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Sample records for anti-hbc positive result

  1. Hepatitis B virus markers in anti-HBc only positive individuals.

    PubMed

    Weber, B; Melchior, W; Gehrke, R; Doerr, H W; Berger, A; Rabenau, H

    2001-07-01

    Isolated reactivity to hepatitis B virus (HBV) core antigen (anti-HBc) is observed relatively frequently in immunocompromised individuals, intravenous drug abusers (IVDA), and in the presence of HCV infection. The reason for the lack of HBsAg is not clear. The aim of the present study was to investigate which factors (genetic variability of S gene, low-level HBsAg, and immune complexes may be responsible for the failure of HBsAg detection with commercial HBsAg screening assays. Dilution series of two recombinant HBsAg escape mutants and dilutions of serum samples from chronic HBV carriers with multiple insertions in the a determinant and different HBsAg subtypes were tested with a highly sensitive assay that detects wild-type HBsAg (Elecsys HBsAg, Roche Diagnostics, Penzberg, Germany) and two assays that detect HBV wild-type and escape mutants (Murex HBsAg Version 3, Murex and Enzygnost HBsAg 5.0, Dade Behring, Marburg, Germany). Elecsys HBsAg showed in comparison to Murex HBsAg Version 3 and Enzygnost HBsAg 5.0 a reduced sensitivity for escape mutant detection. On the other hand, the best performance for HBsAg subtype detection was obtained with Elecsys HBsAg. In the second part of the study, a selected panel of isolated anti-HBc reactive (n = 104) serum samples (AxSYM Core) was submitted to testing by Elecsys HBsAg, Murex HBsAg Version 3, Enzygnost HBsAg 5.0, and HBsAg detection after immune complex dissociation (ICD) and anti-HBs determination with two different assays (AxSYM Ausab and Elecsys Anti-HBs). To assess the specificity of anti-HBc test results, all the samples were tested by a second anti-HBc assay (Elecsys Anti-HBc). Quantitative HBV DNA detection was undertaken with a commercially available HBV PCR assay (Amplicor HBV Monitor). HCV infection was present in 65.4% of anti-HBc only reactive individuals. Five AxSYM Core positive samples were negative by Elecsys Anti-HBc. Overall, 15 (14.4%) AxSYM Ausab negative samples gave positive results with Elecsys

  2. The underlying mechanisms for the 'anti-HBc alone' serological profile.

    PubMed

    Pondé, R A A; Cardoso, D D P; Ferro, M O

    2010-02-01

    The serological pattern, "anti-HBc alone", characterized by the presence of antibodies against the core antigen of hepatitis B virus (anti-HBc) as the only marker of hepatitis B, is not rare in a diagnostic setting. Depending on the prevalence of HBV infection and the patient group investigated, 1-31% of positive anti-HBc results are isolated positive findings. Anti-HBc alone is frequently observed in intravenous drug addicts, HIV-infected individuals, patients who are coinfected with HBV and hepatitis C virus, and pregnant women. However, it is not clear how this profile should be interpreted. Several studies have shown that anti-HBc alone is not only compatible with acute and resolved HBV infection but also with chronic infection. The reasons for the lack of HBsAg and anti-HBs in anti-HBc-alone individuals are not clear, but several mechanisms and possibilities have been suggested that could explain this phenomenon, some of which are delineated in this article.

  3. Presence of anti-HBc is associated to high rates of HBV resolved infection and low threshold for Occult HBV Infection in HIV patients with negative HBsAg in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jose Ignacio; Jensen, Daniela; Sarmiento, Valeska; Peirano, Felipe; Acuña, Pedro; Fuster, Felipe; Soto, Sabrina; Ahumada, Rodrigo; Huilcaman, Marco; Bruna, Mario; Jensen, Werner; Fuster, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    HBV-HIV coinfection is prevalent. Frequently, anti-HBc is the only serological marker of HBV, which can be indicative of HBV resolved infection, when found together with anti-HBs reactivity; or present as "isolated anti-HBc," related to HBV occult infection with presence of detectable DNA HBV, more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals. Regional data about this condition are scarce. Anti-HBc rapid test has been used as screening, but its performance has not been described in HIV-positive patients. The aim of this study was determine prevalence of anti-HBc in HIV-positive patients, serological pattern of HBV resolved infection and isolated anti-HBc, evaluating presence of HBV occult infection. Assess anti-HBc rapid test compared to ECLIA. Methods included measurement of anti-HBc and anti-HBs in HIV-positive patients with negative HBsAg. Serum HBV DNA quantification and HBV booster vaccination to "isolated anti-HBc" individuals. Detection of anti-HBc by rapid test and ECLIA. In 192 patients, prevalence of anti-HBc was 42.7% (82/192); associated to male gender, drug use, men-sex-men, positive-VDRL, and longer time HIV diagnosis. 34.4% (66/192) had presence of anti-HBs, mean titers of 637 ui/ml. Isolated anti-HBc in 8.3% (16/192), associated to detectable HIV viral load and no-use of HAART; in them, HBV DNA was undetectable, and 60% responded to HBV vaccination booster. Anti-HBc rapid test showed low sensibility (32.9%) compared to ECLIA. These results show that prevalence of anti-HBc in HIV-positive individuals is high, in most cases accompanied with anti-HBs as HBV resolved infection. Low prevalence of "isolated anti-HBc," with undetectable HBV DNA, and most had anamnestic response to HBV vaccination; suggest low possibility of occult HBV infection. Anti-HBc rapid test cannot be recommended as screening method for anti-HBc. PMID:26381185

  4. Presence of anti-HBc is associated to high rates of HBV resolved infection and low threshold for Occult HBV Infection in HIV patients with negative HBsAg in Chile.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jose Ignacio; Jensen, Daniela; Sarmiento, Valeska; Peirano, Felipe; Acuña, Pedro; Fuster, Felipe; Soto, Sabrina; Ahumada, Rodrigo; Huilcaman, Marco; Bruna, Mario; Jensen, Werner; Fuster, Francisco

    2016-04-01

    HBV-HIV coinfection is prevalent. Frequently, anti-HBc is the only serological marker of HBV, which can be indicative of HBV resolved infection, when found together with anti-HBs reactivity; or present as "isolated anti-HBc," related to HBV occult infection with presence of detectable DNA HBV, more prevalent in HIV-positive individuals. Regional data about this condition are scarce. Anti-HBc rapid test has been used as screening, but its performance has not been described in HIV-positive patients. The aim of this study was determine prevalence of anti-HBc in HIV-positive patients, serological pattern of HBV resolved infection and isolated anti-HBc, evaluating presence of HBV occult infection. Assess anti-HBc rapid test compared to ECLIA. Methods included measurement of anti-HBc and anti-HBs in HIV-positive patients with negative HBsAg. Serum HBV DNA quantification and HBV booster vaccination to "isolated anti-HBc" individuals. Detection of anti-HBc by rapid test and ECLIA. In 192 patients, prevalence of anti-HBc was 42.7% (82/192); associated to male gender, drug use, men-sex-men, positive-VDRL, and longer time HIV diagnosis. 34.4% (66/192) had presence of anti-HBs, mean titers of 637 ui/ml. Isolated anti-HBc in 8.3% (16/192), associated to detectable HIV viral load and no-use of HAART; in them, HBV DNA was undetectable, and 60% responded to HBV vaccination booster. Anti-HBc rapid test showed low sensibility (32.9%) compared to ECLIA. These results show that prevalence of anti-HBc in HIV-positive individuals is high, in most cases accompanied with anti-HBs as HBV resolved infection. Low prevalence of "isolated anti-HBc," with undetectable HBV DNA, and most had anamnestic response to HBV vaccination; suggest low possibility of occult HBV infection. Anti-HBc rapid test cannot be recommended as screening method for anti-HBc.

  5. Positive hepatitis B virus core antibody in HIV infection--false positive or evidence of previous infection?

    PubMed

    Pallawela, S N S; Sonnex, C; Mabayoje, D; Bloch, E; Chaytor, S; Johnson, M A; Carne, C; Webster, D P

    2015-02-01

    Isolated HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) is defined as the presence of anti-HBc with a negative HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs <10 IU/l). In patients infected with HIV with isolated anti-HBc, the aim was to determine: The prevalence of isolated positive anti-HBc; The most effective method of identifying which patients have had previous Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection; The prevalence of false positive anti-HBc. HBV serology results were identified from 539 patients infected with HIV sampled between January 2010 and December 2012. In those with an isolated anti-HBc and negative anti-HBe, a second anti-HBc test was carried out using a different assay. Samples were also screened for HBV DNA. The anti-retroviral regimens at time of screening were documented. 101/539 had an isolated anti-HBc. Of these, 32 (32%) had a positive anti-HBe (including 1 equivocal) and 69(68%) were anti-HBe negative. Of those negative for anti-HBe, 32 were tested for both DNA and a second anti-HBc. Of these 26 (81%) were on cART at time of HBV testing, with 25 (78%) on ART with anti-HBV activity. The prevalence of isolated anti-HBc was 19%. Only 32% were also anti-HBe positive, whereas 97% of those anti-HBe negative were positive on a second anti-HBc assay suggesting lack of utility of anti-HBe in resolving serological quandaries. One subject (3%) had a false positive anti-HBc. There was no evidence of chronic HBV but 78% patients were on HBV-suppressive combination anti-retroviral therapy. PMID:25174739

  6. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  7. Frequency and significance of antibodies against hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antigen as the only serological marker for hepatitis B infection in Lebanese blood donors.

    PubMed Central

    Ramia, S.; Ramlawi, F.; Kanaan, M.; Klayme, S.; Naman, R.

    2005-01-01

    During a 2-year period, blood samples from 2505 Lebanese blood donors were chosen at random, at various periods of time at one blood donation centre (Hotel Dieu de France, Beirut, Lebanon) and were screened for markers of HBV infection (HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HBs). The study showed HBsAg positivity of 0.6% and an overall exposure rate to HBV of 10.0%. Out of the 2505 blood donors screened, 56 (22%) were found to be 'anti-HBc alone' positive which is almost four times the HBsAg positivity. The 56 'anti-HBc alone' samples were retested by another ELISA kit commercially available and 54 samples were 'anti-HBc alone' positive by both assays. The 54 samples had no serological markers as evidence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV). Only seven (13%) out of the 54 samples were HBV DNA positive by PCR and all were HBV genotype D. All seven HBV DNA-positive samples had HBV DNA levels below 400 copies/ml. Although any circulating HBV DNA among our 'anti-HBc alone' blood donors was below the detection limit of our Amplicor Monitor assay, some of these samples had circulating virus. A national study, where a larger number of blood donors from different blood donation centres across the country will perhaps determine whether screening for anti-HBc in addition to HBsAg detection is needed in Lebanese blood donors. PMID:16050516

  8. Detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) using a direct (antiglobulin) format and development of a confirmatory assay for anti-HBc.

    PubMed

    Nelles, M J; Taylor, L; Filer, S; Wellerson, R; Haberzettl, C; Sito, A; Geltosky, J E

    1988-07-01

    A direct (antiglobulin) solid-phase enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is described. The assay utilizes recombinant hepatitis B core antigen as the solid-phase 'capture' reagent and a mixture of monoclonal antibodies specific for human IgG and IgM conjugated to horseradish peroxidase as the 'detector' reagent. The direct assay demonstrated excellent sensitivity and specificity when compared with a commercially available competitive enzyme immunoassay. The direct assay format lends itself to a confirmatory assay for anti-HBc by addition of monoclonal anti-HBc to the reaction mixture. Feasibility of the confirmatory assay for anti-HBc was demonstrated using specimens reactive for anti-HBc as documented by both the direct and competitive assays.

  9. Hepatitis B virus DNA in blood donors with anti-HBc as a possible indicator of active hepatitis B virus infection in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Montalvo, B M; Farfán-Ale, J A; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Puerto-Manzano, F I

    2005-10-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) may be present in serum even when negative for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg). If routine screening of sera for anti-HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) is not done, low-level HBV viraemia may not be identified. A study was done on the presence of HBV DNA in serum samples from Mexican blood donors negative for HBsAg. Sera from 158 volunteer blood donors, negative for HBsAg and anti-HBs, but positive for anti-HBc, were analysed using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). HBV DNA was detected in sera from 13 (8.23%) of the 158. Specificity of the PCR-amplified products was corroborated using Southern blot. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis showed identical SSCP-banding patterns for all 13 PCR products, suggesting similar cDNA sequences. Occult HBV infection was observed in approximately 8% of anti-HBc only donors. The absence of HBsAg in the blood of apparently healthy individuals may not be sufficient to ensure lack of circulating HBV, and blood containing anti-HBc only may be infectious until proven otherwise.

  10. Epidemiological analysis of the significance of low-positive test results for antibody to hepatitis B surface and core antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Hadler, S C; Murphy, B L; Schable, C A; Heyward, W L; Francis, D P; Kane, M A

    1984-01-01

    To determine the significance of certain serological test results commonly encountered in hepatitis B virus testing, we reviewed serological test data from nine studies of hepatitis B conducted between 1980 and 1982. Three tests, for hepatitis B surface antigen and for antibodies to hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBs and anti-HBc), were used to measure hepatitis B virus infection risk in various populations. Two results, low levels of anti-HBs alone and low levels of anti-HBc alone, occurred at constant frequencies (2.72 and 0.4%, respectively), regardless of the prevalence of HBV infection in the population. Positivity for low levels of anti-HBs alone persisted for 1 year in less than one-half of those studied; in addition, response to hepatitis B virus vaccine was augmented in only one-third of this group. Positivity for low levels of anti-HBc alone did not persist in any of 11 persons studied. These findings indicate that presently available tests for anti-HBs and anti-HBc at low levels are often nonspecific and should be interpreted with caution. PMID:6715519

  11. [Vaccination against hepatitis B on the Ivory Coast: study of the anti-HBs response in healthy adult subjects carrying only anti-HBc antibodies before vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ouattara, S A; Meite, M; Aron, Y

    1986-01-01

    A total of 103 volunteers, from 18 to 55 years of age, have received the hevac B Pasteur 5 micrograms vaccine subcutane on sly; one injection a month during three months and one booster injection after one year. The study of the anti-HBs reaction of the subjects, with regard to the serological status to the hepatite B virus before inoculation, has shown that only 78.8% of the subjects, who are only positive towards the anti-HBc antibody, will develop an anti-HBs response of primary type with a relatively low value. In contrast, all anti-HBc and/or anti-HBs subjects, who are positive before inoculation, react with relatively high anti-HBs values right after the first injection, of the seronegative subjects before inoculation. 93.3% will develop an anti-HBs seroconversion after the complete inoculation procedure.

  12. T- and B-cell responses and previous exposure to hepatitis B virus in 'anti-HBc alone' patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Q; Sachse, P; Semmo, M; Lokhande, M; Montani, M; Dufour, J-F; Zoulim, F; Klenerman, P; Semmo, N

    2015-12-01

    A serologic response to hepatitis B virus (HBV) defined as 'anti-HBc alone' is commonly observed, but its significance remains unclear. This study aimed to define the relationship between 'anti-HBc alone' serostatus and HBV infection, including HBV-specific T- and B-cell memory responses. We enrolled 31 'anti-HBc alone' patients. Total HBV DNA and cccDNA were tested by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis in liver samples from 22 'anti-HBc alone' patients vs controls (chronic or resolved HBV infection), followed by HBsAg/HBcAg immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. IFN-γ secretion by HBV-specific T cells was compared in individuals who were 'anti-HBc alone' (n = 27), resolved HBV (n = 21), chronic HBV (n = 24) and 12 healthy controls using enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assays. An HBsAg-IgG B-cell ELISpot assay was performed in 'anti-HBc alone' patients before and after one dose of recombinant HBsAg vaccine. The majority (23/31, 74.2%) of the 'anti-HBc alone' individuals were co-infected with HCV. Infrequent intrahepatic total HBV DNA (2/22, 9.1%) and cccDNA (1/22, 4.5%) were detected in biopsies; HBsAg and HBcAg IHC staining was negative. HBV-specific T-cell responses were similar between 'anti-HBc alone' individuals and HBV resolvers. Circulating HBV-memory B-cell responses were detected in all 'anti-HBc alone' individuals, consistent with an HBsAg-specific memory pool. After one HBV vaccine dose, increased anti-HBs antibody levels were observed, accompanied by an expansion of HBsAg-specific memory B cells (P = 0.0226). 'Anti-HBc alone' individuals showed HBV-specific T-cell and memory B-cell responses typical of previous viral exposure and protective memory, suggesting a resolved infection.

  13. HBsAg Positive Patient Characteristics in Hospital and Blood Donation Camps

    PubMed Central

    Varghese, Joy; Joseph, Jensingh; Srinivasan, Vijaya; Jayanthi, Venkataraman; Rela, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prevention of the residual risk of transfusion transmitted hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is mostly dependant on serological screening of blood donors for HBsAg and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc Ab). This study aimed to study the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HBc Ab and to compare the profile of blood donors attending a blood donation camp and people attending a hospital based camp. Methods. In the blood donor camp, all the blood units were screened for HBV, (HBsAg and anti-HBc), and in the hospital based camp, screening was done for HBsAg alone. Baseline demographic characteristics were noted. Results. The number of blood bank donors was 363 (47.5%) and hospital camp attendees was 402 (52.5%). Prevalence of HBsAg positivity was similar in both the groups at 1.7% and 1.9%, respectively. Anti-HBc Ab positivity (Total) was 6% among the blood donors; Overall prevalence of HBV infection in this group was 3.2%. Conclusion. Policy for checking the collected blood unit by 3 tests for anti-HBc, anti-HBsAb, and HBsAg should be reconsidered to possibly achieve the zero risk goal of transfusion transmitted HBV infection. Blood obtained from a vaccinated donor may give an added protection to the recipient. PMID:24083029

  14. High titre of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen detected by immune adherence haemagglutination in HBsAg-positive acute hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, F; Takasu, S; Jo, K; Miyakawa, Y; Tsuda, F; Mayumi, M

    1982-08-01

    Nine patients with HBsAg-positive acute hepatitis were tested for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) by the immune adherence haemagglutination method. A high anti-HBc titre (2(15) or more) was found in three, while anti-HBc was not detectable in the remaining six. All of them recovered from hepatitis with the return of hepatic function tests to normal, but HBsAg persisted in the three patients whose acute-phase serum had revealed high anti-HBc titres. On the basis of these observations, the three patients were thought to be persistent HBsAg carriers who had contracted opportunistic acute hepatitis of non-B aetiology. Titration of anti-HBc may be indicated in patients with HBsAg-positive acute hepatitis, because it helps distinguish persistent HBsAg carriers with non-B hepatitis from patients with hepatitis B at the outset, during the episode of acute hepatitis.

  15. [Evaluation of the analytic performance of blood collection tubes (BD Vacutainer SST) for the screening of anti-HIV, anti-HTLV, anti-HCV, anti-HBc, anti-CMV antibodies, and of HBs, P24 HIV antigens, and of alanine aminotransferase].

    PubMed

    Gobin, E; Desruelle, J M; Vigier, J P

    2001-02-01

    The Laboratory of Viral Diseases Immunology (Laboratoire d'Immunologie des Maladies Virales) of the Northern Region Blood Bank (Etablissement Français du Sang Nord de France) performs between 180.000 and 200.000 viral blood qualifications per year. The use of a serum gel separator evacuated tube should contribute to improve the quality of the pre-analytical phase. However, it must not impact negatively the analytical performances. We evaluated such tube within our specific environment and with the various reagents used in routine. The open study compared the BD Vacutainer plain tube (7 mL, non siliconised) with the BD Vacutainer SST tube (6 mL siliconised with serum gel separator) against the anti-HIV, anti-HTLV, anti-HCV, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-CMV antibodies, the HBs, HIV P24 antigen and the alanine aminotransferase. The study objectives were to find potential gel interference; to verify the diagnostic sensitivity, reagents specificity, and reproducibility. The results analysis show: equivalent performances with the anti-HIV Ab (Anti HIV 1/2 recombinant--Biotest et Genscreen HIV 1/2--Sanofi), anti HIV WB Ab (New Lav Blot 1--Sanofi), anti-HBs Ab (Enzygnost anti-HBs micro--Behring), anti-HBc Ab (HBc Elisa Test System--Ortho), anti-CMV Ab (Enzygnost anti-CMV IgG + M--Behring) kits; lower performances with: The Vironostika HIV Uni Form II plus 0--Organon kit with a -3.5% signal decrease around the ratio R = 2.7 for positive anti-HIV Ab. The Elisa test System 3 Ag HBs-Ortho kit with an increase of the mean ratio of the negative Ag HBs samples; better performances with: the Vironostika HIV 1 Antigen--Organon kit with a +10% signal increase around the threshold ratio R = 1 for positive Ag HIV samples. This deserves further study to verify that the specificity is maintained. The HTLV Type 1 et 2 EIA--Ortho kit with +8% signal increase around the ratio R = 2 for positive anti-HTLV Ab samples without change of the specificity. The Ortho HCV 3.0 Elisa Test System and

  16. Performance characteristics of microparticle enzyme and chemiluminescence immunoassays for measurement of anti-HBc immunoglobulin M in sera of patients with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection.

    PubMed

    Hadziyannis, Emilia; Manesis, Emanuel; Vassilopoulos, Dimitrios; Georgiou, Anastasia; Archimandritis, Athanasios

    2008-02-01

    The IMx, AxSym, and Architect immunoglobulin M anti-HBc assay systems for detecting hepatitis B virus e antigen-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection were compared. Despite good intra- and interassay coefficients of variation, significantly different values and low correlation (overestimation by AxSym and underestimation by Architect) were observed. Association and cutoff values for distinguishing patients with viral replication should be established for all methods. PMID:18077614

  17. The European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2: standardization of assay results for hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Kafatos, G; Anastassopoulou, C; Nardone, A; Andrews, N; Barbara, C; Boot, H J; Butur, D; Davidkin, I; Gelb, D; Griskevicius, A; Hesketh, L; Icardi, G; Jones, L; Kra-Oz, Z; Miller, E; Mossong, J; Nemecek, V; de Ory, F; Sobotová, Z; Thierfelder, W; Van Damme, P; Hatzakis, A

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the European Sero-Epidemiology Network 2 was to coordinate and standardize the serological surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Europe. In this study, the standardization of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results is described. The 15 participating national laboratories tested a unique panel of 172 sera established by the Greek reference centre for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and/or to the HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) by assay methods of their choice. Country-specific quantitative measurements for anti-HBs and anti-HBc were transformed into common units using standardization equations derived by regressing each country's panel results against the reference centre's results, thus adjusting for interassay and interlaboratory variability. For HBsAg, a qualitative analysis (positive/negative) showed at least 99% agreement with the reference laboratory for all countries. By combining these standardized and qualitative results for the markers mentioned earlier, it was possible to achieve comparable estimates of the proportion of the population susceptible to HBV, vaccinated against HBV, with a past HBV infection, and with a current infection or chronic carrier state. Standardization is a very important tool that allows for international serological comparisons to assess the current vaccination policies and the progress of HBV control in Europe.

  18. The position of heterologous epitopes inserted in hepatitis B virus core particles determines their immunogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Schödel, F; Moriarty, A M; Peterson, D L; Zheng, J A; Hughes, J L; Will, H; Leturcq, D J; McGee, J S; Milich, D R

    1992-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (HBcAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been suggested as a carrier moiety for vaccine purposes. We investigated the influence of the position of the inserted epitope within hybrid HBcAg particles on antigenicity and immunogenicity. For this purpose, genes coding for neutralizing epitopes of the pre-S region of the HBV envelope proteins were inserted at the amino terminus, the amino terminus through a precore linker sequence, the truncated carboxy terminus, or an internal site of HBcAg by genetic engineering and were expressed in Escherichia coli. All purified hybrid HBc/pre-S polyproteins were particulate. Amino- and carboxy-terminal-modified hybrid HBc particles retained HBcAg antigenicity and immunogenicity. In contrast, insertion of a pre-S(1) sequence between HBcAg residues 75 and 83 abrogated recognition of HBcAg by 5 of 6 anti-HBc monoclonal antibodies and diminished recognition by human polyclonal anti-HBc. Predictably, HBcAg-specific immunogenicity was also reduced. With respect to the inserted epitopes, a pre-S(1) epitope linked to the amino terminus of HBcAg was not surface accessible and not immunogenic. A pre-S(1) epitope fused to the amino terminus through a precore linker sequence was surface accessible and highly immunogenic. A carboxy-terminal-fused pre-S(2) sequence was also surface accessible but weakly immunogenic. Insertion of a pre-S(1) epitope at the internal site resulted in the most efficient anti-pre-S(1) antibody response. Furthermore, immunization with hybrid HBc/pre-S particles exclusively primed T-helper cells specific for HBcAg and not the inserted epitope. These results indicate that the position of the inserted B-cell epitope within HBcAg is critical to its immunogenicity. Images PMID:1370083

  19. Hepatitis B reactivation in patients with multiple myeloma and isolated positive hepatitis B core antibody: a call for greater cognizance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ju Dong; Girotra, Mohit; Restrepo, Alejandro; Waheed, Sarah; Barlogie, Bart; Duarte-Rojo, Andres

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a well-established complication of severe immunosuppression in patients with hematologic malignancy and positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Patients who receive high-dose chemotherapy, corticosteroids, rituximab, or have a bone marrow transplant are particularly at increased risk for HBV reactivation. However, limited information is available in the literature regarding HBV reactivation in patients with isolated anti-HBc, particularly in the setting of multiple myeloma (MM). We report two cases of HBV reactivation in MM patients with isolated anti-HBc positive with a rather atypical presentation. In conclusion, our cases highlight that clinicians need to be cognizant about this potentially fatal but preventable complication of chemotherapy and immunosuppression.

  20. Global Positioning System receiver evaluation results

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.

    1993-09-01

    A Sandia project currently uses an outdated Magnavox 6400 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver as the core of its navigation system. The goal of this study was to analyze the performance of the current GPS receiver compared to newer, less expensive models and to make recommendations on how to improve the performance of the overall navigation system. This paper discusses the test methodology used to experimentally analyze the performance of different GPS receivers, the test results, and recommendations on how an upgrade should proceed. Appendices contain detailed information regarding the raw data, test hardware, and test software.

  1. Notification following new positive HIV test results.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Lin A; Hutchinson, Angela B; Hollis, NaTasha D; Sansom, Stephanie L

    2016-09-01

    Client notification of a new HIV diagnosis is critical for timely access to treatment and reduction in behaviours associated with HIV infection. It is also an important input in HIV transmission and disease progression models. We used national, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded HIV testing events data collected through the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system to update estimates of the proportion of newly identified HIV-positives notified of their status. We compared estimates from 2008 to 2010 across test technologies, settings, and HIV risk groups. In 2010, notification following a positive rapid test was 99.6% compared with 99.3% in 2008. Notification following a positive conventional test was 81.5% in 2010 compared with 80.8% in 2008. To realise the full promise of early HIV diagnosis and treatment for the prevention of additional HIV cases, efforts to ensure prompt notification following a new HIV diagnosis will be crucial. PMID:26378191

  2. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605... Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by...

  3. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605... Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by...

  4. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605... Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by...

  5. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605... Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by...

  6. 49 CFR 219.605 - Positive drug test results; procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Positive drug test results; procedures. 219.605... Programs § 219.605 Positive drug test results; procedures. (a) [Reserved] (b) Procedures for administrative handling by the railroad in the event a specimen provided under this subpart is reported as positive by...

  7. Current State of and Needs for Hepatitis B Screening: Results of a Large Screening Study in a Low-Prevalent, Metropolitan Region

    PubMed Central

    Bottero, Julie; Boyd, Anders; Lemoine, Maud; Carrat, Fabrice; Gozlan, Joel; Collignon, Anne; Boo, Nicolas; Dhotte, Philippe; Varsat, Brigitte; Muller, Gerard; Cha, Olivier; Valin, Nadia; Nau, Jean; Campa, Pauline; Silbermann, Benjamin; Bary, Marc; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Lacombe, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Background In low hepatitis B virus (HBV)-prevalent countries, most HBV-infected persons are unaware of their status. We aimed to evaluate whether (i) previous HBV-testing, (ii) physicians decision to screen, and (iii) CDC's recommendations identified infected individuals and which risk-factor groups needing testing. Methods During a mass, multi-center HBV-screening study from September 2010-August 2011, 3929 participants were screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs and anti-Hepatitis B core antibodies (anti-HBcAb). Questions on HBV risk-factors and testing practices were asked to participants, while participants' eligibility for HBV-testing was asked to study medical professionals. Results 85 (2.2%) participants were HBsAg-positive, while 659 (16.8%) had either resolved HBV infection or isolated anti-HBcAb. When comparing practices, HBV-testing was more likely to occur in HBV-infected participants if Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommendations were used (Sensitivity = 100%, 95%CI: 95.8–100) than physicians' discretion (Sensitivity = 87.1%, 95%CI: 78.0–93.4) or previous HBV-test (Sensitivity = 36.5%, 95%CI: 26.3–47.6) (p<0.0001). Nevertheless, many non-infected individuals would still have been screened using CDC-recommendations (Specificity = 31.1%, 95%CI: 29.6–32.6). Using multivariable logistic regression, HBsAg-positive status was significantly associated with the following: males, originating from high HBV-endemic region, contact with HBV-infected individual, without national healthcare, and intravenous-drug user (IDU). Of these risk-factors, physician's discretion for testing HBV was not significantly associated with participants' geographical origin or IDU. Conclusions Missed opportunities of HBV-screening are largely due to underestimating country of origin as a risk-factor. Applying CDC-recommendations could improve HBV-screening, but with the disadvantage of many tests. Further development of

  8. Solid organ transplantation from hepatitis B virus-positive donors: consensus guidelines for recipient management.

    PubMed

    Huprikar, S; Danziger-Isakov, L; Ahn, J; Naugler, S; Blumberg, E; Avery, R K; Koval, C; Lease, E D; Pillai, A; Doucette, K E; Levitsky, J; Morris, M I; Lu, K; McDermott, J K; Mone, T; Orlowski, J P; Dadhania, D M; Abbott, K; Horslen, S; Laskin, B L; Mougdil, A; Venkat, V L; Korenblat, K; Kumar, V; Grossi, P; Bloom, R D; Brown, K; Kotton, C N; Kumar, D

    2015-05-01

    Use of organs from donors testing positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) may safely expand the donor pool. The American Society of Transplantation convened a multidisciplinary expert panel that reviewed the existing literature and developed consensus recommendations for recipient management following the use of organs from HBV positive donors. Transmission risk is highest with liver donors and significantly lower with non-liver (kidney and thoracic) donors. Antiviral prophylaxis significantly reduces the rate of transmission to liver recipients from isolated HBV core antibody positive (anti-HBc+) donors. Organs from anti-HBc+ donors should be considered for all adult transplant candidates after an individualized assessment of the risks and benefits and appropriate patient consent. Indefinite antiviral prophylaxis is recommended in liver recipients with no immunity or vaccine immunity but not in liver recipients with natural immunity. Antiviral prophylaxis may be considered for up to 1 year in susceptible non-liver recipients but is not recommended in immune non-liver recipients. Although no longer the treatment of choice in patients with chronic HBV, lamivudine remains the most cost-effective choice for prophylaxis in this setting. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin is not recommended. PMID:25707744

  9. Solid organ transplantation from hepatitis B virus-positive donors: consensus guidelines for recipient management.

    PubMed

    Huprikar, S; Danziger-Isakov, L; Ahn, J; Naugler, S; Blumberg, E; Avery, R K; Koval, C; Lease, E D; Pillai, A; Doucette, K E; Levitsky, J; Morris, M I; Lu, K; McDermott, J K; Mone, T; Orlowski, J P; Dadhania, D M; Abbott, K; Horslen, S; Laskin, B L; Mougdil, A; Venkat, V L; Korenblat, K; Kumar, V; Grossi, P; Bloom, R D; Brown, K; Kotton, C N; Kumar, D

    2015-05-01

    Use of organs from donors testing positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) may safely expand the donor pool. The American Society of Transplantation convened a multidisciplinary expert panel that reviewed the existing literature and developed consensus recommendations for recipient management following the use of organs from HBV positive donors. Transmission risk is highest with liver donors and significantly lower with non-liver (kidney and thoracic) donors. Antiviral prophylaxis significantly reduces the rate of transmission to liver recipients from isolated HBV core antibody positive (anti-HBc+) donors. Organs from anti-HBc+ donors should be considered for all adult transplant candidates after an individualized assessment of the risks and benefits and appropriate patient consent. Indefinite antiviral prophylaxis is recommended in liver recipients with no immunity or vaccine immunity but not in liver recipients with natural immunity. Antiviral prophylaxis may be considered for up to 1 year in susceptible non-liver recipients but is not recommended in immune non-liver recipients. Although no longer the treatment of choice in patients with chronic HBV, lamivudine remains the most cost-effective choice for prophylaxis in this setting. Hepatitis B immunoglobulin is not recommended.

  10. Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection among HIV Positive Patients in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Opaleye, Oluyinka Oladele; Oluremi, Adeolu Sunday; Atiba, Adetona Babatunde; Adewumi, Moses Olubusuyi; Mabayoje, Olatunji Victor; Donbraye, Emmanuel; Ojurongbe, Olusola; Olowe, O Adekunle

    2014-01-01

    HIV has been known to interfere with the natural history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. In this study we investigate the prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) among HIV-infected individuals in Nigeria. Overall, 1200 archived HIV positive samples were screened for detectable HBsAg using rapid technique, in Ikole Ekiti Specialist Hospital. The HBsAg negative samples were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HCV by ELISA. Polymerase chain reaction was used for HBV DNA amplification and CD4 counts were analyzed by cytometry. Nine hundred and eighty of the HIV samples were HBsAg negative. HBV DNA was detected in 21/188 (11.2%) of patients without detectable HBsAg. CD4 count for the patients ranged from 2 to 2,140 cells/ μ L of blood (mean = 490 cells/ μ L of blood). HCV coinfection was detected only in 3/188 (1.6%) of the HIV-infected patients (P > 0.05). Twenty-eight (29.2%) of the 96 HIV samples screened were positive for anti-HBc. Averagely the HBV viral load was <50 copies/mL in the OBI samples examined by quantitative PCR. The prevalence of OBI was significantly high among HIV-infected patients. These findings highlight the significance of nucleic acid testing in HBV diagnosis in HIV patients. PMID:24868208

  11. Emerging Trends in Contextual Learning Show Positive Results for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WorkAmerica, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This issue focuses on contextual learning (CL), in which students master rigorous academic content in real-world or work-based learning experiences. "Emerging Trends in CL Show Positive Results for Students" discusses CL as an important strategy for improving student achievement. It describes: how CL raises the bar for all students, challenging…

  12. Interpreting in vitro micronucleus positive results: simple biomarker matrix discriminates clastogens, aneugens, and misleading positive agents.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Steven M; Bemis, Jeffrey C; Mereness, Jared A; Spellman, Richard A; Moss, Jocelyn; Dickinson, Donna; Schuler, Maik J; Dertinger, Stephen D

    2014-08-01

    The specificity of in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity assays is low, as they yield a high incidence of positive results that are not observed in animal genotoxicity and carcinogenicity tests, that is, "misleading" or "irrelevant" positives. We set out to develop a rapid and effective follow-up testing strategy that would predict whether apparent in vitro micronucleus-inducing effects are due to a clastogenic, aneugenic, or secondary irrelevant mode(s) of action. Priority was given to biomarkers that could be multiplexed onto flow cytometric acquisition of micronucleus frequencies, or that could be accomplished in parallel using a homogeneous-type assay. A training set of 30 chemicals comprised of clastogens, aneugens, and misleading positive chemicals was studied. These experiments were conducted with human TK6 cells over a range of closely spaced concentrations in a continuous exposure design. In addition to micronucleus frequency, the following endpoints were investigated, most often at time of harvest: cleaved Parp-positive chromatin, cleaved caspase 3-positive chromatin, ethidium monoazide bromide-positive chromatin, polyploid nuclei, phospho-histone H3-positive (metaphase) cells, tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester-negative cells, cellular ATP levels, cell cycle perturbation, and shift in γ-H2AX fluorescence relative to solvent control. Logistic regression was used to identify endpoints that effectively predict chemicals' a priori classification. Cross validation using a leave-one-out approach indicated that a promising base model includes γ-H2AX shift and change in phospho-histone H3-positive events (25/30 correct calls). Improvements were realized when one or two additional endpoints were included (26-30/30 correct calls). These models were further evaluated with a test set of 10 chemicals, and also by evaluating 3 chemicals at a collaborating laboratory. The resulting data support the hypothesis that a matrix of high throughput-compatible biomarkers can

  13. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the “a” determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. Patients and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003–2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Results Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some “a” determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. Conclusions We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive

  14. Prevalence of Serologic Hepatitis B Markers in Blood Donors From Puebla, Mexico: The Association of Relatively High Levels of Anti-Core Antibodies With the Detection of Surface Antigen and Genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Jurado, Francisca; Hilda Rosas-Murrieta, Nora; Guzman-Flores, Belinda; Perez Zempoaltecalt, Cintia; Patricia Sanchez Torres, Ana; Ramirez Rosete, Leticia; Bernal-Soto, Maribel; Marquez-Dominguez, Luis; Melendez-Mena, Daniel; Angel Mendoza Torres, Miguel; Teresa Lopez Delgado, Maria; Reyes-Leyva, Julio; Vallejo-Ruiz, Veronica; Santos-Lopez, Gerardo

    2016-01-01

    Background The hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes chronic hepatitis, hepatic cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Surface antigen (HBsAg) detection is a definitive test that can confirm HBV infection, while the presence of antibodies against the core protein (anti-HBc) suggests either a previous or ongoing infection or occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of anti-HBc and HBsAg in blood donors. Further, the study aimed to estimate the anti-HBc level at which HBV DNA is detected in putative OBI cases, as well as to search for mutations in the “a” determinant associated with the non-detection of HBsAg in serum. Patients and Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from 2003–2009. The study included 120,552 blood donors from the state of Puebla, Mexico. Different commercial systems based on microparticles (enzymatic (MEIA) or chemiluminescent (CMIA)) were used to determine the HBsAg and anti-HBc levels. For the detection of HBV DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) was used and the genotypes were determined using Sanger sequencing. Results Of the 120,552 blood donors, 1437 (1.19%, 95% CI: 1.12 - 1.26) were reactive to anti-HBc, while 82 (0.066%, 95% CI: 0.053 - 0.079) were reactive to HBsAg. Some 156 plasma samples collected in 2009 from anti-HBc-positive/HBsAg-negative blood donors were submitted for HBV DNA detection in a search for probable OBI. Viral DNA was detected in 27/156 (17.3%, 95% CI: 11.5 - 23.1). Our results show an association between HBV DNA or HBsAg and anti-HBc S/CO levels ≥ 4.0. All DNA samples were identified as genotype H and some “a” determinant mutations were identified, although none corresponded to mutations previously reported to hinder the detection of HBsAg by commercial immunoassays. Conclusions We observed that as the anti-HBc levels increase, there is a higher prevalence of the viral protein HBsAg in blood donors. Samples testing positive

  15. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among Egyptian blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Said, Zeinab N; El Sayed, Manal H; Salama, Iman I; Aboel-Magd, Enas K; Mahmoud, Magda H; El Setouhy, Maged; Mouftah, Faten; Azzab, Manal B; Goubran, Heidi; Bassili, Amal; Esmat, Gamal E

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To identify blood donors with occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) to promote safe blood donation. METHODS: Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted on 3167 blood donors negative for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis C antibody (HCV Ab) and human immunodeficiency virus Ab. They were subjected to the detection of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) and screening for anti-HBV core antibodies (total) by two different techniques; [Monoliza antibodies to hepatitis B core (Anti-HBc) Plus-Bio-Rad] and (ARC-HBc total-ABBOT). Positive samples were subjected to quantitative detection of antibodies to hepatitis B surface (anti-HBs) (ETI-AB-AUK-3, Dia Sorin-Italy). Serum anti-HBs titers > 10 IU/L was considered positive. Quantitative HBV DNA by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (QIAGEN-Germany) with 3.8 IU/mL detection limit was estimated for blood units with negative serum anti-HBs and also for 32 whose anti-HBs serum titers were > 1000 IU/L. Also, 265 recipients were included, 34 of whom were followed up for 3-6 mo. Recipients were investigated for ALT and AST, HBV serological markers: HBsAg (ETI-MAK-4, Dia Sorin-Italy), anti-HBc, quantitative detection of anti-HBs and HBV-DNA. RESULTS: 525/3167 (16.6%) of blood units were positive for total anti-HBc, 64% of those were anti-HBs positive. Confirmation by ARCHITECT anti-HBc assay were carried out for 498/525 anti-HBc positive samples, where 451 (90.6%) confirmed positive. Reactivity for anti-HBc was considered confirmed only if two positive results were obtained for each sample, giving an overall prevalence of 451/3167 (14.2%) for total anti-HBc. HBV DNA was quantified by real time PCR in 52/303 (17.2%) of anti-HBc positive blood donors (viral load range: 5 to 3.5 x 105 IU/mL) with a median of 200 IU/mL (mean: 1.8 x 104 ± 5.1 x 104 IU/mL). Anti-HBc was the only marker in 68.6% of donors. Univariate and multivariate logistic analysis for identifying risk

  16. Clearance of HBV DNA in immunized children born to HBsAg-positive mothers, years after being diagnosed with occult HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, A; Yahyapour, Y; Poortahmasebi, V; Shahmoradi, S; Roggendorf, M; Karimzadeh, H; Alavian, S M; Jazayeri, S M

    2016-04-01

    In a previous study, we observed immunoprophylaxis failure due to occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) despite the presence of adequate levels of anti-HBs in 21 (28%) of 75 children born to HBsAg-positive mothers. The aim of the study was to explore the maintenance of this cryptic condition in this population. Of 21 OBI-positive children, 17 were enrolled. HBV serological profiles were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Highly sensitive real-time and standard PCR followed by direct sequencing were applied in positive cases. The mean age (±SD) of studied patients was 6.57 ± 2.75 years. All children still were negative for HBsAg. All but one (94%) were negative for HBV DNA. Only two children were positive for anti-HBc. The results of the most recent anti-HBs titration showed that 4 (23.5%) and 13 (76.5%) had low (<10 IU/mL) and adequate (>10 IU/mL) levels of anti-HBs, respectively. The only still OBI-positive patient had an HBV DNA level of 50 copy/mL, carried the G145R mutation when tested in 2009 and again in 2013 in the 'a' determinant region of the surface protein. Further follow-up showed that after 18 months, he was negative for HBV DNA. In high-risk children, the initial HBV DNA positivity early in the life (vertical infection) does not necessarily indicate a prolonged persistence of HBV DNA (occult infection). Adequate levels of anti-HBs after vaccine and hepatitis B immune globulin immunoprophylaxis following birth could eventually clear the virus as time goes by. Periodic monitoring of these children at certain time intervals is highly recommended.

  17. "Positive" results increase down the Hierarchy of the Sciences.

    PubMed

    Fanelli, Daniele

    2010-01-01

    The hypothesis of a Hierarchy of the Sciences with physical sciences at the top, social sciences at the bottom, and biological sciences in-between is nearly 200 years old. This order is intuitive and reflected in many features of academic life, but whether it reflects the "hardness" of scientific research--i.e., the extent to which research questions and results are determined by data and theories as opposed to non-cognitive factors--is controversial. This study analysed 2434 papers published in all disciplines and that declared to have tested a hypothesis. It was determined how many papers reported a "positive" (full or partial) or "negative" support for the tested hypothesis. If the hierarchy hypothesis is correct, then researchers in "softer" sciences should have fewer constraints to their conscious and unconscious biases, and therefore report more positive outcomes. Results confirmed the predictions at all levels considered: discipline, domain and methodology broadly defined. Controlling for observed differences between pure and applied disciplines, and between papers testing one or several hypotheses, the odds of reporting a positive result were around 5 times higher among papers in the disciplines of Psychology and Psychiatry and Economics and Business compared to Space Science, 2.3 times higher in the domain of social sciences compared to the physical sciences, and 3.4 times higher in studies applying behavioural and social methodologies on people compared to physical and chemical studies on non-biological material. In all comparisons, biological studies had intermediate values. These results suggest that the nature of hypotheses tested and the logical and methodological rigour employed to test them vary systematically across disciplines and fields, depending on the complexity of the subject matter and possibly other factors (e.g., a field's level of historical and/or intellectual development). On the other hand, these results support the scientific status

  18. Elimination of false-positive polymerase chain reaction results resulting from hole punch carryover contamination.

    PubMed

    Bonne, Nicolai; Clark, Phillip; Shearer, Patrick; Raidal, Shane

    2008-01-01

    The collection of biological material (e.g., blood) directly onto filter paper for subsequent use in laboratory assays such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), has become a common practice. Dried cells or fluid on the paper can be readily rehydrated and retrieved into a standard volume of an appropriate elution buffer but introduces a dilution factor to the sample. The use of a common cutting instrument for excising a standard-sized piece of paper that contains the material also introduces the potential for transferring biological material from one sample to subsequent samples, causing false-positive results by PCR. In the present study, filter-paper-collected blood that contained beak and feather disease virus was used to determine if viral DNA could be transferred between samples by a hole punch used to excise sequential filter papers. It was determined that false-positive results could be obtained at least 13 times after a positive sample. Subsequently, the efficacy of 4 methods of hole punch disinfection, flaming, VirkonS, bleach, and a bleach-ethanol combination, was assessed. The only effective and practical method to destroy DNA was a method where the hole punch was agitated in commercial bleach, rinsed in water, the water was displaced with 100% ethanol and air-dried. This method was simple, cheap, and relatively rapid, and allowed for the use of a single hole punch for a series of samples, without carryover contamination and consequent false-positive results.

  19. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS FROM A MICROWAVE CAVITY BEAM POSITION MONITOR.

    SciTech Connect

    BALAKIN,V.; BAZHAN,A.; LUNEV,P.; SOLYAK,N.; VOGEL,V.; ZHOGOLEV,P.; LISITSYN,A.; YAKIMENKO,V.

    1999-03-29

    Future Linear Colliders have hard requirements for the beam transverse position stability in the accelerator. A beam Position Monitor (BPM) with the resolution better than 0.1 micron in the single bunch regime is needed to control the stability of the beam position along the linac. Proposed BPM is based on the measurement of the asymmetrical mode excited by single bunch in the cavity. Four stages of signal processing (space-, time-, frequency- and phase-filtering providing the required signal-to-noise ratio) are used to obtain extremely high resolution. The measurement set-up was designed by BINP and installed at ATF/BNL to test experimentally this concept. The set-up includes three two-coordinates BPM's at the frequency of 13.566 GHz, and reference intensity/phase cavity. BPM's were mounted on support table. The two-coordinates movers allow to move and align BPM's along the straight line, using the signals from the beam. The position of each monitor is controlled by the sensors with the accuracy 0.03 micron. The information from three monitors allows to exclude angle and position jitter of the beam and measure BPM resolution. In the experiments the resolution of about 0.15 micron for 0.25 nC beam intensity was obtained, that is close to the value required.

  20. Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen Levels in the Natural History of Chronic Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei; Song, Liu-Wei; Fang, Yu-Qing; Wu, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Dan-Yang; Xu, Chun; Wang, Xiao-Mei; Wang, Wen; Lv, Dong-Xia; Li, Jun; Deng, Yong-Qiong; Wang, Yan; Huo, Na; Yu, Min; Xi, Hong-Li; Liu, Dan; Zhou, Yi-Xing; Wang, Gui-Qiang; Xia, Ning-Shao; Zhang, Ming-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have revealed antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) levels as a predictor of treatment response in hepatitis B early antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients in both interferon and nucleos(t)ide analog therapy cohorts. However, there is no information about anti-HBc levels in the natural history of CHB. This study aimed to define anti-HBc levels of different phases in the natural history of CHB. Two hundred eleven treatment-naive CHB patients were included in the study. They were classified into 4 phases: immune tolerance (IT) phase (n = 39), immune clearance (IC) phase (n = 48), low or no-replicative (LR) phase (n = 55), and HBeAg-negative hepatitis (ENH, n = 69). Fifty patients who were HBsAg negative and anti-HBc positive were also recruited as past HBV infection (PBI) control group. Anti-HBc levels were measured by a newly developed double-sandwich immunoassay. Correlation of anti-HBc levels with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and other HBV-related markers within each phase was performed. Serum anti-HBc levels were statistically significant between patients in different phases of CHB (P < 0.001). The median anti-HBc levels were: IT (3.17 log10 IU/mL), IC (4.39 log10 IU/mL), LR (3.29 log10 IU/mL), ENH (4.12 log10 IU/mL), and PBI (0.61 log10 IU/mL). There existed a strong correlation in IC (r = 0.489, P < 0.001), a poor correlation in ENH (r = 0.275, P = 0.042), and no correlation in patients with ALT reached 5 times upper limit of normal (r = 0.120, P = 0.616). Anti-HBc levels show significant differences during the natural course of CHB. These results may provide some potentially useful insights into hepatitis B pathogenesis and immune activation against hepatitis B virus. PMID:25546679

  1. The Development and Resulting Performance Impact of Positive Psychological Capital

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luthans, Fred; Avey, James B.; Avolio, Bruce J.; Peterson, Suzanne J.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, theory and research have supported psychological capital (PsyCap) as an emerging core construct linked to positive outcomes at the individual and organizational level. However, to date, little attention has been given to PsyCap development through training interventions; nor have there been attempts to determine empirically if such…

  2. Court revises suit arising from false-positive test result.

    PubMed

    1999-02-19

    The Texas Court of Appeals reinstated a portion of a lawsuit filed by [name removed], who was denied life insurance coverage following a false-positive HIV test. [Name removed] was denied coverage without explanation and was notified by the Houston Health Department a few weeks later that he was HIV-positive. He was retested several times, with each test being negative. A Harris County (TX) trial court had ruled a summary judgement against all claims, but the appeals court held that he might have a case based on the State's Deceptive Trade Practices Act. The appeals court did not allow him to recover damages based on negligence, but said that he could proceed with his claim of intentional infliction of emotional distress.

  3. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus among school-age children in the Stann Creek District of Belize, Central America.

    PubMed

    Chamberlin, J; Bryan, J P; Jones, D L; Reyes, L; Hakre, S

    1996-10-01

    Adults in the Stann Creek District of Belize have a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, but the age of onset of these infections is unclear. We conducted a seroprevalence study of hepatitis B markers among Stann Creek school-age children to provide information for planning a hepatitis B vaccine program. The overall prevalence in 587 students was high for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) (43.3%) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (7.7%). There was marked variation of anti-HBc by school and by the predominant ethnic groups attending those schools. Maya had the highest prevalence (76%), followed by Mestizo (50%), Garifuna (37%), and Creole (25%). Children less than nine years of age attending the rural primary schools (mostly Mayan and Mestizo) had significantly higher prevalence of anti-HBc than did children attending the urban primary school (mostly Garifuna and Creole) (P < 0.05). Anti-HBc was found in 42% and 36% of students at the two high schools. Of the five schools tested, only at the urban primary school did anti-HBc positivity increase with age. Based on an analysis of the cost of serologic screening before immunization compared with mass vaccination, preimmunization serologic screening resulted in vaccine program cost savings in four of the five schools. Because most children in the rural areas contract hepatitis B before entering school, immunization against HBV should be integrated into the routine infant immunization program. PMID:8916807

  4. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Impact of Isolated Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen and Occult Hepatitis B Virus Infection in HIV-1–Infected Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Khamduang, Woottichai; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Gaudy-Graffin, Catherine; Jourdain, Gonzague; Suwankornsakul, Weerapong; Jarupanich, Tapnarong; Chalermpolprapa, Veeradate; Nanta, Sirisak; Puarattana-aroonkorn, Noossara; Tonmat, Sakchai; Lallemant, Marc; Goudeau, Alain; Sirirungsi, Wasna

    2013-01-01

    Background. Prevalence and risk factors for isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection are not well known in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)–infected pregnant women. It is unclear if women with occult infections are at risk of transmitting HBV to their infants. Methods. HIV-1–infected and HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)–negative pregnant women were tested for antibody to HBsAg (anti-HBs) and anti-HBc using enzyme immunoassay. Women with isolated anti-HBc were assessed for occult HBV infection, defined as HBV DNA levels >15 IU/mL, using the Abbott RealTime HBV DNA assay. Infants born to women with isolated anti-HBc and detectable HBV DNA were tested at 4 months of age for HBV DNA. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection. Results. Among 1812 HIV-infected pregnant women, 1682 were HBsAg negative. Fourteen percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 12%–15%) of HBsAg-negative women had an isolated anti-HBc that was independently associated with low CD4 count, age >35 years, birth in northern Thailand, and positive anti–hepatitis C virus serology. Occult HBV infection was identified in 24% (95% CI, 18%–30%) of women with isolated anti-HBc, representing 2.6% (95% CI, 1.9%–3.5%) of HIV-1–infected pregnant women, and was inversely associated with HIV RNA levels. None of the women with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection transmitted HBV to their infants. Conclusions. HIV-1–infected pregnant women with isolated anti-HBc and occult HBV infection have very low HBV DNA levels and are thus at very low risk to transmit HBV to their infants. PMID:23487379

  5. Red Cross only positive result of horrifying 1859 bloodbath.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, J

    1996-01-01

    Haunted by the suffering and human devastation he witnessed after the 1859 Battle of Solferino in Italy, Swiss banker Henry Dunant wrote a book that galvanized European governments and resulted in the first international agreement that established rules for the conduct of war. The Geneva Convention also resulted in the formation of the Red Cross. PMID:8873648

  6. Are current screening protocols for chronic hepatitis B virus infection adequate?

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Eva; Kamali, Amanda; Schirmer, Patricia L; Lucero-Obusan, Cynthia; Winston, Carla A; Oda, Gina; Winters, Mark A; Durfee, Janet; Martinello, Richard A; Davey, Victoria J; Holodniy, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection screening usually includes only HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) testing; HBV core and surface antibody (anti-HBc, anti-HBs) assays, indicating resolved infection and immunity, are not routinely performed. Yet, serum HBV DNA is measurable in approximately 10% of HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive cases, representing occult HBV infection (OBI). Patient blood samples from 2 Veterans Affairs medical center look-back investigations were screened for HBV infection using HBsAg enzyme immunoassays. Supplementary testing included anti-HBc and anti-HBs enzyme immunoassays. For anti-HBc-positive samples, HBV DNA testing was performed. Background OBI prevalence was further estimated at these 2 facilities based on HBV serology testing results from 1999-2012. Finally, a literature review was performed to determine OBI prevalence in the published literature. Of 1887 HBsAg-negative cohort patients, 98 (5.2%) were anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs negative; and 175 (9.3%), anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs positive. Six of 273 were HBV DNA positive, representing 0.3% of the total tested and 2.2% who were anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs negative or anti-HBc positive/anti-HBs positive. Among 32,229 general population veterans at these 2 sites who had any HBV testing, 4/108 (3.7%) were HBV DNA positive, none of whom were part of the cohort. In 129 publications with HBsAg-negative patients, 1817/1,209,426 (0.15%) had OBI. However, excluding blood bank studies with greater than 1000 patients, the OBI rate increased to 1800/17,893 (10%). OBI is not rare and has implications for transmission and disease detection. HBsAg testing alone is insufficient for detecting all chronic HBV infections. These findings may impact blood donation, patient HBV screening, follow-up protocols for patients assumed to have cleared the infection, and initiation of immunosuppression in patients with distant or undetected HBV. PMID:27009896

  7. Decrease in the prevalence of hepatitis B and a low prevalence of hepatitis C virus infections in the general population of the Seychelles.

    PubMed Central

    Bovet, P.; Yersin, C.; Herminie, P.; Lavanchy, D.; Frei, P. C.

    1999-01-01

    A serological survey of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections was carried out on a random sex- and age-stratified sample of 1006 individuals aged 25-64 years in the Seychelles islands. Anti-HBc and anti-HCV antibodies were detected using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), followed by a Western blot assay in the case of a positive result for anti-HCV. The age-adjusted seroprevalence of anti-HBc antibodies was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.5-9.9%) and the percentage prevalence among males/females increased from 7.0/3.1 to 19.1/13.4 in the age groups 25-34 to 55-64 years, respectively. Two men and three women were positive for anti-HCV antibodies, with an age-adjusted seroprevalence of 0.34% (95% CI: 0.1-0.8%). Two out of these five subjects who were positive for anti-HCV also had anti-HBc antibodies. The seroprevalence of anti-HBc was significantly higher in unskilled workers, persons with low education, and heavy drinkers. The age-specific seroprevalence of anti-HBc in this population-based survey, which was conducted in 1994, was approximately three times lower than in a previous patient-based survey carried out in 1979. Although there are methodological differences between the two surveys, it is likely that the substantial decrease in anti-HBc prevalence during the last 15 years may be due to significant socioeconomic development and the systematic screening of blood donors since 1981. Because hepatitis C virus infections are serious and the cost of treatment is high, the fact that the prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is at present low should not be an argument for not screening blood donors for anti-HCV and eliminating those who are positive. PMID:10612888

  8. Prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus infection in hemodialysis patients in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Hamid; Ferdowsi, Faezeh; Yaran, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: The absence of a detectable hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) with or without hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) or hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs) in the presence of hepatitis B virus-DNA (HBV-DNA) is defined as occult HBV infection. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occult HBV infection in patients receiving hemodialysis (HD) in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross sectional study was done on 400 patients without acute or chronic HBV infection with end-stage renal disease undergoing regular HD. Blood samples were collected prior to the HD session, and serological markers of viral hepatitis B included HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc were measured using standard third generation commercially available enzyme immunoassays kit, then samples of positive anti-HBc and negative anti-HBs were tested for HBV DNA using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction techniques. Data were analyzed by SPSS using t-test and Chi-square test. Results: The mean age of patients was 51.6 ± 11.2 years. Anti-HBc positive was observed in 32 (8%) of 400 studied patients with negative HBsAg. Of 32 patients with anti-HBc positive, 15 were males and 17 were females with mean age of 49.7 ± 12.6 years. Among 32 patients with anti-HBc positive, 10 patients were negative for anti-HBs. All of 10 patients were negative for HBV DNA. The prevalence of occult HBV infection was 0%. Conclusions: The prevalence of occult HBV infection in HBsAg negative patients undergoing HD was 0% and look to be among the lowest worldwide. So, occult HBV infection is not a significant health problem in HD patients in this region. PMID:27713872

  9. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among blood donors from the Brazilian Amazon: implications for transfusion policy

    PubMed Central

    Moresco, M. N. dos S.; Virgolino, H. de A.; de Morais, M. P. E.; da Motta-Passos, I.; Gomes-Gouvêa, M. S.; de Assis, L. M. S.; Aguiar, K. R. de L.; Lombardi, S. C. F.; Malheiro, A.; Cavalheiro, N. de P.; Levi, J. E.; Torres, K. L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Brazil requires the performance of both a test for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and a test for antibodies to the core of hepatitis B for blood donor screening. Blood centres in regions of high HBV endemicity struggle to maintain adequate stocks in face of the high discard rates due to anti-HBc reactivity. We evaluated the potential infectivity of donations positive for anti-HBc in search of a rational approach for the handling of these collections. Study Design and Methods We tested anti-HBc reactive blood donations from the state of Amazonas for the presence of HBV DNA and for titres of anti-HBs. The study population consists of village-based donors from the interior of Amazonas state. Results Among 3600 donations, 799 were anti-HBc reactive (22·2%). We were able to perform real-time PCR for the HBV S gene on specimens from 291 of these donors. Eight of these samples were negative for HBsAg and positive for HBV DNA and were defined as occult B virus infections (2·7%). Six of those eight specimens had anti-HBs titres above 100 mIU/ml, indicating the concomitant presence of the virus with high antibody titres. Conclusion A small proportion of anti-HBc reactive donors carry HBV DNA and anti-HBs testing is not useful for predicting viremia on them. This finding indicates the possibility of HBV transmission from asymptomatic donors, especially in areas of high HBV prevalence. Sensitive HBV DNA nucleic acid testing may provide another level of safety, allowing eventual use of anti-HBc reactive units in critical situations. PMID:24697276

  10. The oblique supine decubitus position: technical description and comparison of results with the prone decubitus and dorsal supine decubitus positions.

    PubMed

    Arrabal-Martin, Miguel; Arrabal-Polo, Miguel A; Lopez-Leon, Victor; Merino-Salas, Sergio; Palao-Yago, Francisco; Cámara-Ortega, Manuel; Zuluaga-Gomez, Armando

    2012-10-01

    Our objective was to analyze the advantages of the percutaneous nephrolithotomy in oblique supine decubitus compared to the prone and dorsal supine position. In 87 patients diagnosed with urolithiasis (495.5-530.8 mm(2)), percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) was performed from 2000 to 2011. The patients were divided into three groups: Group A, 32 patients, PNL in the prone decubitus position; Group B, 24 patients, PNL in the dorsal supine position; Group C, 31 patients, PNL in the oblique supine position. We analyzed intraoperative parameters, complications, and results among the three groups. The three procedures were performed with a single access, 24-30 Ch. No statistically significant differences were found among the three groups regarding the patients' characteristics, or the morphology or size of the kidney stone treated. The operation time was shorter in the cases of PNL in dorsal supine and oblique supine compared to the prone position. The complication rate was very similar in the three groups. The main advantage of the PNL in oblique supine compared to the dorsal supine was that the puncture could in all cases be directed by ultrasonography, with greater precision, more safety, and more control of the percutaneous renal access. The oblique supine decubitus position is a safe position for the percutaneous treatment of urolithiasis and it becomes easier when the puncture is guided by ultrasound.

  11. Hepatitis B virus prevalence and transmission risk factors in inflammatory bowel disease patients at Clementino Fraga Filho university hospital

    PubMed Central

    Tolentino, Yolanda Faia Manhães; Fogaça, Homero Soares; Zaltman, Cyrla; Ximenes, Lia Laura Lewis; Coelho, Henrique Sérgio Moraes

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients that followed up in our hospital and try to identify the possible risk factors involved in this infection transmission. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study for which 176 patients were selected according to their arrival for the medical interview. All these patients had already IBD diagnosis. The patient was interviewed and a questionnaire was filled out. RESULTS: In the group of 176 patients whom we examined, we found that 17% (30) were anti-HBc positive. Out of 30 patients with positive anti-HBc, 2.3% (4) had positive HBsAg and negative HBV-DNA. In an attempt to identify the possible HBV infection transmission risk factors in IBD patients, it was observed that 117 patients had been submitted to some kind of surgical procedure, but only 24 patients had positive anti-HBc (P = 0.085). It was also observed that surgery to treat IBD complications was not a risk factor for HBV infection transmission, since we did not get a statically significant P value. However, IBD patients that have been submitted to surgery to treat IBD complications received more blood transfusions then patients submitted to other surgical interventions (P = 0.015). CONCLUSION: There was a high incidence of positive anti-HBc (17%) and positive HBsAg (2.3%) in IBD patient when compared with the overall population (7.9%). PMID:18506926

  12. Green Positive Guidance and Green Positive Life Counseling for Decent Work and Decent Lives: Some Empirical Results.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work. PMID:26973563

  13. Green Positive Guidance and Green Positive Life Counseling for Decent Work and Decent Lives: Some Empirical Results

    PubMed Central

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work. PMID:26973563

  14. Green Positive Guidance and Green Positive Life Counseling for Decent Work and Decent Lives: Some Empirical Results.

    PubMed

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Bucci, Ornella

    2016-01-01

    This article discusses green positive guidance and green positive life counseling for decent work and decent lives. From a green guidance perspective, the connectedness to nature construct is important both in terms of the meaning of work and life construction. The study discussed in this article analyzed the relationship between empathy and connectedness to nature, controlling for the effects of fluid intelligence and personality traits. In this connection, the Advanced Progressive Matrices, the Big Five Questionnaire, and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index were administered to 144 Italian high school students. The study revealed that connecteness to nature was not associated with fluid intelligence and was only moderately associated with personality traits. It was empathy that showed the highest association with connectedness to nature. The results open new opportunities for future research and interventions in green positive guidance/life counseling and green positive decent work.

  15. Prevalence, Risk Behaviors, and Virological Characteristics of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in a Group of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Brazil: Results from a Respondent-Driven Sampling Survey

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Marina P.; Matos, Márcia A. D.; Silva, Ágabo M. C.; Lopes, Carmen L. R.; Teles, Sheila A.; Matos, Marcos A.; Spitz, Natália; Araujo, Natalia M.; Mota, Rosa M. S.; Kerr, Ligia R. F. S.; Martins, Regina M. B.

    2016-01-01

    Background Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at increased risk of exposure to hepatitis B virus (HBV) compared with the general population. This study aims to assess the epidemiological and virological characteristics of HBV infection in a sample of MSM in Brazil, where data are scarce. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among MSM in the City of Goiânia, Central Brazil, from March to November 2014, using Respondent-Driven Sampling (RDS). After signing the consent form, participants were interviewed and a blood sample collected. All samples were tested for HBV serological markers and HBV DNA. HBV nucleotide sequence analysis was also performed. Results A total of 522 MSM were recruited in the study. The prevalence of HBV infection (current or past [presence of anti-HBc marker]) was 15.4% (95% CI: 8.7–25.8) and the rate of HBsAg carriers was 0.6% (95% CI: 0.2–1.6). About 40% (95% CI: 32.3–48.8) of the participants had serological evidence of previous HBV vaccination (reactive for isolated anti-HBs). In addition, 44.3% (95% CI: 36.1–52.9) were seronegative for all HBV markers. Age over 25 years old, receptive anal intercourse, previous sex with women, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) were factors associated with HBV infection. HBV DNA was detected only in HBsAg-positive individuals. HBV isolates were classified into genotype A (subgenotypes A1 and A2), and some mutations were identified throughout the genome. Therefore, occult HBV infection was not observed in the study population. Conclusions Public health strategies should be improved for the MSM population in order to prevent HBV and other STIs, as well as to provide appropriate management of patients with active infections. PMID:27508385

  16. CT colonography with computer-aided detection: recognizing the causes of false-positive reader results.

    PubMed

    Trilisky, Igor; Wroblewski, Kristen; Vannier, Michael W; Horne, John M; Dachman, Abraham H

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) colonography is a screening modality used to detect colonic polyps before they progress to colorectal cancer. Computer-aided detection (CAD) is designed to decrease errors of detection by finding and displaying polyp candidates for evaluation by the reader. CT colonography CAD false-positive results are common and have numerous causes. The relative frequency of CAD false-positive results and their effect on reader performance on the basis of a 19-reader, 100-case trial shows that the vast majority of CAD false-positive results were dismissed by readers. Many CAD false-positive results are easily disregarded, including those that result from coarse mucosa, reconstruction, peristalsis, motion, streak artifacts, diverticulum, rectal tubes, and lipomas. CAD false-positive results caused by haustral folds, extracolonic candidates, diminutive lesions (<6 mm), anal papillae, internal hemorrhoids, varices, extrinsic compression, and flexural pseudotumors are almost always recognized and disregarded. The ileocecal valve and tagged stool are common sources of CAD false-positive results associated with reader false-positive results. Nondismissable CAD soft-tissue polyp candidates larger than 6 mm are another common cause of reader false-positive results that may lead to further evaluation with follow-up CT colonography or optical colonoscopy. Strategies for correctly evaluating CAD polyp candidates are important to avoid pitfalls from common sources of CAD false-positive results.

  17. Potential for false positive HIV test results with the serial rapid HIV testing algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Rapid HIV tests provide same-day results and are widely used in HIV testing programs in areas with limited personnel and laboratory infrastructure. The Uganda Ministry of Health currently recommends the serial rapid testing algorithm with Determine, STAT-PAK, and Uni-Gold for diagnosis of HIV infection. Using this algorithm, individuals who test positive on Determine, negative to STAT-PAK and positive to Uni-Gold are reported as HIV positive. We conducted further testing on this subgroup of samples using qualitative DNA PCR to assess the potential for false positive tests in this situation. Results Of the 3388 individuals who were tested, 984 were HIV positive on two consecutive tests, and 29 were considered positive by a tiebreaker (positive on Determine, negative on STAT-PAK, and positive on Uni-Gold). However, when the 29 samples were further tested using qualitative DNA PCR, 14 (48.2%) were HIV negative. Conclusion Although this study was not primarily designed to assess the validity of rapid HIV tests and thus only a subset of the samples were retested, the findings show a potential for false positive HIV results in the subset of individuals who test positive when a tiebreaker test is used in serial testing. These findings highlight a need for confirmatory testing for this category of individuals. PMID:22429706

  18. Delays in antiretroviral therapy initiation among HIV-positive individuals: results of the positive living with HIV study

    PubMed Central

    Poudel, Krishna C.; Buchanan, David R.; Poudel-Tandukar, Kalpana

    2016-01-01

    Background Lack of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains a major health concern due to increased risk of premature mortality and further HIV transmission. This study explored CD4+ cell count monitoring in relation to delays in ART initiation among HIV-positive individuals in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, where ART coverage was only 23.7% in 2011. Design We recruited a total of 87 ART-naïve, HIV-positive individuals aged 18 to 60 years through the networks of five non-government organizations working with HIV-positive individuals. We collected data on the history of ART initiation, CD4+ cell count monitoring, socio-demographic variables, perceived family support (measured with 10-item Nepali Family Support and Difficulty Scale), depression, and HIV symptom burden. Correlates of ART eligibility were examined using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results A total of 72 of the 87 ART-naïve participants (82.8%) had monitored their CD4+ cell count in the past 6 months. Of these, 36 (50%) participants were eligible for ART initiation with CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. A total of 12 participants had CD4+ cell count <200 cells/mm3. Lower level of perceived family support was associated with 6.05-fold higher odds (95% confidence interval =1.95 to 18.73) of being ART eligible with a CD4+ cell count <350 cells/mm3. Conclusions High rate of delays in ART initiation and the strong association of low perceived family support with ART eligibility in our study participants suggest that HIV service providers should consider the role and impact of family support in influencing individual decisions to initiate ART among eligible HIV-positive individuals. PMID:27369221

  19. Establishment of a simple model for hepatitis B virus infection status based on trait marker from quantitative measurement of serum markers.

    PubMed

    Ningyu, Zhang; Ying, Zhang; Hui, Liu

    2015-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to establish a simple model based on quantitative serum markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection to understand the complex immune response to HBV. Patients samples were obtained from individuals with active HBV infection (alanine transaminase [ALT]-positive, aspartate aminotransferase [AST]-positive and HBsAg-positive), or patients who had recovered from infection (ALT-negative, AST-negative, anti-HBs-positive and either HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBe or anti-HBc positive). HBV quantitative markers, including HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg, anti-HBe, and anti-HBc, were measured using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Based on cut-off values, anti-HBs levels were converted to a ratio (sample value/cut-off value, RV). Anti-HBe and anti-HBc levels were determined using a competition method, resulting in the use of a ratio (cut-off value/sample value, RV) for determination of anti-HBe and anti-HBc values. The greater RV value in a patient was considered as a trait marker for HBV infection (TMHB) of this patient. Patients with TMHB including HBsAg or HBeAg were defined as TMHB-Ag; and patients with TMHB including anti-HBs, anti-HBe, or anti-HBc TMHB were defined as TMHB-Ab. The percentage of patients determined to be TMHB-Ag was 96.3% in the HBV group. The percentage of patients determined to be TMHB-Ab was 94.7% in recovery group. TMHBs could be used to analyze different status of HBV infection.

  20. PMA treatment is an effective means to reduce false positive PCR testing results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional and real time PCR are widely used in detecting bacterial pathogens in various food matrix and environmental samples. Sometimes a positive detection using PCR can not be confirmed by subsequent culture isolation of the targeted pathogen, resulting in a potential “false positive.” False po...

  1. Antibody-directed complement-mediated cytotoxicity to hepatocytes from patients with chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed Central

    Michalak, T I; Lau, J Y; McFarlane, B M; Alexander, G J; Eddleston, A L; Williams, R

    1995-01-01

    The susceptibility of hepatocytes from patients with chronic hepatitis B to complement-dependent cytotoxicity mediated by heterologous antibodies to hepatitis B virus core (anti-HBc) and surface (anti-HBs) antigens and to hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptor was examined using a microcytotoxicity assay. The anti-HBc-induced cytotoxicity was found to be markedly enhanced against hepatocytes isolated from patients with chronic active hepatitis (72.6 +/- 9.5% (mean +/- s.e.m.); n = 6) over that against hepatocytes from individuals with chronic persistent hepatitis or inactive liver cirrhosis (40.6 +/- 18.6%; n = 4) (P = 0.019). Overall, values of the anti-HBc-directed cytotoxicity were higher in patients positive for HBcAg in hepatocytes and seropositive for hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg). Hepatocytotoxicity was also exerted by anti-HBs and anti-asialoglycoprotein receptor antibodies in the presence of complement, but it was not seemingly related to disease activity. These results indicate that hepatitis B virus core and surface antigens and asialoglycoprotein receptor at the hepatocyte surface can be recognized by antibodies, and raise the possibility that complement-dependent cytolysis may contribute to the injury of hepatitis B virus-infected hepatocytes. The data also suggest that liver cells of patients with severe chronic hepatitis might be more susceptible to anti-HBc antibody-directed complement-mediated cytotoxicity than those with inactive liver histology. PMID:7743660

  2. False-positive Chlamydiazyme results during urine sediment analysis due to bacterial urinary tract infections.

    PubMed Central

    Demaio, J; Boyd, R S; Rensi, R; Clark, A

    1991-01-01

    Our study examined whether urinary tract infections (UTIs) would cause false-positive results when urine sediment was tested with the Chlamydiazyme (CZ) system. Thirty-six infected urine samples and fifteen controls were studied. All controls were negative. Forty-seven percent of Escherichia coli UTIs (n = 30) and 100% of Klebsiella pneumoniae UTIs (n = 4) were positive on CZ testing of urine sediment. Nine E. coli UTIs positive by CZ were negative by direct fluorescent-antibody staining. When suspensions of the pure cultures were analyzed, 47% of E. coli and 100% of K. pneumoniae samples were CZ positive. False-positive results were not related to organism biotype or urine characteristics, including pH, specific gravity, and leukocyte count. We conclude that the presence of a UTI and also bacterial contamination must be ruled out prior to urine sediment testing. PMID:1885739

  3. False positive results for antibody to HIV in two men with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed Central

    Esteva, M H; Blasini, A M; Ogly, D; Rodríguez, M A

    1992-01-01

    False positive results were obtained for HIV tests in two men with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who were suspected of being infected with HIV because of fever, weight loss, lymphadenopathy, and inflammatory myopathy. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for HIV were twice positive when tested three times over a period of six months. Western blot analysis showed reactivity against the gp41 band in patient 1. False positive results for HIV tests can occur in patients with SLE, potentially leading to an erroneous diagnosis of HIV infection. PMID:1417140

  4. Methods used by accredited dental specialty programs to advertise faculty positions: results of a national survey.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Richard W; Hagan, Joseph L; Armbruster, Paul C; Gallo, John R

    2011-01-01

    The various reasons for the current and projected shortages of dental faculty members in the United States have received much attention. Dental school deans have reported that the top three factors impacting their ability to fill faculty positions are meeting the requirements of the position, lack of response to position announcement, and salary/budget limitations. An electronic survey sent to program directors of specialty programs at all accredited U.S. dental schools inquired about the number of vacant positions, advertised vacant positions, reasons for not advertising, selection of advertising medium, results of advertising, and assistance from professional dental organizations. A total of seventy-three permanently funded full-time faculty positions were reported vacant, with 89.0 percent of these positions having been advertised in nationally recognized professional journals and newsletters. Networking or word-of-mouth was reported as the most successful method for advertising. The majority of those responding reported that professional dental organizations did not help with filling vacant faculty positions, but that they would utilize the American Dental Association's website or their specialty organization's website to post faculty positions if they were easy to use and update. PMID:21205727

  5. Risk of breast cancer after false-positive results in mammographic screening.

    PubMed

    Román, Marta; Castells, Xavier; Hofvind, Solveig; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2016-06-01

    Women with false-positive results are commonly referred back to routine screening. Questions remain regarding their long-term outcome of breast cancer. We assessed the risk of screen-detected breast cancer in women with false-positive results. We conducted a joint analysis using individual level data from the population-based screening programs in Copenhagen and Funen in Denmark, Norway, and Spain. Overall, 150,383 screened women from Denmark (1991-2008), 612,138 from Norway (1996-2010), and 1,172,572 from Spain (1990-2006) were included. Poisson regression was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of screen-detected cancer for women with false-positive versus negative results. We analyzed information from 1,935,093 women 50-69 years who underwent 6,094,515 screening exams. During an average 5.8 years of follow-up, 230,609 (11.9%) women received a false-positive result and 27,849 (1.4%) were diagnosed with screen-detected cancer. The adjusted RR of screen-detected cancer after a false-positive result was 2.01 (95% CI: 1.93-2.09). Women who tested false-positive at first screen had a RR of 1.86 (95% CI: 1.77-1.96), whereas those who tested false-positive at third screening had a RR of 2.42 (95% CI: 2.21-2.64). The RR of breast cancer at the screening test after the false-positive result was 3.95 (95% CI: 3.71-4.21), whereas it decreased to 1.25 (95% CI: 1.17-1.34) three or more screens after the false-positive result. Women with false-positive results had a twofold risk of screen-detected breast cancer compared to women with negative tests. The risk remained significantly higher three or more screens after the false-positive result. The increased risk should be considered when discussing stratified screening strategies.

  6. Consequences of a false-positive mammography result: drug consumption before and after screening.

    PubMed

    von Euler-Chelpin, My; Bæksted, Christina; Vejborg, Ilse; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2016-05-01

    Background Previous research showed women experiencing false-positive mammograms to have greater anxiety about breast cancer than women with normal mammograms. To elucidate psychological effects of false-positive mammograms, we studied impact on drug intake. Methods We calculated the ratio of drug use for women with false-positive versus women with normal mammograms, before and after the event, using population-based registers, 1997-2006. The ratio of the ratios (RRR) assessed the impact. Results Before the test, 40.3% of women from the false-positive group versus 36.2% from the normal group used anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs. There was no difference in use of beta blockers. Hormone therapy was used more frequently by the false-positive, 36.6% versus 28.7%. The proportion of women using anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs increased with 19% from the before to the after period in the false-positive group, and with 16% in the normal group, resulting in an RRR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92-1.14). RRR was 1.03 for beta blockers, 0.97 for hormone therapy. Conclusion(s) Drugs used to mitigate mood disorders were used more frequently by women with false-positive than by women with normal mammograms already before the screening event, while the changes from before to after screening were similar for both groups. The results point to the importance of control for potential selection in studies of screening effects.

  7. Investigation of False Positive Results with an Oral Fluid Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test

    PubMed Central

    Jafa, Krishna; Patel, Pragna; MacKellar, Duncan A.; Sullivan, Patrick S.; Delaney, Kevin P.; Sides, Tracy L.; Newman, Alexandra P.; Paul, Sindy M.; Cadoff, Evan M.; Martin, Eugene G.; Keenan, Patrick A.; Branson, Bernard M.

    2007-01-01

    Background In March 2004, the OraQuick® rapid HIV antibody test became the first rapid HIV test approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for use on oral fluid specimens. Test results are available in 20 minutes, and the oral fluid test is non-invasive. From August 2004–June 2005, we investigated a sudden increase in false-positive results occurring in a performance study of OraQuick® oral-fluid rapid HIV tests in Minnesota. Methodology/Principal Findings In a field investigation, we reviewed performance study data on oral-fluid and whole-blood OraQuick® rapid HIV test device lots and expiration dates and assessed test performance and interpretation with oral-fluid and whole-blood specimens by operators who reported false-positive results. We used multivariate logistic regression to evaluate client demographic and risk characteristics associated with false-positive results. Next, we conducted an incidence study of false-positive OraQuick rapid HIV tests in nine US cities and tested both oral-fluid and finger-stick whole-blood specimens from clients; reactive tests were confirmed with Western blot. Sixteen (4.1%) false-positive oral-fluid results occurred in the performance study from April 15, 2004 through August 31, 2004 with unexpired devices from six test lots among 388 HIV-uninfected clients (specificity, 95.9%; 95% CI: 93.4–97.6). Three test operators who had reported false-positive results performed and interpreted the test according to package-insert instructions. In multivariate analysis, only older age was significantly associated with false-positive results (adjusted odds ratio = 4.5, 95% CI: 1.2–25.7). In the incidence study, all valid oral-fluid and whole-blood results from 2,268 clients were concordant and no false-positive results occurred (100% specificity). Conclusions/Significance The field investigation did not identify a cause for the increase in false-positive oral-fluid results, and the incidence study detected no false-positive

  8. Indium-111 labeled leukocyte uptake: false-positive results in noninfected pseudoaneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, B.R.; Cerqueira, M.D.; Vea, H.W.; Nelp, W.B.

    1986-03-01

    Indium-111 (In-111) leukocyte scintigraphy was performed in two patients with postsurgical pseudoaneurysms as part of preoperative evaluation for evidence of graft infection. Despite positive In-111 uptake by the pseudoaneurysms, surgical and pathologic examinations failed to reveal any evidence of infection. The most likely explanation for the false-positive results is the labeling of contaminating platelets and erythrocytes in the leukocyte mixture. Caution must be exercised in interpretation of In-111 leukocyte scans in patients with postsurgical pseudoaneurysms.

  9. Estimated results analysis and application of the precise point positioning based high-accuracy ionosphere delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shi-tai; Peng, Jun-huan

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of ionosphere delay estimated with precise point positioning is analyzed in this paper. The estimation, interpolation and application of the ionosphere delay are studied based on the processing of 24-h data from 5 observation stations. The results show that the estimated ionosphere delay is affected by the hardware delay bias from receiver so that there is a difference between the estimated and interpolated results. The results also show that the RMSs (root mean squares) are bigger, while the STDs (standard deviations) are better than 0.11 m. When the satellite difference is used, the hardware delay bias can be canceled. The interpolated satellite-differenced ionosphere delay is better than 0.11 m. Although there is a difference between the between the estimated and interpolated ionosphere delay results it cannot affect its application in single-frequency positioning and the positioning accuracy can reach cm level.

  10. False-positive urine phencyclidine immunoassay screen result caused by interference by tramadol and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Ly, Binh T; Thornton, Stephen L; Buono, Colleen; Stone, Judith A; Wu, Alan H B

    2012-06-01

    Phencyclidine is one of the drugs of abuse included in qualitative urine drug screens that are frequently ordered in the emergency department despite concerns about specificity and clinical utility. Many drugs have been described to cause false-positive results for phencyclidine. We present 2 cases of false-positive phencyclidine qualitative urine drug screen results in patients with seizures from tramadol misuse or abuse. The involvement of tramadol and its active metabolite, N-desmethyltramadol, was confirmed by in vitro testing. These cases illustrate that tramadol and its metabolites can trigger a false-positive phencyclidine urine drug screen result in nonfatal cases and highlight the lack of specificity of the phencyclidine qualitative urine drug screen.

  11. Fenofibric Acid Can Cause False-Positive Urine Methylenedioxymethamphetamine Immunoassay Results.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Loreto; Gomila, Isabel; Fe, Antonia; Servera, Miguel A; Yates, Christopher; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Castanyer, Bartomeu; Barceló, Bernardino

    2015-01-01

    We present a false-positive result of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-NN-methylamphetamine) screening due to the therapeutic use of fenofibrate, an antihyperlipidemic drug. Our hypothesis was that the main metabolite of fenofibrate, fenofibric acid, was responsible for this cross-reactivity on a DRI(®) Ecstasy Assay, using a cut-off of 500 ng/mL. We estimated that the addition of 225 µg/mL pure fenofibric acid to blank urine would be sufficient to result in a positive DRI(®) Ecstasy Assay. The results obtained on the urine samples analyses of the patient show that the DRI(®) Ecstasy Assay resulted negative 2 days after discontinuing fenofibrate treatment, when the urine fenofibric acid concentration corrected by creatinine and determinated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was 20.3 µg/mg creatinine. The cross-reactivity data for fenofibric acid would seem to indicate that there was insufficient concentration of measured compound to account for the positive immunochemical results for ecstasy. This apparent discrepancy can be explained in several ways, one of them is that the β-glucuronidase-resistent fenofibric acid isomers are responsible. This process could explain the low recovery of free fenofibric acid when we use the developed method for its quantification in urine samples. Positive results on immunoassay screening must be considered presumptive until confirmation with another method based on a different principle, preferably gas chromatography-mass spectrometry or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  12. False-positive buprenorphine EIA urine toxicology results due to high dose morphine: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tenore, Peter L

    2012-01-01

    In monitoring a patient with chronic pain who was taking high-dose morphine and oxycodone with weekly urine enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) toxicology testing, the authors noted consistent positives for buprenorphine. The patient was not taking buprenorphine, and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS) testing on multiple samples revealed no buprenorphine, indicating a case of false-positive buprenorphine EIAs in a high-dose opiate case. The authors discontinued oxycodone for a period of time and then discontinued morphine. Urine monitoring with EIAs and GCMS revealed false-positive buprenorphine EIAs, which remained only when the patient was taking morphine. When taking only oxycodone and no morphine, urine samples became buprenorphine negative. When morphine was reintroduced, false-positive buprenorphine results resumed. Medical practitioners should be aware that high-dose morphine (with morphine urine levels turning positive within the 15,000 to 28,000 mg/mL range) may produce false-positive buprenorphine EIAs with standard urine EIA toxicology testing.

  13. Follow-up actions from positive results of in vitro genetic toxicity testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Appropriate follow-up actions and decisions are needed when evaluating and interpreting clear positive results obtained in the in vitro assays used in the initial genotoxicity screening battery (i.e., the battery of tests generally required by regulatory authorities) to assist in...

  14. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  15. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  16. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  17. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  18. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  19. Marijuana-positive urine test results from consumption of hemp seeds in food products.

    PubMed

    Fortner, N; Fogerson, R; Lindman, D; Iversen, T; Armbruster, D

    1997-10-01

    Commercially available snack bars and other foodstuffs prepared from pressed hemp seeds were ingested by volunteers. Urine specimens were collected for 24 h after ingestion of the foodstuffs containing hemp seeds and tested for marijuana using an EMIT immunoassay and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Specimens from individuals who ate one hemp seed bar demonstrated little marijuana immunoreactivity, and only one specimen screened positive at a 20-ng/mL cutoff. Specimens from individuals who ate two hemp seed bars showed increased immunoreactivity, and five specimens screened positive at a 20-ng/mL cutoff. A single specimen yielded a quantitative GC-MS value (0.6 ng/mL), but it failed to meet reporting criteria. Several specimens from individuals who ate three cookies made from hemp seed flour and butter screened positive at both 50- and 20-ng/mL cutoffs. Two specimens produced quantitative GC-MS values (0.7 and 3.1 ng/mL), but they failed to meet reporting criteria. Several specimens also tested positive with an FDA-approved on-site marijuana-screening device. Hemp seeds similar to those used in the foodstuffs did not demonstrate the presence of marijuana when tested by GC-MS. In this study, ingestion of hemp seed food products resulted in urine specimens that screened positive for marijuana. No specimens gave a GC-MS quantitative value above the limit of detection for marijuana.

  20. Cumulative Incidence of False-Positive Results in Repeated, Multimodal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Croswell, Jennifer Miller; Kramer, Barnett S.; Kreimer, Aimee R.; Prorok, Phil C.; Xu, Jian-Lun; Baker, Stuart G.; Fagerstrom, Richard; Riley, Thomas L.; Clapp, Jonathan D.; Berg, Christine D.; Gohagan, John K.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Chia, David; Church, Timothy R.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Gelmann, Edward P.; Lamerato, Lois; Reding, Douglas J.; Schoen, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE Multiple cancer screening tests have been advocated for the general population; however, clinicians and patients are not always well-informed of screening burdens. We sought to determine the cumulative risk of a false-positive screening result and the resulting risk of a diagnostic procedure for an individual participating in a multimodal cancer screening program. METHODS Data were analyzed from the intervention arm of the ongoing Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial, a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening on disease-specific mortality. The 68,436 participants, aged 55 to 74 years, were randomized to screening or usual care. Women received serial serum tests to detect cancer antigen 125 (CA-125), transvaginal sonograms, posteroanterior-view chest radiographs, and flexible sigmoidoscopies. Men received serial chest radiographs, flexible sigmoidoscopies, digital rectal examinations, and serum prostate-specific antigen tests. Fourteen screening examinations for each sex were possible during the 3-year screening period. RESULTS After 14 tests, the cumulative risk of having at least 1 false-positive screening test is 60.4% (95% CI, 59.8%–61.0%) for men, and 48.8% (95% CI, 48.1%–49.4%) for women. The cumulative risk after 14 tests of undergoing an invasive diagnostic procedure prompted by a false-positive test is 28.5% (CI, 27.8%–29.3%) for men and 22.1% (95% CI, 21.4%–22.7%) for women. CONCLUSIONS For an individual in a multimodal cancer screening trial, the risk of a false-positive finding is about 50% or greater by the 14th test. Physicians should educate patients about the likelihood of false positives and resulting diagnostic interventions when counseling about cancer screening. PMID:19433838

  1. The trazodone metabolite meta-chlorophenylpiperazine can cause false-positive urine amphetamine immunoassay results.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jason M; Griggs, David A; Nixon, Andrea L; Long, William H; Flood, James G

    2011-07-01

    Amphetamines and methamphetamines are part of an important class of drugs included in most urine drugs of abuse screening panels, and a common assay to detect these drugs is the Amphetamines II immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics). To demonstrate that meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP), a trazodone metabolite, cross-reacts in the Amphetamines II assay, we tested reference standards of m-CPP at various concentrations (200 to 20,000 g/L). We also tested real patient urine samples containing m-CPP (detected and quantified by HPLC) with no detectable amphetamine, methamphetamine, or MDMA (demonstrated by GC MS). In both the m-CPP standards and the patient urine samples, we found a strong association between m-CPP concentration and Amphetamines II immunoreactivity (r = 0.990 for the urine samples). Further, we found that patients taking trazodone can produce urine with sufficient m-CPP to result in false-positive Amphetamines II results. At our institution, false-positive amphetamine results occur not infrequently in patients taking trazodone with at least 8 trazodone-associated false-positive results during a single 26-day period. Laboratories should remain cognizant of this interference when interpreting results of this assay.

  2. Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

    PubMed

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Ates, Gamze; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-02-01

    The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. This could have a major impact on the cosmetic industry in Europe, seen the imposed animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetics and their ingredients. Afflicted, but safe substances could therefore be lost. Using the example of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, we describe here the potential applicability of a human toxicogenomics-based in vitro assay as a potential mechanistically based follow-up test for positive in vitro genotoxicity results. Triclosan shows a positive in vitro chromosomal aberration test, but is negative during in vivo follow-up tests. Toxicogenomics analysis unequivocally shows that triclosan is identified as a compound acting through non-DNA reactive mechanisms. This proof-of-principle study illustrates the potential of genome-wide transcriptomics data in combination with in vitro experimentation as a possible weight-of-evidence follow-up approach for de-risking a positive outcome in a standard mutagenicity/genotoxicity battery. As such a substantial number of cosmetic compounds wrongly identified as genotoxicants could be saved for the future. PMID:24095862

  3. Way forward in case of a false positive in vitro genotoxicity result for a cosmetic substance?

    PubMed

    Doktorova, Tatyana Y; Ates, Gamze; Vinken, Mathieu; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera

    2014-02-01

    The currently used regulatory in vitro mutagenicity/genotoxicity test battery has a high sensitivity for detecting genotoxicants, but it suffers from a large number of irrelevant positive results (i.e. low specificity) thereby imposing the need for additional follow-up by in vitro and/or in vivo genotoxicity tests. This could have a major impact on the cosmetic industry in Europe, seen the imposed animal testing and marketing bans on cosmetics and their ingredients. Afflicted, but safe substances could therefore be lost. Using the example of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, we describe here the potential applicability of a human toxicogenomics-based in vitro assay as a potential mechanistically based follow-up test for positive in vitro genotoxicity results. Triclosan shows a positive in vitro chromosomal aberration test, but is negative during in vivo follow-up tests. Toxicogenomics analysis unequivocally shows that triclosan is identified as a compound acting through non-DNA reactive mechanisms. This proof-of-principle study illustrates the potential of genome-wide transcriptomics data in combination with in vitro experimentation as a possible weight-of-evidence follow-up approach for de-risking a positive outcome in a standard mutagenicity/genotoxicity battery. As such a substantial number of cosmetic compounds wrongly identified as genotoxicants could be saved for the future.

  4. HIV-Positive–to–HIV-Positive Kidney Transplantation — Results at 3 to 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    Muller, Elmi; Barday, Zunaid; Mendelson, Marc; Kahn, Delawir

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The outcome of kidney transplantation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients who receive organs from HIV-negative donors has been reported to be similar to the outcome in HIV-negative recipients. We report the outcomes at 3 to 5 years in HIV-positive patients who received kidneys from HIV-positive deceased donors. METHODS We conducted a prospective, nonrandomized study of kidney transplantation in HIV-infected patients who had a CD4 T-cell count of 200 per cubic millimeter or higher and an undetectable plasma HIV RNA level. All the patients were receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The patients received kidneys from deceased donors who tested positive for HIV with the use of fourth-generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at the time of referral. All the donors either had received no ART previously or had received only first-line ART. RESULTS From September 2008 through February 2014, a total of 27 HIV-positive patients underwent kidney transplantation. Survivors were followed for a median of 2.4 years. The rate of survival among the patients was 84% at 1 year, 84% at 3 years, and 74% at 5 years. The corresponding rates of graft survival were 93%, 84%, and 84%. (If a patient died with a functioning graft, the calculation was performed as if the graft had survived.) Rejection rates were 8% at 1 year and 22% at 3 years. HIV infection remained well controlled, with undetectable virus in blood after the transplantation. CONCLUSIONS Kidney transplantation from an HIV-positive donor appears to be an additional treatment option for HIV-infected patients requiring renal-replacement therapy. PMID:25671253

  5. Risk of Breast Cancer in Women with False-Positive Results according to Mammographic Features.

    PubMed

    Castells, Xavier; Torá-Rocamora, Isabel; Posso, Margarita; Román, Marta; Vernet-Tomas, Maria; Rodríguez-Arana, Ana; Domingo, Laia; Vidal, Carmen; Baré, Marisa; Ferrer, Joana; Quintana, María Jesús; Sánchez, Mar; Natal, Carmen; Espinàs, Josep A; Saladié, Francina; Sala, María

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To assess the risk of breast cancer in women with false-positive screening results according to radiologic classification of mammographic features. Materials and Methods Review board approval was obtained, with waiver of informed consent. This retrospective cohort study included 521 200 women aged 50-69 years who underwent screening as part of the Spanish Breast Cancer Screening Program between 1994 and 2010 and who were observed until December 2012. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was used to estimate the age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of breast cancer and the 95% confidence interval (CI) in women with false-positive mammograms as compared with women with negative mammograms. Separate models were adjusted for screen-detected and interval cancers and for screen-film and digital mammography. Time without a breast cancer diagnosis was plotted by using Kaplan-Meier curves. Results When compared with women with negative mammograms, the age-adjusted HR of cancer in women with false-positive results was 1.84 (95% CI: 1.73, 1.95; P < .001). The risk was higher in women who had calcifications, whether they were (HR, 2.73; 95% CI: 2.28, 3.28; P < .001) or were not (HR, 2.24; 95% CI: 2.02, 2.48; P < .001) associated with masses. Women in whom mammographic features showed changes in subsequent false-positive results were those who had the highest risk (HR, 9.13; 95% CI: 8.28, 10.07; P < .001). Conclusion Women with false-positive results had an increased risk of breast cancer, particularly women who had calcifications at mammography. Women who had more than one examination with false-positive findings and in whom the mammographic features changed over time had a highly increased risk of breast cancer. Previous mammographic features might yield useful information for further risk-prediction models and personalized follow-up screening protocols. (©) RSNA, 2016 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  6. Polio vaccines, SV40 and human tumours, an update on false positive and false negative results.

    PubMed

    Elmishad, A G; Bocchetta, M; Pass, H I; Carbone, M

    2006-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) has been detected in different human tumours in numerous laboratories. The detection of SV40 in human tumours has been linked to the administration of SV40-contaminated polio vaccines from 1954 until 1963. Many of these reports linked SV40 to human mesothelioma. Some studies have failed to detect SV40 in human tumours and this has caused a controversy. Here we review the current literature. Moreover, we present evidence showing how differences in the sensitivities of methodologies can lead to a very different interpretation of the same study. The same 20 mesothelioma specimens all tested negative, 2/20 tested positive or 7/20 tested positive for SV40 Tag by simply changing the detection method on the same immuno-precipitation/western blot membranes. These results provide a simple explanation for some of the apparent discordant results reported in the literature.

  7. Reporting of Positive Results in Randomized Controlled Trials of Mindfulness-Based Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Coronado-Montoya, Stephanie; Levis, Alexander W.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Steele, Russell J.; Turner, Erick H.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials report statistically significant results, even in the context of very low statistical power. The objective of the present study was to characterize the reporting of “positive” results in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. We also assessed mindfulness-based therapy trial registrations for indications of possible reporting bias and reviewed recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses to determine whether reporting biases were identified. Methods CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based therapy. The number of positive trials was described and compared to the number that might be expected if mindfulness-based therapy were similarly effective compared to individual therapy for depression. Trial registries were searched for mindfulness-based therapy registrations. CINAHL, Cochrane CENTRAL, EMBASE, ISI, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and SCOPUS were also searched for mindfulness-based therapy systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Results 108 (87%) of 124 published trials reported ≥1 positive outcome in the abstract, and 109 (88%) concluded that mindfulness-based therapy was effective, 1.6 times greater than the expected number of positive trials based on effect size d = 0.55 (expected number positive trials = 65.7). Of 21 trial registrations, 13 (62%) remained unpublished 30 months post-trial completion. No trial registrations adequately specified a single primary outcome measure with time of assessment. None of 36 systematic reviews and meta-analyses concluded that effect estimates were overestimated due to reporting biases. Conclusions The proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials with statistically significant results may overstate what would occur in practice. PMID:27058355

  8. Synchronized Nasal Intermittent Positive Pressure Ventilation of the Newborn: Technical Issues and Clinical Results.

    PubMed

    Moretti, Corrado; Gizzi, Camilla; Montecchia, Francesco; Barbàra, Caterina Silvia; Midulla, Fabio; Sanchez-Luna, Manuel; Papoff, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Although mechanical ventilation via an endotracheal tube has undoubtedly led to improvement in neonatal survival in the last 40 years, the prolonged use of this technique may predispose the infant to development of many possible complications including bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Avoiding mechanical ventilation is thought to be a critical goal, and different modes of noninvasive respiratory support beyond nasal continuous positive airway pressure, such as nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation and synchronized nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation, are also available and may reduce intubation rate. Several trials have demonstrated that the newer modes of noninvasive ventilation are more effective than nasal continuous positive airway pressure in reducing extubation failure and may also be more helpful as modes of primary support to treat respiratory distress syndrome after surfactant and for treatment of apnea of prematurity. With synchronized noninvasive ventilation, these benefits are more consistent, and different modes of synchronization have been reported. Although flow-triggering is the most common mode of synchronization, this technique is not reliable for noninvasive ventilation in neonates because it is affected by variable leaks at the mouth and nose. This review discusses the mechanisms of action, benefits and limitations of noninvasive ventilation, describes the different modes of synchronization and analyzes the technical characteristics, properties and clinical results of a flow-sensor expressly developed for synchronized noninvasive ventilation. PMID:27251453

  9. Accuracy of relative positioning by interferometry with GPS Double-blind test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Counselman, C. C., III; Gourevitch, S. A.; Herring, T. A.; King, B. W.; Shapiro, I. I.; Cappallo, R. J.; Rogers, A. E. E.; Whitney, A. R.; Greenspan, R. L.; Snyder, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    MITES (Miniature Interferometer Terminals for Earth Surveying) observations conducted on December 17 and 29, 1980, are analyzed. It is noted that the time span of the observations used on each day was 78 minutes, during which five satellites were always above 20 deg elevation. The observations are analyzed to determine the intersite position vectors by means of the algorithm described by Couselman and Gourevitch (1981). The average of the MITES results from the two days is presented. The rms differences between the two determinations of the components of the three vectors, which were about 65, 92, and 124 m long, were 8 mm for the north, 3 mm for the east, and 6 mm for the vertical. It is concluded that, at least for short distances, relative positioning by interferometry with GPS can be done reliably with subcentimeter accuracy.

  10. Screening of fruit products for norovirus and the difficulty of interpreting positive PCR results.

    PubMed

    Stals, Ambroos; Baert, Leen; Jasson, Vicky; Van Coillie, Els; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2011-03-01

    Despite recent norovirus (NoV) outbreaks related to consumption of fruit products, little is known regarding the NoV load on these foods. Therefore, 75 fruit products were screened for NoV presence by using an evaluated in-house NoV detection methodology consisting of a NoV extraction method and a reverse transcription quantitative PCR assay. Additionally, the fruit samples were screened for bacterial pathogens and bacterial hygiene indicators. Results of the NoV screening showed that 18 of 75 samples tested positive for GI and/or GII NoV despite a good bacteriological quality. The recovery of murine norovirus 1 virus particles acting as process control was successful in 31 of 75 samples with a mean recovery efficiency of 11.32% ± 6.08%. The level of detected NoV genomic copies ranged between 2.5 and 5.0 log per 10 g. NoV GI and/or GII were found in 4 of 10, 7 of 30, 6 of 20, and 1 of 15 of the tested raspberries, cherry tomatoes, strawberries, and fruit salad samples, respectively. However, confirmation of the positive quantitative PCR results by sequencing genotyping regions in the NoV genome was not possible. Due to the nature of the method used (reverse transcription quantitative PCR) for detection of genomic material, no differentiation was possible between infectious and noninfectious viral particles. No NoV outbreaks related to the tested fruit product types were reported during the screening period, which hampers a conclusion as to whether these unexpected high numbers of NoV-positive results should be perceived as a public health threat. These results, however, may indicate a prior NoV contamination of the tested food samples throughout the fresh produce chain. PMID:21375879

  11. False-positive results after environmental pinworm PCR testing due to Rhabditid nematodes in Corncob bedding.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-11-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and -negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding.

  12. Case Report: Direct Access Genetic Testing and A False-Positive Result For Long QT Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Predham, Sarah; Hamilton, Sara; Elliott, Alison M; T Gibson, William

    2016-02-01

    We report the case of a woman who pursued direct access genetic testing and then presented with concerns regarding a positive test result for Long-QT syndrome. Although the result ultimately proved to be a false positive, this case illustrates that costs associated with follow-up of direct access genetic testing results can be non-trivial for both the patient and for health care systems. Here we raise policy questions regarding the appropriate distribution of these costs. We also discuss the possibility that, when confronted by a direct access genetic test result that reports high risk for one or more actionable diseases, a family physician might feel compelled to act out of a desire to avoid liability, even when information regarding the accuracy and validity of the testing were not easily accessible. This case outlines lessons that can easily be translated into clinical practice, not only by genetic counselors, but also by family physicians, medical specialists and members of the public.

  13. False-Positive Results after Environmental Pinworm PCR Testing due to Rhabditid Nematodes in Corncob Bedding

    PubMed Central

    Leblanc, Mathias; Berry, Kristina; Graciano, Sandy; Becker, Brandon; Reuter, Jon D

    2014-01-01

    Modern rodent colonies are housed in individually ventilated cages to protect the animals from contamination with adventitious pathogens. Standard health monitoring through soiled-bedding sentinels does not always detect infections, especially in the context of low pathogen prevalence. Recently proposed alternatives include analyzing environmental samples from the cages or rack exhaust by PCR to improve the detection of rodent pathogens but optimal sampling strategies have not yet been established for different microorganisms. Although generally very sensitive and specific, these molecular assays are not foolproof and subject to false-positive and –negative results and should always be interpreted cautiously with an overall understanding of the intrinsic controls and all the variables that may affect the results. Here, we report a limited Aspiculuris tetraptera outbreak in a mouse barrier facility that was detected by fecal PCR in sentinels and confirmed by fecal flotation and direct cecal examination of both sentinels and colony animals. The outbreak led to a widespread survey of all facilities for pinworms by using environmental PCR from ventilated rack exhaust plenums. Environmental PCR suggested an unexpected widespread contamination of all ventilated racks holding nonautoclaved cages, but results could not be confirmed in sentinel or colony animals by fecal flotation, cecal and colonic examination, or cage PCR testing. After additional investigation, the unexpected environmental PCR results were confirmed as false-positive findings due to the nonspecificity of the assay, leading to the amplification of rhabditid nematodes, which are not infectious in rodents but which contaminated the corncob bedding. PMID:25650980

  14. Risk for Neurobehavioral Disinhibition in Prenatal Methamphetamine-Exposed Young Children with Positive Hair Toxicology Results

    PubMed Central

    Himes, Sarah K.; LaGasse, Linda L.; Derauf, Chris; Newman, Elana; Smith, Lynne M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Grotta, Sheri A. Della; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Abar, Beau; Neal, Charles R.; Lester, Barry M.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective was to evaluate effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure (PME) and postnatal drug exposures identified by child hair analysis on neurobehavioral disinhibition at 6.5 years of age. Methods Mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the Infant Development, Environment, and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study in Los Angeles, Honolulu, Tulsa and Des Moines. PME was determined by maternal self-report and/or positive meconium results. At the 6.5-year follow-up visit, hair was collected and analyzed for methamphetamine, tobacco, cocaine, and cannabinoid markers. Child behavioral and executive function test scores were aggregated to evaluate child neurobehavioral disinhibition. Hierarchical linear regression models assessed the impact of PME, postnatal substances, and combined PME with postnatal drug exposures on the child’s neurobehavioral disinhibition aggregate score. Past year caregiver substance use was compared to child hair results. Results A total of 264 children were evaluated. Significantly more PME children (n=133) had hair positive for methamphetamine/amphetamine (27.1% versus 8.4%) and nicotine/cotinine (38.3% versus 25.2%) than children without PME (n=131). Overall, no significant differences in analyte hair concentrations were noted between groups. Significant differences in behavioral and executive function were observed between children with and without PME. No independent effects of postnatal methamphetamine or tobacco exposure, identified by positive hair test, were noted and no additional neurobehavioral disinhibition was observed in PME children with postnatal drug exposures, as compared to PME children without postnatal exposure. Conclusions Child hair testing offered a non-invasive means to evaluate postnatal environmental drug exposure, although no effects from postnatal drug exposure alone were seen. PME, alone and in combination with postnatal drug exposures, was associated with behavioral and executive function deficits at 6.5 years

  15. [Unexpected Diseases in Two Patients with False-Positive Dengue Immunoglobulin M Antibody Test Results].

    PubMed

    Matono, Takashi; Kutsuna, Satoshi; Kato, Yasuyuki; Takeshita, Nozomi; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Ohmagari, Norio

    2016-03-01

    In 2014, an outbreak of 162 domestic dengue fever infections occurred in Tokyo, Japan; the first outbreak of its kind in 70 years. Nineteen of these cases were confirmed in our center. Advancements in diagnostic methods have enabled an earlier diagnosis of dengue fever; however, unfamiliarity with the clinical course and characteristics of diagnostic tests for dengue fever can lead to misdiagnosis. We herein describe 2 cases of Japanese patients with false-positive dengue immunoglobulin M antibody test results, who were finally diagnosed as having dermatomyositis and acute hepatitis A infection, respectively. PMID:27197439

  16. Investor Outlook: Significance of the Positive LCA2 Gene Therapy Phase III Results.

    PubMed

    Schimmer, Joshua; Breazzano, Steven

    2015-12-01

    Spark Therapeutics recently reported positive phase III results for SPK-RPE65 targeting the treatment of visual impairment caused by RPE65 gene mutations (often referred to as Leber congenital amaurosis type 2, or LCA2, but may include other retinal disorders), marking an important inflection point for the field of gene therapy. The results highlight the ability to successfully design and execute a randomized trial of a gene therapy and also reinforce the potentially predictive nature of early preclinical and clinical data. The results are expected to pave the way for the first approved gene therapy product in the United States and should sustain investor interest and confidence in gene therapy for many approaches, including retina targeting and beyond.

  17. The use of EMDR in positive verbal material: results from a patient study

    PubMed Central

    Matthijssen, Suzy Johanna Martina Adriana; van den Hout, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background According to the working memory (WM) theory of eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), dual tasks that tax WM during memory recall reduce image vividness and emotionality of memory during future recalls when no dual task is carried out. There is some evidence that WM taxing also reduces vividness and emotionality of auditory or verbal imagery. Objective The present study tests the effect of eye movements (EM) on positive verbal material (verbal imagery), which is used in different parts of the EMDR protocol. In the Dutch version of the standard EMDR protocol, a procedure “Positive Closure” (PC) is performed, which uses verbal imagery under dual task condition (EM). The value of EM in this procedure has not been established and according to the WM account would be counterproductive. Two earlier studies with undergraduates, with a set-up comparable to the present one, showed no additive value of the EM in the procedure, but no counterproductive effect either. Method Thirty-six patients rated the belief in possessing two positive personality traits and emotionality of the traits. They then had an EMDR session targeting a negative memory and recalled and re-rated the belief and emotionality of the traits afterward. Subsequently, they recalled one trait while dual tasking (EM) and the other trait without dual tasking. Afterward, they re-rated the belief and emotionality. Results EM did not affect the belief in possessing the trait or the emotionality. Secondary analysis shows an effective EMDR session itself enhances the belief in the traits, compared to a less or non-effective EMDR session. Conclusions EM are not effective in enhancing the belief in possessing a personality trait or the emotionality. If replicated by other patient studies, this suggests elimination of the PC procedure. Highlights of the article In this study the additive value of EM on verbal material (in the procedure Positive Closure) is not found. No effect of the

  18. Significance of Response to Hepatitis B Recombinant Vaccine in Subjects with Isolated Antibody to Hepatitis B Core Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Bahari, Ali; Izadi, Shahrokh; Bari, Zohreh; Khosravi, Soheyla; Baghaei, Bita; Saneimoghadam, Esmaeil; Firouzi, Farzad; Espiari, Ali; Esmaeilzadeh, Abbas; Mokhtarifar, Ali; Bakhshipour, Alireza; Ganji, Azita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND It is important to differentiate whether isolated anti-HBc is due to false positive results or the prior exposure to hepatitis B virus, because individuals with false-positive anti-HBc can benefit from vaccination and their blood can be safely transfused. To distinguish between these two conditions, we evaluated the serologic response to hepatitis B vaccine. METHODS Ninety subjects with isolated anti-HBc (cases) and 100 subjects with totally negative hepatitis B serologic markers (controls) were recruited to receive three doses of hepatitis-B (HB) vaccine. Thirty days after the first dose of the vaccine, anti-HBs titers were checked and individuals with anti-HBs titer >50 mIU/mL did not receive additional doses of the vaccine. However, others completed the vaccination course, and another blood sample was collected 30 days after the third dose to measure anti-HBs level. RESULTS Nineteen (21.1%) cases and three (3%) controls had no sero-conversion (anti-HBs titers <10 mIU/mL) 30 days after the third dose (p<0.0001). Primary response, defined as the development of anti-HBs antibody titers ≥10 mIU/mL 30 days after the third dose, was observed in 43 (47.8%) cases and 92 (92%) controls (p<0.0001). Also, 31.1% of cases developed anti-HBs titers ≥ 50 mIU/mL 30 days after the first dose of vaccine, but the rate was significantly lower (5%) in the control group (p<0.0001). Furthermore, half of the individuals with positive isolated anti-HBc developed protective levels of anti-HBs after three doses of HB vaccination. CONCLUSION More than 75% of individuals with positive isolated anti-HBc can benefit from vaccination and can be included in donor pool. Also, one fifth seemed to have occult HBV infection. So HB vaccination may be used as a diagnostic tool for clarifying the situation of the subjects with isolated anti-HBc. PMID:26609352

  19. [Extracorporeal shockwave therapy in orthopedics. Positive results in tennis elbow and tendinosis calcarea of the shoulder].

    PubMed

    Rompe, J D; Eysel, P; Hopf, C; Krischek, O; Vogel, J; Bürger, R; Jage, J; Heine, J

    1997-06-30

    Since the beginning of the 1990s scientific investigations on the use of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the field of orthopedics have been carried out at the Orthopedic Department of the University of Mainz. Prospective studies demonstrated beneficial effects in chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis (tennis elbow), and in calcifying tendinitis of the shoulder in more than 50% of the cases. Additional indications for which positive results of prospective studies have been published during the past 2 years are plantar calcaneodynea and pseudoarthrosis. On the basis of the results achieved, it may be concluded that, for specific indications, extracorporeal shock wave therapy may now be taken out of the clinical testing stage and introduced into routine practice.

  20. OBRA '87: has it resulted in positive change in nursing homes?

    PubMed

    Marek, K D; Rantz, M J; Fagin, C M; Krejci, J W

    1996-12-01

    This study examines perspectives of a broad group of nursing home employees, regulators, advocates, and professional associations to describe progress made since the 1990 implementation of the Nursing Home Reform legislation (OBRA '87) and to determine whether the legislation is perceived as effecting positive change for nursing home residents. Interviews were conducted with 132 professional and non-professional staff in six states and 56 residents. Important issues about nursing home staffing and quality of care are explored. In general, OBRA '87 is viewed as positive, with all groups of respondents indicating that nursing staff or quality have not deteriorated; administrators, licensed nurses, and certified nursing assistants indicate the quality of nursing care provided and the nursing staff levels have improved since OBRA '87 implementation. Regulators agree that quality of nursing care has improved, but nursing home advocates, regulators, and professional association staff indicate mostly no change or no opinion. There is a danger in interpreting that quality and staffing are adequate from these results. While both may have improved, they may not be adequate.

  1. Pulmonary sequestration: a (131)I whole body scintigraphy false-positive result.

    PubMed

    Spinapolice, Elena Giulia; Chytiris, S; Fuccio, C; Leporati, P; Volpato, G; Villani, L; Trifirò, G; Chiovato, L

    2014-08-01

    A 35-year-old woman affected by a well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma was referred to our hospital to perform a (131)Iodine ((131)I) whole body scintigraphy for restaging purpose. The patient had been previously treated with total thyroidectomy and three subsequent doses of (131)I for the ablation of a remnant jugular tissue and a suspected metastatic focus at the superior left hemi-thorax. In spite of the previous treatments with (131)I, planar and tomographic images showed the persistence of an area of increased uptake at the superior left hemi-thorax. This finding prompted the surgical resection of the lesion. Histological examination of the surgical specimen showed the presence of a pulmonary tissue consistent with pulmonary sequestration. Even though rare, pulmonary sequestration should be included in the potential causes of false-positive results of radioiodine scans.

  2. TOPEX/POSEIDON operational orbit determination results using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, J.; Jee, J.; Wolff, P.; Lagattuta, F.; Drain, T.; Sierra, V.

    1994-01-01

    Results of operational orbit determination, performed as part of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) Global Positioning System (GPS) demonstration experiment, are presented in this article. Elements of this experiment include the GPS satellite constellation, the GPS demonstration receiver on board T/P, six ground GPS receivers, the GPS Data Handling Facility, and the GPS Data Processing Facility (GDPF). Carrier phase and P-code pseudorange measurements from up to 24 GPS satellites to the seven GPS receivers are processed simultaneously with the GDPF software MIRAGE to produce orbit solutions of T/P and the GPS satellites. Daily solutions yield subdecimeter radial accuracies compared to other GPS, LASER, and DORIS precision orbit solutions.

  3. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI. PMID:23843422

  4. Flight Test Results from Real-Time Relative Global Positioning System Flight Experiment on STS-69

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Young W.; Brazzel, Jack P., Jr.; Carpenter, J. Russell; Hinkel, Heather D.; Newman, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A real-time global positioning system (GPS) Kalman filter has been developed to support automated rendezvous with the International Space Station (ISS). The filter is integrated with existing Shuttle rendezvous software running on a 486 laptop computer under Windows. In this work, we present real-time and postflight results achieved with the filter on STS-69. The experiment used GPS data from an Osborne/Jet propulsion Laboratory TurboRouge receiver carried on the Wake Shield Facility (WSF) free flyer and a Rockwell Collins 3M receiver carried on the Orbiter. Real time filter results, processed onboard the Shuttle and replayed in near-time on the ground, are based on single vehicle mode operation and on 5 to 20 minute snapshots of telemetry provided by WSF for dual-vehicle mode operation. The Orbiter and WSF state vectors calculated using our filter compare favorably with precise reference orbits determined by the University of Texas Center for Space Research. The lessons learned from this experiment will be used in conjunction with future experiments to mitigate the technology risk posed by automated rendezvous and docking to the ISS.

  5. Can handling E85 motor fuel cause positive breath alcohol test results?

    PubMed

    Ran, Ran; Mullins, Michael E

    2013-09-01

    Hand-held breath alcohol analyzers are widely used by police in traffic stops of drivers suspected of driving while intoxicated (DWI). E85 is a motor fuel consisting of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline or other hydrocarbons, and is available at nearly 2,600 stations in the USA. We sought to determine whether handling E85 fuel could produce measurable breath alcohol results using a hand-held analyzer and to see if this would be a plausible explanation for a positive breath alcohol test. Five healthy adult subjects dispensed or transferred 8 US gallons of E85 fuel in each of four scenarios. We measured breath alcohol concentration in g/210 L of exhaled breath using the BACTrack S50 at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20 min after each fuel-handling scenario. Most of the subjects had no detectable breath alcohol after handling E85 motor fuel. Transient elevations (0.02-0.04 g/210 L) in breath alcohol measurement occurred up to 6 min after handling E85 in a minority of subjects. We conclude that it is unlikely that handling E85 motor fuel would result in erroneous prosecution for DWI.

  6. Positive EtG findings in hair as a result of a cosmetic treatment.

    PubMed

    Sporkert, Frank; Kharbouche, Hicham; Augsburger, Marc P; Klemm, Clementine; Baumgartner, Markus R

    2012-05-10

    In a case of a driving ability assessment, hair analysis for ethyl glucuronide (EtG) was requested by the authorities. The person concerned denied alcohol consumption and did not present any clinical sign of alcoholism. However, EtG was found in concentrations of up to 910pg/mg in hair from different sampling dates suggesting an excessive drinking behavior. The person declared to use a hair lotion on a regularly base. To evaluate a possible effect of the hair lotion, prospective blood and urine controls as well as hair sampling of scalp and pubic hair were performed. The traditional clinical biomarkers of ethanol consumption, CDT and GGT, were inconspicuous in three blood samples taken. EtG was not detected in all collected urine samples. The hair lotion was transmitted to our laboratory. The ethanol concentration in this lotion was determined with 35g/L. The EtG immunoassay gave a positive result indicating EtG, which could be confirmed by GC-MS/MS-NCI. In a follow-up experiment the lotion was applied to the hair of a volunteer over a period of six weeks. After this treatment, EtG could be measured in the hair at a concentration of 72pg/mg suggesting chronic and excessive alcohol consumption. Overnight incubation of EtG free hair in the lotion yielded an EtG concentration of 140pg/mg. In the present case, the positive EtG hair findings could be interpreted as the result of an EtG containing hair care product. To our knowledge, the existence of such a product has not yet been reported, and it is exceptionally unusual to find EtG in cosmetics. Therefore, external sources for hair contamination should always be taken into account when unusual cosmetic treatment is mentioned. In those cases, it is recommended to analyze the hair product for a possible contamination with EtG. The analysis of body hair can help to reveal problems occurring from cosmetic treatment of head hair. As a consequence, the assessment of drinking behavior should be based on more than one

  7. Predictors of Pertussis Polymerase Chain Reaction Positive Results in Minnesota, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Melissa; Kulasingam, Shalini; Kenyon, Cynthia; Miller, Claudia; Ehresmann, Kristen

    2015-11-01

    Predictors of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity for pertussis were assessed using Minnesota active surveillance data. Report of an exposure to pertussis and testing within the optimal time frame of ≤2 weeks were significantly associated with testing PCR positive, emphasizing the importance of asking about epidemiological factors when assessing patients for pertussis, and timely PCR testing.

  8. Results of the long range position-determining system tests. [Field Army system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    The long range position-determining system (LRPDS) has been developed by the Corps of Engineers to provide the Field Army with a rapid and accurate positioning capability. The LRPDS consists of an airborne reference position set (RPS), up to 30 ground based positioning sets (PS), and a position computing central (PCC). The PCC calculates the position of each PS based on the range change information provided by each Set. The positions can be relayed back to the PS again via RPS. Each PS unit contains a double oven precise crystal oscillator. The RPS contains a Hewlett-Packard cesium beam standard. Frequency drifts and off-sets of the crystal oscillators are taken in account in the data reduction process. A field test program was initiated in November 1972. A total of 54 flights were made which included six flights for equipment testing and 48 flights utilizing the field test data reduction program. The four general types of PS layouts used were: short range; medium range; long range; tactical configuration. The overall RMS radial error of the unknown positions varied from about 2.3 meters for the short range to about 15 meters for the long range. The corresponding elevation RMS errors vary from about 12 meters to 37 meters.

  9. 49 CFR 40.155 - What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is also dilute?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What does the MRO do when a negative or positive... and the Verification Process § 40.155 What does the MRO do when a negative or positive test result is... the DER that the specimen, in addition to being negative or positive, is dilute. (b) You must...

  10. Otic Barotrauma Resulting from Continuous Positive Airway Pressure: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, Justin P.; Hildrew, Douglas M.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Guittard, Jesse A.; Worley, N. Knight

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a growing problem affecting millions of people in the United States. The prevalence of OSA has risen drastically in the past few decades concurrently with the increasing prevalence of obesity. Subsequently, there has been an ever-increasing rise in the use of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) devices. While using CPAP devices may lead to many adverse effects, the majority of these effects are described as relatively benign. Case Report: We describe the detailed clinical course and outcome for a patient with otic barotrauma as a result of excessive self-titration of CPAP therapy in an in-home setting. We also discuss the pathophysiology of otic barotrauma and present a review of current literature on the topic. Conclusion: While the benefits of CPAP are clear, we must take into account the rare but possible effects on ear structure and function. Many studies describe an increase in middle ear pressure with the use of CPAP, but few describe the effects of this increased pressure on the middle ear, such as the otic barotrauma described in this case. Given the increased prevalence of OSA, it is important to understand the risks associated with CPAP therapy. PMID:27303224

  11. Screening pharmaceuticals for possible carcinogenic effects: initial positive results for drugs not previously screened

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Gary D.; Udaltsova, Natalia; Chan, James; Quesenberry, Charles P; Habel, Laurel A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We screened commonly used prescription drugs for possible carcinogenic effects. Methods In a large health care program we identified 105 commonly used drugs, not previously screened. Recipients were followed for up to 12½ years for incident cancer. Nested case-control analyses of 55 cancer sites and all combined included up to ten matched controls per case, with lag of at least two years between drug dispensing and cancer. Positive associations entailed a relative risk (RR) of 1.50, with p≤ 0.01 and higher risk for three or more, than for one prescription. Evaluation included further analyses, searches of the literature, and clinical judgment. Results There were 101 associations of interest for 61 drugs. Sixty-six associations were judged to have involved substantial confounding. We found evidence that of the remaining 35, the following associations may not be due to chance: sulindac with gallbladder cancer and leukemia, hyoscyamine with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, nortriptyline with esophageal and hepatic cancer, oxazepam with lung cancer, both fluoxetine and paroxetine with testicular cancer, hydrochlorothiazide with renal and lip cancer, and nifedipine with lip cancer. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that further studies are indicated regarding sulindac, hyoscyamine, nortriptyline, oxazepam, fluoxetine, paroxetine, hydrochlorothiazide and nifedipine. PMID:19582585

  12. APIC: Absolute Position Interfero Coronagraph for direct exoplanet detection: first laboratory results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allouche, Fatmé; Glindemann, Andreas; Aristidi, Eric; Vakili, Farrokh

    2010-07-01

    For the detection and direct imaging of exoplanets, when the intensity ratio between a star and its orbiting planet can largely exceed 106, coronagraphic methods are mandatory. In 1996, a concept of achromatic interferocoronagraph (AIC) was presented by J. Gay and Y. Rabbia for the detection of very faint stellar companions, such as exoplanets. In an earlier paper, we presented a modified version of the AIC permitting to determine the relative position of these faint companions with respect to the parent star, a problem unsolved in the original design of the AIC. Our modification lied in the use of cylindrical lens doublets as field rotator. By placing two of them in one arm of the interferometric set-up of AIC, we destroyed the axis of symmetry induced by the AIC's original design. Our theoretical study, along with the numerical computations, presented then, and the preliminary test bench results aiming at validating the cylindrical lens doublet field rotation capability, presented in this paper, show that the axis of symmetry is destroyed when one of the cylindrical doublets is rotated around the optic axis.

  13. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B. Pablo

    2015-01-01

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804–12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious—reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results. PMID:26504202

  14. College football, elections, and false-positive results in observational research.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Anthony; Montagnes, B Pablo

    2015-11-10

    A recent, widely cited study [Healy AJ, Malhotra N, Mo CH (2010) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 107(29):12804-12809] finds that college football games influence voting behavior. Victories within 2 weeks of an election reportedly increase the success of the incumbent party in presidential, senatorial, and gubernatorial elections in the home county of the team. We reassess the evidence and conclude that there is likely no such effect, despite the fact that Healy et al. followed the best practices in social science and used a credible research design. Multiple independent sources of evidence suggest that the original finding was spurious-reflecting bad luck for researchers rather than a shortcoming of American voters. We fail to estimate the same effect when we leverage situations where multiple elections with differing incumbent parties occur in the same county and year. We also find that the purported effect of college football games is stronger in counties where people are less interested in college football, just as strong when the incumbent candidate does not run for reelection, and just as strong in other parts of the state outside the home county of the team. Lastly, we detect no effect of National Football League games on elections, despite their greater popularity. We conclude with recommendations for evaluating surprising research findings and avoiding similar false-positive results.

  15. Positive reinforcement training in rhesus macaques-training progress as a result of training frequency.

    PubMed

    Fernström, A-L; Fredlund, H; Spångberg, M; Westlund, K

    2009-05-01

    Positive reinforcement training (PRT) efficiency was examined as a function of training frequency in 33 pair- or triple-housed female rhesus macaques. The animals were trained three times a week, once a day or twice a day, using PRT and a clicker as a secondary reinforcer. All animals were trained on 30 sessions, with an average of 5 min per training session per animal. The behaviors, trained in succession, were Targeting (reliably touching and following a Target); Collaborating (dominant animals allowing subordinates to train while stationing); Box-training (accepting being enclosed in a small compartment while responding to Target training) and initial Injection training.Fulfilled criteria for Targeting were obtained in 32/33 animals in a median of nine training sessions. Collaboration was obtained in 27/33 animals in a median of 15 training sessions. However, only four animals completed Box-training during the 30 training sessions and started Injection training. When comparing training success in terms of number of training sessions, training twice a day was less efficient than the other two treatments. In terms of daily progress, our results suggest that from a management perspective, daily training is more conducive to quick training success than thrice weekly training. In addition, in this study no further advantages could be gained from training twice a day.

  16. Real Time Precise Point Positioning: Preliminary Results for the Brazilian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, Haroldo; Monico, João.; Hirokazu Shimabukuro, Milton; Aquino, Marcio

    2010-05-01

    GNSS positioning can be carried out in relative or absolute approach. In the last years, more attention has been driven to the real time precise point positioning (PPP). To achieve centimeter accuracy with this method in real time it is necessary to have available the satellites precise coordinates as well as satellites clocks corrections. The coordinates can be used from the predicted IGU ephemeris, but the satellites clocks must be estimated in a real time. It can be made from a GNSS network as can be seen from EUREF Permanent Network. The infra-structure to realize the PPP in real time is being available in Brazil through the Brazilian Continuous Monitoring Network (RBMC) together with the Sao Paulo State GNSS network which are transmitting GNSS data using NTRIP (Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol) caster. Based on this information it was proposed a PhD thesis in the Univ. Estadual Paulista (UNESP) aiming to investigate and develop the methodology to estimate the satellites clocks and realize PPP in real time. Then, software is being developed to process GNSS data in the real time PPP mode. A preliminary version of the software was called PPP_RT and is able to process GNSS code and phase data using precise ephemeris and satellites clocks. The PPP processing can be accomplished considering the absolute satellite antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV), Ocean Tide Loading (OTL), Earth Body Tide, among others. The first order ionospheric effects can be eliminated or minimized by ion-free combination or parameterized in the receiver-satellite direction using a stochastic process, e.g. random walk or white noise. In the case of ionosphere estimation, a pseudo-observable is introduced in the mathematical model for each satellite and the initial value can be computed from Klobuchar model or from Global Ionospheric Map (GIM). The adjustment is realized in the recursive mode and the DIA (Detection Identification and Adaptation) is used for quality control. In

  17. False-positive results in ELISA-based anti FVIII antibody assay may occur with lupus anticoagulant and phospholipid antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sahud, M; Zhukov, O; Mo, K; Popov, J; Dlott, J

    2012-09-01

    The evaluation of a prolonged aPTT often includes Lupus Anticoagulant, Antiphospholipid Antibodies, and Factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors. We have noticed that patient samples positive for lupus antibody (LA) are frequently also positive for FVIII IgG antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indicating the need for follow-up testing with a more labour-intensive functional assay for FVIII inhibition. This study evaluates the potential for a FVIII IgG ELISA to yield false-positive results in patient samples positive for LA or other antiphospholipid antibodies. A total of 289 residual de-identified patient samples positive for LA (n = 143), anti-cardiolipin IgG (n = 84), or beta2-glycoprotein antibody (n = 62) were tested for FVIII IgG using a commercial ELISA. Samples with positive FVIII IgG ELISA results were further tested for FVIII activity using a clot-based FVIII inhibitor assay. The FVIII IgG ELISA yielded positive results in 39 (13%) of the samples tested, including 13/143 (13%) LA-positive, 15/85 (18%) aCL IgG-positive and 6/62 (10%) β2-glycoprotein IgG-positive samples. The clot-based FVIII inhibitor assay yielded negative results in all 39 FVIII IgG-positive specimens tested, indicating discrepancy with the FVIII IgG ELISA results. Patient specimens positive for LA, aCL IgG, or β2-glycoprotein IgG may yield false-positive results for FVIII antibodies. Caution is warranted in interpreting FVIII antibody results in these cases.

  18. Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen PET/CT: False-Positive Results due to Sarcoidosis?

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Robert M.; Djannatian, Manoutschehr; Czech, Norbert; Nitsche, Mirko

    2016-01-01

    We report on a 72-year-old male patient who developed sarcoidosis of the mediastinal lymph nodes, the liver, and the prostate 11 years ago. Seven years later, he underwent transurethral resection of the prostate by laser due to hematuria. Pathology of the resected chips showed a ‘granulomatous prostatitis with epitheloid cells’. Malignancy was histologically excluded at that time. Four years later, he was diagnosed with an undifferentiated prostate carcinoma, with a Gleason score of 5 + 4 = 9. After initiation of antihormonal therapy, he underwent radical prostatectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy, which revealed a pT3b pN1 carcinoma with infiltrated resection margins. Three months later, the prostate-specific antigen level was 1.4 ng/ml, and a local recurrence was suspected by ultrasound; consequently, a 68Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT was performed. This examination seemed to confirm the local recurrence, a right pelvic lymph node metastasis, and a hepatic metastasis. However, ultrasound with contrast medium could not confirm the metastatic spread to the liver. In palliative intention, radiotherapy of the pelvis was done. After 50 Gy, the supposed recurrence had markedly shrunk, and an additional boost dose with 16.2 Gy was applied. Two years later, the patient is still free of disease. Due to this clinical development, we doubt the diagnosis of a fulminant progression of the prostate cancer as suspected by PSMA-PET/CT. Instead, we suspect a recurrence of the previously proven sarcoidosis leading to false-positive results. Our focus in this report is on the interaction between PSMA-PET/CT and sarcoidosis. Another report on a case of sarcoidosis of the spleen seems to confirm this possibility [Kobe et al: Clin Nucl Med 2015;40: 897–898]. PMID:27721768

  19. Comparison of length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood culture results.

    PubMed

    Armstrong-Briley, Danielle; Hozhabri, Neda S T; Armstrong, Kris; Puthottile, Jason; Benavides, Raul; Beal, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, sepsis is the leading cause of death in critically ill patients. The fatality rate for severe sepsis is about 40%, and treatment costs over $16 billion annually. It is critical to identify and treat the source of sepsis. While there are varying guidelines determining when to draw blood for culture, at Baylor University Medical Center at Dallas, blood cultures are ordered for patients with new onset of fever, immunosuppression, or a suspicion of an underlying infectious etiology. We conducted a retrospective study of patients who had blood cultures after hospital admission or in the emergency department in December 2013. We compared length of stay and outcomes of patients with positive versus negative blood cultures. There was no significant difference for length of stay or outcomes among patients with positive and negative blood cultures. For patients admitted from the emergency department, there was a longer length of stay for patients with positive cultures; however, the overall prognosis was not worse.

  20. Disseminating the Positively Aging[R] Teaching Materials: Results of a Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Michael J.; Pruski, Linda A.; Marshall, Carolyn E.; Blalock, Cheryl L.; Liu, Yan; Plaetke, Rosemarie

    2005-01-01

    This study tested the effectiveness of 2 dissemination methods for the Positively Aging teaching materials. In San Antonio, Texas, 4 middle schools participated in a 3-year controlled trial of dissemination via distance electronic support alone (control) compared to distance electronic support plus in-school support from study staff…

  1. Positive and negative placebo effects resulting from the deceptive administration of an ergogenic aid.

    PubMed

    Beedie, Christopher J; Coleman, Damian A; Foad, Abigail J

    2007-06-01

    The article describes a study examining placebo effects associated with the administration of a hypothetical ergogenic aid in sport. Forty-two team-sport athletes were randomly assigned to 2 groups. All subjects completed 3 x 30-m baseline sprint trials after which they were administered what was described to them as an ergogenic aid but was in fact 200 mg of cornstarch in a gelatin capsule. Group 1 was provided with positive information about the likely effects on performance of the substance, whereas Group 2 was provided with negative information about the same substance. The sprint protocol was repeated 20 min later. Although for Group 1 mean speed did not differ significantly between baseline and experimental trials, a significant linear trend of greater speed with successive experimental trials suggested that positive belief exerted a positive effect on performance (P < 0.01). Group 2 ran 1.57% slower than at baseline (P < 0.01, 95% confidence intervals 0.32-2.82%), suggesting that negative belief exerted a negative effect on performance. Collectively, data suggest that subjects' belief in the efficacy or otherwise of a placebo treatment might significantly influence findings in experimental research. PMID:17693687

  2. Influence of Errors in Patient Positioning on Resulting Dose Distribution during IMRT Treatment for Head and Neck Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navrátil, Matěj

    2010-01-01

    Intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) irradiation technique uses steep dose gradients to protect organs at risk (OAR) during treatment course. Therefore even small mistakes in patient positioning during treatment course may lead to significant changes in dose distribution. The influence of small errors (order of millimeters) in patient's positioning on resulting dose absorbed in OARs and target volume (PTV, GTV) was simulated in this work.

  3. Factors to predict positive results of gonadotropin releasing hormone stimulation test in girls with suspected precocious puberty.

    PubMed

    Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Rhie, Young Jun; Son, Chang Sung; Park, Sang Hee; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2012-02-01

    Sometimes, the clinical findings and the results of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulation test are inconsistent in girls with early breast development and bone age advancement. We aimed to investigate the factors predicting positive results of the GnRH stimulation test in girls with suspected central precocious puberty (CPP). We reviewed the records of 574 girls who developed breast budding before the age of 8 yr and underwent the GnRH stimulation test under the age of 9 yr. Positive results of the GnRH stimulated peak luteinizing hormone (LH) level were defined as 5 IU/L and over. Girls with the initial positive results (n = 375) showed accelerated growth, advanced bone age and higher serum basal LH, follicle-stimulating hormone, and estradiol levels, compared to those with the initial negative results (n = 199). Girls with the follow-up positive results (n = 64) showed accelerated growth and advanced bone age, compared to those with the follow-up negative results. In the binary logistic regression, the growth velocity ratio was the most significant predictive factor of positive results. We suggest that the rapid growth velocity is the most useful predictive factor for positive results in the GnRH stimulation test in girls with suspected precocious puberty.

  4. [False-positive results obtained on examining slaughtered animals for the presence of antibiotic residues (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Nouws, J F

    1975-06-15

    As part of the examination of emergency-slaughtered animals for the presence of antibiotic residues, studies were done to see whether false-positive results would be obtained when the Sarcina lutea kidney test and Bacillus subtilis BGA test were performed. When the S. lutea kidney test was positive in cattle, calves and swine, penicillin was invariably found to be present in those animals, the histories of which showed that they had not been given antibiotics. A syringe and an injected fluid containing penicillin residues are regarded as possible causes of these positive results. When the S. lutea kidney test was performed in horses which had been in a state of stress prior to slaughter, false-positive results were occasionally observed. When the German B. subtilis BGA test was used, a large number of false-positive results were recorded, among others in equine kidneys. This shows that the use of this test in examining the kidney is a highly controversial matter. A number of drugs used in veterinary medicine may have an inhibitory effect on the growth of S. lutea and B. subtilis BGA test organisms in vitro. When these drugs were used therapeutically (in vivo), the result of the S. lutea kidney test was not positive in any of the cases studied. On the other hand, false-positive results were obtained when the B. subtilis BGA renal medullary test was performed in those animals in which lidocaine and calcium borogluconate had also been injected.

  5. [Sports correlate with positive living habits. Results from the population survey the Swiss MONICA project].

    PubMed

    Dai, S F; Marti, B; Rickenbach, M; Gutzwiller, F

    1990-09-01

    Exercise is associated with positive health habits: Findings from the populations survey of the Swiss MONICA-project. Relatively little is known on population-wide relations of habitual exercise to relevant health factors such as diet, cigarette smoking and overweight. Data from a population-based sample of approximately 800 men and women each, aged 25-64, collected in western Switzerland as a part of an international WHO-project, were used to examine cross-sectionally the interrelationships between different lifestyle factors. Men and women training regularly (i.e. greater than or equal to 2 times/wk) exhibited consistently and highly significantly more favourable health habits, regarding diet (i.e. trimming visible fat, higher intake of fruits, salad and vegetables, yogurt and cottage cheese), nonsmoking, and weight control. Men and women with at least some regular physical activity during leisure-time had in turn more favourable health habits than their sedentary counterparts. In both sexes, educational level was directly related to exercise and a healthy diet, and inversely related to smoking and relative weight. Regularly training men and women also had a significantly improved lipid profile compared to inactive ones. It is concluded from this study that leisure-time physical activity and exercise are related to a positive health behaviour including diet, nonsmoking and efficient weight control. This may suggest that exercise should possibly be integrated into any population-wide attempts and efforts to promote health to enhance primary prevention.

  6. Initial results of radio occultation observations of Earth`s atmosphere using the Global Positioning System

    SciTech Connect

    Kursinski, E.R.; Hajj, G.A.; Bertiger, W.I.; Leroy, S.S.

    1996-02-23

    Recent radio occultation measurements using Global Positioning System satellite transmitters and an orbiting receiver have provided a globally distributed set of high-resolution atmospheric profiles, suggesting that the technique may may a significant contribution to global change and weather prediction programs. Biases in occultation temperatures relative to radiosonde and model data are about 1 kelvin or less in the tropics and are generally less than 0.5 kelvin at higher latitudes. Data quality is sufficient to quantify significant model errors in remote regions. Temperature profiles also reveal either an equatorial Rossby-gravity or an inertio-gravity wave. Such waves provide a fundamental source of momentum for the stratospheric circulation. 25 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Neratinib in HER-2-positive breast cancer: results to date and clinical usefulness

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Arlene

    2016-01-01

    The management of HER-2-positive breast cancer has improved significantly with the use of targeted agents to the HER-2 signaling pathway. Despite the improved survival achieved with the use of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting, patients may still recur or progress; whilst preclinical data demonstrate that these cancer cells remain addicted to the HER-2 oncogene. Neratinib, an oral small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor has efficacy in the metastatic and adjuvant setting of patients who have previously received trastuzumab-based treatment. Diarrhea, being a class effect of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is the most common side effect seen following neratinib administration, but recent data suggests that a prophylactic loperamide regimen can reduce the incidence of grade 3 diarrhea. Phase I through to III clinical trials of neratinib will be reviewed, with discussion of the postulated mechanism underlying diarrheal events and its management. PMID:27583026

  8. Demonstration of precise estimation of polar motion parameters with the global positioning system: Initial results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) were used to determine precise polar motion estimates. Conservatively calculated formal errors of the GPS least squares solution are approx. 10 cm. The GPS estimates agree with independently determined polar motion values from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) at the 5 cm level. The data were obtained from a partial constellation of GPS satellites and from a sparse worldwide distribution of ground stations. The accuracy of the GPS estimates should continue to improve as more satellites and ground receivers become operational, and eventually a near real time GPS capability should be available. Because the GPS data are obtained and processed independently from the large radio antennas at the Deep Space Network (DSN), GPS estimation could provide very precise measurements of Earth orientation for calibration of deep space tracking data and could significantly relieve the ever growing burden on the DSN radio telescopes to provide Earth platform calibrations.

  9. Neratinib in HER-2-positive breast cancer: results to date and clinical usefulness.

    PubMed

    Chan, Arlene

    2016-09-01

    The management of HER-2-positive breast cancer has improved significantly with the use of targeted agents to the HER-2 signaling pathway. Despite the improved survival achieved with the use of trastuzumab and chemotherapy in both the adjuvant and metastatic setting, patients may still recur or progress; whilst preclinical data demonstrate that these cancer cells remain addicted to the HER-2 oncogene. Neratinib, an oral small molecule tyrosine-kinase inhibitor has efficacy in the metastatic and adjuvant setting of patients who have previously received trastuzumab-based treatment. Diarrhea, being a class effect of tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is the most common side effect seen following neratinib administration, but recent data suggests that a prophylactic loperamide regimen can reduce the incidence of grade 3 diarrhea. Phase I through to III clinical trials of neratinib will be reviewed, with discussion of the postulated mechanism underlying diarrheal events and its management. PMID:27583026

  10. Relationships between changes in sustained fronto-striatal connectivity and positive affect in major depression resulting from antidepressant treatment.

    PubMed

    Heller, Aaron S; Johnstone, Tom; Light, Sharee N; Peterson, Michael J; Kolden, Gregory G; Kalin, Ned H; Davidson, Richard J

    2013-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Deficits in positive affect and their neural bases have been associated with major depression. However, whether reductions in positive affect result solely from an overall reduction in nucleus accumbens activity and fronto-striatal connectivity or the additional inability to sustain engagement of this network over time is unknown. The authors sought to determine whether treatment-induced changes in the ability to sustain nucleus accumbens activity and fronto-striatal connectivity during the regulation of positive affect are associated with gains in positive affect. METHOD Using fMRI, the authors assessed the ability to sustain activity in reward-related networks when attempting to increase positive emotion during performance of an emotion regulation paradigm in 21 depressed patients before and after 2 months of antidepressant treatment. Over the same interval, 14 healthy comparison subjects underwent scanning as well. RESULTS After 2 months of treatment, self-reported positive affect increased. The patients who demonstrated the largest increases in sustained nucleus accumbens activity over the 2 months were those who demonstrated the largest increases in positive affect. In addition, the patients who demonstrated the largest increases in sustained fronto-striatal connectivity were also those who demonstrated the largest increases in positive affect when controlling for negative affect. None of these associations were observed in healthy comparison subjects. CONCLUSIONS Treatment-induced change in the sustained engagement of fronto-striatal circuitry tracks the experience of positive emotion in daily life. Studies examining reduced positive affect in a variety of psychiatric disorders might benefit from examining the temporal dynamics of brain activity when attempting to understand changes in daily positive affect.

  11. The effects of booster vaccination on hepatitis B vaccine in anti-HBs negative infants of HBsAg-positive mothers after primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Gu, Hua; Yao, Jun; Zhu, Wei; Lv, Huakun; Cheng, Suyun; Ling, Luoya; Xia, Shichang; Chen, Yongdi

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the changes in anti-HBs IgG levels after booster vaccinations in anti-HBs negative infants of HBsAg-positive mothers. After primary vaccination, the immunization effects of different dosages of booster vaccinations of hepatitis B vaccine (CHO) were compared. A group of 472 newborns were vaccinated with three-dose hepatitis B vaccine at birth, 1 mo and 6 mo of age. Blood serum was collected within 6-12 mo after the third dose, and HBsAg, anti-HBs and anti-HBc levels were determined. Of this group, 101 infants who were both anti-HBs and HBsAg negative were revaccinated with 20 μg hepatitis B vaccine (CHO), and their antibody titers were monitored. Among these 101 infants, the anti- HBs positive rates (defined as anti-HBs ≥ 100 mIU/ml) differed after the first and the third dose (79% and 90%, respectively (p<0.05), while differences in the corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were not statistically significant (629 ± 3 mIU/ml and 572 ± 3 mIU/ml respectively, p<0.05). The anti-HBs GMTs after booster vaccination were 10-fold larger than those before booster vaccination. We conclude that a single booster dose is generally adequate for infants of HBsAg-positive mothers, whereas a further booster dose should be given for non-responders.

  12. Epidemiology and transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses in Kazakhstan

    PubMed Central

    Nurgalieva, Zhannat Z; Hollinger, F Blaine; Graham, David Y; Zhangabylova, S; Zhangabylov, Abai

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the two major ethnic groups in Kazakhstan. METHODS: A cross-sectional prospective study of HBV and HCV seroprevalence was performed among individuals born in Kazakhstan with no history of chronic hepatitis or liver disease. RESULTS: There were 290 volunteers (140 Russians and 150 Kazakhs) aged 10 to 64 years, males accounted for 46%. Active HBV infection (HBsAg positive) was present in 3.8%, anti-HBc in 30%. The prevalence was similar in females and males (33% vs 25%) (P = 0.18). The prevalence of anti-HBc increased from 19% in 10-29 years old volunteers to 53% in 50-years and older volunteers. The prevalence of HBV infection was higher in married than in single adults (38% vs 26%, respectively) (P = 0.2) and more common in Kazakhs (35%) than in Russians (24%) (P = 0.07). HCV infection was present in 9 subjects (3.2%), 5 of them also were positive for anti-HBc in the absence of HBsAg. CONCLUSION: The frequency of active HBV infection (3.8%) coupled with a high prevalence of HBV exposure in those > 50 years of age increases with age, which suggests that horizontal transmission likely relates to the use of contaminated needles. The low prevalence of HCV infection suggests that HBV and HCV are acquired differently in this group of subjects. PMID:17451200

  13. Accuracy of navigation-assisted acetabular component positioning studied by computed tomography measurements: methods and results.

    PubMed

    Ybinger, Thomas; Kumpan, W; Hoffart, H E; Muschalik, B; Bullmann, W; Zweymüller, K

    2007-09-01

    The postoperative position of the acetabular component is key for the outcome of total hip arthroplasty. Various aids have been developed to support the surgeon during implant placement. In a prospective study involving 4 centers, the computer-recorded cup alignment of 37 hip systems at the end of navigation-assisted surgery was compared with the cup angles measured on postoperative computerized tomograms. This comparison showed an average difference of 3.5 degrees (SD, 4.4 degrees ) for inclination and 6.5 degrees (SD, 7.3 degrees ) for anteversion angles. The differences in inclination correlated with the thickness of the soft tissue overlying the anterior superior iliac spine (r = 0.44; P = .007), whereas the differences in anteversion showed a correlation with the thickness of the soft tissue overlying the pubic tubercles (r = 0.52; P = .001). In centers experienced in the use of navigational tools, deviations were smaller than in units with little experience in their use. PMID:17826270

  14. Positive results for drug combo in I-SPY 2 trial.

    PubMed

    2014-02-01

    In results from one part of the I-SPY 2 trial announced at the 2013 San Antonio Breast Cancer Symposium, neoadjuvant veliparib plus carboplatin improved outcomes for women with triple-negative breast cancer.

  15. [Afatinib as first-line therapy in mutation-positive EGFR. Results by type of mutation].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Óscar Juan

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has laid the foundations for personalized medicine in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In phase III trials, the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib and erlotinib, demonstrated greater efficacy compared with chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutations, achieving progression-free survival of 8-13.5 months. Afatinib, a second-generation irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, is the first TKI that has shown a benefit in overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC when used as first-line treatment. Exon 19 deletion (Del19) and the single-point substitution mutation (L858R) in exon 21, called activating mutations due to their ability to confer sensitivity to TKI, represent approximately 90% of the EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Distinct sensitivity to TKI has been observed depending on the type of mutation, with greater progression-free survival in patients with the Del19 mutation. The analysis of OS in the LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6 trials showed a statistically significant increase in survival in afatinib-treated patients with the Del 19 mutation, but no significant increase in that of patients with the L858R mutation. Direct comparison of afatinib and gefitinib as first-line therapy (LUX-Lung 7 trial) showed a statistically-significant increase in progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.95; p=0.0165) with afatinib. In the analysis by type of mutation, this benefit was observed for both the Del19 and the L858R mutations. PMID:27426243

  16. [Afatinib as first-line therapy in mutation-positive EGFR. Results by type of mutation].

    PubMed

    Vidal, Óscar Juan

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations has laid the foundations for personalized medicine in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). In phase III trials, the first-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), gefitinib and erlotinib, demonstrated greater efficacy compared with chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutations, achieving progression-free survival of 8-13.5 months. Afatinib, a second-generation irreversible pan-ErbB inhibitor, is the first TKI that has shown a benefit in overall survival (OS) compared with chemotherapy in EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC when used as first-line treatment. Exon 19 deletion (Del19) and the single-point substitution mutation (L858R) in exon 21, called activating mutations due to their ability to confer sensitivity to TKI, represent approximately 90% of the EGFR mutations in NSCLC. Distinct sensitivity to TKI has been observed depending on the type of mutation, with greater progression-free survival in patients with the Del19 mutation. The analysis of OS in the LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6 trials showed a statistically significant increase in survival in afatinib-treated patients with the Del 19 mutation, but no significant increase in that of patients with the L858R mutation. Direct comparison of afatinib and gefitinib as first-line therapy (LUX-Lung 7 trial) showed a statistically-significant increase in progression-free survival (hazard ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.57-0.95; p=0.0165) with afatinib. In the analysis by type of mutation, this benefit was observed for both the Del19 and the L858R mutations.

  17. Racial Differences in False-Positive Mammogram Rates: Results from the ACRIN Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST)

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Anne Marie; Yamartino, Philip; Yang, Jianing; Bristol, Mirar; Conant, Emily; Armstrong, Katrina

    2015-01-01

    Background Mammography screening reduces breast cancer mortality, but false-positive tests are common. Few studies have assessed racial differences in false-positive rates. Objectives We compared false-positive mammography rates for black and white women, and the effect of patient and facility characteristics on false-positives. Research Design and Subjects Prospective cohort study. From a sample of the American College of Radiology Imaging Network (ACRIN) Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST), we identified black/African American (N=3176) or white (N=26,446) women with no prior breast surgery or breast cancer. Measures Race, demographics, and breast cancer risk factors were self-reported. Results of initial digital and film mammograms were assessed. False-positives were defined as a positive mammogram (Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System [BIRADS] category 0, 4, 5) with no cancer diagnosis within 15 months. Results The false-positive rate for digital mammograms was 9.2% for black women compared to 7.8% for white women (p=0.009). After adjusting for age, black women had 17% increased odds of false-positive digital mammogram compared to whites (OR=1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.35, p=0.033). This association was attenuated after adjusting for patient factors, prior films and study site (OR=1.04, 95% CI 0.91-1.20, p=0.561). There was no difference in the occurrence of false-positives by race for film mammography. Conclusion Black women had higher frequency of false-positive digital mammograms explained by lack of prior films and study site.The variation in the disparity between the established technique (film) and the new technology (digital) raises the possibility that racial differences in screening quality may be greatest for new technologies. PMID:26125419

  18. False Positive Functional Analysis Results as a Contributor of Treatment Failure during Functional Communication Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Amanda J.; Mueller, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that functional analysis results are beneficial for treatment selection because they identify reinforcers for severe behavior that can then be used to reinforce replacement behaviors either differentially or noncontingently. Theoretically then, if a reinforcer is identified in a functional analysis erroneously, a well researched…

  19. The Position of Turkey among OECD Member and Candidate Countries According to PISA 2009 Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Tulin

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study is to determine the status of Turkey among OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) members and candidate countries through cluster and discriminant analyses according to PISA (Programme for International Student Assessment) 2009 results. The study includes 475460 fifteen year-old students from 65…

  20. Bose-Einstein correlation of positive kaon pairs in E859--Extended results and model comparisons

    SciTech Connect

    Cianciolo, V.

    1995-12-31

    Results are presented for multidimensional Bose-Einstein Correlation analyses of {pi}{sup +} and K{sup +} mid-rapidity pairs collected by BNL-AGS experiment E859 in 14.6 A{center_dot}GeV/c Si + Au central collisions. Comparisons are made to the cascade codes ARC (v. 1.9.5) and RQMD (v. 1.08). 14 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. Relationship between the intrahepatic expression of 'e' and 'c' epitopes of the nucleocapsid protein of hepatitis B virus and viraemia.

    PubMed Central

    Ballaré, M; Lavarini, C; Brunetto, M R; Petruzzelli, E; Dovis, M; Molino, G; Bonino, F

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between hepatitis B viraemia and intrahepatic HBV nucleocapsid proteins (HBcAg and HBeAg) was studied in 18 patients with chronic hepatitis B. Monoclonal antibodies (MoABs) were obtained in BALB/c mice primed with recombinant HBV nucleocapsid proteins. Four MoABs reacting with recombinant proteins gave positive results in competitive assays. Two reacted as anti-HBc and two as anti-HBe. One of them showed a strong affinity for the cytoplasmic, membrane-bound antigen (P23e) of infected hepatocytes while the latter showed a higher specificity for serum HBeAg than for the intrahepatic antigen. Anti-HBc MoABs had a staining capacity for liver cell nuclei comparable with that of polyclonal antibodies. Overall the anti-HBc MoABs stained the liver cell nuclei in 86% of cases, while anti-HBe MoABs stained in 58% of cases. The hepatocyte cytoplasm was stained by anti-HBc MoABs and anti-HBe MoABs in 64% and 72% of cases respectively. Not one of 12 control liver biopsies was stained. Viraemia (HBV-DNA) was measured by dot blot hybridization and was correlated with the number of hepatocytes containing the nucleocapsid antigen. The highest levels of HBV-DNA (greater than 10(8) genomes/ml) were detected in patients with prevalent nuclear staining while the lowest ones were observed in those with prevalent cytoplasmic expression of this antigen. The application of anti-HBV-nucleocapsid MoABs in diagnostics requires careful scrutiny since some are specific for the circulating antigen while others show a higher affinity for the intrahepatic antigen. PMID:2467769

  2. The management of isolated positive syphilis enzyme immunoassay results in HIV-negative patients attending a sexual health clinic.

    PubMed

    Thorley, Nicola; Adebayo, Michael; Smit, Erasmus; Radcliffe, Keith

    2016-08-01

    An unconfirmed positive treponemal enzyme immunoassay (enzyme immunoassay positive, Treponema pallidum particle agglutination negative and rapid plasma reagin negative) presents a clinical challenge to distinguish early syphilis infection from false-positive results. These cases are referred for syphilis line assay (INNO-LIA) and recalled for repeat syphilis serology. We performed a retrospective audit to establish the proportion of HIV-negative cases with unconfirmed positive enzyme immunoassay results, the proportion of these cases that received an INNO-LIA test and repeat syphilis serology testing and reviewed the clinical outcomes; 0.35% (80/22687) cases had an unconfirmed positive treponemal enzyme immunoassay result. Repeat syphilis serology was performed in 80% (64/80) cases, but no additional cases of syphilis were identified. Eighty-eight per cent (70/80) received an INNO-LIA test; 14% (5/37) unconfirmed enzyme immunoassay-positive cases with no prior history of syphilis were confirmed on INNO-LIA assay, supporting a diagnosis of latent syphilis. As a confirmatory treponemal test, the INNO-LIA assay may be more useful than repeat syphilis serological testing. PMID:26637236

  3. The withholding of test results as a means of assessing the effectiveness of treatment in test-positive persons.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Noel S

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have achieved randomization of patients to alternative management strategies by blinding some patients (and their providers of medical care) to the results of tests that guide such strategies. Although this research approach has the potential to be a powerful means of measuring treatment effectiveness, the interpretation of the results may not be straightforward if the treatment received by test-positive persons is variable or not well documented, or if the analysis is not restricted to outcomes in test-positive persons. Studies in which the test results are withheld at random may face ethical issues that, to date, have received little discussion.

  4. Suppression of behavior by timeout punishment when suppression results in loss of positive reinforcement1

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Arnold; Baron, Alan

    1968-01-01

    This investigation, using rats as subjects and punishment by timeout for responses maintained on a ratio schedule, sought to determine whether behavior would be suppressed by timeout punishment when such suppression also reduced reinforcement density or frequency. A series of experiments indicated that timeout punishment suppressed responding, with the degree of suppression increasing as a function of the duration of the timeout period. Suppressive effects were found to decrease as a function of increases in deprivation (body weight) and were eliminated when the punished response also was reinforced. It was concluded that timeout can produce aversive effects even when loss of reinforcement results. An alternative interpretation of the findings, based on the effects of extinction periods and delay of reinforcement on chained behavior, was discussed. PMID:5722425

  5. Suppression of behavior by timeout punishment when suppression results in loss of positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, A; Baron, A

    1968-09-01

    This investigation, using rats as subjects and punishment by timeout for responses maintained on a ratio schedule, sought to determine whether behavior would be suppressed by timeout punishment when such suppression also reduced reinforcement density or frequency. A series of experiments indicated that timeout punishment suppressed responding, with the degree of suppression increasing as a function of the duration of the timeout period. Suppressive effects were found to decrease as a function of increases in deprivation (body weight) and were eliminated when the punished response also was reinforced. It was concluded that timeout can produce aversive effects even when loss of reinforcement results. An alternative interpretation of the findings, based on the effects of extinction periods and delay of reinforcement on chained behavior, was discussed.

  6. [Bifurcated prosthesis in infrarenal aortic position in stenosing lesions. Functional results].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Caliò, F G; Antonaci, A; Vietri, F

    1997-06-01

    Fifty-eight patients operated upon of infrarenal aortic bifurcated grafts for occlusive disease, in a 6-year period, have been followed-up with a minimum interval of 2 years. The patients were in claudication stage in 63% of the cases and in critical limb threat ischemia in 37% Bypass consisted always in a bifurcated knitted dacron graft either pre-coagulated or sealed. Infrarenal aorta has always been the donor axis, whereas distal anastomosis has been performed on both common femoral in 80% of the cases, on at least one external iliac in 20%. In 5% of the cases a femoro-popliteal bypass has been associated to the main procedure. Postoperative mortality was 3.5%. The occlusion of a prosthetic branch in the postoperative period occurred in one case, requiring a major amputation. Seven patients (12%) presented 11 late thrombosis of one prosthetic branch or both on an interval varying from 4 to 62 months. Eight occlusions required reintervention. Only one, lethal, late prosthetic sepsis was recorded. In a mean interval of 54 months, a good or fair functional result was achieved in 93% of the patients. Out of 22 patients specifically questioned upon, 82% returned to their normal work activity, whereas 18% retired but had a fully normal everyday's life. Sexual function was ameliorated or unchanged in 67% of the cases, while it was impaired in 33%. Eighty-seven percent of the followed-up patients did not require any further hospitalisation for atherosclerotic disease, while 13% of them experienced subsequent hospitalisation or reintervention for progression of the disease either at the same or at different arterial sites. Overall good results support an aggressive attitude towards aorto-iliac-femoral grafting for occlusive disease.

  7. Seropositivity of Hepatitis B and C among Syrian Multi-transfused Patients with Hemoglobinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yazaji, Widad; Habbal, Wafa; Monem, Fawza

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Blood transfusion is a lifesaving therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies. However, the need of frequent transfusion carries the risk of transmitting hepatitis B and C infections which are intermediately prevalent in Syria. Despite screening blood donations with sensitive methods, the risk of transmission is still present when infectious blood is donated within the window period. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of HBV and HCV seropositivity, and its association with multiple transfusions among Syrian hemoglobinopathies patients. Materials and Methods HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV were tested for 159 Syrian multi-transfused patients by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results Thirty-nine of 159 (24.5%) multi-transfused patients were HBsAg/anti-HBc or anti-HCV positive, 26 (16%) of which never visited the dentist, and they either tested postsurgically negative for HBsAg and anti-HCV or never underwent a surgical procedure. On the contrary of anti-HCV seropositivity, HBsAg/anti-HBc seropositivity was significantly associated with the number of blood transfusions, number of blood units and age (P < 0.001). Conclusion About one-sixth of our patients most likely acquired HBV/HCV infection via blood transfusion. Administering HBV vaccine, ensuring the immune status, and monitoring hepatitis markers might considerably minimize the incidence of viral hepatitis among multi-transfused patients. PMID:27648209

  8. Seropositivity of Hepatitis B and C among Syrian Multi-transfused Patients with Hemoglobinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Yazaji, Widad; Habbal, Wafa; Monem, Fawza

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Blood transfusion is a lifesaving therapy for patients with hemoglobinopathies. However, the need of frequent transfusion carries the risk of transmitting hepatitis B and C infections which are intermediately prevalent in Syria. Despite screening blood donations with sensitive methods, the risk of transmission is still present when infectious blood is donated within the window period. This study aimed to investigate the incidence of HBV and HCV seropositivity, and its association with multiple transfusions among Syrian hemoglobinopathies patients. Materials and Methods HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs and anti-HCV were tested for 159 Syrian multi-transfused patients by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Results Thirty-nine of 159 (24.5%) multi-transfused patients were HBsAg/anti-HBc or anti-HCV positive, 26 (16%) of which never visited the dentist, and they either tested postsurgically negative for HBsAg and anti-HCV or never underwent a surgical procedure. On the contrary of anti-HCV seropositivity, HBsAg/anti-HBc seropositivity was significantly associated with the number of blood transfusions, number of blood units and age (P < 0.001). Conclusion About one-sixth of our patients most likely acquired HBV/HCV infection via blood transfusion. Administering HBV vaccine, ensuring the immune status, and monitoring hepatitis markers might considerably minimize the incidence of viral hepatitis among multi-transfused patients.

  9. Effect of poppy seed consummation on the positive results of opiates screening in biological samples.

    PubMed

    Jankovicová, Katarína; Ulbrich, Pavol; Fuknová, Mária

    2009-04-01

    Poppy seed is a popular substance of many traditional Slovak cakes. We can eat quite great amount of it, sometimes more than 50 g. Existing problem in interpreting the results of opiate urine analysis in case of drug abuse arises from the natural occurrence of opiate alkaloids in poppy seed. Interpretation of morphine presence in urine sample is in some cases a problem because morphine present in the urine sample may come from different "sources". The presence of additional, respectively, other opiate in urine sample is significant help when interpreting the presence of morphine. We used poppy seed bought in supermarket for our experiment. Presence of morphine and codeine was determined in poppy seed extracts, whereas the concentration of majority opiate-morphine was 0.9 mg/100 g (9 ppm). This poppy seed was used for two series of experiment-poppy seed consummation, where four persons consumed 100g of poppy seed in the first series and 50 g in the second series. Urine samples were taken in regular 1h intervals where first urine sample was given for testing 3 h after consummation. Concentrations of total opiates were determined in each urine sample by screening examination. Morphine concentrations were determined in selected urine samples using GC/MS with internal standard.

  10. PR Means Positive Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foree, Marilyn

    1992-01-01

    Describes the advantages of public relations to a school music program. Suggests that, to succeed, a music program must have the support of school administrators, teachers, parents, and students alike. Recommends means of attracting support from the four groups. Stresses the importance of effective local publicity. (SG)

  11. Area-Based Socioeconomic Position and Adult Glioma: A Hierarchical Analysis of Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Data

    PubMed Central

    Plascak, Jesse J.; Fisher, James L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Glioma rates vary by demographic factors and geo-political boundaries and this variation suggests higher glioma rates in groups of higher socioeconomic position. The primary goal of this analysis is to investigate the relationship between glioma and county socioeconomic position using U.S. Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) data. Methods Cases were individuals 25+ years diagnosed with glioma between 2000 and 2006 and residing within the SEER-17 catchment area. County-, sex-, race-, age-specific rates were created in order to investigate individual-level associations (population data from U.S. Census 2000). A Bayesian hierarchical Poisson spatial conditionally autoregressive (CAR) model was utilized to simultaneously estimate individual- and county-level associations while controlling for county spatial dependence. Results Those residing in counties of the second, third, and fourth highest quartiles of socioeconomic position have glioma incidence rates that are 1.10 (95% CI: 1.02,1.19), 1.11 (95% CI: 1.02,1.20), 1.14 (95% CI: 1.05,1.23) times that of the first quartile, respectively. A CAR model properly controlled for error spatial dependence. Investigated lag times suggest year 2000 census data yields superior model fit. Conclusion Demographically adjusted rates of glioma are elevated in counties of higher socioeconomic position. More well-grounded theory concerning the glioma-socioeconomic position association along with socioeconomic data collected at multiple levels is recommended for future studies investigating this relationship. PMID:23585860

  12. What Lies beneath Seemingly Positive Campus Climate Results: Institutional Sexism, Racism, and Male Hostility toward Equity Initiatives and Liberal Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaccaro, Annemarie

    2010-01-01

    This article presents qualitative results from a campus climate study at one predominately white university. Data analysis uncovered "what lies beneath" a seemingly positive campus climate. Gender differences in survey responses suggest that men and women experienced the climate in vastly different ways. Additionally, lack of deep diversity…

  13. Does Gender Influence Emotions Resulting from Positive Applause Feedback in Self-Assessment Testing? Evidence from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Huang, Chin-Fei; Liu, Ming-Chi; Chien, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Computerized self-assessment testing can help learners reflect on learning content and can also promote their motivation toward learning. However, a positive affective state is the key to achieving these learning goals. This study aims to examine learning gains and emotional reactions resulting from receiving emotional feedback in the form of…

  14. Anticipated and Actual Reactions to Receiving HIV Positive Results Through Self-Testing Among Gay and Bisexual Men

    PubMed Central

    Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Ibitoye, Mobolaji; Frasca, Timothy; Brown, William; Balan, Iván

    2014-01-01

    We explored anticipated and actual reactions to receiving HIV positive results through self-testing with a diverse group of 84 gay and bisexual men in New York City. Grounded Theory was used to investigate these reactions in a two-phase study, one hypothetical, followed by a practical phase in which self-tests were distributed and used. Three major themes emerged when participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to an HIV positive self-test result: managing emotional distress, obtaining HIV medical care, and postponing sexual activity. When participants were asked about their anticipated reactions to a partner’s HIV positive self-test result, five themes emerged: provide emotional support; refrain from engaging in sex with casual partner; avoid high-risk sexual activity with both main and casual partners; seek medical services; and obtain a confirmatory test result. Although none of the participants tested positive, seven of their partners did. Participants provided emotional support and linked their partners to support services. The availability of HIV self-testing kits offers potential opportunities to tackle HIV infection among individuals with high-risk practices. PMID:24858480

  15. SEROEPIDEMIOLOGY OF HEPATITIS B VIRUS (HBV) AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS (HCV) AND RELATIONSHIP TO ALANINE TRANSFERASE (ALT) IN SAUDI WORKERS AT YANBU INDUSTRIAL CITY

    PubMed Central

    Kashgari, Rashad H.; Mohamad, Adel A.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives: To study the epidemiology of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCP) in a relatively new industrial community in Yanbu, and to find out whether any relationship exists between increased serum Alanine Transferase (ALT) and HBV infection. Method: A group of Saudi male workers (n=332) (mean age = 32 years) were screened for Hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), Hepatitis C virus antibody (anti-HCV), and Alanine Transferase (ALT) level and the results were correlated with age and marital status. Results: Overall, the prevalence of anti-HBc, HBsAg, and anti-HCV were 23.2%, 7.7% and 0.6% respectively. Age-related HBsAg carrier rates were 7.8%, 6.4% and 9.4% for age groups 18-20, 21-30 and over 30 years respec-tively. Anti-HBc positivity rates lucre 7.8%, 24.3% and 23.1 M for the same age groups. Anti-HCV was positive in only two cases (0.6%) of all subjects. Con-sidering marital status, HBsAg and anti-HBc positivity rates were 7.8% and 20.5% for single subjects compared with 7.4% and 24.5% for married subjects (P=> 0.5 and > 0.5). Twenty-two percent of all subjects had ALT levels above 35 U/L with no correlation between the increase of ALT and anti-HBc or HBsAg positivity. Conclusions: The findings of this work: (1) Support the notion of relatively low prevalence of HCV in the Saudi Population as compared to HBV. (2) Provide clues regarding possible routes of transmission of HBV in Saudis that may help in vaccination policies for control of HBV infection. (3) Emphasize the fact that ALT level is an independent factor of HBV infection, and (4) Signify the need to screen industrial workers fir non-viral causes of liver disease. PMID:23008562

  16. Experimental evidence of false-positive Comet test results due to TiO2 particle--assay interactions.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Katarina; Drobne, Damjana; Kastelec, Damijana; Marinsek-Logar, Romana

    2013-08-01

    We have studied the genotoxicity of TiO2 particles with a Comet assay on a unicellular organism, Tetrahymena thermophila. Exposure to bulk- or nano-TiO2 of free cells, cells embedded in gel or nuclei embedded in gel, all resulted in a positive Comet assay result but this outcome could not be confirmed by cytotoxicity measures such as lipid peroxidation, elevated reactive oxygen species or cell membrane composition. Published reports state that in the absence of cytotoxicity, nano- and bulk-TiO2 genotoxicity do not occur directly, and a possible explanation of our Comet assay results is that they are false positives resulting from post festum exposure interactions between particles and DNA. We suggest that before Comet assay is used for nanoparticle genotoxicity testing, evidence for the possibility of post festum exposure interactions should be considered. The acellular Comet test described in this report can be used for this purpose.

  17. Evidence for false-positive results for boldenone testing of veal urine due to faecal cross-contamination during sampling.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo Rossi, C A; Arioli, F; Bassini, A; Chiesa, L M; Dell'Orto, V; Montana, M; Pompa, G

    2004-08-01

    European Directive 96/22/EC, which controls veterinary residues in animals, does not permit the presence of synthetic growth promoters in products of animal origin or in livestock. Boldenone is categorized in class A3 (growth promoters -- steroids) and is thus a banned substance. Testing of veal urine for banned substances is part of the European Union statutory programme for animals going into the food chain. In relation to this monitoring, three studies were conducted to investigate the apparent presence of the banned growth promoter boldenone in veal urine, which was suspected as being caused by interference from faecal contamination of the sample. In the first study, urine samples were collected at different times (time 0 and after 30 min) using (1) a conventional zoonotechnical apron and (2) a technique designed specifically to avoid faecal contamination ('kettle'). This resulted in samples that were, respectively, positive and negative for the presence of alpha-boldenone (alpha-BOL). In a second study, urine samples negative to alpha-BOL were collected from eight veal calves, but became positive after deliberate faecal contamination. In a third study, data obtained from the Italian RNP (Residual National Program) indicated that 18.1% of 3295 urine samples collected using the zootechnical apron were positive for alpha-BOL and 2.1% for beta-boldenone (beta-BOL), whilst of 902 samples collected using the kettle, beta-BOL was not detected in any samples and only 0.2% were positive to alpha-BOL, in concentrations lower than 2 ng ml(-1). These results further support the supposition that faecal contamination of the urine during sample collection can lead to false-positive results during boldenone analysis.

  18. ERβ overexpression results in endocrine therapy resistance and poor prognosis in postmenopausal ERα-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    GUO, LIYING; ZHANG, YU; YILAMU, DILIMINA; LIU, SHA; GUO, CHENMING

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of estrogen receptor (ER) β in the prognosis of ERα-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women, and its effect on the efficacy of endocrine therapy. Tissue specimens from 195 patients with postmenopausal breast cancer were analyzed. ERβ expression levels were detected using immunohistochemical staining. Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to assess patient survival, and the difference in survival was analyzed using the log-rank test. Cox regression was utilized to evaluate prognostic factors. The results revealed that the disease-free survival rate decreased dramatically as ERβ expression levels increased in all postmenopausal ERα-positive breast cancer patients, and ERβ expression was identified to be an indicator of poor prognosis in cases of this disease. Similarly, in postmenopausal ERα-positive breast cancer patients undergoing endocrine therapy, high ERβ expression levels reduced the disease-free survival rate and were correlated with poor patient prognosis. However, in such patients who were not treated with endocrine therapy, disease-free survival rate and prognosis were not significantly affected by ERβ expression. In conclusion, ERβ overexpression led to endocrine therapy resistance and poor prognosis in postmenopausal ERα-positive breast cancer patients, suggesting that ERβ may affect breast cancer prognosis via an increase in endocrine therapy resistance. PMID:26893775

  19. USING A MULTIFACETED APPROACH TO IMPROVE THE FOLLOW-UP OF POSITIVE FECAL OCCULT BLOOD TEST RESULTS

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Hardeep; Kadiyala, Himabindu; Bhagwath, Gayathri; Shethia, Anila; El-Serag, Hashem; Walder, Annette; Velez, Maria; Petersen, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Inadequate follow-up of abnormal fecal occult blood test (FOBT) results occurs in several types of practice settings. Our institution implemented multifaceted quality improvement (QI) activities in 2004–2005 to improve follow-up of FOBT positive results. Activities addressed pre-colonoscopy referral processes and system-level factors such as electronic communication and provider education and feedback. We evaluated their effects on timeliness and appropriateness of positive FOBT follow-up and identified factors that affect colonoscopy performance. Methods Retrospective electronic medical record (EMR) review was used to determine outcomes pre- and post-QI activities in a multi-specialty ambulatory clinic of a tertiary care Veterans Affairs facility and its affiliated satellite clinics. From 1869 FOBT positive cases, 800 were randomly selected from time periods before and after QI activities. Two reviewers used a pretested standardized data collection form to determine whether colonoscopy was appropriate or indicated based on pre-determined criteria and if so, the timeliness of colonoscopy referral and performance pre- and post-QI activities. Results In cases where a colonoscopy was indicated, the proportion of patients who received a timely colonoscopy referral and performance were significantly higher post implementation (60.5% vs. 31.7%, p<0.0001 and 11.4% vs. 3.4%, p =0.0005 respectively). A significant decrease also resulted in median times to referral and performance (6 vs. 19 days p<0.0001 and 96.5 vs. 190 days p<0.0001 respectively) and in the proportion of positive FOBT test results that had received no follow-up by the time of chart review (24.3%vs. 35.9%; p=0.0045). Significant predictors of absence of the performance of an indicated colonoscopy included performance of a non-colonoscopy procedure such as barium enema or flexible sigmoidoscopy (OR=16.9; 95% CI 1.9–145.1), patient non-adherence (OR=33.9; 95% CI 17.3–66.6), not providing an

  20. Differential Global Positioning System for the Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System: Testing, results, and user`s guide

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, T.L.; Hubbard, C.W.

    1993-10-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory integrated and tested a Global Positioning System (GPS) for use with the Naval Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Center`s (NEODTC) Surface-Towed Ordnance Locating System (STOLS). The GPS automatically and continuously provides latitude, longitude, and elevation information at the mobile GPS unit. The results of testing the GPS are shown in this report. The results reveal accuracies in the submeter range in real time and within a few centimeters using post-processing software. A description of hardware and software components is also included, along with system drawings and parts lists.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B and C virus infections in an impoverished urban community in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem affecting billions of people globally, and both hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are rapidly spreading in the developing countries including Bangladesh due to the lack of health education, poverty, illiteracy and lack of hepatitis B vaccination. Also there is lack of information on their prevalence among the general population. So, a population-based serological survey was conducted in Dhaka to determine the prevalence and risk factors of HBV and HCV infections. Methods Healthy individuals were selected for demographic and behavioural characteristics by stratified cluster sampling and blood tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc), and anti-HCV antibodies (anti-HCV). Results From June 2005-November 2006, 1997 participants were screened for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV, 738 (37%) were males with mean (SD) age of 24 (14) years. HBV-seropositivity was documented in 582 (29%) participants: 14 (0.7%) were positive for HBsAg, 452 (22.6%) for anti-HBc and 116 (5.8%) for both HBsAg and anti-HBc. Four (0.2%) participants were positive for anti-HCV, and another five (0.3%) for both anti-HBc and anti-HCV. Ninety-six/246 (39%) family members residing at same households with HBsAg positive participants were also HBV-seropositive [74 (30.1%) for anti-HBc and 22 (8.9%) for both HBsAg and anti-HBc], which was significantly higher among family members (39%) than that of study participants (29%) (OR 1.56; p < 0.001). In bivariate analysis, HBV-seropositivity was significantly associated with married status (OR 2.27; p < 0.001), history of jaundice (OR 1.35; p = 0.009), surgical operations (OR 1.26; p = 0.04), needle-stick injuries (OR 2.09; p = 0.002), visiting unregistered health-care providers (OR 1.40; p = 0.008), receiving treatment for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) (OR 1.79; p = 0.001), animal bites (OR 1.73; p < 0.001); ear

  2. Public health consequences of a false-positive laboratory test result for Brucella--Florida, Georgia, and Michigan, 2005.

    PubMed

    2008-06-01

    Human brucellosis, a nationally notifiable disease, is uncommon in the United States. Most human cases have occurred in returned travelers or immigrants from regions where brucellosis is endemic, or were acquired domestically from eating illegally imported, unpasteurized fresh cheeses. In January 2005, a woman aged 35 years who lived in Nassau County, Florida, received a diagnosis of brucellosis, based on results of a Brucella immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme immunoassay (EIA) performed in a commercial laboratory using analyte specific reagents (ASRs); this diagnosis prompted an investigation of dairy products in two other states. Subsequent confirmatory antibody testing by Brucella microagglutination test (BMAT) performed at CDC on the patient's serum was negative. The case did not meet the CDC/Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists' (CSTE) definition for a probable or confirmed brucellosis case, and the initial EIA result was determined to be a false positive. This report summarizes the case history, laboratory findings, and public health investigations. CDC recommends that Brucella serology testing only be performed using tests cleared or approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or validated under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and shown to reliably detect the presence of Brucella infection. Results from these tests should be considered supportive evidence for recent infection only and interpreted in the context of a clinically compatible illness and exposure history. EIA is not considered a confirmatory Brucella antibody test; positive screening test results should be confirmed by Brucella-specific agglutination (i.e., BMAT or standard tube agglutination test) methods.

  3. One-year results from cryopreserved mitral allograft transplantation into the tricuspid position in a sheep experimental model.

    PubMed

    Mokracek, A; Canadyova, J; Simunkova, Z; Fiala, R; Hmirak, M; Sulda, M; Burkert, J; Tintera, J; Kobylka, P; Spatenka, J

    2015-01-01

    Mitral allografts are still used only exceptionally in the mitral or tricuspid position. The main indication remains infectious endocarditis of atrioventricular valves for its flexibility and low risk of infection. The aim of our study was to evaluate 1-year results of mitral allografts transplantation into the tricuspid position in a sheep model. Mitral allografts were processed, cryopreserved, and transplanted into the tricuspid position anatomically (Group I - 11 animals) or antianatomically (Group II - 8 animals). All survivors (4 from Group I, and 3 from Group II) were checked at 3, 6, and 12 months by echocardiography with the exception of one survivor from Group II (which was examinated only visually). Examination throughout follow-up included for mitral allograft regurgitation and annuli dilatation. At postmortem, the papillary muscles were healed and firmly anchored to the right ventricular wall in all subjects. Transventricular fixation of the papillary muscles with buttressed sutures was proven to be a stable, reproducible, and safe method for anchoring mitral allograft leaflets. There were no significant differences between the two implantation methods. Annulus support of mitral allografts might be very useful in this type of operation and could prevent annular dilatation.

  4. SU-E-J-94: Positioning Errors Resulting From Using Bony Anatomy Alignment for Treating SBRT Lung Tumor

    SciTech Connect

    Frame, C; Ding, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To quantify patient setups errors based on bony anatomy registration rather than 3D tumor alignment for SBRT lung treatments. Method: A retrospective study was performed for patients treated with lung SBRT and imaged with kV cone beam computed tomography (kV-CBCT) image-guidance. Daily CBCT images were registered to treatment planning CTs based on bony anatomy alignment and then inter-fraction tumor movement was evaluated by comparing shift in the tumor center in the medial-lateral, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions. The PTV V100% was evaluated for each patient based on the average daily tumor displacement to assess the impact of the positioning error on the target coverage when the registrations were based on bony anatomy. Of the 35 patients studied, 15 were free-breathing treatments, 10 used abdominal compression with a stereotactic body frame, and the remaining 10 were performed with BodyFIX vacuum bags. Results: For free-breathing treatments, the range of tumor displacement error is between 1–6 mm in the medial-lateral, 1–13 mm in the anterior-posterior, and 1–7 mm in the superior-inferior directions. These positioning errors lead to 6–22% underdose coverage for PTV - V100% . Patients treated with abdominal compression immobilization showed positional errors of 0–4mm mediallaterally, 0–3mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% underdose ranging between 6–17%. For patients immobilized with the vacuum bags, the positional errors were found to be 0–1 mm medial-laterally, 0–1mm anterior-posteriorly, and 0–2 mm inferior-superiorly with PTV - V100% under dose ranging between 5–6% only. Conclusion: It is necessary to align the tumor target by using 3D image guidance to ensure adequate tumor coverage before performing SBRT lung treatments. The BodyFIX vacuum bag immobilization method has the least positioning errors among the three methods studied when bony anatomy is used for

  5. SU-C-210-06: Quantitative Evaluation of Dosimetric Effects Resulting From Positional Variations of Pancreatic Tumor Volumes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S; Sehgal, V; Wei, R; Lawrenson, L; Kuo, J; Hanna, N; Ramsinghani, N; Daroui, P; Al-Ghazi, M

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to quantify dosimetric effects resulting from variation in pancreatic tumor position assessed by bony anatomy and implanted fiducial markers Methods: Twelve pancreatic cancer patients were retrospectively analyzed for this study. All patients received modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment using fiducial-based Image Guided Radiation Therapy (IGRT) to the intact pancreas. Using daily orthogonal kV and/or Cone beam CT images, the shift needed to co-register the daily pre-treatment images to reference CT from fiducial to bone (Fid-Bone) were recorded as Left-Right (LR), Anterior-Posterior (AP) and Superior-Inferior (SI). The original VMAT plan iso-center was shifted based on KV bone matching positions at 5 evenly spaced fractions. Dose coverage of the planning target volumes (PTVs) (V100%), mean dose to liver, kidney and stomach/duodenum were assessed in the modified plans. Results: A total of 306 fractions were analyzed. The absolute fiducial-bone positional shifts were greatest in the SI direction, (AP = 2.7 ± 3.0, LR = 2.8 ± 2.8, and SI 6.3 ± 7.9 mm, mean ± SD). The V100% was significantly reduced by 13.5%, (Fid-Bone = 95.3 ± 2.0 vs. 82.3 ± 11.8%, p=0.02). This varied widely among patients (Fid-Bone V100% Range = 2–60%), where 33% of patients had a reduction in V100% of more than 10%. The impact on OARs was greatest to the liver (Fid-Bone= 14.6 vs. 16.1 Gy, 10%), and stomach, (Fid-Bone = 23.9 vx. 25.5 Gy, 7%), however was not statistically significant (p=0.10 both). Conclusion: Compared to matching by fiducial markers, matching by bony anatomy would have substantially reduced the PTV coverage by 13.5%. This reinforces the importance of online position verification based on fiducial markers. Hence, implantation of fiducial markers is strongly recommended for pancreatic cancer patients undergoing intensity modulated radiation therapy treatments.

  6. Phenotypic Consequences Resulting from a Methionine-to-Valine Substitution at Position 48 in the HPr Protein of Streptococcus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Plamondon, Pascale; Brochu, Denis; Thomas, Suzanne; Fradette, Julie; Gauthier, Lucie; Vaillancourt, Katy; Buckley, Nicole; Frenette, Michel; Vadeboncoeur, Christian

    1999-01-01

    In gram-positive bacteria, the HPr protein of the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) can be phosphorylated on a histidine residue at position 15 (His15) by enzyme I (EI) of the PTS and on a serine residue at position 46 (Ser46) by an ATP-dependent protein kinase (His∼P and Ser-P, respectively). We have isolated from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, by independent selection from separate cultures, two spontaneous mutants (Ga3.78 and Ga3.14) that possess a missense mutation in ptsH (the gene encoding HPr) replacing the methionine at position 48 by a valine. The mutation did not prevent the phosphorylation of HPr at His15 by EI nor the phosphorylation at Ser46 by the ATP-dependent HPr kinase. The levels of HPr(Ser-P) in glucose-grown cells of the parental and mutant Ga3.78 were virtually the same. However, mutant cells growing on glucose produced two- to threefold less HPr(Ser-P)(His∼P) than the wild-type strain, while the levels of free HPr and HPr(His∼P) were increased 18- and 3-fold, respectively. The mutants grew as well as the wild-type strain on PTS sugars (glucose, fructose, and mannose) and on the non-PTS sugars lactose and melibiose. However, the growth rate of both mutants on galactose, also a non-PTS sugar, decreased rapidly with time. The M48V substitution had only a minor effect on the repression of α-galactosidase, β-galactosidase, and galactokinase by glucose, but this mutation abolished diauxie by rendering cells unable to prevent the catabolism of a non-PTS sugar (lactose, galactose, and melibiose) when glucose was available. The results suggested that the capacity of the wild-type cells to preferentially metabolize glucose over non-PTS sugars resulted mainly from inhibition of the catabolism of these secondary energy sources via a HPr-dependent mechanism. This mechanism was activated following glucose but not lactose metabolism, and it did not involve HPr(Ser-P) as the only regulatory molecule. PMID:10559156

  7. Trastuzumab or lapatinib with standard chemotherapy for HER2-positive breast cancer: results from the GEICAM/2006-14 trial

    PubMed Central

    Alba, E; Albanell, J; de la Haba, J; Barnadas, A; Calvo, L; Sánchez-Rovira, P; Ramos, M; Rojo, F; Burgués, O; Carrasco, E; Caballero, R; Porras, I; Tibau, A; Cámara, M C; Lluch, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: The addition of trastuzumab (T) and lapatinib (L) to neoadjuvant chemotherapy increases the pathological complete response (pCR) rate in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive early breast cancer. We investigated the efficacy of T or L with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and specific efficacy biomarkers. Methods: Patients with stages I–III (including inflammatory) HER2-positive breast cancer were randomised to receive epirubicin (E) plus cyclophosphamide (C) × 4 cycles followed by docetaxel (D) plus either T (EC-DT) or L (EC-DL). End points included pCR (primary), clinical response, toxicity, and pCR-predictive biomarkers. Results: We randomised 102 patients to EC-DT (50) and EC-DL (52). Median age was 48, 56% were premenopausal and 58% had oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumours. Pathological complete response in breast was 52.1% (95% CI:38.0–66.2%) for EC-DT and 25.5% (95% CI:13.5–37.5%) for EC-DL (P=0.0065). Pathological complete response in breast and axilla was 47.9% for EC-DT and 23.5% for EC-DL (P=0.011). Grade 3–4 toxicity did not differ across treatments, except for diarrhoea (2% in EC-DT vs 13.5% in EC-DL, P=0.030). Multivariate analyses showed that treatment (P=0.036) and ER (P=0.014) were the only predictors of pCR in both groups. Conclusion: EC-DT exhibited higher efficacy and lower toxicity than EC-DL. Of the different biomarkers studied, only the absence of ER expression was associated with increased pCR. PMID:24457911

  8. Disclosure of HIV positive result to a sexual partner among adult clinical service users in Kemissie district, northeast Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Seid, Mohammed; Wasie, Belaynew; Admassu, Mengesha

    2012-03-01

    HIV Status disclosure is vital for HIV prevention efforts and the couple's health in the context of accelerated highly active antiretroviral therapy. This study aimed to identify factors associated with disclosure of HIV Status to a sexual partner and its outcomes. A facility based cross-sectional study was conducted at Kemissie Health center on 360 HIV positive individuals selected by systematic random sampling. Data were collected using a structured, interviewer administered questionnaire. The level of disclosure to a sexual partner was 93.1%. Among those who disclosed, 74.5% were accepted, 10.8% minor challenges or suspicion of result and the last 7.8% faced physical abuse and blame. The main reasons for not disclosing were fear of divorce [32%], fear of stigma and discrimination [32%] and fear of physical abuse [16%]. Prior discussion, disclosure to family, smooth relationship and knowing partner status were significantly associated with disclosure. HIV prevention programs and counseling efforts should focus on mutual disclosure of HIV test results, by encouraging discussion, reduction of stigma, for better disclosure and continuing care.

  9. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer: how the latest results are improving therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hanfang; Rugo, Hope S.

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive (HER2+) metastatic breast cancer (MBC) remains an incurable disease, and approximately 25% of patients with HER2+ early breast cancer still relapse after adjuvant trastuzumab-based treatment. HER2 is a validated therapeutic target that remains relevant throughout the disease process. Recently, a number of novel HER2 targeted agents have become available, including lapatinib (a small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of both HER2 and the epidermal growth factor receptor), pertuzumab (a new anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody) and ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1, a novel antibody–drug conjugate), which provide additional treatment options for patients with HER2+ MBC. The latest clinical trials have demonstrated improved outcome with treatment including pertuzumab or T-DM1 compared with standard HER2 targeted therapy. Here we review the clinical development of approved and investigational targeted agents for the treatment of HER2+ MBC, summarize the latest results of important clinical trials supporting use of these agents in the treatment of HER2+ MBC, and discuss how these results impact therapeutic options in clinical practice. PMID:26557900

  10. Ways to Promote the Positive Development of Children and Youth. Research-to-Results Brief. Publication #2008-11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarrett, Nicole; Lerner, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    This brief discusses the elements and features that define positive youth development and highlights some ways to support the positive development of children and youth. Specifically, this brief addresses the critical role that particular out-of-school time settings (regular family dinners and organized activity programs) can play in supporting…

  11. 49 CFR 655.61 - Action when an employee has a verified positive drug test result or has a confirmed alcohol test...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Action when an employee has a verified positive... DRUG USE IN TRANSIT OPERATIONS Consequences § 655.61 Action when an employee has a verified positive.../third party administrator (C/TPA) that a covered employee has a verified positive drug test result,...

  12. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented. PMID:27695511

  13. A grounded theory of positive youth development through sport based on results from a qualitative meta-study

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Neely, Kacey C.; Slater, Linda G.; Camiré, Martin; Côté, Jean; Fraser-Thomas, Jessica; MacDonald, Dany; Strachan, Leisha; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The overall purpose of this study was to create a model of positive youth development (PYD) through sport grounded in the extant qualitative literature. More specifically, the first objective was to review and evaluate qualitative studies of PYD in sport. The second objective was to analyze and synthesize findings from these studies. Following record identification and screening, 63 articles were retained for analysis. Meta-method analysis revealed strengths of studies were the use of multiple data collection and validity techniques, which produced high-quality data. Weaknesses were limited use of ‘named’ methodologies and inadequate reporting of sampling procedures. Philosophical perspectives were rarely reported, and theory was used sparingly. Results of an inductive meta-data analysis produced three categories: PYD climate (adult relationships, peer relationships, and parental involvement), life skills program focus (life skill building activities and transfer activities), and PYD outcomes (in personal, social, and physical domains). A model that distinguishes between implicit and explicit processes to PYD is presented.

  14. Determination of immunoglobulin M antibodies for hepatitis B core antigen with a capture enzyme immunoassay and biotin-labeled core antigen produced in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Vilja, P; Turunen, H J; Leinikki, P O

    1985-01-01

    A new capture enzyme immunoassay for the determination of immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) is described. Core antigen produced in Escherichia coli was labeled with biotin and subsequently detected by an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex. The biotin-labeled core antigen was effective at concentrations as low as 20 ng/ml. Of 561 serum samples from different groups of patients that were tested, 465 samples were negative for other hepatitis B virus markers and also for anti-HBcAg IgM. Sera from the early stages of hepatitis B infection had high levels of anti-HBcAg IgM, and a clear correlation with the acuteness of the disease was observed in 45 follow-up sera from 23 patients with acute or recent hepatitis B. Sera from 21 patients with past hepatitis B were all negative for anti-HBcAg IgM. Twenty serum samples from chronic carriers of hepatitis B surface antigen showed slightly elevated antibody levels for anti-HBcAg IgM. Ten sera which were positive for anti-HBcAg IgG antibodies and had high levels of rheumatoid factor were negative for anti-HBcAg IgM. PMID:3908476

  15. Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zemsky, Robert; Shaman, Susan; Shapiro, Daniel B.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Collegiate Results Instrument (CRI), which measures a range of collegiate outcomes for alumni 6 years after graduation. The CRI was designed to target alumni from institutions across market segments and assess their values, abilities, work skills, occupations, and pursuit of lifelong learning. (EV)

  16. Increasing Elementary School Students' Subjective Well-Being through a Classwide Positive Psychology Intervention: Results of a Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Hearon, Brittany V.; Bander, Bryan; McCullough, Mollie; Garofano, Jeffrey; Roth, Rachel A.; Tan, Sim Yin

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in school-based programs to promote students' subjective well-being (SWB). Students with greater SWB tend to have stronger relationships with their teachers and classmates, as well as behave in more positive ways. Drawing from theory and research pertinent to promoting children's SWB, we developed an 11-session classwide…

  17. Follow-Up Study of Tuberculosis-Exposed Supermarket Customers with Negative Tuberculin Skin Test Results in Association with Positive Gamma Interferon Release Assay Results▿

    PubMed Central

    Franken, Willeke P. J.; Koster, Ben F. P. J.; Bossink, Ailko W. J.; Thijsen, Steven F. T.; Bouwman, John J. M.; van Dissel, Jaap T.; Arend, Sandra M.

    2007-01-01

    We report a follow-up study of 29 subjects with negative tuberculin skin test (TST) results in association with positive gamma interferon release assay (IGRA) results, mainly due to responses to CFP-10 in the T-SPOT.TB assay, during a contact investigation. One year later, 12/29 subjects (41%) had converted to positive TST results in association with negative IGRA results. PMID:17626157

  18. Preliminary results of real-time PPP-RTK positioning algorithm development for moving platforms and its performance validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jihye; Park, Kwan-Dong

    2015-04-01

    Real-time PPP-RTK positioning algorithms were developed for the purpose of getting precise coordinates of moving platforms. In this implementation, corrections for the satellite orbit and satellite clock were taken from the IGS-RTS products while the ionospheric delay was removed through ionosphere-free combination and the tropospheric delay was either taken care of using the Global Pressure and Temperature (GPT) model or estimated as a stochastic parameter. To improve the convergence speed, all the available GPS and GLONASS measurements were used and Extended Kalman Filter parameters were optimized. To validate our algorithms, we collected the GPS and GLONASS data from a geodetic-quality receiver installed on a roof of a moving vehicle in an open-sky environment and used IGS final products of satellite orbits and clock offsets. The horizontal positioning error got less than 10 cm within 5 minutes, and the error stayed below 10 cm even after the vehicle start moving. When the IGS-RTS product and the GPT model were used instead of the IGS precise product, the positioning accuracy of the moving vehicle was maintained at better than 20 cm once convergence was achieved at around 6 minutes.

  19. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? II. Construction and analysis of a consolidated database.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    A Workshop sponsored by EURL ECVAM was held in Ispra, Italy in 2013 to consider whether the in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results could complement and mitigate the implications of a positive Ames test response for the prediction of in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity, and if patterns of results could be identified. Databases of Ames-positive chemicals that were tested for in vivo genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity were collected from different sources and analysed individually (Kirkland et al., in this issue). Because there were overlaps and inconsistent test results among chemicals in the different databases, a combined database which eliminated the overlaps and evaluated the inconsistencies was considered preferable for addressing the above question. A database of >700 Ames-positive chemicals also tested in vivo was compiled, and the results in in vitro mammalian cell tests were analysed. Because the database was limited to Ames-positive chemicals, the majority (>85%) of carcinogens (103/119) and in vivo genotoxins (83/88) were positive when tested in both in vitro gene mutation and aneugenicity/clastogenicity tests. However, about half (>45%) of chemicals that were not carcinogenic (19/28) or genotoxic in vivo (33/73) also gave the same patterns of positive mammalian cell results. Although the different frequencies were statistically significant, positive results in 2 in vitro mammalian cell tests did not, per se, add to the predictivity of the positive Ames test. By contrast, negative results for both in vitro mammalian cell endpoints were rare for Ames-positive carcinogens (3/119) and in vivo genotoxins (2/88) but, were significantly more frequent for Ames-positive chemicals that are not carcinogenic (4/28) or genotoxic in vivo (14/73). Thus, in the case of an Ames-positive chemical, negative results in 2 in vitro mammalian cell tests covering both mutation and clastogenicity/aneugenicity endpoints should be considered as indicative of

  20. Unusual presentation of hepatitis B serological markers in an Amerindian community of Venezuela with a majority of occult cases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) is characterized by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the absence of HBsAg in the serum of patients. The aim of this study was to characterize HBV infection among a Piaroa community, an Amerindian group which exhibits significant evidence of exposure to HBV but relatively low presence of HBsAg, and to explore the presence of OBI in this population. Results Of 150 sera, with 17% anti-HBc and 1.3% HBsAg prevalence, 70 were tested for the presence of HBV DNA. From these, 25 (36%) were found positive for HBV DNA by PCR in the core region. Two of these 25 sera were HBsAg positive, indicating an overt infection. Of the remaining 68 sera tested, 23 exhibited OBI. Of these, 13 were HBV DNA out of 25 anti-HBc positive (52%) and 10 HBV DNA positive, out of 43 anti-HBc negative (23%), with a statistical significance of p = 0.03. Viral DNA and HBsAg were present intermittently in follow up sera of 13 individuals. Sequence analysis in the core region of the amplified DNA products showed that all the strains belonged to HBV genotype F3. The OBI isolates displayed 96-100% nucleotide identity between them. One isolate exhibited the co-circulation of a wild type variant with a variant with a premature stop codon at the core protein, and a variant exhibiting a deletion of 28 amino acids. Conclusions The frequency of OBI found in this Amerindian group warrants further studies in other communities exhibiting different degrees of HBV exposure. PMID:22152023

  1. Total Hepatitis B Core Antigen Antibody, a Quantitative Non-Invasive Marker of Hepatitis B Virus Induced Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Quan; Song, Liu-Wei; Cavallone, Daniela; Moriconi, Francesco; Cherubini, Beatrice; Colombatto, Piero; Oliveri, Filippo; Coco, Barbara Agata; Ricco, Gabriele; Bonino, Ferruccio; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Xia, Ning-Shao; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Non invasive immunologic markers of virus-induced liver disease are unmet needs. We tested the clinical significance of quantitative total and IgM-anti-HBc in well characterized chronic-HBsAg-carriers. Sera (212) were obtained from 111 HBsAg-carriers followed-up for 52 months (28-216) during different phases of chronic-HBV-genotype-D-infection: 10 HBeAg-positive, 25 inactive-carriers (HBV-DNA≤2000IU/ml, ALT<30U/L), 66 HBeAg-negative-CHB-patients and 10 with HDV-super-infection. In 35 patients treated with Peg-IFN±nucleos(t)ide-analogues (NUCs) sera were obtained at baseline, end-of-therapy and week-24-off-therapy and in 22 treated with NUCs (for 60 months, 42-134m) at baseline and end-of-follow-up. HBsAg and IgM-anti-HBc were measured by Architect-assays (Abbott, USA); total-anti-HBc by double-antigen-sandwich-immune-assay (Wantai, China); HBV-DNA by COBAS-TaqMan (Roche, Germany). Total-anti-HBc were detectable in all sera with lower levels in HBsAg-carriers without CHB (immune-tolerant, inactive and HDV-superinfected, median 3.26, range 2.26-4.49 Log10 IU/ml) versus untreated-CHB (median 4.68, range 2.76-5.54 Log10 IU/ml), p<0.0001. IgM-anti-HBc positive using the chronic-hepatitis-cut-off" (0.130-S/CO) were positive in 102 of 212 sera (48.1%). Overall total-anti-HBc and IgM-anti-HBc correlated significantly (p<0.001, r=0.417). Total-anti-HBc declined significantly in CHB patients with response to Peg-IFN (p<0.001) and in NUC-treated patients (p<0.001); the lowest levels (median 2.68, range 2.12-3.08 Log10 IU/ml) were found in long-term responders who cleared HBsAg subsequently. During spontaneous and therapy-induced fluctuations of CHB (remissions and reactivations) total- and IgM-anti-HBc correlated with ALT (p<0.001, r=0.351 and p=0.008, r=0.185 respectively). Total-anti-HBc qualifies as a useful marker of HBV-induced-liver-disease that might help to discriminate major phases of chronic HBV infection and to predict sustained response to antivirals.

  2. Total Hepatitis B Core Antigen Antibody, a Quantitative Non-Invasive Marker of Hepatitis B Virus Induced Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cavallone, Daniela; Moriconi, Francesco; Cherubini, Beatrice; Colombatto, Piero; Oliveri, Filippo; Coco, Barbara Agata; Ricco, Gabriele; Bonino, Ferruccio; Shih, James Wai Kuo; Xia, Ning-Shao; Brunetto, Maurizia Rossana

    2015-01-01

    Non invasive immunologic markers of virus-induced liver disease are unmet needs. We tested the clinical significance of quantitative total and IgM-anti-HBc in well characterized chronic-HBsAg-carriers. Sera (212) were obtained from 111 HBsAg-carriers followed-up for 52 months (28-216) during different phases of chronic-HBV-genotype-D-infection: 10 HBeAg-positive, 25 inactive-carriers (HBV-DNA≤2000IU/ml, ALT<30U/L), 66 HBeAg-negative-CHB-patients and 10 with HDV-super-infection. In 35 patients treated with Peg-IFN±nucleos(t)ide-analogues (NUCs) sera were obtained at baseline, end-of-therapy and week-24-off-therapy and in 22 treated with NUCs (for 60 months, 42-134m) at baseline and end-of-follow-up. HBsAg and IgM-anti-HBc were measured by Architect-assays (Abbott, USA); total-anti-HBc by double-antigen-sandwich-immune-assay (Wantai, China); HBV-DNA by COBAS-TaqMan (Roche, Germany). Total-anti-HBc were detectable in all sera with lower levels in HBsAg-carriers without CHB (immune-tolerant, inactive and HDV-superinfected, median 3.26, range 2.26-4.49 Log10 IU/ml) versus untreated-CHB (median 4.68, range 2.76-5.54 Log10 IU/ml), p<0.0001. IgM-anti-HBc positive using the chronic-hepatitis-cut-off" (0.130-S/CO) were positive in 102 of 212 sera (48.1%). Overall total-anti-HBc and IgM-anti-HBc correlated significantly (p<0.001, r=0.417). Total-anti-HBc declined significantly in CHB patients with response to Peg-IFN (p<0.001) and in NUC-treated patients (p<0.001); the lowest levels (median 2.68, range 2.12-3.08 Log10 IU/ml) were found in long-term responders who cleared HBsAg subsequently. During spontaneous and therapy-induced fluctuations of CHB (remissions and reactivations) total- and IgM-anti-HBc correlated with ALT (p<0.001, r=0.351 and p=0.008, r=0.185 respectively). Total-anti-HBc qualifies as a useful marker of HBV-induced-liver-disease that might help to discriminate major phases of chronic HBV infection and to predict sustained response to antivirals. PMID

  3. A false positive newborn screening result due to a complex allele carrying two frequent CF-causing variants.

    PubMed

    Bergougnoux, Anne; Boureau-Wirth, Amandine; Rouzier, Cécile; Altieri, Jean-Pierre; Verneau, Fanny; Larrieu, Lise; Koenig, Michel; Claustres, Mireille; Raynal, Caroline

    2016-05-01

    The detection of two frequent CFTR disease-causing variations in the context of a newborn screening program (NBS) usually leads to the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF) and a relevant genetic counseling in the family. In the present study, CF-causing variants p.Phe508del (F508del) and c.3140-26A>G (3272-26A>G) were identified on a neonate with positive ImmunoReactive Trypsinogen test by the Elucigene™ CF30 kit. The CF diagnosis initially suggested, despite three inconclusive Sweat Chloride Tests (SCT), was finally ruled out after the familial segregation study combined with a negative SCT. Haplotype studies, based on the comparison of 80 p.Phe508del haplotypes, suggested a probable de novo occurrence of c.3140-26A>G on the p.Phe508del ancestral allele in this family. This false positive case emphasizes the importance of SCT in the NBS strategy. Moreover, it raises the need for familial segregation studies in CF and in overall molecular diagnosis strategy of autosomal recessive diseases. PMID:27117206

  4. Pathways That Affect Wives' HIV Risk Among Serodiscordant Couples in India: Results From the Positive Jeevan Saathi Study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa N; Hennink, Monique M; Hynes, Michelle E; Yount, Kathryn M; Kosambiya, Jayesh K; Wingood, Gina M; Sutton-Brown-Fox, Camille; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael

    2016-09-01

    This study examined factors that mitigate or heighten HIV risk among HIV-negative wives in serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. Grounded theory was used to analyze 46 interviews (23 couples) where husbands were HIV-positive and wives were HIV-negative. A conceptual framework emerged from analysis from which we identified five pathways and four key behaviors: (a) safer sex, (b) no sex, (c) coercive sex, and (d) unprotected sex. Most couples either practiced safe sex or abstained from sex. Factors such as wives' assertiveness, a wife's fear of acquiring HIV, mutual understanding, positive sex communication, and a husband's desire to protect wife influenced safe sex/sexual abstinence. Factors such as desire for children, a husband's alcohol use, and intimate partner violence influenced coercive and unprotected sex. Counseling topics on sex communication, verbal and non-verbal safer sex strategies, as well as addressing intimate partner violence and alcohol use may be important in preventing risk to HIV-negative wives. PMID:26848084

  5. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  6. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  7. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  8. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-sensitive function, shall follow the procedures outlined in 49 CFR Part 40. ... test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. Where a covered employee...

  9. Logistic model for determining factors associated with HIV infection among blood donor candidates at the Fundação HEMOPE

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Niedja Maristone Barreto; Sampaio, Divaldo de Almeida; Santos, Eufrázio de Souza; Bezerra, Ana Cristina de Souza

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine factors associated with HIV infection in blood donor candidates in Recife, Brazil. Methods A transversal study was performed of 106,203 blood donor candidates found eligible by the routine clinical screening process in the blood bank in Recife of the Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (HEMOPE) in the period from January 1998 to November 2003. Additional indirect immune and western blot confirmation tests for HIV infection were performed and the candidates were classified as HIV positive or negative. The Chi-squared test and stepwise multiple logistic regression were conducted to examine any association between HIV infection and age, gender, place of residence, schooling, number of donations and serological tests for core hepatitis B antigen virus (anti-HBc), the hepatitis C antivirus (anti-HCV), human T-type antivirus lymph cells (anti-HTLV 1 and 2), serological tests for syphilis (VDRL) and the hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg). Results In the observed sample, 0.204% of blood donor candidates were found to be HIV positive. Among the studied variables, the age, education level, residency, donation type, and serologic status for anti-HBc and VDRL tests were found to be associated with HIV infection. Conclusions The younger, spontaneous donor candidates living in the Recife metropolitan area with a low level of education and positive for anti-HBc and VDRL have an higher risk of HIV infection than the other candidates. Data such as these are useful to understand the dynamics of infection and to guide healthcare policies. PMID:23049423

  10. Development and application of a method for predicting rotor free wake positions and resulting rotor blade air loads. Volume 1: Model and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadler, S. G.

    1971-01-01

    Rotor wake geometries are predicted by a process similar to the startup of a rotor in a free stream. An array of discrete trailing and shed vortices is generated with vortex strengths corresponding to stepwise radial and azimuthal blade circulations. The array of shed and trailing vortices is limited to an arbitrary number of azimuthal steps behind each blade. The remainder of the wake model of each blade is an arbitrary number of trailing vortices. Vortex element end points were allowed to be transported by the resultant velocity of the free stream and vortex-induced velocities. Wake geometry, wake flow, and wake-induced velocity influence coefficients are generated by this program for use in the blade loads portion of the calculations. Blade loads computations include the effects of nonuniform inflow due to a free wake, nonlinear airfoil characteristics, and response of flexible blades to the applied loads. Computed wake flows and blade loads are compared with experimentally measured data. Predicted blade loads, response and shears and moments are obtained for a model rotor system having two independent rotors. The effects of advance ratio, vertical separation of rotors, different blade radius ratios, and different azimuthal spacing of the blades of one rotor with respect to the other are investigated.

  11. Clinical Spectrum Time Course in Anti Jo-1 Positive Antisynthetase Syndrome: Results From an International Retrospective Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Cavagna, Lorenzo; Nuño, Laura; Scirè, Carlo Alberto; Govoni, Marcello; Longo, Francisco Javier Lopez; Franceschini, Franco; Neri, Rossella; Castañeda, Santos; Sifuentes Giraldo, Walter Alberto; Caporali, Roberto; Iannone, Florenzo; Fusaro, Enrico; Paolazzi, Giuseppe; Pellerito, Raffaele; Schwarting, Andreas; Saketkoo, Lesley Ann; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Quartuccio, Luca; Bartoloni, Elena; Specker, Christof; Murcia, Trinitario Pina; La Corte, Renato; Furini, Federica; Foschi, Valentina; Corral, Javier Bachiller; Airò, Paolo; Cavazzana, Ilaria; Martínez-Barrio, Julia; Hinojosa, Michelle; Giannini, Margherita; Barsotti, Simone; Menke, Julia; Triantafyllias, Kostantinos; Vitetta, Rosetta; Russo, Alessandra; Bajocchi, Gianluigi; Bravi, Elena; Barausse, Giovanni; Bortolotti, Roberto; Selmi, Carlo; Parisi, Simone; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; González-Gay, Miguel Angel

    2015-08-01

    Anti Jo-1 antibodies are the main markers of the antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD), an autoimmune disease clinically characterized by the occurrence of arthritis, myositis, and interstitial lung disease (ILD). These manifestations usually co-occur (for practical purpose complete forms) in the same patient, but cases with only 1 or 2 of these findings (for practical purpose incomplete forms) have been described. In incomplete forms, the ex novo occurrence of further manifestations is possible, although with frequencies and timing not still defined. The aim of this international, multicenter, retrospective study was to characterize the clinical time course of anti Jo-1 positive ASSD in a large cohort of patients. Included patients should be anti Jo-1 positive and with at least 1 feature between arthritis, myositis, and ILD. We evaluated the differences between complete and incomplete forms, timing of clinical picture appearance and analyzed factors predicting the appearance of further manifestations in incomplete ASSD. Finally, we collected 225 patients (58 males and 167 females) with a median follow-up of 80 months. At the onset, complete ASSD were 44 and incomplete 181. Patients with incomplete ASSD had frequently only 1 of the classic triad findings (110 cases), in particular, isolated arthritis in 54 cases, isolated myositis in 28 cases, and isolated ILD in 28 cases. At the end of follow-up, complete ASSD were 113, incomplete 112. Only 5 patients had an isolated arthritis, only 5 an isolated myositis, and 15 an isolated ILD. During the follow-up, 108 patients with incomplete forms developed further manifestations. Single main feature onset was the main risk factor for the ex novo appearance of further manifestation. ILD was the prevalent ex novo manifestation (74 cases). In conclusion, ASSD is a condition that should be carefully considered in all patients presenting with arthritis, myositis, and ILD, even when isolated. The ex novo appearance of further

  12. Anti-NMDAR antibodies in new-onset psychosis. Positive results in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Arboleya, Susana; Clemente, Antonio; Deng, Savannah; Bedmar, Marta; Salvador, Isabel; Herbera, Patricia; Cunill, Vanessa; Vives-Bauza, Cristòfol; Haro, Josep Maria; Canellas, Francesca; Julià, Maria Rosa

    2016-08-01

    The role of neuronal surface autoantibodies (NSAs) in non-encephalitic psychosis is of recent and controversial interest. Most of the studies relating NSAs with psychosis are retrospective and only focused on the N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR). Our goal was to evaluate the prevalence of IgG antibodies against the NMDAR NR1 subunit (NMDAR-Abs) along with five additional NSAs in 61 first psychotic episode patients and 47 matched controls. We found two patients positive for NMDAR-Abs (3.3%). One of them was eventually considered to have been misdiagnosed and reclassified as encephalitis. The other met the criteria for bipolar I disorder, presented no neurological symptoms and had a comorbid HIV infection of vertical transmission. This is the first reported case of an HIV-infected patient with psychosis associated with NSAs. This study shows that patients presenting with clinically incomplete forms of anti-NMDAR encephalitis, with predominant or isolated psychiatric symptoms, can remain undetected if no ancillary tests are performed. To improve patient diagnosis and treatment of individuals with a first psychotic episode, more detailed neurological examinations might be needed. Further studies are required to better clarify the role of NSAs in the neuropsychiatric effects of HIV infection.

  13. Application of the Global Positioning System to crustal deformation measurements. 3: Result from the southern California borderlands

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, K.M.

    1993-12-01

    Five years of measurements from the Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites collected between 1986 and 1991 are used to investigate deformation in the offshore regions of southern California. GPS provides the first practical technique to make precise geodetic measurements in the region. The geodetic network is situated along the California coastline from Vandenberg (120.6 deg W, 34.6 deg N) to San Diego, with additional sites on Santa Cruz, San Nicolas, Santa Catalina, Santa Rosa, and San Clemente Islands. The precision of horizontal interstation vectors is subcentimeter, and the interstation vector rate between Owens Valley Radio Observatory (OVRO) and Vandenberg agrees with the very long baseline interferometry derived rate to within one standard deviation. No significant motion is observed in th e western Santa Barbara Channel between Vandenberg and Santa Rosa Island, 0.5 +/- 1.6 mm/yr, where the quoted uncertainties are one standard deviation. Motions in the eastern Santa Barbara Channel are consistent with compressional deformation of 6 +/- 1 mm/yr at N16 +/- 3 deg E. This motion is in agreement with seismicity and an independent geodetic analysis for the period 1971-1987 (Larsen, 1991). San Clemente Island is moving relative to San Diego at the rate of 5.9 +/- 1.8/yr at a direction of N38 +/- 20 deg W. The motion between San Nicolas Island and San Clemente Island, 0.8 +/- 1.5 mm/yr, is insignificant.

  14. Allergic contact stomatitis to dodecyl gallate? A review of the relevance of positive patch test results to gallates.

    PubMed

    Gamboni, Sarah E; Palmer, Amanda M; Nixon, Rosemary L

    2013-08-01

    Gallic acid esters or gallates are antioxidants used as preservatives in food and cosmetics. Few cases of gallates causing allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) have been reported in the literature. We present a case report of a 42-year-old beauty therapist who presented with a swollen tongue. Patch testing was positive to dodecyl gallate, commonly reported as being present in edible oil and oily foods such as margarine. Our patient avoided foods presumed to contain gallates and at the 6-week review reported a substantial improvement in her tongue symptoms. We reviewed our database and found 16 (7%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to dodecyl gallate, seven (15%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to propyl gallate and six (3%) definitely or possibly relevant reactions to octyl gallate. Most reactions were attributed to margarine, moisturising cream and lipstick. These products are often mentioned in the literature as containing gallates; however, ingredient labelling and discussions with manufacturers made it difficult to establish whether they are currently present in foods. Ascertaining relevance for these reactions is not always possible. PMID:22943875

  15. Results of using the global positioning system to maintain the time and frequency synchronization in the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clements, P. A.; Kirk, A.; Unglaub, R.

    1987-01-01

    There are two hydrogen maser clocks located at each signal processing center (SPC) in the DSN. Close coordination of the time and frequency of the SPC clocks is needed to navigate spacecraft to the outer planets. A recent example was the Voyager spacecraft's encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The clocks were adjusted with the goal of minimizing time and frequency offsets between the SPCs at encounter. How time and frequency at each SPC is estimated using data acquired from the Global Positioning System Timing Receivers operating on the NBS-BIH (National Bureau of Standards-Bureau International de l'Heure) tracking schedule is described. These data are combined with other available timing receiver data to calculate the time offset estimates. The adjustment of the clocks is described. It was determined that long range hydrogen maser drift is quite predictable and adjustable within limits. This enables one to minimize time and frequency differences between the three SPCs for many months by matching the drift rates of the three standards. Data acquisition and processing techniques using a Kalman filter to make estimates of time and frequency offsets between the clocks at the SPCs and UTC(NBS) (Coordinated Universal Time realized at NBS) are described.

  16. Blood discard rate and the prevalence of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Borelli, Sueli Donizete; Mazzola, Jocimara Costa; Matta, Alessandra Cristina Gobbi; Takemoto, Angélica Yukari; Bértoli, Marta

    2013-01-01

    Background So that an improvement in the selection of donors can be achieved and the risk to the recipient of transfused blood can be reduced, prospective donors are submitted to clinical and serological screening. Objective This study investigated the blood discard rate and the rate of infectious and contagious diseases in blood donors from provincial towns of the state of Paraná, Brazil. Methods This study was an exploratory cross-sectional descriptive investigation with a quantitative approach of donations between January and December 2011. Results In the study period the Regional Blood center in Maringá, Brazil received 8337 blood donations from people living in the city and neighboring towns. However, 278 (3.33%) donations were discarded during serological screening owing to one or more positive serological markers. A total of 46.4% of the discarded blood units were confirmed positive by serology with anti-HBc being the most common (66.7%), followed by syphilis (22.5%), HBsAg (4.7%), anti-hepatitis C virus (3.1%), human immunodeficiency virus (1.5%) and Chagas' disease (1.5%). The rate of infectious-contagious diseases that can be transmitted by blood transfusions was 1.55% (129/8337) of the donor population with a frequency of 1.03% for anti-HBc and 0.35% for syphilis. Conclusion This study demonstrates a high prevalence of the anti-HBc marker in prospective blood donors from provincial towns in the state of Paraná, Brazil. PMID:24478604

  17. Hepatitis B Vaccination in End-Stage Pulmonary Disease Patients Evaluated for Lung Transplantation: A Retrospective Single-Center Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wald, Alexandra; Deterding, Lea; Maier, Melanie; Liebert, Uwe G; Berg, Thomas; Wirtz, Hubert; Wiegand, Johannes

    2016-06-14

    BACKGROUND In times of limited organs for transplantation, anti-HBc-positive organs can be accepted for lung transplantation to increase the number of donors. Transplant recipients should be vaccinated against hepatitis B to prevent HBV infection. However, response after HBV vaccination has only been poorly evaluated in patients with end-stage pulmonary disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS Anti-HBs titers of 40 anti-HBc negative patients with end-stage pulmonary disease evaluated for lung transplantation were analyzed with the Architect® system (Abbott, Germany). Responders, partial responders, or non-responders after HBV vaccination were defined by anti-HBs titers >100 IU/L, 10-100 IU/L, and <10 IU/L, respectively. RESULTS There were 34/40 individuals (85%) vaccinated against hepatitis B, and 6 were not vaccinated. Response, partial response, and non-response after vaccination were observed in 10/34 (29.4%), 11/34 (32.4%), and 13/34 (38.2%) of patients, respectively. Response to vaccination did not correlate with sex, pulmonary disease, comorbidities, immunosuppressive therapy, or smoking status. CONCLUSIONS Although 85% of patients evaluated for lung transplantation were vaccinated against hepatitis B, 38.2% did not show an anti-HBs titer >10 IU/L. Thus, anti-HBs titers should be regularly monitored. Nonresponders should be considered for booster vaccinations, alternative vaccination schedules, or prophylactic treatment with a nucleos(t)ide analogue in case of transplantation of an anti-HBc-positive organ.

  18. Improving testing for hepatitis B before treatment with rituximab

    PubMed Central

    Jopson, Laura; Ng, Sarah; Lowery, Matthew; Harwood, Jayne; Waugh, Sheila; Valappil, Manoj; McPherson, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Aims/Objectives/Background Individuals with current or previous infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) can experience viral reactivation when treated with immunosuppression. Rituximab, an anti-CD20 antibody used to treat many diseases, has potent immunosuppressant effects with a high risk of causing HBV reactivation. Reactivation can range from elevated liver enzymes to acute severe hepatitis with liver failure and a significant mortality risk. HBV screening and appropriate use of prophylactic antiviral therapy can prevent reactivation. This work describes the introduction of a local policy for HBV testing in patients before rituximab treatment and assesses its impact. Methods and Results A baseline review (before policy introduction) of 90 patients showed that only 21 (23%) had hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and 17 (19%) had hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBcAb) tested before receiving rituximab. Following introduction of the policy (on the basis of international guidelines), improved laboratory reporting protocols and targeted education sessions, two further reviews of HBV testing rates among patients being initiated onto rituximab were performed. There was a marked increase in pre-rituximab testing for HBsAg from 23 to 79% and for anti-HBcAb from 19 to 78%. Throughout the study period, a total of one (0.8%) HBsAg-positive and six (4.7%) anti-HBcAb-positive patients were identified. Conclusions This work clearly indicates that simple strategies can markedly improve appropriate HBV screening. In our cohort, 6% (of whom only 43% had recognized HBV risk factors) required antiviral prophylaxis, which emphasizes the importance of universal screening before rituximab. Reinforcement of the guidelines and ongoing education is needed to further increase testing rates. PMID:27388147

  19. Food insufficiency, housing and health-related quality of life: results from the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study.

    PubMed

    Choi, Stephanie K Y; Fielden, Sarah; Globerman, Jason; Koornstra, J J Jay; Hambly, Keith; Walker, Glen; Sobota, Michael; O'Brien-Teengs, Doe; Watson, James; Bekele, Tsegaye; Greene, Saara; Tucker, Ruthann; Hwang, Stephen W; Rourke, Sean B; Healthy Places Team, The Positive Spaces

    2015-01-01

    Studies of people living with HIV who are homeless or unstably housed show a high prevalence of food insufficiency (>50%) and associated poor health outcomes; however, most evidence is in the form of cross-sectional studies. To better understand this issue, we conducted a longitudinal study to examine the impact of food insufficiency and housing instability on overall physical and mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among people living with HIV in Ontario. Six hundred and two adults living with HIV were enrolled in the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study and followed from 2006 to 2009. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used, and generalized linear mixed-effects models constructed to examine longitudinal associations between food insufficiency, housing instability and physical and mental HRQoL. At baseline, 57% of participants were classified as food insufficient. After adjusting for potential confounders, longitudinal analyses revealed a significant, negative association between food insufficiency and physical and mental HRQoL outcomes, respectively [effect size (ES) with 95% confidence interval (CI): (ES = -2.1, CI = -3.9,-0.3); (ES = -3.5, CI = -6.1,-1.5)]. Furthermore, difficulties meeting housing costs were shown to have additional negative impacts on mental HRQoL. Food insufficiency is highly prevalent among people living with HIV in Ontario, particularly for those with unstable housing. This vulnerable group of individuals is in urgent need of changes to current housing programmes, services and policies, as well as careful consideration of their unmet nutritional needs. PMID:25964996

  20. Prospective Associations of Low Positive Emotionality with First Onsets of Depressive and Anxiety Disorders: Results from a 10-Wave Latent Trait-State Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, Ashley D.; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Mineka, Susan; Bobova, Lyuba; Prenoveau, Jason M.; Revelle, William; Craske, Michelle G.

    2015-01-01

    Unipolar depressive disorders (DDs) and anxiety disorders (ADs) co-occur at high rates and can be difficult to distinguish from one another. Cross-sectional evidence has demonstrated that whereas all these disorders are characterized by high negative emotion, low positive emotion shows specificity in its associations with DDs, social anxiety disorder (SAD), and possibly generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). However, it remains unknown whether low positive emotionality, a personality trait characterized by the tendency to experience low positive emotion over time, prospectively marks risk for the initial development of these disorders. We aimed to help address this gap. Each year for up to 10 waves, participants (n = 627, mean age = 17 years at baseline) completed self-report measures of mood and personality, and a structured clinical interview. A latent trait-state decomposition technique was used to model positive emotionality and related personality traits over the first three years of the study. Survival analyses were used to test the prospective associations of low positive emotionality with first onsets of disorders over the subsequent six-year follow-up among participants with no relevant disorder history. The results showed that low positive emotionality was a risk marker for DDs, SAD, and GAD, although evidence for its specificity to these disorders versus the remaining ADs was inconclusive. Additional analyses revealed that the risk effects were largely accounted for by the overlap of low positive emotionality with neuroticism. The implications for understanding the role of positive emotionality in DDs and ADs are discussed. PMID:26372005

  1. A rare case of Addison's disease, hepatitis, thyreoiditis, positive IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies and partial IgA deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mihaylova, Snejina; Yankova, Petja; Atanasova, Iliana; Nikolova-Vlahova, Milena; Naumova, Elissaveta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Selective IgA deficiency (IgAD) is the most prevalent type of primary immune deficiencies, but partial IgA deficiency is even more common. Addison's disease is a rare condition associated with primary adrenal insufficiency due to infection or autoimmune destruction of the adrenals. The association between IgA deficiency and Addison's disease is very rare. Case and laboratory data We observed a 22-year-old male patient with marked darkening of the skin, especially on the palms and areolae, jaundice on the skin and sclera, astheno-adynamia, hypotension (80/50 mm Hg), and pain in the right hypochondrium. The laboratory investigations revealed increased serum levels of total and indirect bilirubin, AST, ALT, GGT and LDH, negative HBsAg, anti-HBc IgM, anti-HCV and anti-HAV IgM, very low serum IgA levels (0.16 g/l) with normal IgG and IgM, negative ANA, ANCA, AMA, LKM-1, anti-GAD-60, anti-IA-2, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies, a mild increase in anti-TPO antibodies titer, a marked increase in IgG anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies, with no typical changes in cellular immunity, negative T-SPOT-TB test, HLA – A*01; B*08; DRB1*03; DQB1*02, karyotype – 46, XY. Conclusions We present a rare case of partial IgA deficiency with Addison's disease, hepatitis, thyroiditis and positive anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies. IgAD and some autoimmune disorders share several predisposing HLA genes, thus explaining the increased prevalence of IgAD in certain patient groups. PMID:27536208

  2. The prevalence and correlates of receiving confirmatory HIV test results among newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals at a community-based testing center.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Matthew; Wu, Elwin; Mendoza, Moira; Lowry, Blakely; Ford, Lynnette; Holloway, Ian

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of completing the HIV testing process-specifically receiving a confirmatory HIV test and returning for the results-in a sample of newly diagnosed HIV-positive individuals at an HIV testing center in New York City. Of the 213 individuals who received a reactive rapid HIV test result, 82% received a confirmatory HIV test. Of the 236 individuals who received a positive result on a rapid or traditional HIV test that was validated by a positive confirmatory HIV test, 65% returned for the confirmatory test results. Multivariate analyses revealed that being a non-U.S. citizen, homeless/living in transitional housing, being uninsured, and testing off-site were significantly associated with completing the HIV testing process. The findings indicate the need to explore strategies that address obstacles to receiving confirmatory HIV testing and returning for the results, in addition to the feasibility of a rapid confirmatory HIV test. PMID:23016505

  3. How the Body Position Can Influence High-resolution Manometry Results in the Study of Esophageal Dysphagia and Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ciriza-de-los-Ríos, Constanza; Canga-Rodríguez-Valcárcel, Fernando; Lora-Pablos, David; De-La-Cruz-Bértolo, Javier; Castel-de-Lucas, Isabel; Castellano-Tortajada, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The body position can influence esophageal motility data obtained with high-resolution manometry (HRM). To examine whether the body position influences HRM diagnoses in patients with esophageal dysphagia and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods HRM (Manoscan) was performed in 99 patients in the sitting and supine positions; 49 had dysphagia and 50 had GERD assessed by 24-hour pH monitoring. HRM plots were analyzed according to the Chicago classification. Results HRM results varied in the final diagnoses of the esophageal body (EB) in patients with dysphagia (P = 0.024), the result being more distal spasm and weak peristalsis while sitting. In patients with GERD, the HRM diagnoses of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology, and EB varied depending on the position; (P = 0.063, P = 0.017, P = 0.041 respectively). Hypotensive LES, EGJ type III (hiatal hernia), and weak peristalsis were more frequently identified in the sitting position. The reliability (kappa) of the position influencing HRM diagnoses was similar in dysphagia and GERD (“LES diagnosis”: dysphagia 0.32 [0.14–0.49] and GERD 0.31 [0.10–0.52], P = 0.960; “EB diagnosis”: dysphagia 0.49 [0.30–0.69] and GERD 0.39 [0.20–0.59], P = 0.480). The reliability in “EGJ morphology” studies was higher in dysphagia 0.81 (0.68–0.94) than in GERD 0.55 (0.37–0.73), P = 0.020. Conclusions HRM results varied according to the position in patients with dysphagia and GERD. Weak peristalsis was more frequently diagnosed while sitting in dysphagia and GERD. Hypotensive LES and EGJ type III (hiatal hernia) were also more frequently diagnosed in the sitting position in patients with GERD. PMID:26130633

  4. 49 CFR 655.46 - Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified positive drug test result and/or breath alcohol test result of 0.04 or greater. 655.46... OPERATIONS Types of Testing § 655.46 Return to duty following refusal to submit to a test, verified...

  5. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Flores, Geane L; de Almeida, Adilson J; Miguel, Juliana C; Cruz, Helena M; Portilho, Moyra M; Scalioni, Letícia de P; Marques, Vanessa A; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2016-03-01

    (1) BACKGROUND: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2) METHODS: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+) referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3) RESULTS: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD) viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283). Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married), tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex), history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married), anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4) CONCLUSION: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals. PMID:26978383

  6. Update on occult hepatitis B virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Makvandi, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    The event of mutations in the surface antigen gene of hepatitis B virus (HBV) results in undetectable hepatitis B surface antigen with positive/negative anti-hepatitis B core (anti-HBc) antibody status in serum and this phenomenon is named occult hepatitis B infection (OBI). The presence of anti-HBc antibody in serum is an important key for OBI tracking, although about 20% of OBI cases are negative for anti-HBc antibody. The diagnosis of OBI is mainly based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays. However, real-time PCR is a more reliable method than PCR. OBI is a great issue for the public health problem and a challenge for the clinical entity worldwide. The persistence of OBI may lead to the development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. With regard to OBI complications, the screening of HBV DNA by the highly sensitive molecular means should be implemented for: (1) patients with a previous history of chronic or acute HBV infection; (2) patients co-infected with hepatitis C virus/human immunodeficiency virus; (3) patients undergoing chemotherapy or anti-CD20 therapy; (4) recipients of organ transplant; (5) blood donors; (6) organ transplant donors; (7) thalassemia and hemophilia patients; (8) health care workers; (9) patients with liver related disease (cryptogenic); (10) hemodialysis patients; (11) patients undergoing lamivudine or interferon therapy; and (12) children in time of HBV vaccination especially in highly endemic areas of HBV. Active HBV vaccination should be implemented for the close relatives of patients who are negative for OBI markers. Thus, the goal of this review is to evaluate the rate of OBI with a focus on status of high risk groups in different regions of the world.

  7. A Cross Section Study to Determine the Prevalence of Antibodies against HIV Infection among Hepatitis B and C Infected Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Geane L.; de Almeida, Adilson J.; Miguel, Juliana C.; Cruz, Helena M.; Portilho, Moyra M.; de P. Scalioni, Letícia; Marques, Vanessa A.; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Melo Villar, Livia

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: There are limited data regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence among hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infected individuals. The aim of this cross-sectional study is to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV infection among HIV individuals; (2) Methods: A total of 409 patients (126 HBV+ and 283 HCV+) referred to the Brazilian Reference Laboratory for Viral Hepatitis from 2010 to 2013 donated serum samples. Anti-HIV, HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBe, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies were measured, and anti-HCV positive samples were tested for viral RNA and genotype; (3) Results: The anti-HIV antibody prevalence was 10.31% and 4.59% among HBV+ and HCV+ patients, respectively. The HCV mean (SD) viral load was log 5.14 ± 1.64 IU/mL, and genotype I was most prevalent (163/283). Anti-HBs and anti-HBc were detected in 40% and 26% of HCV+ individuals, respectively. Among the HBV+ population, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with male gender, marital status (married), tattoo, sexual orientation, sexual practices (oral sex and anal sex), history of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), history of viral hepatitis treatment, and a sexual partner with hepatitis or HIV. For the HCV+ group, the presence of anti-HIV antibodies was associated with female gender, marital status (married), anal intercourse, previous history of STDs, and number of sexual partners; (4) Conclusion: A high prevalence of anti-HIV antibodies was found among individuals with HBV and HCV, showing the importance of education programmes towards HIV infection among HBV- and HCV-infected individuals. PMID:26978383

  8. The reliability analysis of Xpert-positive result for smear-negative and culture-negative specimen collected from bone and joint tuberculosis suspects

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Guomei; Mu, Jing; Wang, Guirong; Huo, Fengmin; Dong, Lingling; Li, Yunxu

    2016-01-01

    Background The Xpert MTB/RIF assay (Xpert; Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA, USA) has been widely used for pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. In clinical practice, specimen yielding smear-negative, culture-negative but Xpert-positive results is frequently confronted. Due to the notorious possibility of contamination that molecular tests always been thought of, Xpert-positive results without bacteriological supporting evidence arouse great confusions to clinicians. Methods A retrospective study was performed. From April 2014 to February 2015, 852 clinical specimens were Xpert-positive. The results of Xpert assay, bacteriological and pathological examinations from either the same specimens or from the specimens collected during same clinical operations were investigated. Results A total of 90 specimens with Xpert-positive but smear-negative and culture-negative results were recruited, and 81 of them were pus specimens collected from Bone and Joint Tuberculosis (BJTB) patients. According to the pathological examination results, 77 of the 81 pus specimens, 8 of 9 other types of specimens were confirmed as either TB or strongly suggestive of TB; three pus specimens and one biopsy tissue were also suggested TB but with less stronger evidence; only one pus specimen was not TB suggestive. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that Xpert could be trusted for BJTB diagnosis even when no supporting bacteriological evidence is available in high TB prevalence settings. Our results will alleviate the confusion among clinicians in such scenarios. PMID:27293838

  9. Standardization of Estrogen Receptor Measurement in Breast Cancer Suggests False-Negative Results Are a Function of Threshold Intensity Rather Than Percentage of Positive Cells

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, Allison W.; Moeder, Christopher B.; Kumar, Sudha; Gershkovich, Peter; Alarid, Elaine T.; Harigopal, Malini; Haffty, Bruce G.; Rimm, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Recent misclassification (false negative) incidents have raised awareness concerning limitations of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in assessment of estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer. Here we define a new method for standardization of ER measurement and then examine both change in percentage and threshold of intensity (immunoreactivity) to assess sources for test discordance. Methods An assay was developed to quantify ER by using a control tissue microarray (TMA) and a series of cell lines in which ER immunoreactivity was analyzed by quantitative immunoblotting in parallel with the automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) method of quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF). The assay was used to assess the ER protein expression threshold in two independent retrospective cohorts from Yale and was compared with traditional methods. Results Two methods of analysis showed that change in percentage of positive cells from 10% to 1% did not significantly affect the overall number of ER-positive patients. The standardized assay for ER on two Yale TMA cohorts showed that 67.9% and 82.5% of the patients were above the 2-pg/μg immunoreactivity threshold. We found 9.1% and 19.7% of the patients to be QIF-positive/IHC-negative, and 4.0% and 0.4% to be QIF-negative/IHC-positive for a total of 13.1% and 20.1% discrepant cases when compared with pathologists' judgment of threshold. Assessment of survival for both cohorts showed that patients who were QIF-positive/pathologist-negative had outcomes similar to those of patients who had positive results for both assays. Conclusion Assessment of intensity threshold by using a quantitative, standardized assay on two independent cohorts suggests discordance in the 10% to 20% range with current IHC methods, in which patients with discrepant results have prognostic outcomes similar to ER-positive patients with concordant results. PMID:21709197

  10. Can in vitro mammalian cell genotoxicity test results be used to complement positive results in the Ames test and help predict carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity? I. Reports of individual databases presented at an EURL ECVAM Workshop.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Zeiger, Errol; Madia, Federica; Gooderham, Nigel; Kasper, Peter; Lynch, Anthony; Morita, Takeshi; Ouedraogo, Gladys; Parra Morte, Juan Manuel; Pfuhler, Stefan; Rogiers, Vera; Schulz, Markus; Thybaud, Veronique; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe; Worth, Andrew; Corvi, Raffaella

    2014-12-01

    Positive results in the Ames test correlate well with carcinogenic potential in rodents. This correlation is not perfect because mutations are only one of many stages in tumour development. Also, situations can be envisaged where the mutagenic response may be specific to the bacteria or the test protocol, e.g., bacterial-specific metabolism, exceeding a detoxification threshold, or the induction of oxidative damage to which bacteria may be more sensitive than mammalian cells in vitro or tissues in vivo. Since most chemicals are also tested for genotoxicity in mammalian cells, the pattern of mammalian cell results may help identify whether Ames-positive results predict carcinogenic or in vivo mutagenic activity. A workshop was therefore organised and sponsored by the EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM) to investigate this further. Participants presented results from other genotoxicity tests with Ames-positive compounds. Data came from published, regulatory agency, and industry sources. The question was posed whether negative results in mammalian cell tests were associated with absence of carcinogenic or in vivo genotoxic activity despite a positive Ames test. In the limited time available, the presented data were combined and an initial analysis suggested that the association of negative in vitro mammalian cell test results with lack of in vivo genotoxic or carcinogenic activity could have some significance. Possible reasons why a positive Ames test may not be associated with in vivo activity and what additional investigations/tests might contribute to a more robust evaluation were discussed. Because a considerable overlap was identified among the different databases presented, it was recommended that a consolidated database be built, with overlapping chemicals removed, so that a more robust analysis of the predictive capacity for potential carcinogenic and in vivo genotoxic activity could be derived from the patterns of mammalian

  11. Importance of Local Control in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Patients With Positive Post-Radiation Therapy Biopsy Results Treated in RTOG 9408

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel J.; Hu, Chen; Bahary, Jean-Paul; Souhami, Luis; Gore, Elizabeth M.; Chafe, Susan Maria Jacinta; Leibenhaut, Mark H.; Narayan, Samir; Torres-Roca, Javier; Michalski, Jeff; Zeitzer, Kenneth L.; Donavanik, Viroon; Sandler, Howard; McGowan, David G.; Jones, Christopher U.; Shipley, William U.

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between positive post-radiation therapy (RT) biopsy results and subsequent clinical outcomes in males with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 94-08 analyzed 1979 males with prostate cancer, stage T1b-T2b and prostate-specific antigen concentrations of ≤20 ng/dL, to investigate whether 4 months of total androgen suppression (TAS) added to RT improved survival compared to RT alone. Patients randomized to receive TAS received flutamide with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. According to protocol, patients without evidence of clinical recurrence or initiation of additional endocrine therapy underwent repeat prostate biopsy 2 years after RT completion. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of positive post-RT biopsy results on clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 831 patients underwent post-RT biopsy, 398 were treated with RT alone and 433 with RT plus TAS. Patients with positive post-RT biopsy results had higher rates of biochemical failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.1) and distant metastasis (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) and inferior disease-specific survival (HR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.9-7.5). Positive biopsy results remained predictive of such outcomes after correction for potential confounders such as Gleason score, tumor stage, and TAS administration. Prior TAS therapy did not prevent elevated risk of adverse outcome in the setting of post-RT positive biopsy results. Patients with Gleason score ≥7 with a positive biopsy result additionally had inferior overall survival compared to those with a negative biopsy result (HR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.35). Conclusions: Positive post-RT biopsy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases and inferior disease-specific survival in patients treated with definitive RT and was associated with inferior overall

  12. Cytogenetic confirmation of a positive NIPT result: evidence-based choice between chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis depending on chromosome aberration.

    PubMed

    Van Opstal, Diane; Srebniak, Malgorzata I

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that in non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) there is a small chance of a false-positive or false-negative result. This is partly due to the fact that the fetal cell-free DNA present in maternal plasma is derived from the cytotrophoblast of chorionic villi (CV), which is not always representative for the fetal karyotype due to chromosomal mosaicism. Therefore, a positive NIPT result should always be confirmed with invasive testing, preferably amniocentesis, in order to investigate the fetal karyotype. However, since this invasive test can only be safely performed after 15.5 weeks of gestation while NIPT can be done from the 10(th) week of gestation, this potentially means an unacceptable long waiting time for the prospective parents to receive a definitive result. Based on our experience with cytogenetic investigations in CV and the literature, we determined whether CV sampling may be appropriate for confirmation of an abnormal NIPT result. PMID:26864482

  13. Long-Term Serologic Follow-Up of Isolated Hepatitis B Core Antibody in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    French, Audrey L.; Lin, Michael Y.; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Benning, Lorie; Glesby, Marshall J.; Young, Mary A.; Operskalski, Eva A.; Augenbraun, Michael; Peters, Marion

    2009-01-01

    Background Isolated antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) is a common serologic finding in persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but the outcome and clinical significance are uncertain. Methods We performed repeated hepatitis B virus (HBV) serologic tests on women who participated in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study and who had isolated anti-HBc at study entry. Results Repeated serologic tests were performed for 322 women (282 HIV-infected and 40 HIV-uninfected) at a median of 7.5 years after study entry. Seventy-one percent of women retained isolated anti-HBc serologic status, 20% acquired antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), and 2% acquired hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). In unadjusted analysis, increasing age, injection drug use, and hepatitis C viremia were negatively associated with acquisition of anti-HBs. For HIV-infected women, predictors of acquisition of anti-HBs were an increase in CD4 cell count and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Receipt of drugs with activity against HBV and self-reported HBV vaccination did not predict anti-HBs acquisition. In the multivariable regression model, HAART use remained a significant predictor of anti-HBs acquisition, whereas women with hepatitis C viremia were more likely to retain isolated anti-HBc serologic status. Conclusions Isolated anti-HBc status remained stable over time for the majority of women, especially women with chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Development of anti-HBs was predicted by HAART use and an increase in CD4 cell count. We conclude that a proportion of HIV-infected women with isolated anti-HBc have prior natural HBV infection with anti-HBs that is at an undetectable level because of immune dysfunction. Isolated anti-HBc in the presence of chronic hepatitis C virus infection may be attributable to a different phenomenon, such as dysfunctional antibody production. PMID:19480573

  14. False-positive results in immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibody tests and importance of confirmatory testing: the Platelia Toxo IgM test.

    PubMed Central

    Liesenfeld, O; Press, C; Montoya, J G; Gill, R; Isaac-Renton, J L; Hedman, K; Remington, J S

    1997-01-01

    Although tests for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) toxoplasma antibodies have been reported to have a high degree of accuracy, it is well recognized by investigators in the United States and Europe that false-positive results may occur with many of these tests, at times to an alarming degree. Unfortunately, this information is not well documented in the literature. Studies on various toxoplasma IgM test kits are frequently flawed. The investigators often use reference tests which have not previously been carefully evaluated as well as sera that were not appropriate to answer the question of how often false-positive results might occur. We recently had the unique opportunity to evaluate the accuracy of the Platelia Toxo IgM test in 575 serum samples obtained during an outbreak of toxoplasmosis which occurred in 1995 in the Capital Regional District of British Columbia, Canada. When compared with results obtained in a reference IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the Platelia Toxo IgM test had a sensitivity of 99.4%, specificity of 49.2%, positive predictive value of 51.9%, negative predictive value of 99.3%, and an overall agreement of 67.0%. In an attempt to resolve discrepancies between these two tests, a serological profile (Sabin-Feldman dye test, IgA and IgE antibody tests, differential agglutination [AC/HS] test, and IgG avidity method) was performed. Of 153 serum samples that were positive in the Platelia Toxo IgM test and negative in the IgM ELISA, 71 (46.4%) were negative in the Sabin-Feldman dye test. Of the serum samples that were positive in the dye test, 77 (93.9%) had a serological profile most compatible with an infection acquired in the distant past. These results reveal high numbers of false-positive results in the Platelia Toxo IgM test and highlight the importance of appropriate evaluation of commercial tests that are currently being marked. Our results also emphasize the importance of confirmatory testing to determine whether the

  15. Screening for latent tuberculosis in Norwegian health care workers: high frequency of discordant tuberculin skin test positive and interferon-gamma release assay negative results

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) presents globally a significant health problem and health care workers (HCW) are at increased risk of contracting TB infection. There is no diagnostic gold standard for latent TB infection (LTBI), but both blood based interferon-gamma release assays (IGRA) and the tuberculin skin test (TST) are used. According to the national guidelines, HCW who have been exposed for TB should be screened and offered preventive anti-TB chemotherapy, but the role of IGRA in HCW screening is still unclear. Methods A total of 387 HCW working in clinical and laboratory departments in three major hospitals in the Western region of Norway with possible exposure to TB were included in a cross-sectional study. The HCW were asked for risk factors for TB and tested with TST and the QuantiFERON®TB Gold In-Tube test (QFT). A logistic regression model analyzed the associations between risk factors for TB and positive QFT or TST. Results A total of 13 (3.4%) demonstrated a persistent positive QFT, whereas 214 (55.3%) had a positive TST (≥ 6 mm) and 53 (13.7%) a TST ≥ 15 mm. Only ten (4.7%) of the HCW with a positive TST were QFT positive. Origin from a TB-endemic country was the only risk factor associated with a positive QFT (OR 14.13, 95% CI 1.37 - 145.38, p = 0.026), whereas there was no significant association between risk factors for TB and TST ≥ 15 mm. The five HCW with an initial positive QFT that retested negative all had low interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) responses below 0.70 IU/ml when first tested. Conclusions We demonstrate a low prevalence of LTBI in HCW working in hospitals with TB patients in our region. The “IGRA-only” seems like a desirable screening strategy despite its limitations in serial testing, due to the high numbers of discordant TST positive/IGRA negative results in HCW, probably caused by BCG vaccination or boosting due to repetitive TST testing. Thus, guidelines for TB screening in HCW should be updated in order to

  16. Positive skin and serologic test results of diagnostic assays for bovine tuberculosis and subsequent isolation of Mycobacterium interjectum in a pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Bouts, Tim; Vordermeier, Martin; Flach, Edmund; Routh, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    A 20-yr-old male pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis), weighing 250 kg, arrived at Zoological Society London Whipsnade Zoo (United Kingdom) from a captive collection in Portugal. A quarantine health check was performed including a comparative intradermal tuberculosis (IDTB) test. Assessment of the comparative IDTB test at 72 hr revealed a strong positive reaction at the bovine site. Serum was tested with a rapid immunochromatographic assay (TB STAT-PAK) and was positive for tuberculosis antibodies. The tuberculosis tests were repeated 6 wk later with the same positive test outcome. In addition, a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) was submitted for mycobacterial culture. The positive IDTB test and TB STAT-PAK results were supported by multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Based on these results, the animal was suspected to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms and was euthanized. No gross or histologic signs of tuberculosis were found at postmortem examination. Mycobacterium interjectum was cultured from the BAL but not from necropsy samples. The antigens used in the TB STAT-PAK and MAPIA tests are reportedly specific for the M. tuberculosis complex, and so it is possible this animal presented with a latent case of tuberculosis or had a previous tuberculosis infection that resolved prior to testing. Cross-reactions with nontuberculous mycobacteria have been described with TB STAT-PAK and MAPIA tests. However, Western blotting analysis using serum from this animal did not recognize M. interjectum proteins of equivalent size to the M. tuberculosis-Mycobacterium bovis proteins recognized in the MAPIA. Thus, antigenic cross-reactivity with M. interjectum can be deemed less likely, but other nontuberculous mycobacterial proteins cannot be ruled out. It is therefore possible that false-positive reactions were obtained. These results highlight the difficulty of diagnosing tuberculosis in the absence of pathology and the presence of

  17. Positive skin and serologic test results of diagnostic assays for bovine tuberculosis and subsequent isolation of Mycobacterium interjectum in a pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis).

    PubMed

    Bouts, Tim; Vordermeier, Martin; Flach, Edmund; Routh, Andrew

    2009-09-01

    A 20-yr-old male pygmy hippopotamus (Hexaprotodon liberiensis), weighing 250 kg, arrived at Zoological Society London Whipsnade Zoo (United Kingdom) from a captive collection in Portugal. A quarantine health check was performed including a comparative intradermal tuberculosis (IDTB) test. Assessment of the comparative IDTB test at 72 hr revealed a strong positive reaction at the bovine site. Serum was tested with a rapid immunochromatographic assay (TB STAT-PAK) and was positive for tuberculosis antibodies. The tuberculosis tests were repeated 6 wk later with the same positive test outcome. In addition, a broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) was submitted for mycobacterial culture. The positive IDTB test and TB STAT-PAK results were supported by multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA). Based on these results, the animal was suspected to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms and was euthanized. No gross or histologic signs of tuberculosis were found at postmortem examination. Mycobacterium interjectum was cultured from the BAL but not from necropsy samples. The antigens used in the TB STAT-PAK and MAPIA tests are reportedly specific for the M. tuberculosis complex, and so it is possible this animal presented with a latent case of tuberculosis or had a previous tuberculosis infection that resolved prior to testing. Cross-reactions with nontuberculous mycobacteria have been described with TB STAT-PAK and MAPIA tests. However, Western blotting analysis using serum from this animal did not recognize M. interjectum proteins of equivalent size to the M. tuberculosis-Mycobacterium bovis proteins recognized in the MAPIA. Thus, antigenic cross-reactivity with M. interjectum can be deemed less likely, but other nontuberculous mycobacterial proteins cannot be ruled out. It is therefore possible that false-positive reactions were obtained. These results highlight the difficulty of diagnosing tuberculosis in the absence of pathology and the presence of

  18. [The incidence of hepatitis B markers in pregnant women at their first consultation in metropolitan-area health centers, São Paulo, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Sabino, E C; Guerra, E M; Oba, I T; Spina, A M; Vaz, A J

    1992-01-01

    Hepatitis B is a severe disease when acquired during the neonatal period. The identification of the infected pregnant women allows prevention of newborn infection by active and passive immunization soon after birth. We studied pregnant women in their first visit to eight different primary medical centers in Butantan, a subdistrict of S. Paulo city. 477 samples were tested for anti-HBc. From 44 (9.2%) anti-HBc positive samples, 2 (0.4%) were HBsAg positive and 37 (7.7%) were anti-HBs positive. A risk factor for hepatitis B could only be detected in 8 (18.9%) of the 44 anti-HBc positive samples.

  19. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN POSITIVE CANINE HEARTWORM (DIROFILARIA IMMITIS) ANTIGEN RESULTS AND PRESENCE OF ACANTHOCHEILONEMA ODENDHALI MICROFILARIA IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Krucik, David D R; Van Bonn, William; Johnson, Shawn P

    2016-03-01

    This study establishes a relationship between positive canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) test results frequently observed in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and infection with the filarid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali. Four commercially available canine heartworm antigen tests were evaluated for cross-reaction with A. odendhali in California sea lions. Sera were tested from fifteen California sea lions with A. odendhali-associated microfilaremia, confirmed by blood smear, and with no evidence of D. immitis infection at necropsy. Ninety-five percent of tests were falsely positive for D. immitis. This study also determined that the prevalence of A. odendhali infection in stranded California sea lions from central California is approximately 23% by comparing the number of findings of mircofilaremia to the total number of California sea lions sampled at The Marine Mammal Center between 2005 and 2011, inclusive. Acanthocheilonema odenhali microfilaremia in California sea lions is likely to cross-react with canine heartworm antigen tests, and clinicians should interpret results with caution.

  20. Short-term Follow-up US Leads to Higher False-positive Results Without Detection of Structural Recurrences in PTMC.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyun Gi; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the value of the annual follow-up neck ultrasonography (US) for postoperative surveillance in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This retrospective study has been approved by our institutional review board (IRB) with waiver for informed consent. A total of 375 patients diagnosed as PTMCs, who underwent total thyroidectomy with radioiodine remnant ablation were included, to identify the recurrence rate and the false-positive rate of annual ultrasound. The number, interval, and the results of follow-up US or fine needle aspiration were obtained from electronic medical records. Four (1.1%, 4/375) recurrences were found 3 years after the initial treatment, and only 1 patient (0.3%, 1/375) had a metastatic lymph node larger than 8 mm in the shortest diameter on US found 7.6 years after initial treatment with biochemical abnormalities. Cumulative risk of having at least 1 false-positive exam was 8.3% by the 8th US, and 8.1% by the 8-9 year follow-up. Cox multivariate regression showed shorter interval of follow-up US and presence of lymph node metastasis at initial surgery are independent predictors affecting the cumulative false-positive results (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49-0.73; P < 0.001 and HR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.01-4.75; P = 0.048, respectively). Short-term follow-up US can result in higher cumulative false-positive results without detection of meaningful recurrences in patients with PTMCs who do not have biochemical abnormalities.

  1. Short-term Follow-up US Leads to Higher False-positive Results Without Detection of Structural Recurrences in PTMC

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jung Hyun; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Youk, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hyun Gi; Moon, Hee Jung; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    Abstract To investigate the value of the annual follow-up neck ultrasonography (US) for postoperative surveillance in patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This retrospective study has been approved by our institutional review board (IRB) with waiver for informed consent. A total of 375 patients diagnosed as PTMCs, who underwent total thyroidectomy with radioiodine remnant ablation were included, to identify the recurrence rate and the false-positive rate of annual ultrasound. The number, interval, and the results of follow-up US or fine needle aspiration were obtained from electronic medical records. Four (1.1%, 4/375) recurrences were found 3 years after the initial treatment, and only 1 patient (0.3%, 1/375) had a metastatic lymph node larger than 8 mm in the shortest diameter on US found 7.6 years after initial treatment with biochemical abnormalities. Cumulative risk of having at least 1 false-positive exam was 8.3% by the 8th US, and 8.1% by the 8–9 year follow-up. Cox multivariate regression showed shorter interval of follow-up US and presence of lymph node metastasis at initial surgery are independent predictors affecting the cumulative false-positive results (hazard ratio [HR], 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.49–0.73; P < 0.001 and HR, 2.19; 95% CI: 1.01–4.75; P = 0.048, respectively). Short-term follow-up US can result in higher cumulative false-positive results without detection of meaningful recurrences in patients with PTMCs who do not have biochemical abnormalities. PMID:26735548

  2. Risk factors associated with hepatitis B or C markers or elevated alanine aminotransferase level among blood donors on a tropical island: the Guadeloupe experience.

    PubMed

    Fest, T; Viel, J F; Agis, F; Coffe, C; Dupond, J L; Hervé, P

    1992-10-01

    Donated blood is currently screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to prevent posttransfusion hepatitis. A prospective study of 2368 blood donors was carried out in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) with a view to determining the risk factors associated with serologic abnormalities. Blood donors included in the study had to complete a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed on the data thus obtained: 571 donations (24%) were positive for at least one of the four analyzed markers. The results were that 3.2 percent were positive for HBsAg, 22 percent for anti-HBc, and 0.8 percent for anti-HCV, and 1.4 percent had ALT > or = 45 IU per L. A good correlation was found between anti-HCV and elevated ALT. Transfusion history and two socioeconomic categories (working class, military personnel) were found to be risk factors. Other risk factors were lifelong residence in Guadeloupe (with risk increasing with the number of years), birthplace and current residence in the southern part of the island, and the existence of gastrointestinal discomfort unrelated to viral hepatitis (odds ratio = 2.98). The results of this study illustrate the difficulty of implementing a preventive policy against posttransfusion hepatitis in a tropical area. The unique epidemiologic situation of Guadeloupe as regards hepatitis B virus has led to more restrictive criteria for the acceptance of blood donors. PMID:1412685

  3. Long-term Results from Cyclocryotherapy Applied to the 3O'clock and 9O'clock Positions in Blind Refractory Glaucoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byoung Seon; Kim, Young Jun; Seo, Seong Wook; Yoo, Ji Myong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the long-term follow-up results after cyclocryotherapy, applied to the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock positions in blind refractory glaucoma patients. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 19 blind patients, and a total of 20 eyes with refractory glaucoma who were treated with cyclocryotherapy. Cyclocryotherapy treatments were performed using a retinal cryoprobe. The temperature of each cyclocryotherapy spot was -80℃ and each spot was maintained in place for 60 seconds. Six cyclocryotherapy spots were placed in each quadrant, including the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock positions. Results The mean baseline pretreatment intraocular pressure (IOP) in all eyes was 50.9 ± 12.5 mmHg, which significantly decreased to a mean IOP at last follow-up of 14.1 ± 7.1 mmHg (p < 0.001). The mean number of antiglaucoma medications that patients were still taking at last follow-up was 0.3 ± 0.6. Devastating post-procedure phthisis occurred in only one eye. Conclusions Cyclocryotherapy, performed at each quadrant and at the 3-o'clock and 9-o'clock position, is an effective way to lower IOP and, thus, is a reasonable treatment option for refractory glaucoma patients who experience with ocular pain and headaches. PMID:25646060

  4. Pegylated interferon in HBeAg-positive and -negative chronic hepatitis B patients: post-treatment 1-year results of three Turkish centres.

    PubMed

    Yamazhan, Tansu; Kurtaran, Behice; Pullukçu, Hüsnü; Yüksel, Esma; Özkaya, Deniz; Taşbakan, Meltem Işıkgöz; Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Durusoy, Raika; Aksu, Hasan Salih Zeki

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we aimed to evaluate the 1-year post-treatment follow-up results of 112 patients who received pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) for 52 weeks. HBeAg negativity/seroconversion and/or negative HBV-DNA at the end of the treatment were considered as response. Patients who had response at the end of treatment but had HBV-DNA breakthrough during 1-year follow-up were considered as relapse. The study group comprised 112 cases (34 HBeAg-positive, 78 HBeAg-negative). In HBeAg-positive and -negative cases, end-of-treatment response rates were 2·9% and 60·2%, whereas 1-year sustained virological response rates were 0 and 33·3%, respectively. When we compared relapse cases versus cases with response at the end of 1-year follow-up, being female and having low viral load were the two parameters associated with higher response rates (Chi-square, P  =  0·028; Mann-Whitney U test, P  =  0·023). Overall non-response rates to PEG-IFN were high (57·1%). Results in HBeAg-positive cases were disappointing.

  5. Positional plagiocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

  6. Positive screening and carrier results for the England-wide universal newborn sickle cell screening programme by ethnicity and area for 2005–07

    PubMed Central

    Latinovic, Radoslav; Henthorn, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Aims The overall aim of the new national newborn programme is to identify infants at risk of sickle cell disease to allow early detection and to minimise deaths and complications. Methods Universal screening for sickle cell disease was introduced in England between September 2003 and July 2006. The 13 newborn laboratories each screen between 25 000 and 110 000 babies a year using the existing dried bloodspot cards. The specified conditions to be screened for include sickle cell anaemia (Hb SS), Hb SC disease, Hb S/β thalassaemia, Hb S/DPunjab and Hb S/OArab. Data are reported on screening results by ethnic group and geographical area. Results The prevalence of screen positive results across England is 1:2000. There is a 25-fold variation by geographical area. African babies make up 61% of all screen positive results despite representing only 4% of total births. Combined carrier rates vary widely by ethnicity, from 1.85 per 1000 (1:540) in ‘White British’ to 145 per 1000 (1:7) in ‘African’ babies. Refusal rates for screening show variation by ethnicity. Conclusions These results provide useful information both about the frequency of these conditions and the carrier state and their geographic and ethnic distribution across England. This can be used to refine counselling information and are also useful to target and plan services and public information. PMID:20591912

  7. Faster methods for estimating arc centre position during VAR and results from Ti-6Al-4V and INCONEL 718 alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, B. G.; Winter, N.; Daniel, B.; Ward, R. M.

    2016-07-01

    Direct measurement of the flow of electric current during VAR is extremely difficult due to the aggressive environment as the arc process itself controls the distribution of current. In previous studies the technique of “magnetic source tomography” was presented; this was shown to be effective but it used a computationally intensive iterative method to analyse the distribution of arc centre position. In this paper we present faster computational methods requiring less numerical optimisation to determine the centre position of a single distributed arc both numerically and experimentally. Numerical validation of the algorithms were done on models and experimental validation on measurements based on titanium and nickel alloys (Ti6Al4V and INCONEL 718). The results are used to comment on the effects of process parameters on arc behaviour during VAR.

  8. How to reduce false positive results when undertaking in vitro genotoxicity testing and thus avoid unnecessary follow-up animal tests: Report of an ECVAM Workshop.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, David; Pfuhler, Stefan; Tweats, David; Aardema, Marilyn; Corvi, Raffaella; Darroudi, Firouz; Elhajouji, Azeddine; Glatt, Hansruedi; Hastwell, Paul; Hayashi, Makoto; Kasper, Peter; Kirchner, Stephan; Lynch, Anthony; Marzin, Daniel; Maurici, Daniela; Meunier, Jean-Roc; Müller, Lutz; Nohynek, Gerhard; Parry, James; Parry, Elizabeth; Thybaud, Veronique; Tice, Ray; van Benthem, Jan; Vanparys, Philippe; White, Paul

    2007-03-30

    Workshop participants agreed that genotoxicity tests in mammalian cells in vitro produce a remarkably high and unacceptable occurrence of irrelevant positive results (e.g. when compared with rodent carcinogenicity). As reported in several recent reviews, the rate of irrelevant positives (i.e. low specificity) for some studies using in vitro methods (when compared to this "gold standard") means that an increased number of test articles are subjected to additional in vivo genotoxicity testing, in many cases before, e.g. the efficacy (in the case of pharmaceuticals) of the compound has been evaluated. If in vitro tests were more predictive for in vivo genotoxicity and carcinogenicity (i.e. fewer false positives) then there would be a significant reduction in the number of animals used. Beyond animal (or human) carcinogenicity as the "gold standard", it is acknowledged that genotoxicity tests provide much information about cellular behaviour, cell division processes and cellular fate to a (geno)toxic insult. Since the disease impact of these effects is seldom known, and a verification of relevant toxicity is normally also the subject of (sub)chronic animal studies, the prediction of in vivo relevant results from in vitro genotoxicity tests is also important for aspects that may not have a direct impact on carcinogenesis as the ultimate endpoint of concern. In order to address the high rate of in vitro false positive results, a 2-day workshop was held at the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), Ispra, Italy in April 2006. More than 20 genotoxicity experts from academia, government and industry were invited to review data from the currently available cell systems, to discuss whether there exist cells and test systems that have a reduced tendency to false positive results, to review potential modifications to existing protocols and cell systems that might result in improved specificity, and to review the performance of some new test systems

  9. Hepatitis B Virus Screening for Patients With Cancer Before Therapy: American Society of Clinical Oncology Provisional Clinical Opinion Update

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jessica P.; Somerfield, Mark R.; Alston-Johnson, Devena E.; Cryer, Donna R.; Feld, Jordan J.; Kramer, Barnett S.; Sabichi, Anita L.; Wong, Sandra L.; Artz, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This updated provisional clinical opinion presents a revised opinion based on American Society of Clinical Oncology panel consensus in the context of an evolving database. Context Despite the 2010 provisional clinical opinion recommendation, there is still evidence of suboptimal hepatitis B virus (HBV) screening among patients at high risk for HBV infection or HBV reactivation after chemotherapy. This updated provisional clinical opinion introduces a risk-adaptive strategy to identify and treat patients with HBV infection to reduce their risk of HBV reactivation. Provisional Clinical Opinion Medical providers should screen by testing patients for HBV infection before starting anti-CD20 therapy or hematopoietic cell transplantation. Providers should also screen patients with risk factors for HBV infection. Screening should include both hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), because reactivation can occur in patients who are HBsAg positive/anti-HBc positive or HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive. Either total anti-HBc or anti-HBc immunoglobulin G (not immunoglobulin M) test should be used. Clinicians should start antiviral therapy for HBsAg-positive/anti-HBc–positive patients before or contemporaneously with cancer therapy and monitor HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc–positive patients for reactivation with HBV DNA and ALT levels, promptly starting antivirals if reactivation occurs. Clinicians can initiate antivirals for HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc–positive patients anticipating cancer therapies associated with a high risk of reactivation, or they can monitor HBV DNA and ALT levels and initiate on-demand antivirals. For patients who neither have HBV risk factors nor anticipate cancer therapy associated with a high risk of reactivation, current evidence does not support HBV screening before initiation of cancer therapy. Two panel members provided a minority viewpoint, involving a strategy of universal HBsAg and selective anti-HBc

  10. In vivo hepatitis B virus-neutralizing activity of an anti-HBsAg humanized antibody in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se Ho; Oh, Han Kyu; Ryu, Chun Jeih; Park, Song Yong

    2008-01-01

    Previously, we constructed a humanized antibody (HuS10) that binds to the common a antigenic determinant on the S protein of HBV. In this study, we evaluated its HBV-neutralizing activity in chimpanzees. A study chimpanzee was intravenously administered with a single dose of HuS10, followed by intravenous challenge with the adr subtype of HBV, while a control chimpanzee was only challenged with the virus. The result showed that the control chimpanzee was infected by the virus, and thus serum HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) became positive from the 14th to 20th week and actively acquired serum anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibodies appeared from the 19th and 23rd week, respectively. However, in the case of the study chimpanzee, serum HBsAg became positive from the 34th to 37th week, while actively acquired serum anti-HBc and anti-HBs antibodies appeared from the 37th and 40th week, respectively, indicating that HuS10 neutralized the virus in vivo and thus delayed the HBV infection. This novel humanized antibody will be useful in the immunoprophylaxis of HBV infection. PMID:18305407

  11. A Radio-genomics Approach for Identifying High Risk Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancers on DCE-MRI: Preliminary Results in Predicting OncotypeDX Risk Scores.

    PubMed

    Wan, Tao; Bloch, B Nicolas; Plecha, Donna; Thompson, CheryI L; Gilmore, Hannah; Jaffe, Carl; Harris, Lyndsay; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    To identify computer extracted imaging features for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers on dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-MRI that are correlated with the low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. We collected 96 ER-positive breast lesions with low (< 18, N = 55) and high (> 30, N = 41) OncotypeDX recurrence scores. Each lesion was quantitatively characterize via 6 shape features, 3 pharmacokinetics, 4 enhancement kinetics, 4 intensity kinetics, 148 textural kinetics, 5 dynamic histogram of oriented gradient (DHoG), and 6 dynamic local binary pattern (DLBP) features. The extracted features were evaluated by a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifier in terms of their ability to distinguish low and high OncotypeDX risk categories. Classification performance was evaluated by area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (Az). The DHoG and DLBP achieved Az values of 0.84 and 0.80, respectively. The 6 top features identified via feature selection were subsequently combined with the LDA classifier to yield an Az of 0.87. The correlation analysis showed that DHoG (ρ = 0.85, P < 0.001) and DLBP (ρ = 0.83, P < 0.01) were significantly associated with the low and high risk classifications from the OncotypeDX assay. Our results indicated that computer extracted texture features of DCE-MRI were highly correlated with the high and low OncotypeDX risk categories for ER-positive cancers. PMID:26887643

  12. Influence of a source line position on results of EM observations applied to the diagnostics of underground heating system pipelines in urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2009-05-01

    The condition of underground constructions, communication and supply systems in the cities has to be periodically monitored and controlled in order to prevent their breakage, which can result in serious accident, especially in urban area. The most risk of damage have the underground construction made of steal such as pipelines widely used for water, gas and heat supply. To ensure the pipeline survivability it is necessary to carry out the operative and inexpensive control of pipelines condition. Induced electromagnetic methods of geophysics can be applied to provide such diagnostics. The highly developed surface in urbane area is one of cause hampering the realization of electromagnetic methods of diagnostics. The main problem is in finding of an appropriate place for the source line and electrodes on a limited surface area and their optimal position relative to the observation path to minimize their influence on observed data. Author made a number of experiments of an underground heating system pipeline diagnostics using different position of the source line and electrodes. The experiments were made on a 200 meters section over 2 meters deep pipeline. The admissible length of the source line and angle between the source line and the observation path were determined. The minimal length of the source line for the experiment conditions and accuracy made 30 meters, the maximum admissible angle departure from the perpendicular position made 30 degrees. The work was undertaken in cooperation with diagnostics company DIsSO, Saint-Petersburg, Russia.

  13. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Hessman, Bill E; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; Burge, Lurinda J; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-04-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study.

  14. Multiple diagnostic tests to identify cattle with Bovine viral diarrhea virus and duration of positive test results in persistently infected cattle.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W; Hessman, Bill E; Ridpath, Julia F; Johnson, Bill J; Burge, Lurinda J; Kapil, Sanjay; Braziel, Barbara; Kautz, Kira; Reck, Amy

    2009-04-01

    Several tests for Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were applied to samples collected monthly from December 20, 2005, through November 27, 2006 (day 0 to day 342) from 12 persistently infected (PI) cattle with BVDV subtypes found in US cattle: BVDV-1a, BVDV-1b, and BVDV-2a. The samples included clotted blood for serum, nasal swabs, and fresh and formalin-fixed ear notches. The tests were as follows: titration of infectious virus in serum and nasal swabs; antigen-capture (AC) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), or ACE, on serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; gel-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of serum, nasal swabs, and fresh ear notches; immunohistochemical (IHC) testing of formalin-fixed ear notches; and serologic testing for BVDV antibodies in serum. Of the 12 animals starting the study, 3 died with mucosal disease. The ACE and IHC tests on ear notches had positive results throughout the study, as did the ACE and PCR tests on serum. There was detectable virus in nasal swabs from all the cattle throughout the study except for a few samples that were toxic to cell cultures. The serum had a virus titer > or = log(10) 1.60 in all samples from all the cattle except for 3 collections from 1 animal. Although there were several equivocal results, the PCR test most often had positive results. The BVDV antibodies were due to vaccination or exposure to heterologous strains and did not appear to interfere with any BVDV test. These findings illustrate that PI cattle may be identified by several tests, but differentiation of PI cattle from cattle with acute BVDV infection requires additional testing, especially of blood samples and nasal swabs positive on initial testing. Also, calves PI with BVDV are continual shedders of infectious virus, as shown by the infectivity of nasal swabs over the 11-mo study. PMID:19436580

  15. Prevalence, Predictors, and Same Day Treatment of Positive VIA Enhanced by Digital Cervicography and Histopathology Results in a Cervical Cancer Prevention Program in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    DeGregorio, Geneva A.; Bradford, Leslie S.; Manga, Simon; Tih, Pius M.; Wamai, Richard; Ogembo, Rebecca; Sando, Zacharie; Liu, Yuxin; Schwaiger, Constance; Rao, Sowmya R.; Kalmakis, Karen; Kennedy Sheldon, Lisa; Nulah, Kathleen; Welty, Edith; Welty, Thomas; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2007, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) implemented a screen-and-treat cervical cancer prevention program using visual inspection with acetic acid enhanced by digital cervicography (VIA-DC). Methods We retrospectively analyzed 46,048 medical records of women who received care through the CBCHS Women’s Health Program from 2007 through 2014 to determine the prevalence and predictors of positive VIA-DC, rates of same day treatment, and cohort prevalence of invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Results Of the 44,979 women who were screened for cervical cancer, 9.0% were VIA-DC-positive, 66.8% were VIA-DC-negative, 22.0% were VIA-DC-inadequate (normal ectocervix, but portions of the transformation zone were obscured), and 2.2% were VIA-DC-uncertain (cervical abnormalities confounding VIA-DC interpretation). Risk factors significantly associated with VIA-DC-positive screen were HIV-positivity, young age at sexual debut, higher lifetime number of sexual partners, low education status and higher gravidity. In 2014, 31.1% of women eligible for cryotherapy underwent same day treatment. Among the 32,788 women screened from 2007 through 2013, 201 cases of ICC were identified corresponding to a cohort prevalence of 613 per 100,000. Conclusions High rate of VIA-DC-positive screens suggests a significant burden of potential cervical cancer cases and highlights the need for expansion of cervical cancer screening and prevention throughout the 10 regions of Cameroon. VIA-DC-inadequate rates were also high, especially in older women, and additional screening methods are needed to confirm whether these results are truly negative. In comparison to similar screening programs in sub-Saharan Africa there was low utilization of same day cryotherapy treatment. Further studies are required to characterize possible program specific barriers to treatment, for example cultural demands, health system challenges and cost of procedure. The prevalence of ICC among

  16. The Application of Voltammetric Analysis of Δ(9) -THC for the Reduction of False Positive Results in the Analysis of Suspected Marijuana Plant Matter.

    PubMed

    Balbino, Marco A; de Oliveira, Laura S; Eleotério, Izabel C; Oiye, Erica N; Ribeiro, Maria F M; McCord, Bruce R; Ipolito, Antonio J; de Oliveira, Marcelo F

    2016-07-01

    The development of methodologies using inexpensive, fast, and reliable instrumention is desirable in illicit drug analysis. The purpose of this study was based on cyclic voltammetry technique to differentiate the electrochemical behavior of ∆(9) -THC, the psychoactive substance in marijuana, and five different extract plants to yield false positive results after analysis protocol for cannabinoids using thin-layer chromatography and Fast Blue B salt. After applying a deposition potential of -0.5 V in a glassy carbon working electrode, the results indicated an anodic peak current at 0.0 V versus Ag/AgCl after addition of ∆(9) -THC solution in the electrochemical cell, and limits of detection and quantification were 1.0 ng mL(-1) and 3.5 ng mL(-1) , respectively. Other interfering plants showed distinct amperometric responses. This methodology was useful to detect ∆(9) -THC even in the presence of the Fast Blue B salt, which avoided false positive results for all the studied extract plants. PMID:27364289

  17. Benzodiazepine whole blood concentrations in cases with positive oral fluid on-site screening test results using the DrugWipe(®) single for benzodiazepines.

    PubMed

    Blencowe, Tom; Vimpari, Kari; Lillsunde, Pirjo

    2011-07-01

    Reliable on-site oral fluid screening devices are a useful and convenient means of policing traffic. In Finland, benzodiazepines represent a particular challenge to traffic safety. This study presents a retrospective examination of toxicological analysis results from whole blood in cases which gave a positive screening result for benzodiazepines in oral fluid using the DrugWipe Single device (Securetec). Use of oral fluid on-site screening tests and blood confirmation analyses reflects the real situation in many countries. The data were compiled from the databases of Alcohol and Drug Analytics Unit at the National Institute for Health and Welfare. Confirmation analysis results in whole blood were obtained using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were from 224 real cases in which the Finnish police had conducted a DrugWipe Single benzodiazepines test on drivers suspected of driving under the influence of drugs (DUID). The benzodiazepine concentrations encountered in positive oral fluid screening cases in this study indicate that the device is able to detect these substances even at relatively low levels. However, the DrugWipe device does not enable any distinction between therapeutic use and harmful use of benzodiazepines at higher doses.

  18. The Application of Voltammetric Analysis of Δ(9) -THC for the Reduction of False Positive Results in the Analysis of Suspected Marijuana Plant Matter.

    PubMed

    Balbino, Marco A; de Oliveira, Laura S; Eleotério, Izabel C; Oiye, Erica N; Ribeiro, Maria F M; McCord, Bruce R; Ipolito, Antonio J; de Oliveira, Marcelo F

    2016-07-01

    The development of methodologies using inexpensive, fast, and reliable instrumention is desirable in illicit drug analysis. The purpose of this study was based on cyclic voltammetry technique to differentiate the electrochemical behavior of ∆(9) -THC, the psychoactive substance in marijuana, and five different extract plants to yield false positive results after analysis protocol for cannabinoids using thin-layer chromatography and Fast Blue B salt. After applying a deposition potential of -0.5 V in a glassy carbon working electrode, the results indicated an anodic peak current at 0.0 V versus Ag/AgCl after addition of ∆(9) -THC solution in the electrochemical cell, and limits of detection and quantification were 1.0 ng mL(-1) and 3.5 ng mL(-1) , respectively. Other interfering plants showed distinct amperometric responses. This methodology was useful to detect ∆(9) -THC even in the presence of the Fast Blue B salt, which avoided false positive results for all the studied extract plants.

  19. Treatment differences between urban and rural women with hormone receptor-positive early-stage breast cancer based on 21-gene assay recurrence score results

    PubMed Central

    Andreason, Molly; Zhang, Chong; Onitilo, Adedayo A; Engel, Jessica; Ledesma, Wendy M; Ridolfi, Kimberly; Kim, KyungMann; Charlson, John C; Wisinski, Kari B; Tevaarwerk, Amye J

    2015-01-01

    Background Women who live in rural and urban settings have different outcomes for breast cancer. A 21-gene assay predicts 10-year distant recurrence risk and potential benefit of chemotherapy for women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) breast cancer. Objective To assess differences in scores and cancer therapies received by rural versus urban residence. Methods We conducted a multi-institutional retrospective chart review of breast cancer patients diagnosed 2005-2010 with score results. Comparisons by rural versus urban residence (determined by rural-urban commuting area (RUCA) codes derived from zip codes) were made using the Fisher exact test for discrete data such as recurrence score results (<18 vs >18; score range, 0-100, with lower results correlated with less risk of distant recurrence), stage, and receptor status. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used for continuous data (score results 0-100 and age.) All tests were at a 2-sided significance level of .05. Results 504 patients had RUCA codes (92% white, 62% postmenopausal). For rural (n = 135) compared with urban (n = 369) patients, the median scores were 16 and 18, respectively, P = .18. Most of the patients received endocrine therapy, 123 of 135 (91%) rural, compared with 339 of 369 (92%) urban (P = .19). For scores 18-30, 20 of 56 (36%) rural patients, compared with 82 of 159 (52%) urban patients received chemotherapy (P = .03). Limitations Limitations include lack of randomization to receipt of the assay. Conclusions Recurrence score results did not significantly differ between women based on residence, although women living in a rural area received significantly less chemotherapy for scores >18. This suggests that for HR-positive breast cancer, discrepancies between rural and urban residence are driven by treatment factors rather than differences in biology. Funding Genomic Health Inc PMID:26029936

  20. Guidelines for interpretation of 16S rRNA gene sequence-based results for identification of medically important aerobic Gram-positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Woo, Patrick C Y; Teng, Jade L L; Wu, Jeff K L; Leung, Fion P S; Tse, Herman; Fung, Ami M Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2009-08-01

    This study is believed to be the first to provide guidelines for facilitating interpretation of results based on full and 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing and MicroSeq databases used for identifying medically important aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. Overall, full and 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing can identify 24 and 40 % of medically important Gram-positive cocci (GPC), and 21 and 34 % of medically important Gram-positive rods (GPR) confidently to the species level, whereas the full-MicroSeq and 500-MicroSeq databases can identify 15 and 34 % of medically important GPC and 14 and 25 % of medically important GPR confidently to the species level. Among staphylococci, streptococci, enterococci, mycobacteria, corynebacteria, nocardia and members of Bacillus and related taxa (Paenibacillus, Brevibacillus, Geobacillus and Virgibacillus), the methods and databases are least useful for identification of staphylococci and nocardia. Only 0-2 and 2-13 % of staphylococci, and 0 and 0-10 % of nocardia, can be confidently and doubtfully identified, respectively. However, these methods and databases are most useful for identification of Bacillus and related taxa, with 36-56 and 11-14 % of Bacillus and related taxa confidently and doubtfully identified, respectively. A total of 15 medically important GPC and 18 medically important GPR that should be confidently identified by full 16S rRNA gene sequencing are not included in the full-MicroSeq database. A total of 9 medically important GPC and 21 medically important GPR that should be confidently identified by 527 bp 16S rRNA gene sequencing are not included in the 500-MicroSeq database. 16S rRNA gene sequence results of Gram-positive bacteria should be interpreted with basic phenotypic tests results. Additional biochemical tests or sequencing of additional gene loci are often required for definitive identification. To improve the usefulness of the MicroSeq databases, bacterial species that can be confidently identified by 16S r

  1. p53 Expression in Node Positive Breast Cancer Patients: Results from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9344 Trial (159905)

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Jonathan F.; Thor, Ann D.; Dressler, Lynn G.; Broadwater, Gloria; Bleiweiss, Ira J.; Edgerton, Susan; Cowan, David; Goldstein, Lori J.; Martino, Silvana; Ingle, James N.; Henderson, I. Craig; Norton, Larry; Winer, Eric P.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Ellis, Matthew J.; Berry, Donald A.; Hayes, Daniel F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose p53 as a prognostic and predictive factor in early stage breast cancer, has had mixed results. We studied p53 protein expression, by immunohistochemistry, in a randomized clinical trial of stage II patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide with or without paclitaxel (CALGB 9344, INT0148). Patients and Methods Epithelial p53 expression was evaluated using two immunohistochemical antibodies (DO7 and 1801) in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue from patients with node positive breast cancer who were randomized to four cycles of cyclophosphamide and one of three doses of doxorubicin (60, 75, or 90 mg/m2) (AC) and to receive four subsequent cycles of paclitaxel (T) or not. Prognostic and predictive value of p53 protein expression was assessed, independent of treatment assignment, for escalating doses of doxorubicin or addition of T with endpoints of RFS and OS. Results 1887 of 3121 patient specimens treated on C9344 were obtained, passed quality control and evaluated for p53 expression. Expression was 23% and 27% for mAbs 1801 and D07 respectively, with 92% concordance. In univariate analysis, p53 positivity was associated with worse OS with either antibody, but only p53 staining with monoclonal antibody1801 had significantly worse RFS. In multivariate analysis, p53 was not predictive of RFS or OS from either doxorubicin dose escalation or addition of paclitaxel regardless of the antibody. Conclusion Nuclear staining of p53 by immunohistochemistry is associated with worse prognosis in node positive patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy, but is not a useful predictor of benefit from doxorubicin dose escalation or the addition of paclitaxel. PMID:21693655

  2. Immune responses result in misdiagnosis of Schistosoma japonicum by immunodiagnosis kits in egg-positive patients living in a low schistosomiasis transmission area of China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent field surveys, we failed to detect the presence of specific antibody against Schistosoma japonicum in some egg-positive patients by commonly used immunodiagnostic kits. To find out whether low levels of specific antibody truly exist among egg-positive individuals and elucidate the underlying immune mechanisms, we carried out a cross-sectional epidemiologic study in a S. japonicum low transmission endemic area of Poyang Lake region, China and compared the humoral and cellular immune characteristics between S. japonicum high and low antibody responders. Methods Kato–Katz thick smear assay was used to determine the schistosomiasis status of 3,384 participants residing in two Poyang Lake region villages, Jiangxi, China. Among the 142 stool egg-positive participants, we identified low and high S. japonicum antibody responders with soluble egg antigen (SEA) and adult worm antigen (AWA) specific IgG levels by adopting ROC curve analysis. To compare the humoral and cellular immune responses between high and low S. japonicum antibody responders, serum specific antibody levels as well as the percentage of T lymphocyte subpopulation in PMBC, and cell stimulated cytokines (IFN- gamma and interlukin-10) were detected. Results Eight S. japonicum egg-positive participants were defined as low antibody responders. Although the percentage of CD3+T cells in low responders was slightly higher and the percentage of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ and CD4+ CD25+ Treg cells were lower than those in high responders, the differences between the two groups were not significant (P > 0.05). AWA -stimulated interlukin-10 level was significantly higher in high responders, while other cytokines did not show differences between two groups. For antibody profiles, except AWA specific IgA, significant differences of each antibody isotype between low and high responders were detected (P < 0.05). Conclusions Our study confirmed that there are S

  3. Assessment of Parental Understanding of Positive Newborn Screening Results and Carrier Status for Cystic Fibrosis with the use of a Short Educational Video.

    PubMed

    Temme, R; Gruber, A; Johnson, M; Read, L; Lu, Y; McNamara, J

    2015-06-01

    Many children are identified as unaffected carriers for cystic fibrosis (CF) through newborn screening (NBS) programs. The aim of this study was to improve parental understanding of positive NBS results using an educational video in addition to genetic counseling. One hundred parents of infants identified as CF carriers through NBS were randomly assigned by household to either a genetic counseling only group or a genetic counseling and video group. All participants completed a knowledge-based questionnaire before, immediately after, and six weeks following genetic counseling. This included questions about resources accessed before and after the appointment. Seventy-two percent of participants accessed resources on their own prior to genetic counseling; these participants scored significantly higher on the pre-counseling questionnaire (p = 0.03). Post-counseling knowledge scores for both groups significantly improved after genetic counseling (p < 0.001). Post-counseling scores were significantly higher in the video group compared to the non-video group (p = 0.02). Knowledge was retained six weeks following genetic counseling. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of an educational video and reinforces the importance of genetic counseling following positive NBS results for CF.

  4. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN POSITIVE CANINE HEARTWORM (DIROFILARIA IMMITIS) ANTIGEN RESULTS AND PRESENCE OF ACANTHOCHEILONEMA ODENDHALI MICROFILARIA IN CALIFORNIA SEA LIONS (ZALOPHUS CALIFORNIANUS).

    PubMed

    Krucik, David D R; Van Bonn, William; Johnson, Shawn P

    2016-03-01

    This study establishes a relationship between positive canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) test results frequently observed in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and infection with the filarid nematode Acanthocheilonema odendhali. Four commercially available canine heartworm antigen tests were evaluated for cross-reaction with A. odendhali in California sea lions. Sera were tested from fifteen California sea lions with A. odendhali-associated microfilaremia, confirmed by blood smear, and with no evidence of D. immitis infection at necropsy. Ninety-five percent of tests were falsely positive for D. immitis. This study also determined that the prevalence of A. odendhali infection in stranded California sea lions from central California is approximately 23% by comparing the number of findings of mircofilaremia to the total number of California sea lions sampled at The Marine Mammal Center between 2005 and 2011, inclusive. Acanthocheilonema odenhali microfilaremia in California sea lions is likely to cross-react with canine heartworm antigen tests, and clinicians should interpret results with caution. PMID:27010261

  5. Health-Related Quality of Life With Adjuvant Docetaxel- and Trastuzumab-Based Regimens in Patients with Node-Positive and High-Risk Node-Negative, HER2-Positive Early Breast Cancer: Results from the BCIRG 006 Study

    PubMed Central

    Au, Heather-Jane; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Robert, Nicholas J.; Pieńkowski, Tadeusz; Crown, John; Martin, Miguel; Pawlicki, Marek; Chan, Arlene; Mackey, John; Glaspy, John; Pintér, Tamás; Liu, Mei-Ching; Fornander, Tommy; Sehdev, Sandeep; Ferrero, Jean-Marc; Bée, Valerie; Miller, Dave P.; Lalla, Deepa; Slamon, Dennis J.

    2013-01-01

    Background. This study aims to describe and compare health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with node-positive and high-risk node-negative HER2-positive early breast cancer receiving adjuvant docetaxel and trastuzumab-based or docetaxel-based regimens alone. Methods. Eligible patients (n = 3,222) were randomly assigned to either four cycles of adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by four cycles of docetaxel (AC→T) or one of two trastuzumab-containing regimens: adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide followed by docetaxel plus trastuzumab administered for 1 year (AC→TH) or six cycles of docetaxel plus carboplatin combined with trastuzumab administered for 1 year (TCH). The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Questionnaire C30 and BR-23 were administered at baseline, the start of cycle 4 (mid), and the end of chemotherapy (EOC), as well as at 6, 12, and 24 months after chemotherapy. Results. Compliance rates for the EORTC questionnaires were acceptable at 72%–93% of eligible patients out to the 12-month assessment. Systemic side effect (SE) change scores were significantly improved for TCH-treated patients compared with AC→TH and AC→T at EOC, suggesting improved tolerability. Physical functioning (PF) was only slightly worse at midpoint for those receiving TCH, compared with patients who were just starting on taxane in an AC→TH regimen, but was otherwise similar between arms. All treatment arms recovered from the deterioration in SE, PF, and Global Health Scale scores by 1 year and median future perspective change scores continued to improve throughout treatment and follow-up. Conclusion. HRQL outcomes for adjuvant docetaxel and trastuzumab-based regimens are favorable and support TCH as a more tolerable treatment option. PMID:23814044

  6. [Position paper on the results of Symplicity HTN-3 trial. Grupo de estudio de la hipertensión arterial resistente].

    PubMed

    Azpiri-López, José Ramón; Assad-Morell, José Luis; Ponce de León-Martínez, Enrique; Monreal-Puente, Rogelio; Dávila-Bortoni, Adrián; Vázquez-Díaz, Luis Alberto; Treviño-Frutos, Ramón Javier; Barrera-Oranday, Félix; Del Angel-Soto, Juan Gustavo; Martínez, José Guadalupe; Arellano-Torres, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery denervation has shown to be an effective treatment for resistant hypertension. Symplicity HTN 1 and 2 trials showed in small and uncontrolled groups, significant systolic blood pressure reductions down to 30 mm Hg. Symplicity HTN-3, a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled clinical trial shaded this initial enthusiasm. Surprisingly, their results showed that renal denervation has a similar effect to placebo. Pre-specified subgroup analysis showed that non-black race individuals, younger than 65 years and with normal renal function, had a statistically significant systolic blood pressure decrease. This manuscript critically appraises the Symplicity HTN-3 trial, proposing possible explanations for the results. Also declares our group position and future actions regarding renal denervation.

  7. Dried blood spots, valid screening for viral hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus in real-life

    PubMed Central

    Mössner, Belinda K; Staugaard, Benjamin; Jensen, Janne; Lillevang, Søren Thue; Christensen, Peer B; Holm, Dorte Kinggaard

    2016-01-01

    AIM To detect chronic hepatitis B (CHB), chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in dried blood spot (DBS) and compare these samples to venous blood sampling in real-life. METHODS We included prospective patients with known viral infections from drug treatment centers, a prison and outpatient clinics and included blood donors as negative controls. Five drops of finger capillary blood were spotted on filter paper, and a venous blood sample was obtained. The samples were analyzed for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV levels as well as subjected to a combined nucleic acid test (NAT) for HBV DNA, HCV RNA and HIV RNA. RESULTS Samples from 404 subjects were screened (85 CHB, 116 CHC, 114 HIV and 99 blood donors). DBS had a sensitivity of > 96% and a specificity of > 98% for the detection of all three infections. NAT testing did not improve sensitivity, but correctly classified 95% of the anti-HCV-positive patients with chronic and past infections. Anti-HBc and anti-HBS showed low sensitivity in DBS (68% and 42%). CONCLUSION DBS sampling, combined with an automated analysis system, is a feasible screening method to diagnose chronic viral hepatitis and HIV infections outside of the health care system. PMID:27672281

  8. Hepatitis C virus seroconversion among HIV-positive men who have sex with men with no history of injection drug use: Results from a clinical HIV cohort

    PubMed Central

    Burchell, Ann N; Gardner, Sandra L; Mazzulli, Tony; Manno, Michael; Raboud, Janet; Allen, Vanessa G; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Kaul, Rupert; McGee, Frank; Millson, Peggy; Remis, Robert S; Wobeser, Wendy; Cooper, Curtis; Rourke, Sean B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Internationally, there is a growing recognition that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may be sexually transmitted among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (MSM). OBJECTIVE: To report the first Canadian estimate of HCV seroincidence in 2000 to 2010 and its risk factors among HIV-positive MSM with no known history of injection drug use. METHODS: Data from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study, an ongoing cohort of individuals in HIV care in Ontario, were analyzed. Data were obtained from medical charts, interviews and record linkage with the provincial public health laboratories. The analysis was restricted to 1534 MSM who did not report injection drug use and had undergone ≥2 HCV antibody tests, of which the first was negative (median 6.1 person-years [PY] of follow-up; sum 9987 PY). RESULTS: In 2000 to 2010, 51 HCV seroconversions were observed, an overall incidence of 5.1 per 1000 PY (95% CI 3.9 to 6.7). Annual incidence varied from 1.6 to 8.9 per 1000 PY, with no statistical evidence of a temporal trend. Risk for seroconversion was elevated among men who had ever had syphilis (adjusted HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.1 to 5.5) and men who had acute syphilis infection in the previous 18 months (adjusted HR 2.8 [95% CI 1.0 to 7.9]). Risk was lower for men who had initiated antiretroviral treatment (adjusted HR 0.49 [95% CI 0.25 to 0.95]). There were no statistically significant effects of age, ethnicity, region, CD4 cell count or HIV viral load. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that periodic HCV rescreening may be appropriate in Ontario among HIV-positive MSM. Future research should seek evidence whether syphilis is simply a marker for high-risk sexual behaviour or networks, or whether it potentiates sexual HCV transmission among individuals with HIV. PMID:25798149

  9. Habitual Levels of High, But Not Moderate or Low, Impact Activity Are Positively Related to Hip BMD and Geometry: Results From a Population-Based Study of Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Deere, Kevin; Sayers, Adrian; Rittweger, Jörn; Tobias, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    Whether a certain level of impact needs to be exceeded for physical activity (PA) to benefit bone accrual is currently unclear. To examine this question, we performed a cross-sectional analysis between PA and hip BMD in 724 adolescents (292 boys, mean 17.7 years) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), partitioning outputs from a Newtest accelerometer into six different impact bands. Counts within 2.1 to 3.1g, 3.1 to 4.2g, 4.2 to 5.1g, and >5.1g bands were positively related to femoral neck (FN) BMD, in boys and girls combined, in our minimally adjusted model including age, height, and sex (0.5–1.1g: beta = −0.007, p = 0.8; 1.1–2.1g: beta = 0.003, p = 0.9; 2.1–3.1g: beta = 0.042, p = 0.08; 3.1–4.2g: beta = 0.058, p = 0.009; 4.2–5.1g: beta = 0.070, p = 0.001; >5.1g: beta = 0.080, p < 0.001) (beta = SD change per doubling in activity). Similar positive relationships were observed between high-impact bands and BMD at other hip sites (ward's triangle, total hip), hip structure indices derived by hip structural analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans (FN width, cross-sectional area, cortical thickness), and predicted strength (cross-sectional moment of inertia). In analyses where adjacent bands were combined and then adjusted for other impacts, high impacts (>4.2g) were positively related to FN BMD, whereas, if anything, moderate (2.1–4.2g) and low impacts (0.5–2.1g) were inversely related (low: beta = −0.052, p = 0.2; medium: beta = −0.058, p = 0.2; high: beta = 0.137, p < 0.001). Though slightly attenuated, the positive association between PA and FN BMD, confined to high impacts, was still observed after adjustment for fat mass, lean mass, and socioeconomic position (high: beta = 0.096, p = 0.016). These results suggest that PA associated with impacts >4.2g, such as jumping and running (which further studies suggested requires speeds >10 km/h) is positively related to hip BMD and structure in adolescents

  10. Positioning Agility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Nilay; Abrahamsson, Pekka; Conboy, Kieran

    Agile methods are increasingly adopted by European companies. Academics too are conducting numerous studies on different tenets of agile methods. Companies often feel proud in marketing themselves as ‘agile’. However, the true notion of ‘being agile’ seems to have been overlooked due to lack of positioning of oneself for agility. This raises a call for more research and interactions between academia and the industry. The proposed workshop refers to this call. It will be highly relevant to participants, interested in positioning their company’s agility from organizational, group or project perspectives. The positioning of agility will help companies to better align their agile practices with stakeholder values. Results of the workshop will be shared across participants and they will also have opportunity to continue their work on agile positioning in their companies. At broader level, the work done in this workshop will contribute towards developing Agile Positioning System.

  11. Development of a method that eliminates false-positive results due to nerve growth factor interference in the assessment of fulranumab immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Dai, Sheng; Schantz, Allen; Clements-Egan, Adrienne; Cannon, Michael; Shankar, Gopi

    2014-05-01

    Fulranumab, a human IgG2 monoclonal antibody that neutralizes nerve growth factor (NGF), is currently in development for the treatment of pain. Our initial immunogenicity test method was found to be prone to NGF interference, leading to a high apparent incidence of anti-drug antibody (ADA) in phase 1 studies. The ADA immunoassay comprised a homogeneous bridging electrochemiluminescence (ECL) format with biotin and ruthenium-labeled fulranumab bound together ("bridged") by ADA in test samples for detection. In this assay, NGF produced a false-positive signal due to its ability to bridge fulranumab molecules. Thus, we developed a specificity assay to eliminate the NGF false-positive results. We encountered the challenge of eliminating drug interference as well as drug target interference, and discovered that the acid-dissociation-based pretreatment of samples used for mitigating drug interference dramatically increased drug target interference. Several strategies were investigated to eliminate the NGF interference; yet only one strategy specifically removed NGF and produced true fulranumab-specific ADA results by using competitive inhibition with fulranumab and utilizing an alternative NGF binding antibody to eliminate NGF interference. Using this new method, we confirmed that the high apparent anti-fulranumab antibody incidence (>60%) in clinical study samples was in fact due to fulranumab-bound NGF released during the acid-dissociation step of the ADA testing method. We conclude that our revised method accurately identifies anti-fulranumab antibodies by incorporating steps to eliminate fulranumab and NGF interference. We advise that acid-dissociation pretreatment must not be universally applied to improve ADA assays without investigating its bioanalytical risks versus benefits.

  12. Reciprocal Crossovers and a Positional Preference for Strand Exchange in Recombination Events Resulting in Deletion or Duplication of Chromosome 17p11.2

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Weimin; Park, Sung-Sup; Shaw, Christine J.; Withers, Marjorie A.; Patel, Pragna I.; Lupski, James R.

    2003-01-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is caused by an ∼4-Mb heterozygous interstitial deletion on chromosome 17p11.2 in ∼80%–90% of affected patients. Three large (∼200 kb), complex, and highly homologous (∼98%) low-copy repeats (LCRs) are located inside or flanking the SMS common deletion. These repeats, also known as “SMS-REPs,” are termed “distal,” “middle,” and “proximal.” The directly oriented distal and proximal copies act as substrates for nonallelic homologous recombination resulting in both the deletion associated with SMS and the reciprocal duplication: dup(17)(p11.2p11.2). Using restriction enzyme cis-morphism analyses and direct sequencing, we mapped the regions of strand exchange in 16 somatic-cell hybrids that harbor only the recombinant SMS-REP. Our studies showed that the sites of crossovers were distributed throughout the region of homology between the distal and proximal SMS-REPs. However, despite ∼170 kb of high homology, 50% of the recombinant junctions occurred in a 12.0-kb region within the KER gene clusters. DNA sequencing of this hotspot (positional preference for strand exchange) in seven recombinant SMS-REPs narrowed the crossovers to an ∼8-kb interval. Four of them occurred in a 1,655-bp region rich in polymorphic nucleotides that could potentially reflect frequent gene conversion. For further evaluation of the strand exchange frequency in patients with SMS, novel junction fragments from the recombinant SMS-REPs were identified. As predicted by the reciprocal-recombination model, junction fragments were also identified from this hotspot region in patients with dup(17)(p11.2p11.2), documenting reciprocity of the positional preference for strand exchange. Several potential cis-acting recombination-promoting sequences were identified within the hotspot. It is interesting that we found 2.1-kb AT-rich inverted repeats flanking the proximal and middle KER gene clusters but not the distal one. The role of any or all of these

  13. Quantitative hepatitis B core antibody level is associated with inflammatory activity in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Min-Ran; Lu, Jian-Hua; Ye, Li-Hong; Sun, Xing-Li; Zheng, Yan-Hua; Liu, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Hai-Cong; Liu, Yun-Yan; Lv, Ying; Huang, Yan; Dai, Er-Hei

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies have shown that hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels vary during different phases of disease in treatment-naïve chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients and can be used as a predictor of both interferon-α and nucleoside analogue therapy response. However, there is no information on the association between the quantitative serum anti-HBc (qAnti-HBc) level and liver inflammation in CHB patients. Therefore, we investigated these relationships in a large cohort of treatment-naïve CHB patients. A total of 624 treatment-naïve CHB patients were included in the study. The serum qAnti-HBc level was moderately correlated with ALT and AST levels (P < 0.001) in both hepatitis B e antigen-positive (HBeAg [+]) and HBeAg-negative (HBeAg [-]) CHB patients. CHB patients with no to mild inflammation (G0-1) had significantly lower serum qAnti-HBc levels than patients with moderate to severe inflammation (G2-4) (P < 0.001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that a serum qAnti-HBc cut-off value of 4.36 log10 IU/mL provided a sensitivity of 71.68%, specificity of 73.81%, positive predictive value of 78.43%, and negative predictive value of 66.24% in HBeAg (+) CHB patients with moderate to severe inflammation (G≥2). A cut-off value of 4.62 log10 IU/mL provided a sensitivity of 54.29%, specificity of 90.00%, positive predictive value of 95.00%, and negative predictive value of 36.00% in HBeAg (-) CHB patients with moderate to severe inflammation (G≥2). Serum qAnti-HBc levels were positively associated with liver inflammation grade. Furthermore, we identified optimal serum qAnti-HBc cut-off values for the prediction of inflammation activity in both HBeAg (+) and HBeAg (-) treatment-naïve CHB patients. PMID:27559949

  14. Freedom From Local and Regional Failure of Contralateral Neck With Ipsilateral Neck Radiotherapy for Node-Positive Tonsil Cancer: Results of a Prospective Management Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Rusthoven, Kyle E. Raben, David; Schneider, Charles; Witt, Robert; Sammons, Sarah; Raben, Adam

    2009-08-01

    Purpose: To review the outcomes of a prospective management approach using ipsilateral neck radiotherapy in the treatment of node-positive squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil with a well-lateralized primary lesion. Methods and Materials: Between August 2003 and June 2007, 20 patients who presented with squamous cell carcinoma of the tonsil, without involvement of the base of the tongue or midline soft palate, and with Stage N1-N2b disease were prospectively treated with radiotherapy to the primary site and ipsilateral neck. In addition, 18 patients received concurrent chemotherapy. The actuarial freedom from contralateral nodal and in-field progression was determined. Acute and late toxicity were prospectively evaluated using the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3, and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group criteria. Results: The nodal disease was Stage N1 in 4 patients, N2a in 3 patients, and N2b in 13 patients. At a median follow-up 19 months (range, 12-40), no in-field or contralateral nodal recurrences had been observed. The 2-year freedom from distant metastasis rate was 87.4%. The actuarial 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were both 79.5%. Late Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 2 xerostomia occurred in 1 patient (5%). No late Grade 3 or greater toxicity was observed. No patient was feeding tube dependent at their last follow-up visit. Conclusion: In carefully selected patients with node-positive, lateralized tonsillar cancer, treatment of the ipsilateral neck and primary site does not appear to increase the risk of contralateral nodal failure and reduces late morbidity compared with historical controls. Although the outcomes with ipsilateral radiotherapy in the present series were promising, these findings require longer follow-up and validation in a larger patient cohort.

  15. Controlling false-positive results obtained with the Hodge and Masuda assays for detection of class a carbapenemase in species of enterobacteriaceae by incorporating boronic Acid.

    PubMed

    Pasteran, Fernando; Mendez, Tania; Rapoport, Melina; Guerriero, Leonor; Corso, Alejandra

    2010-04-01

    The modified Hodge method (MHT) has been recommended by the CLSI for confirmation of suspected class A carbapenemase production in species of Enterobacteriaceae. This test and the Masuda method (MAS) have advantages over traditional phenotypic methods in that they directly analyze carbapenemase activity. In order to identify the potential interferences of these tests, we designed a panel composed of diverse bacterial genera with distinct carbapenem susceptibility patterns (42 carbapenemase producers and 48 nonproducers). About 25% of results among carbapenemase nonproducers, mainly strains harboring CTX-M and AmpC hyperproducers, were observed to be false positive. Subsequently, we developed an optimized approach for more-accurate detection of suspicious isolates of carbapenemase by addition of boronic acid (BA) derivatives (reversible inhibitor of class A carbapenemases and AmpC cephalosporinases) and oxacillin (inhibitor of AmpCs enzymes). The use of the modified BA- and oxacillin-based MHT and MAS resulted in high sensitivity (>90%) and specificity (100%) for class A carbapenemase detection. By use of these methodologies, isolates producing KPCs and GES, Sme, IMI, and NMC-A carbapenemases were successfully distinguished from those producing other classes of ss-lactamases (extended-spectrum beta-lactamases [ESBLs], AmpC beta-lactamases, metallo-beta-lactamases [MBLs], etc.). These methods will provide the fast and useful information needed for targeting of antimicrobial therapy and appropriate infection control.

  16. Self-Management of Patient Body Position, Pose, and Motion Using Wide-Field, Real-Time Optical Measurement Feedback: Results of a Volunteer Study

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, James M.; Price, Gareth J.; Sharrock, Phil J.; Jackson, Andrew S.N.; Stratford, Julie; Moore, Christopher J.

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: We present the results of a clinical feasibility study, performed in 10 healthy volunteers undergoing a simulated treatment over 3 sessions, to investigate the use of a wide-field visual feedback technique intended to help patients control their pose while reducing motion during radiation therapy treatment. Methods and Materials: An optical surface sensor is used to capture wide-area measurements of a subject's body surface with visualizations of these data displayed back to them in real time. In this study we hypothesize that this active feedback mechanism will enable patients to control their motion and help them maintain their setup pose and position. A capability hierarchy of 3 different level-of-detail abstractions of the measured surface data is systematically compared. Results: Use of the device enabled volunteers to increase their conformance to a reference surface, as measured by decreased variability across their body surfaces. The use of visual feedback also enabled volunteers to reduce their respiratory motion amplitude to 1.7 ± 0.6 mm compared with 2.7 ± 1.4 mm without visual feedback. Conclusions: The use of live feedback of their optically measured body surfaces enabled a set of volunteers to better manage their pose and motion when compared with free breathing. The method is suitable to be taken forward to patient studies.

  17. Disciplinary Referrals for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students with and without Disabilities: Patterns Resulting from School-Wide Positive Behavior Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Claudia G.; Swain-Bradway, Jessica; Tobin, Tary J.; May, Seth

    2011-01-01

    The goal of our study was to examine if school-wide positive behavior support implementation was associated with reductions in the discipline gap. We provided outcomes from descriptive and preliminary statistical analyses of three years of office discipline referral data from elementary schools engaged in school-wide positive behavior support…

  18. Age-Specific Seroprevalence of HIV, Hepatitis B Virus, and Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Injection Drug Users Admitted to Drug Treatment in 6 US Cities

    PubMed Central

    Murrill, Christopher S.; Weeks, Howard; Castrucci, Brian C.; Weinstock, Hillard S.; Bell, Beth P.; Spruill, Catherine; Gwinn, Marta

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. This study measured age-specific seroprevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs) admitted to drug treatment programs in 6 US cities. Methods. Remnant sera collected from persons entering treatment with a history of illicit drug injection were tested for antibodies to HIV, hepatitis C (anti-HCV), and hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc). Results. Prevalence of anti-HBc and anti-HCV increased with age and reached 80% to 100% among older IDUs in all 6 cities. Although overall age-specific HIV prevalence was lower than anti-HCV or anti-HBc, this prevalence was greater in the Northeast than in the Midwest and West. Conclusions. The need continues for effective primary prevention programs among IDUs specifically targeting young persons who have recently started to inject drugs. (Am J Public Health. 2002;92:385–387) PMID:11867316

  19. The Results of the “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) Trial for Increasing Walking and Physical Activity in Underserved African-American Communities

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Dawn K.; Van Horn, M. Lee; Siceloff, E. Rebekah; Alia, Kassandra A.; St. George, Sara M.; Lawman, Hannah G.; Trumpeter, Nevelyn N.; Coulon, Sandra M.; Griffin, Sarah F.; Wandersman, Abraham; Egan, Brent; Colabianchi, Natalie; Forthofer, Melinda; Gadson, Barney

    2015-01-01

    Background The “Positive Action for Today’s Health” (PATH) trial tested an environmental intervention to increase walking in underserved communities. Methods Three matched communities were randomized to a police-patrolled walking plus social marketing, a police-patrolled walking-only, or a no-walking intervention. The 24-month intervention addressed safety and access for physical activity (PA) and utilized social marketing to enhance environmental supports for PA. African-Americans (N=434; 62 % females; aged 51±16 years) provided accelerometry and psychosocial measures at baseline and 12, 18, and 24 months. Walking attendance and trail use were obtained over 24 months. Results There were no significant differences across communities over 24 months for moderate-to-vigorous PA. Walking attendance in the social marketing community showed an increase from 40 to 400 walkers per month at 9 months and sustained ~200 walkers per month through 24 months. No change in attendance was observed in the walking-only community. Conclusions Findings support integrating social marketing strategies to increase walking in underserved African-Americans (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT01025726). PMID:25385203

  20. Predictive Factors of Lapatinib and Capecitabine Activity in Patients with HER2-Positive, Trastuzumab-Resistant Metastatic Breast Cancer: Results from the Italian Retrospective Multicenter HERLAPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Stefania; Inno, Alessandro; Rossi, Valentina; Turazza, Monica; Fiorio, Elena; Fabi, Alessandra; Bisagni, Giancarlo; Foglietta, Jennifer; Santini, Daniele; Pavese, Ida; Pellegrino, Arianna; Zambelli, Alberto; Vici, Patrizia; Leonardi, Vita; Barni, Sandro; Saracchini, Silvana; Bogina, Giuseppe; Marchetti, Fabiana; Duranti, Simona; Lunardi, Gianluigi; Montemurro, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    Background There are no validated predictive markers for lapatinib and capecitabine in patients with trastuzumab-resistant HER2 positive metastatic breast cancer. Methods Data of 148 consecutive patients treated with lapatinib and capecitabine from March 2007 to December 2013 were collected from 13 Italian institutions. Estimates of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were obtained with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared with logrank test. The association of clinicopathological variables and the outcome was studied by binary logistic regression analysis and Cox proportional hazard analysis. Results At a median follow-up of 41 months, median PFS and OS were 7 and 21 months, respectively. Patents with a PFS longer than 7 months had a significantly longer OS, compared with patients with a PFS equal to or shorter than 7 months (36 vs 15 months; p<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed the benefit of lapatinib-based therapy in terms of PFS and OS was significantly associated with time-to-progression (TTP) on prior first-line trastuzumab-based therapy. In particular, each additional month on first-line trastuzumab based therapy was associated with a reduction in hazard of progression and death after the initiation of lapatinib-based therapy of 2% and 4%, respectively. Conclusions A longer TTP to first line trastuzumab seems to predict a prolonged PFS and OS with subsequent lapatinib and capecitabine. PMID:27224517

  1. Innovative Integration of Decommissioning and Deactivation Program with Soil-Groundwater Clean Up Program Has Positive Results on Budget and Schedule: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Schappell, B; Rucker, G

    2007-07-25

    An innovative approach to integrate the activities of a decommissioning and deactivation program (D&D) with a soil-groundwater clean up program has had significant positive results saving both money and time at the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site. The accomplishments that have been achieved by the combining the two programs have been remarkable including significant cost savings, economies of scale for sampling and document generation, and alignment of common objectives. Because of the coordination of both activities area-wide ''end states'' can be formulated and be consistent with the customers' cleanup goals and federal regulations. This coordinates and aligns both the environmental clean up and D&D objectives because each must be addressed simultaneously and comprehensively. In this respect, resources from both organizations can be pooled to take advantage of the strengths of each. The new approach allows more efficient use of lean financial resources and optimizes workforce activities to attain the common objectives while being more cost effective, more protective of the environment, and optimizing the use existing resources.

  2. Positively Charged Oligo[Poly(Ethylene Glycol) Fumarate] Scaffold Implantation Results in a Permissive Lesion Environment after Spinal Cord Injury in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hakim, Jeffrey S.; Esmaeili Rad, Melika; Grahn, Peter J.; Chen, Bingkun K.; Knight, Andrew M.; Schmeichel, Ann M.; Isaq, Nasro A.; Dadsetan, Mahrokh; Yaszemski, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Positively charged oligo[poly(ethylene glycol) fumarate] (OPF+) scaffolds loaded with Schwann cells bridge spinal cord injury (SCI) lesions and support axonal regeneration in rat. The regeneration achieved is not sufficient for inducing functional recovery. Attempts to increase regeneration would benefit from understanding the effects of the scaffold and transplanted cells on lesion environment. We conducted morphometric and stereological analysis of lesions in rats implanted with OPF+ scaffolds with or without loaded Schwann cells 1, 2, 3, 4, and 8 weeks after thoracic spinal cord transection. No differences were found in collagen scarring, cyst formation, astrocyte reactivity, myelin debris, or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) accumulation. However, when scaffold-implanted animals were compared with animals with transection injuries only, these barriers to regeneration were significantly reduced, accompanied by increased activated macrophages/microglia. This distinctive and regeneration permissive tissue reaction to scaffold implantation was independent of Schwann cell transplantation. Although the tissue reaction was beneficial in the short term, we observed a chronic fibrotic host response, resulting in scaffolds surrounded by collagen at 8 weeks. This study demonstrates that an appropriate biomaterial scaffold improves the environment for regeneration. Future targeting of the host fibrotic response may allow increased axonal regeneration and functional recovery. PMID:25891264

  3. Lack of the H-NS Protein Results in Extended and Aberrantly Positioned DNA during Chromosome Replication and Segregation in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Helgesen, Emily; Fossum-Raunehaug, Solveig

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The architectural protein H-NS binds nonspecifically to hundreds of sites throughout the chromosome and can multimerize to stiffen segments of DNA as well as to form DNA-protein-DNA bridges. H-NS has been suggested to contribute to the orderly folding of the Escherichia coli chromosome in the highly compacted nucleoid. In this study, we investigated the positioning and dynamics of the origins, the replisomes, and the SeqA structures trailing the replication forks in cells lacking the H-NS protein. In H-NS mutant cells, foci of SeqA, replisomes, and origins were irregularly positioned in the cell. Further analysis showed that the average distance between the SeqA structures and the replisome was increased by ∼100 nm compared to that in wild-type cells, whereas the colocalization of SeqA-bound sister DNA behind replication forks was not affected. This result may suggest that H-NS contributes to the folding of DNA along adjacent segments. H-NS mutant cells were found to be incapable of adopting the distinct and condensed nucleoid structures characteristic of E. coli cells growing rapidly in rich medium. It appears as if H-NS mutant cells adopt a “slow-growth” type of chromosome organization under nutrient-rich conditions, which leads to a decreased cellular DNA content. IMPORTANCE It is not fully understood how and to what extent nucleoid-associated proteins contribute to chromosome folding and organization during replication and segregation in Escherichia coli. In this work, we find in vivo indications that cells lacking the nucleoid-associated protein H-NS have a lower degree of DNA condensation than wild-type cells. Our work suggests that H-NS is involved in condensing the DNA along adjacent segments on the chromosome and is not likely to tether newly replicated strands of sister DNA. We also find indications that H-NS is required for rapid growth with high DNA content and for the formation of a highly condensed nucleoid structure under such

  4. [Paradoxical air embolism resulted in acute myocardial infarction and massive ischemic brain injury in a patient operated on in a sitting position].

    PubMed

    Anan'ev, E P; Polupan, A A; Savin, I A; Goryachev, A S; Troitskiy, A P; Kolokol'nikov, A E; Kulikovskiy, V P; Matskovskiy, I V; Abramov, T A; Podlepich, V V; Krylov, K Yu; Sychev, A A; Tabasaranskiy, T F; Pashin, A A; Lubnin, A Yu

    2016-01-01

    Paradoxical air embolism (PAE) is a rare life-threatening complication when air emboli enter arteries of the systemic circulation and cause their occlusion. Here, we describe a clinical case of PAE developed during neurosurgery in a patient in the sitting position. PAE led to injuries to the cerebral blood vessels, coronary arteries, and lungs, which caused death of the patient. An effective measure for preventing PAE is abandoning surgery in the sitting position in favor of surgery in the prone position. PMID:27070262

  5. Once-daily dolutegravir is superior to once-daily darunavir/ritonavir in treatment-naïve HIV-1-positive individuals: 96 week results from FLAMINGO

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Jean-Michel; Clotet, Bonaventura; van Lunzen, Jan; Lazzarin, Adriano; Cavassini, Matthias; Henry, Keith; Kulagin, Valeriv; Givens, Naomi; Brennan, Clare; de Oliveira, Carlos Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Dolutegravir (DTG) 50 mg once daily was superior to darunavir/ritonavir (DRV/r) 800 mg/100 mg once daily through Week 48, with 90% vs. 83% of participants achieving HIV RNA 50 c/mL (p=0.025) [1]. We present data through Week 96. Material and Methods FLAMINGO is a multicentre, randomized, open-label, Phase IIIb non-inferiority study, in which HIV-1-positive ART-naïve adults with HIV-1 RNA≥1000 c/mL and no evidence of viral resistance were randomized 1:1 to receive DTG or DRV/r, with investigator-selected backbone NRTIs (TDF/FTC or ABC/3TC). Participants were stratified by screening HIV-1 RNA (≤100K c/mL) and NRTI backbone. Results A total of 484 adults were randomized and treated; 25% had baseline HIV RNA 100K c/mL. At Week 96, the proportion of participants with HIV RNA 50 c/mL was 80% in the DTG arm vs. 68% in the DRV/r arm (adjusted difference 12.4%; 95% CI 4.7, 20.2%; p=0.002). Secondary analyses supported primary results: per-protocol [(DTG 83% vs. DRV/r 70%), 95% CI 12.9 (5.3, 20.6)] and treatment-related discontinuation = failure [(98% vs. 95%), 95% CI 3.2 (−0.3, 6.7)]. Overall virologic non-response (DTG 8%; DRV/r 12%) and non-response due to other reasons (DTG 12%; DRV/r 21%) occurred less frequently on DTG. As at Week 48, the difference between arms was most pronounced in participants with high baseline viral load (82% vs. 52% response through Week 96) and in the TDF/FTC stratum (79% vs. 64%); consistent responses were seen in the ABC/3TC stratum (82% vs. 75%). Six participants (DTG 2, none post-Week 48; DRV/r 4, two post-Week 48) experienced protocol-defined virologic failure (PDVF; confirmed viral load 200 c/mL on or after Week 24); none had treatment-emergent resistance to study drugs. Most frequent drug-related adverse events (AEs) were diarrhoea, nausea and headache, with diarrhoea significantly more common on DRV/r (24%) than DTG (10%). Significantly more participants had Grade 2 fasting LDL toxicities on DRV/r (22%) vs. DTG (7

  6. A study of the observed shift in the peak position of olivine Raman spectra as a result of shock induced by hypervelocity impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harriss, Kathryn H.; Burchell, M. J.

    2016-07-01

    Kuebler et al. (2006) identified variations in olivine Raman spectra based on the composition of individual olivine grains, leading to identification of olivine composition from Raman spectra alone. However, shock on a crystal lattice has since been shown to result in a structural change to the original material, which produces a shift in the Raman spectra of olivine grains compared with the original unshocked olivine (Foster et al. 2013). This suggests that the use of the compositional calculations from the Raman spectra, reported in Kuebler et al. (2006), may provide an incorrect compositional value for material that has experienced shock. Here, we have investigated the effect of impact speed (and hence peak shock pressure) on the shift in the Raman spectra for San Carlos olivine (Fo91) impacting Al foil. Powdered San Carlos olivine (grain size 1-10 μm) was fired at a range of impact speeds from 0.6 to 6.1 km s-1 (peak shock pressures 5-86 GPa) at Al foil to simulate capture over a wide range of peak shock pressures. A permanent change in the Raman spectra was found to be observed only for impact speeds greater than ~5 km s-1. The process that causes the shift is most likely linked to an increase in the peak pressure produced by the impact, but only after a minimum shock pressure associated with the speed at which the effect is first observed (here 65-86 GPa). At speeds around 6 km s-1 (peak shock pressures ~86 GPa), the shift in Raman peak positions is in a similar direction (red shift) to that observed by Foster et al. (2013) but of twice the magnitude.

  7. Serologic indices of hepatitis B virus infection in military recruits in Greece (2004–2005)

    PubMed Central

    German, Vasilios; Giannakos, Georgios; Kopterides, Petros; Liaskonis, Konstantinos; Falagas, Matthew E

    2006-01-01

    Background The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Greece has been decreasing over the last decades. However, recent epidemiological data are lacking. Methods We studied 1,840 Army recruits from 05/2004 until 10/2005, and performed serological testing for HBsAg, anti-HBsAg, and anti-HBcAg. We also examined their association with several factors, including age, residential area, socioeconomic class, and educational level. Results Mean age (± SD) of the recruits was 20.5 (± 2.1) years. Antibodies to HBV core antigen [anti-HBcAg (+)] were found in 31 (1.68%) of 1,840 participants. Only 6 (0.32%) were HBsAg (+)/anti-HBsAg (-)/anti-HBcAg (+), while 21 (1.14%) were HBsAg (-)/anti-HBsAg (+)/anti-HBcAg (+), and 4 (0.22%) were HBsAg (-)/anti-HBsAg (-)/anti-HBcAg (+). Overall, 1,144 recruits (62.17%) had antibodies against HBsAg [HBsAg (-)/anti-HBsAg (+)/anti-HBcAg (-)]; 665 recruits (36.14%) had undetectable anti-HBsAg levels. Multivariable analysis showed that younger age (OR: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.82–0.92) and advanced educational level (OR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.32–1.93) were independently associated with serologic evidence suggestive of previous HBV vaccination. Conclusion We document a further decline of the prevalence of chronic HBV infection among Greek military recruits, a fact that may support the effectiveness of the ongoing immunization programme. PMID:17105648

  8. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p < .001) and condomless anal sex (CAS) (AOR 2.70, p < .05) in the past 3 months. The only predictor of CAS with HIV-negative or unknown status partners was being under age 30 (AOR 3.38, p < .01). This study helped to inform online targeted recruitment techniques, access to technology and social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted. PMID:26179596

  9. Social media use and HIV transmission risk behavior among ethnically diverse HIV-positive gay men: results of an online study in three U.S. states.

    PubMed

    Hirshfield, Sabina; Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Anderson, Ian; Chiasson, Mary Ann

    2015-10-01

    Though Black and Hispanic men who have sex with men (MSM) are at an increased risk for HIV, few HIV risk reduction interventions that target HIV-positive MSM, and even fewer that use technology, have been designed to target these groups. Despite similar rates of social media and technology use across racial/ethnic groups, online engagement of minority MSM for HIV prevention efforts is low. Since minority MSM tend to have less representation in online HIV prevention studies, the goals of this online anonymous study of HIV-positive gay-identified men were to test the feasibility of conducting targeted recruitment by race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, to assess technology and social media use, and to assess global HIV transmission risk. In 2011, an anonymous online survey was conducted among 463 members of an HIV-positive personals website. Emails were sent to a subset of HIV-positive male members who self-identified as gay. While 57 % were White, substantial proportions of participants were Black (20 %) or Hispanic (18 %). Median age was 46 (range 18-79). Men who reported using 3 or more websites or apps to meet sex partners were significantly more likely to report anal intercourse (AOR 4.43, p < .001) and condomless anal sex (CAS) (AOR 2.70, p < .05) in the past 3 months. The only predictor of CAS with HIV-negative or unknown status partners was being under age 30 (AOR 3.38, p < .01). This study helped to inform online targeted recruitment techniques, access to technology and social media use, and sexual risk among a diverse sample of HIV-positive gay men. Efficacy trials of technology-based HIV prevention interventions targeting high-risk minority HIV-positive MSM are warranted.

  10. Intraventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine results in an increased number of tyrosine hydroxylase immune-positive cells in the rat cortex.

    PubMed

    Wachter, B; Caradonna, S; Gittinger, K; Schläger, A; Küppers, E

    2014-11-01

    Previously we have demonstrated that intraventricular injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) results in increased proliferation and de-differentiation of rat cortical astrocytes into progenitor-like cells 4 days after lesion (Wachter et al., 2010). To find out if these cells express tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the rate-limiting enzyme in the catecholamine synthesis pathway, we performed immunohistochemistry in the rat cortex following intraventricular injection of 6-OHDA. Four days after injection we demonstrated a strong emergence of TH-positive (TH(+)) somata in the cortices of 6-OHDA-lesioned animals. The number of TH(+) cells in the cortex of 6-OHDA-lesioned animals was 15 times higher than in sham-operated animals, where virtually no TH(+) somata occurred. Combining TH immunohistochemistry with classical Nissl stain yielded complete congruency, and ∼45% of the TH(+) cells co-expressed calretinin, which indicates an interneuron affiliation. There was no co-staining of TH with other interneuron markers or with glial markers such as glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) or the neural stem/progenitor marker Nestin, nor could we find co-localization with the proliferation marker Ki67. However, we found a co-localization of TH with glial progenitor cell markers (Sox2 and S100β) and with polysialylated-neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), which has been shown to be expressed in immature, but not recently generated cortical neurons. Taken together, this study seems to confirm our previous findings with respect to a 6-OHDA-induced expression of neuronal precursor markers in cells of the rat cortex, although the TH(+) cells found in this study are not identical with the potentially de-differentiated astrocytes described recently (Wachter et al., 2010). The detection of cortical cells expressing the catecholaminergic key enzyme TH might indicate a possible compensatory role of these cells in a dopamine-(DA)-depleted system. Future studies are needed to determine

  11. The Impact of Positive and Negative Ecstasy-Related Information on Ecstasy Use among College Students: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To: (1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, (2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods: As part of the College Life…

  12. Examining the Effects of Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports on Student Outcomes: Results from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial in Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Mitchell, Mary M.; Leaf, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    Schoolwide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) is a universal, schoolwide prevention strategy that is currently implemented in over 9,000 schools across the nation to reduce disruptive behavior problems through the application of behavioral, social learning, and organizational behavioral principles. SWPBIS aims to alter school…

  13. Prevalence and trends of markers of hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus and human Immunodeficiency virus in Argentine blood donors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Transfusion-transmitted infections are a major problem associated with blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence and trends of HBV, HCV and HIV in blood donors in Argentina. Methods A retrospective study was carried out in blood donors of 27 transfusion centers covering the whole country over a period of eight years (2004-2011). Serologic screening assays for HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV were performed in all centers and nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) was performed in 2 out of the 27 centers. Results The 2,595,852 samples tested nationwide from 2004 to 2011 showed that the prevalence of HBsAg decreased from 0.336% to 0.198% (p < 0.0001), that of anti-HBc from 2.391% to 2.007% (p < 0.0001), that of anti-HCV from 0.721% to 0.460%, (p < 0.0001) and that of anti-HIV from 0.208% to 0.200 (p = 0.075). The prevalence of HBV, HCV and HIV was unevenly distributed among the different regions of the country. Two out of 74,838 screening- negative samples were positive in NAT assays (1 HIV-RNA and 1 HCV-RNA); moreover, HBV-DNA, HCV-RNA and HIV-RNA were detected in 60.29, 24.54 and 66.67% of screening-positive samples of the corresponding assays. As regards donors age, positive HBV-DNA and HCV-RNA donors were significantly older than healthy donors (46.6, 50.5 and 39.5 y respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions Argentina has a low prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV in blood donors, with a decreasing trend for HBsAg, anti-HBc and anti-HCV but not for anti-HIV over the last 8 years. The uneven distribution of transfusion-transmitted infections prevalence among the different regions of the country highlights the need to implement regional awareness campaigns and prevention. The discrepancy between samples testing positive for screening assays and negative for NAT assays highlights the problem of blood donors who test repeatedly reactive in screening assays but are not confirmed as positive upon further testing. The

  14. The impact of positive and negative ecstasy-related information on ecstasy use among college students: Results of a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Kathryn B.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O’Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2008-01-01

    Aims To: 1) estimate the proportion of students exposed to specific types of information regarding the positive and negative effects of ecstasy, 2) test models that quantified the relationship between exposure to these messages and subsequent ecstasy use, controlling for peer drug use and sensation-seeking. Methods As part of the College Life Study, 447 students, ages 17–20, from a university in the mid-Atlantic region of the US completed an in person interview plus three follow-up assessments. Findings Individuals who had heard a greater number of negative messages were significantly more likely to use ecstasy, even controlling for positive messages, prior ecstasy use, peer ecstasy use, perceived harm, sensation-seeking, sex, and race. Some messages were significant at the bivariate level. Conclusions Ecstasy use may have been influenced more by the content of the messages than by the quantity or diversity of messages. Interventions should be designed to address both positive and negative perceptions about a particular drug, rather than focusing exclusively on the negative information. Future evaluations should focus on the effectiveness of multi-pronged sustainable prevention programs in reducing adolescent drug use risk. PMID:21057670

  15. Broad Range of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Patterns, Dual Circulation of Quasi-Subgenotype A3 and HBV/E and Heterogeneous HBV Mutations in HIV-Positive Patients in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Bivigou-Mboumba, Berthold; François-Souquière, Sandrine; Deleplancque, Luc; Sica, Jeanne; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Amougou-Atsama, Marie; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Njouom, Richard; Rouet, François

    2016-01-01

    Integrated data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) patterns, HBV genotypes and mutations are lacking in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) co-infected patients from Africa. This survey was conducted in 2010-2013 among 762 HIV-1-positive adults from Gabon who were predominantly treated with 3TC-based antiretroviral treatment. HBV patterns were identified using immunoassays detecting total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), IgM HBcAb, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to HBsAg (HBsAb) and an in-house real-time PCR test for HBV DNA quantification. Occult hepatitis B (OBI) was defined by the presence of isolated anti-HBc with detectable serum HBV DNA. HBV genotypes and HBV mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. Seventy-one (9.3%) patients tested positive for HBsAg, including one with acute hepatitis B (0.1%; 95% CI, 0.0%-0.2%), nine with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.6%-2.2%), 16 with HBeAg-negative CHB (2.1%; 95% CI, 1.2%-3.3%) and 45 inactive HBV carriers (5.9%; 95% CI, 4.4%-7.8%). Sixty-one (8.0%; 95% CI, 6.2%-10.1%) patients showed OBI. Treated patients showed similar HBV DNA levels to those obtained in untreated patients, regardless of HBV patterns. Around 15.0% of OBI patients showed high (>1,000 UI/mL) viremia. The mutation M204V/I conferring resistance to 3TC was more common in HBV/A (47.4%) than in HBV/E isolates (0%) (P = .04). Our findings encouraged clinicians to promote HBV vaccination in patients with no exposure to HBV and to switch 3TC to universal TDF in those with CHB.

  16. Broad Range of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Patterns, Dual Circulation of Quasi-Subgenotype A3 and HBV/E and Heterogeneous HBV Mutations in HIV-Positive Patients in Gabon

    PubMed Central

    Bivigou-Mboumba, Berthold; François-Souquière, Sandrine; Deleplancque, Luc; Sica, Jeanne; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Amougou-Atsama, Marie; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Njouom, Richard; Rouet, François

    2016-01-01

    Integrated data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) patterns, HBV genotypes and mutations are lacking in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) co-infected patients from Africa. This survey was conducted in 2010–2013 among 762 HIV-1-positive adults from Gabon who were predominantly treated with 3TC-based antiretroviral treatment. HBV patterns were identified using immunoassays detecting total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), IgM HBcAb, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to HBsAg (HBsAb) and an in-house real-time PCR test for HBV DNA quantification. Occult hepatitis B (OBI) was defined by the presence of isolated anti-HBc with detectable serum HBV DNA. HBV genotypes and HBV mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. Seventy-one (9.3%) patients tested positive for HBsAg, including one with acute hepatitis B (0.1%; 95% CI, 0.0%-0.2%), nine with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.6%–2.2%), 16 with HBeAg-negative CHB (2.1%; 95% CI, 1.2%–3.3%) and 45 inactive HBV carriers (5.9%; 95% CI, 4.4%–7.8%). Sixty-one (8.0%; 95% CI, 6.2%–10.1%) patients showed OBI. Treated patients showed similar HBV DNA levels to those obtained in untreated patients, regardless of HBV patterns. Around 15.0% of OBI patients showed high (>1,000 UI/mL) viremia. The mutation M204V/I conferring resistance to 3TC was more common in HBV/A (47.4%) than in HBV/E isolates (0%) (P = .04). Our findings encouraged clinicians to promote HBV vaccination in patients with no exposure to HBV and to switch 3TC to universal TDF in those with CHB. PMID:26764909

  17. Broad Range of Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Patterns, Dual Circulation of Quasi-Subgenotype A3 and HBV/E and Heterogeneous HBV Mutations in HIV-Positive Patients in Gabon.

    PubMed

    Bivigou-Mboumba, Berthold; François-Souquière, Sandrine; Deleplancque, Luc; Sica, Jeanne; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Amougou-Atsama, Marie; Chaix, Marie-Laure; Njouom, Richard; Rouet, François

    2016-01-01

    Integrated data on hepatitis B virus (HBV) patterns, HBV genotypes and mutations are lacking in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) co-infected patients from Africa. This survey was conducted in 2010-2013 among 762 HIV-1-positive adults from Gabon who were predominantly treated with 3TC-based antiretroviral treatment. HBV patterns were identified using immunoassays detecting total antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAb), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), IgM HBcAb, hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), antibody to HBsAg (HBsAb) and an in-house real-time PCR test for HBV DNA quantification. Occult hepatitis B (OBI) was defined by the presence of isolated anti-HBc with detectable serum HBV DNA. HBV genotypes and HBV mutations were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing method. Seventy-one (9.3%) patients tested positive for HBsAg, including one with acute hepatitis B (0.1%; 95% CI, 0.0%-0.2%), nine with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB) (1.2%; 95% CI, 0.6%-2.2%), 16 with HBeAg-negative CHB (2.1%; 95% CI, 1.2%-3.3%) and 45 inactive HBV carriers (5.9%; 95% CI, 4.4%-7.8%). Sixty-one (8.0%; 95% CI, 6.2%-10.1%) patients showed OBI. Treated patients showed similar HBV DNA levels to those obtained in untreated patients, regardless of HBV patterns. Around 15.0% of OBI patients showed high (>1,000 UI/mL) viremia. The mutation M204V/I conferring resistance to 3TC was more common in HBV/A (47.4%) than in HBV/E isolates (0%) (P = .04). Our findings encouraged clinicians to promote HBV vaccination in patients with no exposure to HBV and to switch 3TC to universal TDF in those with CHB. PMID:26764909

  18. Painful bipartite patella in young athletes. The diagnostic value of skyline views taken in squatting position and the results of surgical excision.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, H; Sakurai, A; Hirata, S; Ohno, O; Kita, K; Sato, T; Kashiwagi, D

    1994-08-01

    Nine patients with painful bipartite patella associated with young athletes were evaluated clinically and radiologically at an average of 60 months (range, 21 to 145 months) after excision of accessory nucleus of the patella. All patients were male and between 14 and 21 years of age when they were operated on. The indications for excision of separated fragments of the patella included: failure of nonoperative treatment for more than 3 months; radiographic evidence of significant irregularities of the articular surface of the separated fragment of the patella; and symptoms severe and prolonged enough to warrant surgery. Skyline views taken with the patient in a squatting position with weight bearing showed a wider separation of the accessory fragment from the main patella than did the nonweight bearing skyline views. This appears to be an important and useful diagnostic feature in a painful bipartite patellae; the authors propose that this radiographic examination should be called a "squatting position test". Histologically, the interface between the accessory and main patella was fibrocartilaginous, and the adjacent bone tissue was clearly demarcated by a dense lamina, indicating that the initial lesion was probably a traction lesion. All patients returned to full sports activity at their previous highest level within 4 to 7 weeks. The excision of accessory bone appears to be a simple and reliable procedure for avoiding prolonged postoperative treatment, reducing the length of incapacitation, and minimizing the danger of permanent stiffness of the joint.

  19. Computerised determination of spontaneous inspiratory and expiratory times in premature neonates during intermittent positive pressure ventilation. II: Results from 20 babies.

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, J S; Morley, C J; Mockridge, J N

    1994-01-01

    Twenty premature infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were studied using a new computerised technique to determine spontaneous inspiratory and expiratory times. The technique is continuous and non-invasive. Infants were studied during intermittent positive pressure ventilation for periods of up to 45 minutes. Median birth weight and gestation were 1477 g and 30 weeks. The median number of breaths analysed for each baby was 925. The median (range) for spontaneous inspiratory time was 0.30 (0.26 to 0.34) seconds and for spontaneous expiratory time it was 0.46 (0.34 to 0.66) seconds. The spontaneous inspiratory and expiratory times were different from the ventilator settings. PMID:7820709

  20. Point-of-Care Testing in Bathhouses: A Narrative Inquiry into the Experience of Receiving a Positive Preliminary HIV Test Result.

    PubMed

    Genoway, Shyla; Caine, Vera; Singh, Ameeta E; Estefan, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    With a call to increase the accessibility of HIV testing, point-of-care testing for HIV is being readily adopted, but little attention has been paid to the experiences of people being tested at HIV point-of-care sites. Some testing environments, such as bathhouses, promote testing for HIV in higher-risk groups. In this narrative inquiry study we explored the experiences of people testing positive for HIV through point-of-care while at a bathhouse. Three narrative threads for reconsidering the practice were identified: (a) seeing complexities, understanding testing decisions in relation to time, place, and social context; (b) recognizing the impact and significance of secret and silent stories; and (c) tentative and tension-filled connections to care. It is important to understand testing experiences across time, place, and in diverse social contexts. These experiences are embedded within the larger life histories of people and raise questions about adequate support, follow-up, and counseling. PMID:26900014

  1. Goblet-cell-specific transcription of mouse intestinal trefoil factor gene results from collaboration of complex series of positive and negative regulatory elements.

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, H; Inoue, N; Podolsky, D K

    1999-01-01

    Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) is expressed selectively in intestinal goblet cells. Previous studies of the rat ITF gene identified one cis-regulatory element, designated the goblet-cell-response element (GCRE), present in the proximal region of the promoter. To identify additional cis-regulatory elements responsible for goblet-cell-specific expression, a DNA fragment containing 6353 bp of the 5'-flanking region of the mouse ITF gene was cloned and its promoter activity was examined extensively. In human and murine intestinal-derived cell lines (LS174T and CMT-93), the luciferase activities of a 6.3-kb construct were 5- and 2-fold greater than the smaller 1.8-kb construct, respectively. In contrast, the activity in non-intestinal cell lines (HepG2 and HeLa) was 2-4-fold lower than the smaller construct. In the region downstream from the 1.8-kb position, strong luciferase activities in LS174T and HepG2 cells were observed using a 201-bp construct. Interestingly, increased activity was almost completely suppressed in cells transfected with a 391-bp construct. Detailed analyses of this region revealed the existence of a 11-bp positive regulatory element (-181 to -170; ACCTCTTCCTG) and a 9-bp negative regulatory element (-208 to -200; ATTGACAGA) in addition to the GCRE. All three elements were well conserved among human, rat and mouse ITF gene promoters. In addition, a mutant 1.8-kb construct in which the negative regulatory region was deleted yielded the same approximate luciferase activity as a 6.3-kb construct, suggesting binding of a goblet-cell-specific silencer inhibitor (SI) between -6.3 and -1.8 kb. The SI present in goblet cells may block the silencers' binding to the pre-initiation complex and allow increased transcriptional activity driven by specific and non-specific enhancers. High-level expression of the mouse ITF gene specifically in intestinal goblet cells may be achieved through the combined effects of these regulatory elements. PMID:10393106

  2. Complete Biallelic Insulation at the H19/Igf2 Imprinting Control Region Position Results in Fetal Growth Retardation and Perinatal Lethality

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Singh, Purnima; Tsark, Walter M. K.; Szabó, Piroska E.

    2010-01-01

    Background The H19/Igf2 imprinting control region (ICR) functions as an insulator exclusively in the unmethylated maternal allele, where enhancer-blocking by CTCF protein prevents the interaction between the Igf2 promoter and the distant enhancers. DNA methylation inhibits CTCF binding in the paternal ICR allele. Two copies of the chicken β-globin insulator (ChβGI)2 are capable of substituting for the enhancer blocking function of the ICR. Insulation, however, now also occurs upon paternal inheritance, because unlike the H19 ICR, the (ChβGI)2 does not become methylated in fetal male germ cells. The (ChβGI)2 is a composite insulator, exhibiting enhancer blocking by CTCF and chromatin barrier functions by USF1 and VEZF1. We asked the question whether these barrier proteins protected the (ChβGI)2 sequences from methylation in the male germ line. Methodology/Principal Findings We genetically dissected the ChβGI in the mouse by deleting the binding sites USF1 and VEZF1. The methylation of the mutant versus normal (ChβGI)2 significantly increased from 11% to 32% in perinatal male germ cells, suggesting that the barrier proteins did have a role in protecting the (ChβGI)2 from methylation in the male germ line. Contrary to the H19 ICR, however, the mutant (mChβGI)2 lacked the potential to attain full de novo methylation in the germ line and to maintain methylation in the paternal allele in the soma, where it consequently functioned as a biallelic insulator. Unexpectedly, a stricter enhancer blocking was achieved by CTCF alone than by a combination of the CTCF, USF1 and VEZF1 sites, illustrated by undetectable Igf2 expression upon paternal transmission. Conclusions/Significance In this in vivo model, hypomethylation at the ICR position together with fetal growth retardation mimicked the human Silver-Russell syndrome. Importantly, late fetal/perinatal death occurred arguing that strict biallelic insulation at the H19/Igf2 ICR position is not tolerated in development

  3. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety. PMID:26847149

  4. Positive Reinforcement Training for Blood Collection in Grizzly Bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) Results in Undetectable Elevations in Serum Cortisol Levels: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Joyce-Zuniga, Nicole M; Newberry, Ruth C; Robbins, Charles T; Ware, Jasmine V; Jansen, Heiko T; Nelson, O Lynne

    2016-01-01

    Training nonhuman animals in captivity for participation in routine husbandry procedures is believed to produce a lower stress environment compared with undergoing a general anesthetic event for the same procedure. This hypothesis rests largely on anecdotal evidence that the captive subjects appear more relaxed with the trained event. Blood markers of physiological stress responses were evaluated in 4 captive grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) who were clicker-trained for blood collection versus 4 bears who were chemically immobilized for blood collection. Serum cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and plasma β-endorphin were measured as indicators of responses to stress. Plasma β-endorphin was not different between the groups. Serum IgA was undetectable in all bears. Serum cortisol was undetectable in all trained bears, whereas chemically immobilized bears had marked cortisol elevations (p < .05). The highest cortisol elevations were found in 2 bears with extensive recent immobilization experience. These findings support the use of positive reinforcement training for routine health procedures to minimize anxiety.

  5. Efficacy of Several Serological Tests and Antigens for Diagnosis of Bovine Brucellosis in the Presence of False-Positive Serological Results Due to Yersinia enterocolitica O:9

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, P. M.; Marín, C. M.; Monreal, D.; González, D.; Garin-Bastuji, B.; Díaz, R.; Mainar-Jaime, R. C.; Moriyón, I.; Blasco, J. M.

    2005-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica O:9 bears a smooth lipopolysaccharide (S-LPS) of Brucella sp. O-chain A + C/Y epitopic structure and is a cause of false-positive serological reactions (FPSR) in standard tests for cattle brucellosis. Brucella S-LPS, cross-reacting S-LPSs representing several O-chain epitope combinations, Brucella core lipid A epitopes (rough LPS), Brucella abortus S-LPS-derived polysaccharide, native hapten polysaccharide, rough LPS group 3 outer membrane protein complexes, recombinant BP26, and cytosolic proteins were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and precipitation tests to detect cattle brucellosis (sensitivity) and to differentiate it from FPSR (specificity). No single serological test and antigen combination showed 100% sensitivity and specificity simultaneously. Immunoprecipitation tests with native hapten polysaccharide, counterimmunoelectrophoresis with cytosolic proteins, and a chaotropic ELISA with Brucella S-LPS were 100% specific but less sensitive than the Rose Bengal test, complement fixation, and indirect ELISA with Brucella S-LPSs and native hapten or S-LPS-derived polysaccharides. A competitive ELISA with Brucella S-LPS and M84 C/Y-specific monoclonal antibody was not 100% specific and was less sensitive than other tests. ELISA with Brucella suis bv. 2 S-LPS (deficient in C epitopes), Escherichia hermannii S-LPSs [lacking the contiguous α-(1-2)-linked perosamine residues characteristic of Y. enterocolitica S-LPS], BP26 recombinant protein, and Brucella cytosolic fractions did not provide adequate sensitivity/specificity ratios. Although no serological test and antigen combination fully resolved the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in the presence of FPSR, some are simple and practical alternatives to the brucellin skin test currently recommended for differential diagnosis. PMID:15642999

  6. Socio Economic Position in TB Prevalence and Access to Services: Results from a Population Prevalence Survey and a Facility-Based Survey in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Shahed; Quaiyum, Mohammad Abdul; Zaman, Khalequ; Banu, Sayera; Husain, Mohammad Ashaque; Islam, Mohammad Akramul; Cooreman, Erwin; Borgdorff, Martien; Lönnroth, Knut; Salim, Abdul Hamid; van Leth, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Background In Bangladesh DOTS has been provided free of charge since 1993, yet information on access to TB services by different population group is not well documented. The objective of this study was to assess and compare the socio economic position (SEP) of actively detected cases from the community and the cases being routinely detected under National Tuberculosis Control Programme (NTP) in Bangladesh. Methods and Findings SEP was assessed by validated asset item for each of the 21,427 households included in the national tuberculosis prevalence survey 2007–2009. A principal component analysis generated household scores and categorized in quartiles. The distribution of 33 actively identified cases was compared with the 240 NTP cases over the identical SEP quartiles to evaluate access to TB services by different groups of the population. The population prevalence of tuberculosis was 5 times higher in the lowest quartiles of population (95.4, 95% CI: 48.0–189.7) to highest quartile population (19.5, 95% CI: 6.9–55.0). Among the 33 cases detected during survey, 25 (75.8%) were from lower two quartiles, and the rest 8 (24.3%) were from upper two quartiles. Among TB cases detected passively under NTP, more than half of them 137 (57.1%) were from uppermost two quartiles, 98 (41%) from the second quartile, and 5 (2%) in the lowest quartile of the population. This distribution is not affected when adjusted for other factors or interactions among them. Conclusions The findings indicate that despite availability free of charge, DOTS is not equally accessed by the poorer sections of the population. However, these figures should be interpreted with caution since there is a need for additional studies that assess in-depth poverty indicators and its determinants in relation to access of the TB services provided in Bangladesh. PMID:23028718

  7. Possible Positive Results of the Current Fiscal Crisis in Higher Education. Panel Session: Learning to Live on Less--The Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calais, Mary Jane

    The increasing use of management techniques may be viewed as a beneficial result of the financial problems currently being experienced by many community colleges. The college budget should be goal-oriented and the basis for a good management system. When properly used as a planning technique, the budget can become a vehicle for considering and…

  8. Low Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C Virus Markers among Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Livia Melo; Amado, Luciane Almeida; de Almeida, Adilson José; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among children and adolescents attending schools and daycare centres in Rio de Janeiro State, located in southern Brazil. Serum samples from 1,217 individuals aged 0 to 18 years were collected from 1999 to 2012 and tested for HBsAg, total anti-HBc, anti-HBs, and anti-HCV by ELISA. Reactive HBsAg and anti-HBc samples were tested for HBV DNA. Reactive anti-HCV samples were tested for HCV RNA and genotyped by RFLP. HBsAg was detected in 1.8% of individuals, and total anti-HBc was detected among 3.6% of individuals. Anti-HBs reactivity was found among 25.3% (322/1,217) of the individuals and increased from 6.28% in the years 1999-2000 to 76.2% in the years 2001–2012 (P < 0.0001). HBV DNA was detected in 18 of 51 individuals who presented with HBsAg or isolated anti-HBc, and nine were considered occult hepatitis B cases. Three individuals were anti-HCV- and HCV RNA-positive: two of them were infected with genotype 1, and the other was infected with genotype 3. Low levels of HBV and HCV markers were observed in children and adolescents. HBV immunity increased during the period of study, indicating that childhood universal HBV vaccination has been effective for controlling HBV infection in Brazil. PMID:25093164

  9. Blended learning positively affects students' satisfaction and the role of the tutor in the problem-based learning process: results of a mixed-method evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woltering, Vanessa; Herrler, Andreas; Spitzer, Klaus; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2009-12-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established didactic approach in medical education worldwide. The impact of PBL depends on the tutors' quality and the students' motivation. To enhance students' motivation and satisfaction and to overcome the problems with the changing quality of tutors, online learning and face-to-face classes were systematically combined resulting in a blended learning scenario (blended problem-based learning--bPBL). The study aims at determining whether bPBL increases the students' motivation and supports the learning process with respect to the students' cooperation, their orientation, and more reliable tutoring. The blended PBL was developed in a cooperation of students and teachers. The well-established Seven Jump-scheme of PBL was carefully complemented by eLearning modules. On the first training day of bPBL the students start to work together with the online program, but without a tutor, on the final training day the tutor participates in the meeting for additional help and feedback. The program was evaluated by a mixed-method study. The traditional PBL course was compared with the blended PBL by means of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires, standardized group interviews, and students' test results. In addition log-files were analyzed. A total of 185 third-year students and 14 tutors took part in the study. Motivation, subjective learning gains and satisfaction achieved significantly higher ratings by the bPBL students compared with the students learning by traditional PBL. The tutors' opinion and the test results showed no differences between the groups. Working with the web-based learning environment was assessed as very good by the students. According to the log-file analysis, the web-based learning module was frequently used and improved the cooperation during the self-directed learning.

  10. Blended learning positively affects students' satisfaction and the role of the tutor in the problem-based learning process: results of a mixed-method evaluation.

    PubMed

    Woltering, Vanessa; Herrler, Andreas; Spitzer, Klaus; Spreckelsen, Cord

    2009-12-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) is an established didactic approach in medical education worldwide. The impact of PBL depends on the tutors' quality and the students' motivation. To enhance students' motivation and satisfaction and to overcome the problems with the changing quality of tutors, online learning and face-to-face classes were systematically combined resulting in a blended learning scenario (blended problem-based learning--bPBL). The study aims at determining whether bPBL increases the students' motivation and supports the learning process with respect to the students' cooperation, their orientation, and more reliable tutoring. The blended PBL was developed in a cooperation of students and teachers. The well-established Seven Jump-scheme of PBL was carefully complemented by eLearning modules. On the first training day of bPBL the students start to work together with the online program, but without a tutor, on the final training day the tutor participates in the meeting for additional help and feedback. The program was evaluated by a mixed-method study. The traditional PBL course was compared with the blended PBL by means of qualitative and quantitative questionnaires, standardized group interviews, and students' test results. In addition log-files were analyzed. A total of 185 third-year students and 14 tutors took part in the study. Motivation, subjective learning gains and satisfaction achieved significantly higher ratings by the bPBL students compared with the students learning by traditional PBL. The tutors' opinion and the test results showed no differences between the groups. Working with the web-based learning environment was assessed as very good by the students. According to the log-file analysis, the web-based learning module was frequently used and improved the cooperation during the self-directed learning. PMID:19184497

  11. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nursing Positions KidsHealth > For Parents > Nursing Positions Print A ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ...

  12. The measurement of boundary layers on a compressor blade in cascade at high positive incidence angle. 1: Experimental techniques and results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, S.; Zierke, W. C.

    1986-01-01

    Measurements of the mean velocity and turbulence intensity were made using a one-component laser Doppler velocimeter in the boundary layer and near wake about a double circular arc, compressor blade in cascade. The measurements were made at a chord Reynolds number of 500,000. Boundary layer measurements on the pressure surface indicate a transition region over the last 40% of the chord. A small separation bubble near the leading edge of the suction surface results in an immediate transition from laminar to turbulent flow. The non-equilibrium turbulent boundary layer separates near the trailing edge of the suction surface. Similarity of the outer region of the turbulent boundary layer ceases to exist in the separated region. Also, similarity does not hold in the near-wake region, a region which includes negative mean velocities because of the separation near the trailing edge on the suction surface.

  13. Lost opportunities to identify and treat HIV-positive patients: results from a baseline assessment of provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Saeed; Schwarz, Monica; Flick, Robert; Rees, Chris A.; Harawa, Mwelura; Simon, Katie; Robison, Jeff; Kazembe, Peter N.; Kim, Maria H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess implementation of provider-initiated testing and counseling (PITC) for HIV in Malawi. Methods A review of PITC practices within 118 departments in 12 Ministry of Health (MoH) facilities across Malawi was conducted. Information on PITC practices was collected via a health facility survey. Data describing patient visits and HIV tests were abstracted from routinely collected program data. Results Reported PITC practices were highly variable. Most providers practiced symptom-based PITC. Antenatal clinics and maternity wards reported widespread use of routine opt-out PITC. In 2014, there was approximately 1 HIV test for every 15 clinic visits. HIV status was ascertained in 94.3% (5,293/5,615) of patients at tuberculosis clinics, 92.6% (30,675/33,142) of patients at antenatal clinics, and 49.4% (6,871/13,914) of patients at sexually transmitted infection clinics. Reported challenges to delivering PITC included test kit shortages (71/71 providers), insufficient physical space (58/71), and inadequate number of HIV counselors (32/71) while providers from inpatient units cited the inability to test on weekends. Conclusions Various models of PITC currently exist at MoH facilities in Malawi. Only antenatal and maternity clinics demonstrated high rates of routine opt-out PITC. The low ratio of facility visits to HIV tests suggests missed opportunities for HIV testing. However, the high proportion of patients at TB and antenatal clinics with known HIV status suggests routine PITC is feasible. These results underscore the need to develop clear, standardized PITC policy and protocols, and to address obstacles of limited health commodities, infrastructure, and human resources. PMID:26806378

  14. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  15. Implementation of Departmental Quality Strategies Is Positively Associated with Clinical Practice: Results of a Multicenter Study in 73 Hospitals in 7 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the amount of time and resources invested in implementing quality programs in hospitals, few studies have investigated their clinical impact and what strategies could be recommended to enhance its effectiveness. Objective To assess variations in clinical practice and explore associations with hospital- and department-level quality management systems. Design Multicenter, multilevel cross-sectional study. Setting and Participants Seventy-three acute care hospitals with 276 departments managing acute myocardial infarction, deliveries, hip fracture, and stroke in seven countries. Intervention None. Measures Predictor variables included 3 hospital- and 4 department-level quality measures. Six measures were collected through direct observation by an external surveyor and one was assessed through a questionnaire completed by hospital quality managers. Dependent variables included 24 clinical practice indicators based on case note reviews covering the 4 conditions (acute myocardial infarction, deliveries, hip fracture and stroke). A directed acyclic graph was used to encode relationships between predictors, outcomes, and covariates and to guide the choice of covariates to control for confounding. Results and Limitations Data were provided on 9021 clinical records by 276 departments in 73 hospitals. There were substantial variations in compliance with the 24 clinical practice indicators. Weak associations were observed between hospital quality systems and 4 of the 24 indicators, but on analyzing department-level quality systems, strong associations were observed for 8 of the 11 indicators for acute myocardial infarction and stroke. Clinical indicators supported by higher levels of evidence were more frequently associated with quality systems and activities. Conclusions There are significant gaps between recommended standards of care and clinical practice in a large sample of hospitals. Implementation of department-level quality strategies was significantly

  16. "If it ain't broke, don't fix it": a commentary on the positive-negative results of the ACCORD Lipid study.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2010-01-01

    Even using intensive statin monotherapy, many patients fail to achieve all the desired lipid goals and remain at high residual risk of cardiovascular events. In view of the still unproven decisively intensive "statin as monotherapy" strategy and "residual risk" concept, it is logical to ask whether other strategies, particularly fibrate/statin combination therapy, could be more beneficial and safer. A clear benefit of fibrate monotherapy did emerge previously among patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia (particularly high triglycerides and low high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]) typically present in the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In contrast, in patients without atherogenic dyslipidemia this favorable effect was not demonstrated. The Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) study investigated whether combination therapy with a statin plus a fibrate, as compared with statin monotherapy, would reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, relevant patients with atherogenic dyslipidemia represented less than 17 percent of the ACCORD Lipid population (941 out of 5518 patients). In this prespecified subgroup, the patients benefited from fenofibrate therapy in addition to simvastatin similar to the previous "fibrate's as monotherapy" trials: the primary outcome rate was 12.4% in the fenofibrate group, versus 17.3% in the placebo group (28% crude HR reduction, CI less than 1, e.g. statistically significant findings). Among all other 4548 patients without atherogenic dyslipidemia such rates were 10.1% in both fenofibrate and placebo study groups. Authors concluded that in the overall cohort of patients the combination of fenofibrate and simvastatin did not reduce the rate of the cardiovascular events as compared with simvastatin alone. Thus, their results do not support the routine use of combination therapy with fenofibrate and simvastatin to reduce cardiovascular risk in the general

  17. New strategies for blood donor screening for hepatitis B virus: nucleic acid testing versus immunoassay methods.

    PubMed

    Kuhns, Mary C; Busch, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    Serologic testing for hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to HBV core antigen (anti-HBc) has historically been the foundation of blood screening, while HBV nucleic acid testing (NAT) was recently developed to detect HBsAg-negative, anti-HBc-negative blood units donated during early acute infection. Comparison data on seroconversion panels using HBsAg assays of varying sensitivities and pooled- or single-sample NAT, along with viral load estimates corresponding to HBsAg assay detection limits, have provided information on the theoretical benefits of NAT relative to HBsAg. Model-derived estimates have generally been predictive of the yields of DNA-positive, HBsAg-negative window period blood units detected in a number of studies from Europe, Japan, and the US. Studies indicate that the added benefit of pooled-sample NAT is relatively small in areas of low endemicity, with greater yields in areas highly endemic for HBV. Single-sample NAT would offer more significant early window period closure and could prevent a moderate number of residual HBV transmissions not detected by HBsAg assays; however, no fully automated single-sample HBV NAT systems are currently available.Even single-sample HBV NAT may not substitute for anti-HBc screening, as indicated by studies of donors with isolated anti-HBc who have extremely low DNA levels undetectable by standard single-sample NAT and who have been associated with transfusion-transmitted HBV. Moreover, HBsAg testing may still be needed even in the setting of combined anti-HBc and NAT screening. HBsAg-positive units from donors in the chronic stage of infection may contain very low or intermittently detectable DNA levels that single-sample NAT would miss. Although such donors are usually anti-HBc reactive and would be interdicted by anti-HBc screening, some lack anti-HBc. Extensive parallel testing will be needed to determine whether single-sample NAT in combination with anti-HBc might be sufficient to

  18. Satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.; Watkins, Michael M.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in satellite positioning techniques and their applications are reviewed on the basis of the theoretical and practical work published by U.S. researchers in 1987-1990. Current techniques are classified into two main categories: satellite laser tracking and radio tracking. Particular attention is given to the Geoscience Laser Ranging System, the Lunar Laser Ranging concept; GPS ephemerides determination, fiducial networks, and reference frame; static GPS positioning; and kinematic GPS positioning.

  19. Viral markers in the treatment of hepatitis B and C.

    PubMed Central

    Schmilovitz-Weiss, H; Levy, M; Thompson, N; Dusheiko, G

    1993-01-01

    Acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is typically distinguished from chronic disease by a positive IgM anti-hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) test. Patients with chronic hepatitis B remain hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive, often with raised serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities, for more than six months. The presence of hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV-DNA correlates with infectivity (although patients infected with the pre-core mutated virus may be HBeAg negative). Immunity after HBV infection is characterised by the presence of anti-HBs and anti-HBc antibodies. Patients who respond to interferon alfa treatment lose HBV-DNA and HBeAg from serum and their ALT values return to normal; some also lose HBsAg and acquire anti-HBs. Diagnosis of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains largely dependent on history and exclusion, as anti-HCV antibodies may appear late or never at all, although HCV-RNA may be detectable on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) within days of infection. Second generation ELISAs detect a range of anti-HCV antibodies in chronic infections, and confirmatory RIBAs have reduced the incidence of false-positive results. Direct tests for HCV antigens in serum are not yet available, although PCR testing for HCV-RNA can be used to confirm viraemia. Patients who respond to interferon alfa treatment show continuous normalisation of serum ALT values, and some lose HCV-RNA. Relapse occurs in about half of all those who respond. PMID:7686114

  20. [Culture of hepatitis virus B].

    PubMed

    Panouse-Perrin, J; Couroucé-Pauty, A M; Rachman, F

    1975-01-01

    For the last 25 years, numerous attempts have been made to isolate the HBV agent responsible for hepatitis B by means of cultures 'in vitro'. We have undertaken longterm cultures of children's hepatic tissue (C.H.), conjunctive tissue (human adult H.A.F. and human embryonic fibroblasts H.E.F.) and KB cells; these were put in the presence of 7 sera HB + rich in Dane particles. These cells were trypsinized twice a week for almost 3 months and did not present any cytopathogenic effects. Electromicroscopy revealed, 15 days after infection, the presence of icosahedral particles (25 to 27 nm in diameter), free or in dense clusters, but more often empty (20 nm in diameter). These structures seemed to be made up of an assembly of capsomers approximately 5 nm in diameter, joined together in fours to form a ridge. Older cultures revealed clusters of icosahedrons some of which degenerated spontaneously; others were surrounded by proteinic structure having a fringed aspect. Certain rare particles of 35 to 45 nm in diameter are similar to full Dane particles. EID immunological results were positive in the case of sera of patients convalescent from hepatitis B, containing anti-HBc antibodies, on C.H. cells the 27th and 40th days, and negative with anti-HBs antibodies. By immunofluorescence we observed 12 to 20 days after infection of the cells, a clear fluorescence at first nuclear, then essentially cytoplasmic, by means of fluorescent anti-HBc sera of human or animal origin. With the fluorescent anti-HBs antibodies, the reaction is weak and solely cytoplasmic although in DRI, with H.E.F. and KB cells, we obtained from time to time weakly positive results in HBs. The relations between the morphological structures and the immunological results observed are discussed.

  1. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  2. Synthesis of antibodies to hepatitis B virus by cultured lymphocytes from chronic hepatitis B surface antigen carriers

    SciTech Connect

    Dusheiko, G.M.; Hoofnagle, J.H.; Cooksley, W.G.; James, S.P.; Jones, E.A.

    1983-05-01

    It has been postulated that host immune defects are responsible for the development and persistence of the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carrier state. The synthesis of both anti-HBs and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) in cultures containing peripheral blood mononuclear cells from chronic HBsAg carriers and from control (antibody-positive) patients was measured in the presence of pokeweed mitogen. Similar amounts of polyclonal IgG and IgM were synthesized by cultures containing lymphocytes from chronic carriers and controls. Anti-HBc was detectable in lymphocyte supernatants from 2 of 20 controls and from 21 of 29 carriers. The presence of anti-HBc synthesis in vitro correlated with high serum titers of anti-HBc. In contrast, anti-HBs was detected in lymphocyte supernatants from 6 of 20 controls (predominantly in those who had high serum titers of anti-HBs) but in none of the supernatants from 29 HBsAg carriers. Co-culture experiments were performed using T and B lymphocyte fractions that had been purified by affinity chromatography. B lymphocytes from carriers co-cultured with allogeneic irradiated (''helper'') T lymphocytes from controls synthesized normal amounts of IgG, IgM, and anti-HBc but still did not synthesize detectable amounts of anti-HBs. In the converse experiments, B lymphocytes from controls were co-cultured with irradiated T lymphocytes from carriers. The T lymphocytes from 16 of 24 carriers augmented anti-HBs production by control B cells normally, the remaining eight did not. Finally, mixtures of control B cells and control irradiated T lymphocytes were co-cultured with T lymphocytes from chronic HBsAg carriers. 5 of 12 carriers demonstrated active suppression of anti-HBs production, and in three this suppression was specific, as IgG and IgM production remained normal.

  3. 77 FR 2071 - Medical Devices; Availability of Safety and Effectiveness Summaries for Premarket Approval...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ... date P100031, FDA-2011-M-0502...... Roche Diagnostics ELECSYS ANTI-HBC IMMUNOASSAY & June 22, 2011. Corp.. ELECSYS PRECICONTROL ANTI-HBC. P100032, FDA-2011-M-0503...... Roche Diagnostics ELECSYS ANTI-HBC IMMUNOASSAY, June 27, 2011. Corp.. ELECSYS PRECICONTROL ANTI-HBC FOR USE ON THE ELECSYS 2010...

  4. Searching for chronic hepatitis B patients in a low prevalence area – role of racial origin

    PubMed Central

    Ono-Nita, Suzane Kioko; Carrilho, Flair José; Cardoso, Rita A; Nita, Marcelo Eidi; da Silva, Luiz Caetano

    2004-01-01

    Background Clinical studies for testing new drugs against hepatitis B ought to be carried out in low prevalence areas despite difficulties on patient recruitment. In such areas, relatives of chronic hepatitis B patients are considered to be at risk of acquiring the hepatitis B virus (HBV). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HBV markers (anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs) in familial members of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients according to their origin (Asian or Western) in a low prevalence area, the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods Twenty three Asian CHB probands and their 313 relatives plus 31 CHB probands of Western origin and their 211 relatives were screened for HBV serological markers; the study was carried out in the outpatient clinic of the University of São Paulo School of Medicine. Results Mother to child transmission was greater in the Asian group whereas sexual transmission was more frequent in the Western group (p < 0.0001). Anti-HBc was positive in 90% and 57% of the Asian and Western parents (p = 0.0432) and in 97% and 33% of the Asian and Western brothers (p = 0.0001), respectively. HBsAg was more frequent among the Asian (66%) than the Western (15%) mothers (p = 0.0260) as well as among the Asian (81%) than the Western (19%) brothers (p = 0.0001). We could detect 110 new HBsAg-positive subjects related to the 54 index patients, being the majority (81%) of Asian origin. Conclusion In low prevalence area of hepatitis B, family members and household contacts of chronic HBV carriers are at high risk for acquiring hepatitis B. PMID:15084223

  5. Partial analysis of hepatitis B virus DNA from hepatocellular carcinoma showing negative hepatitis B virus surface antigen: an analysis of two Japanese cases.

    PubMed

    Shiota, Goshi; Oyama, Kenji; Udagawa, Akihide; Nomi, Takahiro; Tanaka, Kiwamu; Tsutsumi, Atsushi; Noguchi, Noya; Okano, Jun-ichi; Kishimoto, Yosuke; Kanbe, Takamasa; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Kawasaki, Hironaka

    2009-01-01

    It has been reported that hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA is detected in serum and/or liver in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without HBsAg. To adress this issue, we analyzed HBV genome in 2 HCC cases without HBsAg. The DNA from serum from patients with HCC was amplified with a nested PCR, and 'a' determinant of S region, core promoter region and precore region were sequenced. The first case, a 50 years-old male, was negative for HBsAg and HBeAg, and positive for anti-HBs, anti-HBe and anti-HBc. Viral load of HBV in serum was 4.0 log genome equivalent/ml by TMA assay, and was 1.1 X 105 copy/ml by real-time PCR system. A nucleotide analysis of the common 'a' determinant of S gene showed that the 5 first amino acids of 'a' determinant, CTIPA, were changed to CKTCTTPA. The second case, a 76 years-old male, was positive for anti-HBe, but negative for HBsAg, anti-HBs, HBeAg and anti-HBc. No missense or nonsense mutations were seen in 'a' determinant of S region. Viral load of serum HBV was < 3.7 log genome equivalent/ml by TMA assay, but was 2.4X103 copy/ml by real-time PCR system. The results of the present study suggest that the mechanisms of HBsAg loss are diverse among HCC patients without HBsAg, and that an analysis of HBV genome is a useful tool to dissolve molecular mechanisms losing HBs antigenicity. PMID:19950820

  6. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  7. Prevalence of positive antibody test results for canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) and response to modified live vaccination against CPV and CDV in dogs entering animal shelters.

    PubMed

    Litster, Annette; Nichols, Jamieson; Volpe, Allison

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are relatively common in animal shelters and are important population management issues since the immune status of incoming dogs is usually unknown. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of positive antibody test results for CPV and CDV in incoming dogs aged ≥ 4 months and to measure antibody response over 2 weeks following vaccination with a modified live vaccine (MLV). Dogs aged 4-24 months entering an adoption-guarantee shelter (Shelter 1, n=51) and aged ≥ 4 months entering a limited admission shelter (Shelter 2; n=51) were enrolled. Dogs from Shelter 1 had been vaccinated with MLV at a municipal shelter 5 days before enrollment, whereas dogs from Shelter 2 had no known history of vaccination at enrollment. Sera were obtained on day 1, immediately prior to CPV/CDV MLV, and tested using an in-clinic ELISA kit to detect CPV/CDV antibodies. Dogs negative for CPV and/or CDV were retested at day 6-8 and those dogs still negative at day 6-8 were retested at day 13-15. Prior to CPV/CDV MLV on day 1, more dogs tested positive for CPV (Shelter 1 - 68.6%; Shelter 2 - 84.3%) than for CDV (Shelter 1 - 37.3%; Shelter 2 - 41.2%). On day 1, prior to MLV, all spayed/neutered animals tested CPV antibody-positive (n=17/102) and CPV antibody-positive dogs were older than serologically negative dogs (Shelter 1, P=0.0029; Shelter 2, P=0.0042). By day 13-15, almost all dogs were CPV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 97.9%; Shelter 2 - 100.0%) and CDV antibody-positive (Shelter 1 - 93.8%; Shelter 2 - 97.8%). MLV induces protective antibody titers against CPV/CDV in almost all dogs after 13-15 days.

  8. Titration of hepatitis B virus infectivity in the sera of pre-acute and late acute phases of HBV infection: transmission experiments to chimeric mice with human liver repopulated hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Ayako; Tanaka, Junko; Katayama, Keiko; Mizui, Masaaki; Matsukura, Harumichi; Yugi, Hisao; Shimada, Takashi; Miyakawa, Yuzo; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi

    2008-12-01

    Studies of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in non-human primates such as chimpanzees are no longer possible due to ethical considerations and the endangered status of chimpanzees since April 2007 in Japan. A human hepatocyte transplanted chimeric mouse was used to characterize HBV infectivity in serial stages of acute infection. Chimeric mice were inoculated intravenously with serum samples obtained from an experimentally infected chimpanzee with HBV. Sera from the pre-acute phases (i.e., rump-up viremia prior to anti-HBc) and late acute phases (i.e., declining phase of HBsAg and anti-HBcAb positive) were collected from the chimpanzees 57 and 244 days after inoculation. These sera contained 2.6 x 10(6) and 2.8 x 10(6) copies/ml of HBV DNA, respectively. Three chimeric mice inoculated intravenously with 100 microl of pre-acute serum (equivalent to 10(0) copy of HBV DNA) developed an HBV infection. The three chimeric mice that received 100 microl of pre-acute serum (equivalent to 10(1) copies of HBV DNA), developed high levels of serum HBV DNA. None of the three chimeric mice inoculated with 100 microl of 1:10(4) dilution (equivalent to 10(1) copies of HBV DNA) of late-acute serum was infected, while only one of three chimeric mice inoculated with 100 microl of 1:10(3) dilution (equivalent to 10(2) copies of HBV DNA) of late-acute serum developed an HBV infection. Based on these results, chimeric mice can be used as animal models for the study of HBV infectivity, pathogenesis and control. The results show that pre-acute phase HBV serum is about 100-times more infectious than late acute phase serum.

  9. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  10. Low prevalence of hepatitis B markers among Mexican female sex workers

    PubMed Central

    Juarez-Figueroa, L.; Uribe-Salas, F.; Conde-Glez, C.; Hernandez-Avila, M.; Olamendi-Portugal, M.; Uribe-Zuniga, P.; Calderon, E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors of hepatitis B virus (HBV) serological markers in female sex workers (FSW) in Mexico City. METHODS: The study population consisted of 1498 FSW who attended a detection centre for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in Mexico City, between January and October 1992. Study participants responded to a standardised questionnaire and provided a blood sample for serology of syphilis, HIV, and HBV. RESULTS: A total of 0.2% (95% CI 0.1-0.3) of the population were hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers. The general prevalence of antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was 6.3% (95% CI 5.5-7.1). This marker of previous exposition to HBV, was independently associated by logistic regression multivariate analysis with age, working in the street, and history of blood transfusion (BT) before 1987 (OR 4.8, 95% CI 2.1-11.3). Syphilis prevalence was 7.6% (95% CI 6.2-8.9) and HIV prevalence was 0.1% (95% CI 0-0.3). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HBV infection in this group of Mexican FSW is lower than previously reported in other countries. In addition, the frequency of HBsAg carriers is similar to that in the general Mexican population. The absence of two major risk factors for HBV transmission in this group of FSW--that is, injecting drug use and anal intercourse, could help to explain this finding. However, the positive association between anti-HBc and history of blood transfusion demonstrated here, highlights the need to reinforce strict control of blood supplies in Mexico. 




 PMID:10195057

  11. The response of hepatitis B vaccination on seronegative adults with different vaccination schedules.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jun; Li, Jing; Chen, Yongdi; Shan, Huan; Dai, Xue-wei; Yang, Lin-na; Jiang, Zheng-gang; Ren, Jing-jing; Xu, Kai-jin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shi-gui; Wang, Bing; Xie, Tian-sheng; Li, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the response of hepatitis B vaccination with different vaccination schedules among seronegative adults, and to provide suitable vaccination schedules for floating and fixed population. The study included adults aged 20 to 39 y without prior history of vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine. The serum samples were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels. Out of all, 686 adults who were negative for anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg were vaccinated with 10 ug hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1 and 3, 6 or 12 month schedules, and their antibody titers were monitored. The rates of completion of the vaccination in floating and fixed population were 90.4% and 94.1% respectively (p = 0.061). The anti-HBs positive rates in adults vaccinated at 0, 1 and 3 ,6 or 12 month were 83.9%, 88.2% and 94.2% respectively (P = 0.0003). The corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 61.19 (95%CI:47.10-81.23) mIU/mL, 214.04(95%CI:157.14-291.61) mIU/mL and 345.78(95%CI:251.25-475.77) mIU/mL, respectively ( P < 0.0001). Vaccination of hepatitis B with both 0-1-6 and 0-1-12 month schedules in adults result in better level of immune responses. Also, a longer vaccination schedule (0-1-12 month) may be more suitable for floating population and 0-1-6 month schedule is recommended for the fixed population.

  12. The response of hepatitis B vaccination on seronegative adults with different vaccination schedules

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jun; Li, Jing; Chen, Yongdi; Shan, Huan; Dai, Xue-wei; Yang, Lin-na; Jiang, Zheng-gang; Ren, Jing-jing; Xu, Kai-jin; Ruan, Bing; Yang, Shi-gui; Wang, Bing; Xie, Tian-sheng; Li, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the response of hepatitis B vaccination with different vaccination schedules among seronegative adults, and to provide suitable vaccination schedules for floating and fixed population. The study included adults aged 20 to 39 y without prior history of vaccination with hepatitis B vaccine. The serum samples were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B surface antibody (anti-HBs), and hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) levels. Out of all, 686 adults who were negative for anti-HBs, anti-HBc and HBsAg were vaccinated with 10 ug hepatitis B vaccine at 0, 1 and 3, 6 or 12 month schedules, and their antibody titers were monitored. The rates of completion of the vaccination in floating and fixed population were 90.4% and 94.1% respectively (p = 0.061). The anti-HBs positive rates in adults vaccinated at 0, 1 and 3 ,6 or12 month were 83.9%, 88.2% and 94.2% respectively (P = 0.0003). The corresponding geometric mean titers (GMTs) were 61.19 (95%CI:47.10-81.23) mIU/mL, 214.04(95%CI:157.14-291.61) mIU/mL and 345.78(95%CI:251.25-475.77) mIU/mL, respectively ( P < 0.0001). Vaccination of hepatitis B with both 0–1–6 and 0–1–12 month schedules in adults result in better level of immune responses. Also, a longer vaccination schedule (0–1–12 month) may be more suitable for floating population and 0–1–6 month schedule is recommended for the fixed population. PMID:25621975

  13. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115810

  14. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  15. Smoking interacts with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope in the development of anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (MyEIRA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which genetic and environmental factors interact in the etiology. In this study, we investigated whether smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared-epitope (SE) alleles interact differently in the development of the two major subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative disease, in a multiethnic population of Asian descent. Methods A case-control study comprising early diagnosed RA cases was carried out in Malaysia between 2005 and 2009. In total, 1,076 cases and 1,612 matched controls participated in the study. High-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed for shared-epitope (SE) alleles. All participants answered a questionnaire on a broad range of issues, including smoking habits. The odds ratio (OR) of developing ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative disease was calculated for smoking and the presence of any SE alleles separately. Potential interaction between smoking history (defined as "ever" and "never" smoking) and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles also was calculated. Results In our multiethnic study, both the SE alleles and smoking were associated with an increased risk of developing ACPA-positive RA (OR SE alleles, 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 6.2; OR smoking, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 9.2). SE-positive smokers had an odds ratio of ACPA-positive RA of 25.6 (95% CI, 10.4 to 63.4), compared with SE-negative never-smokers. The interaction between smoking and SE alleles was significant (attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0)). The HLA-DRB1*04:05 SE allele, which is common in Asian populations, but not among Caucasians, was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-positive RA, and this allele also showed signs of interaction with smoking (AP, 0.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.9). Neither smoking nor SE alleles nor their combination was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-negative RA. Conclusions The risk

  16. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  17. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  18. Differences in inferred genome-wide signals of positive selection during the evolution of Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. lineages: A result of disparities in host and tissue infection ranges?

    PubMed

    Flores-López, Carlos A; Machado, Carlos A

    2015-07-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. are kinetoplastids responsible for Chagas disease and Leishmaniasis, neglected tropical diseases for which there are no effective methods of control. These two human pathogens differ widely in the range of mammal species they can infect, their cell/tissue tropism and cell invasion mechanisms. Whether such major biological differences have had any impact on genome-wide patterns of genetic diversification in both pathogens has not been explored. The recent genome sequencing projects of medically important species of Leishmania and T. cruzi lineages provide unique resources for performing comparative evolutionary analyses to address that question. We show that inferred genome-wide signals of positive selection are higher in T. cruzi proteins than in Leishmania spp. proteins. We report significant differences in the fraction of protein-coding genes showing evidence of positive selection in the two groups of parasites, and also report that the intensity of positive selection and the proportion of sites under selection are higher in T. cruzi than in Leishmania spp. The pattern is unlikely to be the result of confounding factors like differences in GC content, average gene length or differences in reproductive mode between the two taxa. We propose that the greater versatility of T. cruzi in its host range, cell tropism and cell invasion mechanisms may explain the observed differences between the two groups of parasites. Genes showing evidence of positive selection within each taxonomic group may be under diversifying selection to evade the immune system and thus, depending on their functions, could represent viable candidates for the development of drugs or vaccines for these neglected human diseases.

  19. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  20. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  1. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  2. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  3. Molecular basis of an adult form of Sandhoff disease: substitution of glutamine for arginine at position 505 of the beta-chain of beta-hexosaminidase results in a labile enzyme.

    PubMed

    Bolhuis, P A; Ponne, N J; Bikker, H; Baas, F; Vianney de Jong, J M

    1993-09-01

    Sandhoff disease is a lysosomal storage disorder characterized by accumulation of GM2 ganglioside due to mutations in the beta-chain of beta-hexosaminidase. Hexosaminidase activity is negligible in infantile Sandhoff disease whereas residual activity is present in juvenile and adult forms. Here we report the molecular basis of the first described adult form of Sandhoff disease. Southern analysis of chromosomal DNA indicated the absence of chromosomal deletions in the gene encoding the beta-chain. Northern analysis of RNA from cultured fibroblasts demonstrated that at least one of the beta-chain alleles was transcribed into normal-length mRNA. Sequence analysis of the entire cDNA prepared from poly-adenylated RNA showed that only one point mutation was present, consisting of a G-->A transition at nucleotide position 1514. This mutation changes the electric charge at amino acid position 505 by substitution of glutamine for arginine in a highly conserved part of the beta-chain, present even in the slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum. The nucleotide transition generated a new restriction site for DdeI, which was present in only one of the alleles of the patient. Reverse transcription of mRNA followed by restriction with DdeI resulted in complete digestion at the mutation site, demonstrating that the second allele was of an mRNA-negative type. Transfection of COS cells with a cDNA construct containing the mutation but otherwise the normal sequence resulted in the expression of a labile form of beta-hexosaminidase. These results show that the patient's is a genetic compound, and that the lability of beta-hexosaminidase found in this form of Sandhoff disease is based on a single nucleotide transition. PMID:8357844

  4. Correlative Analysis of Genetic Alterations and Everolimus Benefit in Hormone Receptor–Positive, Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2–Negative Advanced Breast Cancer: Results From BOLERO-2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, David; Piccart, Martine; Rugo, Hope S.; Burris, Howard A.; Pritchard, Kathleen I.; Campone, Mario; Noguchi, Shinzaburo; Perez, Alejandra T.; Deleu, Ines; Shtivelband, Mikhail; Masuda, Norikazu; Dakhil, Shaker; Anderson, Ian; Robinson, Douglas M.; He, Wei; Garg, Abhishek; McDonald, E. Robert; Bitter, Hans; Huang, Alan; Taran, Tetiana; Bachelot, Thomas; Lebrun, Fabienne; Lebwohl, David; Baselga, José

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the genetic landscape of tumors from patients enrolled on the BOLERO-2 trial to identify potential correlations between genetic alterations and efficacy of everolimus treatment. The BOLERO-2 trial has previously demonstrated that the addition of everolimus to exemestane prolonged progression-free survival by more than twofold in patients with hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative, advanced breast cancer previously treated with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors. Patients and Methods Next-generation sequencing was used to analyze genetic status of cancer-related genes in 302 archival tumor specimens from patients representative of the BOLERO-2 study population. Correlations between the most common somatic alterations and degree of chromosomal instability, and treatment effect of everolimus were investigated. Results Progression-free survival benefit with everolimus was maintained regardless of alteration status of PIK3CA, FGFR1, and CCND1 or the pathways of which they are components. However, quantitative differences in everolimus benefit were observed between patient subgroups defined by the exon-specific mutations in PIK3CA (exon 20 v 9) or by different degrees of chromosomal instability in the tumor tissues. Conclusion The data from this exploratory analysis suggest that the efficacy of everolimus was largely independent of the most commonly altered genes or pathways in hormone receptor–positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2–negative breast cancer. The potential impact of chromosomal instabilities and low-frequency genetic alterations on everolimus efficacy warrants further investigation. PMID:26503204

  5. Differential sensitivity of aerobic gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms to 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) leads to dissimilar growth and TNT transformation: Results of soil and pure culture studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fuller, M.E.; Manning, J.F. Jr.

    1996-07-30

    The effects of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) on indigenous soil populations and pure bacterial cultures were examined. The number of colony-forming units (CFU) appearing when TNT-contaminated soil was spread on 0.3% molasses plates decreased by 50% when the agar was amended with 67 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, whereas a 99% reduction was observed when uncontaminated soil was plated. Furthermore, TNT-contaminated soil harbored a greater number of organisms able to grow on plates amended with greater than 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. The percentage of gram-positive isolates was markedly less in TNT-contaminated soil (7%; 2 of 30) than in uncontaminated soil (61%; 20 of 33). Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas corrugate, Pseudomonasfluorescens and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans made up the majority of the gram-negative isolates from TNT-contaminated soil. Gram-positive isolates from both soils demonstrated marked growth inhibition when greater than 8-16 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} was present in the culture media. Most pure cultures of known aerobic gram-negative organisms readily degraded TNT and evidenced net consumption of reduced metabolites. However, pure cultures of aerobic gram-positive bacteria were sensitive to relatively low concentrations of TNT as indicated by the 50% reduction in growth and TNT transformation which was observed at approximately 10 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}. Most non-sporeforming gram-positive organisms incubated in molasses media amended with 80 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1} or greater became unculturable, whereas all strains tested remained culturable when incubated in mineral media amended with 98 {mu}g TNT mL{sup -1}, indicating that TNT sensitivity is likely linked to cell growth. These results indicate that gram-negative organisms are most likely responsible for any TNT transformation in contaminated soil, due to their relative insensitivity to high TNT concentrations and their ability to transform TNT.

  6. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  7. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    PubMed

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  8. The underlying mechanisms for the "isolated positivity for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)" serological profile.

    PubMed

    Pondé, Robério Amorim de Almeida

    2011-02-01

    During HBV infection, four structural antigen/antibody systems are observed: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and its antibody (anti-HBs); the pre-S antigens associated with HBsAg particles and their antibodies; the particulate nucleocapsid antigen (HBcAg) and anti-HBc; and an antigen structurally related to HBcAg, namely HBeAg and its antibody (anti-HBe). Through the examination of this antigen-antibodies system, hepatitis B infection is diagnosed and the course of the disorder may be observed. Isolated HBsAg seropositivity is a peculiar serological pattern in HBV infection observed some times in routine laboratory. In most cases is not clear how this profile should be interpreted neither its significance. This pattern, however, may be associated with some clinical and laboratorial situations of great relevance, some of which will be addressed in this article.

  9. Persistent ICT malaria P.f/P.v panmalarial and HRP2 antigen reactivity after treatment of Plasmodium falciparum malaria is associated with gametocytemia and results in false-positive diagnoses of Plasmodium vivax in convalescence.

    PubMed

    Tjitra, E; Suprianto, S; McBroom, J; Currie, B J; Anstey, N M

    2001-03-01

    A problem with rapid Plasmodium falciparum-specific antigen histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) detection tests for malaria is the persistence of antigen in blood after the disappearance of asexual-stage parasitemia and clinical symptoms, resulting in false-positive (FP) test results following treatment. The ICT P.f/P.v immunochromatographic test detects both HRP2 and a panmalarial antigen (PMA) found in both P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. To examine posttreatment antigen persistence with this test and whether persistent sexual-stage forms (gametocytes) are a cause of FP tests after treatment, we compared serial antigen test results with microscopy results from patients symptomatic with P. falciparum malaria in Indonesia for 28 days following treatment with chloroquine (CQ; n = 66), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP; n = 36), and artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (ART + SP; n = 15). Persistent FP antigenemia following SP treatment occurred in 29% (HRP2) and 42% (PMA) of the patients on day 7 and in 10% (HRP2) and 23% (PMA) on day 14. The high rates of persistent HRP2 and PMA antigenemia following CQ and SP treatment were strongly associated with the presence of gametocytemia, with the proportion with gametocytes on day 7 posttreatment being significantly greater in those with FP results than in those with true-negative PMA and HRP2 results. Gametocyte frequency on day 14 post-SP treatment was also greater in those with FP PMA results. Following SP treatment, PMA persisted longer than HRP2, giving an FP diagnosis of P. vivax in up to 16% of patients on day 14, with all FP P. vivax diagnoses having gametocytemia. In contrast, PMA was rapidly cleared following ART + SP treatment in association with rapid clearance of gametocytemia. Gametocytes appear to be an important cause of persistent posttreatment panmalarial antigenemia in areas of endemicity and may also contribute in part to persistent HRP2 antigenemia following treatment. PMID:11230422

  10. False Positive FDG PET/CT Resulting from Fibrous Dysplasia of the Bone in the Work-Up of a Patient with Bladder Cancer: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Aras, Mustafa; Ones, Tunc; Dane, Faysal; Nosheri, Omid; Inanir, Sabahat; Erdil, Tanju Yusuf; Turoglu, Halil Turgut

    2012-12-01

    Fibrous dysplasia of the bone (FDB) is a common, genetic, developmental disorder with a benign course. FDB can be seen anywhere throughout the skeleton. It is usually asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies that are performed for other purposes. Although whole body 18 F-flourodeoxyglucose PET/CT (FDG PET/CT) is widely used in tumor imaging, infections and benign pathologies like FDB may cause false positive results. Herein we report the case of a 48-year-old FDB patient with transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder. Restaging FDG PET/CT showed multiple mild to moderate hypermetabolic bone lesions which were initially misinterpreted as bone metastases. In this case report, we aimed to guide physicians in evaluating bone lesions in cancer patients with FDB in the light of the literature.

  11. Reflection Positivity for Parafermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2015-07-01

    We establish reflection positivity for Gibbs trace states for a class of gauge-invariant, reflection-invariant Hamiltonians describing parafermion interactions on a lattice. We relate these results to recent work in the condensed-matter physics literature.

  12. Occult hepatitis B viral infection among blood donors in South-Eastern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nna, Emmanuel; Mbamalu, Chinenye; Ekejindu, Ifeoma

    2014-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus infection is endemic in many parts of sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria. Occult hepatitis B virus infection (OBI) is a challenging clinical problem characterized by the absence of Hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) and low viral DNA load. We aimed at determining the prevalence of OBI among repeat blood donors in Abakaliki, south-eastern Nigeria. Of 113 informed consented repeat blood donors enrolled into the study, 12 donors (10·6%) tested positive to both serological HBsAg screening, anti-HBc total and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA Nested PCR tests. One donor (0·9%) tested HBsAg positive, anti-HBC positive but Nested PCR negative. All donors were negative for HIV 1 and 2 and HCV infections. Of the 100 HbsAg negative repeat blood donors, 8·0% (eight donors) were HBV DNA positive by nested PCR method and anti-HBc total positive by ELISA. The median viral load, determined by real time PCR-Taqman chemistry, in the OBI blood samples was 51 IU/ml compared to 228 IU/ml of the HBsAg screen positive donors. The observed OBI prevalence of 8·0% corroborated with high endemicity of HBV infection in Abakaliki. We therefore recommend routine HBV DNA testing by real time PCR method on all sero-negative blood donations in Abakaliki and for a similar policy to be evaluated across the sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:24995918

  13. Prospective Clinical Utility Study of the Use of the 21-Gene Assay in Adjuvant Clinical Decision Making in Women With Estrogen Receptor-Positive Early Invasive Breast Cancer: Results From the SWITCH Study

    PubMed Central

    Pivot, Xavier B.; Jacot, William; Naman, Hervé L.; Spaeth, Dominique; Misset, Jean-Louis; Largillier, Rémy; Sautiere, Jean-Loup; de Roquancourt, Anne; Pomel, Christophe; Rouanet, Philippe; Rouzier, Roman; Penault-Llorca, Frederique M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The 21-gene Oncotype DX Recurrence Score assay is a validated assay to help decide the appropriate treatment for estrogen receptor-positive (ER+), early-stage breast cancer (EBC) in the adjuvant setting. The choice of adjuvant treatments might vary considerably in different countries according to various treatment guidelines. This prospective multicenter study is the first to assess the impact of the Oncotype DX assay in the French clinical setting. Methods. A total of 100 patients with ER+, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative EBC, and node-negative (pN0) disease or micrometastases in up to 3 lymph nodes (pN1mi) were enrolled. Treatment recommendations, physicians’ confidence before and after knowing the Recurrence Score value, and physicians’ perception of the assay were recorded. Results. Of the 100 patients, 95 were evaluable (83 pN0, 12 pN1mi). Treatment recommendations changed in 37% of patients, predominantly from chemoendocrine to endocrine treatment alone. The proportion of patients recommended chemotherapy decreased from 52% pretest to 25% post-test. Of patients originally recommended chemotherapy, 61% were recommended endocrine treatment alone after receiving the Recurrence Score result. For both pN0 and pN1mi patients, post-test recommendations appeared to follow the Recurrence Score result for low and high values. Physicians’ confidence improved significantly. Conclusion. These are the first prospective data on the impact of the Oncotype DX assay on adjuvant treatment decisions in France. Using the assay was associated with a significant change in treatment decisions and an overall reduction in chemotherapy use. These data are consistent with those presented from European and non-European studies. Implications for Practice: This study shows that in estrogen receptor-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative early breast cancer (either node-negative or with micrometastases in up to 3 lymph nodes

  14. Comparison of false-negative/positive results of intraoperative evoked potential monitoring between no and partial neuromuscular blockade in patients receiving propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery: A retrospective analysis of 685 patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jin, Seok-Joon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Jin; Jeong, Hye-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; Ha, Seung-Il; Kim, Joung-Uk

    2016-08-01

    Although the elicited responses of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents and muscle relaxants, the use of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during MEP monitoring is still controversial because of serious safety concerns and diagnostic accuracy. Here, we evaluated the incidence of unacceptable movement and compared false-negative MEP results between no and partial NMB during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. We reviewed patient medical records for demographic data, anesthesia regimen, neurophysiology event logs, MEP results, and clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraoperative use of NMB: no NMB group (n = 276) and partial NMB group (n = 409). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of MEP results to predict postoperative outcomes between both groups. Additionally, we evaluated unwanted patient movement during MEP monitoring in both groups. Of the 685 patients, 622 (90.8%) manifested no intraoperative changes in MEP and no postoperative motor deficits. Twenty patients showed postoperative neurologic deficits despite preserved intraoperative MEP. False-positive MEP results were 3.6% in the no NMB group and 3.9% in the partial NMB group (P = 1.00). False-negative MEP results were 1.1% in the no NMB group and 4.2% in the partial NMB group (P = 0.02). No spontaneous movement or spontaneous respiration was observed in either group. Propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia without NMB decreases the stimulation intensity of MEPs, which may reduce the false-negative ratio of MEP monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Our anesthetic protocol enabled reliable intraoperative MEP recording and patient immobilization during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. PMID:27559984

  15. Comparison of false-negative/positive results of intraoperative evoked potential monitoring between no and partial neuromuscular blockade in patients receiving propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery: A retrospective analysis of 685 patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jin, Seok-Joon; Karm, Myong-Hwan; Moon, Young-Jin; Jeong, Hye-Won; Kim, Jae-Won; Ha, Seung-Il; Kim, Joung-Uk

    2016-08-01

    Although the elicited responses of motor evoked potential (MEP) monitoring are very sensitive to suppression by anesthetic agents and muscle relaxants, the use of neuromuscular blockade (NMB) during MEP monitoring is still controversial because of serious safety concerns and diagnostic accuracy. Here, we evaluated the incidence of unacceptable movement and compared false-negative MEP results between no and partial NMB during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery. We reviewed patient medical records for demographic data, anesthesia regimen, neurophysiology event logs, MEP results, and clinical outcomes. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the intraoperative use of NMB: no NMB group (n = 276) and partial NMB group (n = 409). We compared the diagnostic accuracy of MEP results to predict postoperative outcomes between both groups. Additionally, we evaluated unwanted patient movement during MEP monitoring in both groups. Of the 685 patients, 622 (90.8%) manifested no intraoperative changes in MEP and no postoperative motor deficits. Twenty patients showed postoperative neurologic deficits despite preserved intraoperative MEP. False-positive MEP results were 3.6% in the no NMB group and 3.9% in the partial NMB group (P = 1.00). False-negative MEP results were 1.1% in the no NMB group and 4.2% in the partial NMB group (P = 0.02). No spontaneous movement or spontaneous respiration was observed in either group. Propofol/remifentanil-based anesthesia without NMB decreases the stimulation intensity of MEPs, which may reduce the false-negative ratio of MEP monitoring during cerebral aneurysm surgery. Our anesthetic protocol enabled reliable intraoperative MEP recording and patient immobilization during cerebral aneurysm clipping surgery.

  16. [Frequency of encountering markers of viral hepatitis A, B, and C in the aboriginal inhabitants of the northwest region of Siberia].

    PubMed

    Netesova, I G; Iaroslavtseva, O A; Dryga, S A; Posukh, O L; Osipova, L P; Bronshteĭn, E L; Zaĭtsev, S A; Netesov, S V

    1995-01-01

    A minor population of Nenets living near the village of Samburg in the Purov District, Tyumen region was screened for serological markers of virus hepatitides A, B, and C (VHA, HVB, and HVC, respectively). Commercial kits manufactured by VectorBest JSC, Russia, were used. All the tested sera contained antiHVA IgG; IgM antibodies to VHA were detected in none of the tested sera, anti-HVC IgG were found in 1 (0.93%) serum, antiHBc IgG in 11 (10.2%), and HBsAg was detected in 2 (1.85%) serum samples. The sera positive by antiHBc IgG and HBsAg were tested for DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. HVB DNA was found in two HBsAg-positive sera with the HBsAg subtype determined as "non ad".

  17. [Frequency of encountering markers of viral hepatitis A, B, and C in the aboriginal inhabitants of the northwest region of Siberia].

    PubMed

    Netesova, I G; Iaroslavtseva, O A; Dryga, S A; Posukh, O L; Osipova, L P; Bronshteĭn, E L; Zaĭtsev, S A; Netesov, S V

    1995-01-01

    A minor population of Nenets living near the village of Samburg in the Purov District, Tyumen region was screened for serological markers of virus hepatitides A, B, and C (VHA, HVB, and HVC, respectively). Commercial kits manufactured by VectorBest JSC, Russia, were used. All the tested sera contained antiHVA IgG; IgM antibodies to VHA were detected in none of the tested sera, anti-HVC IgG were found in 1 (0.93%) serum, antiHBc IgG in 11 (10.2%), and HBsAg was detected in 2 (1.85%) serum samples. The sera positive by antiHBc IgG and HBsAg were tested for DNA by the polymerase chain reaction. HVB DNA was found in two HBsAg-positive sera with the HBsAg subtype determined as "non ad". PMID:7483569

  18. Seroepidemiology and occult hepatitis B virus infection in young adults in Banjarmasin, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Darmawan, Erica; Turyadi; El-Khobar, Korri E; Nursanty, Ni Ketut Dias; Thedja, Meta D; Muljono, David Handojo

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection remains a public health problem in Indonesia. There has been limited data regarding HBV infection in young adult population. This study aimed to evaluate the seroepidemiology of HBV infection and characterize occult HBV variants in healthy young adults in Banjarmasin, Indonesia, who were born before the implementation of the universal infant hepatitis B vaccination. Serum samples of 195 healthy young adults were tested for HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs. The prevalence of HBsAg, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs was 9 (4.6%), 62 (31.8%), and 96 (49.2%), respectively. Seventy four (37.9%) samples were seronegative for all three parameters, indicating the susceptibility to HBV infection. Among 66 samples positive for HBsAg and/or anti-HBc, 13 (19.7%) were HBV DNA positive; of these, four were HBsAg positive and nine were HBsAg negative, and categorized as occult HBV infection. Most occult HBV cases had high-level anti-HBs (>100 IU/l), suggesting that blood with positive anti-HBs and anti-HBc could not be regarded as noninfectious. Thirteen amino acid substitutions were identified: T126S, P127S, Q129R, T131N, M133T, and Y161S in the HBsAg-positive group; P120T, T126I, G145S, Y161F, E164V, and V168F in the occult-HBV group; and T143S in both groups. More studies are required to provide data on the prevalence and characteristics of mutants to ensure reliable diagnosis. The occult HBV infection, combined with the HBsAg prevalence, could indicate the high HBV carriage among young adults in this area. The high percentage of individuals susceptible to HBV infection reiterates the need for catch-up immunization strategies targeted at young adults.

  19. Prevalence of hepatitis B, D and C virus infections among children and pregnant women in Moldova: additional evidence supporting the need for routine hepatitis B vaccination of infants.

    PubMed

    Drobeniuc, J; Hutin, Y J; Harpaz, R; Favorov, M; Melnik, A; Iarovoi, P; Shapiro, C N; Woodruff, B A

    1999-12-01

    Rates of acute hepatitis B are high in Moldova, but the prevalence of chronic infection is unknown. In 1994, we surveyed children and pregnant women, collected demographic information, and drew blood for laboratory testing. Among the 439 children (mean age, 5 years), the prevalence of antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were 17.1 and 6.8%, respectively. Among the 1098 pregnant women (mean age, 26 years), 52.4% were anti-HBc-positive and 9.7% were HBsAg-positive. Of the HBsAg-positive pregnant women, 35.6% were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and 18.3% had antibodies to hepatitis D virus. The prevalence of antibody to hepatitis C virus was 1.4% in children and 2.3% in pregnant women. The high HBeAg prevalence among HBsAg-positive pregnant women and the high anti-HBc prevalence among children indicate that both perinatal and early childhood transmission contribute to the high hepatitis B virus endemicity in Moldova.

  20. [Microbiological studies of the contamination of hospital waste and household refuse].

    PubMed

    Möse, J R; Reinthaler, F

    1985-06-01

    A bacteriological analysis of hospital waste and household refuse (garbage dump) showed a wider range of bacteria in hospital waste. However, quantitatively, household refuse was more contaminated, especially with fecal bacteria. Almost one third of all hospital waste showed no bacterial growth under the conditions chosen for the study. In blood-drenched waste and serum samples 2% of all samples examined were anti-HBc and anti-HBe positive.

  1. Using the rate of positive high-risk HPV test results for ASC-US together with the ASC-US/SIL ratio in evaluating the performance of cytopathologists.

    PubMed

    Cibas, Edmund S; Zou, Kelly H; Crum, Christopher P; Kuo, Frank

    2008-01-01

    We reviewed our experience with 2 indicators of cytopathologist performance: the relative frequency of the interpretations atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) and squamous intraepithelial lesion (SIL) and the frequency of positive test results for high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) DNA associated with a cytologic interpretation of ASC-US. Data derived for 9 cytopathologists were reviewed. ASC-US/SIL ranged from 0.99 to 4.02 (mean, 1.77) in 2005 and from 0.82 to 3.68 (mean, 1.81) in 2006. The HR-HPV+ rate for ASC-US ranged from 31.5% to 54.6% for individual cytopathologists (mean, 46.1%) in 2005 and from 29.6% to 61.8% (mean, 45.8%) in 2006. Combined data from both years showed only a slight negative correlation for these 2 variables. Both indicators together provide useful feedback to cytopathologists. We provide a working schema for interpreting perturbations in these indicators to assist in improving the quality of gynecologic cytology interpretations. PMID:18089494

  2. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  3. Plasma and breast-milk selenium in HIV-infected Malawian mothers are positively associated with infant selenium status but are not associated with maternal supplementation: results of the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study123

    PubMed Central

    Flax, Valerie L; Bentley, Margaret E; Combs, Gerald F; Chasela, Charles S; Kayira, Dumbani; Tegha, Gerald; Kamwendo, Debbie; Daza, Eric J; Fokar, Ali; Kourtis, Athena P; Jamieson, Denise J; van der Horst, Charles M; Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    Background: Selenium is found in soils and is essential for human antioxidant defense and immune function. In Malawi, low soil selenium and dietary intakes coupled with low plasma selenium concentrations in HIV infection could have negative consequences for the health of HIV-infected mothers and their exclusively breastfed infants. Objective: We tested the effects of lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) that contained 1.3 times the Recommended Dietary Allowance of sodium selenite and antiretroviral drugs (ARV) on maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations. Design: HIV-infected Malawian mothers in the Breastfeeding, Antiretrovirals, and Nutrition study were randomly assigned at delivery to receive: LNS, ARV, LNS and ARV, or a control. In a subsample of 526 mothers and their uninfected infants, we measured plasma and breast-milk selenium concentrations at 2 or 6 (depending on the availability of infant samples) and 24 wk postpartum. Results: Overall, mean (±SD) maternal (range: 81.2 ± 20.4 to 86.2 ± 19.9 μg/L) and infant (55.6 ± 16.3 to 61.0 ± 15.4 μg/L) plasma selenium concentrations increased, whereas breast-milk selenium concentrations declined (14.3 ± 11.5 to 9.8 ± 7.3 μg/L) from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (all P < 0.001). Compared with the highest baseline selenium tertile, low and middle tertiles were positively associated with a change in maternal plasma or breast-milk selenium from 2 or 6 to 24 wk postpartum (both P < 0.001). With the use of linear regression, we showed that LNS that contained selenium and ARV were not associated with changes in maternal plasma and breast-milk selenium, but maternal selenium concentrations were positively associated with infant plasma selenium at 2 or 6 and 24 wk postpartum (P < 0.001) regardless of the study arm. Conclusions: Selenite supplementation of HIV-infected Malawian women was not associated with a change in their plasma or breast-milk selenium concentrations. Future research should examine

  4. Are positive changes in potential determinants associated with increased fruit and vegetable intakes among primary schoolchildren? Results of two intervention studies in the Netherlands: The Schoolgruiten Project and the Pro Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Nannah I; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Background To investigate if positive changes or maintenance high scores on potential behavioral determinants of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake are associated with increased or maintenance favorable levels of F&V intake frequency in the same time lapse or later in time. Data were used from two intervention studies in the Netherlands: the Schoolgruiten Project and the Pro Children Study. Methods A design with baseline and two follow-up measurements. 344 children of the Dutch Schoolgruiten Project and 258 children of the Pro Children Study completed questionnaires, including questions on general demographics, usual F&V intake frequency, important potential determinants of F&V intake, such as taste preferences of F&V, availability of F&V, knowledge of recommended intake levels of F&V, self-efficacy for eating F&V, and parental influences for eating F&V. Three different associations between changes in determinants of F&V intake and changes in F&V intake frequency were assessed by multilevel multinomial regression analyses. Results Results of one of the investigated associations indicated that in both studies behavior change (increase in F&V intake frequency) was preceded by changes in the following variables; liking of fruit, parental facilitation of vegetables, family rules for eating vegetables and availability at home of vegetables. Furthermore, changes in F&V intake frequency preceded changes in liking of F&V later in time. Conclusion In accordance with behavior change theories, the present study provides some evidence that behavior change was preceded by changes in certain potential determinants of F&V intake. Potential determinants of F&V intake that appear to be important to induce behavior change were liking of fruit, parental facilitation of vegetables, family rules for eating vegetables and availability at home of vegetables. Some evidence was also found that behavior changes may precede changes in presumed determinants of F&V intake, such as liking of F

  5. HBV and HAV infection in chronic hepatitis in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Tanno, H; Fay, O H; Roncoroni, M; Palazzi, J

    1981-01-01

    Sera of 155 chronic hepatitis (CH) patients in Argentina were tested for the presence of HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and anti-HAV. Our purpose was to define the role that both virus A and B might play in the etiology and pathogenesis of this condition. The patients were divided into two groups: group I (57) HBsAg-negative; group II (98) HBsAg-positive. The control group consisted of 1,209 healthy blood donors from Banco Central de Sangre de Rosario; 286/1,209 (24%) had viral markers for HBV. In group I, 38/57 (67%) had anti-HBs and/or anti-HBc, but none had anti-HBs alone. Group II showed a higher percentage of males (P less than 0.05). We found similar incidence of anti-HAV among group I, group II, and the control group.

  6. Efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing vertical transmission of the hepatitis B virus from father to infant.

    PubMed

    Cao, L-H; Zhao, P-L; Liu, Z-M; Sun, S-C; Xu, D-B; Zhang, J-D; Shao, Z-H

    2015-12-02

    We examined the efficacy and safety of nucleoside analogues in preventing the vertical transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from father to infant. We included 201 patients who visited the liver clinic of our hospital. The patients were positive for HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HBeAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA; 189 patients (94%) had abnormal liver function. In all couples, the fathers were HBV DNA-negative and had normal liver function, and the mothers were anti-HB-positive before pregnancy. The control group comprised 188 couples who visited our hospital during the same time period. The fathers in the control group were positive for HBsAg, HBeAg, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA. The mothers were HBsAg-negative and anti-HBs-positive. No infants in the case group were HBsAg-positive and HBV DNA-positive, and all were anti-HBs-positive, indicating that father to infant HBV vertical transmission was prevented in the case group. In the control group, 147 of 188 newborns (78.2%) were anti-HBs-positive at birth, 28 (14.9%) were HBV DNA-positive, and 19 (10.1%) were HBsAg-positive. A significant difference was observed between the two groups. No statistically significant difference was observed in the gestational age, birth weight, birth length, 1-min and 8-min Apgar score, jaundice, other internal and surgical diseases, delivery mode, and other birth information between the neonates born to couples in the case and control groups; there were no fetal malformations and stillbirths in the two groups. Our results showed that administration of antiretroviral therapy to HBV DNA-positive fathers before pregnancy can cause a decrease in the viral load and prevent father to infant HBV vertical transmission. The use of antiviral nucleoside analogues before pregnancy was safe in fathers, and the fathers who wanted children could continue to use anti-viral therapy. The sample size in our study was small, and further studies with a large sample size and longer follow-up time are required for

  7. Incidence of central nervous system metastases in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer treated with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel: results from the randomized phase III study CLEOPATRA

    PubMed Central

    Swain, S. M.; Baselga, J.; Miles, D.; Im, Y.-H.; Quah, C.; Lee, L. F.; Cortés, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from the phase III trial CLEOPATRA in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive first-line metastatic breast cancer demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel over placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. We carried out exploratory analyses of the incidence and time to development of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in patients from CLEOPATRA. Patients and methods Patients received pertuzumab/placebo: 840 mg in cycle 1, then 420 mg; trastuzumab: 8 mg/kg in cycle 1, then 6 mg/kg; docetaxel: initiated at 75 mg/m2. Study drugs were administered i.v. every 3 weeks. The log-rank test was used for between-arm comparisons of time to CNS metastases as first site of disease progression and overall survival in patients with CNS metastases as first site of disease progression. The Kaplan–Meier approach was used to estimate median time to CNS metastases as first site of disease progression and median overall survival. Results The incidence of CNS metastases as first site of disease progression was similar between arms; placebo arm: 51 of 406 (12.6%), pertuzumab arm: 55 of 402 (13.7%). Median time to development of CNS metastases as first site of disease progression was 11.9 months in the placebo arm and 15.0 months in the pertuzumab arm; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39–0.85, P = 0.0049. Overall survival in patients who developed CNS metastases as first site of disease progression showed a trend in favor of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel; HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.39–1.11. Median overall survival was 26.3 versus 34.4 months in the placebo and pertuzumab arms, respectively. Treatment comparison of the survival curves was not statistically significant for the log-rank test (P = 0.1139), but significant for the Wilcoxon test (P = 0.0449). Conclusions While the incidence of CNS metastases was similar between arms, our results suggest that

  8. Neoadjuvant treatment with docetaxel plus lapatinib, trastuzumab, or both followed by an anthracycline-based chemotherapy in HER2-positive breast cancer: results of the randomised phase II EORTC 10054 study

    PubMed Central

    Bonnefoi, H.; Jacot, W.; Saghatchian, M.; Moldovan, C.; Venat-Bouvet, L.; Zaman, K.; Matos, E.; Petit, T.; Bodmer, A.; Quenel-Tueux, N.; Chakiba, C.; Vuylsteke, P.; Jerusalem, G.; Brain, E.; Tredan, O.; Messina, C. G. M.; Slaets, L.; Cameron, D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neoadjuvant trials conducted using a double HER2 blockade with lapatinib and trastuzumab, combined with different paclitaxel-containing chemotherapy regimens, have shown high pathological complete response (pCR) rates, but at the cost of important toxicity. We hypothesised that this toxicity might be due to a specific interaction between paclitaxel and lapatinib. This trial assesses the toxicity and activity of the combination of docetaxel with lapatinib and trastuzumab. Patients and methods Patients with stage IIA to IIIC HER2-positive breast cancer received six cycles of chemotherapy (three cycles of docetaxel followed by three cycles of fluorouracil, epirubicin, cyclophosphamide). They were randomised 1 : 1 : 1 to receive during the first three cycles either lapatinib (1000 mg orally daily), trastuzumab (4 mg/kg loading dose followed by 2 mg/kg weekly), or trastuzumab + lapatinib at the same dose. The primary end point was pCR rate defined as ypT0/is. Secondary end points included safety and toxicity. pCR rate defined as ypT0/is ypN0 was assessed as an exploratory analysis. In June 2012, arm A was closed for futility based on the results from other studies. Results From October 2010 to January 2013, 128 patients were included in 14 centres. The percentage of the 122 assessable patients with pCR in the breast, and pCR in the breast and nodes, was numerically highest in the lapatinib + trastuzumab group (60% and 56%, respectively), intermediate in the trastuzumab group (52% and 52%), and lowest in the lapatinib group (46% and 36%). Frequency (%) of the most common grade 3–4 toxicities in the lapatinib /trastuzumab/lapatinib + trastuzumab arms were: febrile neutropenia 23/15/10, diarrhoea 9/2/18, infection (other) 9/4/8, and hepatic toxicity 0/2/8. Conclusions This study demonstrates a numerically modest pCR rate increase with double anti-HER2 blockade plus chemotherapy, but suggests that the use of docetaxel rather than paclitaxel may not reduce

  9. Hepatitis B infection and association with other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lama, Javier R; Agurto, Hellen S; Guanira, Juan V; Ganoza, Carmela; Casapia, Martin; Ojeda, Nora; Ortiz, Abner; Zamalloa, Victoria; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Cabezas, Cesar; Sanchez, Jose L; Sanchez, Jorge

    2010-07-01

    To assess the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru, we evaluated the prevalence and associated risk factors for HBV serologic markers among participants of a HIV sentinel surveillance conducted in 2002-2003. The standardized prevalences for total antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were 20.2% and 2.8%, respectively. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection had significantly higher anti-HBc (44.3% versus 19.3%) and HBsAg (9.5% versus 2.3%) prevalences than uninfected men. Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.06), versatile sexual role (AOR = 1.59), sex in exchange for money/gifts (AOR = 1.58), syphilis (AOR = 1.74), HIV-1 infection (AOR = 1.64), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, AOR = 2.77) infection were independently associated with anti-HBc positivity, whereas only HIV-1 infection (AOR = 3.51) and generalized lymph node enlargement (AOR = 3.72) were associated with HBsAg positivity. Pre-existing HBV infection is very common among Peruvian MSM and was correlated with sexual risk factors. MSM in Peru constitute a target population for further HBV preventive and treatment interventions. PMID:20595501

  10. Hepatitis B infection and association with other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lama, Javier R; Agurto, Hellen S; Guanira, Juan V; Ganoza, Carmela; Casapia, Martin; Ojeda, Nora; Ortiz, Abner; Zamalloa, Victoria; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Cabezas, Cesar; Sanchez, Jose L; Sanchez, Jorge

    2010-07-01

    To assess the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru, we evaluated the prevalence and associated risk factors for HBV serologic markers among participants of a HIV sentinel surveillance conducted in 2002-2003. The standardized prevalences for total antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were 20.2% and 2.8%, respectively. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection had significantly higher anti-HBc (44.3% versus 19.3%) and HBsAg (9.5% versus 2.3%) prevalences than uninfected men. Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.06), versatile sexual role (AOR = 1.59), sex in exchange for money/gifts (AOR = 1.58), syphilis (AOR = 1.74), HIV-1 infection (AOR = 1.64), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, AOR = 2.77) infection were independently associated with anti-HBc positivity, whereas only HIV-1 infection (AOR = 3.51) and generalized lymph node enlargement (AOR = 3.72) were associated with HBsAg positivity. Pre-existing HBV infection is very common among Peruvian MSM and was correlated with sexual risk factors. MSM in Peru constitute a target population for further HBV preventive and treatment interventions.

  11. Hepatitis B Infection and Association with Other Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lama, Javier R.; Agurto, Hellen S.; Guanira, Juan V.; Ganoza, Carmela; Casapia, Martin; Ojeda, Nora; Ortiz, Abner; Zamalloa, Victoria; Suarez-Ognio, Luis; Cabezas, Cesar; Sanchez, Jose L.; Sanchez, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    To assess the epidemiology of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Peru, we evaluated the prevalence and associated risk factors for HBV serologic markers among participants of a HIV sentinel surveillance conducted in 2002–2003. The standardized prevalences for total antibodies to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) were 20.2% and 2.8%, respectively. Individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection had significantly higher anti-HBc (44.3% versus 19.3%) and HBsAg (9.5% versus 2.3%) prevalences than uninfected men. Increasing age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.06), versatile sexual role (AOR = 1.59), sex in exchange for money/gifts (AOR = 1.58), syphilis (AOR = 1.74), HIV-1 infection (AOR = 1.64), and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2, AOR = 2.77) infection were independently associated with anti-HBc positivity, whereas only HIV-1 infection (AOR = 3.51) and generalized lymph node enlargement (AOR = 3.72) were associated with HBsAg positivity. Pre-existing HBV infection is very common among Peruvian MSM and was correlated with sexual risk factors. MSM in Peru constitute a target population for further HBV preventive and treatment interventions. PMID:20595501

  12. Nucleosome positioning determinants.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alfonso G; Anderson, John N

    2007-08-17

    A previous report demonstrated that one site in a nucleosome assembled onto a synthetic positioning sequence known as Fragment 67 is hypersensitive to permanganate. The site is required for positioning activity and is located 1.5 turns from the dyad, which is a region of high DNA curvature in the nucleosome. Here, the permanganate sensitivity of the nucleosome positioning Fragment 601 was examined in order to expand the dataset of nucleosome sequences containing KMnO(4) hypersensitive sites. The hyperreactive T residue in the six sites detected as well as the one in Fragment 67 and three in the 5 S rDNA positioning sequence were contained within a TA step. Seven of the ten sequences were of the form CTAGPuG or the related sequence TTAAPu. These motifs were also found in the binding sites of several transcriptional regulatory proteins that kink DNA. In order to assess the significance of these sites, the 10 bp positioning determinant in Fragment 67 was removed and replaced by the nine sequences from the 5 S rDNA and Fragment 601. The results demonstrated that these derivative fragments promoted high nucleosome stability and positioning as compared to a control sequence that contained an AT step in place of the TA step. The importance of the TA step was further tested by making single base-pair substitutions in Fragment 67 and the results revealed that stability and positioning activity followed the order: TA>TG>TT>/=TC approximately GG approximately GA approximately AT. Sequences flanking the TA step were also shown to be critical for nucleosome stability and positioning. Nucleosome positioning was restored to near wild-type levels with (CTG)(3), which can form slipped stranded structures and with one base bulges that kink DNA. The results of this study suggest that local DNA structures are important for positioning and that single base-pair changes at these sites could have profound effects on those genomic functions that depend on ordered nucleosomes. PMID

  13. Individual and interpersonal characteristics that influence male-dominated sexual decision-making and inconsistent condom use among married HIV serodiscordant couples in Gujarat, India: results from the positive Jeevan Saathi study.

    PubMed

    Patel, Shilpa N; Wingood, Gina M; Kosambiya, J K; McCarty, Frances; Windle, Michael; Yount, Kathryn; Hennink, Monique

    2014-10-01

    Approximately 40 % of new infections occur among married women. No studies have examined the factors that may contribute to HIV transmission among HIV-negative wives in HIV serodiscordant relationships in Gujarat, India. In 2010, a cross-sectional survey with 185 HIV serodiscordant, married couples (i.e. 185 HIV-positive husbands and their 185 HIV-negative wives) in Gujarat was conducted. Socio-demographic, individual, and interpersonal characteristics of HIV-positive husbands and their HIV negative wives were examined. The association of these characteristics with inconsistent condom use and male-dominated sexual decision-making, were examined using multivariate logistic regression analyses. Approximately 10 % of couples reported inconsistent condom use in the past 3 months and 20 % reported intimate partner violence (IPV). Reports of IPV were associated with a higher odds of inconsistent condom use among HIV-positive husbands (aOR = 6.281). Husbands who reported having received couples counseling had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.372). HIV-negative wives who reported sex communication had a lower odds of male-dominated decision making about condom use (aOR = 0.322) with their HIV-positive husbands. Although condom use is a traditional measure of risk behavior, other factors that facilitate risk, such as male-dominated sexual decision-making need to be considered in analyses of risk. PMID:24893852

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis A and B markers and vaccine indication in cirrhotic patients evaluated for liver transplantation in Spain.

    PubMed

    Aoufi, S; Pascasio, J M; Sousa, J M; Sayago, M; Ferrer, M T; Gómez-Delgado, E; De la Cruz, M D; Alamo, J M; Gómez-Bravo, M A; Bernardos, A; Márquez, J L

    2008-11-01

    Vaccination against hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) is generally recommended for patients with chronic liver disease and those evaluated for liver transplantation in the absence of immunity. HAV and HBV infections after liver transplantation are frequent and associated with a worse prognosis. The data suggest that the number of patients with chronic liver disease without naturally acquired immunity against HAV and HBV is substantial, and that new vaccination strategies are needed. The aim of this study was to determine the level of immunity from hepatitis A and B infections and the need for HBV and HAV vaccination among cirrhotic patients evaluated for liver transplantation. We studied HBV and HAV serological markers (HbsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, IgG anti-HAV) in 451 cirrhotic patients evaluated for liver transplantation to investigate the association with gender, age, and etiology of cirrhosis. Negative HBV markers were observed in 57% of patients with 43% displaying one positive HBV marker: HBsAg (+), 9.5%; anti-HBc (+)/anti-HBs (-), 11.5%; anti-HBc (-)/anti-HBs(+), 4.2%; anti-HBc(+)/anti-HBs(+), 17.7%. HBV vaccine indication established in 68.5% of patients was greater among women and hepatitis C virus-negative patients. No differences were observed in age or cause of cirrhosis. HAV vaccination indicated in 6.7% of patients (IgG anti-HVA-negative) was greater among patients with negative HBV markers (9.3% vs 3.3%, P = .018) and younger patients (25.3% of patients

  15. Positioning for Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  16. Positive maps, positive polynomials and entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronek, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2009-08-01

    We link the study of positive quantum maps, block positive operators and entanglement witnesses with problems related to multivariate polynomials. For instance, we show how indecomposable block positive operators relate to biquadratic forms that are not sums of squares. Although the general problem of describing the set of positive maps remains open, in some particular cases we solve the corresponding polynomial inequalities and obtain explicit conditions for positivity.

  17. Hepatitis B infection among patients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, L H; Silva, I R; Xavier, B L; Cavalcanti, S M

    2001-07-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has a low endemicity in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Sexual transmission must play an important role in this virus, but the prevalence and risk factors have never been properly investigated. The aim of this paper is to determine the prevalence and risk factors for HBV infection in patients attending a Sexually Transmitted Diseases Clinic of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. In a retrospective study, HBV seroprevalence was investigated in 440 patients. Serum of each patient was assayed for antibodies against hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs). Demographic and risk factor data were extracted from clinic notes. The overall seroprevalence of exposure markers for HBV (anti-HBc, HBsAg and anti-HBs) were 13%, 3.4% and 8.5% respectively. Homo/bisexual behaviour, anal intercourse, HIV infection, positive serology for syphilis and blood transfusion were predictors of the HBV exposure. Among demographic data, age and place of birth were associated with the anti-HBc seropositivity.

  18. Serological markers of hepatitis B and C in patients with HIV/AIDS and active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Araújo-Mariz, Carolline; Lopes, Edmundo Pessoa; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Lacerda, Heloísa R; Miranda-Filho, Demócrito B; Montarroyos, Ulisses R; Barreto, Silvana; Salustiano, Daniela Medeiros; Albuquerque, Maria Fátima Pessoa Militão

    2016-06-01

    Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and C virus (HCV) are common in patients with HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis (TB). This is a cross-sectional study with patients infected with HIV/AIDS and active TB in Recife, Brazil, aiming to verify the prevalence of markers for HBV: antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc); and HCV: antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV) by chemiluminescence, and to identify the frequency of associated factors. Data were collected through questionnaires, and blood was drawn from patients for analysis. We used the chi-square test and the Fisher exact test when necessary. We conducted a bivariate logistic regression analysis and the magnitude of the associations was expressed as odds ratio (OR) with a confidence interval of 95%. Among 166 patients studied with HIV/AIDS and active TB, anti-HBc was positive in 61 patients [36.7%; 95%CI (29.4-44.6%)] and anti-HCV in 11[6.6%; 95%CI (3.4-11.5%)]. In the logistic regression analysis, male sex, and age ≥40 years were independent factors associated with the occurrence of anti-HBc. In conclusion, we verified a high frequency of HBV contact marker and a low frequency of HCV markers in patients with HIV/AIDS and TB in Recife.

  19. Results of the surveillance of Tedizolid activity and resistance program: in vitro susceptibility of gram-positive pathogens collected in 2011 and 2012 from the United States and Europe.

    PubMed

    Sahm, Daniel F; Deane, Jennifer; Bien, Paul A; Locke, Jeffrey B; Zuill, Douglas E; Shaw, Karen J; Bartizal, Ken F

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity and spectrum of tedizolid and comparators were analyzed against 6884 Gram-positive clinical isolates collected from multiple US and European sites as part of the Surveillance of Tedizolid Activity and Resistance Program in 2011 and 2012. Organisms included 4499 Staphylococcus aureus, 537 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 873 enterococci, and 975 β-hemolytic streptococci. The MIC values that inhibited 90% of the isolates within each group (MIC90) were 0.25 μg/mL for Staphylococcus epidermidis and β-hemolytic streptococci and 0.5 μg/mL for S. aureus, other CoNS, and enterococci. Of 16 isolates with elevated tedizolid or linezolid MIC values (intermediate or resistant isolates), 10 had mutations in the genes encoding 23S rRNA (primarily G2576T), 5 had mutations in the genes encoding ribosomal proteins L3 or L4, and 5 carried the cfr multidrug resistance gene. Overall, tedizolid showed excellent activity against Gram-positive bacteria and was at least 4-fold more potent than linezolid against wild-type and linezolid-resistant isolates. Given the low overall frequency of isolates that would be resistant to tedizolid at the proposed break point of 0.5 μg/mL (0.19%) and potent activity against contemporary US and European isolates, tedizolid has the potential to serve as a valuable therapeutic option in the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive pathogens.

  20. Taking a Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    "TerrAvoid" and "Position Integrity" combine Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data with high-resolution maps of the Earth's topography. Dubbs & Severino, Inc., based in Irvine, California, has developed software that allows the system to be run on a battery-powered laptop in the cockpit. The packages, designed primarily for military sponsors and now positioned to hit the consumer market in coming months, came about as the result of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Technology Affiliates Program. Intended to give American industry assistance from NASA experts and to facilitate business use of intellectual property developed for the space program, the Technology Affiliates Program introduced the start-up company of Dubbs & Severino to JPL's Dr. Nevin Bryant four years ago. GeoTIFF is now in the public domain, and its use for commercial product development has evolved into an industry standard over the last year.

  1. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results from the randomised controlled Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and long-term economic analysis of oral devices and continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Linda; Glover, Matthew; Clutterbuck-James, Abigail; Bennett, Maxine; Jordan, Jake; Chadwick, Rebecca; Pittman, Marcus; East, Clare; Cameron, Malcolm; Davies, Mike; Oscroft, Nick; Smith, Ian; Morrell, Mary; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Quinnell, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) causes excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), impairs quality of life (QoL) and increases cardiovascular disease and road traffic accident risks. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is clinically effective but undermined by intolerance, and its cost-effectiveness is borderline in milder cases. Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are another option, but evidence is lacking regarding their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in milder disease. OBJECTIVES (1) Conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs against no treatment in mild to moderate OSAH. (2) Update systematic reviews and an existing health economic decision model with data from the Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and newly published results to better inform long-term clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs and CPAP in mild to moderate OSAH. TOMADO A crossover RCT comparing clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three MADs: self-moulded [SleepPro 1™ (SP1); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; semibespoke [SleepPro 2™ (SP2); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; and fully bespoke [bespoke MAD (bMAD); NHS Oral-Maxillofacial Laboratory, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK] against no treatment, in 90 adults with mild to moderate OSAH. All devices improved primary outcome [apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)] compared with no treatment: relative risk 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62 to 0.89] for SP1; relative risk 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.76) for SP2; and relative risk 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.76) for bMAD (p < 0.001). Differences between MADs were not significant. Sleepiness [as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)] was scored 1.51 [95% CI 0.73 to 2.29 (SP1)] to 2.37 [95% CI 1.53 to 3.22 (bMAD)] lower than no treatment (p < 0.001), with SP2 and bMAD significantly better than SP1

  2. Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness results from the randomised controlled Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and long-term economic analysis of oral devices and continuous positive airway pressure.

    PubMed Central

    Sharples, Linda; Glover, Matthew; Clutterbuck-James, Abigail; Bennett, Maxine; Jordan, Jake; Chadwick, Rebecca; Pittman, Marcus; East, Clare; Cameron, Malcolm; Davies, Mike; Oscroft, Nick; Smith, Ian; Morrell, Mary; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Quinnell, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (OSAH) causes excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), impairs quality of life (QoL) and increases cardiovascular disease and road traffic accident risks. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment is clinically effective but undermined by intolerance, and its cost-effectiveness is borderline in milder cases. Mandibular advancement devices (MADs) are another option, but evidence is lacking regarding their clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in milder disease. OBJECTIVES (1) Conduct a randomised controlled trial (RCT) examining the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs against no treatment in mild to moderate OSAH. (2) Update systematic reviews and an existing health economic decision model with data from the Trial of Oral Mandibular Advancement Devices for Obstructive sleep apnoea-hypopnoea (TOMADO) and newly published results to better inform long-term clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of MADs and CPAP in mild to moderate OSAH. TOMADO A crossover RCT comparing clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of three MADs: self-moulded [SleepPro 1™ (SP1); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; semibespoke [SleepPro 2™ (SP2); Meditas Ltd, Winchester, UK]; and fully bespoke [bespoke MAD (bMAD); NHS Oral-Maxillofacial Laboratory, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge, UK] against no treatment, in 90 adults with mild to moderate OSAH. All devices improved primary outcome [apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI)] compared with no treatment: relative risk 0.74 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62 to 0.89] for SP1; relative risk 0.67 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.76) for SP2; and relative risk 0.64 (95% CI 0.55 to 0.76) for bMAD (p < 0.001). Differences between MADs were not significant. Sleepiness [as measured by the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)] was scored 1.51 [95% CI 0.73 to 2.29 (SP1)] to 2.37 [95% CI 1.53 to 3.22 (bMAD)] lower than no treatment (p < 0.001), with SP2 and bMAD significantly better than SP1

  3. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  4. Imatinib use immediately before stem cell transplantation in children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Results from Japanese Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group (JPLSG) Study Ph(+) ALL04.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Hirohide; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Itaru; Kodama, Yuichi; Sato, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Kimikazu; Kato, Keisuke; Yabe, Hiromasa; Kudo, Kazuko; Kato, Motohiro; Saito, Tomohiro; Saito, Akiko M; Tsurusawa, Masahito; Horibe, Keizo

    2015-05-01

    Incorporation of imatinib into chemotherapeutic regimens has improved the prognosis of children with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph(+) ALL). We investigated a role of imatinib immediately before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Children with Ph(+) ALL were enrolled on JPLSG Ph(+) ALL 04 Study within 1 week of initiation of treatment for ALL. Treatment regimen consisted of Induction phase, Consolidation phase, Reinduction phase, 2 weeks of imatinib monotherapy phase, and HSCT phase (Etoposide+CY+TBI conditioning). Minimal residual disease (MRD), the amount of BCR-ABL transcripts, was measured with the real-time PCR method. The study was registered in UMIN-CTR: UMIN ID C000000290. Forty-two patients were registered and 36 patients (86%) achieved complete remission (CR). Eight of 17 patients (47%) who had detectable MRD at the beginning of imatinib monotherapy phase showed disappearance or decrease in MRD after imatinib treatment. Consequently, 26 patients received HSCT in the first CR and all the patients had engraftment and no patients died because of complications of HSCT. The 4-year event-free survival rates and overall survival rates among all the 42 patients were 54.1 ± 7.8% and 78.1 ± 6.5%, respectively. Four of six patients who did achieve CR and three of six who relapsed before HSCT were salvaged with imatinib-containing chemotherapy and subsequently treated with HSCT. The survival rate was excellent in this study although all patients received HSCT. A longer use of imatinib concurrently with chemotherapy should eliminate HSCT in a subset of patients with a rapid clearance of the disease. PMID:25641907

  5. Prospective long-term minimal residual disease monitoring using RQ-PCR in RUNX1-RUNX1T1-positive acute myeloid leukemia: results of the French CBF-2006 trial.

    PubMed

    Willekens, Christophe; Blanchet, Odile; Renneville, Aline; Cornillet-Lefebvre, Pascale; Pautas, Cécile; Guieze, Romain; Ifrah, Norbert; Dombret, Hervé; Jourdan, Eric; Preudhomme, Claude; Boissel, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    In t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia, the prognostic value of early minimal residual disease assessed with real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is the most important prognostic factor, but how long-term minimal residual disease monitoring may contribute to drive individual patient decisions remains poorly investigated. In the multicenter CBF-2006 study, a prospective monitoring of peripheral blood and bone marrow samples was performed every 3 months and every year, respectively, for 2 years following intensive chemotherapy in 94 patients in first complete remission. A complete molecular remission was defined as a (RUNX1-RUNX1T1/ABL1)×100 ≤ 0.001%. After the completion of consolidation therapy, a bone marrow complete molecular remission was observed in 30% of the patients, but was not predictive of subsequent relapse. Indeed, 8 patients (9%) presented a positive bone marrow minimal residual disease for up to 2 years of follow-up while still remaining in complete remission. Conversely, a peripheral blood complete molecular remission was statistically associated with a lower risk of relapse whatever the time-point considered after the completion of consolidation therapy. During the 2-year follow-up, the persistence of peripheral blood complete molecular remission was associated with a lower risk of relapse (4-year cumulative incidence, 8.2%), while molecular relapse confirmed on a subsequent peripheral blood sample predicted hematological relapse (4-year cumulative incidence, 86.9%) within a median time interval of 3.9 months. In t(8;21)(q22;q22) acute myeloid leukemia, minimal residual disease monitoring on peripheral blood every 3 months allows for the prediction of hematological relapse, and to identify patients who could potentially benefit from intervention therapy. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID #NCT00428558).

  6. Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Simple practices like changing a baby's sleep position, holding your baby, and providing lots of "tummy time" ... devices to keep your baby in one position. Alternate positions in the crib. Consider how you lay ...

  7. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  8. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  9. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  10. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Aveni, Glenn; Putterman, Seth; Rudnick, Joseph

    1990-10-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  11. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Aveni, Glenn (Inventor); Putterman, Seth (Inventor); Rudnick, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  12. [Positive Activities Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This packet contains four pamphlets that are part of a campaign to encourage adults to provide and promote positive activities for youth and to serve as role models for young people. "Positive Activities: A Campaign for Youth" includes information on what positive activities are, how to get involved in helping to provide positive activities for…

  13. On Positive Functions with Positive Derivatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Three proofs are given for the fact that the derivative of an everywhere-positive non-constant real polynomial function must change sign. This self-contained note could find classroom use in courses on calculus or abstract algebra.

  14. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  15. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  16. A cutaneous positioning system.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bernard J; Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2015-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that torso cutaneous information contributes to the internal representation of the torso and plays a role in postural control. Hence, the aims of this study were to assess whether posture could be manipulated by patterns of vibrotactile stimulation and to determine whether resulting modified postures were associated with specific and consistent spatial attitudes. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the anatomical locations corresponding to left and right external oblique, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. A 250-Hz tactile vibration was applied for 5 s either at a single location or consecutively at each location in clockwise or counterclockwise sequences. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that postural responses observed in response to single and sequential stimulation patterns were similar, while the center of pressure remained unaltered in any situations. Moreover, torso inclinations followed rectilinear-like path segments chartered by stimuli loci during sequential stimulations. Comparison of torso attitudes with previous results obtained with co-vibration patterns of the same duration showed that torso inclination amplitudes are equivalent for single (one location) and co-vibration (pairs of locations) patterns inducing the same directional effect. Hence, torso cutaneous information exhibits kinesthetic properties, appears to provide a map of upper body spatial configuration, and could assume the role of an internal positioning system for the upper body. PMID:25600816

  17. Indoor Positioning - An Ad-Hoc Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Rainer

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of an automatic, low-cost system that exploits current or near future wireless communications technology to enable continuous tracking of the location of devices in all environments. The development of such a wireless sensor network involves system design, digital signal processing, protocol development, extraction of ranges and localisation. This paper focuses on the user requirements, system architecture and network positioning. The user requirements are presented with a focus on applications in geodesy. A high level strategy for the positioning function is presented based on an ad-hoc geodetic network positioning method including issues of accuracy, quality and reliability of the node positions. Results show that it is possible to achieve a position deviation that is of the size of the ranging error.

  18. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-04-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence.

  19. Serological markers and risk factors related to hepatitis B virus in dentists in the Central West region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Paiva, Enilza Maria Mendonça; Tiplle, Anaclara Ferreira Veiga; de Paiva Silva, Eliane; de Paula Cardoso, Divina das Dores

    2008-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been considered the major occupational risk agent for dentists. The Central West region of Brazil is considered an intermediate endemic pattern area, but currently there is no information about the HBV prevalence in dentists of Goiânia, Goiás. This study aimed at the detection of the HBV infection rate and risk factors for dentists of Goiânia and the comparison of the obtained data with the general population and other groups. A randomized sample of 680 professionals participated in this study. All dentists gave written consent for the procedure and filled out a questionnaire about risk factors. The HBV serological markers were analyzed using ELISA test and the presence of anti-HBc was observed in 41 (6.0%) of the dentists. None of them was HBsAg positive. Significant relationships with HBV positivity were observed with gender, the time working as a dentist and the use of incomplete personal protective equipment (PPE). The HBV prevalence found in this group of dentists was lower than the endemic pattern of the general population, other health care workers of the region and the dentists from other regions in Brazil. These results may indicate a positive impact of vaccination considering the high adherence of the dentists to the immunization program (98.4%). Finally, the use of complete PPE by the majority as well as other standard precautions recommended for health care workers could be responsible for the low HBV seroprevalence. PMID:24031211

  20. Positioning of bacterial chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Armitage, Judith P

    2015-05-01

    For optimum growth, bacteria must adapt to their environment, and one way that many species do this is by moving towards favourable conditions. To do so requires mechanisms to both physically drive movement and provide directionality to this movement. The pathways that control this directionality comprise chemoreceptors, which, along with an adaptor protein (CheW) and kinase (CheA), form large hexagonal arrays. These arrays can be formed around transmembrane receptors, resulting in arrays embedded in the inner membrane, or they can comprise soluble receptors, forming arrays in the cytoplasm. Across bacterial species, chemoreceptor arrays (both transmembrane and soluble) are localised to a variety of positions within the cell; some species with multiple arrays demonstrate this variety within individual cells. In many cases, the positioning pattern of the arrays is linked to the need for segregation of arrays between daughter cells on division, ensuring the production of chemotactically competent progeny. Multiple mechanisms have evolved to drive this segregation, including stochastic self-assembly, cellular landmarks, and the utilisation of ParA homologues. The variety of mechanisms highlights the importance of chemotaxis to motile species.

  1. High School Student Physics Research Experience Yields Positive Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-01-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a…

  2. [Positive results with haematology webcasting for junior doctors].

    PubMed

    Raaschou-Jensen, Klas; Thomsen, Rasmus Heje; Gang, Anne Ortved; Do, Thrung; Aagaard, Thomas; Niemann, Carsten; Bjerrum, Ole Weis

    2016-01-11

    Webcasting is an educational activity where the teacher and the participants are separated in space and time when using modern information technology. It is widely used for all learning levels and in all educational forms of haematology training in Europe. A working group in the Education Council of internal medicine, haematology in the eastern part of Denmark initiated a project with webcasting from local haematological departments. The aim of the education project was to contribute to spreading knowledge and support the training of specialist in haematology. Our experience is hereby reported. PMID:26750197

  3. Patient throughput collaborative yields positive results for New Jersey hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karen

    2015-05-01

    Collecting and analyzing data was a key step in a process improvement initiative undertaken by several hospitals in New Jersey. The hospitals found that patient flow problems commonly stemmed from uneven use of operating rooms and unenforced admission/discharge policies on inpatient units. Shared solutions included improving staff communication and enforcing admission/discharge policies.

  4. High school student physics research experience yields positive results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podolak, K. R.; Walters, M. J.

    2016-03-01

    All high school students that wish to continue onto college are seeking opportunities to be competitive in the college market. They participate in extra-curricular activities which are seen to foster creativity and the skills necessary to do well in the college environment. In the case of students with an interest in physics, participating in a small scale research project while in high school gives them the hands on experience and ultimately prepares them more for the college experience. SUNY Plattsburgh’s Physics department started a five-week summer program for high school students in 2012. This program has proved not only beneficial for students while in the program, but also as they continue on in their development as scientists/engineers. Independent research, such as that offered by SUNY Plattsburgh’s five-week summer program, offers students a feel and taste of the culture of doing research, and life as a scientist. It is a short-term, risk free way to investigate whether a career in research or a particular scientific field is a good fit.

  5. Sharing a Faculty Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, Patricia K.; Meyer, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the experience of two nursing faculty members who shared an assistant professor of nursing position. Discusses positive and negative aspects of the experience and notes that a unified and creative approach must be taken for it to succeed. (JOW)

  6. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  7. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

  8. Prone positioning for surgery.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Mark

    2012-05-01

    The role of the registered perioperative practitioner (Operating Department Practitioner or Registered Nurse) includes the responsibility for safely positioning patients for surgery. The prone position is in common use for a variety of surgical procedures. The formal term for this surgical position is ventral decubitus (meaning laying face down). PMID:22720505

  9. Metallic positive expulsion diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1972-01-01

    High-cycle life ring-reinforced hemispherical type positive expulsion diaphragm performance was demonstrated by room temperature fluid expulsion tests of 13" diameter, 8 mil thick stainless steel configurations. A maximum of eleven (11) leak-free, fluid expulsions were achieved by a 25 deg cone angle diaphragm hoop-reinforced with .110-inch cross-sectional diameter wires. This represents a 70% improvement in diaphragm reversal cycle life compared to results previously obtained. The reversal tests confirmed analytic predictions for diaphragm cycle life increases due to increasing values of diaphragm cone angle, radius to thickness ratio and material strain to necking capacity. Practical fabrication techniques were demonstrated for forming close-tolerance, thin corrugated shells and for obtaining closely controlled reinforcing ring stiffness required to maximize diaphragm cycle life. A non-destructive inspection technique for monitoring large local shell bending strains was developed.

  10. Precision positioning device

    DOEpatents

    McInroy, John E.

    2005-01-18

    A precision positioning device is provided. The precision positioning device comprises a precision measuring/vibration isolation mechanism. A first plate is provided with the precision measuring mean secured to the first plate. A second plate is secured to the first plate. A third plate is secured to the second plate with the first plate being positioned between the second plate and the third plate. A fourth plate is secured to the third plate with the second plate being positioned between the third plate and the fourth plate. An adjusting mechanism for adjusting the position of the first plate, the second plate, the third plate, and the fourth plate relative to each other.

  11. Serial position encoding of signs.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Petrova, Anna; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity has been reported for sign as compared to speech when items have to be recalled in a specific order. This difference has been attributed to a more precise and efficient serial position encoding in verbal STM (used for speech) than visuo-spatial STM (used for sign). We tested in the present investigation whether the reduced STM capacity with signs stems from a lack of positional encoding available in verbal STM. Error analyses reported in prior studies have revealed that positions are defined in verbal STM by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence (both-edges positional encoding scheme). Our analyses of the errors made by deaf participants with finger-spelled letters revealed that the both-edges positional encoding scheme underlies the STM representation of signs. These results indicate that the cause of the STM disadvantage is not the type of positional encoding but rather the difficulties in binding an item in visuo-spatial STM to its specific position in the sequence. Both-edges positional encoding scheme could be specific of sign, since it has not been found in visuo-spatial STM tasks conducted with hearing participants. PMID:27244095

  12. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.; Darnold, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages of maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.

  13. PHOTOELECTRIC CONTROL FOR TAPE POSITIONING

    DOEpatents

    Woody, J.W. Jr.

    1961-07-25

    A control system is described for producing control impulses which may be used to start, stop, and position a magnetic tape with respect to a transducer, and to locate discrete areas on the tape. Means are provided for positive identification of data blocks, exact positioning of the tape under the magnetic head, drive in either direction, accurate skip-over of imperfect regions of the tape, stopping the tape if equipment malfunction results in a failure to detect the block-identifying signals, and starting and stopping those parts of the tape between of the tape drive clutches.

  14. SWITCHING TRANSMITTER POSITIONING OF SYNCHROS

    DOEpatents

    Wolff, H.

    1962-03-13

    A transformer apparatus is designed for effecting the step positioning of synchro motors. The apparatus is provided with ganged switches and pre- selected contacts to permit the units and tens selection of the desired angular position for the synchro motor rotor with only the movement of two selector knobs required. With the selection thus made, the appropriate pre-selected signal is delivered to the synchro motor for positioning the rotor of the latter as selected. The transformer apparatus is divided into smaller arrangements to conform with coraputed trigonometric relations which will give the desired results. (AEC)

  15. Serostatus for vaccine-preventable diseases in residents at Melbourne Juvenile Justice Centre.

    PubMed

    Thompson, S C; Ogilvie, E; Veit, F; Crofts, N

    1998-08-01

    There are concerns in Australia about inadequate rates of childhood immunisation, an important preventive measure to reduce infectious diseases. The population passing through the Melbourne Juvenile Justice Centre (MJJC) comes from a background at high risk for inadequate immunisation and outbreaks can occur in residential institutions. MJJC residents were invited to participate in a study by completing a medical officer-administered risk behaviour questionnaire and/or giving a blood sample. Ninety residents completed the questionnaire; 83 gave blood samples. Sera were tested for measles, mumps, rubella and hepatitis A, B and C markers using standard commercial assays. Diphtheria and tetanus were tested with an ELISA in a public health laboratory familiar in the technique. Sixty four per cent (53/83) of participants were non-immune to at least one component of MMR and 44.6% (37/83) non-immune to either tetanus or diphtheria. Despite 61.1% of participants reporting injecting drug use, only 28.2% had protective levels of anti-HBs, 6.1% were positive for anti-HBc (2.4% equivocal), 22.9% were anti-HCV positive and 9.6% had markers of exposure to hepatitis A virus. These results show suboptimal levels of immunity in this institutional setting with the potential for disease outbreaks. Many residents miss adolescent school-based programs for immunisation because of truancy and early school leaving. Despite considerable risk of blood-borne viruses, many MJJC residents are inadequately vaccinated against hepatitis B.

  16. Quality Markers in Cardiology. Main Markers to Measure Quality of Results (Outcomes) and Quality Measures Related to Better Results in Clinical Practice (Performance Metrics). INCARDIO (Indicadores de Calidad en Unidades Asistenciales del Área del Corazón): A SEC/SECTCV Consensus Position Paper.

    PubMed

    López-Sendón, José; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Pinto, Fausto; Cuenca Castillo, José; Badimón, Lina; Dalmau, Regina; González Torrecilla, Esteban; López-Mínguez, José Ramón; Maceira, Alicia M; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Pomar Moya-Prats, José Luis; Sionis, Alessandro; Zamorano, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Cardiology practice requires complex organization that impacts overall outcomes and may differ substantially among hospitals and communities. The aim of this consensus document is to define quality markers in cardiology, including markers to measure the quality of results (outcomes metrics) and quality measures related to better results in clinical practice (performance metrics). The document is mainly intended for the Spanish health care system and may serve as a basis for similar documents in other countries. PMID:26315766

  17. Quality Markers in Cardiology. Main Markers to Measure Quality of Results (Outcomes) and Quality Measures Related to Better Results in Clinical Practice (Performance Metrics). INCARDIO (Indicadores de Calidad en Unidades Asistenciales del Área del Corazón): A SEC/SECTCV Consensus Position Paper.

    PubMed

    López-Sendón, José; González-Juanatey, José Ramón; Pinto, Fausto; Cuenca Castillo, José; Badimón, Lina; Dalmau, Regina; González Torrecilla, Esteban; López-Mínguez, José Ramón; Maceira, Alicia M; Pascual-Figal, Domingo; Pomar Moya-Prats, José Luis; Sionis, Alessandro; Zamorano, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    Cardiology practice requires complex organization that impacts overall outcomes and may differ substantially among hospitals and communities. The aim of this consensus document is to define quality markers in cardiology, including markers to measure the quality of results (outcomes metrics) and quality measures related to better results in clinical practice (performance metrics). The document is mainly intended for the Spanish health care system and may serve as a basis for similar documents in other countries.

  18. Positive criminology in practice.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice.

  19. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, Milton L.; Harper, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  20. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1987-06-30

    A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

  1. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  2. [Vaccination against hepatitis B virus at the Lyon Pasteur Institute. A seven-year evaluation].

    PubMed

    Fayol, V; Cotisson, A; Jullien, C; Rotivel, Y; Lery, L; Ville, G

    1991-09-01

    Results of immunization against hepatitis B among Pasteur Institute staff members are reported. Prior to immunization, 439 subjects were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers, including HBs antigen, anti-HBs antibody, and anti-HBc antibody (Ausria, Ausab, Corab assays; Abbott). Forty-seven subjects tested positive for anti-HBs antibody. 317 subjects negative for all the HBs markers studied were given three intramuscular doses of Hevac B (Pasteur vaccins) at one-month intervals. Anti-HBs antibodies were assayed after the third injection with the following results: mean titer, 1,454 mIU/ml, standard deviation, 5,349 mIU/ml, and range, 4 to 41,100 mIU/ml. Anti-HBs titers above 10 mIU/ml were found in 879.4% of subjects. Non-responders and weak responders (anti-HBs titer under 10 mIU/ml) were given a fourth dose of vaccine. Ultimately, after the last (third of fourth) injection 97.6% of subjects had protective antibody titers. No case of HBV infection was seen during the seven-year follow-up period.

  3. Antibody and immune memory persistence post infant hepatitis B vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Hudu, Shuaibu A; Malik, Yasmin A; Niazlin, Mohd Taib; Harmal, Nabil S; Adnan, Ariza; Alshrari, Ahmed S; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the level of hepatitis B immunity among undergraduate students 23 years after commencement of the nationwide hepatitis B childhood immunization program in Malaysia. Methods A total of 402 serum samples obtained from volunteer undergraduate students were screened for the presence of hepatitis B surface antibodies using qualitative ELISA. Results Results showed that 62.7% of volunteers had protective anti-hepatitis B surface antigens (≥10 IU/L), of whom 67.9% received three doses of the vaccine. The estimated post-vaccination immunity was found to be at least 20 years, indicating persistent immunity against hepatitis B and a significant association (P < 0.05) with duration of vaccination. Anamnestic response 1 month post-hepatitis B booster was 94.0% and highly significant (P < 0.01). Isolated antihepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) prevalence was found to be 5.0%, all having had a positive anamnestic response. Conclusion Immunity after primary vaccination with hepatitis B recombinant vaccine persists for at least 20 years post-vaccination, with significant association with the number of vaccinations. Furthermore, the presence of anamnestic response to booster vaccine indicates long-lasting immunity despite decreasing antibody levels; therefore, the need for hepatitis B vaccine boosters may not be of significant benefit after complete infant vaccination. PMID:24101865

  4. Position Resolution in DROIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2008-04-01

    Since the very beginning, Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) were proposed to achieve both good position and energy resolutions. In DROIDs, the absorption of primary particle energy occurs in a long superconductive strip. Quasiparticles produced in the absorber diffuse along the strip and counted by the superconductive tunnel junctions positioned at the two ends of the strip. In this paper the formula for estimation DROID’s position resolution from experimental data was derived. This formula takes into account correlation between fluctuations of signals of DROID’s detectors.

  5. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  6. Impact micro-positioning actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuerden, Brian (Inventor); Angel, J. Roger P. (Inventor); Burge, James H. (Inventor); DeRigne, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An impact micro-positioning actuator. In one aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the nut is impacted by an impacting device, causing the nut first to rotate relative to the shaft by slipping as a result of shaft inertia and subsequently to stick to the shaft as a result of the frictional force therebetween. The nut is returned to its initial position by a return force provided by a return mechanism after impact. The micro-positioning actuator is further improved by controlling at least one and preferably all of the following: the friction, the impact provided by the impacting device, the return force provided by the return mechanism, and the inertia of the shaft. In another aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the shaft is impacted by an impacting device, causing the shaft to rotate relative to the nut.

  7. Positive Emotion following a Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne; Ottenbacher, Margaret; Graham, James E.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES As populations age, interest in exploring the emotional health of adults has increased. In the current study we were interested in investigating the positive emotion of adults with stroke at discharge from in-patient medical rehabilitation and 3 months post discharge. DESIGN A longitudinal study using information from the Stroke Recovery in Underserved Patients database. SETTING Information was collected during in-patient medical rehabilitation stay and approximately 3 months post discharge. PARTICIPANTS The study included 856 persons aged 55 or older with stroke admitted to in-patient medical rehabilitation in the U.S. MEASUREMENTS Positive emotion. RESULTS The average age was 72.5 years, 78.7% were non-Hispanic white and 51.9% were women. The average length of in-patient hospital stay was 20.2 (SD 10.1) days. More than a third (35.6%) reported higher positive emotion over the 3 month follow-up, while 29.7% reported lower positive emotion. In addition to discharge positive emotion, three factors including depression (b = −0.05, SE .02, p = .0001), level of education (b = 0.08, SE .04, p = .04) and functional status (b = 0.04, SE .006, p = .001) significantly predicted higher positive emotion at 3 month follow-up. CONCLUSION A large percentage of adults report high positive emotion in the initial months following a stroke. This finding adds to work on stroke recovery and indicates the resilience of adults when faced with a health challenge. Understanding the role of positive emotion in persons living with stroke may provide critical insight into long-term recovery. PMID:18509564

  8. Absence of Correlation between IL-28B Gene Polymorphisms and the Clinical Presentation of Chronic Hepatitis B in an Amazon Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Conde, Simone Regina Souza; Rocha, Luciana L.; Ferreira, Vanessa M.; Soares Monteiro, Julius Caesar Mendes; Fonseca Filgueiras, Nathália Karla; de Almeida Lins, Pedro Alves; Silva dos Santos, Bruna Tereza; Bonfim Freitas, Felipe; da Silva Graça, Ednelza; Demachki, Sâmia; Ferreira de Araújo, Marialva Tereza; Ishak, Ricardo; Vallinoto, Antonio C. R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The present study investigated the prevalence of the IL-28B polymorphisms rs12979860 and rs8099917 in chronic hepatitis B patients from a case study in Eastern Amazonia. Methods. In total, 65 chronically infected HBV patients and 97 healthy subjects who were anti-HBc and anti-HBs positive (control group) were evaluated between May 2011 and December 2012. The groups of patients were designated as inactive carriers, chronic hepatitis without cirrhosis, and chronic hepatitis with cirrhosis based on clinical, pathological, biochemical, hematological, and virological variables. The patients were genotyped using quantitative real-time PCR. Results. The frequencies of the rs12979860 polymorphism were similar between the infected group (32.3% CC, 41.5% CT, and 26.2 TT) and the control population (35% CC, 47.4% CT, and 17.6% TT), and the frequencies of the rs8099917 polymorphism (7.7% GG, 35.4% GT, and 56.9% TT versus 7.2% GG, 35.1% GT, and 57.7% TT) were also similar in both groups. The associations between the rs12979860 and rs8099917 polymorphisms and the clinical manifestations were not statistically significant. Conclusion. In conclusion, these polymorphisms had a similar distribution between infected and control groups, indicating that they were not associated with susceptibility and the clinical evolution of hepatitis B in the examined population. PMID:24817780

  9. Prevalence of Hepatitis B and C in Donated Blood from the Jazan Region of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed Abdullah, Saleh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Infections caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) are global public health problems. The safety of donated blood can be estimated by monitoring the prevalence of viral markers in the donor population. The present study was carried out in the Jazan region to determine the prevalence of HBV and HCV among Saudi blood donors. Methods: Over a period of six years (January 2004 to December 2009), a total of 29 949 blood units were collected from healthy voluntary and replacement native Saudi blood donors. The donated units were serologically screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), and antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV). These data were then analysed. Results: HBsAg was positive in 3.8% of the blood units that were collected, the blood units with anti–HCV seropositivity had the lowest prevalence (0.41%), and the prevalence of HBsAg was highest in the group that was > 46 years of age. A significant decline in the prevalence of HBV infection has been observed, from 5.6% in 2004 to 2.3% in 2009 (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The present study showed that the prevalence of HBV and HCV was in a significant decline from 2004 to 2009, and the prevalence of HBsAg and anti-HCV significantly increased with age. PMID:23983576

  10. Prophylactic managements of hepatitis B viral infection in liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Onoe, Takashi; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yuka; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) is a considerably effective treatment for patients with end-stage hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related liver disease. However, HBV infection often recurs after LT without prophylaxis. Since the 1990s, the treatment for preventing HBV reinfection after LT has greatly progressed with the introduction of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) and nucleos(t)ide analogues (NAs), resulting in improved patient survival. The combination therapy consisting of high-dose HBIG and lamivudine is highly efficacious for preventing the recurrence of HBV infection after LT and became the standard prophylaxis for HBV recurrence. However, mainly due to the high cost of HBIG treatment, an alternative protocol for reducing the dose and duration of HBIG has been evaluated. Currently, combination therapy using low-dose HBIG and NAs is considered as the most efficacious and cost-effective prophylaxis for post-LT HBV reinfection. Recently, NA monotherapy and withdrawal of HBIG from combination therapy, along with the development of new, potent high genetic barrier NAs, have provided promising efficacy, especially for low-risk recipients. This review summarizes the prophylactic protocol and their efficacy including prophylaxis of de novo HBV infection from anti-HBc antibody-positive donors. In addition, challenging approaches such as discontinuation of all prophylaxis and active immunity through hepatitis B vaccination are discussed. PMID:26755868

  11. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  12. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  13. Art of Positive Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Martha

    1979-01-01

    An elementary school principal explains how she promotes a positive working and learning environment in her school through written and verbal praise, open communications, and the sharing of ideas. (SJL)

  14. Prevalence of occult HBV among hemodialysis patients in two districts in the northern part of the West Bank, Palestine.

    PubMed

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2014-10-01

    Occult hepatitis B infection is the case with undetectable HBsAg, but positive for HBV DNA in liver tissue and/or serum. Occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients in Palestine has been understudied. In this study, 148 hemodialysis patients from 2 northern districts in Palestine, Jenin (89) and Tulkarem (59), were investigated for occult hepatitis B, HBV, HCV infections with related risk factors. ELISA and PCR were used for the detection of anti-HBc and viral DNA, respectively. The overall prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among the study group was 12.5% (16/128). Occult hepatitis B infection is more prevalent among males with most cases (15/16) from Jenin District. About one-third (42/132) of the hemodialysis patients were anti-HBc positive. Approximately 27% of the hemodialysis patients were infected with HCV. Around 20% (28/140) were positive for HBV DNA, but only 8.2% (12/146) of the hemodialysis patients were positive for HBsAg. The comparison between hemodialysis patients with occult hepatitis B infection and those without occult hepatitis B infection for selected risk factors and parameters as liver Enzyme, age, sex, HCV infection, blood transfusion, kidney transplant, anti-HBc, and vaccination showed no statistical significance between both categories. Duration of hemodialysis significantly affected the rate of HCV infection. HCV is significantly higher in hemodialysis patients with both Diabetes mellitus and hypertension. The prevalence of occult hepatitis B infection among hemodialysis patients is high; requiring stringent control policies. HBsAg assay is insufficient test for accurate diagnosis of HBV infection among hemodialysis patients.

  15. Video image position determination

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Wynn; Anderson, Forrest L.; Kortegaard, Birchard L.

    1991-01-01

    An optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  16. On Nth roots of positive operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. R.; Omalley, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    A bounded operator A on a Hilbert space H was positive. These operators were symmetric, and as such constitute a natural generalization of nonnegative real diagonal matrices. The following result is thus both well known and not surprising: A positive operator has a unique positive square root (under operator composition).

  17. Local positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kyker, R.

    1995-07-25

    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  18. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  19. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p < 0.001), while backs were involved in more ball carries and covered more total distance and distance at high speed per minute of game time (p < 0.01). Loose forwards, inside and outside backs covered significantly more distance at high speed (p < 0.01), while there was a negligible difference with number of impacts between the forward positions. There was also minimal difference between positions in the percentage change in NP, cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game.

  20. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p < 0.001), while backs were involved in more ball carries and covered more total distance and distance at high speed per minute of game time (p < 0.01). Loose forwards, inside and outside backs covered significantly more distance at high speed (p < 0.01), while there was a negligible difference with number of impacts between the forward positions. There was also minimal difference between positions in the percentage change in NP, cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game. PMID:25830235

  1. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  2. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  3. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  4. Intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting: The association with child behavior.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Neppl, Tricia K

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting across generations based on both the family stress model (FSM) and the family resilience framework. The study included 220 generation 1 (G1) parents, their target youth (generation 2: G2) who participated from adolescence through adulthood, and the target's child (generation 3: G3). Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Results indicated that G1 economic hardship negatively influenced both G1 positivity and G1 positive parenting. Similarly, G2 economic hardship was negatively related to both G2 positivity and G2 positive parenting, which in turn was associated with G3 positive behavior to G2. For both G1 and G2, parental positivity mediated the association between economic hardship and positive parenting. G2 economic hardship was indirectly related to G3 positive behavior through G2 parental positivity and positive parenting. An important finding is that the intergenerational continuity of economic hardship, positivity, and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 to G2. Results suggest that even in times of economic adversity, parental positivity and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 parents to their G2 youth during adulthood. Such continuity seems to influence the positive behavior of the G3 children.

  5. False positives in imaging genetics.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Egan, Michael F; Callicott, Joseph H; Mattay, Venkata; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-04-01

    Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association with cognitive function. Effects on brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and brain function, using two archival imaging tasks, the n-back working memory task and an emotional face matching task, were studied in whole brain and regions of interest and corrected for multiple comparisons using standard neuroimaging procedures. Since these variants are unlikely to impact relevant brain function, positives obtained provide an upper empirical estimate of the false positive association rate. In a separate analysis, we randomly permuted genotype labels across subjects, removing any true genotype-phenotype association in the data, to derive a lower empirical estimate. At a set correction level of 0.05, in each region of interest and data set used, the rate of positive findings was well below 5% (0.2-4.1%). There was no relationship between the region of interest and the false positive rate. Permutation results were in the same range as empirically derived rates. The observed low rates of positives provide empirical evidence that the type I error rate is well controlled by current commonly used correction procedures in imaging genetics, at least in the context of the imaging paradigms we have used. In fact, our observations indicate that these statistical thresholds are conservative.

  6. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  7. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.

    1980-01-01

    Positive-isolation-disconnect (PID) device with two mating halves prevents leakage or spillover when two fluid lines are disconnected. Each half has shutoff poppet to stop fluid flow. When flow is shut, poppets are flush against each other, leaving no space for fluid to remain it.

  8. Positive Discipline. (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane

    Understanding why children do not behave the way they used to, and why both controlling and overly-permissive discipline styles are ineffective, is the first step for parents and teachers who are facing child-discipline problems. This book describes a program of positive discipline principles aimed at assisting parents and teachers in…

  9. Nursing Research: Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Laurel; And Others

    The role of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in encouraging research through the programs and activities of the member schools is discussed. It is suggested that the dean or administrative head of a college of nursing is in a position to influence nursing research activities. The principal role of the academic dean in…

  10. Positive: HIV Affirmative Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kain, Craig D.

    At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…

  11. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  12. Position feedback control system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  13. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by brief recurrent episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position. BPPV is the most common etiology of recurrent vertigo and is caused by abnormal stimulation of the cupula by free-floating otoliths (canalolithiasis) or otoliths that have adhered to the cupula (cupulolithiasis) within any of the three semicircular canals. Typical symptoms and signs of BPPV are evoked when the head is positioned so that the plane of the affected semicircular canal is spatially vertical and thus aligned with gravity. Paroxysm of vertigo and nystagmus develops after a brief latency during the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in posterior-canal BPPV, and during the supine roll test in horizontal-canal BPPV. Positioning the head in the opposite direction usually reverses the direction of the nystagmus. The duration, frequency, and symptom intensity of BPPV vary depending on the involved canals and the location of otolithic debris. Spontaneous recovery may be expected even with conservative treatments. However, canalithrepositioning maneuvers usually provide an immediate resolution of symptoms by clearing the canaliths from the semicircular canal into the vestibule. PMID:20607044

  14. Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Guest, Elise M.; Horner, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are complex communities that play a major role in the social fabric of culture. Effective schools provide access to both good instruction and a social culture that supports engagement, community, and success. Over the past 10 years, more than 11,000 elementary, middle level, and high schools have adopted schoolwide positive behavior…

  15. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  16. A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Richard A.

    This position paper covers possible problems of collective bargaining. (1) The two sides should not bring prejudgments of good or bad to the negotiating table. (2) Neither side should exaggerate its strength or minimize its weakness. (3) Neither side should confuse intransigence with firmness. (4) The composition of each team must be carefully…

  17. Positive reinforcement for viruses

    PubMed Central

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-01-01

    Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

  18. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    PubMed

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  19. Review of HRP Positions

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP), published as 10 CFR Part 712, is currently being reviewed and revised to address concerns identified during its implementation. Although these ''page changes'' primarily incorporate clarification of terms and language, the following discussion relates to broadening the definition of positions that require HRP certification that is found in {section}712.10.

  20. Delegation. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Connie; Bushmiaer, Margo; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Fekaris, Nina; Morgitan, Judith; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Yow, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the school nurse, when based on the nursing definition of delegation and in compliance with state nursing regulations and guidance. Delegation in school nursing is a complex process in which…

  1. Magnetic beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenkov, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Many nondestructive beam position monitors are known. However, these devices can not be used for DC particle beam diagnostics. We investigated a method of beam diagnostics applicable for the operative control of DC high power e-beam inside closed waveguide. A design of the detector for determination of{open_quote} center of mass {close_quote} position of DC particle beam was developed. It was shown that the monitor can be used as a nondestructive method for the beam position control in resonators. Magnetic field of the particle beam outside a resonator is used. The detector consists of the steel yokes and magnetic field sensors. The sensors measure magnetic fluxes in the steel yokes fixed outside the resonator. When the particle beam changes its position, these magnetic fluxes also change. Beam displacement sensitivity of the monitor depends on the steel yoke dimensions. The detector sensitivity is equal to 1 Gauss/mm for the conditions adequate to the FOM-FEM project.

  2. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  3. Position Sensitive Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadleir, J. E.; Hammock, C.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Stahle, C. K.; Bandler, S.; Saab, T.; Lindeman, M.; Porter, F. S.; Chervenak, J.; Brown, G.

    2004-01-01

    A Position Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST) is a microcalorimeter device capable of one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. The device consists of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) connected to the ends of a long X-ray absorbing strip. The energy of a photon hitting the absorber and the position of the absorption event along the strip is measured from the response in the two sensors by analyzing the relative signal sizes, pulse rise times, and the sum of the pulses measured at each sensor, We report on the recent PoST effort at Goddard for applications to large field of view, high-energy- resolution, X-ray astrophysics.

  4. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A disconnect composed basically of two halves each consisting of a poppet valve operable to isolate fluid with essentially zero fluid loss is presented. The two halves are coupled together by a quickly releasable coupling which may be either a coupling ring tightened or loosened by a twisting motion, or a clamp operated by a pivoted to prevent disconnecting the two halves until both valves are in closed condition. The positive feature of the device is one requiring a valve closing step before a disconnect step, and takes structural form in an accentric lobe mounted on the valve operating stem. If some obstruction prevents the poppet from moving to its seat, the eccentric lobe cannot be rotated to the closed position, and the interlock prevents a disconnect.

  5. Size and position matter.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine emphasizes the progress made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underpin the vesicular movement of cargo through the exocytic and endocytic pathways. Attention now focuses on those mechanisms that govern the relative size and position of the many different membrane-bound compartments. These homeostatic mechanisms are discussed in this issue of Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology and must be integrated so as to satisfy the needs of the cell and the organism.

  6. Membrane position control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A membrane structure includes at least one electroactive bending actuator fixed to a supporting base. Each electroactive bending actuator is operatively connected to the membrane for controlling membrane position. Any displacement of each electroactive bending actuator effects displacement of the membrane. More specifically, the operative connection is provided by a guiding wheel assembly and a track, wherein displacement of the bending actuator effects translation of the wheel assembly along the track, thereby imparting movement to the membrane.

  7. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  8. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  9. Thermolysis Of Positive Photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald W.

    1984-05-01

    Positive photoresists are currently being pushed to their limits to develop new processes for fine line lithography. Much of this processing is done in high temperature environments or with processes which generate a great deal of localized heat. Other processes use highly reactive free radical or ionic species. Further, current requirements demand that this processing be accomplished with minimal degredation of the resist image. All these requirements put increasing demands on the thermal stability of photoresist products. In view of these demands, a more complete understanding of the thermal chemistry of resist products would be of beneficial interest to those utilizing or designing these processes. This is of major importance in the development of new equipment, materials, and processes; especially where considerable heat is generated in the presence of resist materials. This paper attempts to provide a basic background to develop this understanding. It provides a description of the effects of thermal processing on positive photoresists. The paper discusses the thermal chemistry, particularly at temperatures above 100 degrees C, of the major positive photoresists used in microelectronic applications. The major emphasis is placed on common positive photoresist products containing diazo-oxide PAC and novolak resin. The paper gives a brief description of composition of the resists, and then an analysis of the thermolysis products at various temperatures. Analysis of the thermal reactions of the PAC, resin, and resist are given. The chemistry of the bulk films as well as the localized surface effects are examined. Finally, the effects of thermolysis are related to their impact on subsequent processing steps.

  10. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  11. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  12. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  13. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  14. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Gutow, David A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  15. Positional information, in bits

    PubMed Central

    Dubuis, Julien O.; Tkačik, Gašper; Wieschaus, Eric F.; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2013-01-01

    Cells in a developing embryo have no direct way of “measuring” their physical position. Through a variety of processes, however, the expression levels of multiple genes come to be correlated with position, and these expression levels thus form a code for “positional information.” We show how to measure this information, in bits, using the gap genes in the Drosophila embryo as an example. Individual genes carry nearly two bits of information, twice as much as would be expected if the expression patterns consisted only of on/off domains separated by sharp boundaries. Taken together, four gap genes carry enough information to define a cell’s location with an error bar of along the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo. This precision is nearly enough for each cell to have a unique identity, which is the maximum information the system can use, and is nearly constant along the length of the embryo. We argue that this constancy is a signature of optimality in the transmission of information from primary morphogen inputs to the output of the gap gene network. PMID:24089448

  16. Independent modal space control with positive position feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Fedor, J.

    1989-01-01

    An independent modal space control (IMSC) algorithm is presented, whose modal control forces are generated from a positive position feedback (PPF) strategy. The proposed algorithm combines the attributes of both the IMSC and the PPF, and maintains the simplicity of the IMSC as it designs the controller of a complex structure at the uncoupled modal level. The effectiveness of the algorithm in damping out the vibration of flexible structures is validated experimentally. A simple cantilevered beam is employed as an example of a flexible structure whose multimodes of vibration are controlled by a single actuator. Performance of the active control system is determined in the frequency and the time domains. The experimental results indicate the potential of the proposed methodology as a viable method for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures.

  17. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Dan Joseph

    2016-05-16

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis.

  18. Position from gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for obtaining position from surface gravity observations are reviewed and their relevance assessed in the context of the application of modern geodetic techniques to programs of Earth and ocean physics. Solutions based on the use of surface layer techniques, the discrete value approach, and the development from Green's theorem are stated in summary, the latter being extended to order e cubed in the height anomaly. The representation of the surface gravity field which is required in order that this accuracy may be achieved is discussed. Interim techniques which could be used in the absence of such a representation are also outlined.

  19. Deep Space Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  20. Global Positioning Satellite Recorder

    1997-11-10

    The GPS Tracker is a device (automotive unit) that records position (latitude and longitude), date, and time autonomously with time. The data from the GPS Tracker can be used offline with a personal computer and map data base to plot the track of where a vehicle or other mobile battery powered object has been. The invention simplifies field operations for recording location autonomously by obviating the need to execute a set of detailed instructions priormore » to operation. The vehicle combines GPS technology and a cpu with custom software to accomplish the task.« less

  1. Positional Information, in bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubuis, Julien; Bialek, William; Wieschaus, Eric; Gregor, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Pattern formation in early embryonic development provides an important testing ground for ideas about the structure and dynamics of genetic regulatory networks. Spatial variations in the concentration of particular transcription factors act as ``morphogens,'' driving more complex patterns of gene expression that in turn define cell fates, which must be appropriate to the physical location of the cells in the embryo. Thus, in these networks, the regulation of gene expression serves to transmit and process ``positional information.'' Here, using the early Drosophila embryo as a model system, we measure the amount of positional information carried by a group of four genes (the gap genes Hunchback, Kr"uppel, Giant and Knirps) that respond directly to the primary maternal morphogen gradients. We find that the information carried by individual gap genes is much larger than one bit, so that their spatial patterns provide much more than the location of an ``expression boundary.'' Preliminary data indicate that, taken together these genes provide enough information to specify the location of every row of cells along the embryo's anterior-posterior axis.

  2. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  3. Positive signs in massive gravity

    DOE PAGES

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. Furthermore, the high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small islandmore » in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. And while the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.« less

  4. Flight representative positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

  5. Positive signs in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    We derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. The high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small island in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. While the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.

  6. Thermal motor positions magnetometer sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Scott, S. G.

    1966-01-01

    Reversing, thermal, motor-driven device positions magnetometer sensors for checking zero offset. The device alternately positions two sensors at fixed positions 90 degrees apart. The thermal motor is fabricated completely of nonmagnetic materials.

  7. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  8. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three parallel inductors, each of which has an axial core that is an independent magnetic structure. A first support couples first and second inductors and separate them by a fixed distance. A second support coupled to a third inductor disposed between the first and second inductors. The first support and second support are configured for relative movement as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first and second inductors. An oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors. A device measures a phase component of a source voltage generating the oscillating current and a phase component of voltage induced in the third inductor when the oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors such that the phase component of the voltage induced overlaps the phase component of the source voltage.

  9. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three independent inductors inductively coupled by a common medium such as air. First and second inductors are separated by a fixed distance with the first inductor's axial core and second inductor's axial core maintained parallel to one another. A third inductor is disposed between the first and second inductors with the third inductor's axial core being maintained parallel to those of the first and second inductors. The combination of the first and second inductors are configured for relative movement with the third inductor's axial core remaining parallel to those of the first and second inductors as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first inductor and second inductor. An oscillating current can be supplied to at least one of the three inductors, while voltage induced in at least one of the three inductors not supplied with the oscillating current is measured.

  10. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  11. The Global Positioning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of navigation satellites called Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR), maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense. Many outdoor enthusiasts recognize that a handheld GPS receiver can be an accurate tool for determining their location on the terrain. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the Earth's surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. Identifying a location on the Earth is more useful if you also know about the surrounding topographic conditions. Using a topographic map with the GPS receiver provides important information about features of the surrounding terrain and can help you plot an effective route from one location to another.

  12. A POSITIONAL DATA SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Forster, G.A.

    1963-09-24

    between master and slave synchros is described. A threephase a-c power source is connected to the stators of the synchros and an error detector is connected to the rotors of the synchros to measure the phasor difference therebetween. A phase shift network shifts the phase of one of the rotors 90 degrees and a demodulator responsive thereto causes the phasor difference signal of the rotors to shift phase 180 degrees whenever the 90 degree phase shifted signal goes negative. The phase shifted difference signal has a waveform which, with the addition of small values of resistance and capacitance, gives a substantially pure d-c output whose amplitude and polarity is proportional to the magnitude and direction of the difference in the angular positions of the synchro's rotors. (AEC)

  13. Beyond complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-04-01

    We provide a general and consistent formulation for linear subsystem quantum dynamical maps, developed from a minimal set of postulates, primary among which is a relaxation of the usual, restrictive assumption of uncorrelated initial system-bath states. We describe the space of possibilities admitted by this formulation, namely that, far from being limited to only completely positive (CP) maps, essentially any C-linear, Hermiticity-preserving, trace-preserving map can arise as a legitimate subsystem dynamical map from a joint unitary evolution of a system coupled to a bath. The price paid for this added generality is a trade-off between the set of admissible initial states and the allowed set of joint system-bath unitary evolutions. As an application, we present a simple example of a non-CP map constructed as a subsystem dynamical map that violates some fundamental inequalities in quantum information theory, such as the quantum data processing inequality.

  14. Automatic Beam Position Control at LASREF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oothoudt, M. A.; Pillai, C.; Zumbro, M. V.

    1997-05-01

    Historically the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has used manual control to position the 800 kW, 800 MeV proton beam on targets. New experiments, however, require more stringent position control more frequently than can be done manually for long periods of time. Data from an existing harp was used to automatically adjust steering magnets to maintain beam position to required tolerances. Results and details of the system will be presented.

  15. Positive lightning and severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  16. Geometrical Positioning Schemes Based on Hybrid Lines of Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Jium-Ming; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Chi, Ching-Lung

    To achieve more accurate measurements of the mobile station (MS) location, it is possible to integrate many kinds of measurements. In this paper we proposed several simpler methods that utilized time of arrival (TOA) at three base stations (BSs) and the angle of arrival (AOA) information at the serving BS to give location estimation of the MS in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. From the viewpoint of geometric approach, for each a TOA value measured at any BS, one can generate a circle. Rather than applying the nonlinear circular lines of position (LOP), the proposed methods are much easier by using linear LOP to determine the MS. Numerical results demonstrate that the calculation time of using linear LOP is much less than employing circular LOP. Although the location precision of using linear LOP is only reduced slightly. However, the proposed efficient methods by using linear LOP can still provide precise solution of MS location and reduce the computational effort greatly. In addition, the proposed methods with less effort can mitigate the NLOS effect, simply by applying the weighted sum of the intersections between different linear LOP and the AOA line, without requiring priori knowledge of NLOS error statistics. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can always yield superior performance in comparison with Taylor series algorithm (TSA) and the hybrid lines of position algorithm (HLOP).

  17. Head Position and Internally Headed Relative Clauses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basilico, David

    1996-01-01

    Examines "Head Movement" in internally headed relative clauses (IHRCs). The article shows that in some cases, head movement to an external position need not take place and demonstrates that this movement of the head to a sentence-internal position results from the quantificational nature of IHRCs and Diesing's mapping hypothesis (1990, 1992). (56…

  18. Positive Pressure Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Mark H.; Montserrat, Josep M.; Farré, Ramon; Givelber, Rachel J.

    2008-01-01

    The sleep medicine community has increasingly recognized the necessity that clinical care be based on high-quality levels of evidence. Although research supports a favorable influence of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on risk for significant adverse outcomes in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea (OSAH), well-designed trials are still required to elucidate the effect of PAP on health, quality of life, and economic risks in patients with milder OSAH. Similarly, although there is strong evidence supporting various PAP titration strategies and PAP modalities in patients with severe OSAH without significant medical and psychiatric comorbidities, there is insufficient high-level evidence assessing and comparing the clinical efficacy and health care cost implications of various titration paradigms and various PAP modalities in individuals with milder OSAH and those with comorbid conditions. For ethical and other reasons, it may not be possible to apply a randomized controlled design to address all questions. However, whichever design is employed, it must be rigorously developed with attention to all potential confounders with adequate power to provide compelling, high-quality evidence. PMID:18250208

  19. Detection of infections with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and human immunodeficiency virus by analyses of dried blood spots - performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT system and two commercial assays for nucleic acid amplification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Nowadays, dried blood spots (DBS) are primarily used to obtain diagnostic access to risk collectives such as intravenous drug users, who are prone to infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Before DBS analyses can be used in this diagnostic context, however, a comprehensive evaluation of its performance characteristics must be conducted. To the best of our knowledge, the current study presents for the first time such essential data for the Abbott ARCHITECT system, which is currently the worldwide leading platform in this field of infection diagnostics. Methods The investigation comprised 1,762 paired serum/DBS samples and a total of 3,524 determinations with the Abbott ARCHITECT HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HCV and HIV-1-p24-antigen/anti-HIV 1/2 assays as well as with the artus HBV LC PCR and VERSANT HCV RNA qualitative (TMA) tests. Results In the context of DBS testing, a specificity of 100% was recorded for the seven serological and molecular biological assays. The analytical sensitivity of HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HCV, HIV-1-p24-antigen/anti-HIV 1/2, HBV DNA, and HCV RNA detections in DBS eluates was 98.6%, 97.1%, 97.5%, 97.8%, 100%, 93%, and 100%, respectively. Discussion/conclusions The results obtained indicate that it is today possible to reliably detect HBsAg, anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-HCV and HIV-1-p24 antigen/anti-HIV 1/2 with state-of-the-art analytical systems such as the Abbott ARCHITECT in DBS eluates even when a comparatively high elution volume of 1,000 μl is used. They also provide evidence for the inherent analytical limits of DBS testing, which primarily concern the anti-HBc/anti-HBs system for individuals with HIV infections and nucleic acid tests with relatively low analytical sensitivity. PMID:23497102

  20. Inertial Pointing and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Robert (Inventor); Robbins, Fred (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An inertial pointing and control system and method for pointing to a designated target with known coordinates from a platform to provide accurate position, steering, and command information. The system continuously receives GPS signals and corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) dead reckoning or drift errors. An INS is mounted directly on a pointing instrument rather than in a remote location on the platform for-monitoring the terrestrial position and instrument attitude. and for pointing the instrument at designated celestial targets or ground based landmarks. As a result. the pointing instrument and die INS move independently in inertial space from the platform since the INS is decoupled from the platform. Another important characteristic of the present system is that selected INS measurements are combined with predefined coordinate transformation equations and control logic algorithms under computer control in order to generate inertial pointing commands to the pointing instrument. More specifically. the computer calculates the desired instrument angles (Phi, Theta. Psi). which are then compared to the Euler angles measured by the instrument- mounted INS. and forms the pointing command error angles as a result of the compared difference.

  1. Hepatitis B and workers in institutions for the mentally retarded: risk of infection for staff in patient care.

    PubMed

    Livengood, J R; Miller, G E; Coulter, D; Foster, L R

    1989-01-01

    In the fall of 1982, we conducted a serosurvey of 920 of 933 employees in a large residential institution for the mentally retarded in Salem, Oregon. This survey demonstrated an overall prevalence of 10% for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), a marker of present or previous hepatitis B virus infection. Antibody positivity was significantly associated with a history of ever having worked in a position involving direct patient care (adjusted odds ratio = 3.1, 95% confidence interval 2.6-4.2). The length of time employed at the institution was significantly associated with an increasing prevalence of anti-HBc positivity among those persons who had ever worked in direct patient care (chi 2 for linear trend = 19.3, P less than .00001, one tail), but not among those employees who had never worked in patient contact. This evidence supports the Immunization Practices Advisory Committee (ACIP) recommendation of hepatitis B virus screening and, where appropriate, vaccinations for those workers in institutions for the mentally retarded who work closely with patients. PMID:2787161

  2. Postmortem detection of hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency virus genomes in blood samples from drug-related deaths in Denmark*.

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Kringsholm, Birgitte; Banner, Jytte; Thomsen, Jørgen L; Georgsen, Jørgen; Pedersen, Court; Christensen, Peer Brehm

    2009-09-01

    Blood-borne viral infections are widespread among injecting drug users; however, it is difficult to include these patients in serological surveys. Therefore, we developed a national surveillance program based on postmortem testing of persons whose deaths were drug related. Blood collected at autopsy was tested for anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), or anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies using commercial kits. Subsets of seropositive samples were screened for viral genomes using sensitive in-house and commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA was detected in 20% (3/15) of anti-HBc-positive/anti-HBs-negative samples, HCV RNA was found in 64% (16/25) of anti-HCV-positive samples, and HIV RNA was detected in 40% (6/15) of anti-HIV-positive samples. The postmortem and antemortem prevalences of HBV DNA and HCV RNA were similar. Postmortem HIV RNA testing was less sensitive than antemortem testing. Thus, postmortem PCR analysis for HBV and HBC infection is feasible and relevant for demonstrating ongoing infections at death or for transmission analysis during outbreaks. PMID:19627416

  3. A potential association between exposure to hepatitis B virus and small bowel adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    DeFilippis, Ersilia M.; Mehta, Mamta

    2016-01-01

    Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) has never been described as a risk factor for small bowel adenocarcinoma, although infection is a known risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma. From May 2009 to December 2014, we implemented an institution-wide screening program for hepatitis B viral serologies prior to starting chemotherapy. Evidence of exposure [hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positivity in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positivity] was highest in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (21.1%), followed by small bowel cancer (12.5%). The small bowel adenocarcinoma cases with anti-HBc positivity were reviewed. Special attention was paid to known risk factors for small bowel cancers. One patient had a diagnosis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). However, the other patients had no genetic syndromes, history of inflammatory bowel disease or other chronic inflammation to explain their risk. We postulate exposure to bile acids, tumorigenesis of hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, and/or damage to the intestinal mucosa secondary to HBV exposure/infection as potential mechanisms for development of small bowel adenocarcinoma. More research is warranted to further elucidate this association. PMID:27284484

  4. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  5. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  6. Videofluoroscopic Investigation of Body Position on Articulatory Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Perry, Jamie L.; Kuehn, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively examine the effects of body position on the positioning of the epiglottis, tongue, and velum at rest and during speech. Method: Videofluoroscopic data were obtained from 12 healthy adults in the supine and upright positions at rest and during speech while the participants produced 12 VCV sequences. The effects of body…

  7. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  8. Positional nystagmus showing neutral points.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Numata, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    We encountered patients who had their static direction-changing positional nystagmus canceled at about 20-30 degrees yaw head rotation from the supine position. This nystagmus was also canceled when the head was rotated 180 degrees from this position. We call these head positions neutral points. At the neutral points, the cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal of the affected ear is positioned vertical to the gravitational plane and no deflection of the cupula occurs. The positional nystagmus observed (except the neutral points) was thought to occur due to a "heavy cupula" or "light cupula", which may be determined by the specific gravity of its endolymph.

  9. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  10. Positive Emotion Facilitates Audiovisual Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Miho S.; Watanabe, Katsumi; Kitagawa, Norimichi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that positive emotions can facilitate integrative and associative information processing in cognitive functions. The present study examined whether emotions in observers can also enhance perceptual integrative processes. We tested 125 participants in total for revealing the effects of emotional states and traits in observers on the multisensory binding between auditory and visual signals. Participants in Experiment 1 observed two identical visual disks moving toward each other, coinciding, and moving away, presented with a brief sound. We found that for participants with lower depressive tendency, induced happy moods increased the width of the temporal binding window of the sound-induced bounce percept in the stream/bounce display, while no effect was found for the participants with higher depressive tendency. In contrast, no effect of mood was observed for a simple audiovisual simultaneity discrimination task in Experiment 2. These results provide the first empirical evidence of a dependency of multisensory binding upon emotional states and traits, revealing that positive emotions can facilitate the multisensory binding processes at a perceptual level. PMID:26834585

  11. Positional Cloning by Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Maniatis, Nikolas; Collins, Andrew; Gibson, Jane; Zhang, Weihua; Tapper, William; Morton, Newton E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps that assign an LD unit (LDU) location for each marker have been developed (Maniatis et al. 2002). Here we present a multiple pairwise method for positional cloning by LD within a composite likelihood framework and investigate the operating characteristics of maps in physical units (kb) and LDU for two bodies of data (Daly et al. 2001; Jeffreys et al. 2001) on which current ideas of blocks are based. False-negative indications of a disease locus (type II error) were examined by selecting one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time as causal and taking its allelic count (0, 1, or 2, for the three genotypes) as a pseudophenotype, Y. By use of regression and correlation, association between every pseudophenotype and the allelic count of each SNP locus (X) was based on an adaptation of the Malecot model, which includes a parameter for location of the putative gene. By expressing locations in kb or LDU, greater power for localization was observed when the LDU map was fitted. The efficiency of the kb map, relative to the LDU map, to describe LD varied from a maximum of 0.87 to a minimum of 0.36, with a mean of 0.62. False-positive indications of a disease locus (type I error) were examined by simulating an unlinked causal SNP and the allele count was used as a pseudophenotype. The type I error was in good agreement with Wald’s likelihood theorem for both metrics and all models that were tested. Unlike tests that select only the most significant marker, haplotype, or haploset, these methods are robust to large numbers of markers in a candidate region. Contrary to predictions from tagging SNPs that retain haplotype diversity, the sample with smaller size but greater SNP density gave less error. The locations of causal SNPs were estimated with the same precision in blocks and steps, suggesting that block definition may be less useful than anticipated for mapping a causal SNP. These results provide a guide to

  12. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver

    2005-02-01

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  13. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver

    2006-07-04

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  14. Components of Positive Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan

    1971-01-01

    Thirty items designed to measure behavior in the six areas described by Jahoda as comprising positive mental health were administered. The data contraindicate the hypothesis that positive mental health is a unitary factor. (Author)

  15. Epidemiological study of hepatitis A, B and C in the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community.

    PubMed

    Matos, Márcia A D; Reis, Nádia Rúbia S; Kozlowski, Aline G; Teles, Sheila A; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita C; Mello, Francisco C A; Gomes, Selma A; Martins, Regina M B

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and molecular epidemiological features of viral hepatitis A, B and C in the Kalunga population, which represents the largest Afro-Brazilian isolated community. Among 878 individuals studied, the overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis A virus antibodies was 80.9%, with a significant rise from 44.8% to near 100% between the first and fourth decade of life. Rates for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) of 1.8% and 35.4%, respectively, were found. Increasing age, male gender, illiteracy and history of multiple sexual partners were associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. An occult HBV infection rate of 1.7% (5/295) was found among anti-HBc-positive individuals. HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) was dominant in this community. Only 5/878 individuals (0.6%) were positive for anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV RNA was detected in three of them, who were infected with genotype 1 (subtype 1a). These findings point out high, intermediate and low endemicity for hepatitis A, B and C, respectively, in the Kalunga community in Brazil. Circulation of HBV genotype A (subtype Aa) in this Afro-Brazilian isolated community indicates the introduction of this virus during the slave trade from Africa to Brazil.

  16. [Serological markers of hepatitis B in users of services at an HIV Testing Center].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, M R; Passos, A D; Figueiredo, J F; Gaspar, A M; Yoshida, C F

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the prevalence of serological markers of hepatitis B and possible risk factors for this disease in a sample of 404 people who attended a Testing and Couseling Center for HIV in the city of Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil. The overall prevalence of serologic hepatitis B markers was 14.6%, equal to that obtained for anti-HBc. HBsAg and anti-HBc IgM showed prevalences of 1%. After adjustment using logistic regression, hepatitis B markers showed association with the following variables: age, place of residence, use of injectable drugs and positivity to anti-HIV. The overall prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection was 6.9%. Hepatitis B markers were detected in 55.6% among intravenous drug users and in 42.9% among those who tested positive for HIV, confirming literature findings which indicates high levels of infection in these specific population groups.

  17. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B and C among Oncology Patients in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Kose, Sukran; Olmezoglu, Ali; Gozaydin, Ayhan

    2011-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the public-health issues worldwide. Approximately two billion people are infected with HBV, and about 350 million people are chronic carriers globally. About 3% of the world population is infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Oncology patients receiving packed red blood cell suspensions and other blood products usually are in the high-risk group for infections due to these viruses. The aim of the study was to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C among chemotherapy patients at the Oncology Department of the Tepecik Education and Research Hospital. HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBcIgM, anti-HBc total and anti-HCV assays were studied by enzyme immunoassay method (Diasorin, Italy) in serum samples of patients (n=448) referred to the Department of Oncology of the Tepecik Education and Research Hospital during 1 June 2006–1 January 2007. Of the 448 patients, 19 (4.2%) were HBsAg-positive, and three (0.7%) had anti-HCV positivity. In this study, the seroprevalence of HBV was similar to previous data in Turkey. This could be due to widespread vaccination programmes. The seroprevalence of low anti-HCV may be because of controlled blood transfusion. Oncology patients should be monitored for their protective antibody levels against HBV, and they must be included in the vaccination programme. Their anti-HCV status should also be checked as well. PMID:22283040

  18. Universal immunization of infants with low doses of a low-cost, plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Schoub, B. D.; Matai, U.; Singh, B.; Blackburn, N. K.; Levin, J. B.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of universal vaccination against viral hepatitis B in South Africa among 18-month-old rural children. METHODS: Children were immunized with a course of low-dose (1.5 microg), plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age, and blood samples from the children were tested for three hepatitis B markers: hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-HBs and anti-HBc. FINDINGS: One year after vaccination, a protective anti-HBs antibody titre of at least 10 IU/l was present in 669/769 (87.0%) of blood serum samples tested. Only 3/756 children (0.4%) were HBsAg positive and a fourth child was anti-HBc positive (HBsAg negative). This is a marked decrease compared to the hepatitis B prevalences reported in previous studies. Among rural migrant mine-workers, for example, HBsAg prevalence was 9.9%, and was 10.1% among children 0-6 years of age in the Eastern Cape Province. CONCLUSION: The low-dose, plasma-derived hepatitis B vaccine, which is affordable to most developing countries, was very successful in controlling endemic hepatitis B infection, where the virus is predominantly spread by horizontal transmission among infants and young children. PMID:12075363

  19. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  20. Do lightning positive leaders really "step"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, D.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known for some time that positive leaders exhibit impulsive charge motion and optical emissions as they extend. However, laboratory and field observations have not produced any evidence of a process analogous to the space leader mechanism of negative leader extension. Instead, observations have suggested that the positive leader tip undergoes a continuous to intermittent series of corona streamer bursts, each burst resulting in a small forward extension of the positive leader channel. Traditionally, it has been held that lightning positive leaders extend in a continuous or quasi-continuous fashion. Lately, however, many have become concerned that this position is incongruous with observations of impulsive activity during lightning positive leader extension. It is increasingly suggested that this impulsive activity is evidence that positive leaders also undergo "stepping". There are two issues that must be addressed. The first issue concerns whether or not the physical processes underlying impulsive extension in negative and positive leaders are distinct. We argue that these processes are in fact physically distinct, and offer new high-speed video evidence to support this position. The second issue regards the proper use of the term "step" as an identifier for the impulsive forward extension of a leader. Traditional use of this term has been applied only to negative leaders, due primarily to their stronger impulsive charge motions and photographic evidence of clearly discontinuous forward progression of the luminous channel. Recently, due to the increasing understanding of the distinct "space leader" process of negative leader extension, the term "step" has increasingly come to be associated with the space leader process itself. Should this emerging association, "step" = space leader attachment, be canonized? If not, then it seems reasonable to use the term "step" to describe impulsive positive leader extension. If, however, we do wish to associate the