin M.-L.; Yuen, Yuet-Ming; Whitehill, Tara; Winkworth, Alison

    2004-01-01

    Aerodynamic measures are frequently used to analyse and document pathological voices. Some normative data are available for speakers from the English-speaking population. However, no data are available yet for Chinese speakers despite the fact that they are one of the largest populations in the world. The high variability of aerodynamic measures…

  16. Teacher Productivity Revisited: Definition, Theory, Measurement, and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Mark D.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Issues in the use of teacher productivity as an aspect of teacher evaluation are discussed, focusing on defining and measuring productivity. The underlying belief is that the central question driving education and teacher evaluation should focus on what teachers and schools can accomplish with students. (SLD)

  17. Measuring Motor Skill Learning--A Practical Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovacs, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of fundamental motor skills in early learners is critical to the overall well-being and physical development of the students within the physical education setting. Olrich (2002) has suggested that any physical education program must be designed to assess both measures of physical fitness and fundamental motor skills in all students.…

  18. Correlation of environmental carbaryl measurements with serum and urinary 1-naphthol measurements in a farmer applicator and his family.

    PubMed Central

    Shealy, D B; Barr, J R; Ashley, D L; Patterson, D G; Camann, D E; Bond, A E

    1997-01-01

    In exposure or risk assessments, both environmental and biological measurements are often used. Environmental measurements are an excellent means for evaluating regulatory compliance, but the models used to estimate body burden from these measurements are complex. Unless all possible routes of exposure (i.e., inhalation, dermal absorption, ingestion) are evaluated, exposure to a toxicant can be underestimated. To circumvent this problem, measurements of the internal dose of a toxicant in blood, serum, urine, or tissues can be used singularly or in combination with environmental data for exposure assessment. In three separate laboratories, carbaryl or its primary metabolite, 1-naphthol, was measured in personal air, dermal samples, blood serum, and urine from farmer applicators and their families. The usefulness of both environmental and biological data has been demonstrated. For the farmer applicator, the environmental levels of carbaryl would have been sufficient to determine that an exposure had occurred. However, biological measurements were necessary to determine the absorbed dose of each member of the applicator's family. In addition, a correlation between serum and urinary 1-naphthol measurements has been shown; therefore, either matrix can be used to accurately evaluate occupational carbaryl exposure. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Figure 5. A Figure 5. B PMID:9222136

  19. Solar radiation measurements and their applications in climate research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Bangsheng

    Aerosols and clouds play important roles in the climate system through their radiative effects and their vital link in the hydrological cycle. Accurate measurements of aerosol and cloud optical and microphysical properties are crucial for the study of climate and climate change. This study develops/improves retrieval algorithms for aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) and low liquid water path (LWP) cloud optical properties, evaluates a new spectrometer, and applies long-term measurements to establish climatology of aerosol and cloud optical properties. The following results were obtained. (1) The ratio of diffuse horizontal and direct normal fluxes measured from Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR) has been used to derive the aerosol SSA. Various issues have impacts on the accuracy of SSA retrieval, from measurements (e.g., calibration accuracy, cosine respond correction, and forward scattering correction) to input parameters and assumptions (e.g., asymmetry factor, Rayleigh scattering optical depth, and surface albedo). This study carefully analyzed these issues and extensively assessed their impacts on the retrieval accuracy. Furthermore, the retrievals of aerosol SSA from MFRSR are compared with independent measurements from co-located instruments. (2) The Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) has been used to derive simultaneously the cloud optical depth (COD) and cloud drop effective radius (DER), subsequently inferring the cloud liquid-water path (LWP). The evaluation of the TCRSR indicates that the error of radiometric calibration has limited impact on the cloud DER retrievals. However, the retrieval accuracy of cloud DER is sensitive to the uncertainties of background setting (e.g., aerosol loading and the existence of ice cloud) and the measured solar aureole shape. (3) A new high resolution oxygen A-band spectrometer (HABS) has been developed, which has the ability to measure both direct-beam and zenith diffuse solar radiation

  20. Spinning optical resonator sensor for torsional vibrational applications measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Amir R.; Gatherer, Andrew; Ibrahim, Mariam S.

    2016-03-01

    Spinning spherical resonators in the torsional vibrational applications could cause a shift in its whispering gallery mode (WGM). The centripetal force acting on the spinning micro sphere resonator will leads to these WGM shifts. An analysis and experiment were carried out in this paper to investigate and demonstrate this effect using different polymeric resonators. In this experiment, centripetal force exerted by the DC-Motor on the sphere induces an elastic deformation of the resonator. This in turn induces a shift in the whispering gallery modes of the sphere resonator. Materials used for the sphere are polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS 60:1 where 60 parts base silicon elastomer to 1 part polymer curing agent by volume) with shear modulus (G≍1kPa), (PDMS 10:1) with shear modulus (G≍300kPa), polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, G≍2.6×109GPa) and silica (G≍3×1010 GPa). The sphere size was kept constant with 1mm in diameter for all above materials. The optical modes of the sphere exit using a tapered single mode optical fiber that is coupled to a distributed feedback laser. The transmission spectrum through the fiber is monitored to detect WGM shifts. The results showed the resonators with smaller shear modulus G experience larger WGM shift due to the larger mechanical deformation induced by the applied external centripetal force. Also, the results show that angular velocity sensors used in the torsional vibrational applications could be designed using this principle.

  1. Advanced boundary layer transition measurement methods for flight applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, B. J.; Croom, C. C.; Gail, P. D.; Manuel, G. S.; Carraway, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    In modern laminar flow flight research, it is important to understand the specific cause(s) of laminar to turbulent boundary-layer transition. Such information is crucial to the exploration of the limits of practical application of laminar flow for drag reduction on aircraft. The transition modes of interest in current flight investigations include the viscous Tollmien-Schlichting instability, the inflectional instability at laminar separation, and the crossflow inflectional instability, as well as others. This paper presents the results to date of research on advanced devices and methods used for the study of laminar boundary-layer transition phenomena in the flight environment. Recent advancements in the development of arrayed hot-film devices and of a new flow visualization method are discussed. Arrayed hot-film devices have been designed to detect the presence of laminar separation, and of crossflow vorticity. The advanced flow visualization method utilizes color changes in liquid-crystal coatings to detect boundary-layer transition at high altitude flight conditions. Flight and wind tunnel data are presented to illustrate the design and operation of these advanced methods. These new research tools provide information on disturbance growth and transition mode which is essential to furthering our understanding of practical design limits for applications of laminar flow technology.

  2. Advanced edge roughness measurement application for mask metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chase, D.; Kris, R.; Katz, R.; Tam, A.; Gershtein, L.; Falah, R.; Wertsman, N.

    2005-11-01

    Mask Manufacturers are continuously asked to supply reticles with reduced CD (Critical Dimension) specification, such as CD Uniformity and Mean to target. To meet this on-going trend the industry is in a quest for higher resolution metrology tools, which in-turn drives the use of SEM metrology into standard mask manufacturing process. As dimensions of integrated circuit features reduce, the negative effects of roughness of the features, and/or of components such as photo-resist and ancillary structures used to produce the features, become more pronounced since there is not necessarily a corresponding reduction of roughness with dimension reduction. As a result of the increased problems, metrics that quantify roughness of specific sections of an integrated circuit have been developed; for example, line edge roughness (LER) measures the roughness of a linear edge. This paper concentrates on one specific area of the Mask Metrology, being measurement of the different Roughness metrics of the reticle features such as lines and contacts, using a new SEM metrology tool, the Applied Materials RETicleSEM. We describe the comprehensive Roughness Analysis Algorithm package that performs precise measurements of the different Roughness metrics including Fourier analysis, auto-correlation function and correlation length. This package can be used to isolate and characterize the roughness of specific wavelength ranges that may be of interest for mask manufacturing process and/or mask quality control considerations. We conclude with sample results of Roughness Analysis on real SEM images of Reticle lines. The influence of CD roughness on the precision of measurements is considered. The proof that long-wave roughness can be one from the sources of flyers during CD measurements is presented.

  3. Non-linearity in measurement systems: Evaluation method and application to microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelzried, C. T.

    1987-01-01

    A simple method for determination and correction of nonlinaearity in measurement systems is presented. The technique is applicable to a wide range of measuring systems. The basic concept, an analysis, and a sample application are given. Nonlinearity of the Goldstone DSS 13 low noise HEMT 2.3 GHz (S-band) radiometer system results in noise temperature measurement errors. These errors are successfully correct with this method.

  4. In Vitro Measurements of Metabolism for Application in Pharmacokinetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Lipscomb, John C.; Poet, Torka S.

    2008-04-01

    Abstract Human risk and exposure assessments require dosimetry information. Species-specific tissue dose response will be driven by physiological and biochemical processes. While metabolism and pharmacokinetic data are often not available in humans, they are much more available in laboratory animals; metabolic rate constants can be readily derived in vitro. The physiological differences between laboratory animals and humans are known. Biochemical processes, especially metabolism, can be measured in vitro and extrapolated to account for in vivo metabolism through clearance models or when linked to a physiologically based biological (PBPK) model to describe the physiological processes, such as drug delivery to the metabolic organ. This review focuses on the different organ, cellular, and subcellular systems that can be used to measure in vitro metabolic rate constants and how that data is extrapolated to be used in biokinetic modeling.

  5. Active-passive airborne ocean color measurement. II - Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.; Yungel, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    Reported here for the first time is the use of a single airborne instrument to make concurrent measurements of oceanic chlorophyll concentration by (1) laser-induced fluorescence, (2) passive upwelling radiance, and (3) solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence. Results from field experiments conducted with the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) in the New York Bight demonstrate the capability of a single active-passive instrument to perform new and potentially important ocean color studies related to (1) active lidar validation of passive ocean color in-water algorithms, (2) chlorophyll a in vivo fluorescence yield variability, (3) calibration of active multichannel lidar systems, (4) effect of sea state on passive and active ocean color measurements, (5) laser/solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence investigations, and (6) subsequent improvement of satellite-borne ocean color scanners. For validation and comparison purposes a separate passive ocean color sensor was also flown along with the new active-passive sensor during these initial field trials.

  6. Applications of infrared measurement technique in hypersonic facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henckels, A.; Kreins, A. F.; Maurer, F.

    For the design of thermal protection systems for future space vehicles it is necessary to localize and quantify the thermal loads due to convective surface heating. This paper presents tunnel experiments which demonstrate how surface heating due to interaction phenomena have been visualized and measured by infrared thermovision. An impinging shock wave on a laminar boundary layer of a flat plate and an axial corner configuration under 20 deg angle of attack were studied in a 60 cm hypersonic blow down facility of DLR Cologne at Mach number 8.7 for laminar flow conditions. In addition to the shock interaction study the capability of the infrared technique as diagnostic tool for short duration measurements was tested in the shock tunnel TH2 at the Stosswellenlabor RWTH Aachen.

  7. Application of SAGE III inversion algorithm to SALOMON measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazureau, A.; Brogniez, Colette; Renard, J.-B.

    2001-01-01

    The SAGE II, whose first flight is planned to be launched in Winter 2000-2001 on the polar orbit spacecraft METEOR 3M, is a part of NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS). A preliminary outcome for the LOA inversion has been obtained for resolved channel for the retrieval of daytime and nighttime constituents such as O3, NO2, NO3, OCIO and aerosols, with good quality, from simulated transmission profiles. An opportunity for testing the inversion algorithm on real measurements is offered by the SALOMON team of the LPCE to validate the method. The purpose of this paper is to present the LOA inversion of SALOMON real measurements, performed in February 2000 from Kiruna, Sweden. The retrieved gas densities and aerosol extinction profiles are compared to the corresponding retrieved values by the SALOMON team.

  8. Electrical resistivity borehole measurements: application to an urban tunnel site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denis, A.; Marache, A.; Obellianne, T.; Breysse, D.

    2002-06-01

    This paper shows how it is possible to use wells drilled during geotechnical pre-investigation of a tunneling site to obtain a 2-D image of the resistivity close to a tunnel boring machine. An experimental apparatus is presented which makes it possible to perform single and borehole-to-borehole electrical measurements independent of the geological and hydrogeological context, which can be activated at any moment during the building of the tunnel. This apparatus is first demonstrated through its use on a test site. Numerical simulations and data inversion are used to analyse the experimental results. Finally, electrical resistivity tomography and single-borehole measurements on a tunneling site are presented. Experimental results show the viability of the apparatus and the efficiency of the inverse algorithm, and also highlight the limitations of the electrical resistivity tomography as a tool for geotechnical investigation in urban areas.

  9. The application of Raman laser in gravity measurement and metrology

    SciTech Connect

    Ru, Ning; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yu; Fan, Shangchun

    2014-05-27

    Atom Interferometry is proved to be a potential method for measuring the acceleration of atoms due to Gravity, we are now building a feasible system of cold atom gravimeter, it is based on the atom interferometry technology by coherently manipulating the cold atoms in a fountain (with a height of 1m) with specific Raman lasers, the cold atom wave packet is splitted, combined, and then re-splitted in the process. Then the atomic wave packet will acquire different phase because of the different evolution path. The precise acceleration can be deduced through the precision measurement of atomic interference fringes phase, and this will be a high precision standard of acceleration. At present, the preparation of Raman laser and the precise control of the laser Frequency have been finished, and they have been proved to meet the requirements of the experiment.

  10. The application of Raman laser in measuring gravity acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ru, Ning; Zhang, Li; Wang, Yu; Fan, Shangchun

    2014-12-01

    Atom interferometry gravimeter with stimulated Raman transitions is realized by atom matter wave, it is now widely used in gravity measurements. We are now building a feasible system of cold atom gravimeter, it is based on the atom interferometry technology by coherently manipulating the cold atoms in a fountain with specific Raman lasers, the cold atom wave packet is splitted, combined, and then re-splitted in the process. Then the atomic wave packet will acquire different phase because of the different evolution path. The precise acceleration can be deduced through the precision measurement of atomic interference fringes phase, and this will be a high precision standard of acceleration. At present, the preparation of Raman laser and the precise control of the laser Frequency have been finished, and they have been proved to meet the requirements of the experiment.

  11. Bioluminescence microscopy: application to ATP measurements in single living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brau, Frederic; Helle, Pierre; Bernengo, Jean C.

    1997-12-01

    Bioluminescence microscopy can be used to measure intracellular cofactors and ionic concentrations (Ca2+, K+, ATP, NADH), as an alternative to micro- spectrophotometry and micro-fluorimetry, due to the development of sensitive detectors (cooled photomultipliers tubes and CCD). The main limitation comes from the very small and brief intensity of the emitted light. Our instrumentation based on an inverted microscope, equipped with high aperture immersion lenses is presented. Light intensity measurements are carried out through a photomultiplier sorted for low dark current and cooled at -5 degree(s)C to reduce thermal noise. Our first aim is to quantify ATP on single living cells using the firefly luciferin-luciferase couple. Experimental and kinetic aspects are presented to emphasize the potentialities of the technique.

  12. Application of Laser Correlation Spectroscopy for Measuring Virus Size.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, V N; Vinogradov, S E; Ivanov, A V; Efremova, E V; Kalnina, L B; Bychenko, A B; Tentsov, Yu Yu; Manykin, A A

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic light scattering method or laser correlation spectroscopy was applied to evaluation of the size of viruses. We measured correlation functions of the light scattered by human immunodeficiency viruses (HIV) and hepatitis A viruses (HAV) and found that size of HIV-1 (subtype A and B) and HAV virions were 104 nm and 28 nm, respectively. Comparison of these findings with electron microscopy data for fixed samples of the same viruses showed good agreement of the results.

  13. Domination Problem for Vector Measures and Applications to Nonstationary Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-23

    section is devoted to this. There it is shown that a large family of bounded operators on a Hilbert space has self-adjoint dilations. This generalizes the... classical results on uni- tary dilations of contractions in (141. Let us now turn to details. 2. Domination oroblem for seneral vector measures. if (,E...not obtain for the p-variation case. With these concepts, the needed classical properties of vector meas- ures can be quickly stated. It is a

  14. Very high temperature measurements: Application to nuclear reactor safety tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parga, Clemente Jose

    This PhD dissertation focuses on the improvement of very high temperature thermometry (1100ºC to 2480ºC), with special emphasis on the application to the field of nuclear reactor safety and severe accident research. Two main projects were undertaken to achieve this objective: -The development, testing and transposition of high-temperature fixed point (HTFP) metal-carbon eutectic cells, from metrology laboratory precision (+/-0.001ºC) to applied research with a reasonable degradation of uncertainties (+/-3-5ºC). -The corrosion study and metallurgical characterization of Type-C thermocouple (service temp. 2300ºC) prospective sheath material was undertaken to extend the survivability of TCs used for molten metallic/oxide corium thermometry (below 2000ºC).

  15. [Measuring airway inflammation in clinical practise - application and interpretation].

    PubMed

    Holz, O; Buhl, R; Hausen, T; von Berg, A; Weber, M; Worth, H; Magnussen, H

    2007-03-01

    Airway inflammation plays a major role in the pathology of both asthma and COPD and is the target of corticosteroid treatment. In daily routine practise, however, airway inflammation is still not often considered by pneumologists to support the diagnostic process or to aid in disease management, despite studies showing that patients could benefit. Eosinophilic airway inflammation is of special interest, as it is not restricted to allergen-induced airway diseases, and because it generally responds well to anti-inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids. Therefore, the early detection of this kind of underlying inflammatory process can have a positive impact on finding a diagnosis as well as for disease management. The non-invasive detection of eosinophilic airway inflammation using induced sputum is too time consuming and therefore too expensive in outpatient settings. As sputum eosinophils correlate with the concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), its measurement could serve as a more economic alternative, especially as new small handheld analysers are available now, that allow the rapid FeNO analysis, even in children. This review will cover some basics and technical aspects of FeNO measurements, which should be known to correctly interprete results in clinical practise. In the second part, the clinical value and the limits of FeNO measurements, as well as the potential interpretation of results are discussed based on recently published literature.

  16. Application of Terahertz Radiation to Soil Measurements: Initial Results

    PubMed Central

    Dworak, Volker; Augustin, Sven; Gebbers, Robin

    2011-01-01

    Developing soil sensors with the possibility of continuous online measurement is a major challenge in soil science. Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation may provide the opportunity for the measurement of organic material density, water content and other soil parameters at different soil depths. Penetration depth and information content is important for a functional soil sensor. Therefore, we present initial research on the analysis of absorption coefficients of four different soil samples by means of THz transmission measurements. An optimized soil sample holder to determine absorption coefficients was used. This setup improves data acquisition because interface reflections can be neglected. Frequencies of 340 GHz to 360 GHz and 1.627 THz to 2.523 THz provided information about an existing frequency dependency. The results demonstrate the potential of this THz approach for both soil analysis and imaging of buried objects. Therefore, the THz approach allows different soil samples to be distinguished according to their different absorption properties so that relations among soil parameters may be established in future. PMID:22163737

  17. Optical Measurement Techniques for Rocket Engine Testing and Component Applications: Digital Image Correlation and Dynamic Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been advancing dynamic optical measurement systems, primarily Digital Image Correlation, for extreme environment rocket engine test applications. The Digital Image Correlation (DIC) technology is used to track local and full field deformations, displacement vectors and local and global strain measurements. This technology has been evaluated at MSFC through lab testing to full scale hotfire engine testing of the J-2X Upper Stage engine at Stennis Space Center. It has been shown to provide reliable measurement data and has replaced many traditional measurement techniques for NASA applications. NASA and AMRDEC have recently signed agreements for NASA to train and transition the technology to applications for missile and helicopter testing. This presentation will provide an overview and progression of the technology, various testing applications at NASA MSFC, overview of Army-NASA test collaborations and application lessons learned about Digital Image Correlation.

  18. The application of wavelet shrinkage denoising to magnetic Barkhausen noise measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, James

    2014-02-18

    The application of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) as a non-destructive method of defect detection has proliferated throughout the manufacturing community. Instrument technology and measurement methodology have matured commensurately as applications have moved from the R and D labs to the fully automated manufacturing environment. These new applications present a new set of challenges including a bevy of error sources. A significant obstacle in many industrial applications is a decrease in signal to noise ratio due to (i) environmental EMI and (II) compromises in sensor design for the purposes of automation. The stochastic nature of MBN presents a challenge to any method of noise reduction. An application of wavelet shrinkage denoising is proposed as a method of decreasing extraneous noise in MBN measurements. The method is tested and yields marked improvement on measurements subject to EMI, grounding noise, and even measurements in ideal conditions.

  19. The application of wavelet shrinkage denoising to magnetic Barkhausen noise measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, James

    2014-02-01

    The application of Magnetic Barkhausen Noise (MBN) as a non-destructive method of defect detection has proliferated throughout the manufacturing community. Instrument technology and measurement methodology have matured commensurately as applications have moved from the R&D labs to the fully automated manufacturing environment. These new applications present a new set of challenges including a bevy of error sources. A significant obstacle in many industrial applications is a decrease in signal to noise ratio due to (i) environmental EMI and (II) compromises in sensor design for the purposes of automation. The stochastic nature of MBN presents a challenge to any method of noise reduction. An application of wavelet shrinkage denoising is proposed as a method of decreasing extraneous noise in MBN measurements. The method is tested and yields marked improvement on measurements subject to EMI, grounding noise, and even measurements in ideal conditions.

  20. Laboratory laser reflectance measurement and applications to asteroid surface analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, A.; Daly, M. G.; Cloutis, E. A.; Tait, K. T.; Izawa, M. R. M.; Barnouin, O. S.; Hyde, B. C.; Nicklin, I.

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Laboratory reflectance measurement of asteroid analogs is an important tool for interpreting the reflectance of asteroids. One dominant factor affecting how measured reflectance changes as a function of phase angle (180° minus the scattering angle) is surface roughness [1], which is related to grain size. A major goal of this study is to be able to use the angular distributions (phase functions) of scattered light from various regions on an asteroid surface to determine the relative grain size between those regions. Grain size affects the spectral albedo and continuum slopes of surface materials, has implications in terms of understanding geologic processes on asteroids and is also valuable for the planning and operations of upcoming missions to asteroids, such as the New Frontiers OSIRIS-REx sample return mission to the asteroid (101955) Bennu [2]. Information on surface roughness is particularly powerful when combined with other datasets, such as thermal inertia maps (e.g., a smooth, low-backscatter surface of low thermal inertia likely contains fine grains). Approach To better constrain the composition and surface texture of Bennu, we are conducting experiments to investigate the laser return signature of terrestrial and meteorite analogs to Bennu. The objective is to understand the nature of laser returns given possible compositional, grain size and slope distributions on the surface of Bennu to allow surface characterization, particularly surface grain size, which would significantly aid efforts to identify suitable sites for sampling by the OSIRIS-REx mission. Setup A 1064-nm laser is used to determine the reflectance of Bennu analogs and their constituents (1064 nm is the wavelength of many laser altimeters including the one planned to fly on OSIRIS-REx). Samples of interest include serpentinites (greenalite, etc.), magnetite, and shungite. To perform the experiments, a goniometer has been built. This instrument allows reflectance measurements

  1. Department of Defense operational applications of wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Allan C.

    1985-01-01

    A stated objective for this symposium is to identify requirements for global wind measurements. This paper will draw from recent reports which considered the impact of over 100 environmental factors known to affect military operations. A conclusion that can be drawn from those analyses is that one environmental factor, atmospheric wind, has an operational impact on each of the 48 mission areas examined. This paper will characterize the impact of wind on the various mission areas and will define and summarize both 'technical' and 'operational' requirements for wind intelligence.

  2. Department of Defense operational applications of wind measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsay, Allan C.

    1985-01-01

    A stated objective for this symposium is to identify requirements for global wind measurements. This paper will draw from recent reports which considered the impact of over 100 environmental factors known to affect military operations. A conclusion that can be drawn from those analyses is that one environmental factor, atmospheric wind, has an operational impact on each of the 48 mission areas examined. This paper will characterize the impact of wind on the various mission areas and will define and summarize both 'technical' and 'operational' requirements for wind intelligence.

  3. Wind profiler mixing depth and entrainment measurements with chemical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Angevine, W.M.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D.D.; Buhr, M.P.; Fehsenfeld, F.C.; Kok, G.L.

    1994-12-31

    Wind profiling radars operating at 915 MHz have been present at a number of regional air quality studies. The profilers can provide a continuous, accurate record of the depth of the convective mixed layer with good time resolution. Profilers also provide information about entrainment at the boundary layer top. Mixing depth data from several days of the Rural Oxidants in the Southern Environment II (ROSE II) study in Alabama in June, 1992 are presented. For several cases, chemical measurements from aircraft and ground-based instruments are shown to correspond to mixing depth and entrainment zone behavior observed by the profiler.

  4. New phase unwrapping method and its application in shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoyuan; Kang, Xin

    2002-05-01

    A new phase unwrapping algorithm is proposed in this paper. This algorithm, based on the global continuity of the physical information being measured, is shown to be reliable by experimental results. Unlike the brunch-cut method, this new algorithm needs not placing brunch cuts but ratifying the errors in the initial unwrapped phase map obtained by the conventional method using the least difference of phase-cross-section. It is suitable for unwrapping phase map in the presence of errors such as noise, phase discontinuity more than (pi) and insufficient sampling. In addition, the new method is simple and requires little computing time.

  5. The 1992 NASA Langley Measurement Technology Conference: Measurement Technology for Aerospace Applications in High-Temperature Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Jag J. (Editor); Antcliff, Richard R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    An intensive 2-day conference to discuss the current status of measurement technology in the areas of temperature/heat flux, stress/strain, pressure, and flowfield diagnostics for high temperature aerospace applications was held at Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, on April 22 and 23, 1993. Complete texts of the papers presented at the Conference are included in these proceedings.

  6. 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugui, Yu. V.

    2005-06-01

    The results of the R & D activity of TDI SIE SB RAS in the field of the 3D optical measuring technologies and systems for noncontact 3D optical dimensional inspection applied to atomic and railway industry safety problems are presented. This activity includes investigations of diffraction phenomena on some 3D objects, using the original constructive calculation method, development of hole inspection method on the base of diffractive optical elements. Ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors and running trains as well as their high exploitation reliability requires a 100 % noncontact precise inspection of geometrical parameters of their components. To solve this problem we have developed methods and produced the technical vision measuring systems LMM, CONTROL, RADAR, and technologies for noncontact 3D dimensional inspection of grid spacers and fuel elements for the nuclear reactor VVER-1000 and VVER-440, as well as automatic laser diagnostic COMPLEX for noncontact inspection of geometric parameters of running freight car wheel pairs. The performances of these systems and the results of industrial testing are presented and discussed. The created devices are in pilot operation at Atomic and Railway Companies.

  7. Exploring application and measurement of radiation entropy for planet research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Wu, W.; Wiscombe, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    Radiation is the primary transport mechanism between a star and its planets. With the Earth as an example, we first demonstrate that for more non-blackbody emission, radiation energy alone is not enough and radiation entropy is needed to close the system of equations. We then explore a new theoretical framework that treats the planet system as a whole and seeks entropy-based principle in addition to those conservation principles (e.g., energy conservation). In particular, we show that even at steady state, radiation entropy is highly imbalanced, with the outgoing longwave radiation carrying much more radiation entropy than the incoming solar radiation, and that the Earth system as a whole works to maximize the radiation entropy imbalance by building close connection between incoming shortwave and outgoing longwave radiation. The relationship between planetary albedo and emissivity is investigated for the terrestrial planets. A new remote sensing approach is presented to simultaneously gauge the longwave emissivity and temperature by co-measurements of radiation energy and radiation entropy. Further explored is the potential of utilizing high resolution spectral radiation measurements for this purpose.

  8. Application of SERS Nanoparticles for Intracellular pH Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Laurence, T; Talley, C; Colvin, M; Huser, T

    2004-10-21

    We present an alternative approach to optical probes that will ultimately allow us to measure chemical concentrations in microenvironments within cells and tissues. This approach is based on monitoring the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response of functionalized metal nanoparticles (50-100 nm in diameter). SERS allows for the sensitive detection of changes in the state of chemical groups attached to individual nanoparticles and small clusters. Here, we present the development of a nanoscale pH meter. The pH response of these nanoprobes is tested in a cell-free medium, measuring the pH of the solution immediately surrounding the nanoparticles. Heterogeneities in the SERS signal, which can result from the formation of small nanoparticle clusters, are characterized using SERS correlation spectroscopy and single particle/cluster SERS spectroscopy. The response of the nanoscale pH meters is tested under a wide range of conditions to approach the complex environment encountered inside living cells and to optimize probe performance.

  9. Applicability of sniffing team observations: experience of field measurements.

    PubMed

    Van Langenhove, H; Van Broeck, G

    2001-01-01

    Sniffing measurement campaigns are a commonly used technique in Flanders to estimate the impact of an odour emission source. The Department of Organic Chemistry at Ghent University has developed its own sniffing strategy throughout the last ten years. The method uses, in essence, the technique of plotting odour perception areas and calculation of total odour emission rates based on maximum odour perception distance. 566 sniffing measurements, executed from 1990 until 1999 around industrial and agricultural odour sources were collected in a database for statistical analysis. Short-term dispersion modelling was executed using four different models, two of them based on Bultynck-Malet dispersion parameters, and two based on Pasquill dispersion parameters. Results from this analysis demonstrate some causes of variance in calculated emissions and show the fitness of each model. From the results of the sniffing teams, which are expressed as sniffing units (SU) instead of odour units (OU, OUE) to underline the difference in methodological approach, the overall odorous emission can be calculated, using short-term atmospheric dispersion models. In a second step, long-term dispersion models can be used to calculate isopercentile contour plots. According to our experience the short-term atmospheric model is a source of "noise" in the method since calculated standard deviations on calculated emissions are larger than standard deviations in the observed maximum distance for odour perception. This will be illustrated by presenting results from the evaluation of composting plants and animal farm houses.

  10. Application of MEMS Microphone Array Technology to Airframe Noise Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Shams, Qamar A.; Graves, Sharon S.; Sealey, Bradley S.; Bartram, Scott M.; Comeaux, Toby

    2005-01-01

    Current generation microphone directional array instrumentation is capable of extracting accurate noise source location and directivity data on a variety of aircraft components, resulting in significant gains in test productivity. However, with this gain in productivity has come the desire to install larger and more complex arrays in a variety of ground test facilities, creating new challenges for the designers of array systems. To overcome these challenges, a research study was initiated to identify and develop hardware and fabrication technologies which could be used to construct an array system exhibiting acceptable measurement performance but at much lower cost and with much simpler installation requirements. This paper describes an effort to fabricate a 128-sensor array using commercially available Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) microphones. The MEMS array was used to acquire noise data for an isolated 26%-scale high-fidelity Boeing 777 landing gear in the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Stability Tunnel across a range of Mach numbers. The overall performance of the array was excellent, and major noise sources were successfully identified from the measurements.

  11. A measurement system applicable for landslide experiments in the field.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wen-Zhao; Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Wen-Long; Yang, Ji-Shan; Liu, Ya-Kun; Xu, Fei-Long

    2016-04-01

    Observation of gravity erosion in the field with strong sunshine and wind poses a challenge. Here, a novel topography meter together with a movable tent addresses the challenge. With the topography meter, a 3D geometric shape of the target surface can be digitally reconstructed. Before the commencement of a test, the laser generator position and the camera sightline should be adjusted with a sight calibrator. Typically, the topography meter can measure the gravity erosion on the slope with a gradient of 30°-70°. Two methods can be used to obtain a relatively clear video, despite the extreme steepness of the slopes. One method is to rotate the laser source away from the slope to ensure that the camera sightline remains perpendicular to the laser plane. Another way is to move the camera farther away from the slope in which the measured volume of the slope needs to be corrected; this method will reduce distortion of the image. In addition, installation of tent poles with concrete columns helps to surmount the altitude difference on steep slopes. Results observed by the topography meter in real landslide experiments are rational and reliable.

  12. A measurement system applicable for landslide experiments in the field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wen-Zhao; Xu, Xiang-Zhou; Wang, Wen-Long; Yang, Ji-Shan; Liu, Ya-Kun; Xu, Fei-Long

    2016-04-01

    Observation of gravity erosion in the field with strong sunshine and wind poses a challenge. Here, a novel topography meter together with a movable tent addresses the challenge. With the topography meter, a 3D geometric shape of the target surface can be digitally reconstructed. Before the commencement of a test, the laser generator position and the camera sightline should be adjusted with a sight calibrator. Typically, the topography meter can measure the gravity erosion on the slope with a gradient of 30°-70°. Two methods can be used to obtain a relatively clear video, despite the extreme steepness of the slopes. One method is to rotate the laser source away from the slope to ensure that the camera sightline remains perpendicular to the laser plane. Another way is to move the camera farther away from the slope in which the measured volume of the slope needs to be corrected; this method will reduce distortion of the image. In addition, installation of tent poles with concrete columns helps to surmount the altitude difference on steep slopes. Results observed by the topography meter in real landslide experiments are rational and reliable.

  13. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  14. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  15. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... assistance for energy conservation measures, including renewable resource measures, shall include the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. 455.110 Section 455.110 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY...

  16. Sensor fusion by pseudo information measure: a mobile robot application.

    PubMed

    Asharif, Mohammad Reza; Moshiri, Behzad; HoseinNezhad, Reza

    2002-07-01

    In any autonomous mobile robot, one of the most important issues to be designed and implemented is environment perception. In this paper, a new approach is formulated in order to perform sensory data integration for generation of an occupancy grid map of the environment. This method is an extended version of the Bayesian fusion method for independent sources of information. The performance of the proposed method of fusion and its sensitivity are discussed. Map building simulation for a cylindrical robot with eight ultrasonic sensors and mapping implementation for a Khepera robot have been separately tried in simulation and experimental works. A new neural structure is introduced for conversion of proximity data that are given by Khepera IR sensors to occupancy probabilities. Path planning experiments have also been applied to the resulting maps. For each map, two factors are considered and calculated: the fitness and the augmented occupancy of the map with respect to the ideal map. The length and the least distance to obstacles were the other two factors that were calculated for the routes that are resulted by path planning experiments. Experimental and simulation results show that by using the new fusion formulas, more informative maps of the environment are obtained. By these maps more appropriate routes could be achieved. Actually, there is a tradeoff between the length of the resulting routes and their safety and by choosing the proper fusion function, this tradeoff is suitably tuned for different map building applications.

  17. Deuterium REDOR: Principles and Applications for Distance Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sack, I.; Goldbourt, A.; Vega, S.; Buntkowsky, G.

    1999-05-01

    The application of short composite pulse schemes ([figure] and [figure]) to the rotational echo double-resonance (REDOR) spectroscopy ofX-2H (X: spin{1}/{2}, observed) systems with large deuterium quadrupolar interactions has been studied experimentally and theoretically and compared with simple 180° pulse schemes. The basic properties of the composite pulses on the deuterium nuclei have been elucidated, using average Hamiltonian theory, and exact simulations of the experiments have been achieved by stepwise integration of the equation of motion of the density matrix. REDOR experiments were performed on15N-2H in doubly labeled acetanilide and on13C-2H in singly2H-labeled acetanilide. The most efficient REDOR dephasing was observed when [figure] composite pulses were used. It is found that the dephasing due to simple 180° deuterium pulses is about a factor of 2 less efficient than the dephasing due to the composite pulse sequences and thus the range of couplings observable byX-2H REDOR is enlarged toward weaker couplings, i.e., larger distances. From these experiments the2H-15N dipolar coupling between the amino deuteron and the amino nitrogen and the2H-13C dipolar couplings between the amino deuteron and the α and β carbons have been elucidated and the corresponding distances have been determined. The distance data from REDOR are in good agreement with data from X-ray and neutron diffraction, showing the power of the method.

  18. Optical fiber telemetry systems for measurement-while-drilling applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weis, R. Stephen; Bachim, Brent L.; Beadle, Brad M.; Gearhart, Marvin

    2000-06-01

    Two rugged optical fiber telemetry systems for coiled-tubing drilling and other hostile-environment applications are briefly described. One system is a passive uplink; the other is an active simplex link. The transmitter and receiver of the passive uplink are located on the surface. A high- temperature fiber able connects a serial array of downhole modulators with the surface. Each modulator consists of an intrinsic fiber Bragg grating fixed to a piezoelectric transducer. The simplex link consists of commercial off-the- shelf components: a LED, plastic-clad silica fiber, and a Si pin diode. Both systems performed well when tested at temperatures to 150 degree(s)C and at vibration levels similar to those downhole. The passive uplink system's performance was unchanged after being tested in actual drilling operations (rotating, drilling, and reaming). The active simplex link's performance was unchanged after being tested at peak vibration levels of 20 g. The signal-to-noise ratio of the passive uplink was 108 dB/(root)Hz.

  19. Permeability of Two Parachute Fabrics: Measurements, Modeling, and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.; O'Farrell, Clara; Hennings, Elsa; Runnells, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Two parachute fabrics, described by Parachute Industry Specifications PIA-C-7020D Type I and PIA-C-44378D Type I, were tested to obtain their permeabilities in air (i.e., flow-through volume of air per area per time) over the range of differential pressures from 0.146 psf (7 Pa) to 25 psf (1197 Pa). Both fabrics met their specification permeabilities at the standard differential pressure of 0.5 inch of water (2.60 psf, 124 Pa). The permeability results were transformed into an effective porosity for use in calculations related to parachutes. Models were created that related the effective porosity to the unit Reynolds number for each of the fabrics. As an application example, these models were used to calculate the total porosities for two geometrically-equivalent subscale Disk-Gap-Band (DGB) parachutes fabricated from each of the two fabrics, and tested at the same operating conditions in a wind tunnel. Using the calculated total porosities and the results of the wind tunnel tests, the drag coefficient of a geometrically-equivalent full-scale DGB operating on Mars was estimated.

  20. Permeability of Two Parachute Fabrics - Measurements, Modeling, and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Juan R.; O'Farrell, Clara; Hennings, Elsa; Runnells, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Two parachute fabrics, described by Parachute Industry Specifications PIA-C-7020D Type I and PIA-C-44378D Type I, were tested to obtain their permeabilities in air (i.e., flow-through volume of air per area per time) over the range of differential pressures from 0.146 psf (7 Pa) to 25 psf (1197 Pa). Both fabrics met their specification permeabilities at the standard differential pressure of 0.5 inch of water (2.60 psf, 124 Pa). The permeability results were transformed into an effective porosity for use in calculations related to parachutes. Models were created that related the effective porosity to the unit Reynolds number for each of the fabrics. As an application example, these models were used to calculate the total porosities for two geometrically-equivalent subscale Disk-Gap-Band (DGB) parachutes fabricated from each of the two fabrics, and tested at the same operating conditions in a wind tunnel. Using the calculated total porosities and the results of the wind tunnel tests, the drag coefficient of a geometrically-equivalent full-scale DGB operating on Mars was estimated.

  1. Application of Direct Current Potential Drop for Fracture Toughness Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2013-01-01

    Material fracture toughness based on J-integral versus crack-extension relationship (J-R curve) is investigated with direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique and compared with results from elastic unloading compliance (EUC) or normalization technique. The test matrix covered four different materials, half inch thickness and one inch thickness compact tension (C(T))specimens, and temperatures ranging from 24 C to 600 C. The original J-R curves from DCPD yielded much smaller Jq value than EUC or normalization results due to the influence of plastic deformation on potential drop. To counter this effect, two new methods for adjusting DCPD data have been proposed. After adjustment, the average difference in Jq between DCPD and EUC or normalization results is only about 8% whereas the difference in tearing modulus is about 17%. The promising results prove the applicability of DCPD for J-R curve determination for C(T) specimens especially in extreme environments, such as elevated temperatures, where conventional EUC method faces considerable challenges.

  2. Measurement of the knee flexion angle with a Smartphone-application is precise and accurate.

    PubMed

    Jenny, Jean-Yves

    2013-05-01

    We hypothesized that the measurement of the knee flexion angle measured with a specific Smartphone application was different from the reference measurement with a navigation system designed for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Ten consecutive patients operated on for navigation assisted TKA were selected. Six navigated and 6 Smartphone measurements of knee flexion angle were obtained for each patient. The paired difference between measurements and their correlation were analyzed. The mean paired difference between navigated and Smartphone measurements was -1.1° ± 6.8° (n.s.). There was a significant correlation between both measurements. The coherence between both measurements was good. The intra-observer and inter-observer reproducibility were good. The Smartphone application used may be considered as precise and accurate. The accuracy may be higher than other conventional measurement techniques. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Aerosol measurement: Principles, techniques, and applications. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, K.; Baron, P.A.

    1993-01-01

    The study of aerosols in indoor air and the assessment of human exposure to aerosols are relatively recent activities. The terms indoor air and exposure assessment refer primarily to nonindustrial settings, such as homes, offices, and public-access buildings (e.g., museums, airport terminals, retail stores). Although many occupational settings are 'indoors', the aerosol concentrations and constituents, airflow regimes, and turbulence levels pose related, but different, aerosol measurement constraints. Until recently, it was commonly believed that the quality of indoor air was superior to that of the outdoor (ambient) air nearby. Several factors have influenced the apparent deterioration of indoor air quality: life-styles have changed; building construction techniques have changed; and people have become more concerned about environmental tobacco smoke (ETS).

  4. Applications of aerospace technology in the public interest: Pollution measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heins, C. F.; Johnson, F. D.

    1974-01-01

    This study of selected NASA contributions to the improvement of pollution measurement examines the pervasiveness and complexity of the economic, political, and social issues in the environmental field; provides a perspective on the relationship between the conduct of aerospace R and D and specific improvements in on site air pollution monitoring equipment now in use; describes the basic relationship between the development of satellite-based monitoring systems and their influence on long-term progress in improving environmental quality; and comments on how both instrumentation and satellite remote sensing are contributing to an improved environment. Examples of specific gains that have been made in applying aerospace R and D to environmental problem-solving are included.

  5. Application of sensing techniques to cellular force measurement.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Wang, James H-C

    2010-01-01

    Cell traction forces (CTFs) are the forces produced by cells and exerted on extracellular matrix or an underlying substrate. CTFs function to maintain cell shape, enable cell migration, and generate and detect mechanical signals. As such, they play a vital role in many fundamental biological processes, including angiogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. Therefore, a close examination of CTFs can enable better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of such processes. To this end, various force-sensing techniques for CTF measurement have been developed over the years. This article will provide a concise review of these sensing techniques and comment on the needs for improved force-sensing technologies for cell mechanics and biology research.

  6. Solubilities in supercritical fluids: the application of chromatographic measurement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.D.; Udseth, H.R.; Wright, B.W.; Yonker, C.R.

    1987-01-01

    New methods are described for the measurement of the solubilities of solids in supercritical fluids. These methods utilize instrumentation developed for capillary supercritical fluid chromatography consisting of deactivated, small diameter, fused silica tubing, coupled with detection methods based upon on flame ionization and mass spectrometric detectors. The methods involve (a) direct solubility determination where the fused silica capillary is used as an equilibrium cell, and (b) a pressure of threshold solubility technique which resembles chromatography and uses a programmed pressure increase and sensitive detection to determine the onset of solute migration. Results are also presented which suggest that solubilities can be determined, within certain limitations, from actual chromatographic experiments. The methods are illustrated using aromatic hydrocarbons and complex mycotoxins of the trichothecene group.

  7. Phototoxicity of oriental medicinal plants: measurement and possible applications.

    PubMed

    Bark, Ki-Min; Sun, Young-Woo; Yoon, Tae-Jin; Kim, Tae-Heung

    2011-01-01

    Phototoxicity can be either harmful and induce adverse skin reactions or beneficial and be used therapeutically as in psoralen and UV-A or photodynamic therapy. Hundreds of medicinal plants are widely used in Asia and Western countries in oriental medicine, yet the phototoxicity of oriental medicinal plants is an understudied area. In this contribution, the authors discuss some methods used to measure the phototoxicity of plants and give an overview of the results of their previous and ongoing studies into the phototoxicity of medicinal plants. The authors argue that because they found that more than a quarter of oriental medicinal plants can be phototoxic, such research is helpful for dermatologists and that active phototoxic components extracted from oriental medicinal plants may be used therapeutically.

  8. Applications of excimer lasers for atmospheric species measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laudenslager, J. B.; Pacala, T. J.; Mcdermid, I. S.; Rider, D. M.

    1984-01-01

    Excimer lasers are proven sources of high pulse energy and high average power coherent radiation at several wavelength regions throughout the ultraviolet spectrum. If designed properly, excimer lasers can be operated with both low divergence and narrow spectral bandwidth, and using an oscillator - injection-locked amplifier configuration they can be tuned over a 10 to 20 A bandwidth without appreciable loss in energy. Additional wavelength coverage from excimer lasers can be obtained by stimulated Raman scattering. With the development of magnetic switching for the high voltage, high power switches, the electric discharge excimer laser can also be operated reliably for extended periods of time at high pulse rates. All these features make excimer lasers ideal sources of ultraviolet radiation for a variety of remote and in-situ atmospheric species measurements.

  9. Photonic structures and their application for measuring material parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Usanov, D. A. Skripal', A. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Bogolyubov, A. S.; Kulikov, M. Yu.

    2009-12-15

    A computer simulation and an experimental study of the frequency dependences of the transmission coefficients of photonic crystals are carried out on the basis of microstrip lines with distortion in their periodicity in the form of change in the microstrip dimensions and the permittivity of a substrate of one of the alternate pieces of the microstrip line in the range of 0-20 GHz. Good quantitative agreement between the results of calculations and experimental data is obtained. It is shown that there is a possibility of using open microwave transmission lines, namely, microstrip photonic structures, to implement a method for measuring the parameters of material samples with the specified geometrical shape and a certain size that perform a function of nonuniformity in the photonic structure.

  10. A versatile Mossbauer spectrometer and its applications in vibration measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Howser, L. M.

    1972-01-01

    A Fe-57 Mossbauer spectrometer, equally efficient in transmission and reflection geometries, is described. The radiation detector consists of a 1.524- by 5.08 by 5.08-cm rectangular NaI(Tl) crystal with a hole 1.524 cm in diameter. The front and back faces of the crystal are covered with beryllium windows 0.0127 cm thick and 3.81 cm in diameter. The energy of the radiation accepted for counting ranges from 6.3 keV conversion X-rays to the 14.4 keV reemitted gamma rays. The spectrometer was used to measure various types of low frequency (10 Hz) and low amplitude (0.254 mm) periodic motion of steel specimens.

  11. Emerging Technologies and Their Applications in Lipid Compartment Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Heymsfield, Steven B.; Hu, Houchun Harry; Shen, Wei; Carmichael, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Non-Communicable diseases (NCDs), including obesity, are emerging as the major health concern of the 21st century. Excess adiposity and related NCD metabolic disturbances have stimulated development of new lipid compartment measurement technologies to help us understand cellular energy exchange, to refine phenotypes, and to develop predictive markers of adverse clinical outcomes. Recent advances now allow for quantification of multiple intracellular lipid and adipose tissue compartments that can be evaluated across the human lifespan. With magnetic resonance methods leading the way, newer approaches will give molecular structural and metabolic information beyond the laboratory in real-world settings. The union between these new technologies and the growing NCD population is creating an exciting interface advancing our understanding of chronic disease mechanisms. PMID:26596676

  12. Triiodothyronine and thyroxine in urine. I. Measurement and application.

    PubMed

    Shakespear, R A; Burke, C W

    1976-03-01

    Urinary triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) were measured by RIA, and T4 was also measured by competitive protein binding (CPB). pH 1-hydrolysable conjugates were 48% of total urinary T3, and enzyme- or pH 1-hydrolysable conjugates were 55% and 61% of total urinary T4. The mean unconjugated T3 excretion was 34.3 ng/h (0.99 mug T3/g creatinine) in normal subjects (no day-night rhythm found), 1.56 mug/g in late pregnancy, 0.82 mug/g in neonates (1-12 days), and was also unchanged in persons with high or low thyroxine-binding globulin (TBG). In thyrotoxicosis, mean T3 excretion was 281 ng/h, no values being in the normal range. In primary hypothyroidism it was 18.3 ng/h, but over half the values were in the normal range. The mean urinary unconjugated T4 was 82.2 ng/h (1.37 mug T4/g creatinine) in normal subjects, 1.6 mug/g in neonates, and unchanged in persons with high or low TBG, except that in pregnancy high values were compatible with increases protein excretion. Apparently increased day-time T4 excretion compared with night-time excretion may also be due to changes in protein excretion rate. The mean T4 in thyrotoxicosis was 337 ng/h (12% of values in the normal range) and 32.8 ng/h in primary hypothyroidism (over half the normal range). All the assays, especially that of T4 by CPB gave readings which were incorrect with protein concentrations above 100 mg/l. Urinary T3 and T4 assays for clinical purposes have few practical advantages over serum assays, despite the relationship of urine T3 and T4 to serum unbound levels.

  13. A quantum inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements with applications to weak value measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalante, George

    2017-05-01

    Weak Value Measurements (WVMs) with pre- and post-selected quantum mechanical ensembles were proposed by Aharonov, Albert, and Vaidman in 1988 and have found numerous applications in both theoretical and applied physics. In the field of precision metrology, WVM techniques have been demonstrated and proven valuable as a means to shift, amplify, and detect signals and to make precise measurements of small effects in both quantum and classical systems, including: particle spin, the Spin-Hall effect of light, optical beam deflections, frequency shifts, field gradients, and many others. In principal, WVM amplification techniques are also possible in radar and could be a valuable tool for precision measurements. However, relatively limited research has been done in this area. This article presents a quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements of arbitrary strength, including standard and pre- and post-selected measurements. The model is used to extend WVM amplification theory to radar, with the receive filter performing the post-selection role. It is shown that the description of range and range-rate measurements based on the quantum-mechanical measurement model and formalism produces the same results as the conventional approach used in radar based on signal processing and filtering of the reflected signal at the radar receiver. Numerical simulation results using simple point scatterrer configurations are presented, applying the quantum-inspired model of radar range and range-rate measurements that occur in the weak measurement regime. Potential applications and benefits of the quantum inspired approach to radar measurements are presented, including improved range and Doppler measurement resolution.

  14. Point-Connecting Measurements of the Hallux Valgus Deformity: A New Measurement and Its Clinical Application

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jeong-Ho; Boedijono, Dimas

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to investigate new point-connecting measurements for the hallux valgus angle (HVA) and the first intermetatarsal angle (IMA), which can reflect the degree of subluxation of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ). Also, this study attempted to compare the validity of midline measurements and the new point-connecting measurements for the determination of HVA and IMA values. Materials and Methods Sixty feet of hallux valgus patients who underwent surgery between 2007 and 2011 were classified in terms of the severity of HVA, congruency of the first MTPJ, and type of chevron metatarsal osteotomy. On weight-bearing dorsal-plantar radiographs, HVA and IMA values were measured and compared preoperatively and postoperatively using both the conventional and new methods. Results Compared with midline measurements, point-connecting measurements showed higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for preoperative HVA/IMA and similar or higher inter- and intra-observer reliability for postoperative HVA/IMA. Patients who underwent distal chevron metatarsal osteotomy (DCMO) had higher intraclass correlation coefficient for inter- and intra-observer reliability for pre- and post-operative HVA and IMA measured by the point-connecting method compared with the midline method. All differences in the preoperative HVAs and IMAs determined by both the midline method and point-connecting methods were significant between the deviated group and subluxated groups (p=0.001). Conclusion The point-connecting method for measuring HVA and IMA in the subluxated first MTPJ may better reflect the severity of a HV deformity with higher reliability than the midline method, and is more useful in patients with DCMO than in patients with proximal chevron metatarsal osteotomy. PMID:26996576

  15. Contactless impedance sensors and their application to flow measurements.

    PubMed

    Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr; Stulík, Karel

    2013-02-27

    The paper provides a critical discussion of the present state of the theory of high-frequency impedance sensors (now mostly called contactless impedance or conductivity sensors), the principal approaches employed in designing impedance flow-through cells and their operational parameters. In addition to characterization of traditional types of impedance sensors, the article is concerned with the use of less common sensors, such as cells with wire electrodes or planar cells. There is a detailed discussion of the effect of the individual operational parameters (width and shape of the electrodes, detection gap, frequency and amplitude of the input signal) on the response of the detector. The most important problems to be resolved in coupling these devices with flow-through measurements in the liquid phase are also discussed. Examples are given of cell designs for continuous flow and flow-injection analyses and of detection systems for miniaturized liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. New directions for the use of these sensors in molecular biology and chemical reactors and some directions for future development are outlined.

  16. Radiation belt measurements strategy for space weather applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdarie, Sebastien; Maget, Vincent; Lazaro, Didier; Daglis, Yannis; Sandberg, Ingmar

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the EU-FP7 MAARBLE project, the Salammbô code and an ensemble Kalman filter is being used to reproduce the electron radiation belt dynamics during storms. One of the most widely used and reliable methods of assessing a data assimilation scheme is that of the twin experiments. The identical-twin experiments consist in a numerical procedure where synthetic data can be generated by the model to which data assimilation is applied, subject to a specified stochastic forcing term. The data with assigned errors are then evaluated for their effectiveness in obtaining optimal state estimates. The convergence of the unassimilated model fields from the second run towards those of the first run ("true" state) can then be measured. This set up is used here to define what is the minimum data required and along which orbits to still ensure a good estimate of the true state. The number of data being assimilated (cadence as well as distinct orbits) will be considered as a parameter such as to check data assimilation tool performance in each case. This analysis will be very useful in the case of optimizing a space surveillance system for ionizing particles. MAARBLE has received fundings from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-.2010-1, SP1 Cooperation, Collaborative project) under grant agreement n284520. This paper reflects only the authors' views and the European Union is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

  17. Measurement and application of bidirectional reflectance distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Fei; Li, Lin; Lu, Chengwen

    2016-10-01

    When a beam of light with certain intensity and distribution reaches the surface of a material, the distribution of the diffused light is related to the incident angle, the receiving angle, the wavelength of the light and the types of the material. Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) is a method to describe this distribution. For an optical system, the optical and mechanical materials' BRDF are unique, and if we want to calculate stray light of the system we should know the correct BRDF data of the whole materials. There are fundamental significances in the area of space remote sensor where BRDF is needed in the precise radiation calibration. It is also important in the military field where BRDF can be used in the object identification and target tracking, etc. In this paper, 11 kinds of aerospace materials' BRDF are measured and more than 310,000 groups of BRDF data are achieved , and also a BRDF database is established in China for the first time. With the BRDF data of the database, we can create the detector model, build the stray light radiation surface model in the stray light analysis software. In this way, the stray radiation on the detector can be calculated correctly.

  18. Application of Green Net Metropolitan Product to Measure ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has been increasingly incorporating the concept of sustainability in its research programs. One facet of this research is the quantitative assessment of the sustainability of urban systems in light of several multidisciplinary sustainability metrics. In this work, we explore the estimation of economic measure of sustainability for Chicago Metropolitan Area (CMA) based on Green Net Metropolitan Product (GNMP), by adapting the economic models of sustainability at the macroeconomic level to regional sustainability. GNMP aims at amending the limitations of Net Domestic Product (NDP), a classical indicator of economic wellbeing, which fails to account for the degradation of environmental and natural resources caused by economic activities. We collect data for computing GNMP from publicly available secondary sources on variables such as gross metropolitan product, net income, emissions, solid waste, etc. In estimating GNMP for CMA, we have accounted for the damage costs associated with pollution emissions based on marginal damage values obtained from the literature using benefit transfers method. In addition, we attempt at accounting for the marginal value of depletion of natural resources in the CMA in terms of water depletion and changes in urban ecosystems such as green spaces. We account for the marginal damage cost associated with solid waste generation. It is expected the preliminary results of this exploration se

  19. Practical measurement of affordability: an application to medicines.

    PubMed

    Niëns, L M; Van de Poel, E; Cameron, A; Ewen, M; Laing, R; Brouwer, W B F

    2012-03-01

    To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. The proposed methods--catastrophic and impoverishment methods--rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a country's income distribution and absolute level of income. The catastrophic method quantifies the proportion of the population whose resources would be catastrophically reduced by spending on a given medicine; the impoverishment method estimates the proportion of the population that would be pushed below the poverty line by procuring a given medicine. These methods are illustrated by calculating the affordability of glibenclamide, an antidiabetic drug, in India and Indonesia. The results were validated by comparing them with the results obtained by using household micro data for India and Indonesia. When accurate aggregate data are available, the proposed methods offer a practical way to obtain informative and accurate estimates of affordability. Their results are very similar to those obtained with household micro data analysis and are easily compared across countries. The catastrophic and impoverishment methods, based on macro data, can provide a suitable estimate of medicine affordability when the household level micro data needed to carry out more sophisticated studies are not available. Their usefulness depends on the availability of accurate aggregated data.

  20. Contactless Impedance Sensors and Their Application to Flow Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Opekar, František; Tůma, Petr; Štulík, Karel

    2013-01-01

    The paper provides a critical discussion of the present state of the theory of high-frequency impedance sensors (now mostly called contactless impedance or conductivity sensors), the principal approaches employed in designing impedance flow-through cells and their operational parameters. In addition to characterization of traditional types of impedance sensors, the article is concerned with the use of less common sensors, such as cells with wire electrodes or planar cells. There is a detailed discussion of the effect of the individual operational parameters (width and shape of the electrodes, detection gap, frequency and amplitude of the input signal) on the response of the detector. The most important problems to be resolved in coupling these devices with flow-through measurements in the liquid phase are also discussed. Examples are given of cell designs for continuous flow and flow-injection analyses and of detection systems for miniaturized liquid chromatography and capillary electrophoresis. New directions for the use of these sensors in molecular biology and chemical reactors and some directions for future development are outlined. PMID:23447011

  1. The Health Utilities Index (HUI): concepts, measurement properties and applications.

    PubMed

    Horsman, John; Furlong, William; Feeny, David; Torrance, George

    2003-10-16

    This is a review of the Health Utilities Index (HUI) multi-attribute health-status classification systems, and single- and multi-attribute utility scoring systems. HUI refers to both HUI Mark 2 (HUI2) and HUI Mark 3 (HUI3) instruments. The classification systems provide compact but comprehensive frameworks within which to describe health status. The multi-attribute utility functions provide all the information required to calculate single-summary scores of health-related quality of life (HRQL) for each health state defined by the classification systems. The use of HUI in clinical studies for a wide variety of conditions in a large number of countries is illustrated. HUI provides comprehensive, reliable, responsive and valid measures of health status and HRQL for subjects in clinical studies. Utility scores of overall HRQL for patients are also used in cost-utility and cost-effectiveness analyses. Population norm data are available from numerous large general population surveys. The widespread use of HUI facilitates the interpretation of results and permits comparisons of disease and treatment outcomes, and comparisons of long-term sequelae at the local, national and international levels.

  2. The application of flow cytophotometry in measurements of cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ostrowski, K; Watson, J V; Barnard, P J; Barnard, E A; Thomas, K; Freedman, L; de Stavola, B

    1986-01-01

    A common approach to the study of cell substrate interactions is the measurement of the attachment of cells to different substrates or to cultured cell layers. The evaluation of attachment is made either by scintillation counting of previously labelled adhering cells, or by light microscopy using the criterion of cell shape, sometimes refined by automatic image analysis. These methods have many drawbacks. This paper suggests the use of fluorescence-activated flow cytophotometry, (FC) which yields direct counts of the non-adhering cells. These "free" cells are removed after completion of the adhesion experiment from the microtitre plate wells. An internal standard, in the form of fluorescent polystyrene beads is added, allowing evaluation of the percentage of cells adhering to the well walls. Flow cytophotometry then produces data based on the analysis of large populations of cells. Unequivocal discrimination is obtained between the counted cells and counted fluorescent beads eliminating counting errors. The results can be processed on line by computer. A suspension of mouse splenocytes was used for the evaluation of the overall error of the method arising from inaccuracies in pipetting, interference of glutaraldehyde with ethidium bromide (EB) staining and instrumental error. Each adhesion experiment was terminated by staining and post-fixation and it was established that this introduces no change in cell counting, in comparison with the original unfixed cells. Prefixation, however, quenches the EB staining and would interfere with the counting procedure. The overall standard error of the technique was found to be 5%-10%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Short course on St-02 applications of isotope dilutions and isotopic measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, P.

    1998-01-05

    This short course includes information on these topics and subtopics: (I) Nuclear Properties: (A) Historic roots; (B) Nomenclature; (C) Nuclear Stability and abundance; (D) Uses of isotopic techniques; (II) Instrumentation: (A) Sources; (B) Mass resolving elements; (C) Detectors; (III) Making Isotopic Measurements by ICP-MS: (A) Deadtime Correction; (B) Mass Discrimination; (C) Signal /Noise considerations; (IV) Applications and examples: (A) Isotope dilution; (B) Double Spike; (C) Biological Application; (D) Environmental Application; (E) Geological.

  4. Comparison of Various Similarity Measures for Average Image Hash in Mobile Phone Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farisa Chaerul Haviana, Sam; Taufik, Muhammad

    2017-04-01

    One of the main issue in Content Based Image Retrieval (CIBR) is similarity measures for resulting image hashes. The main key challenge is to find the most benefits distance or similarity measures for calculating the similarity in term of speed and computing costs, specially under limited computing capabilities device like mobile phone. This study we utilize twelve most common and popular distance or similarity measures technique implemented in mobile phone application, to be compared and studied. The results show that all similarity measures implemented in this study was perform equally under mobile phone application. This gives more possibilities for method combinations to be implemented for image retrieval.

  5. Quality of life measures in health care. I: Applications and issues in assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R.; Fletcher, A.; Gore, S.; Jones, D.; Spiegelhalter, D.; Cox, D.

    1992-01-01

    Many clinicians remain unsure of the relevance of measuring quality of life to their clinical practice. In health economics quality of life measures have become the standard means of assessing the results of health care interventions and, more controversially, the means of prioritising funding; but they have many other applications. This article--the first of three on measuring quality of life--reviews the instruments available and their application in screening programmes, audit, health care research, and clinical trials. Using the appropriate instrument is essential if outcome measures are to be valid and clinically meaningful. Images p1076-a PMID:1467690

  6. Measuring Mental Health Recovery: An Application of Rasch Modeling to the Consumer Recovery Measure.

    PubMed

    Lusczakoski, Kathryn Kd; Olmos-Gallo, P Antonio; Milnor, William; McKinney, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    As the need for recovery-oriented outcomes increases, it is critical to understand how numeric recovery scores are developed. In the current article, the modern Rasch modeling techniques were applied to establish numeric scores of consumers' perceptions of recovery. A sample of 1,973 adult consumers at a community-based mental health center (57.5% male; average age of 47 years old) completed the 15-item Consumer Recovery Measure. A confirmatory factor analysis revealed the unidimensional nature of the Consumer Recovery Measure and provided construct validity evidence. The Rasch analysis displayed that the items produced acceptable model fit, reliability, and identified the difficulty of the items. The conclusion emphasizes the value of Rasch modeling regarding the measurement of recovery and its relevance to consumer-derived assessments in the clinical decision-making process.

  7. 10 CFR 455.110 - Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant application submittals for technical assistance and... Grant application submittals for technical assistance and energy conservation measures. (a) Each... coordinating agencies for financial assistance for technical assistance programs shall include the...

  8. Measuring Foster Parent Potential: Casey Foster Parent Inventory-Applicant Version

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orme, John G.; Cuddeback, Gary S.; Buehler, Cheryl; Cox, Mary Ellen; Le Prohn, Nicole S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The Casey Foster Applicant Inventory-Applicant Version (CFAI-A) is a new standardized self-report measure designed to assess the potential to foster parent successfully. The CFAI-A is described, and results concerning its psychometric properties are presented. Method: Data from a sample of 304 foster mothers from 35 states are analyzed.…

  9. Collector design for measuring high intensity time variant sprinkler application rates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peak water application rate in relation to soil water infiltration rate and soil surface storage capacity is important in the design of center pivot sprinkler irrigation systems for efficient irrigation and soil erosion control. Measurement of application rates of center pivot irrigation systems ha...

  10. Measuring antimicrobial use in hospitalized patients: a systematic review of available measures applicable to paediatrics.

    PubMed

    Fortin, E; Fontela, P S; Manges, A R; Platt, R W; Buckeridge, D L; Quach, C

    2014-06-01

    The optimal measure to use for surveillance of antimicrobial usage in hospital settings, especially when including paediatric populations, is unknown. This systematic review of literature aims to list, define and compare existing measures of antimicrobial use that have been applied in settings that included paediatric inpatients, to complement surveillance of resistance. We identified cohort studies and repeated point-prevalence studies presenting data on antimicrobial use in populations of inpatients or validations/comparisons of antimicrobial measures through a systematic search of literature using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and LILACS (1975-2011) and citation tracking. Study populations needed to include hospitalized paediatric patients. Two reviewers independently extracted data on study characteristics and results. Overall, 3878 records were screened and 79 studies met selection criteria. Twenty-six distinct measures were found, the most frequently used being defined daily doses (DDD)/patient-days and exposed patients/patients. Only two studies compared different measures quantitatively, showing (i) a positive correlation between proportion of exposed patients and antimicrobial-days/patient-days and (ii) a strong correlation between doses/patient-days and agent-days/patient-days (r = 0.98), with doses/patient-days correlating more with resistance rates (r = 0.80 versus 0.55). The measure of antimicrobial use that best predicts antimicrobial resistance prevalence and rates, for surveillance purposes, has still not been identified; additional evidence on this topic is a necessity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The Life Cycle of an OpenStudio Measure: Development, Testing, Distribution, and Application

    SciTech Connect

    2016-08-12

    An OpenStudio Measure is a script that can manipulate an OpenStudio model and associated data to apply energy conservation measures (ECMs), run supplemental simulations, or visualize simulation results. The OpenStudio software development kit (SDK) and accessibility of the Ruby scripting language makes measure authorship accessible to both software developers and energy modelers. This paper discusses the life cycle of an OpenStudio Measure from development, testing, and distribution, to application.

  12. Application of electronic nose for industrial odors and gaseous emissions measurement and monitoring--An overview.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sharvari; Bandyopadhyay, Rajib; Bhattacharyya, Nabarun; Pandey, R A; Jana, Arun

    2015-11-01

    The present review evaluates the key modules of the electronic nose, a biomimetic system, with specific examples of applications to industrial emissions monitoring and measurement. Regulations concerning the odor control are becoming very strict, due to ever mounting environmental pollution and its subsequent consequences and it is advantageous to employ real time measurement system. In this perspective, systems like the electronic nose are an improved substitute for assessing the complex industrial emissions over other analytical techniques (odorant concentration measurement) and olfactometry (odor concentration measurement). Compared to tools like gas chromatography, electronic nose systems are easy to develop, are non-destructive and useful for both laboratory and on field purposes. Although there has been immense development of more sensitive and selective sensor arrays and advanced data mining techniques, there have been limited reports on the application of electronic nose for the measurement of industrial emissions. The current study sheds light on the practical applicability of electronic nose for the effective industrial odor and gaseous emissions measurement. The applications categorization is based on gaseous pollutants released from the industries. Calibration and calibration transfer methodologies have been discussed to enhance the applicability of electronic nose system. Further, industrial gas grab sampling technique is reviewed. Lastly, the electronic mucosa system, which has the ability to overcome the flaws of electronic nose system, has been examined. The review ends with the concluding remarks describing the pros and cons of artificial olfaction technique for the industrial applications.

  13. Thermographic-phosphor temperature measurements: Commercial and defense-related applications

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, B.W.; Turley, W.D.; Allison, S.W.

    1994-06-01

    This paper is a review of a diverse set of applications of the thermographic-phosphor (TP) method for measuring temperatures remotely. The TP method is useful in hostile and/or inaccessible environments where no other known method works. It is highly accurate, nonintrusive, durable, conceptually simple, covers an unprecedented temperature range (0 K to >1200 K), can measure temperature at a single point or over an entire surface, and can make static, steady-state, or very high speed dynamic measurements. The TP method can also be used to make leadless, remotely interrogated heat-flux gauges that can nonintrusively measure spatial distributions of heat flux over arbitrarily large areas with high resolution. The applications described include measurements in gas centrifuges, motors, variable-area ejectors, rotors and stators in gas turbines, and others. The authors also briefly discuss heat-flux gauges and their applications.

  14. Noise analysis and performance comparison of low current measurement systems for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Dongsoo Kim; Goldstein, B; Wei Tang; Sigworth, F J; Culurciello, E

    2013-02-01

    In this paper, we report on the noise analysis of low current measurement systems for biomedical applications and their fundamental limits. We analyzed resistive feedback, capacitive feedback and current amplifier circuits for low current measurement systems. Detailed noise analysis for different biomedical applications are presented and matched with measurement data using a 0.5-μm fabrication process. Based on the theoretical analysis and the corresponding measurement results, the capacitive feedback system provides better noise performance for the measurement of low current than the others. The capacitive feedback circuit is capable of measuring 750 fA RMS at a 10 kHz sampling rate, whereas the resistive feedback provides 4 pA and the current conveyor provides 600 pA at the same bandwidth. This paper provides design guidelines to maximize the performance of low current measuring system for biomedical instrumentation and to provide the best performance available with CMOS technologies.

  15. Sequence of inequalities among fuzzy mean difference divergence measures and their applications.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Vijay Prakash; Ohlan, Anshu

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a sequence of fuzzy mean difference divergence measures. The validity of these fuzzy mean difference divergence measures is proved axiomatically. In addition, it introduces a sequence of inequalities among some of these fuzzy mean difference divergence measures. The applications of proposed fuzzy mean difference divergence measures in the context of pattern recognition have been presented using a numerical example. It is shown that the proposed fuzzy mean difference divergence measures are well suited to use with linguistic variables. Finally, on establishing inequalities, we find that our proposed measures are computationally much more efficient.

  16. Dual redundant arm system operational quality measures and their applications - Static measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1990-01-01

    The authors present dual-arm system static operational quality measures which quantify the efficiency and capability of a dual-arm system in generating Cartesian velocities and static forces. First, they define and analyze the kinematic interactions between the two arms incurred by the various modes of dual-arm cooperation, such as transport, assembly, and grasping modes of cooperation, and specify the kinematic constraints imposed on individual arms in Cartesian space due to the kinematic interactions. Dual-arm static manipulability is presented. Finally, dual-arm operational quality is scaled by a task-oriented operational quality measure (TOQs) obtained by the comparison between the desired and actual static manipulabilities. TOQs is used in the optimization of dual-arm joint configurations. Simulation results are shown.

  17. Performance measurement and modeling of component applications in a high performance computing environment : a case study.

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, Robert C.; Ray, Jaideep; Malony, A.; Shende, Sameer; Trebon, Nicholas D.

    2003-11-01

    We present a case study of performance measurement and modeling of a CCA (Common Component Architecture) component-based application in a high performance computing environment. We explore issues peculiar to component-based HPC applications and propose a performance measurement infrastructure for HPC based loosely on recent work done for Grid environments. A prototypical implementation of the infrastructure is used to collect data for a three components in a scientific application and construct performance models for two of them. Both computational and message-passing performance are addressed.

  18. Dual redundant arm system operational quality measures and their applications - Dynamic measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1990-01-01

    Dual-arm dynamic operation quality measures are presented which quantify the efficiency and capability of generating Cartesian accelerations by two cooperative arms based on the analysis of dual-arm dynamic interactions. Dual-arm dynamic manipulability is defined as the efficiency of generating Cartesian accelerations under the dynamic and kinematic interactions between individual arms and an object under manipulation. The analysis of dual-arm dynamic interactions is based on the so-called Cartesian space agent model of an arm, which represents an individual arm as a force source acting upon a point mass with the effective Cartesian space arm dynamics and an environment or an object under manipulation. The Cartesian space agent model of an arm makes it possible to derive the dynamic and kinematic constraints involved in the transport, assembly and grasping modes of dual-arm cooperation. A task-oriented operational quality measure, (TOQd) is defined by evaluating dual-arm dynamic manipulability in terms of given task requirements. TOQd is used in dual-arm joint configuration optimization. Simulation results are shown. A complete set of forward dynamic equations for a dual-arm system is derived, and dual-arm dynamic operational quality measures for various modes of dual-arm cooperation allowing sliding contacts are established.

  19. Dual redundant arm system operational quality measures and their applications - Dynamic measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Sukhan; Kim, Sungbok

    1990-01-01

    Dual-arm dynamic operation quality measures are presented which quantify the efficiency and capability of generating Cartesian accelerations by two cooperative arms based on the analysis of dual-arm dynamic interactions. Dual-arm dynamic manipulability is defined as the efficiency of generating Cartesian accelerations under the dynamic and kinematic interactions between individual arms and an object under manipulation. The analysis of dual-arm dynamic interactions is based on the so-called Cartesian space agent model of an arm, which represents an individual arm as a force source acting upon a point mass with the effective Cartesian space arm dynamics and an environment or an object under manipulation. The Cartesian space agent model of an arm makes it possible to derive the dynamic and kinematic constraints involved in the transport, assembly and grasping modes of dual-arm cooperation. A task-oriented operational quality measure, (TOQd) is defined by evaluating dual-arm dynamic manipulability in terms of given task requirements. TOQd is used in dual-arm joint configuration optimization. Simulation results are shown. A complete set of forward dynamic equations for a dual-arm system is derived, and dual-arm dynamic operational quality measures for various modes of dual-arm cooperation allowing sliding contacts are established.

  20. A statistical model for measurement error that incorporates variation over time in the target measure, with application to nutritional epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Laurence S; Midthune, Douglas; Dodd, Kevin W; Carroll, Raymond J; Kipnis, Victor

    2015-11-30

    Most statistical methods that adjust analyses for measurement error assume that the target exposure T is a fixed quantity for each individual. However, in many applications, the value of T for an individual varies with time. We develop a model that accounts for such variation, describing the model within the framework of a meta-analysis of validation studies of dietary self-report instruments, where the reference instruments are biomarkers. We demonstrate that in this application, the estimates of the attenuation factor and correlation with true intake, key parameters quantifying the accuracy of the self-report instrument, are sometimes substantially modified under the time-varying exposure model compared with estimates obtained under a traditional fixed-exposure model. We conclude that accounting for the time element in measurement error problems is potentially important. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Toward a Set of Internationally Applicable Indicators for Measuring University Internationalization Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This article emphasizes the urgent demand for measurements of university internationalization and proposes a new approach to develop a set of internationally applicable indicators for measuring university internationalization performance. The article looks into existing instruments developed for assessing university internationalization,…

  2. Toward a Set of Internationally Applicable Indicators for Measuring University Internationalization Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    This article emphasizes the urgent demand for measurements of university internationalization and proposes a new approach to develop a set of internationally applicable indicators for measuring university internationalization performance. The article looks into existing instruments developed for assessing university internationalization,…

  3. The Application of Laser Speckle Interferometry to Measure Strain at Elevated Temperatures and Various Loading Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-05-01

    MTL TR 90-23 lAD IAD- A225 583 JILL COPY THE APPLICATION OF LASER SPECKLE INTERFEROMETRY TO MEASURE STRAIN AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES AND VARIOUS...specimen was visable. Then LSI was used to measure further straining in the necking regions. The second question to be answered was whc:’,- cr LSI

  4. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... for technical assistance programs and energy conservation measures, including renewable resource... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111...

  5. The Multi-Center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor: Recent Measurements and Future Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Cutten, Dean R.; Howell, Burgess F.; Hardesty, Robert M.; Tratt, David M.; Darby, Lisa S.

    1999-01-01

    The atmospheric lidar remote sensing groups of NOAA Environmental Technology Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory and NASA Marshall Space Flight Center jointly developed an airborne scanning coherent Doppler Lidar. We describe the system, present recent measurement (including the first wind fields measured within a hurricane using Doppler lidar), and describe prospective instrument improvements and research applications.

  6. Application of an IRT Polytomous Model for Measuring Health Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejada, Antonio J. Rojas; Rojas, Oscar M. Lozano

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Item Response Theory (IRT) has advantages for measuring Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) as opposed to the Classical Tests Theory (CTT). Objectives: To present the results of the application of a polytomous model based on IRT, specifically, the Rating Scale Model (RSM), to measure HRQOL with the EORTC QLQ-C30. Methods: 103…

  7. Application of an IRT Polytomous Model for Measuring Health Related Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tejada, Antonio J. Rojas; Rojas, Oscar M. Lozano

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Item Response Theory (IRT) has advantages for measuring Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) as opposed to the Classical Tests Theory (CTT). Objectives: To present the results of the application of a polytomous model based on IRT, specifically, the Rating Scale Model (RSM), to measure HRQOL with the EORTC QLQ-C30. Methods: 103…

  8. Validation of a Smartphone Application Measuring Motor Function in Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, Will; Evans, Andrew; Williams, David R

    2016-04-02

    Measurement of motor function is critical to the assessment and management of Parkinson's disease. Ambulatory motor assessment has the potential to provide a glimpse of the patient's clinical state beyond the consultation. We custom-designed a smartphone application that quantitatively measures hand dexterity and hypothesized that this can give an indication of a patient's overall motor function. The aims of this study were to (i) validate this smartphone application against MDS-UPDRS motor assessment (MDS-UPDRS-III) and the two-target tapping test; (ii) generate a prediction model for MDS-UPDRS-III; (iii) assess repeatability of our smartphone application and (iv) examine compliance and user-satisfaction of this application. 103 patients with Parkinson's disease were recruited from two movement disorders clinics. After initial assessment, a group of patients underwent repeat assessment within two weeks. Patients were invited to use the smartphone application at home over three days, followed by a survey to assess their experience. Significant correlation between key smartphone application test parameters and MDS-UPDRS-III (r = 0.281-0.608, p < 0.0001) was demonstrated. A prediction model based on these parameters accounted for 52.3% of variation in MDS-UPDRS-III (R2 = 0.523, F(4,93) = 25.48, p < 0.0001). Forty-eight patients underwent repeat assessment under identical clinical conditions. Repeatability of key smartphone application tests parameters and predicted MDS-UPDRS-III was moderate to strong (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.584-0.763, p < 0.0001). The follow-up survey identified that our patients were very comfortable with the smartphone application and mobile technology. Our smartphone application demonstrated satisfactory repeatability and validity when measured against MDS-UPDRS-III. Its performance is acceptable considering our smartphone application measures hand dexterity only.

  9. The Enhanced-model Ladar Wind Sensor and Its Application in Planetary Wind Velocity Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soreide, D. C.; Mcgann, R. L.; Erwin, L. L.; Morris, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    For several years we have been developing an optical air-speed sensor that has a clear application as a meteorological wind-speed sensor for the Mars landers. This sensor has been developed for aircraft use to replace the familiar, pressure-based Pitot probe. Our approach utilizes a new concept in the laser-based optical measurement of air velocity (the Enhanced-Mode Ladar), which allows us to make velocity measurements with significantly lower laser power than conventional methods. The application of the Enhanced-Mode Ladar to measuring wind speeds in the martian atmosphere is discussed.

  10. Multiplexed protein measurement: technologies and applications of protein and antibody arrays

    PubMed Central

    Kingsmore, Stephen F.

    2006-01-01

    The ability to measure the abundance of many proteins precisely and simultaneously in experimental samples is an important, recent advance for static and dynamic, as well as descriptive and predictive, biological research. The value of multiplexed protein measurement is being established in applications such as comprehensive proteomic surveys, studies of protein networks and pathways, validation of genomic discoveries and clinical biomarker development. As standards do not yet exist that bridge all of these applications, the current recommended best practice for validation of results is to approach study design in an iterative process and to integrate data from several measurement technologies. This review describes current and emerging multiplexed protein measurement technologies and their applications, and discusses the remaining challenges in this field. PMID:16582876

  11. Plutonium Measurements with a Fast-Neutron Multiplicity Counter for Nuclear Safeguards Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer L. Dolan; Marek Flaska; Alexis Poitrasson-Riviere; Andreas Enqvist; Paolo Peerani; David L. Chichester; Sara A. Pozzi

    2014-11-01

    Measurements were performed at the Joint Research Centre in Ispra, Italy to field test a fast-neutron multiplicity counter developed at the University of Michigan. The measurements allowed the illustration of the system’s photon discrimination abilities, efficiency when measuring neutron multiplicity, ability to characterize 240Pueff mass, and performance relative to a currently deployed neutron coincidence counter. This work is motivated by the need to replace and improve upon 3He neutron detection systems for nuclear safeguards applications.

  12. Analyses and applications of pressure, flow rate, and temperature measurements during a perforating run. [Measurement while perforating

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, S.M. ); Ayestaran, L.C. )

    1991-02-01

    Perforating technology has undergone significant advances during the last decade. Tubing-conveyed perforating, underbalanced perforating, high-shot-density guns, better shaped charges, and improved gun systems have contributed to safer operations and improved productivity of the perforated completions. A recent development described in this paper is a perforating tool that makes real-time downhole measurements (including pressure, flow rate, temperature, gamma ray, casing-collar locator (CCL), and cable tension) during a perforating run and can selectively fire a number of guns at different depths or times. In addition to providing better control of the perforating process, the simultaneous downhole measurements can provide in a single trip a production log, conventional well tests before and after perforating, and a fill-up or slug test soon after perforating for underbalanced conditions. Thus, the completion can be evaluated in real time and any needed remedial reperforating can be performed while the gun is still in the hole. Other applications include limited-entry perforating, monitoring of bottomhole pressure (BHP) during minifracture jobs, better depth control with a gamma ray detector, fluid-level monitoring, and underbalance control. The applications of these measurements, with field data obtained with the Measurement While Perforating (MWP{sup SM}) tool, are the subject of this paper. Examples show the capabilities and the versatility of the MWP tool.

  13. The Exicor DUV birefringence measurement system and its application to measuring lithography-grade CaF2 lens blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoliang; Griffiths, C. O.; Rockwell, Rick R.; List, Jennifer; Mark, Doug

    2003-11-01

    Optical lithography continues its transition to shorter wavelengths to support the semiconductor industry"s production of faster microchips to meet evolving market demands. The next step for optical lithography is likely to use the F2 excimer laser at 157.63 nm (157 nm,according to the industry" s naming convention).At 157 nm, among the limited number of fluoride crystals with acceptable optical properties calcium fluoride is the only practical lens material for step and scan systems due to its readiness for mass production. Since the discovery of intrinsic birefringence in CaF2 at deep ultraviolet (DUV)wavelengths,the optical lithography industry has developed a critical interest in measuring birefringence at 157 nm. In response to this need, we have developed a DUV birefringence measurement system. In this article,we describe the working principle, system construction, technical performance and selected applications for measuring lithography grade calcium fluoride lens blanks at DUV wavelengths.

  14. Determination of a non-measurable quantity using information from calculations and experimental measurements: application to the damage rate determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourganel, Stéphane; Nimal, Jean-Claude

    2017-09-01

    This article presents a method dedicated to the determination of the best value of a required quantity which is estimated by calculation, using information closely related, obtained by measurements and calculations. This best value, called thereafter the "target", is not measurable in most cases. DPA and high energy neutron fluence (typically higher than 1 MeV) involved in vessel surveillance programs, using measurements of dosimeters, are some examples of application of this methodology. This methodology is applied without spectrum adjustment, but the spectrum shape is implicitly taken into account. In this article, an example is presented based on the FLUOLE-2 experimental program, which is developed and conducted by CEA. Neutron information is derived from a set of different kinds of neutron dosimeters. The objective is to estimate the best value of reaction rate values for each kind of dosimeters. All calculations are carried out using TRIPOLI-4 3D pointwise Monte Carlo code, and DARWIN/PEPIN2 depletion code.

  15. L-statistics for Repeated Measurements Data With Application to Trimmed Means, Quantiles and Tolerance Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Assaad, Houssein I.; Choudhary, Pankaj K.

    2016-01-01

    The L-statistics form an important class of estimators in nonparametric statistics. Its members include trimmed means and sample quantiles and functions thereof. This article is devoted to theory and applications of L-statistics for repeated measurements data, wherein the measurements on the same subject are dependent and the measurements from different subjects are independent. This article has three main goals: (a) Show that the L-statistics are asymptotically normal for repeated measurements data. (b) Present three statistical applications of this result, namely, location estimation using trimmed means, quantile estimation and construction of tolerance intervals. (c) Obtain a Bahadur representation for sample quantiles. These results are generalizations of similar results for independently and identically distributed data. The practical usefulness of these results is illustrated by analyzing a real data set involving measurement of systolic blood pressure. The properties of the proposed point and interval estimators are examined via simulation.

  16. Measurements of Secondary Electron Yield From Materials With Application to Depressed Collectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-03-22

    FUNDING NUMBERS Measurements of Secondary Electron Yield from Materials with Application to F49620-1!168011.- Depressed Collectors 4 (•|- 9t, 2 1 6...under the auspices of a follow-on erant. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Secondary electron emission, depressed collectors, high power microwaves...Yield from Materials with Application to Depressed Collectors" Final Technical Report 1 January 2001 - 31 December 2004 22 March 2005 Submitted by

  17. Sweetening Android Lemon Markets: Measuring and Curbing Malware in Application Marketplaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-08

    Sweetening Android Lemon Markets: Measuring and Curbing Malware in Application Marketplaces Timothy Vidas and Nicolas Christin...Performance Evaluation Minimal network overhead is crucial as many carriers now have limited data plans . Currently, a typical RSA key found in the...Felt et al. also provide a survey of much of the mobile malware discovered form 2009 to 2011 in [20]. In [34], Vidas et al. observe application

  18. Local Measurement of Flap Oxygen Saturation: An Application of Visible Light Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nasseri, Nassim; Kleiser, Stefan; Reidt, Sascha; Wolf, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to develop and test a new device (OxyVLS) to measure tissue oxygen saturation by visible light spectroscopy independently of the optical pathlength and scattering. Its local applicability provides the possibility of real time application in flap reconstruction surgery. We tested OxyVLS in a liquid phantom with optical properties similar to human tissue. Our results were in good agreement with a conventional near infrared spectroscopy device.

  19. Electro-optic and holographic measurement techniques for the atmospheric sciences. [considering spacecraft simulation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, W. W., Jr.; Lemons, J. F.; Kurtz, R. L.; Liu, H.-K.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive examination is made of recent advanced research directions in the applications of electro-optical and holographic instrumentations and methods to atmospheric sciences problems. In addition, an overview is given of the in-house research program for environmental and atmospheric measurements with emphasis on particulates systems. Special treatment is made of the instrument methods and applications work in the areas of laser scattering spectrometers and pulsed holography sizing systems. Selected engineering tests data on space simulation chamber programs are discussed.

  20. Review of high-power ultrasound-industrial applications and measurement methods.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Gerald; Gachagan, Anthony; Mutasa, Tapiwa

    2014-03-01

    Applications involving high-power ultrasound are expanding rapidly as ultrasonic intensification opportunities are identified in new fields. This is facilitated through new technological developments and an evolution of current systems to tackle challenging problems. It is therefore important to continually update both the scientific and commercial communities on current system performance and limitations. To achieve this objective, this paper addresses two key aspects of high-power ultrasonic systems. In the first part, the review of high-power applications focuses on industrial applications and documents the developing technology from its early cleaning applications through to the advanced sonochemistry, cutting, and water treatment applications used today. The second part provides a comprehensive overview of measurement techniques used in conjunction with high-power ultrasonic systems. This is an important and evolving field which enables design and process engineers to optimize the behavior and/or operation of key metrics of system performance, such as field distribution or cavitation intensity.

  1. Pressure application measurement (PAM): a novel behavioural technique for measuring hypersensitivity in a rat model of joint pain.

    PubMed

    Barton, Nicola J; Strickland, Iain T; Bond, Susan M; Brash, Harry M; Bate, Simon T; Wilson, Alex W; Chessell, Iain P; Reeve, Alison J; McQueen, Daniel S

    2007-06-15

    Chronic joint pain affects physical well being and can lead to severe psychological and social problems, therefore successful long-term management is highly sought-after. No current behavioural measures of pain used in pre-clinical models mimic the clinical dolorimeter, which provides an objective measure of joint hypersensitivity. In this study we aim to use a novel behavioural readout alongside an established measure to mimic the multifactorial measurements taken in the clinic. Using the pressure application measurement (PAM) device a gradually increasing squeeze was applied across the knee joint of rats until the animal gave an indication of pain or discomfort. PAM and the incapacitance tester were used to detect joint hypersensitivity in a well-established rodent model of adjuvant-induced arthritis. Subsequently, the analgesic effects of prednisolone (1, 3 or 10 mg kg(-1)), morphine (3 mg kg(-1)) and celecoxib (15 mg kg(-1)) were assessed. Both PAM and the incapacitance tester detected a reversal of hypersensitivity 1h post-drug administration. Furthermore, the two readouts were highly correlated, and power analysis indicated that PAM was highly reproducible. In conclusion, PAM provides a novel, accurate behavioural tool for detecting a primary mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of chronic inflammatory joint pain.

  2. Applications of remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential applications of remote sensing technology to the study of coastal marine environments are reviewed, emphasizing water quality and biological measurements. Parameters measurable by airborne or spaceborne remote sensors include particulates, measured by visual or multispectral photography, chlorophyll a, measured by the Ocean Color Scanner or Coastal Zone Color Scanner, temperature distributions, by IR or microwave sensors, and salinity, by means of microwave radiometers. Research projects in which wide area synoptic or repetitive remote sensing can make a major contribution include the study of estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, marine pollutant transport, marine phytoplankton dynamics and ocean fronts.

  3. VCM automated 3-D measurement system: theory, application, and performance evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Hakim, Sabry F.; Pizzi, Nicolino J.; Westmore, David B.

    1992-03-01

    The vision-based coordinate measurement (VCM) automated measurement system has been under development at the National Research Council Canada for several years. The system, which is a multicamera passive system, combines the principles of stereo vision, photogrammetry, knowledge-based techniques, and object-oriented design to provide precise coordinate and dimension measurements of parts for applications such as those found in the aerospace and automobile industries. The system may also be used for tracking or positioning of parts and digitization of targeted objects. Description of the system, the techniques employed for calibration, CAD-based feature extraction and measurement, and performance evaluation are presented.

  4. [Measurement of human body fat by means of gravimetry. Application of Archimedes' principle].

    PubMed

    Dettwiler, W; Ribordy, M; Donath, A; Scherrer, J R

    1978-12-02

    The weighing of the human body under water is an application of Archimedes' law. Fat being lighter than water or than the structures of lean body mass, body fat can be measured by determining the specific gravity of the human body; that is, by underwater weighing. Body fat has been determined in an "ideal" sample of 14 men and 23 women, all aged 20 years. Testing against a reference measure of body fat makes it possible to test the validity of some anthropometric measurements and of some indices of obesity. These indices offer no advantages over anthropometric measurements.

  5. Microcalorimetric assays for measuring cell growth and metabolic activity: methodology and applications.

    PubMed

    Braissant, O; Bachmann, A; Bonkat, G

    2015-04-01

    Isothermal microcalorimetry measures the heat released or consumed by physical or chemical processes. Metabolic activity releases heat that can be measured. However the calorimetric signal can be difficult for new users to interpret. This paper compares microcalorimetry to other techniques and reviews its application to different fields where microbiological activity is important. We also describe different ways to analyze the data and translate it into meaningful (micro)biological equivalents. This paper aims at providing non-specialist reader the tools to understand how isothermal microcalorimetry can be used for microbiological applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Precision neutron flux measurements and applications using the Alpha Gamma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eamon; Alpha Gamma; BL2 Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The Alpha Gamma device is a totally-absorbing 10 B neutron detector designed to measure the absolute detection efficiency of a thin-film lithium neutron monitor on a monoenergetic neutron beam. The detector has been shown to measure neutron fluence with an absolute accuracy of 0.06%. This capability has been used to perform the first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n , t) 4He cross section at sub-thermal energy, improve the neutron fluence determination in a past beam neutron lifetime measurement by a factor of five, and is being used to calibrate the neutron monitors for use in the upcoming beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2 (NIST Beam Lifetime 2). The principle of the measurement method will presented and the applications will be discussed. We would like to acknowledge support of this research through the NSF-PHY-1068712 grant as well as the NIST Precision Measurement Grant program.

  7. Precision neutron flux measurements and applications using the Alpha Gamma device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eamon

    2016-03-01

    The Alpha Gamma device is a totally-absorbing 10 B neutron detector designed to measure the absolute detection efficiency of a thin-film lithium neutron monitor on a monoenergetic neutron beam. The detector has been shown to measure neutron fluence with an absolute accuracy of 0.06%. This capability has been used to perform the first direct, absolute measurement of the 6Li(n,t) 4He cross section at sub-thermal energy, improve the neutron fluence determination in a past beam neutron lifetime measurement by a factor of five, and is being used to calibrate the neutron monitors for use in the upcoming beam neutron lifetime measurement BL2 (NIST Beam Lifetime 2). The principle of the measurement method will presented and the applications will be discussed. We would like to acknowledge support of this research through the NSF-PHY-1068712 Grant as well as the NIST Precision Measurement Grant program.

  8. The use of concept mapping in measurement development and evaluation: Application and future directions.

    PubMed

    Rosas, Scott R; Ridings, John W

    2017-02-01

    The past decade has seen an increase of measurement development research in social and health sciences that featured the use of concept mapping as a core technique. The purpose, application, and utility of concept mapping have varied across this emerging literature. Despite the variety of uses and range of outputs, little has been done to critically review how researchers have approached the application of concept mapping in the measurement development and evaluation process. This article focuses on a review of the current state of practice regarding the use of concept mapping as methodological tool in this process. We systematically reviewed 23 scale or measure development and evaluation studies, and detail the application of concept mapping in the context of traditional measurement development and psychometric testing processes. Although several limitations surfaced, we found several strengths in the contemporary application of the method. We determined concept mapping provides (a) a solid method for establishing content validity, (b) facilitates researcher decision-making, (c) insight into target population perspectives that are integrated a priori, and (d) a foundation for analytical and interpretative choices. Based on these results, we outline how concept mapping can be situated in the measurement development and evaluation processes for new instrumentation.

  9. Utility of the iPhone 4 Gyroscope Application in the Measurement of Wrist Motion.

    PubMed

    Lendner, Nuphar; Wells, Erik; Lavi, Idit; Kwok, Yan Yan; Ho, Pak-Cheong; Wollstein, Ronit

    2017-09-01

    Measurement of wrist range of motion (ROM) is important to all aspects of treatment and rehabilitation of upper extremity conditions. Recently, gyroscopes have been used to measure ROM and may be more precise than manual evaluations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of the iPhone gyroscope application and compare it with use of a goniometer, specifically evaluating its accuracy and ease of use. A cross-sectional study evaluated adult Caucasian participants, with no evidence of wrist pathology. Wrist ROM measurements in 306 wrists using the 2 methods were compared. Demographic information was collected including age, sex, and occupation. Analysis included mixed models and Bland-Altman plots. Wrist motion was similar between the 2 methods. Technical difficulties were encountered with gyroscope use. Age was an independent predictor of ROM. Correct measurement of ROM is critical to guide, compare, and evaluate treatment and rehabilitation of the upper extremity. Inaccurate measurements could mislead the surgeon and harm patient adherence with therapy or surgeon instruction. An application used by the patient could improve adherence but needs to be reliable and easy to use. Evaluation is necessary before utilization of such an application. This study supports revision of the application on the iPhone to improve ease of use.

  10. Functional immunoassay technology (FIT), a new approach for measuring physiological functions: application of FIT to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

    PubMed Central

    Reinhardt, Christopher Peter; Germain, Michael J.; Groman, Ernest V.; Mulhern, Jeffrey G.; Kumar, Rajesh; Vaccaro, Dennis E.

    2008-01-01

    This is the first description of functional immunoassay technology (FIT), which as a diagnostic tool has broad application across the whole spectrum of physiological measurements. In this paper, FIT is used to measure the renal clearance of an ultra low-dose administration of a clinically available contrast reagent for the purpose of obtaining an accurate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Biomarker-based GFR estimates offer convenience, but are not accurate and are often misleading. FIT overcomes previous analytic barriers associated with obtaining an accurate GFR measurement. We present the performance characteristics of this diagnostic test and demonstrate the method by directly comparing GFR values obtained by FIT to those obtained by an FDA approved nuclear test in 20 adults. Two subjects were healthy volunteers and the remaining 18 subjects had diagnosed chronic kidney disease, with 12 being kidney transplant recipients. Measured GFR values were calculated by the classic UV/P method and by the blood clearance method. GFR obtained by FIT and the nuclear test correlated closely over a wide range of GFR values (10.9–102.1 ml·min−1·1.73 m−2). The study demonstrates that FIT-GFR provides an accurate and reproducible measurement. This nonradioactive, immunoassay-based approach offers many advantages, chiefly that most laboratories already have the equipment and trained personnel necessary to run an ELISA, and therefore this important diagnostic measurement can more readily be obtained. The FIT-GFR test can be used throughout the pharmaceutical development pipeline: preclinical and clinical trials. PMID:18768587

  11. Functional immunoassay technology (FIT), a new approach for measuring physiological functions: application of FIT to measure glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, Christopher Peter; Germain, Michael J; Groman, Ernest V; Mulhern, Jeffrey G; Kumar, Rajesh; Vaccaro, Dennis E

    2008-11-01

    This is the first description of functional immunoassay technology (FIT), which as a diagnostic tool has broad application across the whole spectrum of physiological measurements. In this paper, FIT is used to measure the renal clearance of an ultra low-dose administration of a clinically available contrast reagent for the purpose of obtaining an accurate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurement. Biomarker-based GFR estimates offer convenience, but are not accurate and are often misleading. FIT overcomes previous analytic barriers associated with obtaining an accurate GFR measurement. We present the performance characteristics of this diagnostic test and demonstrate the method by directly comparing GFR values obtained by FIT to those obtained by an FDA approved nuclear test in 20 adults. Two subjects were healthy volunteers and the remaining 18 subjects had diagnosed chronic kidney disease, with 12 being kidney transplant recipients. Measured GFR values were calculated by the classic UV/P method and by the blood clearance method. GFR obtained by FIT and the nuclear test correlated closely over a wide range of GFR values (10.9-102.1 ml.min(-1).1.73 m(-2)). The study demonstrates that FIT-GFR provides an accurate and reproducible measurement. This nonradioactive, immunoassay-based approach offers many advantages, chiefly that most laboratories already have the equipment and trained personnel necessary to run an ELISA, and therefore this important diagnostic measurement can more readily be obtained. The FIT-GFR test can be used throughout the pharmaceutical development pipeline: preclinical and clinical trials.

  12. Satellite Measurement of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor: Development and Applications and Applications for the ARM Program

    SciTech Connect

    Brian J. Soden

    2005-01-11

    Upper tropospheric humidity (UTH) measurements from the 6.7 micron channel on GOES (8, 9, 12) and GMS-5 satellites were employed to develop a near real-time UTH product that is now available from the ARM External Data Center (XDC). The UTH product is available in either gridded format (2.0 x 2.0 lat-lon resolution), full-disk pixel resolution, or individual pixel resolution for both the SGP and TWP sites. This product provides the basis for the instrument intercomparison and validation activities (Section 0.2), diurnal analysis and model evaluation (0.3), and cloud lifecycle studies (0.5); and is also an important component of the research proposed here. Full details regarding the retrieval algorithm for the ARM sites can be found in Soden et al. (2004a) and references therein.

  13. Measurement of Productivity and Quality in Non-Marketable Services: With Application to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fare, R.; Grosskopf, S.; Forsund, F. R.; Hayes, K.; Heshmati, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to model and compute productivity, including a measure of quality, of a service which does not have marketable outputs--namely public education at the micro level. This application is a case study for Sweden public schools. Design/methodology/approach: A Malmquist productivity index is employed which allows for multiple…

  14. MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

  15. Computer Science and Technology: Measurement of Interative Computing: Methodology and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Ira W.

    This dissertation reports the development and application of a new methodology for the measurement and evaluation of interactive computing, applied to either the users of an interactive computing system or to the system itself, including the service computer and any communications network through which the service is delivered. The focus is on the…

  16. Measurement of Productivity and Quality in Non-Marketable Services: With Application to Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fare, R.; Grosskopf, S.; Forsund, F. R.; Hayes, K.; Heshmati, A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to model and compute productivity, including a measure of quality, of a service which does not have marketable outputs--namely public education at the micro level. This application is a case study for Sweden public schools. Design/methodology/approach: A Malmquist productivity index is employed which allows for multiple…

  17. Beyond the NAS Parallel Benchmarks: Measuring Dynamic Program Performance and Grid Computing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWijngaart, Rob F.; Biswas, Rupak; Frumkin, Michael; Feng, Huiyu; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The contents include: 1) A brief history of NPB; 2) What is (not) being measured by NPB; 3) Irregular dynamic applications (UA Benchmark); and 4) Wide area distributed computing (NAS Grid Benchmarks-NGB). This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  18. Measuring the Perceived Quality of an AR-Based Learning Application: A Multidimensional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribeanu, Costin; Balog, Alexandru; Iordache, Dragos Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Augmented reality (AR) technologies could enhance learning in several ways. The quality of an AR-based educational platform is a combination of key features that manifests in usability, usefulness, and enjoyment for the learner. In this paper, we present a multidimensional model to measure the quality of an AR-based application as perceived by…

  19. Accuracy of Satellite-Measured Wave Heights in the Australian Region for Wave Power Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meath, Sian E.; Aye, Lu; Haritos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the accuracy of satellite data, which may then be used in wave power applications. The satellite data are compared to data from wave buoys, which are currently considered to be the most accurate of the devices available for measuring wave characteristics. This article presents an analysis of satellite- (Topex/Poseidon) and…

  20. Computer Science and Technology: Measurement of Interative Computing: Methodology and Application.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotton, Ira W.

    This dissertation reports the development and application of a new methodology for the measurement and evaluation of interactive computing, applied to either the users of an interactive computing system or to the system itself, including the service computer and any communications network through which the service is delivered. The focus is on the…

  1. [Application of xidiphone in complex of measures for inflammatory periodontal disease prevention].

    PubMed

    Kolobkova, L N; Nikolaev, I V; Stepanova, E V; Landesman, E O; Koroleva, O V

    2007-01-01

    Investigation of basic biochemical parameters of mixed saliva during sugar and urea tests including application of xidiphone has been carried out. Following parameters--pH, concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphate and fluoride--were measured. It was shown that xidiphone was an universal regulator of acid-base state, calcium-phosphorus an calcium-fluoride homeostasis in oral cavity.

  2. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Applicant Responsibilities-Grants...

  3. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Applicant Responsibilities-Grants...

  4. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Applicant Responsibilities-Grants...

  5. 10 CFR 455.111 - Applicant certifications for technical assistance and energy conservation measure grants to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... energy conservation measure grants to institutions and coordinating agencies. 455.111 Section 455.111 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS AND BUILDINGS OWNED BY UNITS OF LOCAL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CARE INSTITUTIONS Applicant Responsibilities-Grants...

  6. Accuracy of Satellite-Measured Wave Heights in the Australian Region for Wave Power Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meath, Sian E.; Aye, Lu; Haritos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the accuracy of satellite data, which may then be used in wave power applications. The satellite data are compared to data from wave buoys, which are currently considered to be the most accurate of the devices available for measuring wave characteristics. This article presents an analysis of satellite- (Topex/Poseidon) and…

  7. Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

  8. MEASUREMENTS OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND PARTICLES DURING APPLICATION OF LATEX PAINT WITH AN AIRLESS SPRAYER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses experiments, conducted at EPA's Indoor Air Quality Research House, to measure airborne concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and particles during and following the spray-application of latex wall paint. (NOTE: Paint may be applied indoors by a v...

  9. Transgender Individuals' Workplace Experiences: The Applicability of Sexual Minority Measures and Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Melanie E.; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered…

  10. Pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors: commercial technologies and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinet, Éric

    2011-05-01

    Mainly three technologies are presently commercially available for pressure measurement with fiber-optic sensors: intensity-based, fiber Bragg gratings and Fabry-Pérot. The first one is probably the simplest and the cheapest but it is limited to applications where having 2 fixed or up to 4 flexible fibers is not an issue, whereas the two other technologies require only one fiber. With generally low sensitivity to pressure and prohibitive cost for non multiplexed measurements, fiber Bragg grating pressure sensors are still limited to marginal applications. Fabry-Pérot technology is the best compromise offering at affordable price a great flexibility in terms of pressure ranges, high sensitivity and miniature size suitable for most applications including disposable medical devices.

  11. Differential barometric-based positioning technique for indoor elevation measurement in IoT medical applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Wen, Yingyou; Zhao, Dazhe

    2017-07-20

    Medical applications have begun to benefit from Internet of Things (IoT) technology through the introduction of wearable devices. Several medical applications require accurate patient location as various changes affect pressure parameters inside the body. This study aims to develop a system to measure indoor altitude for IoT medical applications. We propose a differential barometric-based positioning system to estimate the altitude between a reference sensor and a localizing sensor connected to the human body. The differential barometric altimetry model is introduced to estimate indoor elevations and eliminate environmental artifacts. In addition, a Gaussian filter processing is adopted to remove noise from the elevation measurements. The proposed system is then investigated through extensive experiments, using various evaluation criteria. The results indicate that the proposed system yielded good accuracy with reduced implementation complexity and fewer costs. The proposed system is resilient compared to other indoor localization approaches, even when numerous environmental artifacts in indoor environments are present.

  12. [Multimedia application in mobile platform for teaching the measurement of central venous pressure].

    PubMed

    Galvão, Elizabeth Correia Ferreira; Püschel, Vilanice Alves Araújo

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to develop and assess an application software for the teaching of the procedure Manual Measurement of the Central Venous Pressure which can be used in mobile devices. The research was conducted in three phases (Survey of needs; Methodology for multimedia application development and evaluation of the multimedia application).The multimedia was the method chosen because it favors an encouraging and dynamic environment, as it integrates images and texts into an application software available for cell phones, constituting a mobile and autonomous means for learning. The research allowed to demonstrate the feasibility of the development from this pedagogical tool and open up prospects for believing that, in Nursing education, the technology available can uncover new ways of learning in a meaningful manner.

  13. Development of a smartphone application to measure reaction times during walking.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tomotaka; Hiraishi, Masahiro; Sugawara, Kenichi; Higashi, Toshio

    2016-10-01

    Dual-task methodology is useful to assess walking ability. We developed a smartphone application to measure reaction times (RTs) during walking. We can assess the attentional demands for a task from the RTs. In experiment 1, the accuracy and precision of the RT application were evaluated in two subjects. We investigated the agreement between the RTs calculated based on the external inertial sensor and the RT application; the application was installed in two smartphone models with different levels of performance. Additionally, in experiment 2, we investigated the RTs under 4 conditions: sitting, overground walking, treadmill walking, and auditory cued overground walking (n=19). The constant systematic error and low standard deviation of the difference between the two methods was demonstrated; this depended on the sampling interval of each sensor. The RTs in overground walking were increased compared with sitting and decreased compared with treadmill walking and auditory cued overground walking. Overall, the RTs were more decreased in the smartphone model with the shorter sampling interval. The RT application would be valid within a smartphone with a similar level of performance, because bias and precision are strongly dependent on the sampling interval. In field tests under different walking conditions, the RT application obtained results similar to those seen in previous studies and could identify even slight differences if there were many trials. The developed RT application will be a simple tool that is able to assess attentional demands during dual-task walking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Application of a reduced area electrical test pattern to precise pattern registration measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rominger, James P.

    1991-03-01

    A new reduced area electrically probed registration measurement pattern is described. The pattern is compatible with the Prometrix data acquisition and analysis system, and offers advantages over standard patterns in terms of patten area and versatility of use. The results of the application of the pattern to the measurement of reticle and stepper overlay are presented. With careful analysis of the data, inter- and intrafield reticle overlay errors are determined. Horizontal and vertical measurements of pattern placement within a single field and between fields showed an accuracy of greater than 67 nm and a repeatability of better than 14 nm (3 sigma).

  15. Dynamic Tests And Application Of The Electron-Optical Measuring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiruma, T.; Ilida, H.; Inuzuka, E.; Kamiya, K.; Tsuchiya, Y.; Prokhorov, A. M.; Platonov, V. N.; Postovalov, V. E.; Serdyuchenko, Yu. N.; Schelev, M. Y.

    1983-03-01

    The basic and dynamic performances of the new Electron-Optical measuring system type EWE in conjunction with various laser applications are presented. The system consists of Electron-Optical streak camera which is sensitive in the spectral recion from 380 nm to 1100 nm, TV read-out device and microprocessor controlled frame memory. Main features of the developed system will be described. The limiting temporal resolution has been measured to be 1.4 ps at FWEM. The dynamic range Of 70 at the measured duration of 5 ps has been obtained.

  16. Application of the SEM to the measurement of solar cell parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Andrews, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    Techniques are described which make use of the SEM to measure the minority carrier diffusion length and the metallurgical junction depth in silicon solar cells. The former technique permits the measurement of the true bulk diffusion length through the application of highly doped field layers to the back surfaces of the cells being investigated. It is shown that the secondary emission contrast observed in the SEM on a reverse-biased diode can depict the location of the metallurgical junction if the diode has been prepared with the proper beveled geometry. The SEM provides the required contrast and the option of high magnification, permitting the measurement of extremely shallow junction depths.

  17. Similarity measure between patient traces for clinical pathway analysis: problem, method, and applications.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhengxing; Dong, Wei; Duan, Huilong; Li, Haomin

    2014-01-01

    Clinical pathways leave traces, described as event sequences with regard to a mixture of various latent treatment behaviors. Measuring similarities between patient traces can profitably be exploited further as a basis for providing insights into the pathways, and complementing existing techniques of clinical pathway analysis (CPA), which mainly focus on looking at aggregated data seen from an external perspective. Most existing methods measure similarities between patient traces via computing the relative distance between their event sequences. However, clinical pathways, as typical human-centered processes, always take place in an unstructured fashion, i.e., clinical events occur arbitrarily without a particular order. Bringing order in the chaos of clinical pathways may decline the accuracy of similarity measure between patient traces, and may distort the efficiency of further analysis tasks. In this paper, we present a behavioral topic analysis approach to measure similarities between patient traces. More specifically, a probabilistic graphical model, i.e., latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA), is employed to discover latent treatment behaviors of patient traces for clinical pathways such that similarities of pairwise patient traces can be measured based on their underlying behavioral topical features. The presented method provides a basis for further applications in CPA. In particular, three possible applications are introduced in this paper, i.e., patient trace retrieval, clustering, and anomaly detection. The proposed approach and the presented applications are evaluated via a real-world dataset of several specific clinical pathways collected from a Chinese hospital.

  18. Application of Thermo-Mechanical Measurements of Plastic Packages for Reliability Evaluation of PEMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Ashok K.; Teverovsky, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    Thermo-mechanical analysis (TMA) is typically employed for measurements of the glass transition temperature (Tg) and coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) in molding compounds used in plastic encapsulated microcircuits (PEMs). Application of TMA measurements directly to PEMs allows anomalies to be revealed in deformation of packages with temperature, and thus indicates possible reliability concerns related to thermo-mechanical integrity and stability of the devices. In this work, temperature dependencies of package deformation were measured in several types of PEMs that failed environmental stress testing including temperature cycling, highly accelerated stress testing (HAST) in humid environments, and bum-in (BI) testing. Comparison of thermo-mechanical characteristics of packages and molding compounds in the failed parts allowed for explanation of the observed failures. The results indicate that TMA of plastic packages might be used for quality evaluation of PEMs intended for high-reliability applications.

  19. Multi-complexity ensemble measures for gait time series analysis: application to diagnostics, monitoring and biometrics.

    PubMed

    Gavrishchaka, Valeriy; Senyukova, Olga; Davis, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Previously, we have proposed to use complementary complexity measures discovered by boosting-like ensemble learning for the enhancement of quantitative indicators dealing with necessarily short physiological time series. We have confirmed robustness of such multi-complexity measures for heart rate variability analysis with the emphasis on detection of emerging and intermittent cardiac abnormalities. Recently, we presented preliminary results suggesting that such ensemble-based approach could be also effective in discovering universal meta-indicators for early detection and convenient monitoring of neurological abnormalities using gait time series. Here, we argue and demonstrate that these multi-complexity ensemble measures for gait time series analysis could have significantly wider application scope ranging from diagnostics and early detection of physiological regime change to gait-based biometrics applications.

  20. A catalogue of devices applicable to the measurement of boundary layers and wakes on flight vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miley, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A literature search was conducted to assemble a catalog of devices and techniques which have possible application to boundary layer and wake measurements on flight vehicles. The indices used in the search were NACA, NASA STAR, IAA, USGRDR and Applied Science and Technology Index. The period covered was 1950 through 1970. The devices contained in the catalog were restricted to those that provided essentially direct measurement of velocities, pressures and shear stresses. Pertinent material was included in the catalog if it contained either an adequate description of a device and associated performance data or a presentation of applicable information on a particular measurement theory and/or technique. When available, illustrations showing the configuration of the device and test condition data were also included.

  1. Using the TOEFL to measure the reading proficiency levels of deaf college applicants.

    PubMed

    LoMaglio, L J

    1991-07-01

    The TOEFL is widely used by colleges and universities in the United States and Canada to measure the English language proficiency levels of hearing international applicants. At the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, a faculty committee recommended that this popular test instrument be used to measure the English reading skills of deaf international applicants to the National Technical Institute for the Deaf. This study examined the merits of using the TOEFL to measure the English reading ability of hearing post-secondary international students seeking admission to English-based colleges and universities. Forty-one hearing foreign students were tested in the fall of 1989 at the English Language Institute at SUNY Buffalo. The instruments chosen were both the TOEFL and the California Achievement Test of reading ability. The majority of the research subjects who scored between 400 and 500 on the TOEFL achieved a grade level of less than 8.0 on the California Achievement Test.

  2. Dielectric Resonator for Ka-Band Pulsed EPR Measurements at Cryogenic Temperatures: Probehead Construction and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Astashkin, A.; Enemark, J. H.; Blank, A.; Twig, Y.; Song, Y.; Meade, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    The construction and performance of a Ka-band pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) cryogenic probehead that incorporates dielectric resonator (DR) is presented. We demonstrate that the use of DR allows one to optimize pulsed double electron–electron resonance (DEER) measurements utilizing large resonator bandwidth and large amplitude of the microwave field B1. In DEER measurements of Gd-based spin labels, use of this probe finally allows one to implement the potentials of Gd-based labels in distance measurements. Evidently, this DR is well suited to any applications requiring large B1-fields and resonator bandwidths, such as electron spin echo envelope modulation spectroscopy of nuclei having low magnetic moments and strong hyperfine interactions and double quantum coherence dipolar spectroscopy as was recently demonstrated in the application of a similar probe based on an loop-gap resonator and reported by Forrer et al. (J Magn Reson 190:280, 2008). PMID:23626406

  3. Ambient Intelligence Application Based on Environmental Measurements Performed with an Assistant Mobile Robot

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Marco, Santiago; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile. PMID:24681671

  4. Detecting interferences with iOS applications to measure speed of sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-01-01

    Traditional experiments measuring the speed of sound consist of studying harmonics by changing the length of a glass tube closed at one end. In these experiments, the sound source and observer are outside of the tube. In this paper, we propose the modification of this old experiment by studying destructive interference in a pipe using a headset, iPhone and iPad. The iPhone is used as an emitter with signal generator application and the iPad is used as the receiver with a spectrogram application. Two experiments are carried out for measures: the emitter inside of the tube with the receiver outside, and vice versa. We conclude that it is even possible to adequately and easily measure the speed of sound using a cup or a can of coke with the method described in this paper.

  5. Ambient intelligence application based on environmental measurements performed with an assistant mobile robot.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Dani; Teixidó, Mercè; Font, Davinia; Moreno, Javier; Tresanchez, Marcel; Marco, Santiago; Palacín, Jordi

    2014-03-27

    This paper proposes the use of an autonomous assistant mobile robot in order to monitor the environmental conditions of a large indoor area and develop an ambient intelligence application. The mobile robot uses single high performance embedded sensors in order to collect and geo-reference environmental information such as ambient temperature, air velocity and orientation and gas concentration. The data collected with the assistant mobile robot is analyzed in order to detect unusual measurements or discrepancies and develop focused corrective ambient actions. This paper shows an example of the measurements performed in a research facility which have enabled the detection and location of an uncomfortable temperature profile inside an office of the research facility. The ambient intelligent application has been developed by performing some localized ambient measurements that have been analyzed in order to propose some ambient actuations to correct the uncomfortable temperature profile.

  6. Measurement of axisymmetric temperature fields using reference beam and shearing interferometry for application to flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, A.; Guj, G.; Giammartini, S.

    A unified methodology for the application of reference beam and shearing interferometry to measure axisymmetric temperature fields within flames is proposed. Sensitivity and accuracy of the techniques are analyzed basing on interferograms of reference temperature profiles and CARS measurements obtained in test laminar flames. The rapid decay of temperature measurements accuracy with increasing both intensity of errors sources and uncertainty on independent parameters is assessed. The spatial variation of mixture composition in diffusive combusting flows requires the application of complementary methods to obtain a satisfactory accuracy, while flow fields with lean premixed combustion can be treated as optically-homogeneous media. The temperature maps resulting from the investigation of the test laminar flames are presented and discussed. The capability to disclose the thermal structure and to provide reliable quantitative data is demonstrated.

  7. Temperature and heat flux measurements: Challenges for high temperature aerospace application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    The measurement of high temperatures and the influence of heat transfer data is not strictly a problem of either the high temperatures involved or the level of the heating rates to be measured at those high temperatures. It is a problem of duration during which measurements are made and the nature of the materials in which the measurements are made. Thermal measurement techniques for each application must respect and work with the unique features of that application. Six challenges in the development of measurement technology are discussed: (1) to capture the character and localized peak values within highly nonuniform heating regions; (2) to manage large volumes of thermal instrumentation in order to efficiently derive critical information; (3) to accommodate thermal sensors into practical flight structures; (4) to broaden the capabilities of thermal survey techniques to replace discrete gages in flight and on the ground; (5) to provide supporting instrumentation conduits which connect the measurement points to the thermally controlled data acquisition system; and (6) to develop a class of 'vehicle tending' thermal sensors to assure the integrity of flight vehicles in an efficient manner.

  8. Regularized inversion of a two-dimensional integral equation with applications in borehole induction measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, Orhan

    1994-05-01

    Well bore measurements of conductivity, gravity, and surface measurements of magnetotelluric fields can be modeled as a two-dimensional integral equation with additive measurement noise. The governing integral equation has the form of convolution in the first dimension and projection in the second dimension. However, these two operations are not in separable form. In these applications, given a set of measurements, efficient and robust estimation of the underlying physical property is required. For this purpose, a regularized inversion algorithm for the governing integral equation is presented in this paper. Singular value decomposition of the measurement kernels is used to exploit convolution-projection structure of the integral equation, leading to a form where measurements are related to the physical property by a two-stage operation: projection followed by convolution. On the other hand, estimation of the physical property can be carried out by a two-stage inversion algorithm: deconvolution followed by back projection. A regularization method for the required multichannel deconvolution is given. Some important details of the algorithm are addressed in an application to wellbore induction measurements of conductivity.

  9. Measurement of the knee flexion angle with smartphone applications: Which technology is better?

    PubMed

    Jenny, Jean-Yves; Bureggah, Abdullah; Diesinger, Yann

    2016-09-01

    The range of motion of the knee is a critical element of clinical assessment. The tested hypothesis was that the measurement of the knee flexion angle measured with two specific smartphone applications using either inclinometer or camera technology was different from the reference measurement with a navigation system designed for total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Ten consecutive patients were selected for navigation-assisted TKA. Five navigated, five inclinometer and five camera measurements of knee flexion angle were obtained for each patient throughout the complete range of motion. The difference, the correlation and the coherence between all measurements and all paired sub-groups were analysed. There was a strong correlation and a good coherence between the three techniques of measurements, but the knee flexion angle reported by the inclinometer differed substantially from the camera- and navigation-based measurements. The camera-based measurement was clinically identical to the navigated data, with a mean difference of <1° and only 1/50 difference >3°. Camera-based smartphone measurement of the knee range of motion is fit for purpose in a routine clinical setting. The accuracy may be higher than other conventional measurement techniques, allowing a more precise rating of the clinical outcomes after TKA. II.

  10. YieldStar based reticle 3D measurements and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaenkatesan, Vidya; Finders, Jo; ten Berge, Peter; Plug, Reinder; Sijben, Anko; Schellekens, Twan; Dillen, Harm; Pocobiej, Wojciech; Jorge, Vasco G.; van Dijck, Jurgen

    2016-09-01

    YieldStar (YS) is an established ASML-built scatterometer that is capable of measuring wafer Critical Dimension (CD), Overlay and Focus. In a recent work, the application range of YS was extended to measure 3D CD patterns on a reticle (pattern CD, height, Side Wall Angle-SWA). The primary motivation for this study came from imaging studies that indicated a need for measuring and controlling reticle 3D topography. CD scanning electron microscope (CD-SEM), Atomic force microscope (AFM), 3D multiple detector SEM (3D-SEM) are the preferred tools for reticle metrology. While these tools serve the industry well, the current research to the impact of reticle 3D involves extensive costs, logistic challenges and increased reticle lead time. YS provides an attractive alternative as it can measure pattern CD, SWA and height in a single measurement and at high throughput. This work demonstrates the capability of YS as a reticle metrology tool.

  11. Application of blue laser triangulation sensors for displacement measurement through fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoehler, Matthew S.; Smith, Christopher M.

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the use of blue laser triangulation sensors to measure displacement of a target located behind or in the close proximity of natural gas diffusion flames. This measurement is critical for providing high-quality data in structural fire tests. The position of the laser relative to the flame envelope can significantly affect the measurement scatter, but has little influence on the mean values. We observe that the measurement scatter is normally distributed and increases linearly with the distance of the target from the flame along the beam path. Based on these observations, we demonstrate how time-averaging can be used to achieve a standard uncertainty associated with the displacement error of less than 0.1 mm, which is typically sufficient for structural fire testing applications. Measurements with the investigated blue laser sensors were not impeded by the thermal radiation emitted from the flame or the soot generated from the relatively clean-burning natural gas.

  12. Application of Blue Laser Triangulation Sensors for Displacement Measurement Through Fire.

    PubMed

    Hoehler, Matthew S; Smith, Christopher M

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the use of blue laser triangulation sensors to measure displacement of a target located behind or in the close proximity of natural gas diffusion flames. This measurement is critical for providing high-quality data in structural fire tests. The position of the laser relative to the flame envelope can significantly affect the measurement scatter, but has little influence on the mean values. We observe that the measurement scatter is normally distributed and increases linearly with the distance of the target from the flame along the beam path. Based on these observations, we demonstrate how time-averaging can be used to achieve a standard uncertainty associated with the displacement error of less than 0.1 mm, which is typically sufficient for structural fire testing applications. Measurements with the investigated blue laser sensors were not impeded by the thermal radiation emitted from the flame or the soot generated from the relatively clean-burning natural gas.

  13. PLL application research of a broadband MEMS phase detector: Theory, measurement and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Juzheng; Liao, Xiaoping

    2017-06-01

    This paper evaluates the capability of a broadband MEMS phase detector in the application of phase locked loops (PLLs) through the aspect of theory, measurement and modeling. For the first time, it demonstrates how broadband property and optimized structure are realized through cascaded transmission lines and ANSYS simulations. The broadband MEMS phase detector shows potential in PLL application for its dc voltage output and large power handling ability which is important for munition applications. S-parameters of the power combiner in the MEMS phase detector are measured with S11 better than -15 dB and S23 better than -10 dB over the whole X-band. Compared to our previous works, developed phase detection measurements are performed and focused on signals at larger power levels up to 1 W. Cosine tendencies are revealed between the output voltage and the phase difference for both small and large signals. Simulation approach through equivalent circuit modeling is proposed to study the PLL application of the broadband MEMS phase detector. Synchronization and tracking properties are revealed.

  14. Measuring the Six dof Driving Point Impedance Function and AN Application to RB Inertia Property Estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witter, M. C.; Brown, D. L.; Blough, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An accurate driving point measurement is imperative in structural dynamic testing. For example, it is used to derive modal scaling, for experimental correlation of finite element models, impedance modelling and extracting the rigid body (RB) inertia properties of an object. A typical driving point measurement gives the linear force/displacement relationship at a single degree of freedom (dof), but any point on an object actually has rotational dofs as well. For example these rotational dofs must be measured in an impedance model where moments are transmitted at the connection point of two substructures. By ignoring the rotations, an inaccurate model will result. In the past, dynamic sensing technology has been limited to the accurate measurement of translational dofs. While rotational sensors do exist, their accuracy is called into question for certain applications. Rotational dofs have tended to be ignored in the measurement process. Applications, which require their use, such as impedance modelling and RB inertia property estimation, have suffered as a result. A process/sensor is being developed to accurately measure the driving point impedance function in all six dofs. The sensor as well as a calibration procedure will be presented here. In order to verify the validity of the calibration and measurement procedure, a new method for measuring the RB inertia properties of an object will be presented. This new method requires an accurate six dof driving point impedance measurement to provide accurate results. The inertia properties of an automotive brake rotor will be measured and compared with the results of a traditional pendulous swing test.

  15. Advancements in remote physiological measurement and applications in human-computer interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDuff, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Physiological signals are important for tracking health and emotional states. Imaging photoplethysmography (iPPG) is a set of techniques for remotely recovering cardio-pulmonary signals from video of the human body. Advances in iPPG methods over the past decade combined with the ubiquity of digital cameras presents the possibility for many new, lowcost applications of physiological monitoring. This talk will highlight methods for recovering physiological signals, work characterizing the impact of video parameters and hardware on these measurements, and applications of this technology in human-computer interfaces.

  16. Special article: measuring mitochondrial oxygen tension: from basic principles to application in humans.

    PubMed

    Mik, Egbert G

    2013-10-01

    The protoporphyrin IX-triplet state lifetime technique (PpIX-TSLT) has been recently introduced as the first method to measure mitochondrial oxygen tension (mitoPO2) in living cells and tissues. The current implementation of the technique is based on oxygen-dependent quenching of the delayed fluorescence lifetime of 5-aminolevulinic-acid-enhanced mitochondrial PpIX. It represents a significant step forward in our ability to comprehensively measure tissue oxygenation. PpIX-TSLT is feasible for application in humans and recently we have been able to measure for the first time mitoPO2 in humans. MitoPO2 in intact tissues reflects the balance between oxygen supply and demand at the cellular level. Administration of aminolevulinic acid induces measurable mitochondrial levels of PpIX. PpIX acts as a mitochondrially located oxygen-sensitive dye by emitting a red delayed fluorescence after excitation with a pulse of green light. The lifetime of the delayed fluorescence is inversely related to PO2 by the Stern-Volmer equation. In vivo measurements of mitoPO2 in liver, heart, and skin of rats have revealed surprisingly high values of typically several tens of mm Hg. Clinical measurements of mitoPO2 are possible as demonstrated by cutaneous measurements in healthy volunteers. Applications of PpIX-TSLT in anesthesiology and intensive care medicine might, e.g., be monitoring mitoPO2 as a resuscitation end point, targeting oxygen homeostasis in the critically ill, and assessing mitochondrial function at the bedside. PpIX-TSLT likely also has applications in other fields also, e.g., providing an oxygen-related feedback signal in photodynamic therapy of malignant tumors.

  17. Laser vibrometry vibration measurements on vehicle cabins in running conditions: helicopter mock-up application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revel, Gian Marco; Castellini, Paolo; Chiariotti, Paolo; Tomasini, Enrico Primo; Cenedese, Fausto; Perazzolo, Alessandro

    2011-10-01

    The present work deals with the analysis of problems and potentials of laser vibrometer measurements inside vehicle cabins in running conditions, with particular reference to helicopters where interior vibro-acoustic issues are very important. This paper describes the results of a systematic measurement campaign performed on an Agusta A109MKII mock-up. The aim is to evaluate the applicability of scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (SLDV) for tests in simulated flying conditions and to understand how performances of the technique are affected when the laser head is placed inside the cabin, thus being subjected to interfering inputs. First a brief description of the performed test cases and the used measuring set-ups are given. Comparative tests between the SLDV and accelerometers are presented, analyzing the achievable performances for the specific application. Results obtained measuring with the SLDV placed inside the helicopter cabin during operative excitation conditions are compared with those performed with the laser lying outside the mock-up, these last being considered as ``reference measurements.'' Finally, in order to give an estimate of the uncertainty level on measured signals, a study linking the admitted percentage of noise content on vibrometer signals due to laser head vibration levels will be introduced.

  18. Application of robust color composite fringe in flip-chip solder bump 3-D measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chung-Feng Jeffrey; Wu, Han-Cheng

    2017-04-01

    This study developed a 3-D measurement system based on flip-chip solder bump, used fringes with different modulation intensities in color channels, in order to produce color composite fringe with robustness, and proposed a multi-channel composite phase unwrapping algorithm, which uses fringe modulation weights of different channels to recombine the phase information for better measurement accuracy and stability. The experimental results showed that the average measurement accuracy is 0.43μm and the standard deviation is 1.38 μm. The results thus proved that the proposed 3-D measurement system is effective in measuring a plane with a height of 50 μm. In the flip-chip solder bump measuring experiment, different fringe modulation configurations were tested to overcome the problem of reflective coefficient between the flip-chip base board and the solder bump. The proposed system has a good measurement results and robust stability in the solder bump measurement, and can be used for the measurement of 3-D information for micron flip-chip solder bump application.

  19. Developing a natural language processing application for measuring the quality of colonoscopy procedures

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Wendy W; Saul, Melissa; Dellon, Evan S; Schoen, Robert E; Mehrotra, Ateev

    2011-01-01

    Objective The quality of colonoscopy procedures for colorectal cancer screening is often inadequate and varies widely among physicians. Routine measurement of quality is limited by the costs of manual review of free-text patient charts. Our goal was to develop a natural language processing (NLP) application to measure colonoscopy quality. Materials and methods Using a set of quality measures published by physician specialty societies, we implemented an NLP engine that extracts 21 variables for 19 quality measures from free-text colonoscopy and pathology reports. We evaluated the performance of the NLP engine on a test set of 453 colonoscopy reports and 226 pathology reports, considering accuracy in extracting the values of the target variables from text, and the reliability of the outcomes of the quality measures as computed from the NLP-extracted information. Results The average accuracy of the NLP engine over all variables was 0.89 (range: 0.62–1.0) and the average F measure over all variables was 0.74 (range: 0.49–0.89). The average agreement score, measured as Cohen's κ, between the manually established and NLP-derived outcomes of the quality measures was 0.62 (range: 0.09–0.86). Discussion For nine of the 19 colonoscopy quality measures, the agreement score was 0.70 or above, which we consider a sufficient score for the NLP-derived outcomes of these measures to be practically useful for quality measurement. Conclusion The use of NLP for information extraction from free-text colonoscopy and pathology reports creates opportunities for large scale, routine quality measurement, which can support quality improvement in colonoscopy care. PMID:21946240

  20. Problems of in vitro SPF measurements brought about by viscous fingering generated during sunscreen applications.

    PubMed

    Fujikake, K; Tago, S; Plasson, R; Nakazawa, R; Okano, K; Maezawa, D; Mukawa, T; Kuroda, A; Asakura, K

    2014-01-01

    Up to date, no worldwide standard in vitro method has been established for the determination of the sun protection factor (SPF), since there are many problems in terms of its repeatability and reliability. Here, we have studied the problems on the in vitro SPF measurements brought about by the phenomenon called viscous fingering. A spatially periodic stripe pattern is usually formed spontaneously when a viscous fluid is applied onto a solid substrate. For the in vitro SPF measurements, the recommended amount of sunscreen is applied onto a substrate, and the intensity of the transmitted UV light through the sunscreen layer is evaluated. Our theoretical analysis indicated that the nonuniformity of the thickness of the sunscreen layer varied the net UV absorbance. Pseudo-sunscreen composites having no phase separation structures were prepared and applied on a quartz plate for the measurements of the UV absorbance. Two types of applicators, a block applicator and a 4-sided applicator were used. The flat surface was always obtained when the 4-sided applicator was used, while the spatially periodic stripe pattern was always generated spontaneously when the block applicator was used. The net UV absorbance of the layer on which the stripe pattern was formed was found to be lower than that of the flat layer having the same average thickness. Theoretical simulations quantitatively reproduced the variation of the net UV absorbance led by the change of the geometry of the layer. The results of this study propose the definite necessity of strict regulations on the coating method of sunscreens for the establishment of the in vitro SPF test method.

  1. Clinical application of exhaled nitric oxide measurement in pediatric lung diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Summary Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a non invasive method for assessing the inflammatory status of children with airway disease. Different ways to measure FeNO levels are currently available. The possibility of measuring FeNO levels in an office setting even in young children, and the commercial availability of portable devices, support the routine use of FeNO determination in the daily pediatric practice. Although many confounding factors may affect its measurement, FeNO is now widely used in the management of children with asthma, and seems to provide significantly higher diagnostic accuracy than lung function or bronchial challenge tests. The role of FeNO in airway infection (e.g. viral bronchiolitis and common acquired pneumonia), in bronchiectasis, or in cases with diffuse lung disease is less clear. This review focuses on the most recent advances and the current clinical applications of FeNO measurement in pediatric lung disease. PMID:23273317

  2. Evaluation of smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external microphones – A follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Kardous, Chucri A.; Shaw, Peter B.

    2016-01-01

    This follow-up study examines the accuracy of selected smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external calibrated microphones. The initial study examined 192 apps on the iOS and Android platforms and found four iOS apps with mean differences of ±2 dB of a reference sound level measurement system. This study evaluated the same four apps using external microphones. The results showed measurements within ±1 dB of the reference. This study suggests that using external calibrated microphones greatly improves the overall accuracy and precision of smartphone sound measurements, and removes much of the variability and limitations associated with the built-in smartphone microphones. PMID:27794313

  3. Evaluation of smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external microphones-A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Kardous, Chucri A; Shaw, Peter B

    2016-10-01

    This follow-up study examines the accuracy of selected smartphone sound measurement applications (apps) using external calibrated microphones. The initial study examined 192 apps on the iOS and Android platforms and found four iOS apps with mean differences of ±2 dB of a reference sound level measurement system. This study evaluated the same four apps using external microphones. The results showed measurements within ±1 dB of the reference. This study suggests that using external calibrated microphones greatly improves the overall accuracy and precision of smartphone sound measurements, and removes much of the variability and limitations associated with the built-in smartphone microphones.

  4. A novel integrated fiber-optic interferometer model and its application in micro-displacement measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chi; Xu, Long-long; Zhu, Jun; Yuan, Zhi-wen; Yu, Ying-jie; Asundi, Anand K.

    2016-11-01

    We conducted an investigation in a novel integrated fiber-optic interferometer model based on ultra-small self-focusing optical fiber probe and the method of its application in micro-displacement measurement. Firstly, we proposed the structure model of integrated fiber-optic interferometer and established its input-output mathematical model applied in micro-displacement measurement. Secondly, we established the hardware system of the integrated fiber-optic interferometer. Finally, we analyzed the fitting result of experimental data of micro-displacement measurement and some error factors and defined the linear working range. The experimental results indicate that, under the given experimental conditions, the linear measurement range, linearity and sensitivity of the integrated fiber-optic interferometer were 10 μm, 1.36% and 8.8 mv/μm respectively.

  5. Benchmark Validation of Tort Code Using Kkm Measurement and its Application to 800 Mwe Bwr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukiyama, Toshihisa; Hayashi, Katsumi; Kurosawa, Masahiko; Hayashida, Yoshihisa; Asano, Kyoichi; Koyabu, Ken

    2003-06-01

    To estimate the applicability of the TORT code, a benchmark calculation was performed using the measured neutron flux in a 375MWe BWR in Switzerland. The calculated neutron flux was compared with the measured neutron fluxes at 27 locations between the shroud and the RPV. The reaction rates of thermal and fast dosimeters calculated by TORT agreed well with the measured data. As a next step, the TORT code was applied to estimate the neutron flux distribution in Japanese 800MWe BWR plants and compared with the measured radioactivity of a few pieces of the top guide beam, shroud and in-core monitor guide tube. Because a reasonable C/M value was obtained, we conclude that we can obtain reasonable neutron distribution profiles with TORT.

  6. Fiber optic extrinsic FPI/FBG sensor for temperature-compensated pressure measurement in medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poeggel, S.; Tosi, D.; Leen, G.; Lewis, E.

    2013-05-01

    A combined optical fiber pressure/temperature sensing system based on low-finesse extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer (EFPI) in conjunction with a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for biomedical measurement applications is presented. The sensing probe has 200 μm outer diameter, and is biocompatible, meeting the requirements for the most demanding biomedical applications. High accuracy (<1mmHg) is achieved by means of fiber polishing and diaphragm etching in hydrofluoric acid, and optimizing the sensitivity to <1nm/kPa. A white light interrogation system based on spectrometric analysis has been developed which implements several pressure detection algorithms. A measurement campaign has been carried out to validate the proposed system, showing 1mmHg accuracy, air-gap compression linearity, and temperature compensation.

  7. Field measurements and guidelines for the application of wireless sensor networks to the environment and security.

    PubMed

    Gil Jiménez, Víctor P; Armada, Ana García

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from Crossbow(©). Based on these measurements, some guidelines to deploy a robust and reliable WSN are provided. The results are focused on security and environmental applications but can also be extrapolated to other scenarios. A main conclusion that can be extracted is that, from the transmission point of view, a dense WSN is one of the best choices to overcome many of the transmission problems such as the existence of a transitional region, redundance, forwarding, obstructions or interference with other systems.

  8. Aerospace Application of Fiber Optic Strain Measurement Technology in Cryogenic Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizutani, Tadahito; Takeda, Nobuo

    Strain and temperature measurement, especially in cryogenic environments, was studied using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors for the purpose of the aerospace structural health monitoring. Although the relationship between the applied strain and the Bragg wavelength shift was the same as that at room temperature, the temperature-wavelength relationship became non-linear under cryogenic environment. In order to show the applicability of the sensor in aerospace applications, FBG strain and temperature sensors were embedded in a composite liquid hydrogen tank and measured in the cryogenic and pressurized environment. Encapsulated and small-size temperature sensors were used in this article and the temperature drift of the strain sensor was compensated by using the output of the temperature sensor. It was revealed throughout the experiment that the optical power loss could be critical in the case of existing large temperature difference. The practical solution for this issue was also discussed in this article.

  9. Unified Instrumentation: Examining the Simultaneous Application of Advanced Measurement Techniques for Increased Wind Tunnel Testing Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A. (Editor); Bartram, Scott M.; Humphreys, William M., Jr.; Jenkins, Luther N.; Jordan, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Joseph W.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Meyers, James F.; South, Bruce W.; Cavone, Angelo A.; Ingram, JoAnne L.

    2002-01-01

    A Unified Instrumentation Test examining the combined application of Pressure Sensitive Paint, Projection Moire Interferometry, Digital Particle Image Velocimetry, Doppler Global Velocimetry, and Acoustic Microphone Array has been conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center. The fundamental purposes of conducting the test were to: (a) identify and solve compatibility issues among the techniques that would inhibit their simultaneous application in a wind tunnel, and (b) demonstrate that simultaneous use of advanced instrumentation techniques is feasible for increasing tunnel efficiency and identifying control surface actuation / aerodynamic reaction phenomena. This paper provides summary descriptions of each measurement technique used during the Unified Instrumentation Test, their implementation for testing in a unified fashion, and example results identifying areas of instrument compatibility and incompatibility. Conclusions are drawn regarding the conditions under which the measurement techniques can be operated simultaneously on a non-interference basis. Finally, areas requiring improvement for successfully applying unified instrumentation in future wind tunnel tests are addressed.

  10. Neutron Cross Section Measurements at ORELA for Improved Nuclear Data and Their Application

    SciTech Connect

    Guber, Klaus H; Leal, Luiz C; Sayer, Royce O; Koehler, Paul Edward; Valentine, Timothy E; Derrien, Herve; Harvey, John A

    2005-02-01

    Many older neutron cross-section evaluations from libraries such as ENDF/B-VI or JENDL-3.2 exhibit deficiencies or do not cover energy ranges that are important for criticality safety applications. These deficiencies may occur in the resolved and unresolved-resonance regions. Consequently, these evaluated data may not be adequate for nuclear criticality calculations where effects such as self-shielding, multiple scattering, or Doppler broadening are important. To support the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program, neutron cross-section measurements have been initiated at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA). ORELA is the only high-power white neutron source with excellent time resolution still operating in the United States. It is ideally suited to measure fission, neutron total, and capture cross sections in the energy range from 1 eV to {approx}600 keV, which is important for many nuclear criticality safety applications.

  11. Application of wireless inertial measurement units and EMG sensors for studying deglutition - Preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, U; Yamamura, K; Kong, W; Sessa, S; Lin, Z; Bartolomeo, L; Ishii, H; Zecca, M; Yamada, Y; Takanishi, A

    2014-01-01

    Different types of sensors are being used to study deglutition and mastication. These often suffer from problems related to portability, cost, reliability, comfort etc. that make it difficult to use for long term studies. An inertial measurement based sensor seems a good fit in this application; however its use has not been explored much for the specific application of deglutition research. In this paper, we present a system comprised of an IMU and EMG sensor that are integrated together as a single system. With a preliminary experiment, we determine that the system can be used for measuring the head-neck posture during swallowing in addition to other parameters during the swallowing phase. The EMG sensor may not always be a reliable source of physiological data especially for small clustered muscles like the ones responsible for swallowing. In this case, we explore the possibility of using gyroscopic data for the recognition of deglutition events.

  12. Urysohn measure driven integral equations in the space of bounded variation functions and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriu, G.; Satco, B.

    2016-10-01

    Motivated by the fact that bounded variation (often discontinuous) functions frequently appear when studying integral equations that describe physical phenomena, we focus on the existence of bounded variation solutions for Urysohn integral measure driven equations. Due to numerous applications of Urysohn integral equations in various domains, problems of this kind have been extensively studied in literature, under more restrictive assumptions. Our approach concerns the framework of Kurzweil-Stieltjes integration, which allows the occurrence of high oscillatory features on the right hand side of the equation. A discussion about interesting consequences of our main result (given by particular cases of the measure driving the equation) is presented. Finally, we show the generality of our results by investigating two examples of impulsive type problems (from both theoretical and numerical perspective) and giving an application in electronics industry concerning polarization properties of ferroelectric materials.

  13. Field Measurements and Guidelines for the Application of Wireless Sensor Networks to the Environment and Security

    PubMed Central

    Gil Jiménez, Víctor P.; Armada, Ana García

    2009-01-01

    Frequently, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) are designed focusing on applications and omitting transmission problems in these wireless networks. In this paper, we present a measurement campaign that has been carried out using one of the most commonly used WSN platforms, the micaZ from Crossbow©. Based on these measurements, some guidelines to deploy a robust and reliable WSN are provided. The results are focused on security and environmental applications but can also be extrapolated to other scenarios. A main conclusion that can be extracted is that, from the transmission point of view, a dense WSN is one of the best choices to overcome many of the transmission problems such as the existence of a transitional region, redundance, forwarding, obstructions or interference with other systems. PMID:22303175

  14. Video quality measurement for multimedia applications using reduced-reference signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Lee, Sangwook; Lee, Jonghwa; Lee, Kwon; Choi, Hyunsoo; Seo, Guiwon; Park, Jonggeun

    2011-06-01

    As more multimedia services have become increasingly available over networks where bandwidth is not always guaranteed, quality monitoring has become an important issue. For instance, quality of experience and quality monitoring have become important problems in internet protocol television applications, since transmission errors may introduce all kinds of additional video quality degradations. In this paper, we present a reduced-reference objective model for video quality measurements in multimedia applications. The proposed method first measures edge degradations that are critical for perceptual video quality and then considers transmission error effects. We compared the proposed method with some existing methods. Independent verifications confirmed that the proposed method showed good performance and consequently it was included in an International Telecommunication Union recommendation. The proposed method can be used to monitor video quality at receivers while requiring minimum usage of additional bandwidth.

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of flood damage mitigation measures by the application of propensity score matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, P.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Bubeck, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-07-01

    The employment of damage mitigation measures (DMMs) by individuals is an important component of integrated flood risk management. In order to promote efficient damage mitigation measures, accurate estimates of their damage mitigation potential are required. That is, for correctly assessing the damage mitigation measures' effectiveness from survey data, one needs to control for sources of bias. A biased estimate can occur if risk characteristics differ between individuals who have, or have not, implemented mitigation measures. This study removed this bias by applying an econometric evaluation technique called propensity score matching (PSM) to a survey of German households along three major rivers that were flooded in 2002, 2005, and 2006. The application of this method detected substantial overestimates of mitigation measures' effectiveness if bias is not controlled for, ranging from nearly EUR 1700 to 15 000 per measure. Bias-corrected effectiveness estimates of several mitigation measures show that these measures are still very effective since they prevent between EUR 6700 and 14 000 of flood damage per flood event. This study concludes with four main recommendations regarding how to better apply propensity score matching in future studies, and makes several policy recommendations.

  16. Evaluating the effectiveness of flood damage mitigation measures by the application of Propensity Score Matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, P.; Botzen, W. J. W.; Kreibich, H.; Bubeck, P.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.

    2014-01-01

    The employment of damage mitigation measures by individuals is an important component of integrated flood risk management. In order to promote efficient damage mitigation measures, accurate estimates of their damage mitigation potential are required. That is, for correctly assessing the damage mitigation measures' effectiveness from survey data, one needs to control for sources of bias. A biased estimate can occur if risk characteristics differ between individuals who have, or have not, implemented mitigation measures. This study removed this bias by applying an econometric evaluation technique called Propensity Score Matching to a survey of German households along along two major rivers major rivers that were flooded in 2002, 2005 and 2006. The application of this method detected substantial overestimates of mitigation measures' effectiveness if bias is not controlled for, ranging from nearly € 1700 to € 15 000 per measure. Bias-corrected effectiveness estimates of several mitigation measures show that these measures are still very effective since they prevent between € 6700-14 000 of flood damage. This study concludes with four main recommendations regarding how to better apply Propensity Score Matching in future studies, and makes several policy recommendations.

  17. Optimized spectroscopic scheme for enhanced precision CO measurements with applications to urban source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nottrott, A.; Hoffnagle, J.; Farinas, A.; Rella, C.

    2014-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an urban pollutant generated by internal combustion engines which contributes to the formation of ground level ozone (smog). CO is also an excellent tracer for emissions from mobile combustion sources. In this work we present an optimized spectroscopic sampling scheme that enables enhanced precision CO measurements. The scheme was implemented on the Picarro G2401 Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer which measures CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O at 0.2 Hz. The optimized scheme improved the raw precision of CO measurements by 40% from 5 ppb to 3 ppb. Correlations of measured CO2, CO, CH4 and H2O from an urban tower were partitioned by wind direction and combined with a concentration footprint model for source attribution. The application of a concentration footprint for source attribution has several advantages. The upwind extent of the concentration footprint for a given sensor is much larger than the flux footprint. Measurements of mean concentration at the sensor location can be used to estimate source strength from a concentration footprint, while measurements of the vertical concentration flux are necessary to determine source strength from the flux footprint. Direct measurement of vertical concentration flux requires high frequency temporal sampling and increases the cost and complexity of the measurement system.

  18. Smartphone applications (apps) for heart rate measurement in children: comparison with electrocardiography monitor.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi-Lin; Fu, Yun-Ching; Lin, Ming-Chih; Chan, Sheng-Ching; Hwang, Betau; Jan, Sheng-Ling

    2014-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) measurement is essential for children with abnormal heart beats. The purpose of this study was to determine whether HR measurement by smartphone applications (apps) could be a feasible alternative to an electrocardiography (ECG) monitor. A total of 40 children, median age of 4.3 years, were studied. Using four free smartphone apps, pulse rates were measured at the finger (or toe) and earlobe, and compared with baseline HRs measured by ECG monitors. Significant correlations between measured pulse rates and baseline HRs were found. Both correlation and accuracy rate were higher in the earlobe group than the finger/toe group. When HR was <120 beats per min (bpm), the accuracy rates were not different between the two different measuring sites for each app (median of 65 vs 76%). The accuracy rates in the finger/toe group were significantly lower than those in the earlobe group for all apps when HR was ≥ 120 bpm (27 vs 65%). There were differences among apps in their abilities to measure pulse rates. Taking children's pulse rate from the earlobe would be more accurate, especially for tachycardia. However, we do not recommend that smartphone apps should not be used for routine medical use or used as the sole form of HR measurement because the results of their accuracy are not good enough.

  19. Display MTF measurements based on scanning and imaging technologies and its importance in the application space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Balvinder; Olson, Jeff; Flug, Eric A.

    2016-05-01

    Measuring the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of a display monitor is necessary for many applications such as: modeling end-to-end systems, conducting perception experiments, and performing targeting tasks in real-word scenarios. The MTF of a display defines the resolution properties and quantifies how well the spatial frequencies are displayed on a monitor. Many researchers have developed methods to measure display MTFs using either scanning or imaging devices. In this paper, we first present methods to measure display MTFs using two separate technologies and then discuss the impact of a display MTF on a system's performance. The two measurement technologies were scanning with a photometer and imaging with a CMOS based camera. To estimate a true display MTF, measurements made with the photometer were backed out for the scanning optics aperture. The developed methods were applied to measure MTFs of the two types of monitors, Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) and Liquid Crystal Display (LCD). The accuracy of the measured MTFs was validated by comparing MTFs measured with the two systems. The methods presented here are simple and can be easily implemented employing either a Prichard photometer or an imaging device. In addition, the impact of a display MTF on the end-to-end performance of a system was modeled using NV-IPM.

  20. Measuring impedance in congestive heart failure: Current options and clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W. H. Wilson; Tong, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of impedance is becoming increasingly available in the clinical setting as a tool for assessing hemodynamics and volume status in patients with heart failure. The 2 major categories of impedance assessment are the band electrode method and the implanted device lead method. The exact sources of the impedance signal are complex and can be influenced by physiologic effects such as blood volume, fluid, and positioning. This article provides a critical review of our current understanding and promises of impedance measurements, the techniques that have evolved, as well as the evidence and limitations regarding their clinical applications in the setting of heart failure management. PMID:19249408

  1. NASA programs in advanced sensors and measurement technology for aeronautical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    NASA involvement in the development, implementation, and experimental use of advanced aeronautical sensors and measurement technologies is presently discussed within the framework of specific NASA research centers' activities. The technology thrusts are in the fields of high temperature strain gages and microphones, laser light-sheet flow visualization, LTA, LDV, and LDA, tunable laser-based aviation meteorology, and fiber-optic CARS measurements. IR thermography and close-range photogrammetry are undergoing substantial updating and application. It is expected that 'smart' sensors will be increasingly widely used, especially in conjunction with smart structures in aircraft and spacecraft.

  2. Perturbation methods in optics: application to the interferometric measurement of surfaces.

    PubMed

    Garbusi, Eugenio; Osten, Wolfgang

    2009-12-01

    Manufacturing and misalignment errors are present in every optical system. Usually these errors lead to intolerable wavefront deviations and system inaccuracies if they are not characterized and taken into consideration. In the interferometric measurement of surfaces, the characterization of the interferometer aberrations plays a central role, since unknown phase contributions lead to an erroneous assessment of the test surface and therefore an incorrect estimation of the performance of an optical system. In this work, we present a method for the interferometric characterization of surfaces based on the principles of Hamilton's characteristic functions and perturbation theory. The application of the proposed method to an interferometer for the measurement of aspherical surfaces is shown.

  3. Application of a CZT detector to in situ environmental radioactivity measurement in the Fukushima area.

    PubMed

    Kowatari, M; Kubota, T; Shibahara, Y; Fujii, T; Fukutani, S; Takamiya, K; Mizuno, S; Yamana, H

    2015-11-01

    Instead of conventional Ge semiconductor detectors and NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometers, an application of a CdZnTe semiconductor (CZT) whose crystal has the dimension of 1 cm cubic to the in situ environmental radioactivity measurement was attempted in deeply affected areas in Fukushima region. Results of deposition density on soil for (134)Cs/(137)Cs obtained seemed consistent, comparing obtained results with those measured by the Japanese government. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Measuring worksite health promotion programs: an application of structural equation modeling with ordinal data.

    PubMed

    Odegaard, Fredrik; Roos, Pontus

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents a model for measuring the outcome of Worksite Health Promotion Programs through an application of Structural Equation Modeling with ordinal data. We model the function "being healthy" as a vector comprised of three latent or unobservable variables: Health Status, Lifestyle and Stress. Each variable can be measured only indirectly through a set of manifest or observable ordinal indicators. The objective is to derive and analyze the distributions, and changes in distributions over time, of the latent variables on an individual level. The model is analyzed empirically on data from three large Swedish manufacturing firms.

  5. Application of autonomous robotized systems for the collection of nearshore topographic changing and hydrodynamic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakov, Vladimir; Makarov, Vladimir; Zezyulin, Denis; Kurkin, Andrey; Pelinovsky, Efim

    2015-04-01

    Hazardous phenomena in the coastal zone lead to the topographic changing which are difficulty inspected by traditional methods. It is why those autonomous robots are used for collection of nearshore topographic and hydrodynamic measurements. The robot RTS-Hanna is well-known (Wubbold, F., Hentschel, M., Vousdoukas, M., and Wagner, B. Application of an autonomous robot for the collection of nearshore topographic and hydrodynamic measurements. Coastal Engineering Proceedings, 2012, vol. 33, Paper 53). We describe here several constructions of mobile systems developed in Laboratory "Transported Machines and Transported Complexes", Nizhny Novgorod State Technical University. They can be used in the field surveys and monitoring of wave regimes nearshore.

  6. NASA programs in advanced sensors and measurement technology for aeronautical applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Bruce A.

    1990-01-01

    NASA involvement in the development, implementation, and experimental use of advanced aeronautical sensors and measurement technologies is presently discussed within the framework of specific NASA research centers' activities. The technology thrusts are in the fields of high temperature strain gages and microphones, laser light-sheet flow visualization, LTA, LDV, and LDA, tunable laser-based aviation meteorology, and fiber-optic CARS measurements. IR thermography and close-range photogrammetry are undergoing substantial updating and application. It is expected that 'smart' sensors will be increasingly widely used, especially in conjunction with smart structures in aircraft and spacecraft.

  7. Lagrangian technique to calculate window interface velocity from shock velocity measurements: Application for quartz windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Chad A.; Knudson, Marcus D.

    2017-08-01

    Measurement of the window interface velocity is a common technique for investigating the dynamic response materials at high strain rates. However, these measurements are limited in pressure to the range where the window remains transparent. The most common window material for this application is lithium fluoride, which under single shock compression becomes opaque at ˜200 GPa. To date, no other window material has been identified for use at higher pressures. Here, we present a Lagrangian technique to calculate the interface velocity from a continuously measured shock velocity, with application to quartz. The quartz shock front becomes reflective upon melt, at ˜100 GPa, enabling the use of velocity interferometry to continuously measure the shock velocity. This technique overlaps with the range of pressures accessible with LiF windows and extends the region where wave profile measurements are possible to pressures in excess of 2000 GPa. We show through simulated data that the technique accurately reproduces the interface velocity within 20% of the initial state, and that the Lagrangian technique represents a significant improvement over a simple linear approximation.

  8. Analytical measures of homogeneity of the photon radiation field and possible applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukan, Junoš; Ambrožič, Klemen; Žerovnik, Gašper; Snoj, Luka

    2017-08-01

    For many practical applications, homogeneity of a field, whether neutron or electromagnetic, is of significance. Definitions of homogeneity or its calculation are diverse in the existing literature, however. This paper is an attempt to explore the concept of homogeneity and the ways it can be measured or calculated. The list of the measures that were considered includes: the ratio between the maximum and the minimum value, the ratio between the maximum difference and the mean value, the variance of the field and its generalization, and the mean and the variance of the field's gradient. These were applied to a realistic gamma-ray irradiation scenario, both by deriving a semi-analytical approximation and in a Monte Carlo numerical simulation. The irradiation arrangement included a hollow cylindrical irradiation channel and different numbers of spent fuel elements taken from a TRIGA reactor. By manipulating the geometry of this setup, fields of varying degrees of homogeneity were simulated and the homogeneity measures were calculated. By applying principal component analysis the maximum value to the weighted mean ratio was put forth as the most desirable measure. Finally, the application of this measure was demonstrated by choosing one of the irradiation configurations previously considered that produced a homogeneous gamma-ray field.

  9. Original method to compute epipoles using variable homography: application to measure emergent fibers on textile fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jun; Cudel, Christophe; Kohler, Sophie; Fontaine, Stéphane; Haeberlé, Olivier; Klotz, Marie-Louise

    2012-04-01

    Fabric's smoothness is a key factor in determining the quality of finished textile products and has great influence on the functionality of industrial textiles and high-end textile products. With popularization of the zero defect industrial concept, identifying and measuring defective material in the early stage of production is of great interest to the industry. In the current market, many systems are able to achieve automatic monitoring and control of fabric, paper, and nonwoven material during the entire production process, however online measurement of hairiness is still an open topic and highly desirable for industrial applications. We propose a computer vision approach to compute epipole by using variable homography, which can be used to measure emergent fiber length on textile fabrics. The main challenges addressed in this paper are the application of variable homography on textile monitoring and measurement, as well as the accuracy of the estimated calculation. We propose that a fibrous structure can be considered as a two-layer structure, and then we show how variable homography combined with epipolar geometry can estimate the length of the fiber defects. Simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of this method. The true length of selected fibers is measured precisely using a digital optical microscope, and then the same fibers are tested by our method. Our experimental results suggest that smoothness monitored by variable homography is an accurate and robust method of quality control for important industrial fabrics.

  10. Applications of computer-generated holograms for interferometric measurement of large aspheric optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burge, James H.

    1995-08-01

    Interferometric optical testing using computer-generated holograms (CGH's) has proven to give highly accurate measurements of aspheric surfaces. New applications of CGH interferometry were developed to support the fabrication of the large, steep mirrors required by the next generation ground-based telescopes. A new test to certify null correctors was designed and implemented that uses small CGH's fabricated onto flat surfaces. This test solves the difficult problem of verifying the accuracy of the null correctors that are used for measuring primary mirrors. Several new techniques for hologram fabrication have been explored for this application. A second new use of CGH's was developed for measuring convex secondary mirrors using test plates with holograms fabricated onto concave spherical reference surfaces. This test provides efficient and accurate measurement of large aspheric convex mirrors. A polar coordinate laser writing machine was built for fabricating these patterns onto curved optical surfaces up to 1.8 meters in diameter and as fast as f/1. These powerful new techniques have been implemented and optimized at the Steward Observatory Mirror Laboratory to guide mirror polishing for large telescope projects. They can also be readily applied for measuring small aspheres to high accuracy.

  11. Measurement techniques and application of electrical properties for nondestructive quality evaluation of foods-a review.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shyam Narayan; Narsaiah, K; Basediya, A L; Sharma, Rajiv; Jaiswal, Pranita; Kumar, Ramesh; Bhardwaj, Rishi

    2011-08-01

    Non-destructive systems are recent trends for quality evaluation of fruits and vegetables. Information on post-harvest variations in electrical properties is needed to develop new instruments for this purpose. Electrical properties are finding increasing application in agriculture and food processing industries. Knowledge of dielectric properties of foods as a function of moisture content and temperature is essential in the design and control of drying systems. As simple, rapid and non-destructive measuring techniques, dielectric spectroscopy provides information about the dielectric response of materials to electromagnetic field. Electrical properties of agricultural materials have been of interest for many years. The interest in dielectric properties of materials has historically been associated with the design of electrical equipment. This review paper covers theoretical aspects of different electrical properties, their measurement techniques, applications of dielectric properties in agriculture/food processing sector and potential applications of thermal imaging (TI) for quality and safety assessment in food processing. The values of dielectric properties of a number of products including food grains, fruits and vegetables, and meat and meat products are presented in table form. This comprehensive coverage will be useful for academic, scientific and industrial community in treating and applying the facts in developing/testing new processes and products based on electromagnetic energy application.

  12. Geometric Renyi divergence: A comparative measure with applications to atomic densities

    SciTech Connect

    Antolin, J.; Bouvrie, P. A.; Angulo, J. C.

    2011-09-15

    An alternative one-parameter measure of divergence is proposed, quantifying the discrepancy among general probability densities. Its main mathematical properties include (i) comparison among an arbitrary number of functions, (ii) the possibility of assigning different weights to each function according to its relevance on the comparative procedure, and (iii) ability to modify the relative contribution of different regions within the domain. Applications to the study of atomic density functions, in both conjugated spaces, show the versatility and universality of this divergence.

  13. Investigation of Sensor/Measurement Systems for Army Installation Quality Assurance Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    Poskin As the U.S. Army downsizes and many experienced ELECTE personnel leave the service, installation Directorates JAN 2 11994 of Engineering and Housing... downsizes and many experienced personnel leave the service, installation Directorates of Engineering and Housing (DEHs) must necessarily fulfill their mission...INVESTIGATION OF SENSOR/MEASUREMENT SYSTEMS FOR ARMY INSTALLATION QUALITY ASSURANCE APPLICATIONS 1 INTRODUCTION Background As the U.S. Army downsizes and many

  14. Full-Wave Based Validation of Stripline Field Applicator For Low Frequency Material Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    third edition, 2006. 9. Chen, C. K. Ong C. P. Neo V. V. Varadan, L. F. and Vijay K. Varadan. Microwave electronics : measurement and materials...12. Dvorak, Steven L. “Applications for Incomplete Lipschitz -Hankel Integrals in Electromagnetics”. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, 36(6...26– 32, Dec 1994. 13. Dvorak, Steven L. and Edward F. Kuester. “Numerical Computation of the In- complete Lipschitz -Hankel Integrals Jeo(a,z

  15. Two-Dimensional Signal Processing and Storage, and Theory and Applications of Electromagnetic Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Time Digital Signal Processing Systems Represented by Shift Invariant Flow Graphs" Ph.D. Thesis , Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia...Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing . 9 Minimum Redundancy Array Design This thesis project is directed at a study of the theory of non-uniform array...1 4 ,990i 0D TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIGNAL PROCESSING AND STORAGE AND THEORY AND APPLICATIONS OF ELECTROMAGNETIC 0 MEASUREMENTS January 1, 1990 GEORGIA

  16. Application of the electrostatic Thompson-Lampard theorem to resistivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareš, Jiří J.; Hubík, Pavel; Krištofik, Jozef

    2012-04-01

    A method for measurement of resistivity of flat samples and thin layers complementary to the well-known van der Pauw technique has been proposed. The method is based on the application of the Thompson-Lampard theorem of electrostatics used in metrology for the realization of calculable capacitor, according to which a large variety of electrode systems can be designed. A prototypic electrode arrangement is shown on which the practical performance of the method was tested.

  17. The application of acoustic emission technique to fatigue crack measurement. [in aluminum alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Crews, J. H., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The applicability of acoustic emission technique to measure fatigue cracks in aluminum alloy specimens was investigated. There are several variables, such as the metallurgical and the physical treatment of the specimen, that can affect the level of acoustic activity of a fatigue specimen. It is therefore recommended that the acoustic emission technique be supplemented by other nondestructive evaluation methods to obtain quantitative data on crack growth.

  18. Nonlinear ultrasonic pulsed measurements and applications to metal processing and fatigue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yost, William T.; Cantrell, John H.; Na, Jeong K.

    2001-04-01

    Nonlinear ultrasonics research at NASA-Langley Research Center emphasizes development of experimental techniques and modeling, with applications to metal fatigue and metals processing. This review work includes a summary of results from our recent efforts in technique refinement, modeling of fatigue related microstructure contributions, and measurements on fatigued turbine blades. Also presented are data on 17-4PH and 410-Cb stainless steels. The results are in good agreement with the models.

  19. Measurement and applications of long-range heteronuclear scalar couplings: recent experimental and theoretical developments.

    PubMed

    Nath, Nilamoni; Lokesh; Suryaprakash, Nagarajarao

    2012-02-01

    The use of long-range heteronuclear couplings, in association with (1)H-(1)H scalar couplings and NOE restraints, has acquired growing importance for the determination of the relative stereochemistry, and structural and conformational information of organic and biological molecules. However, the routine use of such couplings is hindered by the inherent difficulties in their measurement. Prior to the advancement in experimental techniques, both long-range homo- and heteronuclear scalar couplings were not easily accessible, especially for very large molecules. The development of a large number of multidimensional NMR experimental methodologies has alleviated the complications associated with the measurement of couplings of smaller strengths. Subsequent application of these methods and the utilization of determined J-couplings for structure calculations have revolutionized this area of research. Problems in organic, inorganic and biophysical chemistry have also been solved by utilizing the short- and long-range heteronuclear couplings. In this minireview, we discuss the advantages and limitations of a number of experimental techniques reported in recent times for the measurement of long-range heteronuclear couplings and a few selected applications of such couplings. This includes the study of medium- to larger-sized molecules in a variety of applications, especially in the study of hydrogen bonding in biological systems. The utilization of these couplings in conjunction with theoretical calculations to arrive at conclusions on the hyperconjugation, configurational analysis and the effect of the electronegativity of the substituents is also discussed.

  20. A multilocus linkage disequilibrium measure based on mutual information theory and its applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jianfeng; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2009-12-01

    Evaluating the patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is important for association mapping study as well as for studying the genomic architecture of human genome (e.g., haplotype block structures). Commonly used bi-allelic pairwise measures for assessing LD between two loci, such as r(2) and D', may not make full and efficient use of modern multilocus data. Though extended to multilocus scenarios, their performance is still questionable. Meanwhile, most existing measures for an entire multilocus region, such as normalized entropy difference, do not consider existence of LD heterogeneity across the region under investigation. Additionally, these existing multilocus measures cannot handle distant regions where long-range LD patterns may exist. In this study, we proposed a novel multilocus LD measure developed based on mutual information theory. Our proposed measure described LD pattern between two chromosome regions each of which may consist of multiple loci (including multi-allele loci). As such, the proposed measure can better characterize LD patterns between two arbitrary regions. As potential applications, we developed algorithms on the proposed measure for partitioning haplotype blocks and for selecting haplotype tagging SNPs (htSNPs), which were helpful for follow-up association tests. The results on both simulated and empirical data showed that our LD measure had distinct advantages over pairwise and other multilocus measures. First, our measure was more robust, and can capture comprehensively the LD information between neighboring as well as disjointed regions. Second, haplotype blocks were better described via our proposed measure. Furthermore, association tests with htSNPs from the proposed algorithm had improved power over tests on single markers and on haplotypes.

  1. Transgender individuals' workplace experiences: the applicability of sexual minority measures and models.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Melanie E; Velez, Brandon; DeBlaere, Cirleen; Moradi, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored whether 3 existing measures of workplace constructs germane to the experiences of sexual minority people could be modified to improve their applicability with transgender individuals. To this end, the Workplace Heterosexist Experiences Questionnaire (WHEQ; C. R. Waldo, 1999); the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgendered Climate Inventory (LGBTCI; B. J. Liddle, D. A. Luzzo, A. L. Hauenstein, & K. Schuck, 2004); and the Workplace Sexual Identity Management Measure (WSIMM; M. Z. Anderson, J. M. Croteau, Y. B. Chung, & T. M. DiStefano, 2001) were modified to explicitly address the experiences of transgender individuals. Data from a sample of 263 transgender individuals were used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the modified measures. Analyses of the structures of the modified measures (Transgender Forms [TF]) suggested an alternative 2-factor structure for the WHEQ-TF, but provided support for the previously observed unidimensional structure for the LGBTCI-TF, and a slightly modified 3-factor structure for the WSIMM-TF. Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients for scale or subscale items across the 3 measures were acceptable. Criterion-related validity was evident in theoretically consistent patterns of correlations between scores on the 3 modified measures and scores on indicators of job satisfaction and outness. These data provide preliminary support for transgender-specific versions of measures of 3 key constructs in the sexual minority vocational behavior research.

  2. Application of chromatic confocal displacement sensor in measurement of tip clearance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Chao; Li, Di; Fang, Jianguo; Zhang, Bin

    2016-10-01

    In the field of aeronautics, the tip clearance of rotor exerts a crucial influence on the performance of the aero engine. As defined as the radial distance between the top of the blade and the inner wall of the casing, the tip clearance of too large or small size will adversely affect the normal running of the engine. In order to realize accurate measurement of the tip clearance in a simple way, a non-contact measuring method by the chromatic confocal displacement sensor is proposed in the paper. The sensor possesses the advantages such as small volume, good signal-to-noise ratio, high accuracy and response frequency etc., which make it be widely used in engineering and industry. For testing the performance and potential application of the sensor, a simulation testing platform is established. In the platform, a simulation blisk is installed on the air bearing spindle and a chromatic confocal displacement sensor is fixed on the platform to measure the displacement variation of the blade tip, which can be used to characterize the variation of the tip clearance. In the simulation experiments, both of single and continuous measurement of the tip clearance of the 36 blades on the blisk is executed. As the results of experiments show, the chromatic confocal displacement sensor can meet the requirements of measuring task, in which both of high measuring efficiency and accuracy could be achieved. Therefore, the measuring method proposed in the paper can be utilized in the actual assembling sites of the aero engine.

  3. Development of high precision laser measurement to Space Debris and Applications in SHAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongping; Chen, Juping; Xiong, Yaoheng; Han, Xingwei

    2016-07-01

    Artificial space debris has become the focus during the space exploration because of producing the damage for the future active spacecrafts and high precision measurement for space debris are required for debris surveillance and collision avoidance. Laser ranging technology is inherently high accurate and will play an important role in precise orbit determination, accurate catalog of space debris. Shanghai Astronomical Observatory (SHAO) of CAS, has been developing the technology of laser measurement to space debris for several years. According to characteristics of laser echoes from space debris and the experiences of relevant activities, high repetition rate, high power laser system and low dark noise APD detector with high quantum efficiency and high transmissivity of narrow bandwidth spectral filter are applied to laser measurement to space debris in SHAO. With these configurations, great achievements of laser measurement to space debris are made with hundreds of passes of laser data from space debris in the distance between 500km and 2500km with Radar Cross Section (RCS) of more than 10 m^{2} to less than 0.5m^{2} at the measuring precision of less than 1m (RMS). For better application of laser ranging technology, Chinese Space Debris Observation network, consisting of Shanghai, Changchun and Kunming station, has been preliminary developed and the coordinated observation has been performed to increase the measuring efficiency for space debris. It is referred from data that laser ranging technology can be as the essential high accuracy measurement technology in the study of space debris.

  4. Property Values as a Measure of Neighborhoods: An Application of Hedonic Price Theory.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Tammy; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M; Ayers, Colby; Murdoch, James C; Yin, Wenyuan; Pruitt, Sandi L

    2016-07-01

    Researchers measuring relationships between neighborhoods and health have begun using property appraisal data as a source of information about neighborhoods. Economists have developed a rich tool kit to understand how neighborhood characteristics are quantified in appraisal values. This tool kit principally relies on hedonic (implicit) price models and has much to offer regarding the interpretation and operationalization of property appraisal data-derived neighborhood measures, which goes beyond the use of appraisal data as a measure of neighborhood socioeconomic status. We develop a theoretically informed hedonic-based neighborhood measure using residuals of a hedonic price regression applied to appraisal data in a single metropolitan area. We describe its characteristics, reliability in different types of neighborhoods, and correlation with other neighborhood measures (i.e., raw neighborhood appraisal values, census block group poverty, and observed property characteristics). We examine the association between all neighborhood measures and body mass index. The hedonic-based neighborhood measure was correlated in the expected direction with block group poverty rate and observed property characteristics. The neighborhood measure and average raw neighborhood appraisal value, but not census block group poverty, were associated with individual body mass index. We draw theoretically consistent methodology from the economics literature on hedonic price models to demonstrate how to leverage the implicit valuation of neighborhoods contained in publicly available appraisal data. Consistent measurement and application of the hedonic-based neighborhood measures in epidemiology will improve understanding of the relationships between neighborhoods and health. Researchers should proceed with a careful use of appraisal values utilizing theoretically informed methods such as this one.

  5. High-speed surface temperature measurements on plasma facing materials for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Araki, M.; Kobayashi, M.

    1996-01-01

    For the lifetime evaluation of plasma facing materials in fusion experimental machines, it is essential to investigate their surface behavior and their temperature responses during an off-normal event such as the plasma disruptions. An infrared thermometer with a sampling speed as fast as 1{times}10{sup {minus}6} s/data, namely, the high-speed infrared thermometer (HSIR), has been developed by the National Research Laboratory of Metrology in Japan. To evaluate an applicability of the newly developed HSIR on the surface temperature measurement of plasma facing materials, high heat flux beam irradiation experiments have been performed with three different materials under the surface heat fluxes up to 170 MW/m{sup 2} for 0.04 s in a hydrogen ion beam test facility at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. As for the results, HSIR can be applicable for measuring the surface temperature responses of the armor tile materials with a little modification. It is also confirmed that surface temperatures measured with the HSIR thermometer show good agreement with the analytical results for stainless steel and carbon based materials at a temperature range of up to 2500{degree}C. However, for aluminum the HSIR could measure the temperature of the high dense vapor cloud which was produced during the heating due to lower melting temperature. Based on the result, a multichannel arrayed HSIR thermometer has been designed and fabricated. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. The Application Of A Videometric Analysis System To Biomechanical Gait Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Paul A.

    1984-11-01

    In biomechanics research and in many sports medicine applications, it is desirable to make precise measurements of the kinematic parameters of body motions. An analysis of these parameters can be used to refine athletic performance, to design sports equipment, to develop orthotics, and to improve the practice of sports medicine. In this paper a videometric analysis system is described that can meet the requirements of a broad range of clinical and research applications. This system consists of state-of-the-art video components, including a shuttered video camera and a high resolution electronic cursor system, as well as a microcomputer and appropriate software for interactively making measurements, displaying results and producing reports. The use of this system for making gait measurements of athletes running on a treadmill is described. Time series of rearfoot angle measurements, made during the support phase of a gait are produced by the system. Individual gaits can be analyzed, or a number of gaits from one or more athletes can be grouped for statistical evaluation. An archival storage and retrieval facility permits the development and use of an extensive data base.

  7. Application of near-infrared spectroscopy to measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroki; Obata, Akiko N; Moda, Ichiro; Ozaki, Kazutaka; Yasuhara, Takaomi; Yamamoto, Yukari; Kiguchi, Masashi; Maki, Atsushi; Kubota, Kisou; Koizumi, Hideaki

    2011-04-01

    We aim to test the feasibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for indirect measurement of human saliva secretion in response to taste stimuli for potential application to organoleptic testing. We use an NIRS system to measure extracranial hemodynamics (Hb-signals around the temples) of healthy participants when taste stimuli are taken in their mouths. First, the Hb-signals and volume of expelled saliva (stimulated by distilled-water or sucrose-solution intake) are simultaneously measured and large Hb-signal changes in response to the taste stimuli (Hb-responses) are found. Statistical analysis show that both the Hb response and saliva volume are larger for the sucrose solution than for the distilled water with a significant correlation between them (r = 0.81). The effects of swallowing on the Hb-signals are investigated. Similar Hb responses, differing from the sucrose solution and distilled water, are obtained even though the participants swallow the mouth contents. Finally, functional magnetic resonance imaging is used to identify possible sources of the Hb signals corresponding to salivation. Statistical analysis indicates similar responses in the extracranial regions, mainly around the middle meningeal artery. In conclusion, the identified correlation between extracranial hemodynamics and the saliva volume suggests that NIRS is applicable to the measurement of hemodynamic signals accompanying stimulated saliva secretion.

  8. Application of Thin-Film Thermocouples to Localized Heat Transfer Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepicovsky, J.; Bruckner, R. J.; Smith, F. A.

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes a proof-of-concept experiment on thin-film thermocouples used for localized heat transfer measurements applicable to experiments on hot parts of turbine engines. The paper has three main parts. The first part describes the thin-film sensors and manufacturing procedures. Attention is paid to connections between thin-film thermocouples and lead wires, which has been a source of problems in the past. The second part addresses the test arrangement and facility used for the heat transfer measurements modeling the conditions for upcoming warm turbine tests at NASA LeRC. The paper stresses the advantages of a modular approach to the test rig design. Finally, we present the results of bulk and local heat flow rate measurements, as well as overall heat transfer coefficients obtained from measurements in a narrow passage with an aspect ratio of 11.8. The comparison of bulk and local heat flow rates confirms applicability of thin-film thermocouples to upcoming warm turbine tests.

  9. Measurements of Acoustic Properties of Porous and Granular Materials and Application to Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Junhong; Palumbo, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    For application of porous and granular materials to vibro-acoustic controls, a finite dynamic strength of the solid component (frame) is an important design factor. The primary goal of this study was to investigate structural vibration damping through this frame wave propagation for various poroelastic materials. A measurement method to investigate the vibration characteristics of the frame was proposed. The measured properties were found to follow closely the characteristics of the viscoelastic materials - the dynamic modulus increased with frequency and the degree of the frequency dependence was determined by its loss factor. The dynamic stiffness of hollow cylindrical beams containing porous and granular materials as damping treatment was measured also. The data were used to extract the damping materials characteristics using the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The results suggested that the acoustic structure interaction between the frame and the structure enhances the dissipation of the vibration energy significantly.

  10. Thermographic Phosphors for High Temperature Measurements: Principles, Current State of the Art and Recent Applications

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Ashiq Hussain; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the state of phosphor thermometry, focusing on developments in the past 15 years. The fundamental principles and theory are presented, and the various spectral and temporal modes, including the lifetime decay, rise time and intensity ratio, are discussed. The entire phosphor measurement system, including relative advantages to conventional methods, choice of phosphors, bonding techniques, excitation sources and emission detection, is reviewed. Special attention is given to issues that may arise at high temperatures. A number of recent developments and applications are surveyed, with examples including: measurements in engines, hypersonic wind tunnel experiments, pyrolysis studies and droplet/spray/gas temperature determination. They show the technique is flexible and successful in measuring temperatures where conventional methods may prove to be unsuitable. PMID:27873836

  11. The clinical application of pulse contour cardiac output and intrathoracic volume measurements in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Nicky A; Braaf, Sandra C

    2006-08-01

    Cardiac output (CO) determination by pulmonary artery (PA) catheter has increasingly been criticised within the literature due to its invasive nature and poor correlation between the pressure measurements and intravascular volume status in mechanically ventilated patients. Consequently, alternative less invasive technologies to PA catheterisation are emerging within intensive care. One such novel technology are pulse contour CO (PCCO) systems. They establish comprehensive and continuous haemodynamic monitoring utilising a central venous catheter (CVC) and an arterial line. Furthermore, a key feature of this technology is its ability to produce intrathoracic volume measurements which may provide a better estimation of cardiac preload as well as indicate the presence and severity of pulmonary oedema. This article aims to discuss the theoretical basis and clinical application of PCCO systems, how PCCO systems differ from PA catheters and how the intrathoracic volume measurements are derived. Understanding these advanced concepts will ensure that clinicians are able to employ this innovative monitoring technology more effectively.

  12. Application of PSP to Surface Pressure Measurement in High Knudsen Number Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hideo; Niimi, Tomohide; Hirako, Madoka; Oshima, Yusuke

    2005-05-01

    The pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique has the capability to be applied to high Knudsen number flows, such as low density gas flows, micro-flows, and so on. In this study, to inspect the feasibility of PSP for measurement of pressure on a solid surface in the high Knudsen number flows, fundamental properties of three types of PSP [PdTFPP, PdOEP and PtTFPP bound by poly(TMSP)] are examined especially in the range of pressure below 130 Pa (about 1 Torr). The pressure sensitivity against nitrogen monoxide is also examined for the above PSPs, to develop a technique for the composite measurement of the flow field structure and the surface pressure, using NO-LIF and PSP, respectively. As an application of PSP to low density gas flows, we measure the pressure distribution on a jet-impinging solid surface using PdOEP/poly(TMSP) with very high pressure sensitivity.

  13. Thermographic Phosphors for High Temperature Measurements: Principles, Current State of the Art and Recent Applications.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Ashiq Hussain; Kontis, Konstantinos

    2008-09-15

    This paper reviews the state of phosphor thermometry, focusing on developments in the past 15 years. The fundamental principles and theory are presented, and the various spectral and temporal modes, including the lifetime decay, rise time and intensity ratio, are discussed. The entire phosphor measurement system, including relative advantages to conventional methods, choice of phosphors, bonding techniques, excitation sources and emission detection, is reviewed. Special attention is given to issues that may arise at high temperatures. A number of recent developments and applications are surveyed, with examples including: measurements in engines, hypersonic wind tunnel experiments, pyrolysis studies and droplet/spray/gas temperature determination. They show the technique is flexible and successful in measuring temperatures where conventional methods may prove to be unsuitable.

  14. Application of the SEM to the measurement of solar cell parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weizer, V. G.; Andrews, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    A pair of techniques are described which make use of the SEM to measure, respectively, the minority carrier diffusion length and the metallurgical junction depth in silicon solar cells. The former technique permits the measurement of the true bulk diffusion length through the application of highly doped field layers to the back surfaces of the cells being investigated. The technique yields an absolute value of the diffusion length from a knowledge of the collected fraction of the injected carriers and the cell thickness. It is shown that the secondary emission contrast observed in the SEM on a reverse-biased diode can depict the location of the metallurgical junction if the diode has been prepared with the proper beveled geometry. The SEM provides the required contrast and the option of high magnification, permitting the measurement of extremely shallow junction depths.

  15. RF/microwave non-destructive measurements of electrical properties of semiconductor wafers for thermophotovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saroop, S.; Borrego, J.M.; Gutmann, R.J.

    1997-05-01

    A radio-frequency/microwave measurement system has been designed for non-contacting determination of sheet resistance and excess carrier lifetime of low-bandgap materials and junctions, specifically GaSb-based alloys for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. The design incorporates RF circuitry in the 100--500 MHz frequency range and utilizes a Q-switched YAG laser at 1.32 microns to photo-generate electron-hole pairs and conductivity modulate the material and/or junction under test. Supplementary measurements with a GaAs pulsed diode laser at 904 nm provides a faster transient response with near-surface photogeneration. Initial measurements on GaSb substrates, Zn-diffused materials and epitaxially grown layers are presented and discussed.

  16. A novel image-based BRDF measurement system and its application to human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bintz, Jeffrey R.; Mendenhall, Michael J.; Marciniak, Michael A.; Butler, Samuel D.; Lloyd, James Tommy

    2016-09-01

    Human skin detection is an important first step in search and rescue (SAR) scenarios. Previous research performed human skin detection through an application specific camera system that ex- ploits the spectral properties of human skin at two visible and two near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. The current theory assumes human skin is diffuse; however, it is observed that human skin exhibits specular and diffuse reflectance properties. This paper presents a novel image-based bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurement system, and applies it to the collection of human skin BRDF. The system uses a grid projecting laser and a novel signal processing chain to extract the surface normal from each grid location. Human skin BRDF measurements are shown for a variety of melanin content and hair coverage at the four spectral channels needed for human skin detection. The NIR results represent a novel contribution to the existing body of human skin BRDF measurements.

  17. A review of the application, feasibility, and the psychometric properties of the individualized measures in cancer.

    PubMed

    Aburub, Ala' S; Mayo, Nancy E

    2017-05-01

    To identify from the published literature the feasibility and the application of the individualized measures [Patient Generated Index (PGI), Schedule for the Evaluation of Individual Quality of Life (SEIQOL), and the short form of it (the direct weighting SEIQOL-DW)] in the context of cancer and to summarize the evidence on the psychometric properties of these measures. Ovid Medline, PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL were searched up to April 2016. All studies were included if they reported information about the psychometric properties of the individualized measures and included patients diagnosed with any type of cancer at any age. Effect size (ES) was calculated to test for the responsiveness. Fifty-four full articles were reviewed. Full-text assessment of these articles resulted in 27 eligible studies that were included in our analysis. The majority of the studies (81%) reported data on the SEIQOL-DW, and only 15% on the PGI. Fourteen areas of quality-of-life (QOL) concerns were identified by patients using the PGI with the top 4 being family (90%), health (85%), finance (85%), and work (80%). At the global level, the correlation between the individualized and standard measures ranged from 0.45 to 0.49 and, at the symptom level, from 0.26 to 0.51. The ES of the individualized measures was high (ranged from 0.98 to 1.0) in the studies that expected high positive change compared to standard QOL measures (ES = 0.1). Individualized measures are feasible and acceptable among people with cancer and could easily be incorporated clinically and used in a research context. Individualized measures are sensitive to change and cover a wide range of patients QOL concerns in comparison with standard measures.

  18. Clinical applications of high-speed blood flow measurements with diffuse correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Baker, Wesley B.; Gannon, Kimberly; Mullen, Michael T.; Detre, John A.; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2017-02-01

    Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) is an increasingly popular non-invasive optical technique to clinically measure deep tissue blood flow, albeit at slow measurement rates of 0.5-1 Hz. We recently reported the development of a new `fast' DCS instrument that continuously measures blood flow at 50-100 Hz (simultaneously from 8 channels), using conventional DCS sources/detectors, and optimized software computations. A particularly interesting result was our ability to optically record pulsatile micro-vascular blood flow waveforms, and therein readily identify high frequency features such as the dicrotic notch. Here, we showcase the utility and potential of high-speed measurements of blood flow (and arterial blood pressure) in a few clinical applications. First, we employ the fast-DCS instrumentation to measure cerebral autoregulation (CVAR) dynamics. Cerebral autoregulation refers to the mechanism by which cerebral blood flow (CBF) is maintained during fluctuations in blood pressure; CVAR is impaired in the injured brain. We derive an index of autoregulation by measuring the rates of decrease (and recovery) of blood flow and blood pressure following a sudden, induced change in systemic blood pressure (e.g., bilateral thigh cuff deflation). Our pilot experiments in healthy volunteers show that DCS measured rates of micro-vascular regulation are comparable to conventional large vessel regulatory metrics (e.g., measured with transcranial Doppler ultrasound). Second, we utilized pulsatile blood flow oscillations in cerebral arteries to estimate the critical closing pressure (CrCP), i.e., the arterial blood pressure at which CBF approaches zero. Pilot experiments in healthy subjects show good agreement between CrCP measured with DCS and transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

  19. Applicability of concentrations obtained by working environment measurement to assessment of personal exposure concentrations of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shinobu; Natsumeda, Shuichiro; Hara, Kunio; Yoshida, Satoru; Sakurai, Haruhiko; Ichiba, Masayoshi

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the applicability of Japanese working environment measurements to assessment of personal exposure concentrations of chemicals by comparing both levels of concentrations. The chemicals measured in this study comprised eight kinds of vaporous chemicals as well as two kinds of chemicals in dust. Personal exposure measurements, Japanese working environment measurements and spot sampling measurements were undertaken in 70 companies. Personal exposure concentrations and the arithmetic mean value (EA2) of the working environment measurement concentrations obtained according to the Japanese working environment control system had statistically positive correlations (r=0.732-0.893, p<0.01) after logarithmic transformation. The 5th to 95th percentile values of personal exposure concentrations divided by EA2 ranged from 0.17 to 7.69 for vaporous chemicals and from 0.27 to 18.06 for dust. There was a relatively large difference between the personal exposure concentrations and the EA2 obtained in weighing, forming and bonding use-processes. In such cases, the B-value measured in ten minutes in the Japanese working environment control system, which is almost the same as the spot measurement concentration in this study, is supposed to be substituted for the EA2 value. Ten times the EA2 of the working environment measurement concentrations, or ten times the B-value, obtained according to the Japanese working environment control system can be used to conservatively estimate the personal exposure concentrations in EU workplaces as well as in occupational exposure scenarios of the Regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals.

  20. Measuring the temperature of high-luminous exitance surfaces with infrared thermography in LED applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Indika U.; Narendran, Nadarajah

    2016-09-01

    Recently, light-emitting diode (LED) lighting systems have become popular due to their increased system performance. LED lighting system performance is affected by heat; therefore, it is important to know the temperature of a target surface or bulk medium in the LED system. In-situ temperature measurements of a surface or bulk medium using intrusive methods cause measurement errors. Typically, thermocouples are used in these applications to measure the temperatures of the various components in an LED system. This practice leads to significant errors, specifically when measuring surfaces with high-luminous exitance. In the experimental study presented in this paper, an infrared camera was used as an alternative to temperature probes in measuring LED surfaces with high-luminous exitance. Infrared thermography is a promising method because it does not respond to the visible radiation spectrum in the range of 0.38 to 0.78 micrometers. Usually, infrared thermography equipment is designed to operate either in the 3 to 5 micrometer or the 7 to 14 micrometer wavelength bands. To characterize the LED primary lens, the surface emissivity of the LED phosphor surface, the temperature dependence of the surface emissivity, the temperature of the target surface compared to the surrounding temperature, the field of view of the target, and the aim angle to the target surface need to be investigated, because these factors could contribute towards experimental errors. In this study, the effects of the above-stated parameters on the accuracy of the measured surface temperature were analyzed and reported.

  1. Application of diffusive gradient in thin films technique (DGT) to measurement of mercury in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Docekalová, H; Divis, P

    2005-03-15

    The diffusive gradient in thin films (DGT) technique was investigated and used to measure mercury concentration in river water. Mercury ions are covalently bound to amide nitrogen groups of commonly used polyacrylamide, which makes this gel unsuitable as a diffusive medium. In contrast, agarose gel was found as the diffusive gel for mercury measurements. Basic performance tests of agarose DGT verified the applicability of Fick's first law for DGT measurements. Two selective resins, Chelex-100 with iminodiacetic groups and Spheron-Thiol with thiol groups were used. The measured diffusion coefficient in agarose gel was close to that in water. The concentration of mercury in Svitava river measured by DGT with Speron-Thiol resin gel was higher (0.0116 +/- 0.0009mugl(-1)) than those obtained by Chelex-100 (0.0042 +/- 0.0005mugl(-1)). Different capture efficiencies of two adsorbents enable to estimate fractions of mercury bonded in different complexes in the river water. The concentrations of mercury found by DGT both Chelex-100 and Speron-Thiol resin gels are much lower than that measured directly in the river water (0.088 +/- 0.012mugl(-1)). This difference indicates that DGT concerns inorganic ions and labile species only, and that it is not able to include inert organic species and colloids.

  2. Critical issues for the application of integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies to inertial measurement units

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.; Ellis, J.R.; Montague, S.; Allen, J.J.

    1997-03-01

    One of the principal applications of monolithically integrated micromechanical/microelectronic systems has been accelerometers for automotive applications. As integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies such as those developed by U.C. Berkeley, Analog Devices, and Sandia National Laboratories mature, additional systems for more sensitive inertial measurements will enter the commercial marketplace. In this paper, the authors will examine key technology design rules which impact the performance and cost of inertial measurement devices manufactured in integrated MEMS/CMOS technologies. These design parameters include: (1) minimum MEMS feature size, (2) minimum CMOS feature size, (3) maximum MEMS linear dimension, (4) number of mechanical MEMS layers, (5) MEMS/CMOS spacing. In particular, the embedded approach to integration developed at Sandia will be examined in the context of these technology features. Presently, this technology offers MEMS feature sizes as small as 1 {micro}m, CMOS critical dimensions of 1.25 {micro}m, MEMS linear dimensions of 1,000 {micro}m, a single mechanical level of polysilicon, and a 100 {micro}m space between MEMS and CMOS. This is applicable to modern precision guided munitions.

  3. A cryogenic measurement setup for microelectromechanical systems used in space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuang, Wen-Hsien; Luger, Thomas; Ghodssi, Reza; Fettig, Rainer K.

    2005-04-01

    We present a cryogenic measurement setup installed inside a focused-ion-beam (FIB) system to characterize and microrepair microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) for space applications. The setup allows testing of MEMS devices under vacuum condition of 10-6 Torr at variable temperatures ranging from 298 to 20 K. In the experiment, a lead-zirconate-titanate translator powered by a function generator and a dc voltage is utilized as an actuator, and a thin-film thermo-resistor fabricated with test devices is used as an integrated temperature sensor. Additionally, a motorized x-y-z stage is installed to achieve highly accurate positioning function. Resonant techniques and bending tests based on the designed setup are developed to measure the mechanical properties of silicon nitride thin films at cryogenic temperatures. Combined with the functions of the FIB system, this setup also demonstrates the capability to microrepair microshutter arrays, programmable field selectors in the NASA James Webb Space Telescopes. The presented test setup exhibits its feasibility to test MEMS devices needed for the space applications and can be extended to other cryogenic applications.

  4. Prospects for pratical and economic FOS solutions for automotive measurement applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGeehin, Peter

    2000-12-01

    The advancement of fibre optics in sensing has been inhibited in the last two decades by the lack of availability of suitable components. Whilst transduction principles have been fully explored, and some key applications (for example fibre optic gyroscopes) have moved forward, even the up-take of the ubiquitous fibre Bragg gratings as sensors is being inhibited by both practical and cost considerations. Optical sensors, it seems, can be created, but the means of extracting the information from them, building on the precision and systems advantages that fibre optics should bestow, has proved difficult. If sources, detectors and essential signal processing can be combined in such a way that, essentially, the benefits that fibre optics bestow in telecoms networks can be harnessed for sensing, then fibre optic sensing can truly be said to have realized its promise. Integrated optics modules employing silicon as both substrate and waveguide are being developed and deployed rapidly for telecommunications applications, through which they will become cost effective quite quickly. They have also been demonstrated as useful modules when employed in sensing systems as, for example, Sagnac and white light interferometers. In the latter form they have been employed to process signals in an optical system measuring the cylinder pressure in four-cylinder internal combustion engine. It is argued that this specific application, demanding as it is, illustrates the generic potential of such modules for broad application in many sensing situations.

  5. AcceleRater: a web application for supervised learning of behavioral modes from acceleration measurements.

    PubMed

    Resheff, Yehezkel S; Rotics, Shay; Harel, Roi; Spiegel, Orr; Nathan, Ran

    2014-01-01

    The study of animal movement is experiencing rapid progress in recent years, forcefully driven by technological advancement. Biologgers with Acceleration (ACC) recordings are becoming increasingly popular in the fields of animal behavior and movement ecology, for estimating energy expenditure and identifying behavior, with prospects for other potential uses as well. Supervised learning of behavioral modes from acceleration data has shown promising results in many species, and for a diverse range of behaviors. However, broad implementation of this technique in movement ecology research has been limited due to technical difficulties and complicated analysis, deterring many practitioners from applying this approach. This highlights the need to develop a broadly applicable tool for classifying behavior from acceleration data. Here we present a free-access python-based web application called AcceleRater, for rapidly training, visualizing and using models for supervised learning of behavioral modes from ACC measurements. We introduce AcceleRater, and illustrate its successful application for classifying vulture behavioral modes from acceleration data obtained from free-ranging vultures. The seven models offered in the AcceleRater application achieved overall accuracy of between 77.68% (Decision Tree) and 84.84% (Artificial Neural Network), with a mean overall accuracy of 81.51% and standard deviation of 3.95%. Notably, variation in performance was larger between behavioral modes than between models. AcceleRater provides the means to identify animal behavior, offering a user-friendly tool for ACC-based behavioral annotation, which will be dynamically upgraded and maintained.

  6. Application of TL dosemeters for dose distribution measurements at high temperatures in nuclear reactors.

    PubMed

    Osvay, M; Deme, S

    2006-01-01

    Al2O3:Mg,Y ceramic thermoluminescence dosemeters were developed at the Institute of Isotopes for high dose applications at room temperatures. The glow curve of Al2O3:Mg,Y exhibits two peaks--one at 250 degrees C (I) and another peak at approximately 400 degrees C (II). In order to extend the application of these dosemeters to high temperatures, the effect of irradiation temperature was investigated using temperature controlled heating system during high dose irradiation at various temperatures (20-100 degrees C). The new calibration and measuring method has been successfully applied for dose mapping within the hermetic zone of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant even at high temperature parts of blocks.

  7. A Kalman-filtering approach to high dynamic range imaging for measurement applications.

    PubMed

    Dedrick, Eric; Lau, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    High dynamic range imaging (HDRI) methods in computational photography address situations where the dynamic range of a scene exceeds what can be captured by an image sensor in a single exposure. HDRI techniques have also been used to construct radiance maps in measurement applications; unfortunately, the design and evaluation of HDRI algorithms for use in these applications have received little attention. In this paper, we develop a novel HDRI technique based on pixel-by-pixel Kalman filtering and evaluate its performance using objective metrics that this paper also introduces. In the presented experiments, this new technique achieves as much as 9.4-dB improvement in signal-to-noise ratio and can achieve as much as a 29% improvement in radiometric accuracy over a classic method.

  8. Core based stress measurements: A guide to their application. Topical report, July 1991--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Warpinski, N.R.; Teufel, L.W.; Lorenz, J.C.; Holcomb, D.J.

    1993-06-01

    This report is a summary and a guide to core-based stress measurements. It covers anelastic strain recovery, circumferential velocity anistropy, differential strain curve analysis, differential wave velocity analysis, petrographic examination of microcracks, overcoring of archieved core, measurements of the Kaiser effect, strength anisotropy tests, and analysis of coring-induced fractures. The report begins with a discussion of the stored energy within rocks, its release during coring, and the subsequent formation of relaxation microcracks. The interogation or monitoring of these microcracks form the basis for most of the core-based techniques (except for the coring induced fractures). Problems that can arise due to coring or fabric are also presented, Coring induced fractures are discussed in some detail, with the emphasis placed on petal (and petal-centerline) fractures and scribe-knife fractures. For each technique, a short description of the physics and the analysis procedures is given. In addition, several example applications have also been selected (where available) to illustrate pertinent effects. This report is intended to be a guide to the proper application and diagnosis of core-based stress measurement procedures.

  9. Development and Application of Integrated Optical Sensors for Intense E-Field Measurement

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Rong; Wang, Bo; Niu, Ben; Yu, Zhanqing

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of intense E-fields is a fundamental need in various research areas. Integrated optical E-field sensors (IOESs) have important advantages and are potentially suitable for intense E-field detection. This paper comprehensively reviews the development and applications of several types of IOESs over the last 30 years, including the Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI), coupler interferometer (CI) and common path interferometer (CPI). The features of the different types of IOESs are compared, showing that the MZI has higher sensitivity, the CI has a controllable optical bias, and the CPI has better temperature stability. More specifically, the improvement work of applying IOESs to intense E-field measurement is illustrated. Finally, typical uses of IOESs in the measurement of intense E-fields are demonstrated, including application areas such as E-fields with different frequency ranges in high-voltage engineering, simulated nuclear electromagnetic pulse in high-power electromagnetic pulses, and ion-accelerating field in high-energy physics. PMID:23112663

  10. An iPhone application for upper arm posture and movement measurements.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liyun; Grooten, Wilhelmus J A; Forsman, Mikael

    2017-03-06

    There is a need for objective methods for upper arm elevation measurements for accurate and convenient risk assessments. The aims of this study were (i) to compare a newly developed iOS application (iOS) for measuring upper arm elevation and angular velocity with a reference optical tracking system (OTS), and (ii) to compare the accuracy of the iOS incorporating a gyroscope and an accelerometer with using only an accelerometer, which is standard for inclinometry. The iOS-OTS limits of agreement for static postures (9 subjects) were -4.6° and 4.8°. All root mean square differences in arm swings and two simulated work tasks were <6.0°, and all mean correlation coefficients were >0.98. The mean absolute iOS-OTS difference of median angular velocity was <13.1°/s, which was significantly lower than only using an accelerometer (<43.5°/s). The accuracy of this iOS application compares well to that of today's research methods and it can be useful for practical upper arm measurements.

  11. State-Space Analysis of Granger-Geweke Causality Measures with Application to fMRI.

    PubMed

    Solo, Victor

    2016-05-01

    The recent interest in the dynamics of networks and the advent, across a range of applications, of measuring modalities that operate on different temporal scales have put the spotlight on some significant gaps in the theory of multivariate time series. Fundamental to the description of network dynamics is the direction of interaction between nodes, accompanied by a measure of the strength of such interactions. Granger causality and its associated frequency domain strength measures (GEMs) (due to Geweke) provide a framework for the formulation and analysis of these issues. In pursuing this setup, three significant unresolved issues emerge. First, computing GEMs involves computing submodels of vector time series models, for which reliable methods do not exist. Second, the impact of filtering on GEMs has never been definitively established. Third, the impact of downsampling on GEMs has never been established. In this work, using state-space methods, we resolve all these issues and illustrate the results with some simulations. Our analysis is motivated by some problems in (fMRI) brain imaging, to which we apply it, but it is of general applicability.

  12. Measuring adsorption, diffusion and flow in chemical engineering: applications of magnetic resonance to porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladden, Lynn F.; Mitchell, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) techniques are increasingly used to improve our understanding of the multi-component, multi-phase processes encountered in chemical engineering. This review brings together many of the MR techniques used, and often developed specifically, to study chemical engineering systems and, in particular, processes occurring within porous media. Pulse sequences for relaxometry, pulsed field gradient measurements of diffusion, imaging and velocimetry measurements are described. Recent applications of these MR pulse sequences to microporous, mesoporous and macroporous structures are then reviewed. Considering the microporous and mesoporous systems, we focus attention on studies of rock cores, manufactured materials such as cement and gypsum plaster, and catalysts. When considering macroporous structures, the transport through packed beds of particles typical of fixed-bed catalytic reactors is reviewed; a brief overview of the increasing research interest in gas-solid fluidized beds is also presented. We highlight the field of sparse k-space sampling as an area that is in its infancy and suggest that, combined with Bayesian methods, it will offer new opportunities in both extending the application of high-field MR techniques to chemical engineering and increasing the range of measurements that can be carried out using low-field hardware.

  13. State-Space Analysis of Granger-Geweke Causality Measures with Application to fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Solo, Victor

    2017-01-01

    The recent interest in the dynamics of networks and the advent, across a range of applications, of measuring modalities that operate on different temporal scales have put the spotlight on some significant gaps in the theory of multivariate time series. Fundamental to the description of network dynamics is the direction of interaction between nodes, accompanied by a measure of the strength of such interactions. Granger causality and its associated frequency domain strength measures (GEMs) (due to Geweke) provide a framework for the formulation and analysis of these issues. In pursuing this setup, three significant unresolved issues emerge. First, computing GEMs involves computing submodels of vector time series models, for which reliable methods do not exist. Second, the impact of filtering on GEMs has never been definitively established. Third, the impact of downsampling on GEMs has never been established. In this work, using state-space methods, we resolve all these issues and illustrate the results with some simulations. Our analysis is motivated by some problems in (fMRI) brain imaging, to which we apply it, but it is of general applicability. PMID:26942749

  14. Application of neodymium isotope ratio measurements for the origin assessment of uranium ore concentrates.

    PubMed

    Krajkó, Judit; Varga, Zsolt; Yalcintas, Ezgi; Wallenius, Maria; Mayer, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    A novel procedure has been developed for the measurement of (143)Nd/(144)Nd isotope ratio in various uranium-bearing materials, such as uranium ores and ore concentrates (UOC) in order to evaluate the usefulness and applicability of variations of (143)Nd/(144)Nd isotope ratio for provenance assessment in nuclear forensics. Neodymium was separated and pre-concentrated by extraction chromatography and then the isotope ratios were measured by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The method was validated by the measurement of standard reference materials (La Jolla, JB-2 and BCR-2) and the applicability of the procedure was demonstrated by the analysis of uranium samples of world-wide origin. The investigated samples show distinct (143)Nd/(144)Nd ratio depending on the ore type, deposit age and Sm/Nd ratio. Together with other characteristics of the material in question, the Nd isotope ratio is a promising signature for nuclear forensics and suggests being indicative of the source material, the uranium ore.

  15. Ultra-high Temperature Emittance Measurements for Space and Missile Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Jan; Crandall, David

    2009-01-01

    Advanced modeling and design efforts for many aerospace components require high temperature emittance data. Applications requiring emittance data include propulsion systems, radiators, aeroshells, heatshields/thermal protection systems, and leading edge surfaces. The objective of this work is to provide emittance data at ultra-high temperatures. MSFC has a new instrument for the measurement of emittance at ultra-high temperatures, the Ultra-High Temperature Emissometer System (Ultra-HITEMS). AZ Technology Inc. developed the instrument, designed to provide emittance measurements over the temperature range 700-3500K. The Ultra-HITEMS instrument measures the emittance of samples, heated by lasers, in vacuum, using a blackbody source and a Fourier Transform Spectrometer. Detectors in a Nicolet 6700 FT-IR spectrometer measure emittance over the spectral range of 0.4-25 microns. Emitted energy from the specimen and output from a Mikron M390S blackbody source at the same temperature with matched collection geometry are measured. Integrating emittance over the spectral range yields the total emittance. The ratio provides a direct measure of total hemispherical emittance. Samples are heated using lasers. Optical pyrometry provides temperature data. Optical filters prevent interference from the heating lasers. Data for Inconel 718 show excellent agreement with results from literature and ASTM 835. Measurements taken from levitated spherical specimens provide total hemispherical emittance data; measurements taken from flat specimens mounted in the chamber provide near-normal emittance data. Data from selected characterization studies will be presented. The Ultra-HITEMS technique could advance space and missile technologies by advancing the knowledge base and the technology readiness level for ultra-high temperature materials.

  16. Measurements of isocenter path characteristics of the gantry rotation axis with a smartphone application

    SciTech Connect

    Schiefer, H. Peters, S.; Plasswilm, L.; Ingulfsen, N.; Kluckert, J.

    2015-03-15

    Purpose: For stereotactic radiosurgery, the AAPM Report No. 54 [AAPM Task Group 42 (AAPM, 1995)] requires the overall stability of the isocenter (couch, gantry, and collimator) to be within a 1 mm radius. In reality, a rotating system has no rigid axis and thus no isocenter point which is fixed in space. As a consequence, the isocenter concept is reviewed here. It is the aim to develop a measurement method following the revised definitions. Methods: The mechanical isocenter is defined here by the point which rotates on the shortest path in the room coordinate system. The path is labeled as “isocenter path.” Its center of gravity is assumed to be the mechanical isocenter. Following this definition, an image-based and radiation-free measurement method was developed. Multiple marker pairs in a plane perpendicular to the assumed gantry rotation axis of a linear accelerator are imaged with a smartphone application from several rotation angles. Each marker pair represents an independent measuring system. The room coordinates of the isocenter path and the mechanical isocenter are calculated based on the marker coordinates. The presented measurement method is by this means strictly focused on the mechanical isocenter. Results: The measurement result is available virtually immediately following completion of measurement. When 12 independent measurement systems are evaluated, the standard deviations of the isocenter path points and mechanical isocenter coordinates are 0.02 and 0.002 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The measurement is highly accurate, time efficient, and simple to adapt. It is therefore suitable for regular checks of the mechanical isocenter characteristics of the gantry and collimator rotation axis. When the isocenter path is reproducible and its extent is in the range of the needed geometrical accuracy, it should be taken into account in the planning process. This is especially true for stereotactic treatments and radiosurgery.

  17. Measurements of isocenter path characteristics of the gantry rotation axis with a smartphone application.

    PubMed

    Schiefer, H; Ingulfsen, N; Kluckert, J; Peters, S; Plasswilm, L

    2015-03-01

    For stereotactic radiosurgery, the AAPM Report No. 54 [AAPM Task Group 42 (AAPM, 1995)] requires the overall stability of the isocenter (couch, gantry, and collimator) to be within a 1 mm radius. In reality, a rotating system has no rigid axis and thus no isocenter point which is fixed in space. As a consequence, the isocenter concept is reviewed here. It is the aim to develop a measurement method following the revised definitions. The mechanical isocenter is defined here by the point which rotates on the shortest path in the room coordinate system. The path is labeled as "isocenter path." Its center of gravity is assumed to be the mechanical isocenter. Following this definition, an image-based and radiation-free measurement method was developed. Multiple marker pairs in a plane perpendicular to the assumed gantry rotation axis of a linear accelerator are imaged with a smartphone application from several rotation angles. Each marker pair represents an independent measuring system. The room coordinates of the isocenter path and the mechanical isocenter are calculated based on the marker coordinates. The presented measurement method is by this means strictly focused on the mechanical isocenter. The measurement result is available virtually immediately following completion of measurement. When 12 independent measurement systems are evaluated, the standard deviations of the isocenter path points and mechanical isocenter coordinates are 0.02 and 0.002 mm, respectively. The measurement is highly accurate, time efficient, and simple to adapt. It is therefore suitable for regular checks of the mechanical isocenter characteristics of the gantry and collimator rotation axis. When the isocenter path is reproducible and its extent is in the range of the needed geometrical accuracy, it should be taken into account in the planning process. This is especially true for stereotactic treatments and radiosurgery.

  18. A validated software application to measure fiber organization in soft tissue.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Erica E; Tulepbergenov, Azamat N; Stender, Christina J; Lamichhane, Roshani; Brown, Raquel J; Lujan, Trevor J

    2016-12-01

    The mechanical behavior of soft connective tissue is governed by a dense network of fibrillar proteins in the extracellular matrix. Characterization of this fibrous network requires the accurate extraction of descriptive structural parameters from imaging data, including fiber dispersion and mean fiber orientation. Common methods to quantify fiber parameters include fast Fourier transforms (FFT) and structure tensors; however, information is limited on the accuracy of these methods. In this study, we compared these two methods using test images of fiber networks with varying topology. The FFT method with a band-pass filter was the most accurate, with an error of [Formula: see text] in measuring mean fiber orientation and an error of [Formula: see text] in measuring fiber dispersion in the test images. The accuracy of the structure tensor method was approximately five times worse than the FFT band-pass method when measuring fiber dispersion. A free software application, FiberFit, was then developed that utilizes an FFT band-pass filter to fit fiber orientations to a semicircular von Mises distribution. FiberFit was used to measure collagen fibril organization in confocal images of bovine ligament at magnifications of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Grayscale conversion prior to FFT analysis gave the most accurate results, with errors of [Formula: see text] for mean fiber orientation and [Formula: see text] for fiber dispersion when measuring confocal images at [Formula: see text]. By developing and validating a software application that facilitates the automated analysis of fiber organization, this study can help advance a mechanistic understanding of collagen networks and help clarify the mechanobiology of soft tissue remodeling and repair.

  19. Application of Low-dose Stereoradiography in In Vivo Vertebral Morphologic Measurements: Comparison With Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Pasha, Saba; Schlösser, Tom; Zhu, Xiaowei; Mellor, Xochitl; Castelein, René; Flynn, John

    2017-06-30

    Though computed tomography (CT) and 3 dimensional (3D) reconstruction of the spine and ribcage are powerful techniques for detailed monitoring of spinal growth and surgical planning of patients, drawbacks can arise. We explored the application of low-dose stereoradiography of the spine to calculate distinct morphologic parameters of the vertebral body in a juvenile patient population with early-onset scoliosis or congenital scoliosis. This study compares the 3D vertebral morphology measurements using low-dose stereoradiography with the currently accepted imaging modality for such measurements, CT scans. A total of 86 vertebrae of 6 patients with early-onset scoliosis and 3 patients with congenital scoliosis, age ranged between 7.8 and 12.5 years, who had both thoracic spine CT scan and low-dose stereoradiography of the spine were included. 3D reconstructions of CT and low-dose stereoradiography were generated. Using previously validated image processing techniques, vertebral anterior (A), posterior (P), left (L), and right (R) heights, superior and inferior endplates depth and width (S-D, I-D, S-W, I-W) were measured on the CTs' 3D reconstructions and were compared with the same parameters measured on low-dose stereoradiography reconstructions using a postprocessing custom code. The agreement between the 2 techniques in measurement of the vertebral morphology was assessed using the Bland-Altman plots. No significant difference was observed in the A, P, L, R, S-W, and I-W between the stereoradiography and CT measurements (P>0.05). S-D and I-D were significantly greater in low-dose stereoradiography measurements P<0.05. Bland-Altman plots showed an agreement between the stereoradiography and CT techniques in vertebral height measurements (A, P, L, R); however, larger measurement bias and greater limits of agreement in S-D, I-D, S-W, and I-W measurements were shown. In vivo measurements of the vertebral heights using low-dose stereoradiography 3D reconstructions were

  20. Infrared thermographic SAR measurements of interstitial hyperthermia applicators: errors due to thermal conduction and convection.

    PubMed

    Sherar, M D; Gladman, A S; Davidson, S R H; Easty, A C; Joy, M L

    2004-08-01

    Thermal conduction and convection were examined as sources of error in thermographically measured SAR patterns of an interstitial microwave hyperthermia applicator. Measurements were performed in a layered block of muscle-equivalent phantom material using an infrared thermographic technique with varying heating duration. There was a 52.7% reduction in maximum SAR and 75.5% increase in 50% iso-SAR contour area for a 60-s heating duration relative to a 10-s heating duration. A finite element model of heat transfer in an homogeneous medium was used to model conductive and convective heat transfer during the thermographic measurement. Thermal conduction artefacts were found to significantly distort thermographically measured SAR patterns. Convective cooling, which occurs when phantom layers are exposed for thermal image acquisition, was found to significantly affect the magnitude, but not the spatial distribution, of thermographically measured SAR patterns. Results from this investigation suggest that the thermal diffusion artefacts can be minimized if the duration of the applied power pulse is restricted to 10 s or less.

  1. Performance of eddy-covariance measurements in fetch-limited applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolini, G.; Fratini, G.; Avilov, V.; Kurbatova, J. A.; Vasenev, I.; Valentini, R.

    2017-02-01

    When estimating gas fluxes by means of the eddy covariance (EC) technique, measurement representativeness is ensured by the availability of an adequate fetch. In applications over spatially limited fetches, it is possible to constrain the sensed source area by shortening the measurement height, but this comes at the cost of potentially violating some fundamental assumptions of the method or introducing significant measurement errors. In addition, reliability of footprint models when applied to measurements close to the surface is still debatable. In this manuscript, we investigate whether it is possible to use the EC method for determining the surface-atmosphere exchange over spatially limited ecosystems on horizontal scales of about 100 m. The objectives are (1) to determine the adequate positioning of the instruments in the atmospheric boundary layer, (2) to assess the quality of measurement in search of potential biases, (3) establish whether the source area is sufficiently constrained, (4) and evaluate the performances of some popular footprint models in such conditions. Most notably, we carried out an experiment to assess the footprint of two low EC systems and to evaluate the prediction of the selected footprint models against empirical data.

  2. Ion microprobe measurement of strontium isotopes in calcium carbonate with application to salmon otoliths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, P.K.; Bacon, C.R.; Hutcheon, I.D.; Ingram, B.L.; Wooden, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The ion microprobe has the capability to generate high resolution, high precision isotopic measurements, but analysis of the isotopic composition of strontium, as measured by the 87Sr/ 86Sr ratio, has been hindered by isobaric interferences. Here we report the first high precision measurements of 87Sr/ 86Sr by ion microprobe in calcium carbonate samples with moderate Sr concentrations. We use the high mass resolving power (7000 to 9000 M.R.P.) of the SHRIMP-RG ion microprobe in combination with its high transmission to reduce the number of interfering species while maintaining sufficiently high count rates for precise isotopic measurements. The isobaric interferences are characterized by peak modeling and repeated analyses of standards. We demonstrate that by sample-standard bracketing, 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be measured in inorganic and biogenic carbonates with Sr concentrations between 400 and 1500 ppm with ???2??? external precision (2??) for a single analysis, and subpermil external precision with repeated analyses. Explicit correction for isobaric interferences (peak-stripping) is found to be less accurate and precise than sample-standard bracketing. Spatial resolution is ???25 ??m laterally and 2 ??m deep for a single analysis, consuming on the order of 2 ng of material. The method is tested on otoliths from salmon to demonstrate its accuracy and utility. In these growth-banded aragonitic structures, one-week temporal resolution can be achieved. The analytical method should be applicable to other calcium carbonate samples with similar Sr concentrations. Copyright ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Measure for degree heterogeneity in complex networks and its application to recurrence network analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Rinku; Harikrishnan, K. P.; Misra, R.; Ambika, G.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel measure of degree heterogeneity, for unweighted and undirected complex networks, which requires only the degree distribution of the network for its computation. We show that the proposed measure can be applied to all types of network topology with ease and increases with the diversity of node degrees in the network. The measure is applied to compute the heterogeneity of synthetic (both random and scale free (SF)) and real-world networks with its value normalized in the interval [0 ,1 ]. To define the measure, we introduce a limiting network whose heterogeneity can be expressed analytically with the value tending to 1 as the size of the network N tends to infinity. We numerically study the variation of heterogeneity for random graphs (as a function of p and N) and for SF networks with γ and N as variables. Finally, as a specific application, we show that the proposed measure can be used to compare the heterogeneity of recurrence networks constructed from the time series of several low-dimensional chaotic attractors, thereby providing a single index to compare the structural complexity of chaotic attractors.

  4. A new method for simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in car underhood applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaled, M.; Garnier, B.; Harambat, F.; Peerhossaini, H.

    2010-02-01

    A new experimental technique is presented that allows simultaneous measurement of convective and radiative heat flux in the underhood. The goal is to devise an easily implemented and accurate experimental method for application in the vehicle underhood compartment. The new method is based on a technique for heat-flux measurement developed by the authors (Heat flow (flux) sensors for measurement of convection, conduction and radiation heat flow 27036-2, © Rhopoint Components Ltd, Hurst Green, Oxted, RH8 9AX, UK) that uses several thermocouples in the thickness of a thermal resistive layer (foil heat-flux sensor). The method proposed here uses a pair of these thermocouples with different radiative properties. Measurements validating this novel technique are carried out on a flat plate with a prescribed constant temperature in both natural- and forced-convection flow regimes. The test flat plate is instrumented by this new technique, and also with a different technique that is intrusive but very accurate, used as reference here (Bardon J P and Jarny Y 1994 Procédé et dispositif de mesure transitoire de température et flux surfacique Brevet n°94.011996, 22 February). Discrepancies between the measurements by the two techniques are less than 10% for both convective and radiative heat flux. Error identification and sensitivity analysis of the new method are also presented.

  5. A nonlinear causality measure in the frequency domain: nonlinear partial directed coherence with applications to EEG.

    PubMed

    He, Fei; Billings, Stephen A; Wei, Hua-Liang; Sarrigiannis, Ptolemaios G

    2014-03-30

    Frequency domain Granger causality measures have been proposed and widely applied in analyzing rhythmic neurophysiological and biomedical signals. Almost all these measures are based on linear time domain regression models, and therefore can only detect linear causal effects in the frequency domain. A frequency domain causality measure, the partial directed coherence, is explicitly linked with the frequency response function concept of linear systems. By modeling the nonlinear relationships between time series using nonlinear models and employing corresponding frequency-domain analysis techniques (i.e., generalized frequency response functions), a new nonlinear partial directed coherence method is derived. The advantages of the new method are illustrated via a numerical example of a nonlinear physical system and an application to electroencephalogram signals from a patient with childhood absence epilepsy. The new method detects both linear and nonlinear casual effects between bivariate signals in the frequency domain, while the existing measures can only detect linear effects. The proposed new method has important advantages over the classical linear measures, because detecting nonlinear dependencies has become more and more important in characterizing functional couplings in neuronal and biological systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Application of a positioning and measuring machine for metrological long-range scanning force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausotte, T.; Jaeger, G.; Manske, E.; Hofmann, N.; Dorozhovets, N.

    2005-08-01

    This article deals with a high-precision three-dimensional positioning and measuring machine and its application as a metrological long-range scanning force microscope. At the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology of the Technische Universitaet Ilmenau an interferometric nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine has been developed. Which is able to achieve a resolution of less than 0.1 nm over the entire positioning and measurement range of 25 mm x 25 mm x 5 mm and is traceable to the length standard. The Abbe offset-free design in conjunction with a corner mirror as a reference coordinate system provides extraordinary accuracy. The integration of several probe systems and nanotools (AFM, STM, focus sensor, tactile probes) makes the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine suitable for various tasks in the micro- and nanotechnologies. Various probe systems have been integrated in the last few years. For example, a commercial piezo tube AFM was integrated and tested. Additionally, interferometeric measurement systems of the nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine enables the calibration of probe systems. Also in order to achieve the best possible measurement results special probe systems have been developed and tested and are discussed briefly.

  7. Measure for degree heterogeneity in complex networks and its application to recurrence network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Rinku; Misra, R.

    2017-01-01

    We propose a novel measure of degree heterogeneity, for unweighted and undirected complex networks, which requires only the degree distribution of the network for its computation. We show that the proposed measure can be applied to all types of network topology with ease and increases with the diversity of node degrees in the network. The measure is applied to compute the heterogeneity of synthetic (both random and scale free (SF)) and real-world networks with its value normalized in the interval [0,1]. To define the measure, we introduce a limiting network whose heterogeneity can be expressed analytically with the value tending to 1 as the size of the network N tends to infinity. We numerically study the variation of heterogeneity for random graphs (as a function of p and N) and for SF networks with γ and N as variables. Finally, as a specific application, we show that the proposed measure can be used to compare the heterogeneity of recurrence networks constructed from the time series of several low-dimensional chaotic attractors, thereby providing a single index to compare the structural complexity of chaotic attractors. PMID:28280579

  8. Optical critical dimension (OCD) measurments for profile monitoring and control: applications for mask inspection and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoobler, Ray J.; Apak, Ebru

    2003-12-01

    Optical Critical Dimension (OCD) measurements using Normal-Incidence Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (polarized reflectance) allow for the separation of transverse electric and transverse magnetic modes of light reflected from an anisotropic sample as found in a periodic grating structure. This can provide the means for determining linewidths and analyzing complex profiles for a variety of structures found in mask fabrication. The normal-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometer maintains much of the simplicity in mechanical design found in a standard reflectometer and the additional polarizing element has no effect on the footprint making the system amenable for integration, inline monitoring and advanced process control. The rigourous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) method provides an exact method for calculating the diffraction of electromagnetic waves by periodic grating structures. We have extended OCD technology to critical measurement points in the mask fabrication process: After development inspection (ADI), where OCD evaluates mask writer performance and after etch inspection (AEI) for monitoring and control of etched quartz structures for phase shift applications. The determination of important, critical dimensions via optical techniques is appealing for several reasons: the method is non-destructive to photoresist and the sample is not subject to charging effects; the technique is capable of measuring the critical dimensions of grating structures down to approximately 40 nm; minimal facilities are required for installation (no high vacuum, cooling or shielding of electromagnetic fields); like optical thin film metrology, OCD technology can be integrated into process tools enabling Advanced Process Control (APC) of the etch process. Results will be presented showing the capabilities of OCD metrology for ADI and AEI applications. Comparisons will be made with both CD-SEM and X-SEM and the application to monitoring/controlling the quartz etch process will be discussed.

  9. Application of remote sensing techniques to measurement of windblown dust over the Columbia Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, Joseph Kevin

    The Columbia Plateau PM10 Project (CP3) is a multidisciplinary program to investigate the effect of windblown dust upon air quality within the Columbia Plateau of eastern Washington, northeastern Oregon and northern Idaho. The research presented here involves three applications of spectral remote sensing technologies in support of CP3 objectives to characterize regional vegetative cover and to determine aerosol dust burdens in the atmosphere. In the first application, data from the Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used to construct a detailed vegetation map for input to an air quality modeling system for windblown dust. Composite biweekly AVHRR data were used in conjunction with soils maps to develop vegetation classes (including conservation lands), defined by modeling requirements, through a spectral clustering technique. The vegetation map was validated using both ground-truth observations and NDVI (normalized difference vegetative index) results from the entire growing season, and at multiple locations. The result is a validated vegetation map meeting the requirements of the CP3 air quality modeling system. In the second application, ground-based Multi-filter Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR) measurements collected at two sites were used to determine the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) through the 1998 growing season and including an April, 1998 Asian dust influx. The AOT reached a maximum of ~0.45 at 500 nm during the Asian dust event. Finally, the third application employed a contrast method to obtain AOT from two pairs of AVHRR images; results were evaluated using MFRSR-derived AOT observations. The method yielded reasonable results in one case (~0.14 compared to MFRSR AOT of 0.07) and inconclusive results in the other. This experiment was the first application of the contrast method for AOT from AVHRR imagery to a mid-latitude continental region and represents progress toward an observationally based continental dust climatology. Taken

  10. Application of Fresnel diffraction from a phase step to the measurement of film thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Taghi Tavassoly, Mohammad; Moaddel Haghighi, Iman; Hassani, Khosrow

    2009-10-10

    When a thin film that is prepared in a step form on a substrate and coated uniformly with a reflective material is illuminated by a parallel coherent beam of monochromatic light, the Fresnel diffraction fringes are formed on a screen perpendicular to the reflected beam. The visibility of the fringes depends on film thickness, angle of incidence, and light wavelength. Measuring visibility versus incident angle provides the film thickness with an accuracy of a few nanometers. The technique is easily applicable and it covers a wide range of thicknesses with highly reliable results.

  11. Application of Fresnel diffraction from a phase step to the measurement of film thickness.

    PubMed

    Taghi Tavassoly, Mohammad; Moaddel Haghighi, Iman; Hassani, Khosrow

    2009-10-10

    When a thin film that is prepared in a step form on a substrate and coated uniformly with a reflective material is illuminated by a parallel coherent beam of monochromatic light, the Fresnel diffraction fringes are formed on a screen perpendicular to the reflected beam. The visibility of the fringes depends on film thickness, angle of incidence, and light wavelength. Measuring visibility versus incident angle provides the film thickness with an accuracy of a few nanometers. The technique is easily applicable and it covers a wide range of thicknesses with highly reliable results.

  12. Measurement methods and standards for processing and application of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dapkunas, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    Application of thermal barrier coatings deposited by thermal spray, physical vapor and possibly other methods is expected to be extended from aircraft gas turbines to industrial and utility gas turbines as well as diesel engines. This increased usage implies the participation of greater numbers of processors and users, making the availability of standards for process control and property measurement more important. Available standards for processing and evaluation of thermal barrier coatings are identified as well as those needed in the future but currently unavailable.

  13. Supporting Hydrometeorological Research and Applications with Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Products and Services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Zhong; Ostrenga, D.; Vollmer, B.; Deshong, B.; MacRitchie, K.; Greene, M.; Kempler, S.

    2016-01-01

    Precipitation is an important dataset in hydrometeorological research and applications such as flood modeling, drought monitoring, etc. On February 27, 2014, the NASA Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission was launched to provide the next-generation global observations of rain and snow (http:pmm.nasa.govGPM). The GPM mission consists of an international network of satellites in which a GPM Core Observatory satellite carries both active and passive microwave instruments to measure precipitation and serve as a reference standard, to unify precipitation measurements from a constellation of other research and operational satellites. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences (GES) Data and Information Services Center (DISC) hosts and distributes GPM data. The GES DISC is home to the data archive for the GPM predecessor, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). GPM products currently available include the following:1. Level-1 GPM Microwave Imager (GMI) and partner radiometer products2. Goddard Profiling Algorithm (GPROF) GMI and partner products (Level-2 and Level-3)3. GPM dual-frequency precipitation radar and their combined products (Level-2 and Level-3)4. Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for GPM (IMERG) products (early, late, and final run)GPM data can be accessed through a number of data services (e.g., Simple Subset Wizard, OPeNDAP, WMS, WCS, ftp, etc.). A newly released Unified User Interface or UUI is a single interface to provide users seamless access to data, information and services. For example, a search for precipitation products will not only return TRMM and GPM products, but also other global precipitation products such as MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), GLDAS (Global Land Data Assimilation Systems), etc.New features and capabilities have been recently added in GIOVANNI to allow exploring and inter-comparing GPM IMERG (Integrated Multi-satelliE Retrievals for GPM) half-hourly and monthly precipitation

  14. Skin Viscoelasticity: Physiologic Mechanisms, Measurement Issues, and Application to Nursing Science

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Janine S.; Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2012-01-01

    Skin is the primary interface between health care providers and patients and is assessed clinically to predict physiological stability or instability. The biomechanical properties of human skin, most notably elasticity and viscoelasticity, are critical to its protective function. In this article, the authors describe the physiological basis for skin elasticity and viscoelasticity. The authors discuss the role of viscoelasticity in nursing science and consider avenues for scientific exploration of the skin’s biomechanical properties, including applications in pressure ulcer research, injury, and healing. They also discuss the Cutometer® as one option for measurement of viscoelasticity in clinical and bench research protocols. PMID:22544517

  15. Electrolyte gate dependent high-frequency measurement of graphene field-effect transistor for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, W.; El Abbassi, M.; Hasler, T.; Jung, M.; Steinacher, M.; Calame, M.; Schönenberger, C.; Puebla-Hellmann, G.; Hellmüller, S.; Ihn, T.; Wallraff, A.

    2014-01-01

    We performed radiofrequency (RF) reflectometry measurements at 2-4 GHz on electrolyte-gated graphene field-effect transistors, utilizing a tunable stub-matching circuit for impedance matching. We demonstrate that the gate voltage dependent RF resistivity of graphene can be deduced, even in the presence of the electrolyte which is in direct contact with the graphene layer. The RF resistivity is found to be consistent with its DC counterpart in the full gate voltage range. Furthermore, in order to access the potential of high-frequency sensing for applications, we demonstrate time-dependent gating in solution with nanosecond time resolution.

  16. Measurement methods and standards for processing and application of thermal barrier coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dapkunas, Stanley J.

    1995-01-01

    Application of thermal barrier coatings deposited by thermal spray, physical vapor and possibly other methods is expected to be extended from aircraft gas turbines to industrial and utility gas turbines as well as diesel engines. This increased usage implies the participation of greater numbers of processors and users, making the availability of standards for process control and property measurement more important. Available standards for processing and evaluation of thermal barrier coatings are identified as well as those needed in the future but currently unavailable.

  17. Application of CCD images and colorimetry temperature measure for combustion monitoring and control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yongli; Qu, Tan; Zhou, HuaiChun; Yuan, Ping; Han, Shudong

    2000-05-01

    In power stations, a CCD set is used to observe furnace flame images directly to distinguish the current combustion status of a boiler. Actually, more combustion information can be gained from flame images: the temperature distribution can be reconstructed inversely, and the furnace radiation can be described quantificationally. Colorimetry temperature measure and greyscale normalization is included in this technology. Moreover, many important run-states such as flameout and flame center excursion can be caught by automation systems using the pattern recognition. Methods of combustion characteristic pattern recognition are discussed. And some applications for improving combustion control system are described.

  18. Doppler lidar atmospheric wind sensors - A comparative performance evaluation for global measurement applications from earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.

    1986-01-01

    A comparison is made of four prominent Doppler lidar systems, ranging in wavelength from the near UV to the middle IR, which are presently being studied for their potential in an earth-orbiting global tropospheric wind field measurement application. The comparison is restricted to relative photon efficiencies, i.e., the required number of transmitted photons per pulse is calculated for each system for midtropospheric velocity estimate uncertainties ranging from + or - 1 to + or - 4 m/s. The results are converted to laser transmitter pulse energy and power requirements. The analysis indicates that a coherent CO2 Doppler lidar operating at 9.11-micron wavelength is the most efficient.

  19. The application of the bubble detector to the measurement of intense neutron fluences and energy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, T.; Tremblay, K.; Ing, H.

    1990-12-01

    A novel type of bubble detector is developed which can measure neutron fluences on the order of 10 to the 11th n/sq cm (or a few grays). These detectors use superheated droplets which are much smaller than those in conventional bubble detectors. Preliminary studies involving several types of these microdroplet detectors having different neutron energy thresholds have been performed. The goal is to develop a set of such detectors which can be used as a simple neutron spectrometer needed in connection with TREE applications.

  20. Cleanliness of common air sampling sorbents for application to phenolic compounds measurement using supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, J.R.; Pleil, J.D.

    1994-12-31

    The trace-level measurement of phenolic compounds in the ambient air is complicated by the acidic and polar nature of the compounds especially during recovery from the sampling medium. Recently, supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) has been proposed as an alternative extraction method to Soxhlet extraction or thermal desorption to achieve more efficient recoveries. For such methodology to become practical, the candidate sorbents must first be tested for stability and cleanliness under SFE conditions. This paper describes exploratory research results of background contamination tests and cleanup properties of some common air sampling sorbent media with respect to future application to phenolic compounds monitoring.