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Sample records for anti-obesity drug orlistat

  1. The anti-obesity drug orlistat reveals anti-viral activity.

    PubMed

    Ammer, Elisabeth; Nietzsche, Sandor; Rien, Christian; Kühnl, Alexander; Mader, Theresa; Heller, Regine; Sauerbrei, Andreas; Henke, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    The administration of drugs to inhibit metabolic pathways not only reduces the risk of obesity-induced diseases in humans but may also hamper the replication of different viral pathogens. In order to investigate the value of the US Food and Drug Administration-approved anti-obesity drug orlistat in view of its anti-viral activity against different human-pathogenic viruses, several anti-viral studies, electron microscopy analyses as well as fatty acid uptake experiments were performed. The results indicate that administrations of non-cytotoxic concentrations of orlistat reduced the replication of coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) in different cell types significantly. Moreover, orlistat revealed cell protective effects and modified the formation of multi-layered structures in CVB3-infected cells, which are necessary for viral replication. Lowering fatty acid uptake from the extracellular environment by phloretin administrations had only marginal impact on CVB3 replication. Finally, orlistat reduced also the replication of varicella-zoster virus moderately but had no significant influence on the replication of influenza A viruses. The data support further experiments into the value of orlistat as an inhibitor of the fatty acid synthase to develop new anti-viral compounds, which are based on the modulation of cellular metabolic pathways.

  2. Safety assessment of FDA-approved (orlistat and lorcaserin) anti-obesity medications.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Bruno; Halpern, Alfredo

    2015-02-01

    Options for treating obesity remain limited despite it being a chronic, recurrent and morbid condition. New drugs that are proposed for its treatment encounter strong reluctance by regulatory agencies and many doctors. This review will focus on the safety of an older drug, orlistat (the only one still approved in the European Union) and a newer recently FDA-approved one, lorcaserin. Both are approved as long-term monotherapy for obesity in the United States of America and they have demonstrated median weight loss of nearly 3% over placebo. Research, development and approval of new anti-obesity drugs are necessary for improved management of this chronic condition. Orlistat and lorcaserin are two FDA-approved drugs with limited overall efficacy. Nevertheless they are useful weapons for at least some obese individuals. Orlistat has a long and solid safety profile, whereas the safety of lorcaserin is still a matter of debate, mainly due to a lack of long-term data. However, lorcaserin's selective agonism on 5HT2c serotonin receptors diminishes concerns about valvulopathy associated with other serotonin agonists, such as fenfluramine.

  3. Anti-Obesity Drugs: A Review about Their Effects and Safety

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun Goo

    2012-01-01

    The current recommendations for the treatment of obese people include increased physical activity and reduced calories intake. When the behavioral approach is not sufficient, a pharmacologic treatment is recommended. In past years, numerous drugs have been approved for the treatment of obesity; however, most of them have been withdrawn from the market because of their adverse effects. In fact, amphetamine, rimonabant and sibutramine licenses have been withdrawn due to an increased risk of psychiatric disorders and non-fatal myocardial infarction or stroke. Even if orlistat is not as effective as other drugs in reducing body weight, orlistat is presently the only available choice for the treatment of obesity because of its safety for cardiovascular events and positive effects on diabetic control. Hopefully, more effective and better tolerated anti-obesity drugs will be developed through an improved understanding of the multiple mechanisms and complex physiological systems targeting appetite. PMID:22363917

  4. Recent advancements in drug treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Carter, Rebeca; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Ray, Shuvra; Soeda, Junpei; Oben, Jude

    2012-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity is rising worldwide, with the U.K. having the highest prevalence in Europe. Obesity is associated with significant morbidity and has substantial healthcare implications, with current projections estimating that by 2030 obesity will cost the NHS approximately pounds 2 billion each year. Lifestyle modification remains the cornerstone of anti-obesity treatment, but drugs can be introduced as adjuncts to assist and maintain weight loss. Some 1.45 million obesity-related prescriptions were dispensed in 2009, highlighting the high demand for obesity pharmacotherapy. At present, the lipase inhibitor orlistat (Xenical) is the only UK-approved long-term medical therapy for obesity. Double-blind clinical trials have shown that orlistat significantly increases weight loss compared to placebo, but the array of adverse side effects associated with orlistat limits its tolerability. The need for more effective and better-tolerated anti-obesity medications is clear and six therapies have reached phase-III trials.

  5. Folate Receptor Targeted Polymeric Micellar Nanocarriers for Delivery of Orlistat as a Repurposed Drug against Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Bhethanabotla, Rohith; Mishra, Kaushik; Devulapally, Rammohan; Foygel, Kira; Sekar, Thillai V; Ananta, Jeyarama S; Massoud, Tarik F; Joy, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a recalcitrant malignancy with no available targeted therapy. Off target effects and poor bioavailability of the FDA approved anti-obesity drug orlistat hinder its clinical translation as a repurposed new drug against TNBC. Here we demonstrate a newly engineered drug formulation for packaging orlistat tailored to TNBC treatment. We synthesized TNBC-specific folate receptor targeted micellar nanoparticles (NPs) carrying orlistat, which improved the solubility (70-80 μg/ml) of this water insoluble drug. The targeted NPs also improved the delivery and bioavailability of orlistat to MDA-MB-231 cells in culture and to tumor xenografts in nude mouse model. We prepared HEA-EHA copolymer micellar NPs by copolymerization of 2-hydroxyethylacrylate (HEA) and 2-ethylhexylacrylate (EHA), and functionalized them with folic acid and an imaging dye. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of TNBC cells indicated a dose dependent increase in apoptotic populations in cells treated with free orlistat, orlistat NPs, and folate-receptor targeted Fol-HEA-EHA-orlistat NPs in which Fol-HEA-EHA-orlistat NPs showed significantly higher cytotoxicity than free orlistat. In vitro analysis data demonstrated significant apoptosis at nanomolar concentrations in cells activated through caspase 3 and PARP inhibition. In vivo analysis demonstrated significant antitumor effects in living mice after targeted treatment of tumors, and confirmed by fluorescence imaging. Moreover, Folate receptor targeted Fol-DyLight747-orlistat NPs treated mice exhibited significantly higher reduction in tumor volume compared to control group. Taken together, these results indicate that orlistat packaged in HEA-b-EHA micellar NPs is a highly promising new drug formulation for TNBC therapy. PMID:26553061

  6. Genotoxicity of antiobesity drug orlistat and effect of caffeine intervention: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Manoswini; Ghosh, Ilika; Jana, Aditi; Ghosh, Manosij; Mukherjee, Anita

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem associated with various adverse effects. Pharmacological interventions are often necessary for the management of obesity. Orlistat is an FDA-approved antiobesity drug which is a potent inhibitor of intestinal lipases. In the current study, orlistat was evaluated for its genotoxic potential in human lymphocyte cells in vitro and was compared with that of another antiobesity drug sibutramine, presently withdrawn from market due its undesirable health effects. Caffeine intake may be an additional burden in people using anorectic drugs, therefore, further work is needed to be carried out to evaluate the possible effects of caffeine on orlistat-induced DNA damage. Human lymphocytes were exposed to orlistat (250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml), sibutramine (250, 500 and 1000 μg/ml) and caffeine (25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150 μg/ml) to assess their genotoxicity by comet assay in vitro. In addition, lymphocytes were co-incubated with caffeine (50, 75 and 100 μg/ml) and a single concentration of orlistat (250 μg/ml). Orlistat and sibutramine were genotoxic at all concentrations tested, sibutramine being more genotoxic. Caffeine was found to be genotoxic at concentrations 125 μg/ml and above. Co-treatment of orlistat with non-genotoxic concentrations (50, 75 and 100 μg/ml) of caffeine lead to a decrease in DNA damage. Orlistat can induce DNA damage in human lymphocytes in vitro and caffeine was found to reduce orlistat-induced genotoxicity.

  7. Gelidium elegans Regulates the AMPK-PRDM16-UCP-1 Pathway and Has a Synergistic Effect with Orlistat on Obesity-Associated Features in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jia; Kim, Kui-Jin; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-03-30

    The incidence of obesity is rising at an alarming rate throughout the world and is becoming a major public health concern with incalculable social and economic costs. Gelidium elegans (GENS), also previously known as Gelidium amansii , has been shown to exhibit anti-obesity effects. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which GENS is able to do this remains unclear. In the present study, our results showed that GENS prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain through modulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-PR domain-containing16 (PRDM16)-uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) pathway in a mice model. We also found that GENS decreased hyperglycemia in mice that had been fed a HFD compared to corresponding controls. We also assessed the beneficial effect of the combined treatment with GENS and orlistat (a Food and Drug Administration-approved obesity drug) on obesity characteristics in HFD-fed mice. We found that in HFD-fed mice, the combination of GENS and orlistat is associated with more significant weight loss than orlistat treatment alone. Moreover, our results demonstrated a positive synergistic effect of GENS and orlistat on hyperglycemia and plasma triglyceride level in these animals. Thus, we suggest that a combination therapy of GENS and orlistat may positively influence obesity-related health outcomes in a diet-induced obese population.

  8. Gelidium elegans Regulates the AMPK-PRDM16-UCP-1 Pathway and Has a Synergistic Effect with Orlistat on Obesity-Associated Features in Mice Fed a High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jia; Kim, Kui-Jin; Koh, Eun-Jeong; Lee, Boo-Yong

    2017-01-01

    The incidence of obesity is rising at an alarming rate throughout the world and is becoming a major public health concern with incalculable social and economic costs. Gelidium elegans (GENS), also previously known as Gelidium amansii, has been shown to exhibit anti-obesity effects. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which GENS is able to do this remains unclear. In the present study, our results showed that GENS prevents high-fat diet (HFD)-induced weight gain through modulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-PR domain-containing16 (PRDM16)-uncoupling protein-1 (UCP-1) pathway in a mice model. We also found that GENS decreased hyperglycemia in mice that had been fed a HFD compared to corresponding controls. We also assessed the beneficial effect of the combined treatment with GENS and orlistat (a Food and Drug Administration-approved obesity drug) on obesity characteristics in HFD-fed mice. We found that in HFD-fed mice, the combination of GENS and orlistat is associated with more significant weight loss than orlistat treatment alone. Moreover, our results demonstrated a positive synergistic effect of GENS and orlistat on hyperglycemia and plasma triglyceride level in these animals. Thus, we suggest that a combination therapy of GENS and orlistat may positively influence obesity-related health outcomes in a diet-induced obese population. PMID:28358328

  9. Orlistat in the prevention of diabetes in the obese patient

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Marcio C; Halpern, Alfredo

    2008-01-01

    There has been an increase in the concern about preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a disease with great and increasing prevalence. The prevalence of obesity, physical inactivity, Western processed diet, important risk factors for the development of T2DM, are also rising. Free fatty acids are increased in obesity and reduce insulin clearance and increase hepatic glucose production. Implementation of a healthy lifestyle has been show to slow the progression of impaired glucose tolerance to T2DM. Orlistat is an inhibitor of lipase activity, with proved efficacy in body weight reduction and long-term management of obesity and more favorable effects on carbohydrate metabolism and it was prospectively shown in XENDOS study that orlistat promoted long-term weight loss and prevented T2DM onset in obese individuals with normal and impaired glucose tolerance at baseline over four years. This benefit could be associated to the weight loss itself, to the limited absorption of lipids and reduction of plasma free fatty acids, to increased production of incretins or to modulation of secretion of cytokines by adipocytes, all effects secondary to orlistat treatment. A proposed strategy is to identify subjects at highest risk to receive a drug intervention, using lifestyle interventions alone at the community level. PMID:18561508

  10. The effects of anti-obesity intervention with orlistat and sibutramine on microvascular endothelial function.

    PubMed

    Al-Tahami, Belqes Abdullah Mohammad; Ismail, Ab Aziz Al-Safi; Bee, Yvonne Tee Get; Awang, Siti Azima; Salha Wan Abdul Rani, Wan Rimei; Sanip, Zulkefli; Rasool, Aida Hanum Ghulam

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is associated with impaired microvascular endothelial function. We aimed to determine the effects of orlistat and sibutramine treatment on microvascular endothelial function, anthropometric and lipid profile, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR). 76 subjects were recruited and randomized to receive orlistat 120 mg three times daily or sibutramine 10 mg daily for 9 months. Baseline weight, BMI, BP, HR and lipid profile were taken. Microvascular endothelial function was assessed using laser Doppler fluximetry and iontophoresis process. Maximum change (max), percent change (% change) and peak flux (peak) in perfusion to acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) iontophoresis were used to quantify endothelium dependent and independent vasodilatations. 24 subjects in both groups completed the trial. After treatment, weight and BMI were decreased for both groups. AChmax, ACh % change and ACh peak were increased in orlistat-treated group but no difference was observed for sibutramine-treated group. BP and total cholesterol (TC) were reduced for orlistat-treated group. HR was reduced for orlistat-treated group but was increased in sibutramine-treated group. 9 months treatment with orlistat significantly improved microvascular endothelial function. This was associated with reductions in weight, BMI, BP, HR, TC and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. No effect was seen in microvascular endothelial function with sibutramine.

  11. Orlistat. No hurry....

    PubMed Central

    1999-01-01

    Treatments for obesity are disappointing. None has yet shown an effect on morbidity and mortality. Nondrug treatments are poorly assessed. Stable long-term weight loss necessitates long-term management. Orlistat (Xenical, Hoffman-La Roche), a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor, is indicated, in combination with a low-calorie diet, for management of obesity. The assessment file is bulky and methodologically sound, at least in terms of the weight loss end point. During medium-term trials (12 to 24 months), orlistat administered at a dose of 120 mg three times daily and combined with dietary intervention had a moderate positive effect on body weight (-3.5 kg on average). No longer-term trials have been done. It is unknown whether this drug affects morbidity and mortality linked to obesity. In clinical trials, patients treated with orlistat had an increased frequency of breast cancer. This potential risk is currently being assessed in a specific trial. Gastrointestinal adverse effects are frequent. Treatment is costly. PMID:10540693

  12. Orlistat-induced fulminant hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Sall, D; Wang, J; Rashkin, M; Welch, M; Droege, C; Schauer, D

    2014-12-01

    Orlistat was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 1998 and has been shown to be superior to placebo in achieving weight loss. It is generally well tolerated. However, severe liver injury has been reported. We present a case of hepatic failure in a patient taking orlistat. A 54-year-old African-American woman with hypertension presented with hepatic failure. She had noticed increasing fatigue, jaundice and confusion. She used alcohol sparingly and denied tobacco or illicit drug use, but had been taking over-the-counter orlistat for the past two months. Physical examination revealed scleral icterus, jaundice, asterixis and slow speech. Laboratory testing showed markedly abnormal liver function tests with coagulopathy. Acute viral and autoimmune serologies were negative, as was toxicology screen. Liver biopsy showed necrotic hepatic parenchyma likely secondary to drug toxicity. Based upon her clinical presentation and time course, the pattern of liver injury seen on liver biopsy and lack of an alternative plausible explanation, her liver failure was most likely associated with orlistat use. She continued to deteriorate and ultimately underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. Fourteen cases of severe liver injury associated with orlistat use have been reported, four of which are detailed in the literature. This is the second published case of liver failure associated with over-the-counter orlistat usage. Clinicians should be aware of the growing number of cases associating liver injury and orlistat use and carefully monitor their patients on this medication for signs of hepatic dysfunction. © 2014 The Authors. Clinical Obesity © 2014 World Obesity.

  13. Macrocytic anemia and thrombocytopenia induced by orlistat.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Martinez, David; Garcia-Alvarez, Juan Carlos; Montero-Santamaria, Nieves; Villar-Ruiz, Olga Patricia; Ruiz-Garcia, Antonio; Diaz-Alonso, Raquel Asuncion

    2013-10-01

    The overall incidence of obesity and its prevalence is increasing continuously. The obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor whose importance is increasing too. It is associated with many chronic conditions such as type II diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular diseases. The obesity is also implicated as a risk factor for several kinds of cancer such as esophagus, pancreas, colon, rectum, breast cancer in menopausal women. The treatment of the obesity may reduce the incidence of these diseases. The mainstray of the treatment of obesity is changing the lifestyles, but obesity´s treatment may need drug therapy or even though surgical treatment. Orlistat is a specific inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipases, which stops fat absortion. It is used along with a hypocaloric diet, for obesity´s treatment. The beneficial effects of orlistat include weight loss, the improvement of blood pressure´s control, it may delay the development of diabetes mellitus, and it may reduce HbA1c. Besides the interaction with other drugs (mainly warfarin and amiodarone). Orlistat´s mainly side effects are gastrointestinal disorders such as the existence of oily spotting from the rectum, abdominal pain or discomfort, fecal urgency. There are also side effects at other levels, like flu symptoms, hypoglycemia, heathache or upper respiratory infections. There are other side effects with very low incidence but clinically relevant like pancreatitis, subacute liver failure, severe liver disease, myopathy, or tubular necrosis secondary to oxalate nephropathy induced by Orlistat. IN THIS CASE REPORT APPEARS A NEW ADVERSE EFFECT OF ORLISTAT THAT HAS NOT BEEN DESCRIBED ABOVE: thrombopenia and macrocytic anemia.

  14. Obesity drug therapy.

    PubMed

    Baretić, M

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease, and it requires chronic therapy. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and cardiovascular diseases are leading causes of mortality in the modern world. All of them are strongly linked to obesity. While treating obesity, those conditions are also managed. Obese patients should always be treated through lifestyle interventions, though the results of such interventions are modest. Pharmacotherapy is a second step in the treatment of obesity, approved only when weight loss targets were not reached through lifestyle intervention. During the history of antiobesity drugs, many of them were withdrawn because of their side effects. Various guidelines recommend prescribing drug therapy for obesity through consideration of the potential benefits and limitations. Orlistat deactivates intestinal lipase and inhibits intestinal fat lipolysis. It is actually the only drug on the European market approved for the treatment of obesity. Orlistat therapy reduces weight to a modest extent, but it reduces the incidence of diabetes beyond the result achieved with lifestyle changes. Recently, some effective antiobesity drugs like sibutramine and rimonabant have been removed from the market due to their side effects. The new combination of topimarate and fentermine is approved in the US but not in Europe. The cost effectiveness of long-term pharmacotherapy of obesity is still an unresolved question.

  15. Drug treatment for obesity in the post-sibutramine era.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2011-08-01

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. It is associated with cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and decreased longevity. In managing obesity, diet and exercise are essential; pharmacological therapy may be added for obese patients or overweight patients with cardiovascular risk factors. Sibutramine is a serotonergic and adrenergic drug that reduces food intake and increases thermogenesis. It reduces bodyweight by about 4.2 kg after 12 months, and improves blood glucose and lipids; however, it can increase heart rate and blood pressure. In the SCOUT (Sibutramine Cardiovascular OUTcomes) study, sibutramine increased serious cardiovascular events, such as stroke or myocardial infarction, compared with placebo, and was consequently withdrawn from the market. The lesson learnt from this is the importance of patient selection, limiting the duration of treatment and stopping treatment in non-responders. Currently, phentermine and amfepramone (diethylpropion) are approved for short-term treatment of obesity (up to 3 months) and orlistat is approved for longer-term treatment; however, the gastrointestinal adverse effects of orlistat may be intolerable for some patients. There is now a clear need to find anti-obesity drugs that are effective and safe in the long term.

  16. Orlistat Reduces Proliferation and Enhances Apoptosis in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells (PANC-1).

    PubMed

    Sokolowska, Ewa; Presler, Malgorzata; Goyke, Elzbieta; Milczarek, Ryszard; Swierczynski, Julian; Sledzinski, Tomasz

    2017-11-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a disease with very poor prognosis, and none of currently available pharmacotherapies have proven to be efficient in this indication. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN) gene as a potential therapeutic target in proliferating human pancreatic cancer cells (PANC-1), and verify if orlistat, originally developed as an anti-obesity drug, inhibits PANC-1 proliferation. The effects of orlistat on gene expression, lipogenesis, proliferation and apoptosis was studied in PANC-1 cell culture. Expression of FASN increased during proliferation of PANC-1. Inhibition of FASN by orlistat resulted in a significant reduction of PANC-1 proliferation and enhanced apoptosis of these cells. This study showed, to our knowledge for the first time, that orlistat exhibits significant antitumor activity against PANC-1 cells. This implies that orlistat analogs with good oral bioavailability may find application in pharmacotherapy of pancreatic cancer. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  17. Activity-based proteome profiling of potential cellular targets of Orlistat--an FDA-approved drug with anti-tumor activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng-Yu; Liu, Kai; Ngai, Mun Hong; Lear, Martin J; Wenk, Markus R; Yao, Shao Q

    2010-01-20

    Orlistat, or tetrahydrolipstatin (THL), is an FDA-approved antiobesity drug with potential antitumor activities. Cellular off-targets and potential side effects of Orlistat in cancer therapies, however, have not been extensively explored thus far. In this study, we report the total of synthesis of THL-like protein-reactive probes, in which extremely conservative modifications (i.e., an alkyne handle) were introduced in the parental THL structure to maintain the native biological properties of Orlistat, while providing the necessary functionality for target identification via the bio-orthogonal click chemistry. With these natural productlike, cell-permeable probes, we were able to demonstrate, for the first time, this chemical proteomic approach is suitable for the identification of previously unknown cellular targets of Orlistat. In addition to the expected fatty acid synthase (FAS), we identified a total of eight new targets, some of which were further validated by experiments including Western blotting, recombinant protein expression, and site-directed mutagenesis. Our findings have important implications in the consideration of Orlistat as a potential anticancer drug at its early stages of development for cancer therapy. Our strategy should be broadly useful for off-target identification against quite a number of existing drugs and/or candidates, which are also covalent modifiers of their biological targets.

  18. Diet, physical exercise and Orlistat administration increase serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

    PubMed

    Vosnakis, Christos; Georgopoulos, Neoklis A; Rousso, David; Mavromatidis, Georgios; Katsikis, Ilias; Roupas, Nikolaos D; Mamali, Irene; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2013-03-01

    The present study investigates the combined effect of diet, physical exercise and Orlistat for 24 weeks, on serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in overweight and obese controls. Sixty-one (61) selected women with PCOS and 20 overweight and obese controls followed an energy-restricted diet, physical exercise plus Orlistat administration (120 mg, 3 times per day) for 24 weeks. At baseline, week 12 and week 24, serum levels of AMH, FSH, LH, PRL, androgens, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), glucose, and insulin were measured and Free Androgen Index (FAI) and Insulin Resistance (IR) indices were calculated. In PCOS women, serum AMH levels increased after 12 and 24 weeks of treatment. After 12 weeks LH and SHBG were increased, while Testosterone decreased. After 12 and 24 weeks, FAI was decreased and all indices of IR were significantly improved. We concluded that in overweight and obese women with PCOS Orlistat administration, combined with diet and physical exercise, for 24 weeks, resulted in significant weight loss, improvement of hyperandrogenism and insulin sensitivity, and increased serum AMH levels.

  19. The effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions for obesity: weight loss with orlistat and sibutramine in a United Kingdom population-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Ian J; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Batterham, Rachel L; Smeeth, Liam

    2015-06-01

    Drug treatments for obesity have proven efficacy from randomized trials, but their effectiveness in routine clinical practice is unknown. We assessed the effects on weight and body mass index (BMI) of orlistat and sibutramine when delivered in routine primary care. We used United Kingdom data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the effects of orlistat or sibutramine on weight and BMI over 3 years following treatment initiation. For comparison, we matched each patient with up to five obese patients receiving neither drug. Mixed effects linear regression with splines was used to model change in weight and BMI. Mean change with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was estimated. We identified 100 701 patients receiving orlistat, 15 355 receiving sibutramine and 508 140 non-intervention patients, with body mass index of 37.2, 36.6 and 33.2 kg m(-2) , respectively. Patients receiving orlistat lost, on average, 0.94 kg month(-1) (0.93 to 0.95) over the first 4 months. Weight gain then occurred, although weight remained slightly below baseline at 3 years. Patients receiving sibutramine lost, 1.28 kg month(-1) (1.26 to 1.30) over the first 4 months, but by 3 years had exceeded baseline weight. Non-intervention patients had slight increases in weight throughout the 3 year period, with gains ranging between 0.01 and 0.06 kg month(-1) . Orlistat and sibutramine had early effects on weight loss, not sustained over 3 years. As new treatments for obesity are approved, their effectiveness should be measured in routine clinical practice, as effectiveness may be considerably less than seen in randomized trials. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  20. The effectiveness of pharmaceutical interventions for obesity: weight loss with orlistat and sibutramine in a United Kingdom population-based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Ian J; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Batterham, Rachel L; Smeeth, Liam

    2015-01-01

    Aims Drug treatments for obesity have proven efficacy from randomized trials, but their effectiveness in routine clinical practice is unknown. We assessed the effects on weight and body mass index (BMI) of orlistat and sibutramine when delivered in routine primary care. Methods We used United Kingdom data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink to estimate the effects of orlistat or sibutramine on weight and BMI over 3 years following treatment initiation. For comparison, we matched each patient with up to five obese patients receiving neither drug. Mixed effects linear regression with splines was used to model change in weight and BMI. Mean change with 95% confidence intervals (CI) was estimated. Results We identified 100 701 patients receiving orlistat, 15 355 receiving sibutramine and 508 140 non-intervention patients, with body mass index of 37.2, 36.6 and 33.2 kg m−2, respectively. Patients receiving orlistat lost, on average, 0.94 kg month−1 (0.93 to 0.95) over the first 4 months. Weight gain then occurred, although weight remained slightly below baseline at 3 years. Patients receiving sibutramine lost, 1.28 kg month−1 (1.26 to 1.30) over the first 4 months, but by 3 years had exceeded baseline weight. Non-intervention patients had slight increases in weight throughout the 3 year period, with gains ranging between 0.01 and 0.06 kg month−1. Conclusions Orlistat and sibutramine had early effects on weight loss, not sustained over 3 years. As new treatments for obesity are approved, their effectiveness should be measured in routine clinical practice, as effectiveness may be considerably less than seen in randomized trials. PMID:25641659

  1. Approaches for the Development of Drugs for Treatment of Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Maksimov, Maksim L; Svistunov, Andrey A; Tarasov, Vadim V; Chubarev, Vladimir N; Ávila-Rodriguez, Marco; Barreto, George E; Dralova, Olga V; Aliev, Gjumrakch

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) are risk factors for diabetes, cancer, some cardiovascular and musculoskeletal diseases. Pharmacotherapy should be used when the body mass index (BMI) exceeds 30 kg/m² or 27 kg/m² with comorbidity. Efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapy depend on the mechanism of action of drugs. In this context, drugs affecting the central and peripheral mediator systems such as cannabinoid receptor antagonists (Rimonabant), neuronal reuptake inhibitor of NE and 5 HT (Sibutramine), neuronal reuptake inhibitor of NE 5-HT DA (Tesofensine), agonist of 5 HT 2C receptors (Lorcaserin) have a high risk of side effects on the central nervous and cardiovascular systems when used for a long period. Apparently, the drugs design targeting obesity should screen safer drugs that affect fat absorption (Orlistat), activate energy metabolism (Adipokines), inhibit MetAP2 (Beloranib) and other peripheral metabolic processes. The use of synergies of anti-obesity drugs with different mechanisms of action is an effective approach for developing new combined pharmaceutical compositions (Contrave®, EmpaticTM, Qsymia et al). The purpose of this article is to review the currently available anti-obesity drugs and some new promising trends in development of anti-obesity therapy.

  2. Safety and tolerability of new-generation anti-obesity medications: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhiren K; Stanford, Fatima Cody

    2018-03-01

    The prevalence of obesity and associated comorbidities is rising. Despite their weight-loss efficacy, new generation anti-obesity medications are only prescribed to a minority of adults with obesity, possibly, which in part may be due to safety concerns. This review presents detailed safety profiles for orlistat, phentermine/topiramate, lorcaserin, naltrexone/bupropion and liraglutide 3.0 mg, and discusses the associated risk-benefit profiles. Two anti-obesity medications presented safety issues that warranted further discussion; phentermine/topiramate (fetal toxicity) and liraglutide 3.0 mg (risk of gallstone disease and mild, acute pancreatitis), whereas the adverse events associated with orlistat, lorcaserin, and naltrexone/bupropion were mostly transient tolerability issues. The difficulties surrounding the objective determination of risk-benefit for anti-obesity medications is discussed. The need for more long-term data, thorough patient assessment, individualization of pharmacological interventions and adherence to stopping rules to maximize risk-benefit are highlighted. Overall, the majority of new generation anti-obesity medications present encouraging tolerability profiles; however, in some cases a lack of long-term clinical trials confounds the accurate determination of risk-benefit.

  3. Systematic review of the clinical efficacy of sibutramine and orlistat in weigth loss, quality of life and its adverse effects in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    García Díaz, E; Martín Folgueras, T

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, a serious public health problem, is increasing among teenagers and thus also increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in adulthood. To provide a systematic review of the best evidence about the effect of sibutramine and orlistat in weight loss, quality of life and its adverse effects in adolescents diagnosed with obesity. We searched electronic databases and bibliographies of selected articles were inspected for any further reference. We included only randomized controlled trials that met a set of predefined criteria. The studies were reviewed by a narrative synthesis. We included 6 randomized controlled trials of sibutramine and 3 of orlistat. The majority reached a moderate to high methodological quality. Sibutramine and orlistat showed a reduction in body mass index (BMI) that was significantly higher compared with the placebo group. We also found a variation of weight with these drugs significantly better than placebo. Only one trial evaluated the quality of life. The incidence of adverse effects was similar for sibutramine and placebo, except for tachycardia. The most common adverse reactions associated with orlistat were gastrointestinal, mild to moderate. Sibutramine and orlistat in combination with a hypocaloric diet and changes in lifestyle in obese adolescents achieve a short-term loss of weight greater than that achieved through the dietary-behavioral therapy alone.

  4. Lifestyle intervention and anti-obesity therapies in the polycystic ovary syndrome: impact on metabolism and fertility.

    PubMed

    Panidis, Dimitrios; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Papadakis, Efstathios; Vosnakis, Christos; Chatzis, Panagiotis; Katsikis, Ilias

    2013-12-01

    Obesity is frequently present in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and plays an important role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic, endocrine, and reproductive abnormalities associated with this syndrome. We aimed to summarize the effects of lifestyle changes and anti-obesity pharmacotherapy in patients with PCOS. We reviewed the literature regarding the effects of lifestyle changes and anti-obesity agents on the metabolic and endocrine abnormalities of PCOS. Lifestyle changes, including diet, exercise, and behavioral modification, appear to improve the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities of overweight and obese patients with PCOS. Therefore, lifestyle changes appear to represent the first-line management for all overweight and obese patients with PCOS. However, the optimal composition of diet and the optimal type of exercise in these patients are unknown. Anti-obesity agents that have been studied in PCOS include orlistat, sibutramine, and rimonabant. However, the latter two agents have been withdrawn from the market because of side effects. Long-term studies with orlistat in overweight and obese diabetic patients showed greater weight loss and metabolic and cardiovascular benefits than those achieved with lifestyle changes alone. However, there are limited data on the efficacy of orlistat in women with PCOS. In conclusion, lifestyle changes (diet, exercise and behavioral modification), particularly when combined with anti-obesity agents, exert beneficial effects on the endocrine abnormalities of obese patients with PCOS and improve metabolic parameters.

  5. One pill makes you smaller: the demand for anti-obesity drugs.

    PubMed

    Cawley, John; Rizzo, John A

    2007-01-01

    The doubling of obesity in the U.S. over the last 25 years has led policymakers and physicians to encourage weight loss, but few methods of weight loss are effective. One promising avenue is pharmacotherapy. However, little is known about the use of anti-obesity drugs. This paper describes the market for anti-obesity drugs and studies the utilization of anti-obesity drugs using data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey for 1996-2002, a period that is interesting because it covers the introduction of three, and the withdrawal of two, anti-obesity drugs from the market. Our results point to wide sociodemographic disparities in anti-obesity drug use. Women are almost 200% more likely than men to use anti-obesity drugs. Hispanics and African-Americans are only 39% as likely as Whites to use them. Those with prescription drug coverage are 46% more likely to use anti-obesity drugs. We also find that the vast majority of subjects who are approved to take these drugs are not taking them, and a significant number who are not approved to take the drugs are taking them. We find strong evidence that the well-publicized 1997 withdrawal of fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine had a chilling effect on the overall market for anti-obesity drugs. We find little difference in observed characteristics between those who took the withdrawn drugs and those who took the other anti-obesity drugs in the market.

  6. The effects of metformin or orlistat on obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective randomized open-label study.

    PubMed

    Ghandi, Sedigheh; Aflatoonian, Abbas; Tabibnejad, Nasim; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hossein Sojoodi

    2011-07-01

    Comparing the effects of metformin or orlistat on hormone, lipid profile and ovulation status in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome. A total of 80 women were prospectively recruited to receive either metformin (n = 40) or orlistat (n = 40). Weight, BMI, waist, serum LH, total serum testosterone and lipid profile were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. The subjects' ovulatory status was assessed after 3 months. There was no significant difference in ovulation between the two treatment groups (30% vs 15%). Treatment with either drug showed a significant decline in body weight, BMI (Body Mass Index), and waist circumference, but the degree of decline in both groups was the same. Patients who were treated with orlistat, showed a significant reduction in total testosterone and serum lipid. Women in metformin group showed a significant reduction in serum LH. Both metformin and orlistat showed a similar effect on weight loss and ovulation rates.

  7. High Sensitivity of Giardia duodenalis to Tetrahydrolipstatin (Orlistat) In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Juliane; Seeber, Frank; Kolodziej, Herbert; Ignatius, Ralf; Laue, Michael; Aebischer, Toni; Klotz, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease caused by Giardia duodenalis, is currently treated mainly with nitroimidazoles, primarily metronidazole (MTZ). Treatment failure rates of up to 20 percent reflect the compelling need for alternative treatment options. Here, we investigated whether orlistat, a drug approved to treat obesity, represents a potential therapeutic agent against giardiasis. We compared the growth inhibitory effects of orlistat and MTZ on a long-term in vitro culture adapted G. duodenalis strain, WB-C6, and on a new isolate, 14-03/F7, from a patient refractory to MTZ treatment using a resazurin assay. The giardiacidal concentration of the drugs and their combined in vitro efficacy was determined by median-effect analysis. Morphological changes after treatment were analysed by light and electron microscopy. Orlistat inhibited the in vitro growth of G. duodenalis at low micromolar concentrations, with isolate 14-03/F7 (IC5024h = 2.8 µM) being more sensitive than WB-C6 (IC5024h = 6.2 µM). The effect was significantly more potent compared to MTZ (IC5024h = 4.3 µM and 11.0 µM, respectively) and led to specific undulated morphological alterations on the parasite surface. The giardiacidal concentration of orlistat was >14 µM for 14-03/F7 and >43 µM for WB-C6, respectively. Importantly, the combination of both drugs revealed no interaction on their inhibitory effects. We demonstrate that orlistat is a potent inhibitor of G. duodenalis growth in vitro and kills parasites at concentrations achievable in the gut by approved treatment regimens for obesity. We therefore propose to investigate orlistat in controlled clinical studies as a new drug in giardiasis. PMID:23977083

  8. Metabolic and Inflammatory Changes with Orlistat and Sibutramine Treatment in Obese Malaysian Subjects.

    PubMed

    Al-Tahami, Belqes Abdullah Mohammad; Al-Safi Ismail, Ab Aziz; Sanip, Zulkefli; Yusoff, Zurkurnai; Shihabudin, Tg Muzaffar Tm; Singh, Taran Singh Pall; Rasool, Aida Hanum Ghulam

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is associated with numerous health problems, particularly metabolic and cardiovascular complications. This study aimed to assess the effects that, nine months of pharmacological intervention with orlistat or sibutramine, on obese Malaysians' body weight and compositions, metabolic profiles and inflammatory marker. Seventy-six obese subjects were randomly placed into two groups. The first group received three daily 120 mg dosages of orlistat for nine months (n=39), and the second group received a once daily 10 or 15 mg dosage of sibutramine for nine months (n=37). Baseline measurements for weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage (BF), visceral fat (VF), adiponectin, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin, pancreatic B cell secretory capacity (HOMA%B), insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) were performed and repeated during the sixth and ninth months of treatment. Twenty-four subjects completed the trial in both groups. For both groups, weight, BMI, WC, BF, VF, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP were significantly lower at the end of the nine month intervention. However, there were no significant differences between the two groups for these parameters with nine months treatment. There was a significant decrease in FPG in orlistat group; while fasting insulin and HOMA%B reduced in sibutramine group. For both groups, there were also significant increases in adiponectin levels and HOMA%S at the end of the nine month intervention. Nine months of treatment with orlistat and sibutramine not only reduced weight but also significantly improved BMI, WC, BF, VF, FPG, adiponectin, fasting insulin, HOMA%B, HOMA%S, HOMA-IR and hs-CRP. These improvements could prove useful in the reduction of metabolic and cardiovascular risks in obese subjects.

  9. Effect of orlistat on periostin, adiponectin, inflammatory markers and ultrasound grades of fatty liver in obese NAFLD patients.

    PubMed

    Ali Khan, Rashid; Kapur, Prem; Jain, Abhinav; Farah, Farrukh; Bhandari, Uma

    2017-01-01

    Orlistat is recommended in the treatment of obesity, which is an independent risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The reported findings of orlistat in NAFLD are divisive. Recently, periostin is identified as an important regulatory molecule in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced fatty liver. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of orlistat in the treatment of NAFLD. A 16-week prospective observational study was conducted, with obese NAFLD patient (n=77) receiving orlistat (120 mg capsules, three times a day) with hypocaloric diet or hypocaloric diet only. Grades of fatty liver were determined using ultrasound (US) echogenicity of liver; serum levels of periostin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-6 were determined using ELISA kits at 0 and 16 weeks. Correlations of US grades of fatty liver with these biomarkers were also determined. Orlistat significantly reversed the US grades of fatty liver ( P =0.016), decreased serum levels of periostin ( P =0.030) and TNF-α ( P =0.040), and increased serum adiponectin levels ( P <0.001) when compared with hypocaloric diet only. Serum interleukin-6 levels were not found to be significantly different in both groups after the treatment. In the orlistat group, the degree of reduction in grades of fatty liver was found to be positively correlated with the changes in serum levels of periostin (r s =0.306, P =0.041) and adiponectin (r s =0.314, P =0.036), whereas the associations were insignificant with the change in serum levels of TNF-α (r s =0.053, P =0.729). Mild gastrointestinal side effects (20%) were reported in the orlistat group. In conclusion, orlistat is effective in the treatment of NAFLD patients without fibrosis. This study demonstrated a positive association between the reduction of fatty infiltration in the liver and the changes in serum levels of periostin and adiponectin in obese NAFLD patients.

  10. Effect of orlistat on periostin, adiponectin, inflammatory markers and ultrasound grades of fatty liver in obese NAFLD patients

    PubMed Central

    Ali Khan, Rashid; Kapur, Prem; Jain, Abhinav; Farah, Farrukh; Bhandari, Uma

    2017-01-01

    Orlistat is recommended in the treatment of obesity, which is an independent risk factor for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The reported findings of orlistat in NAFLD are divisive. Recently, periostin is identified as an important regulatory molecule in the pathogenesis of obesity-induced fatty liver. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of orlistat in the treatment of NAFLD. A 16-week prospective observational study was conducted, with obese NAFLD patient (n=77) receiving orlistat (120 mg capsules, three times a day) with hypocaloric diet or hypocaloric diet only. Grades of fatty liver were determined using ultrasound (US) echogenicity of liver; serum levels of periostin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-6 were determined using ELISA kits at 0 and 16 weeks. Correlations of US grades of fatty liver with these biomarkers were also determined. Orlistat significantly reversed the US grades of fatty liver (P=0.016), decreased serum levels of periostin (P=0.030) and TNF-α (P=0.040), and increased serum adiponectin levels (P<0.001) when compared with hypocaloric diet only. Serum interleukin-6 levels were not found to be significantly different in both groups after the treatment. In the orlistat group, the degree of reduction in grades of fatty liver was found to be positively correlated with the changes in serum levels of periostin (rs=0.306, P=0.041) and adiponectin (rs=0.314, P=0.036), whereas the associations were insignificant with the change in serum levels of TNF-α (rs=0.053, P=0.729). Mild gastrointestinal side effects (20%) were reported in the orlistat group. In conclusion, orlistat is effective in the treatment of NAFLD patients without fibrosis. This study demonstrated a positive association between the reduction of fatty infiltration in the liver and the changes in serum levels of periostin and adiponectin in obese NAFLD patients. PMID:28260907

  11. Combination of the sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitor empagliflozin with orlistat or sibutramine further improves the body-weight reduction and glucose homeostasis of obese rats fed a cafeteria diet.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Steven P; Cheetham, Sharon C; Headland, Katie R; Dickinson, Keith; Grempler, Rolf; Mayoux, Eric; Mark, Michael; Klein, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The present study assessed the potential of the sodium glucose-linked transporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitor empagliflozin to decrease body weight when administered alone or in combination with the clinically effective weight-loss agents orlistat and sibutramine in obese rats fed a cafeteria diet. Female Wistar rats were exposed to a cafeteria diet to induce obesity. Empagliflozin was dosed once daily (10, 30, and 60 mg/kg) for 28 days. Combination studies were subsequently performed using a submaximal empagliflozin dose (10 mg/kg) with either sibutramine or orlistat. Body weight, food, and water intake were recorded daily. The effect of drug treatment on glucose tolerance, relevant plasma parameters, and carcass composition was determined. Empagliflozin dose-dependently reduced body weight, plasma leptin, and body fat though increased urinary glucose excretion. The combination of empagliflozin and orlistat significantly reduced body weight compared to animals treated with either drug alone, and significantly improved glucose tolerance, plasma insulin, and leptin compared to vehicle-treated controls. The effect of sibutramine to improve glycemic control in an oral glucose-tolerance test was also significantly increased, with empagliflozin and combination treatment leading to a reduction in carcass fat greater than that observed with either drug alone. These data demonstrate that empagliflozin reduces body weight in cafeteria-fed obese rats. In combination studies, empagliflozin further improved the body-weight or body-fat loss of animals in comparison to orlistat or sibutramine alone. Such studies may indicate improved strategies for the treatment of obese patients with prediabetes or type 2 diabetes.

  12. Drug treatment of obesity: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Ashish Kumar; Dahiya, Neha

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is a growing epidemic and a major contributor to the global burden of disease. Obesity strains the healthcare systems and has profound economic and psychosocial consequences. Historically, pharmacotherapy for obesity has witnessed the rise and fall of several promising drug candidates that had to be eventually withdrawn due to unacceptable safety concerns. Currently four drugs are approved for chronic weight management in obese adults: orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate extended release and naltrexone/bupropion extended release. While lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate were approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2012, after a gap of 13 years following the licensing of orlistat, naltrexone/bupropion has been recently approved in 2014. This review provides a brief overview of these current therapeutic interventions available for management of obesity along with the evidence of their safety and efficacy. Additionally, several novel monotherapies as well as combination products are undergoing evaluation in various stages of clinical development. These therapies if proven successful will strengthen the existing armamentarium of antiobesity drugs and will be critical to combat the global public health crisis of obesity and its associated co-morbidities. Copyright © 2015 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. An integrated analysis of liver safety data from orlistat clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Morris, Marc; Lane, Peter; Lee, Kwan; Parks, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Orlistat is an oral gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor and is indicated for treatment of obesity in combination with a hypocaloric diet. Post-marketing reports of adverse reactions revealed hints for possible drug-induced liver injury which has prompted changes to the product information. Orlistat's development program, involving over 30,000 patients, did not indicate a hepatic safety issue. We analyzed liver function test data from randomized clinical trials of orlistat, using i) meta-analysis of published study safety data, ii) time-to-event analysis for individual patients, and iii) a novel and more sensitive method derived from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) evaluation of drug-induced serious hepatotoxicity (eDISH) technique. Over 10,000 subjects were included. The combined odds ratio from a simple summary-level fixed-effects meta-analysis of treatment-emergent abnormalities in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (defined as greater than the upper level of normal for 2 successive measurements) was 1.09 (95% CI 0.93-1.28), and in total bilirubin 1.24 (95% CI 1.03-1.49). Part of the small apparent effect was due to longer exposure to orlistat than to placebo, on average. A patient-level display, adjusting for regression towards the mean, and Kaplan-Meier analysis of changes in ALT and bilirubin, taking account of different exposure, showed no significant difference between orlistat and placebo. This shows that there is no signal for hepatic damage in clinical studies of orlistat. While idiosyncratic liver injury following exposure to orlistat cannot be excluded, it is likely to be extremely rare.

  14. Long-term changes in blood pressure following orlistat and sibutramine treatment: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Johansson, K; Sundström, J; Neovius, K; Rössner, S; Neovius, M

    2010-11-01

    Previous meta-analyses investigating blood pressure effects of anti-obesity drugs have included studies using non-licensed doses, but not data from head-to-head studies. Furthermore, although diabetes is an important comorbidity in obesity, variation in blood pressure effects across diabetes status has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to estimate the effects on systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of orlistat and sibutramine. Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane controlled trials register and reference lists of identified articles from 1990 to February 2009 were searched. All placebo-controlled randomized controlled trials of 12-month duration or randomized head-to-head studies of any duration on adults using standard doses were included. Studies/study arms were excluded if they only evaluated weight maintenance after weight loss. Randomized controlled trials were identified, subjected to inclusion and exclusion criteria, and reviewed. Random effects models were used for assessment of weighted mean differences. Eighteen placebo-controlled (12 orlistat, 5540 patients; 6 sibutramine, 1495 patients) and four head-to-head trials (348 patients) met the inclusion criteria. Three orlistat and three sibutramine studies examined overweight subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM), as did two head-to-head trials. Mean baseline SBP ranged from 119 to 153 mmHg, and mean DBP from 69 to 98 mmHg. Overall, the placebo-controlled SBP change was -1.9 (95% CI; -2.7, -1.1) mmHg for orlistat, and 0.5 (-1.1, 2.1) mmHg for sibutramine. The corresponding values for DBP were -1.5 (-2.2, -0.8) and 1.7 (0.7, 2.6). Compared with patients without diabetes, diabetic patients treated with orlistat experienced smaller and non-significant reductions of SBP (-0.9; -2.6, 0.7 vs. -2.2; -3.0, -1.3) and DBP (-1.0; -2.4, 0.3 vs. -1.6; -2.4, -0.8). For sibutramine, higher on-treatment elevations in SBP (1.6; -1.3, 4.5 vs. 0.1; -1.8, 2.0) and DBP (2.4; 0.6, 4.1 vs. 1.4; 0.3, 2

  15. Anti-obesity drugs: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, R. John; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Wilding, John P. H.

    2012-01-01

    The ideal anti-obesity drug would produce sustained weight loss with minimal side effects. The mechanisms that regulate energy balance have substantial built-in redundancy, overlap considerably with other physiological functions, and are influenced by social, hedonic and psychological factors that limit the effectiveness of pharmacological interventions. It is therefore unsurprising that anti-obesity drug discovery programmes have been littered with false starts, failures in clinical development, and withdrawals due to adverse effects that were not fully appreciated at the time of launch. Drugs that target pathways in metabolic tissues, such as adipocytes, liver and skeletal muscle, have shown potential in preclinical studies but none has yet reached clinical development. Recent improvements in the understanding of peptidergic signalling of hunger and satiety from the gastrointestinal tract mediated by ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and of homeostatic mechanisms related to leptin and its upstream pathways in the hypothalamus, have opened up new possibilities. Although some have now reached clinical development, it is uncertain whether they will meet the strict regulatory hurdles required for licensing of an anti-obesity drug. However, GLP-1 receptor agonists have already succeeded in diabetes treatment and, owing to their attractive body-weight-lowering effects in humans, will perhaps also pave the way for other anti-obesity agents. To succeed in developing drugs that control body weight to the extent seen following surgical intervention, it seems obvious that a new paradigm is needed. In other therapeutic arenas, such as diabetes and hypertension, lower doses of multiple agents targeting different pathways often yield better results than strategies that modify one pathway alone. Some combination approaches using peptides and small molecules have now reached clinical trials, although recent regulatory

  16. Effect of orlistat or metformin in overweight and obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients with insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinghua; Ruan, Xiangyan; Gu, Muqing; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Husheng; Mueck, Alfred Otto

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orlistat or metformin combined with Diane-35 on anthropometric, hormonal and metabolic parameters in overweight and obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with insulin resistance (fasting insulin > 10 mIU/L). A total of 240 PCOS women were randomly allocated to orlistat plus Diane-35(OD group), metformin plus Diane-35(MD group), orlistat plus metformin plus Diane-35(OMD group) or Diane-35 (D group). Body weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference, blood pressure, endocrine profile, lipid profile and insulin resistance were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Significant reductions in waist and hip circumference, serum LH, total testosterone and uric acid were observed in all groups compared with baseline. TG and TC significantly decreased in the OD group. Homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was reduced in the OD (p = .015), MD (p = .001) and OMD (p = .004) groups. Body weight, BMI, systolic BP and HDL-C significantly changed in the OD and OMD group compared with the D group (p < .05). Side effects were less with orlistat than metformin. This study demonstrated that orlistat is more effective in reducing weight and lipid profile than metformin. Besides, orlistat has mild side-effects and is better tolerated compared with metformin.

  17. Mechanism of Orlistat Hydrolysis by the Thioesterase of Human Fatty Acid Synthase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the sole protein capable of de novo synthesis of free fatty acids, is overexpressed in a wide variety of human cancers and is associated with poor prognosis and aggressiveness of these cancers. Orlistat, an FDA-approved drug for obesity treatment that inhibits pancreatic lipases in the GI tract, also inhibits the thioesterase (TE) of human FASN. The cocrystal structure of TE with orlistat shows a pseudo TE dimer containing two different forms of orlistat in the active site, an intermediate that is covalently bound to a serine residue (Ser2308) and a hydrolyzed and inactivated product. In this study, we attempted to understand the mechanism of TE-catalyzed orlistat hydrolysis by examining the role of the hexyl tail of the covalently bound orlistat in water activation for hydrolysis using molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the hexyl tail of the covalently bound orlistat undergoes a conformational transition, which is accompanied by destabilization of a hydrogen bond between a hydroxyl moiety of orlistat and the catalytic His2481 of TE that in turn leads to an increased hydrogen bonding between water molecules and His2481 and increased chance for water activation to hydrolyze the covalent bond between orlistat and Ser2308. Thus, the conformation of the hexyl tail of orlistat plays an important role in orlistat hydrolysis. Strategies that stabilize the hexyl tail may lead to the design of more potent irreversible inhibitors that target FASN and block TE activity with greater endurance. PMID:25309810

  18. Anti-Obesity Agents and the US Food and Drug Administration.

    PubMed

    Casey, Martin F; Mechanick, Jeffrey I

    2014-09-01

    Despite the growing market for obesity care, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved only two new pharmaceutical agents-lorcaserin and combination phentermine/topiramate-for weight reduction since 2000, while removing three agents from the market in the same time period. This article explores the FDA's history and role in the approval of anti-obesity medications within the context of a public health model of obesity. Through the review of obesity literature and FDA approval documents, we identified two major barriers preventing fair evaluation of anti-obesity agents including: (1) methodological pitfalls in clinical trials and (2) misaligned values in the assessment of anti-obesity agents. Specific recommendations include the use of adaptive (Bayesian) design protocols, value-based analyses of risks and benefits, and regulatory guidance based on a comprehensive, multi-platform obesity disease model. Positively addressing barriers in the FDA approval process of anti-obesity agents may have many beneficial effects within an obesity disease model.

  19. Orlistat and antisense-miRNA-loaded PLGA-PEG nanoparticles for enhanced triple negative breast cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bhargava-Shah, Aarohi; Foygel, Kira; Devulapally, Rammohan; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study explores the use of hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) nanoparticles (PLGA-PEG-NPs) as delivery system to improve the antitumor effect of antiobesity drug orlistat for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) therapy by improving its bioavailability. Materials & methods: PLGA-PEG-NPs were synthesized by emulsion-diffusion-evaporation method, and the experiments were conducted in vitro in MDA-MB-231 and SKBr3 TNBC and normal breast fibroblast cells. Results: Delivery of orlistat via PLGA-PEG-NPs reduced its IC50 compared with free orlistat. Combined treatment of orlistat-loaded NPs and doxorubicin or antisense-miR-21-loaded NPs significantly enhanced apoptotic effect compared with independent doxorubicin, anti-miR-21-loaded NPs, orlistat-loaded NPs or free orlistat treatments. Conclusion: We demonstrate that orlistat in combination with antisense-miR-21 or current chemotherapy holds great promise as a novel and versatile treatment agent for TNBC. PMID:26787319

  20. The utility of animal models to evaluate novel anti-obesity agents

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Steven P; Jackson, Helen C; Cheetham, Sharon C

    2011-01-01

    The global incidence of obesity continues to rise and is a major driver of morbidity and mortality through cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Animal models used in the discovery of novel treatments for obesity range from straightforward measures of food intake in lean rodents to long-term studies in animals exhibiting obesity due to the continuous access to diets high in fat. The utility of these animal models can be extended to determine, for example, that weight loss is due to fat loss and/or assess whether beneficial changes in key plasma parameters (e.g. insulin) are evident. In addition, behavioural models such as the behavioural satiety sequence can be used to confirm that a drug treatment has a selective effect on food intake. Typically, animal models have excellent predictive validity whereby drug-induced weight loss in rodents subsequently translates to weight loss in man. However, despite this, at the time of writing orlistat (Europe; USA) remains the only drug currently marketed for the treatment of obesity, with sibutramine having recently been withdrawn from sale globally due to the increased incidence of serious, non-fatal cardiovascular events. While the utility of rodent models in predicting clinical weight loss is detailed, the review also discusses whether animals can be used to predict adverse events such as those seen with recent anti-obesity drugs in the clinic. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed issue on Translational Neuropharmacology. To view the other articles in this issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2011.164.issue-4 PMID:21265828

  1. Anti-Obesity Pharmacotherapy: New Drugs and Emerging Targets

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gilbert W.; Lin, Jieru E.; Blomain, Erik S.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a growing pandemic and related health and economic costs are staggering. Pharmacotherapy partnered with lifestyle modifications form the core of current strategies to reduce the burden of this disease and its sequelae. However, therapies targeting weight loss have a significant history of safety risks, including cardiovascular and psychiatric events. Here, evolving strategies for developing anti-obesity therapies, including targets, mechanisms, and developmental status are highlighted. Progress in this field is underscored by Belviq® (lorcaserin) and Qsymia® (phentermine/topiramate), the first agents in more than 10 years to achieve regulatory approval for chronic management weight in obese patients. On the horizon, novel insights in metabolism and energy homeostasis reveal cGMP signaling circuits as emerging targets for anti-obesity pharmacotherapy. These innovations in molecular discovery may elegantly align with practical off-the-shelf approaches leveraging existing approved drugs that modulate cGMP levels for the management of obesity. PMID:24105257

  2. Biochemical and histological impact of Vernonia amygdalina supplemented diet in obese rats

    PubMed Central

    Atangwho, Item J.; Edet, Emmanuel E.; Uti, Daniel E.; Obi, Augustine U.; Asmawi, Mohd. Z.; Ahmad, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the anti-obesity effect of Vernonia amygdalina Del. (VA) supplemented diet. VA leaf powder was fed at 5% and 15% to diet-induced obese rats for 4 weeks and its effect compared with orlistat (5.14 mg/kg p.o.), an anti-obesity drug. Food intake, body and organ weights, total body fat, some lipid components and amino transaminase activities in serum, hepatocytes and brain; as well as serum glucose, were measured during or at end of the study. Result showed respective decrease of 12.78% and 38.51% in body weight gain, of VA fed rats against 17.45% of orlistat at end of study (P < 0.05); but with no effect on food intake. Total body fat was lowered by 28.04% and 30.02% vs. obese control rats (CDC) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, serum triacylglycerol (TG), serum and brain total cholesterol (TCHOL), were down regulated at 15% VA supplementation (P < 0.05). Serum glucose which increased in obese rats by 46.26% (P < 0.05) vs. NC, indicating intolerance, was restored by VA (38.75% and 34.65%) and orlistat (31.80%) vs. CDC (P < 0.05). VA diet also exerted hepato-protection, via lowering serum alanine amino transaminase (ALT) (41.35% and 27.13%) and aspartate amino transaminase (AST) (17.09% and 43.21%) activities (P < 0.05). Orlistat had no effect on these enzymes. Histology of adipose tissue corroborated the changes on total body fat. We concluded that, diet supplemented with VA can attenuate dietary obesity as well as ameliorates the potential risks of hepato-toxicity and glucose intolerance associated with obesity. PMID:23961200

  3. New advances in models and strategies for developing anti-obesity drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gilbert W.; Lin, Jieru E.; Blomain, Erik S.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is a worldwide pandemic. Obesity-related health and economic costs are staggering. Existing strategies to combat obesity through lifestyle improvements and medical intervention have had limited success. Pharmacotherapy, in combination with lifestyle modification, may play a vital role in reversing the disease burden. However, past and current weight-loss medications have had serious safety risks, notably cardiovascular and psychiatric events. Areas covered We review the strategies for designing new anti-obesity drugs by describing those currently in development. We describe their target, mechanism of action, and developmental or regulatory status. We also discuss the problem of weight regain following weight loss, and its relevance to the long-term success of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy. Expert opinion For weight management drugs to achieve the safety and efficacy required to be impactful, current studies are uncovering and characterizing new targets, including new signaling circuits and hormones regulating appetite and metabolism, and re-evaluating the role of pharmacotherapy in weight management. To avoid the safety failures of many past weight-loss drugs, the models and strategies covered in this article incorporate recent advances in knowledge and technology. We discuss the emergence of cGMP signaling as a potentially transformative target in weight management. Modulating cGMP signaling may represent an ideal goal for an anti-obesity pharmacotherapy, reflecting some of the major themes described in the present review: targeting pathways that are newly realized as relevant for weight management; promoting safety by re-purposing drugs that are safe, proven, and approved for clinical use; and having a synergistic effect on multiple, reinforcing pathways. PMID:23621300

  4. Orlistat with behavioral weight loss for obesity with versus without binge eating disorder: randomized placebo-controlled trial at a community mental health center serving educationally and economically disadvantaged Latino/as.

    PubMed

    Grilo, Carlos M; White, Marney A

    2013-03-01

    This study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial testing the addition of orlistat to behavioral weight loss for obesity in Spanish-speaking-only Latino/as with versus without binge eating disorder (BED) performed at a community mental health center serving educationally- and economically-disadvantaged patients. Latino/as have high rates of obesity but are under-represented in obesity treatment studies and despite comparable-to-or-higher rates of BED than Whites, Latino/as are under-represented in BED treatment studies. BED is associated with obesity but whether it predicts/moderates treatment outcomes remains uncertain. Thus, this study also tested whether BED prospectively predicts/moderates outcomes. Seventy-nine obese Spanish-speaking-only Latino/as with BED (N=40) versus without BED (N=39) at a community mental health center were randomly assigned to four-months of orlistat-plus-BWL or placebo-plus-BWL. BWL was culturally-enhanced modification of Diabetes-Prevention-Program delivered in weekly sessions in Spanish. Orlistat (120 mg tid) and matching-placebo delivered with standard clinical-management. Participants were assessed independently throughout treatment, post-treatment, and six-month follow-up. 78% completed treatments; completion rates did not differ significantly by medication or BED. Intent-to-treat mixed-models analyses revealed significant improvements in binge eating, eating-psychopathology, and depression, and significant--albeit modest--weight-loss. Overall, the addition of orlistat to BWL was not associated with greater improvements; however, BED moderated weight-loss: orlistat-plus-BWL produced significantly greater weight-loss in non-BED group but not in BED. Improvements were maintained through 6-month follow-up; BED significantly predicted/moderated increases in eating concerns and depression following treatment. Within BED-group, binge-eating remission rates were 65% (post-treatment) and 50% (follow-up). In this controlled trial

  5. Efficacy of an orlistat-resveratrol combination for weight loss in subjects with obesity: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arzola-Paniagua, María Angélica; García-Salgado López, Enrique Raúl; Calvo-Vargas, Cesar G; Guevara-Cruz, Martha

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of an orlistat-resveratrol (O-R) combination in subjects with obesity over a 6-month period. This study was a double-blind, parallel, randomized controlled clinical trial. Patients fulfilling the selection criteria (age from 20 to 60 years and body mass index (BMI) ≥30 and ≤39.9 kg/m(2) ) consumed an energy-reduced diet with 500 fewer calories than their usual diet for 2 weeks. Then the participants were randomly assigned to four groups, placebo, resveratrol, orlistat, or O-R, and they consumed the energy-reduced diet for 6 months. The study consisted of seven visits. During each visit, a 24-h recall was performed, along with measurements of anthropometric and serum biochemical parameters. A total of 161 participants were selected. Of these, 84 participants completed the study. A significant weight loss of -6.82 kg (95% CI -8.37 to -5.26) was observed in the O-R group compared with -3.50 kg (-5.05 to -1.95, P = 0.021) in the placebo group. In contrast, the -6.02 kg (-7.68 to -4.36) orlistat and -4.68 kg (-6.64 to -2.71) resveratrol monotherapy losses did not significantly differ from the placebo. Significant decreases in BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, triglycerides, leptin, and leptin/adiponectin ratio were observed with the O-R combination. The O-R combination was the most effective weight loss treatment. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  6. [Weight loss via drug therapy].

    PubMed

    Wirth, A

    2003-03-01

    Obesity and its associated diseases are an increasing challenge in medicine. A change in lifestyle is usually the first step with modifications in nutrition, physical activity and behavior. However, most of obese patients are not able to follow such a treatment regimen for a longer period of time. If they do not lose > 5% of initial weight within 3-6 months, pharmacological intervention should be taken into account. Orlistat, a gastro-intestinal lipase inhibitor, enhances fat excretion thereby reducing energy uptake and body fat. Studies up to 4 years document a net weight loss of 3-5 kg, all cardiovascular risk factors are reduced. Sibutramine, a serotonin- and noradrenalin reuptake inhibitor, promotes satiety and stimulates energy expenditure. Within one year a net weight reduction of 4-6 kg is achieved and morbidity as well as quality of life are improved. For both drugs no end-point outcomes are available so far. The anti-obesity drugs orlistat and sibutramine are useful tools for overweight and obese patients as an adjunct to lifestyle changes. Under the supervision of experienced physicians the combined treatment consisting of non-pharmacological and pharmacological methods reduces body weight in more than half of the patients and improves morbidity and quality of life.

  7. Combinations of Drugs in the Treatment of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Bruno; Oliveira, Eduardo S. L.; Faria, André M.; Halpern, Alfredo; de Melo, Maria Edna; Cercato, Cintia; Mancini, Marcio C.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease associated with excess morbidity and mortality. Clinical treatment, however, currently offers disappointing results, with very high rates of weight loss failure or weight regain cycles, and only two drugs (orlistat and sibutramine) approved for long-term use. Drugs combinations can be an option for its treatment but, although widely used in clinical practice, very few data are available in literature for its validation. Our review focuses on the rationale for their use, with advantages and disadvantages; on combinations often used, with or without studies; and on new perspectives of combinations being studied mainly by the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:27713360

  8. Drugs in the Pipeline for the Obesity Market

    PubMed Central

    Klonoff, David C.; Greenway, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. For many obese patients, diet and exercise are an inadequate treatment and bariatric surgery may be too extreme of a treatment. As with many other chronic diseases, pharmacologic treatment may be an attractive option for selected obese patients. Antiobesity drugs may potentially work through one of three mechanisms: (1) appetite suppression, (2) interference with absorption of nutrients, and (3) increased metabolism of nutrients. The three most widely prescribed drugs approved to treat obesity are phentermine, sibutramine, and orlistat. Drugs approved for treating obesity usually result in an additional weight loss of approximately 2–5 kg in addition to placebo. For pharmacologic therapy in obesity to be widely utilized, greater effectiveness and safety will be needed. Four types of single-agent drugs are in late stage development, including (1) selective central cannabinoid-1 receptor blockers, (2) selective central 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C serotonin receptor agonists, (3) an intestinal lipase blocker, and (4) central-acting incretin mimetic drugs. Four combination agent compounds in late stage development include (1) Contrave, which combines long-acting versions of naltrexone and bupropion; (2) Empatic, which combines long-acting bupropion and long-acting zonisamide; (3) Qnexa, which combines phentermine with controlled release topiramate; and (4) an injectable combination of leptin and pramlintide. Peptide YY and melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1 antagonists are centrally acting agents in early stage development. It is expected that several new drug products for obesity will become available over the next few years. Their role in managing this disease remains to be determined. PMID:19885278

  9. Drugs in the pipeline for the obesity market.

    PubMed

    Klonoff, David C; Greenway, Frank

    2008-09-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem. For many obese patients, diet and exercise are an inadequate treatment and bariatric surgery may be too extreme of a treatment. As with many other chronic diseases, pharmacologic treatment may be an attractive option for selected obese patients. Antiobesity drugs may potentially work through one of three mechanisms: (1) appetite suppression, (2) interference with absorption of nutrients, and (3) increased metabolism of nutrients. The three most widely prescribed drugs approved to treat obesity are phentermine, sibutramine, and orlistat. Drugs approved for treating obesity usually result in an additional weight loss of approximately 2-5 kg in addition to placebo. For pharmacologic therapy in obesity to be widely utilized, greater effectiveness and safety will be needed. Four types of single-agent drugs are in late stage development, including (1) selective central cannabinoid-1 receptor blockers, (2) selective central 5-hydroxytryptamine 2C serotonin receptor agonists, (3) an intestinal lipase blocker, and (4) central-acting incretin mimetic drugs. Four combination agent compounds in late stage development include (1) Contrave, which combines long-acting versions of naltrexone and bupropion; (2) Empatic, which combines long-acting bupropion and long-acting zonisamide; (3) Qnexa, which combines phentermine with controlled release topiramate; and (4) an injectable combination of leptin and pramlintide. Peptide YY and melanin-concentrating hormone receptor-1 antagonists are centrally acting agents in early stage development. It is expected that several new drug products for obesity will become available over the next few years. Their role in managing this disease remains to be determined.

  10. Drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mead, Emma; Atkinson, Greg; Richter, Bernd; Metzendorf, Maria-Inti; Baur, Louise; Finer, Nicholas; Corpeleijn, Eva; O'Malley, Claire; Ells, Louisa J

    2016-11-29

    Child and adolescent obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with significant short- and long-term health consequences. To assess the efficacy of drug interventions for the treatment of obesity in children and adolescents. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed (subsets not available on Ovid), LILACS as well as the trial registers ICTRP (WHO) and ClinicalTrials.gov. Searches were undertaken from inception to March 2016. We checked references and applied no language restrictions. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of pharmacological interventions for treating obesity (licensed and unlicensed for this indication) in children and adolescents (mean age under 18 years) with or without support of family members, with a minimum of three months' pharmacological intervention and six months' follow-up from baseline. We excluded interventions that specifically dealt with the treatment of eating disorders or type 2 diabetes, or included participants with a secondary or syndromic cause of obesity. In addition, we excluded trials which included growth hormone therapies and pregnant participants. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data following standard Cochrane methodology. Where necessary we contacted authors for additional information. We included 21 trials and identified eight ongoing trials. The included trials evaluated metformin (11 trials), sibutramine (six trials), orlistat (four trials), and one trial arm investigated the combination of metformin and fluoxetine. The ongoing trials evaluated metformin (four trials), topiramate (two trials) and exenatide (two trials). A total of 2484 people participated in the included trials, 1478 participants were randomised to drug intervention and 904 to comparator groups (91 participants took part in two cross-over trials; 11 participants not specified). Eighteen trials used a placebo in the comparator group. Two trials had a cross-over design while the remaining 19

  11. Obesity, weight loss, and the polycystic ovary syndrome: effect of treatment with diet and orlistat for 24 weeks on insulin resistance and androgen levels.

    PubMed

    Panidis, Dimitrios; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Rousso, David; Kourtis, Anargyros; Katsikis, Ilias; Krassas, Gerassimos

    2008-04-01

    To investigate the combined effect of diet and orlistat, for 24 weeks, on anthropometric features, hormonal parameters, and indices of insulin resistance in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and in obese women without the syndrome. Prospective clinical study. Department of obstetrics and gynecology in a major university in Greece. Eighteen selected women with PCOS were matched for age and body mass index with 14 obese control women. Subjects were prescribed an energy-restricted diet, and orlistat (120 mg, 3 times per d) was administered to all subjects for 24 weeks. At baseline, week 12, and week 24, after an overnight fast, blood samples were collected, and serum levels of FSH, LH, PRL, T, Delta(4)A, DHEAS, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, sex hormone-binding globulin, glucose, and insulin were measured. Testosterone levels were significantly decreased with treatment in women with PCOS; this decrease was attributed to the first trimester, whereas T levels did not change during the second 12-week period. In women with PCOS, insulin levels and HOMA-IR values were decreased during the first 12 weeks, whereas no significant change was observed during the second trimester. Orlistat administration, combined with diet, for 24 weeks, resulted in significant weight loss and improvement of insulin resistance in obese women, with or without PCOS. Moreover, T levels were significantly decreased in women with PCOS. There appears to be a trend during the first 12-week period for greater improvement of metabolic and hormonal parameters in women with PCOS.

  12. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of orlistat for weight loss in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Maahs, David; de Serna, Daniela Gonzalez; Kolotkin, Ronette L; Ralston, Shawn; Sandate, Jeffrey; Qualls, Clifford; Schade, David S

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of orlistat to enhance weight loss in obese adolescents. The study was a 6-month randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to compare the effects of orlistat (120 mg orally 3 times a day) and placebo on reduction of body mass index (BMI). Forty adolescents between 14 and 18 years of age with a mean BMI of 40 kg/m2 entered the protocol between December 2002 and February 2003. Study subjects stayed overnight in the General Clinical Research Center, during which dietary records were reviewed and lifestyle recommendations were given. The study participants received either orlistat (120 mg orally 3 times a day) or placebo and were assessed monthly for 6 months. At 0, 3, and 6 months, fasting laboratory tests were performed. The primary end point was the change in BMI from baseline to 6 months. Secondary outcomes included changes in weight, lean body mass, and results of blood chemistry studies. No statistically significant difference was noted between the 2 study groups for decrease in BMI from baseline to 6 months (P = 0.39). The decrease in BMI within the orlistat group (-1.3 +/- 1.6 kg/m2; P = 0.04) and within the placebo group (-0.8 +/- 3.0 kg/m2; P = 0.02), however, was statistically significant. Laboratory measurements did not differ between the 2 groups. In comparison with the placebo group, the orlistat group had increased adverse events, primarily gastrointestinal symptoms and findings. In this study of obese adolescents, orlistat did not significantly reduce BMI in comparison with placebo at 6 months.

  13. Pharmacotherapy for obesity in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Chukir, Tariq; Shukla, Alpana P; Saunders, Katherine H; Aronne, Louis J

    2018-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Obesity is one of the main risk factors for T2DM and its management requires a multidisciplinary approach, which may include pharmacotherapy. Areas covered: In this paper, data on efficacy, tolerability and safety of FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for obesity (orlistat, phentermine/topiramate extended-release, lorcaserin, bupropion sustained release/naltrexone sustained release and liraglutide) are reviewed, focusing on individuals with type 2 diabetes. Expert opinion: Obesity is the major pathophysiologic driver of T2DM; conversely 5-10% weight loss leads to significant improvement in glycemic control, lipids and blood pressure. Weight loss maintenance is difficult with lifestyle interventions alone and may require adjunctive therapies. There is good evidence for the efficacy and tolerability of approved anti-obesity pharmacotherapies in individuals with T2DM, with current cardiovascular safety data being most favorable for liraglutide, orlistat and lorcaserin. Given the link between obesity and T2DM, a weight-centric therapeutic approach including use of weight reducing anti-diabetic therapies, and anti-obesity pharmacotherapies is both intuitive and rational to improve glycemic and other metabolic outcomes in patients with T2DM.

  14. Medicinal plants and phytochemicals with anti-obesogenic potentials: A review.

    PubMed

    Mopuri, Ramgopal; Islam, Md Shahidul

    2017-05-01

    Human mortality has been significantly increased in last few decades due to the increased prevalence of obesity and associated chronic disorders such as type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. Apart from genetic and medicine or drug related side effects, nearly 90-95% people became obese due to the imbalanced calorie intake and lack of nutritional knowledge. The anti-obesogenic drugs, Orlistat and Sibutramine, which have been duly approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA), USA, work very well on diet-induced obesity however they are not getting popular to the people with overweight/obesity due to the higher cost and severe side effects. In contrast, plant based drugs have been considered as a better alternative due to their lower cost and negligible side effects. A number of medicinal plants and their bioactive constituents have received attention from scientists not only for their anti-obesity activity in vitro and in vivo but also in clinical trials. However, there is no systematic review of data available in the scientific domain in order to guide researchers to conduct further in depth research. In our present review, we differentiated the anti-obesogenic effects of various medicinal plant extracts, fractions and their bioactive compounds at in vitro, in vivo and clinical conditions. During our review, we could also identify the most effective plants with strong anti-obesogenic effects at in vitro or in vivo studies with lack of clinical trials when no one tried to isolate pure bioactive compounds from these plants. Hence, scientific community, government agencies/pharmaceutical industries should work together not only to isolate pure bioactive compounds but also to conduct clinical trials including toxicity to develop better alternative anti-obesity drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of orlistat vs. metformin on weight loss-related clinical variables in women with PCOS: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Graff, S K; Mario, F M; Ziegelmann, P; Spritzer, P M

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of orlistat on weight loss-related clinical variables in overweight/obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and to compare treatment with orlistat vs. metformin in this group. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence about the use of orlistat in women with PCOS. We searched the literature published until May 2015 in MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and LILACS. Of 3951 studies identified, nine were included in the systematic review (three prospective, non-randomised studies and six randomised control trials). Eight studies used the Rotterdam criteria and 1 used NIH criteria to diagnose PCOS. Data suggest that orlistat promotes a significant reduction in BMI/weight in overweight/obese PCOS women. Eight studies evaluated orlistat impact on testosterone. Seven reported an improvement in testosterone levels. Eight studies evaluated impact on insulin resistance, and five reported improvement. Finally, five studies evaluated impact on lipid profile, and four reported improvement. Three randomised control trials were included in the fixed effects model meta-analysis for a total of 121 women with PCOS. Orlistat and metformin had similar positive effects on BMI (-0.65%, 95% CI: -2.03 to 0.73), HOMA (-3.60%, 95% CI: -16.99 to 9.78), testosterone (-2.08%, 95% CI: -13.08 to 8.93) and insulin (-5.51%, 95% CI: -22.27 to 11.26). The present results suggest that orlistat leads to significant reduction in BMI/body weight in PCOS. In addition, the available evidence indicates that orlistat and metformin have similar effects in reducing BMI, HOMA, testosterone and insulin in overweight/obese PCOS women. This study was registered in PROSPERO under number CRD42014012877. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The safety of pharmacologic treatment for pediatric obesity.

    PubMed

    Chao, Ariana M; Wadden, Thomas A; Berkowitz, Robert I

    2018-04-01

    Pediatric obesity is a serious public health concern. Five medications have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for chronic weight management in adults with obesity, when used as an adjunct to lifestyle modification. Orlistat is the only FDA-approved medication for pediatric patients aged 12 years and above. Areas covered: This paper summarizes safety and efficacy data from clinical trials of weight loss medications conducted among pediatric samples. Relevant studies were identified through searches in PubMed. Expert opinion: Orlistat, as an adjunct to lifestyle modification, results in modest weight losses and may be beneficial for some pediatric patients with obesity. However, gastrointestinal side effects are common and may limit use. In adults taking orlistat, rare but severe adverse events, including liver and renal events, have been reported. Recent pediatric pharmacokinetic studies of liraglutide have demonstrated similar safety and tolerability profiles as found in adults, with gastrointestinal disorders being the most common adverse events. Clinical trials are needed of liraglutide, as well as other medications for obesity, that systematically evaluate their risks and benefits in pediatric patients.

  17. Pharmacological management of obesity in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Boland, Cassie L; Harris, John Brock; Harris, Kira B

    2015-02-01

    To review current evidence of pharmacological options for managing pediatric obesity and provide potential areas for future research. A MEDLINE search (1966 to October 2014) was conducted using the following keywords: exenatide, liraglutide, lorcaserin, metformin, obesity, orlistat, pediatric, phentermine, pramlintide, topiramate, weight loss, and zonisamide. Identified articles were evaluated for inclusion, with priority given to randomized controlled trials with orlistat, metformin, glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists, topiramate, and zonisamide in human subjects and articles written in English. References were also reviewed for additional trials. Whereas lifestyle modification is considered first-line therapy for obese pediatric patients, severe obesity may benefit from pharmacotherapy. Orlistat is the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medication for pediatric obesity and reduced body mass index (BMI) by 0.5 to 4 kg/m(2), but gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects may limit use. Metformin has demonstrated BMI reductions of 0.17 to 1.8 kg/m(2), with mild GI adverse effects usually managed with dose titration. Exenatide reduced BMI by 1.1 to 1.7 kg/m(2) and was well-tolerated with mostly transient or mild GI adverse effects. Topiramate and zonisamide reduced weight when used in the treatment of epilepsy. Future studies should examine efficacy and safety of pharmacological agents in addition to lifestyle modifications for pediatric obesity. Lifestyle interventions remain the treatment of choice in pediatric obesity, but concomitant pharmacotherapy may be beneficial in some patients. Orlistat should be considered as second-line therapy for pediatric obesity. Evidence suggests that other diabetes and antiepileptic medications may also provide weight-loss benefits, but safety should be further evaluated. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Long-term Drug Treatment for Obesity: A Systematic and Clinical Review

    PubMed Central

    Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Thirty-six percent of US adults are obese and many cannot lose sufficient weight to improve health with lifestyle interventions alone. Objective Conduct a systematic review of medications currently approved in the US for obesity treatment in adults. We also discuss off-label use of medications studied for obesity and provide considerations for obesity medication use in clinical practice. Evidence Acquisition A PubMed search from inception through September, 2013 was performed to find meta-analyses, systematic reviews, and randomized, placebo-controlled trials for currently-approved obesity medications lasting ≥1y, that had a primary or secondary outcome of body weight, included ≥50 participants per group, reported ≥50% retention, and reported results on an intention-to-treat basis. Studies of medications approved for other purposes but tested for obesity treatment were also reviewed. Results Obesity medications approved for long-term use, when prescribed with lifestyle interventions, produce additional weight loss relative to placebo ranging from approximately 3% of initial weight for orlistat and lorcaserin to 9% for top-dose (15/92mg) phentermine/topiramate-ER at 1y. The proportion of patients achieving clinically-meaningful (≥5%) weight loss ranges from 37–47% for lorcaserin, 35–73% for orlistat, and 67–70% for top-dose phentermine/topiramate-ER. All three produce greater improvements in many cardiometabolic risk factors than placebo, but no obesity medication has been shown to reduce cardiovascular morbidity or mortality. Most prescriptions are for noradrenergic medications, despite their approval only for short-term use and limited data for their long-term safety and efficacy. Conclusions/Relevance Medications approved for long-term obesity treatment, when used as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention, lead to greater mean weight loss and an increased likelihood of achieving clinically-meaningful 1-year weight loss relative to placebo

  19. Effects of orlistat on serum androgen levels among iranian obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salehpour, Saghar; Hosseini, Sedighe; Nazari, Leila; Saharkhiz, Nasrin; Zademodarres, Shahrzad

    2018-05-14

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is one of the most common endocrinopathies in young women, and it affects 6% to 8% of women in reproductive age. Hyperandrogenism is the hallmark of polycystic ovary syndrome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of orlistat on weight loss and serum androgen levels among Iranian women with polycystic ovary syndrome. The present study was carried out in the clinic of Infertility and Reproductive Health Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Thirty-two patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were randomly enrolled. We measured serum androgens (Testosterone, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin) before and after 12 weeks of treatment with orlistat. We used the Rotterdam Criteria for all patients and transvaginal sonography was performed. The mean age of patients was 27.75±6.22 and the mean body mass index was 32.69±0.94 kg/m2. Comparing with baseline, treatment with orlistat resulted in a significant reduction in weight, BMI, and waist circumference (p=0.001). We also found a remarkable reduction in total testosterone levels (p>0.001). Treatment improved the sex hormone-binding globulin plasma levels, but the improvement was not statistically significant. There was no reduction in other androgen levels. This study showed a significant reduction of weight and total testosterone level - the most important androgen in polycystic ovary syndrome - after 12 weeks of treatment with orlistat. Therefore, it seems that a short course of orlistat can be useful in the management of patients with polycystic ovary syndrome.

  20. [Pharmacological therapy of obesity].

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Uberto; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vicennati, Valentina; Pasquali, Renato

    2008-04-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions worldwide and it is correlated with various comorbidities, among which the most relevant are diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases. Obesity management is a modern challenge because of the rapid evolution of unfavorable lifestyles and unfortunately there are no effective treatments applicable to the large majority of obese/overweight people. The current medical attitude is to treat the complications of obesity (e.g. dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases). However, the potential of treating obesity is enormous, bearing in mind that a volitional weight loss of 10 kg is associated with important risk factor improvement: blood pressure -10 mmHg, total cholesterol -10%, LDL cholesterol -15%, triglycerides -30%, fasting glucose -50%, HDL cholesterol +8%. Drug treatment for obesity is an evolving branch of pharmacology, burdened by severe side effects and consequences of the early drugs, withdrawn from the market, and challenged by the lack of long-term data on the effect of medications on obesity-related morbidity and mortality, first of all cardiovascular diseases. In Europe three antiobesity drugs are currently licensed: sibutramine, orlistat, and rimonabant; important trials with clinical endpoints are ongoing for sibutramine and rimonabant. While waiting for their results, it is convenient to evaluate these drugs for their effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk factors. Sibutramine is a centrally acting serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor that mainly increases satiety. At the level of brown adipose tissue, sibutramine can also facilitate energy expenditure by increasing thermogenesis. The long-term studies (five) documented a mean differential weight reduction of 4.45 kg for sibutramine vs placebo. Considering the principal studies, attrition rate was 43%. This drug not only reduces body weight and waist circumference, but it decreases triglycerides and

  1. Anti-obesity effect of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf in lean rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Hafeedza Abdul; Sahib, Najla Gooda; Saari, Nazamid; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Mumtaz, Muhammad Waseem; Hamid, Azizah Abdul

    2017-02-22

    Obesity is a major health concern both in developed and developing countries. The use of herbal medicines became the subject of interest for the management of obesity due to its natural origin, cost effectiveness and minimal side effects. The present study aimed at investigating anti-obesity potential of ethanolic extract from Cosmos caudatus Kunth leaf (EECCL). In this study, the rats were randomly divided into six groups i.e., (1) Normal Diet (ND); (2) Normal Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 175 mg/kgBW); (3) Normal Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (ND + 350 mg/kgBW); (4) High Fat Diet (HFD); (5) High Fat Diet and 175 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 175 mg/kgBW); (6) High Fat Diet and 350 mg/kgBW of EECCL (HFD + 350 mg/kgBW). The anti-obesity potential was evaluated through analyses of changes in body weight, visceral fat weight, and blood biochemicals including total cholesterol, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), leptin, insulin, adiponectin, ghrelin and fecal fat content. In addition, metabolite profiling of EECCL was carried out using NMR spectroscopy. Rats receiving EECCL together with HFD showed significant (p < 0.05) reduction in body weight gain compared to rats receiving HFD only. At the end of study, the body weight gain of EECCL treated rats was not significantly (p > 0.05) different with those of ND rats. Other related obesity biomarkers including plasma lipid profiles, insulin, leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin levels also showed significant improvement (p < 0.05). Administration of EECCL caused significant (p < 0.05) increase in fecal fat excretion, which validates the hypothesis of lipase inhibition, an anti-obesity mechanism similar to standard drug of Orlistat. The 1 H-NMR spectra of EECCL ascertained the presence of catechin, quercetin, rutin, kaempherol and chlorogenic acid in the extract. Conclusively, EECCL showed anti-obesity properties by

  2. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, phentermine and mahuang, on the behavioral patterns in Sprague-Dawley rat model.

    PubMed

    Go, Ryeo-Eun; Hwang, Kyung-A; Kim, Seung-Hee; Lee, Min-Young; Kim, Cho-Won; Jeon, So-Ye; Kim, Yun-Bae; Choi, Kyung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    According to WHO global estimates from 2008, more than 1.4 billion adults were overweight and among them, over 200 million men and 300 million women were obese. Although the main treatment modalities for overweight and obese individuals remain dieting and physical exercise, the synthetic anti-obesity medications have been increasingly used due to their perceived convenience. Generally, anti-obesity medications are classified as appetite suppressants or fat absorption blockers. In the present study, we examined the adverse side-effects in respect of behavior changes of phentermine and Ephedra sinica (mahuang) that are anti-obesity drugs currently distributed to domestic consumers. Phentermine is mainly classified as an anorexing agent and mahuang a thermogenic agent. Because phentermine and mahuang are considered to display effectiveness through the regulation of nerve system, their potential influences of on behavioral changes were examined employing animal experiments. From the results of experiments testing locomotor activity through the use of treadmill, rota-rod, and open field system, phentermine and mahuang were commonly revealed to induce behavioral changes of rats by reducing a motor ability, an ability to cope with an external stimulus, and a sense of balance or by augmenting wariness or excitement. These adverse effects of phenternime and mahuang in behavioral changes need to be identified in humans and anti-obesity medications such as phentermine and mahuang should be prescribed for only obesity where it is anticipated that the benefits of the treatment outweigh their potential risks.

  3. Drug safety evaluation of naltrexone/bupropion for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Verpeut, Jessica L; Bello, Nicholas T

    2014-06-01

    Obesity is a known health risk for the development of several preventable diseases. Obesity-related metabolic alterations negatively impact different physiological mechanisms, which supports the rationale for the use of combined drug therapy. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist for the treatment of opioid and alcohol dependency, whereas bupropion is a norepinephrine/dopamine reuptake inhibitor used to treat depression and smoking cessation. Although not effective as individual monotherapies for obesity, naltrexone and bupropion in combination produce weight loss and a metabolic profile beneficial for the potential treatment of obesity. This review examines the safety and antiobesity effects of naltrexone and bupropion alone and in combination. It reviews the results of four Phase III clinical trials of a novel fixed dose of sustained-released naltrexone/bupropion. Naltrexone/bupropion has a greater weight loss efficacy than two FDA-approved medications, orlistat and lorcaserin. Although the weight loss produced by phentermine/topiramate is superior to naltrexone/bupropion, the safety profile of naltrexone/bupropion has less severe adverse effects. In addition, naltrexone/bupropion is well tolerated, with nausea being the most reported adverse event. Unlike other centrally acting medications, lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate, naltrexone/bupropion has no abuse potential.

  4. Lorcaserin: A novel antiobesity drug.

    PubMed

    Brashier, Dick B S; Sharma, A K; Dahiya, Navdeep; Singh, S K; Khadka, Anjan

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a major co-morbidity with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. There are few drugs for treatment of obesity like orlistat and recentlty approved drug lorcaserin. Lorcaserin has serotonergic properties and acts as an anorectic. It may cause serious side effects, including serotonin syndrome, particularly when taken with certain medicines that increase serotonin levels or activate serotonin receptors. Although, mainstay and first line of approach of treatment will always remain in having low calorie diet and increase in physical activity. Lorcaserin has come as a new hope to achieve success in treating obese patients but still a long road with further extensive research to be undertaken in the treatment of obesity.

  5. Pharmacotherapies for Obesity: Past, Current, and Future Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ioannides-Demos, Lisa L.; Piccenna, Loretta; McNeil, John J.

    2011-01-01

    Past therapies for the treatment of obesity have typically involved pharmacological agents usually in combination with a calorie-controlled diet. This paper reviews the efficacy and safety of pharmacotherapies for obesity focusing on drugs approved for long-term therapy (orlistat), drugs approved for short-term use (amfepramone [diethylpropion], phentermine), recently withdrawn therapies (rimonabant, sibutamine) and drugs evaluated in Phase III studies (taranabant, pramlintide, lorcaserin and tesofensine and combination therapies of topiramate plus phentermine, bupropion plus naltrexone, and bupropion plus zonisamide). No current pharmacotherapy possesses the efficacy needed to produce substantial weight loss in morbidly obese patients. Meta-analyses support a significant though modest loss in bodyweight with a mean weight difference of 4.7 kg (95% CI 4.1 to 5.3 kg) for rimonabant, 4.2 kg (95% CI 3.6 to 4.8 kg) for sibutramine and 2.9 kg (95% CI 2.5 to 3.2 kg) for orlistat compared to placebo at ≥12 months. Of the Phase III pharmacotherapies, lorcaserin, taranabant, topiramate and bupropion with naltrexone have demonstrated significant weight loss compared to placebo at ≥12 months. Some pharmacotherapies have also demonstrated clinical benefits. Further studies are required in some populations such as younger and older people whilst the long term safety continues to be a major consideration and has led to the withdrawal of several drugs. PMID:21197148

  6. Herbal Formula HT048 Attenuates Diet-Induced Obesity by Improving Hepatic Lipid Metabolism and Insulin Resistance in Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yoon Hee; Jin, Bora; Lee, Sung Hyun; Song, MiKyung; Bae, HyeonHui; Min, Byung Jae; Park, Juyeon; Lee, Donghun; Kim, Hocheol

    2016-10-25

    It is well established that obesity causes a variety of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Despite the diligent scientific efforts to find effective ways to lower the level of obesity, the size of obese population grows continuously around the world. Here we present the results that show feeding diet containing HT048, a mixture of the extracts of Crataegus pinnatifida leaves and Citrus unshiu peel, two of the well-known traditional herbal medicines in Eastern Asia, decreases obesity in rats. We fed rats with five different diets for 10 weeks: chow diet (STD), high-fat diet (HFD), high-fat diet with 0.04% orlistat, a drug to treat obesity (HFD + Orlistat), high-fat diet with 0.2% HT048 ( w / w ; HFD + 0.2% HT048), and high-fat diet with 0.6% HT048 ( w / w ; HFD + 0.6% HT048). It was found that both body and total white adipose tissue weight of HT048 groups significantly decreased compared to those of the HFD group. Moreover, HT048 decreased serum insulin levels in HFD-fed obese rats. At the molecular level, HT048 supplementation downregulated genes involved in lipogenesis, gluconeogenesis, and adipogenesis, while the expression level of β-oxidation genes was increased. Supplementation-drug interactions are not likely as HFD and HT048-containing diet did not significantly induce genes encoding CYPs. Collectively, this study suggests that HT048 taken as dietary supplement helps to decrease obesity and insulin resistance in HFD-fed obese rats.

  7. Lorcaserin: A novel antiobesity drug

    PubMed Central

    Brashier, Dick B. S.; Sharma, A. K.; Dahiya, Navdeep; Singh, S. K.; Khadka, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major co-morbidity with hypertension and diabetes mellitus. There are few drugs for treatment of obesity like orlistat and recentlty approved drug lorcaserin. Lorcaserin has serotonergic properties and acts as an anorectic. It may cause serious side effects, including serotonin syndrome, particularly when taken with certain medicines that increase serotonin levels or activate serotonin receptors. Although, mainstay and first line of approach of treatment will always remain in having low calorie diet and increase in physical activity. Lorcaserin has come as a new hope to achieve success in treating obese patients but still a long road with further extensive research to be undertaken in the treatment of obesity. PMID:24799830

  8. Effect of Diane-35, alone or in combination with orlistat or metformin in Chinese polycystic ovary syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Song, Jinghua; Gu, Muqing; Wang, Lijuan; Wang, Husheng; Mueck, Alfred O

    2018-06-01

    To evaluate the effect of Diane-35, alone or in combination with orlistat or metformin, on androgen and body fat percentage parameters in Chinese overweight and obese polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with insulin resistance. A total of 240 PCOS women were randomly allocated to receive Diane-35 alone (D group), Diane-35 plus orlistat (DO group), Diane-35 plus metformin (DM group), or Diane-35 plus orlistat plus metformin (DOM group). Serum TT, DHEA-S, androstenedione, SHBG, FT, FAI, body fat, and body fat percentage were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment. Significant changes in serum TT, SHBG, and FAI were observed in all treatment groups compared with baseline. DHEA-S and androstenedione significantly decreased in the DO, DM, and DOM groups after treatment. FT only significantly decreased in the DOM group. Body fat and body fat percentage significantly decreased in the DO and DOM groups. Compared with the D group, DHEA-S significantly decreased in the DO, DM, and DOM groups (F = 4.081, p = 0.008); SHBG significantly increased in the DOM group (F = 3.019, p = 0.031); and FAI significantly decreased in the DO group (χ 2  = 12.578, p = 0.006). There were significant differences between groups in body fat percentage (χ 2  = 23.590, p < 0.001). Side-effects were less with orlistat than metformin. Diane-35 in combination with orlistat or metformin is more effective in reducing androgen than Diane-35 alone. Orlistat is more effective in reducing body fat percentage than metformin. In addition, orlistat has mild side-effects and is better tolerated compared with metformin.

  9. The Oncogenic Palmitoyi-Protein Network in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    obesity drug, Ortistat, which inhibits the enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN), has been shown to slow the growth of human prostate tumors in mice...Orlistat, an FDA-approved anti- obesity drug, suppresses the growth of human prostate tumors in nude mice.5 Despite these advances, the role of lipid...We also tested in vivo whether this network is vulnerable to an intervention that employs a dietary strategy in combination with an FDA-approved

  10. Obesity: Current and potential pharmacotherapeutics and targets.

    PubMed

    Narayanaswami, Vidya; Dwoskin, Linda P

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior. Dysregulation of one or more of these homeostatic components results in obesity. Coincident with obesity, reward mechanisms that regulate hedonic aspects of food intake override the homeostatic regulation of eating. In addition to functional interactions between homeostatic and reward systems in the regulation of food intake, homeostatic signals have the ability to alter vulnerability to drug abuse. Regarding the treatment of obesity, pharmacological monotherapies primarily focus on a single protein target. FDA-approved monotherapy options include phentermine (Adipex-P®), orlistat (Xenical®), lorcaserin (Belviq®) and liraglutide (Saxenda®). However, monotherapies have limited efficacy, in part due to the recruitment of alternate and counter-regulatory pathways. Consequently, a multi-target approach may provide greater benefit. Recently, two combination products have been approved by the FDA to treat obesity, including phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia®) and naltrexone/bupropion (Contrave®). The current review provides an overview of homeostatic and reward mechanisms that regulate energy balance, potential therapeutic targets for obesity and current treatment options, including some candidate therapeutics in clinical development. Finally, challenges in anti-obesity drug development are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier

  11. Obesity: Current and Potential Pharmacotherapeutics and Targets

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaswami, Vidya; Dwoskin, Linda P.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic that contributes to a number of health complications including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer and neuropsychiatric disorders. Pharmacotherapeutic strategies to treat obesity are urgently needed. Research over the past two decades has increased substantially our knowledge of central and peripheral mechanisms underlying homeostatic energy balance. Homeostatic mechanisms involve multiple components including neuronal circuits, some originating in hypothalamus and brain stem, as well as peripherally-derived satiety, hunger and adiposity signals that modulate neural activity and regulate eating behavior. Dysregulation of one or more of these homeostatic components results in obesity. Coincident with obesity, reward mechanisms that regulate hedonic aspects of food intake override the homeostatic regulation of eating. In addition to functional interactions between homeostatic and reward systems in the regulation of food intake, homeostatic signals have the ability to alter vulnerability to drug abuse. Regarding the treatment of obesity, pharmacological monotherapies primarily focus on a single protein target. FDA-approved monotherapy options include phentermine (Adipex-P®), orlistat (Xenical®), lorcaserin (Belviq®) and liraglutide (Saxenda®). However, monotherapies have limited efficacy, in part due to the recruitment of alternate and counter-regulatory pathways. Consequently, a multi-target approach may provide greater benefit. Recently, two combination products have been approved by the FDA to treat obesity, including phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia®) and naltrexone/bupropion (Contrave®). The current review provides an overview of homeostatic and reward mechanisms that regulate energy balance, potential therapeutic targets for obesity and current treatment options, including some candidate therapeutics in clinical development. Finally, challenges in anti-obesity drug development are discussed. PMID:27773782

  12. Anti-obesity effect of intranasal administration of galanin-like peptide (GALP) in obese mice

    PubMed Central

    Kageyama, Haruaki; Shiba, Kanako; Hirako, Satoshi; Wada, Nobuhiro; Yamanaka, Satoru; Nogi, Yukinori; Takenoya, Fumiko; Nonaka, Naoko; Hirano, Tsutomu; Inoue, Shuji; Shioda, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Galanin-like peptide (GALP) has an anti-obesity effect in rats and mice. It has been reported that the uptake of GALP by the brain is higher after intranasal administration than with intravenous injection. This study therefore aimed to clarify the effect of intranasal administration of GALP on the feeding behavior of lean and obese mice. Autoradiography revealed the presence of 125I-GALP in the olfactory bulb and the brain microcirculation. The body weights of ob/ob mice gradually increased during vehicle treatment, but remained unchanged in response to repeated intranasal administration of GALP, with both ob/ob and diet-induced obese mice displaying significantly decreased food intake, water intake and locomotor activity when treated with GALP. These results suggest that intranasal administration is an effective route whereby GALP can exert its effect as an anti-obesity drug. PMID:27323911

  13. Anti- and pro-lipase activity of selected medicinal, herbal and aquatic plants, and structure elucidation of an anti-lipase compound.

    PubMed

    Ado, Muhammad Abubakar; Abas, Faridah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ghazali, Hasanah M

    2013-11-26

    Plants that help in slowing down the digestion of triacylglycerols (TAGs) in the pancreas and small intestine of humans play an important role in the reduction of obesity. On the other hand, there may be plants or plant parts that stimulate intestinal lipolytic activity, thus contributing to greater TAG assimilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aqueous methanolic extracts of ninety eight (98) medicinal, herbal and aquatic plant materials from Malaysia for their effect on porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL) activity and to identify the structure of an anti-lipase compound from one of the sources. The degree of inhibition was also quantified as relative to orlistat activity against PPL (orlistat equivalents). Results revealed that while 19.4% of the extracts were found to have anti-lipase activity ≥80%, 12% were actually found to promote PPL activity. Twenty two percent (22.4%) exhibited moderate inhibition (41%-80%) and 2% were neutral toward PPL activity. The ripe fruit of Averrhoa carambola and the leaves of Archidendron jiringa (Jack) I.C Nielsen L. (jering), Cynometra cauliflora (nam-nam) and Aleurites moluccana (L.) Willd (candle nut/buah keras) had the highest (100%) anti-lipase activity and are equivalent to 0.11 µg orlistat/mL. Plants that stimulated lipase activity included Pimpinella anisum L. (aniseed/jintan manis), activating the enzyme by 186.5%. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of C. cauliflora leaves and found to be an active lipase inhibitor. The structure was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR analyses.

  14. Pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of taraxacum officinale in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jian; Kang, Min-Jung; Kim, Myung-Jin; Kim, Mi-Eun; Song, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Young-Min

    2008-01-01

    Obesity has become a worldwide health problem. Orlistat, an inhibitor of pancreatic lipase, is currently approved as an anti-obesity drug. However, gastrointestinal side effects caused by Orlistat may limit its use. In this study the inhibitory activities of dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo were measured to determine its possible use as a natural anti-obesity agent. The inhibitory activities of the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat were measured using 4-methylumbelliferyl oleate (4-MU oleate) as a substrate at concentrations of 250, 125, 100, 25, 12.5 and 4 µg/ml. To determine pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity in vivo, mice (n=16) were orally administered with corn oil emulsion (5 ml/kg) alone or with the 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale (400 mg/kg) following an overnight fast. Plasma triglyceride levels were measured at 0, 90, 180, and 240 min after treatment and incremental areas under the response curves (AUC) were calculated. The 95% ethanol extract of T. officinale and Orlistat, inhibited, porcine pancreatic lipase activity by 86.3% and 95.7% at a concentration of 250 µg/ml, respectively. T. officinale extract showed dose-dependent inhibition with the IC50 of 78.2 µg/ml. A single oral dose of the extract significantly inhibited increases in plasma triglyceride levels at 90 and 180 min and reduced AUC of plasma triglyceride response curve (p<0.05). The results indicate that T. officinale exhibits inhibitory activities against pancreatic lipase in vitro and in vivo. Further studies to elucidate anti-obesity effects of chronic consumption of T. officinale and to identify the active components responsible for inhibitory activity against pancreatic lipase are necessary. PMID:20016719

  15. Safety assessment of an anti-obesity drug (sibutramine): a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tyczynski, Jerzy E; Oleske, Denise M; Klingman, David; Ferrufino, Cheryl P; Lee, Won Chan

    2012-08-01

    the UK [Germany: HR 0.47 (95% CI 0.17, 1.26), 0.43 (0.23, 0.81) and 0.44 (0.26, 0.75), respectively; UK: HR 0.44 (0.15, 1.31), 0.63 (0.25, 1.60) and 0.54 (0.27, 1.10), respectively]. Regardless of whether or not the model controlled for prior CV disease (CVD), the direction and statistical significance of the differences did not change. In the sensitivity analyses including only those without a history of CVD in the 365 days prior to the index date there was no increased risk of CV events in either Germany or the UK. This study offers a framework for the safety assessment of anti-obesity drugs using an observational epidemiological study design. Large electronic health databases were used to construct retrospective cohorts to examine the risk in a population using one specific anti-obesity drug. Use of sibutramine in general practice settings was not found to increase the risk of acute CV events.

  16. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Oguz; Ozkan, Yusuf; Algul, Sermin; Colak, Ramis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females. Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet-orlistat or diet-orlistat-exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session) at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week. A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006) was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001) was seen in the orlistat-exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat-exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group. While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors.

  17. Comparative efficacy of five long-term weight loss drugs: quantitative information for medication guidelines.

    PubMed

    Dong, Z; Xu, L; Liu, H; Lv, Y; Zheng, Q; Li, L

    2017-12-01

    Quantitative information is scarce in current obesity medication guidelines, and they do not clearly reflect the differences in the efficacy characteristics among various drugs. This study quantitatively assessed the efficacy characteristics of five FDA-approved long-term weight loss drugs. Potentially eligible studies were obtained from public databases. Using the differences in the weight change from baseline between the drug group and the corresponding placebo group as the major indicator of efficacy, a time-effect model was established, and crucial pharmacodynamic parameters, such as the maximal efficacy, drug onset time and rate of body weight regain after the maximal efficacy point, were used to reflect the differences in efficacy among the five drugs. Finally, 50 reports (involving 43,443 participants) were included. After deducting the placebo effects, the maximal efficacies (95% CI) of orlistat (120 mg), lorcaserin, naltrexone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate (PT, 7.5/46 mg) and liraglutide were -2.94 (-5.82, -1.27), -3.06 (-4.39, -1.71), -6.15 (-9.78, -3.25), -7.45 (-9.76, -3.88) and -5.50 (-10.62, -2.97) kg at weeks 60, 54, 67, 59 and 65 respectively, and their rates of body weight regain were 0.51, 0.48, 0.91, 1.27and 0.43 kg per year respectively. The 1-year dropout rates of orlistat, lorcaserin, naltrexone-bupropion, PT and liraglutide were 29.0, 40.9, 49.1, 34.9 and 24.3% respectively. In addition, a significant dose-effect correlation was observed for orlistat and PT. This study provides valid quantitative information for medication guidelines. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  18. Potential pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of an endophytic Penicillium species.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mahiti; Saxena, Sanjai; Goyal, Dinesh

    2015-02-01

    Pancreatic lipase (PL) is considered as one of the safest target for diet-induced anti-obesity drug development. Orlistat is the only PL inhibitor approved for anti-obesity treatment till date. In the process of exploration of new PL inhibitors, we have screened culture filtrates of 70 endophytic fungi of medicinal plants using qualitative as well as quantitative in-vitro PL assays. The qualitative assays indicated potential PL inhibition in only three isolates, namely #57 TBBALM, #33 TBBALM and #1 CSSTOT. Only ethyl acetate extracts of the culture filtrates of these isolates exhibited the PL inhibition. #57 TBBLAM ethyl acetate extract of culture filtrate exhibited potential PL inhibition with an IC50 of 3.69 µg/ml which was comparable to the positive control, i.e. Orlistat exhibiting IC50 value of 2.73 µg/ml. Further molecular phylogenetic tools and morphological studies were used to identify the isolate #57 TBBALM as Penicillium species.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Pharmacotherapy to Reduce Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Veerman, J. Lennert; Barendregt, Jan J.; Forster, Megan; Vos, Theo

    2011-01-01

    Aims Obesity causes a high disease burden in Australia and across the world. We aimed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of weight reduction with pharmacotherapy in Australia, and to assess its potential to reduce the disease burden due to excess body weight. Methods We constructed a multi-state life-table based Markov model in Excel in which body weight influences the incidence of stroke, ischemic heart disease, hypertensive heart disease, diabetes mellitus, osteoarthritis, post-menopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer. We use data on effectiveness identified from PubMed searches, on mortality from Australian Bureau of Statistics, on disease costs from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, and on drug costs from the Department of Health and Ageing. We evaluate 1-year pharmacological interventions with sibutramine and orlistat targeting obese Australian adults free of obesity-related disease. We use a lifetime horizon for costs and health outcomes and a health sector perspective for costs. Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratios (ICERs) below A$50 000 per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted are considered good value for money. Results The ICERs are A$130 000/DALY (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 93 000–180 000) for sibutramine and A$230 000/DALY (170 000–340 000) for orlistat. The interventions reduce the body weight-related disease burden at the population level by 0.2% and 0.1%, respectively. Modest weight loss during the interventions, rapid post-intervention weight regain and low adherence limit the health benefits. Conclusions Treatment with sibutramine or orlistat is not cost-effective from an Australian health sector perspective and has a negligible impact on the total body weight-related disease burden. PMID:22046255

  20. Past, Present, and Future of Pharmacologic Therapy in Obesity.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, José E; Campbell, Kendall M

    2016-03-01

    Medications for obesity management can be divided into 4 groups: antidepressants (naltrexone/bupropion), stimulants (phentermine, phendimetrazine, diethylpropion, phentermine/topiramate), fat blockers (orlistat), and diabetes medications (liraglutide). Each group has specific therapeutic effects, adverse effects, and costs. Two medications are indicated for long-term use in obesity: lorcaserin and orlistat. Other available medications are for short-term use. High cost makes many of these medications inaccessible for underserved and poor patients. Because of misuse potential, many obesity medications are also classified as controlled substances. There are no medications currently approved for use in pregnant or lactating women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rise in antiobesity drug prescribing for children and adolescents in the UK: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Viner, Russell M; Hsia, Yingfen; Neubert, Antje; Wong, Ian C K

    2009-01-01

    AIMS The international childhood obesity epidemic has driven increased use of unlicensed antiobesity drugs, whose efficacy and safety are poorly studied in children and adolescents. We investigated the use of unlicensed antiobesity drugs (orlistat, sibutramine and rimonabant) in children and adolescents (0–18 years) in the UK. METHODS Population-based prescribing data from the UK General Practice Research Database between 1 January 1999 and 31 December 2006. RESULTS A total of 452 subjects received 1334 prescriptions during the study period. The annual prevalence of antiobesity drug prescriptions rose significantly from 0.006 per 1000 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.0007, 0.0113] in 1999 to 0.091 per 1000 (95% CI 0.07, 0.11) in 2006, a 15-fold increase, with similar increases seen in both genders. The majority of prescriptions were made to those ≥14 years old, although 25 prescriptions were made for children <12 years old. Orlistat accounted for 78.4% of all prescriptions; only one patient was prescribed rimonabant. However, approximately 45% of the patients ceased orlistat and 25% ceased sibutramine after only 1 month. The estimated mean treatment durations for orlistat and sibutramine were 3 and 4 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Prescribing of unlicensed antiobesity drugs in children and adolescents has dramatically increased in the past 8 years. The majority are rapidly discontinued before patients can see weight benefit, suggesting they are poorly tolerated or poorly efficacious when used in the general population. Further research into the effectiveness and safety of antiobesity drugs in clinical populations of children and adolescents is needed. PMID:20002078

  2. Safety of antiobesity drugs

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Tommy Tsang; Samaranayake, Nithushi Rajitha

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Although diet and physical activity are crucial in the management of obesity, the long-term success rate is low. Therefore antiobesity drugs are of great interest, especially when lifestyle modification has failed. As obesity is not an immediate life-threatening disease, these drugs are required to be safe. Antiobesity drugs that have been developed so far have limited efficacies and considerable adverse effects affecting tolerability and safety. Therefore, most antiobesity drugs have been withdrawn. Fenfluramine and dexfenfluramine were withdrawn because of the potential damage to heart valves. Sibutramine was associated with an increase in major adverse cardiovascular events in the Sibutramine Cardiovascular Outcomes (SCOUT) trial and it was withdrawn from the market in 2010. Rimonabant was withdrawn because of significant psychiatric adverse effects. Orlistat was approved in Europe and the United States for long-term treatment of obesity, but many patients cannot tolerate its gastrointestinal side effects. Phentermine and diethylpropion can only be used for less than 12 weeks because the long-term safety of these drugs is unknown. Ephedrine and caffeine are natural substances but the effects on weight reduction are modest. As a result there is a huge unmet need for effective and safe antiobesity drugs. Recently lorcaserin and topiramate plus phentermine have been approved for the treatment of obesity but long-term safety data are lacking. PMID:25114779

  3. Orlistat and the risk of acute liver injury: self controlled case series study in UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink

    PubMed Central

    Langham, Julia; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Brauer, Ruth; Smeeth, Liam

    2013-01-01

    Objective To measure the association between orlistat and acute liver injury. Design Self controlled case series study. Setting Population based primary care setting, United Kingdom. Participants 94 695 patients receiving orlistat and registered in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and linked with Hospital Episode Statistics data between 1999 and 2011. Main outcome measure Relative incidence of acute liver injury comparing periods when patients were receiving orlistat with periods of non-usage. Results Among 94 695 patients who received orlistat, 988 cases of acute liver injury were identified, with 335 confirmed as definite cases and 653 as probable cases. For all cases an increased incidence of liver injury was detected during the 90 day period before orlistat was first started, with an incidence rate ratio of 1.50 (95% confidence interval 1.10 to 2.06). The incidence remained raised during the first 30 days of treatment (2.21, 1.43 to 3.42), before returning to baseline levels with prolonged treatment. When the risk during the first 90 days of treatment was compared with the 90 days preceding first treatment, the incidence of liver injury was not increased (1.02, 0.67 to 1.56). An analysis restricted to definite cases showed no evidence of an increased risk of liver injury during treatment. Conclusion The incidence of acute liver injury was higher in the periods both immediately before and immediately after the start of orlistat treatment. This suggests that the observed increased risks of liver injury linked to the start of treatment may reflect changes in health status associated with the decision to begin treatment rather than any causal effect of the drug. PMID:23585064

  4. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Samat, Suhana; Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina; Wan Ismail, Wan Iryani

    2017-01-01

    Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat.

  5. Four-Week Consumption of Malaysian Honey Reduces Excess Weight Gain and Improves Obesity-Related Parameters in High Fat Diet Induced Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kanyan Enchang, Francis; Nor Hussein, Fuzina

    2017-01-01

    Many studies revealed the potential of honey consumption in controlling obesity. However, no study has been conducted using Malaysian honey. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of two local Malaysian honey types: Gelam and Acacia honey in reducing excess weight gain and other parameters related to obesity. The quality of both honey types was determined through physicochemical analysis and contents of phenolic and flavonoid. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced to become obese using high fat diet (HFD) prior to introduction with/without honey or orlistat for four weeks. Significant reductions in excess weight gain and adiposity index were observed in rats fed with Gelam honey compared to HFD rats. Moreover, levels of plasma glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol, plasma leptin and resistin, liver enzymes, renal function test, and relative organ weight in Gelam and Acacia honey treated groups were reduced significantly when compared to rats fed with HFD only. Similar results were also displayed in rats treated with orlistat, but with hepatotoxicity effects. In conclusion, consumption of honey can be used to control obesity by regulating lipid metabolism and appears to be more effective than orlistat. PMID:28246535

  6. Current concepts in the pharmacological management of obesity.

    PubMed

    Carek, P J; Dickerson, L M

    1999-06-01

    The pharmacological management of obesity has gained increasing attention as new weight loss treatments are approved and a significant proportion of the public strives to lose weight. Obesity is associated with a high mortality rate, multiple chronic medical conditions, and carries an enormous financial burden. Obesity is a multifactorial condition, most often due to an imbalance in energy intake and expenditure. Despite the greater focus on management of obesity, weight loss remains a difficult goal to achieve. Obesity is a chronic medical condition that may require long term treatment, therefore the risks and benefits of all pharmacological agents must be carefully considered. Noradrenergic appetite suppressants (ie. phenyl-propanolamine, phentermine) result in weight loss but stimulatory effects limit their use. The serotonergic agents (fenfluramine, dexfenfluramine) were effective weight loss drugs, but were voluntarily withdrawn from the US market last year because of cardiovascular and pulmonary complications. The combination noradrenergic/serotonergic agent sibutramine is indicated for the management of obesity, particularly in the presence of other cardiovascular risk factors. Modest weight loss is achieved with sibutramine, although weight gain is significant after discontinuation. In addition, long term safety data are not yet available. The thermogenic combination of ephedrine plus caffeine is minimally effective, and adverse effects are usually transient. Other thermogenic agents, such as beta3-agonists, are still under investigation. Agents may alter digestion through lipase inhibition (orlistat) or fat substitution (olestra). Orlistat decreases systemic absorption of dietary fat, decreasing body weight and cholesterol. Olestra is a fat substitute that has been incorporated into snack foods. Olestra substitution for dietary fat has not been studied as a weight loss strategy, although olestra has no caloric value and may be beneficial. The use of

  7. Current Drug Targets in Obesity Pharmacotherapy - A Review.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Sangeeta P; Sharma, Arun

    2017-01-01

    Obesity, an impending global pandemic, is not being effectively controlled by current measures such as lifestyle modifications, bariatric surgery or available medications. Its toll on health and economy compels us to look for more effective measures. Fortunately, the advances in biology and molecular technology have been in our favour for delineating new pathways in the pathophysiology of obesity and have led to subsequent development of new drug targets. Development of antiobesity drugs has often been riddled with problems in the past. Some of the recently approved drugs for pharmacotherapy of obesity have been lorcaserin, phentermine/topiramate and naltrexone/ bupropion combinations. Several promising new targets are currently being evaluated, such as amylin analogues (pramlintide, davalintide), leptin analogues (metreleptin), GLP-1 analogues (exenatide, liraglutide, TTP-054), MC4R agonists (RM-493), oxyntomodulin analogues, neuropeptide Y antagonists (velneperit), cannabinoid type-1 receptor blockers (AM-6545), MetAP2 inhibitors (beloranib), lipase inhibitors (cetilistat) and anti-obesity vaccines (ghrelin, somatostatin, Ad36). Many of these groups of drugs act as "satiety signals" while others act by antagonizing orexigenic signals, increasing fat utilisation and decreasing absorption of fats. Since these targets act through various pathways, the possibility of combined use of two or more classes of these drugs unlocks numerous therapeutic avenues. Hence, the dream of personalized management of obesity might be growing closer to reality. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. Orlistat interaction with sibutramine and carnitine. A physicochemical and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolás-Vázquez, Inés; Hinojosa Torres, Jaime; Cruz Borbolla, Julián; Miranda Ruvalcaba, René; Aceves-Hernández, Juan Manuel

    2014-03-01

    Chemical degradation of orlistat, (ORT) after melting and reaction of decomposition byproducts with sibutramine, SIB was studied. Interactions between the active pharmaceutical ingredients by using thermal analysis, TA, methods and other experimental techniques such as PXRD, IR and UV-vis spectroscopies were carried out to investigate chemical reactions between components. It was found that orlistat melts with decomposition and byproducts quickly affect sibutramine molecule and then reacting also with carnitine, CRN when the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (API's) are mixed. However ORT byproducts do not react when ORT is mixed only with carnitine. It was found that compounds containing chlorine atoms react easily with orlistat when the temperature increases up to its melting point. Some reaction mechanisms of orlistat decomposition are proposed, the fragments in the mechanisms were found in the corresponding mass spectra. Results obtained indicate that special studies should be carried out in the formulation stage before the final composition of a poly-pill could be established. Similar results are commonly found for compounds very prone to react in presence of water, light and/or temperature. In order to explain the reactivity of orlistat with sibutramine and carnitine, theoretical calculations were carried out and the results are in agreement with the experimental results.

  9. Management of obesity in NIDDM (non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus).

    PubMed

    Cheah, J S

    1998-08-01

    Obesity is common in NIDDM; in a cohort of 314 diabetics in Singapore, 44.3% are overweight. Management of obesity in diabetics differs from that in non-diabetics in that it is more urgent; weight maintenance is more difficult and hypoglycaemic medication may cause weight changes. Like in the non-diabetic, management of obesity in diabetic requires a pragmatic and realistic approach. A team approach is required: the help of the nurse educator, the dietitian, behaviour modification therapist, exercise therapist etc are required. A detailed history, careful physical examination and relevant investigations are required to assess the severity of the diabetic state and to exclude an occasional underlying cause of the obesity in the obese NIDDM. Weight loss is urgent in the obese NIDDM, especially those with android obesity. There must be a reduction in caloric intake. Weight loss leads to improvement in the glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, reduction in lipid levels and fall in blood pressure in the hypertensive. Exercise is of limited value except in the younger obese NIDDM. Metformin is the hypoglycaemic drug of choice as it leads to consistent weight reduction. The sulphonylureas may cause weight gain. Insulin should be avoided where possible as it causes further weight gain. Other hypoglycaemic agents include Glucobay (alpha-glucosidase inhibitor) and Troglitazone (insulin sensitizer) which do not alter the weight. Orlistat (lipase inhibitor) is promising as it causes reduction of weight, blood-glucose and lipid levels. Anti-obesity drugs (noradrenergic and serotonergic agents) have modest effects on weight reduction in the obese NIDDM; a widely use preparation, Dexfenfluramine (Adifax) has been withdrawn because of side effects. Surgery such as gastric plication is the last resort in treating the morbidly obese NIDDM. The discovery of leptin in 1994 has led to intense research into energy homeostasis in obesity; hopefully this will lead to better treatment of

  10. Obesity and Pediatric Drug Development.

    PubMed

    Vaughns, Janelle D; Conklin, Laurie S; Long, Ying; Zheng, Panli; Faruque, Fahim; Green, Dionna J; van den Anker, John N; Burckart, Gilbert J

    2018-05-01

    There is a lack of dosing guidelines for use in obese children. Moreover, the impact of obesity on drug safety and clinical outcomes is poorly defined. The paucity of information needed for the safe and effective use of drugs in obese patients remains a problem, even after drug approval. To assess the current incorporation of obesity as a covariate in pediatric drug development, the pediatric medical and clinical pharmacology reviews under the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Amendments Act of 2007 and the FDA Safety and Innovation Act (FDASIA) of 2012 were reviewed for obesity studies. FDA labels were also reviewed for statements addressing obesity in pediatric patients. Forty-five drugs studied in pediatric patients under the FDA Amendments Act were found to have statements and key words in the medical and clinical pharmacology reviews and labels related to obesity. Forty-four products were identified similarly with pediatric studies under FDASIA. Of the 89 product labels identified, none provided dosing information related to obesity. The effect of body mass index on drug pharmacokinetics was mentioned in only 4 labels. We conclude that there is little information presently available to provide guidance related to dosing in obese pediatric patients. Moving forward, regulators, clinicians, and the pharmaceutical industry should consider situations in drug development in which the inclusion of obese patients in pediatric trials is necessary to facilitate the safe and effective use of new drug products in the obese pediatric population. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  11. Mutagenic potential of Cordia ecalyculata alone and in association with Spirulina maxima for their evaluation as candidate anti-obesity drugs.

    PubMed

    Araldi, R P; Rechiutti, B M; Mendes, T B; Ito, E T; Souza, E B

    2014-07-07

    Obesity is one of the most important nutritional disorders, and can be currently considered as an epidemic. Although there are few weight reduction drugs available on the market, some new drug candidates have been proposed, including Cordia ecalyculata, a Brazilian plant with anorectic properties, and Spirulina maxima, a cyanobacterium with antioxidant and anti-genotoxic activity. In this study, we evaluated the mutagenic potential of C. ecalyculata at doses of 150, 300, and 500 mg/kg alone and in association with S. maxima at doses of 75, 150, and 250 mg/kg, respectively, through an in vivo micronucleus test, using mice of both sexes, and an in vitro micronucleus test and comet assay, using human peripheral blood. For all tests, cyclophosphamide was used as a positive control. The results showed that treatment of 300 mg/kg C. ecalyculata and the combination treatment of 500 mg/kg C. ecalyculata with 250 mg/kg S. maxima resulted in anorectic effects. The mutagenic tests did not reveal any clastogenic or genotoxic activity for any treatment, indicating that these candidates could be marketed as weight-reduction drugs. Moreover, the drugs contain chemo-preventive substances that can protect against tumorigenesis, which has been associated with obesity.

  12. Update on pharmacology of obesity: benefits and risks.

    PubMed

    Cabrerizo García, Lucio; Ramos-Leví, Ana; Moreno Lopera, Carmen; Rubio Herrera, Miguel A

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of obesity in Western countries has increased at a much greater pace than the development of new efficient and safe drugs, beyond mere lifestyle changes, for the treatment of overweight. Numerous different types of drugs which had been used in the past for the treatment of obesity have currently been withdrawn due to undesirable long-term side effects. The only available drug in Europe is orlistat, which serves only as an aid for the treatment of obesity. In the USA, however, a few central adrenergic-mediators, for instance, diethylpropion and phentermine, have been available for decades to treat obesity during a short-term period (less than 12 weeks). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved lorcaserin and the combination phentermine/ topiramate for the treatment of obesity. The first one is a selective serotonin 2C receptor agonist that works by decreasing food intake with few side effects. Its outcomes on weight are modest, but may be helpful in certain selected patients. The phentermine/topiramate combination has proved to be highly effective, achieving a 10% reduction in weight in the majority of patients, although attention must be drawn to the possible development of side effects in both the short and the long-term follow-up. Further investigation regarding the mechanisms involved in weight balance will anticipate the development of new expectations for the treatment of obesity in the near future. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. What is the prognosis for new centrally-acting anti-obesity drugs?

    PubMed

    Heal, David J; Gosden, Jane; Smith, Sharon L

    2012-07-01

    Obesity is a global problem that is predominantly caused by the increasing adoption of a low-cost, Westernised diet that is rich in fat and sugar and a more sedentary lifestyle. The costs of this epidemic are substantial increases in Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer that are certain to place a huge burden on individuals, healthcare providers and society. In this review, we provide an overview of the chequered history of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of obesity and an analysis of the regulatory and commercial challenges for developing new centrally-acting drugs in this metabolic indication. The efficacy and safety of the drug candidates that are currently at the pre-registration phase, i.e., lorcaserin, Qnexa and Contrave, are critically assessed. The main focus, however, is to provide a comprehensive review of the wide range of novel CNS compounds that are in the discovery phase or early clinical development. The profiles of various clinical candidates in animal models of obesity predict that several new CNS approaches in the clinic have the potential to deliver greater weight-loss than existing agents. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Central Control of Food Intake'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of the anti-obesity effect of bioactive compounds in tea and coffee.

    PubMed

    Pan, Min-Hsiung; Tung, Yen-Chen; Yang, Guliang; Li, Shiming; Ho, Chi-Tang

    2016-11-09

    Obesity is a serious health problem in adults and children worldwide. However, the basic strategies for the management of obesity (diet, exercise, drugs and surgery) have limitations and side effects. Therefore, many researchers have sought to identify bioactive components in food. Tea and coffee are the most frequently consumed beverages in the whole world. Their health benefits have been studied for decades, especially those of green tea. The anti-obesity effect of tea and coffee has been studied for at least ten years. The results have shown decreased lipid accumulation in cells via the regulation of the cell cycle during adipogenesis, changes in transcription factors and lipogenesis-related proteins in the adipose tissue of animal models, and decreased body weight and visceral fat in humans. Tea and coffee also influence the gut microbiota in obese animals and humans. Although the anti-obesity mechanism of tea and coffee still needs further clarification, they may have potential as a new strategy to prevent or treat obesity.

  15. Assessment of Adverse Events in Protocols, Clinical Study Reports, and Published Papers of Trials of Orlistat: A Document Analysis.

    PubMed

    Schroll, Jeppe Bennekou; Penninga, Elisabeth I; Gøtzsche, Peter C

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about how adverse events are summarised and reported in trials, as detailed information is usually considered confidential. We have acquired clinical study reports (CSRs) from the European Medicines Agency through the Freedom of Information Act. The CSRs describe the results of studies conducted as part of the application for marketing authorisation for the slimming pill orlistat. The purpose of this study was to study how adverse events were summarised and reported in study protocols, CSRs, and published papers of orlistat trials. We received the CSRs from seven randomised placebo controlled orlistat trials (4,225 participants) submitted by Roche. The CSRs consisted of 8,716 pages and included protocols. Two researchers independently extracted data on adverse events from protocols and CSRs. Corresponding published papers were identified on PubMed and adverse event data were extracted from this source as well. All three sources were compared. Individual adverse events from one trial were summed and compared to the totals in the summary report. None of the protocols or CSRs contained instructions for investigators on how to question participants about adverse events. In CSRs, gastrointestinal adverse events were only coded if the participant reported that they were "bothersome," a condition that was not specified in the protocol for two of the trials. Serious adverse events were assessed for relationship to the drug by the sponsor, and all adverse events were coded by the sponsor using a glossary that could be updated by the sponsor. The criteria for withdrawal due to adverse events were in one case related to efficacy (high fasting glucose led to withdrawal), which meant that one trial had more withdrawals due to adverse events in the placebo group. Finally, only between 3% and 33% of the total number of investigator-reported adverse events from the trials were reported in the publications because of post hoc filters, though six of seven papers

  16. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Kari; Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (<1000 kcal/d). We conducted a systematic review by using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and EMBASE from January 1981 to February 2013. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated weight-loss maintenance strategies after a VLCD/LCD period. Two authors performed independent data extraction by using a predefined data template. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Twenty studies with a total of 27 intervention arms and 3017 participants were included with the following treatment categories: anti-obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was -12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3-16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12-36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10-26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3-12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: -1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6-12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: -1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3-14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise.

  17. A Hamster Model of Diet-Induced Obesity for Preclinical Evaluation of Anti-Obesity, Anti-Diabetic and Lipid Modulating Agents

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Gitte; Fabricius, Katrine; Hansen, Henrik B.; Jelsing, Jacob; Vrang, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Aim Unlike rats and mice, hamsters develop hypercholesterolemia, and hypertriglyceridemia when fed a cholesterol-rich diet. Because hyperlipidemia is a hallmark of human obesity, we aimed to develop and characterize a novel diet-induced obesity (DIO) and hypercholesterolemia Golden Syrian hamster model. Methods and Results Hamsters fed a highly palatable fat- and sugar-rich diet (HPFS) for 12 weeks showed significant body weight gain, body fat accumulation and impaired glucose tolerance. Cholesterol supplementation to the diet evoked additional hypercholesterolemia. Chronic treatment with the GLP-1 analogue, liraglutide (0.2 mg/kg, SC, BID, 27 days), normalized body weight and glucose tolerance, and lowered blood lipids in the DIO-hamster. The dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, linagliptin (3.0 mg/kg, PO, QD) also improved glucose tolerance. Treatment with peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36, 1.0 mg/kg/day) or neuromedin U (NMU, 1.5 mg/kg/day), continuously infused via a subcutaneous osmotic minipump for 14 days, reduced body weight and energy intake and changed food preference from HPFS diet towards chow. Co-treatment with liraglutide and PYY3-36 evoked a pronounced synergistic decrease in body weight and food intake with no lower plateau established. Treatment with the cholesterol uptake inhibitor ezetimibe (10 mg/kg, PO, QD) for 14 days lowered plasma total cholesterol with a more marked reduction of LDL levels, as compared to HDL, indicating additional sensitivity to cholesterol modulating drugs in the hyperlipidemic DIO-hamster. In conclusion, the features of combined obesity, impaired glucose tolerance and hypercholesterolemia in the DIO-hamster make this animal model useful for preclinical evaluation of novel anti-obesity, anti-diabetic and lipid modulating agents. PMID:26266945

  18. Panax ginseng Leaf Extracts Exert Anti-Obesity Effects in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul-Gi; Lee, Yoon-Jeong; Jang, Myeong-Hwan; Kwon, Tae-Ryong; Nam, Ju-Ock

    2017-09-10

    Recent studies have reported that the aerial parts of ginseng contain various saponins, which have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anti-obesity properties similar to those of ginseng root. However, the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng have not yet been investigated. In this study, we demonstrate the anti-obesity effects of green leaf and dried leaf extracts (GL and DL, respectively) of ginseng in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. The administration of GL and DL to HFD-induced obese rats significantly decreased body weight (by 96.5% and 96.7%, respectively), and epididymal and abdominal adipose tissue mass. Furthermore, DL inhibited the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes through regulation of the expression of key adipogenic regulators, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-α. In contrast, GL had little effect on the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 adipocytes but greatly increased the protein expression of PPARγ compared with that in untreated cells. These results were not consistent with an anti-obesity effect in the animal model, which suggested that the anti-obesity effect of GL in vivo resulted from specific factors released by other organs, or from increased energy expenditure. To our knowledge, these findings are the first evidence for the anti-obesity effects of the leaf extracts of Korean ginseng in vivo.

  19. Effects of canagliflozin on weight loss in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Wenjun; Zhao, Mei; Wang, Meng; Yan, Wenhui; Liu, Yuan; Ren, Shuting; Lu, Jun; Wang, Bing; Chen, Lina

    2017-01-01

    Canagliflozin, an inhibitor of sodium glucose co-transporter (SGLT) 2, has been shown to reduce body weight during the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In this study, we sought to determine the role of canagliflozin in body weight loss and liver injury in obesity. C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet to simulate diet-induced obesity (DIO). Canagliflozin (15 and 60 mg/kg) was administered to DIO mice for 4 weeks. Orlistat (10 mg/kg) was used as a positive control. The body weight, liver weight, liver morphology, total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels were examined. Signaling molecules, including diacylgycero1 acyltransferase-2 (DGAT2), peroxisome proliferation receptor alpha-1 (PPARα1), PPARγ1, PPARγ2 mRNA levels and the protein expression of SGLT2 were evaluated. Canagliflozin reduced body weight, especially the high-dose canagliflozin, and resulted in increased body weight loss compared with orlistat. Moreover, canagliflozin reduced the liver weight and the ratio of liver weight to body weight, lowered the serum levels of TC and TG, and ameliorated liver steatosis. During the canagliflozin treatment, SGLT2, DGAT2, PPARγ1 and PPARγ2 were inhibited, and PPARα1 was elevated in the liver tissues. This finding may explain why body weight was reduced and secondary liver injury was ameliorated in response to canagliflozin. Together, the results suggest that canagliflozin may be a potential anti-obesity strategy.

  20. Screening of anti-obesity agent from herbal mixtures.

    PubMed

    Roh, Changhyun; Jung, Uhee; Jo, Sung-Kee

    2012-03-23

    Globally, one in three of the World's adults are overweight and one in 10 is obese. By 2015, World Health Organization (WHO) estimates the number of chubby adults will balloon to 2.3 billion--Equal to the combined populations of China, Europe and the United States. The discovery of bioactive compounds from herbs is one possible way to control obesity and to prevent or reduce the risks of developing various obesity-related diseases. In this study, we screened anti-obesity agents such as methyl gallate from the herbal composition known as HemoHIM that actively inhibits lipid formation as evidenced by Oil Red O staining and triglyceride (TG) contents in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, suggesting their use as an anti-obesity agent. Furthermore, the amount of glycerol released from cells into the medium had increased by treatment of methyl gallate in a concentration-dependent manner. The present study suggests that a promising anti-obesity agent like methyl gallate might be of therapeutic interest for the treatment of obesity.

  1. Gut hormones: the future of obesity treatment?

    PubMed Central

    McGavigan, Anne K; Murphy, Kevin G

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a major worldwide health problem. The treatment options are severely limited. The development of novel anti-obesity drugs is fraught with efficacy and safety issues. Consequently, several investigational anti-obesity drugs have failed to gain marketing approval in recent years. Anorectic gut hormones offer a potentially safe and viable option for the treatment of obesity. The prospective utility of gut hormones has improved drastically in recent years with the development of longer acting analogues. Additionally, specific combinations of gut hormones have been demonstrated to have additive anorectic effects. This article reviews the current stage of anti-obesity drugs in development, focusing on gut hormone-based therapies. PMID:22452339

  2. [Anti-angiogenic drugs].

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasufumi

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis or neovascularization, the formation of neo-vessels, is a physiological phenomenon endued in vasculature, but is involved in various pathological conditions. Angiogenesis is required for tumor growth and metastasis, and thus constitutes an important target for the control of tumor progression. Indeed, the recent development of bevacizumab, a neutralizing anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody as the first anti-angiogenic drug, legalized the clinical merit of anti-angiogenesis in cancers. Thereafter, various drugs targeting VEGF-mediated signals have been developed to control tumor angiogenesis. Thus, anti-angiogenic drugs are now recognized in the clinic as a major step forward for the treatment of cancers. This review focuses on the current status of antiangiogenesis treatment in cancers.

  3. Effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, and exercise on weight-loss maintenance after a very-low-calorie diet or low-calorie diet: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials123

    PubMed Central

    Neovius, Martin; Hemmingsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background: Weight-loss maintenance remains a major challenge in obesity treatment. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the effects of anti-obesity drugs, diet, or exercise on weight-loss maintenance after an initial very-low-calorie diet (VLCD)/low-calorie diet (LCD) period (<1000 kcal/d). Design: We conducted a systematic review by using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Controlled Trial Register, and EMBASE from January 1981 to February 2013. We included randomized controlled trials that evaluated weight-loss maintenance strategies after a VLCD/LCD period. Two authors performed independent data extraction by using a predefined data template. All pooled analyses were based on random-effects models. Results: Twenty studies with a total of 27 intervention arms and 3017 participants were included with the following treatment categories: anti-obesity drugs (3 arms; n = 658), meal replacements (4 arms; n = 322), high-protein diets (6 arms; n = 865), dietary supplements (6 arms; n = 261), other diets (3 arms; n = 564), and exercise (5 arms; n = 347). During the VLCD/LCD period, the pooled mean weight change was −12.3 kg (median duration: 8 wk; range 3–16 wk). Compared with controls, anti-obesity drugs improved weight-loss maintenance by 3.5 kg [95% CI: 1.5, 5.5 kg; median duration: 18 mo (12–36 mo)], meal replacements by 3.9 kg [95% CI: 2.8, 5.0 kg; median duration: 12 mo (10–26 mo)], and high-protein diets by 1.5 kg [95% CI: 0.8, 2.1 kg; median duration: 5 mo (3–12 mo)]. Exercise [0.8 kg; 95% CI: −1.2, 2.8 kg; median duration: 10 mo (6–12 mo)] and dietary supplements [0.0 kg; 95% CI: −1.4, 1.4 kg; median duration: 3 mo (3–14 mo)] did not significantly improve weight-loss maintenance compared with control. Conclusion: Anti-obesity drugs, meal replacements, and high-protein diets were associated with improved weight-loss maintenance after a VLCD/LCD period, whereas no significant improvements were seen for dietary supplements and exercise. PMID:24172297

  4. Management of obesity in non- insulin- dependent diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Cheah, J S

    1998-12-01

    Obesity is common in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients; in Singapore in a cohort of 314 diabetics, 44.3% were overweight. Management of obesity in diabetics differs from that in non-diabetics in that it is more urgent; weight maintenance is more difficult and hypoglycaemic medication may cause weight changes. However, like in the non-diabetic, management of obesity in the diabetic requires a pragmatic and realistic approach. A team approach is required: the help of a nurse educator, a dietitian, behaviour modification therapist, exercise therapist and others are required. A detailed history, careful physical examination and relevant investigations are required to assess the severity of the diabetic state and to exclude an occasional underlying cause of the obesity in the obese NIDDM patient. Weight loss is urgent in the obese NIDDM patient, especially for those with android obesity. There must be a reduction in energy intake. Weight loss leads to an improvement in glucose tolerance and in insulin sensitivity, as well as to a reduction in lipid levels and to a fall in blood pressure in the hypertensive. Exercise is of limited short-term value measured in terms of weight reduction, except in the younger obese NIDDM patient; but it does allow improvement in overall metabolic control and, long-term, is critical for preferred weight maintenance. The biguanide, Metformin, is the hypoglycaemic drug of choice as it leads to consistent weight reduction. The sulphonylureas may cause weight gain. Insulin should be avoided where possible as it causes further weight gain. Other hypoglycaemic agents include Glucobay (alpha-glucosidase inhibitor) and Troglitazone (insulin sensitizer) which do not alter the weight. Orlistat (lipase inhibitor) is promising as it causes reduction of weight, blood glucose and lipid levels. Anti-obesity drugs (noradrenergic and serotonergic agents) have modest effects on weight reduction in the obese NIDDM patient; a widely

  5. Obesity pharmacotherapy: What is next?

    PubMed Central

    Colon-Gonzalez, Francheska; Kim, Gilbert W.; Lin, Jieru E.; Valentino, Michael A.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    The increase in obesity in the Unites States and around the world in the last decade is overwhelming. The number of overweight adults in the world surpassed 1 billion in 2008. Health hazards associated with obesity are serious and include heart disease, sleep apnea, diabetes, and cancer. Although lifestyle modifications are the most straightforward way to control weight, a large portion of the population may not be able to rely on this modality alone. Thus, the development of anti-obesity therapeutics represents a major unmet medical need. Historically, anti-obesity pharmacotherapies have been unsafe and minimally efficacious. A better understanding of the biology of appetite and metabolism provides an opportunity to develop drugs that may offer safer and more effective alternatives for weight management. This review discusses drugs that are currently on the market and in development as anti-obesity therapeutics based on their target and mechanism of action. It should serve as a roadmap to establish expectations for the near future for anti-obesity drug development. PMID:23103610

  6. Evaluation of anti-obesity activity of duloxetine in comparison with sibutramine along with its anti-depressant activity: an experimental study in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, H P; Bhatt, P A

    2009-11-01

    5-HT and noradrenaline are important neurotransmitters that control increase in body mass and are involved in the pathophysiology of obesity and depression. Sibutramine, an established anti-obesity agent, and duloxetine, an anti-depressant agent, are serotonin noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). The objective of the present study was to compare the anti-obesity effect of duloxetine with sibutramine along with its effect on blood pressure and depression in obese rats. The secondary objective of the study was to determine if a relationship exists between obesity and depression. Obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) in healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats. After 5 weeks of feeding HFD, animals were overweight (17.57%) with high food intake (57.15%) in comparison with normal animals. These obese animals were treated with duloxetine (30 mg x kg(-1), p.o.) and sibutramine (5 mg x kg(-1), p.o.) for 4 weeks. Control animals were treated with duloxetine alone (30 mg x kg(-1), p.o.). Our results depict that duloxetine was as effective as sibutramine in reducing food intake, body mass, and relative adiposity, and increasing rectal temperature with an added advantage of decreasing blood pressure, which sibutramine failed to do. Besides reduction in body mass, unlike sibutramine, duloxetine improved depressive state as evaluated by despair swimming test, tail suspension test, and open field test, speculating its use as an anti-obesity agent in obese-depressive animals. Since obese control animals reflected decreased locomotor activity, a positive relationship can be speculated to exist between obesity and depression. Further studies on various antidepressant models are required to confirm this relationship.

  7. Role of anti-inflammatory adipokines in obesity-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Koji; Shibata, Rei; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2014-07-01

    Obesity results in many health complications. Accumulating evidence indicates that the obese state is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation, thereby leading to the initiation and progression of obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and atherosclerosis. Fat tissue releases numerous bioactive molecules, called adipokines, which affect whole-body homeostasis. Most adipokines are proinflammatory, whereas a small number of anti-inflammatory adipokines including adiponectin exert beneficial actions on obese complications. The dysregulated production of adipokines seen in obesity is linked to the pathogenesis of various disease processes. In this review we focus on the role of the anti-inflammatory adipokines that are of current interest in the setting of obesity-linked metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Management of the Metabolic Syndrome and the Obese Patient with Metabolic Disturbances: South Asian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop; Bhardwaj, Swati

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) among South Asians. The phenotypes of obesity and body fat distribution are different in South Asians; they have high body fat, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat and fatty liver at a lower body mass index compared to white Caucasians; this has led to the frequent occurrence of morbidities related to a higher magnitude of adiposity [e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension (HTN) and dyslipidemia]. The increasing prevalence of obesity and related diseases in the South Asian population requires aggressive lifestyle management including diet, physical activity and, sometimes, drugs. For therapeutic interventions, several drugs can be used either as mono- or combination therapy. Drugs like orlistat, which is used for the management of obesity, also reduce the risk of T2DM. Similarly, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors decrease low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, some drugs used for the treatment of HTN (e.g. β-blockers) may increase the risk of hyperglycemia and therefore need to be used with caution. Finally, to prevent obesity, MS and T2DM among South Asians, it is particularly important to effectively implement and strengthen population-based primary prevention strategies. © 2015 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Obesity Properties of Food Bioactive Components: Effects on Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Jayarathne, Shasika; Koboziev, Iurii; Park, Oak-Hee; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna; Shen, Chwan-Li; Moustaid-Moussa, Naima

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is an epidemic and costly disease affecting 13% of the adult population worldwide. Obesity is associated with adipose tissue hypertrophy and hyperplasia, as well as pathologic endocrine alterations of adipose tissue including local and chronic systemic low-grade inflammation. Moreover, this inflammation is a risk factor for both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and insulin resistance. Basic and clinical studies demonstrate that foods containing bioactive compounds are capable of preventing both obesity and adipose tissue inflammation, improving obesity-associated MetS in human subjects and animal models of obesity. In this review, we discuss the anti-obesity and anti-inflammatory protective effects of some bioactive polyphenols of plant origin and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, available for the customers worldwide from commonly used foods and/or as components of commercial food supplements. We review how these bioactive compounds modulate cell signaling including through the nuclear factor-κB, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase, toll-like receptors, and G-protein coupled receptor 120 intracellular signaling pathways and improve the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators secreted by adipose tissue and subsequently lower systemic inflammation and risk for metabolic diseases. PMID:29333376

  10. The Evaluation and Utilization of Marine-derived Bioactive Compounds with Anti-obesity Effect.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qiu; Yu, Huahua; Li, Pengcheng

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic throughout the world. There is thus increasing interest in searching for natural bioactive compounds with anti-obesity effect. A number of marine compounds have been regarded as potential sources of bioactive compounds and are associated with an anti-obesity effect. Marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect and their current applications, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are summarized in this review. in order to make contributions to the development of marine-derived functional food against obesity. In this review, an overview of marine-derived compounds with anti-obesity effect, including marine polysaccharides, marine lipid, marine peptides, marine carotenoids is intensively made with an emphasis on their efficacy and mechanism of action. Meanwhile, methods and indicators for the evaluation of anti-obesity activity are discussed. We summarize these methods into three categories: in vitro assay (including adsorption experiments and enzyme inhibitory assay), cell line study, animal experiments and clinical experiments. In addition, a brief introduction of the current applications of marine bioactive compounds with anti-obesity activity is discussed. Marine environment is a rich source of both biological and chemical diversity. In the past decades, numerous novel compounds with anti-obesity activity have been obtained from marine organisms, and many of them have been applied to industrial production such as functional foods and pharmaceuticals. Further studies are needed to explore the above-mentioned facts. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Inhibition of Fatty Acid Synthase in Prostate Cancer by Olristat, a Novel Therapeutic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    previous crystallography studies by solving the crystal structure of FAS bound to a cleaved orlistat . These data will provide valuable insight into...timeline of XBP-1 15 processing following orlistat treatment (Figure 3A). Previous studies have demonstrated that inhibition of protein translation with...future drug discovery and design within the FAS pathway. In total, we have made great strides toward understanding the anti-tumor effects of orlistat

  12. Association of Pharmacological Treatments for Obesity With Weight Loss and Adverse Events

    PubMed Central

    Khera, Rohan; Murad, Mohammad Hassan; Chandar, Apoorva K.; Dulai, Parambir S.; Wang, Zhen; Prokop, Larry J.; Loomba, Rohit; Camilleri, Michael; Singh, Siddharth

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Five medications have been approved for the management of obesity, but data on comparative effectiveness are limited. OBJECTIVE To compare weight loss and adverse events among drug treatments for obesity using a systematic review and network meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane Central from inception to March 23, 2016; clinical trial registries. STUDY SELECTION Randomized clinical trials conducted among overweight and obese adults treated with US Food and Drug Administration–approved long-term weight loss agents (orlistat, lorcaserin, naltrexone-bupropion, phentermine-topiramate, or liraglutide) for at least 1 year compared with another active agent or placebo. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS Two investigators identified studies and independently abstracted data using a predefined protocol. A Bayesian network meta-analysis was performed and relative ranking of agents was assessed using surface under the cumulative ranking (SUCRA) probabilities. Quality of evidence was assessed using GRADE criteria. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Proportions of patients with at least 5%weight loss and at least 10% weight loss, magnitude of decrease in weight, and discontinuation of therapy because of adverse events at 1 year. RESULTS Twenty-eight randomized clinical trials with 29018 patients (median age, 46 years; 74%women; median baseline body weight, 100.5 kg; median baseline body mass index, 36.1) were included. A median 23%of placebo participants had at least 5%weight loss vs 75%of participants taking phentermine-topiramate (odds ratio [OR], 9.22; 95%credible interval [CrI], 6.63–12.85; SUCRA, 0.95), 63%of participants taking liraglutide (OR, 5.54; 95%CrI, 4.16–7.78; SUCRA, 0.83), 55%taking naltrexone-bupropion (OR, 3.96; 95%CrI, 3.03–5.11; SUCRA, 0.60), 49%taking lorcaserin (OR, 3.10; 95%CrI, 2.38–4.05; SUCRA, 0.39), and 44%taking orlistat (OR, 2.70; 95%CrI, 2.34–3.09; SUCRA, 0.22). All active agents were associated

  13. Using the reversible inhibition of gastric lipase by Orlistat for investigating simultaneously lipase adsorption and substrate hydrolysis at the lipid-water interface.

    PubMed

    Bénarouche, Anaïs; Point, Vanessa; Carrière, Frédéric; Cavalier, Jean-François

    2014-06-01

    The lipolysis reaction carried out by lipases at the water-lipid interface is a complex process including enzyme conformational changes, adsorption/desorption equilibrium and substrate hydrolysis. Mixed monomolecular films of the lipase inhibitor Orlistat and 1,2-dicaprin were used here to investigate the adsorption of dog gastric lipase (DGL) followed by the hydrolysis of 1,2-dicaprin. The combined study of these two essential catalysis steps was made possible thanks to the highest affinity of DGL for Orlistat than 1,2-dicaprin and the fact that the inhibition of DGL by Orlistat is reversible. Upon DGL binding to mixed 1,2-dicaprin/Orlistat monolayers, an increase in surface pressure reflecting lipase adsorption was first recorded. Limited amounts of Orlistat allowed to maintain DGL inactive on 1,2-dicaprin during a period of time that was sufficient to determine DGL adsorption and desorption rate constants. A decrease in surface pressure reflecting 1,2-dicaprin hydrolysis and product desorption was observed after the slow hydrolysis of the covalent DGL-Orlistat complex was complete. The rate of 1,2-dicaprin hydrolysis was recorded using the surface barostat technique. Based on a kinetic model describing the inhibition by Orlistat and the activity of DGL on a mixed 1,2-dicaprin/Orlistat monolayer spread at the air-water interface combined with surface pressure measurements, it was possible to monitor DGL adsorption at the lipid-water interface and substrate hydrolysis in the course of a single experiment. This allowed to assess the kcat/KM* ratio for DGL acting on 1,2-dicaprin monolayer, after showing that mixed monolayers containing a low fraction of Orlistat were similar to pure 1,2-dicaprin monolayers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Pharmacological approaches for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Foz, Màrius; Alemany, Marià

    2002-01-01

    The high incidence of obesity, its multifactorial nature, the complexity and lack of knowledge of the bodyweight control system, and the scarcity of adequate therapeutics have fuelled anti-obesity drug development during a considerable number of years. Irrespective of the efforts invested by researchers and companies, few products have reached a minimum level of effectiveness, and even fewer are available in medical practice. As a consequence of anti-obesity research, our knowledge of the bodyweight control system increased but, despite this, the pharmacological approaches to the treatment of obesity have not resulted yet in effective drugs. This review provides a panoramic of the multiple different approaches developed to obtain workable drugs. These approaches, however, rely in only four main lines of action: control of energy intake, mainly through modification of appetite;control of energy expenditure, essentially through the increase of thermogenesis;control of the availability of substrates to cells and tissues through hormonal and other metabolic factors controlling the fate of the available energy substrates; andcontrol of fat reserves through modulation of lipogenesis and lipolysis in white adipose tissue. A large proportion of current research is centred on neuropeptidic control of appetite, followed by the development of drugs controlling thermogenic mechanisms and analysis of the factors controlling adipocyte growth and fat storage. The adipocyte is also a fundamental source of metabolic signals, signals that can be intercepted, modulated and used to force the brain to adjust the mass of fat with the physiological means available. The large variety of different approaches used in the search for effective anti-obesity drugs show both the deep involvement of researchers on this field and the large amount of resources devoted to this problem by pharmaceutical companies. Future trends in anti-obesity drug research follow closely the approaches outlined

  15. Effects of anti-obesity messages on women's body image and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Shentow-Bewsh, Rachel; Keating, Leah; Mills, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    It has been suggested that obesity stigmatization contributes to negative mental health outcomes, particularly among overweight individuals. This study examined the effects of exposure to media-portrayed anti-obesity messages on women's state self-esteem, body esteem, and food intake. It was hypothesized that exposure to anti-obesity messages would result in decreased state self-esteem and body esteem and in increased food intake, and that these effects would be more pronounced in individuals with either higher BMI or stronger perceived pressure to be thin. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions in which they either: read a fictitious media article containing either anti-obesity messages or non-obesity-related health messages, or completed a neutral control task (word search). State self-esteem and body esteem were measured before and after the manipulation. Participants also completed a candy taste rating task and ad lib consumption was surreptitiously measured. There was no main effect of condition on either psychological outcome variable or on grams consumed. Higher perceived sociocultural pressure to be thin was associated with a decrease in body esteem after reading the anti-obesity article only. Having a higher BMI was associated with greater candy intake in the word search condition. This trend was also apparent in the sun exposure condition, but not in the anti-obesity condition. Exposure to anti-obesity messages appears to decrease weight-related body esteem in women who already feel strong pressure to be thin, and may lead heavier women to suppress their food intake. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. 49 CFR 199.101 - Anti-drug plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Anti-drug plan. 199.101 Section 199.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.101 Anti-drug plan. (a) Each operator shall maintain and follow a written anti-drug plan that...

  17. 49 CFR 199.101 - Anti-drug plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Anti-drug plan. 199.101 Section 199.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.101 Anti-drug plan. (a) Each operator shall maintain and follow a written anti-drug plan that...

  18. 49 CFR 199.101 - Anti-drug plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Anti-drug plan. 199.101 Section 199.101... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.101 Anti-drug plan. (a) Each operator shall maintain and follow a written anti-drug plan that...

  19. Emerging drugs for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Martinussen, Christoffer; Bojsen-Moller, Kirstine Nyvold; Svane, Maria Saur; Dejgaard, Thomas Fremming; Madsbad, Sten

    2017-03-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity represents a huge threat to public health and the current pharmacological treatment options are limited. Bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for severe obesity, highlighting the urgent need for new and improved drug therapies. Areas covered: Based on the physiological regulation of energy homeostasis, pharmacological strategies to treat obesity are evaluated with focus on drugs in phase 2 and 3 clinical development. The potential impact of these drugs on current treatment standards and the barriers for development are discussed and set in a historical perspective of previous antiobesity medications. Expert opinion: The radical effects of bariatric surgery have extended our understanding of the mechanisms controlling appetite and boosted the search for new drug targets in obesity treatment. Accordingly, several compounds targeting the central nervous system and/or periphery are in pipeline for obesity. These drugs should be evaluated over a wide array of end-points; in particular, long-term safety monitoring is necessary as serious adverse events may appear. Combination therapy targeting more than one pathway controlling energy balance might be necessary to achieve substantial weight loss while minimising side effects.

  20. The Effects of Obesity on Drug Metabolism in Children.

    PubMed

    Oeser, Steffen G; Rougee, Luc R A; Collier, Abby C

    2015-01-01

    Obesity in children is a significant clinical concern. There are many anecdotes and case studies regarding specific reactions of obese children to medications including therapeutic failure, adverse drug reactions and/or requirements for higher weight-adjusted dosing. There isis, however, a lack of basic and clinical data dissecting the mechanisms of these effects on pharmaceutical efficacy and safety. At present it is unknown how much of the difference in drug disposition in obese children can be attributed to obesity, to maturation or to an interaction between the two. Since a major determinant of drug disposition is hepatic metabolism, here we review how obesity alters hepatic drug disposition in children. Basic as well as clinical data summarizing the current knowledge of biochemical, physiological and clinical effects of pediatric obesity on drug disposition are considered. We conclude that there is a dire need for increased research into the direct effects of obesity on absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, as well as changes to pharmacokinetic parameters such as bioavailability and clearance. Increased effort in this area may elucidate the effects of obesity on clinical drug disposition with sufficient detail to provide better dosing guidelines where needed for children.

  1. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Effects of Acacia Polyphenol in Obese Diabetic KKAy Mice Fed High-Fat Diet

    PubMed Central

    Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Toda, Takahiro; Okaniwa, Takehiro; Ito, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Acacia polyphenol (AP) extracted from the bark of the black wattle tree (Acacia meansii) is rich in unique catechin-like flavan-3-ols, such as robinetinidol and fisetinidol. The present study investigated the anti-obesity/anti-diabetic effects of AP using obese diabetic KKAy mice. KKAy mice received either normal diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet with additional AP for 7 weeks. After the end of administration, body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were measured. Furthermore, mRNA and protein expression of obesity/diabetic suppression-related genes were measured in skeletal muscle, liver and white adipose tissue. As a result, compared to the high-fat diet group, increases in body weight, plasma glucose and insulin were significantly suppressed for AP groups. Furthermore, compared to the high-fat diet group, mRNA expression of energy expenditure-related genes (PPARα, PPARδ, CPT1, ACO and UCP3) was significantly higher for AP groups in skeletal muscle. Protein expressions of CPT1, ACO and UCP3 for AP groups were also significantly higher when compared to the high-fat diet group. Moreover, AP lowered the expression of fat acid synthesis-related genes (SREBP-1c, ACC and FAS) in the liver. AP also increased mRNA expression of adiponectin and decreased expression of TNF-α in white adipose tissue. In conclusion, the anti-obesity actions of AP are considered attributable to increased expression of energy expenditure-related genes in skeletal muscle, and decreased fatty acid synthesis and fat intake in the liver. These results suggest that AP is expected to be a useful plant extract for alleviating metabolic syndrome. PMID:21799697

  2. Therapeutic potential of flurbiprofen against obesity in mice.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Baba, Sachiko; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-06-20

    Obesity is associated with several diseases including diabetes, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Therefore, anti-obesity drugs have the potential to prevent these diseases. In the present study, we demonstrated that flurbiprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), exhibited therapeutic potency against obesity. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months, followed by a normal-chow diet (NCD). The flurbiprofen treatment simultaneously administered. Although body weight was significantly decreased in flurbiprofen-treated mice, growth was not affected. Flurbiprofen also reduced the HFD-induced accumulation of visceral fat. Leptin resistance, which is characterized by insensitivity to the anti-obesity hormone leptin, is known to be involved in the development of obesity. We found that one of the possible mechanisms underlying the anti-obesity effects of flurbiprofen may have been mediated through the attenuation of leptin resistance, because the high circulating levels of leptin in HFD-fed mice were decreased in flurbiprofen-treated mice. Therefore, flurbiprofen may exhibit therapeutic potential against obesity by reducing leptin resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Rimonabant for the treatment of overweight and obese people.

    PubMed

    Burch, J; McKenna, C; Palmer, S; Norman, G; Glanville, J; Sculpher, M; Woolacott, N

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a summary of the evidence review group (ERG) report into the clinical and cost-effectiveness of rimonabant for the treatment of obese or overweight patients based upon a review of the manufacturer's submission to the National Centre for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) as part of the single technology appraisal (STA) process. The submission's main evidence came from four randomised controlled trials. Rimonabant resulted in a significantly greater benefit than placebo for all primary weight loss outcomes. At 1 year, rimonabant had a statistically significant beneficial effect on systolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and fasting plasma glucose in diabetics and non-diabetics, and glycosylated haemoglobin in diabetics. Improvements were maintained over 2 years with rimonabant; withdrawal of rimonabant at 1 year resulted in a reduction in weight loss until there was no difference from placebo at 2 years. Psychiatric adverse events were experienced by 26% and 14% of rimonabant and placebo patients respectively; figures for symptoms of depression were 9% and 5% respectively. Pairwise comparisons of orlistat, sibutramine and rimonabant showed beneficial effects of rimonabant over orlistat and sibutramine for weight loss outcomes; however, response hurdles imposed on orlistat or sibutramine in clinical practice may not have been applied in the orlistat and sibutramine trials. The manufacturer's Markov cohort model evaluated rimonabant versus orlistat, sibutramine and diet and exercise alone for three base-case populations. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of rimonabant varied from 10,534 pounds to 13,236 pounds per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) versus diet and exercise, to 8977 pounds to 12,138 pounds per QALY versus orlistat, to 1463 pounds to 3908 pounds per QALY versus sibutramine. In subgroup analysis there was a wider variation in the ICER estimates although none exceeded 20,000 pounds

  4. Obesity discrimination: the role of physical appearance, personal ideology, and anti-fat prejudice.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, K S; Latner, J D; Ebneter, D; Hunter, J A

    2013-03-01

    Self-report measures of anti-fat prejudice are regularly used by the field, however, there is no research showing a relationship between explicit measures of anti-fat prejudice and the behavioral manifestation of them; obesity discrimination. The present study examined whether a recently developed measure of anti-fat prejudice, the universal measure of bias (UMB), along with other correlates of prejudicial attitudes and beliefs (that is, authoritarianism, social dominance orientation; SDO, physical appearance investment) predict obesity discrimination. Under the guise of a personnel selection task, participants (n=102) gave assessments of obese and non-obese females applying for a managerial position across a number of selection criteria (for example, starting salary, likelihood of selecting). Participants viewed resumes that had attached either a photo of a pre-bariatric surgery obese female (body mass index (BMI)=38-41) or a photo of the same female post-bariatric surgery (BMI=22-24). Participants also completed measures of anti-fat prejudice (UMB) authoritarianism, SDO, physical appearance evaluation and orientation. Obesity discrimination was displayed across all selection criteria. Higher UMB subscale scores (distance and negative judgement), authoritarianism, physical appearance evaluation and orientation were associated with greater obesity discrimination. In regression models, UMB 'distance' was a predictor of obesity discrimination for perceived leadership potential, starting salary, and overall employability. UMB 'negative judgement' predicted discrimination for starting salary; and authoritarianism predicted likelihood of selecting an obese applicant and candidate ranking. Finally, physical appearance evaluation and appearance orientation predicted obesity discrimination for predicted career success and leadership potential, respectively. Self-report measures of prejudice act as surrogates for discrimination, but there has been no empirical support for

  5. Anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of the dietary citrus limonoid nomilin in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Ono, Eri; Inoue, Jun; Hashidume, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Makoto; Sato, Ryuichiro

    2011-07-08

    TGR5 is a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family and is activated by bile acids (BAs). TGR5 is thought to be a promising drug target for metabolic diseases because the activation of TGR5 prevents obesity and hyperglycemia in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). In the present study, we identified a naturally occurring limonoid, nomilin, as an activator of TGR5. Unlike BAs, nomilin did not exhibit the farnesoid X receptor ligand activity. Although the nomilin derivative obacunone was capable of activating TGR5, limonin (the most abundant limonoid in citrus seeds) was not a TGR5 activator. When male C57BL/6J mice fed a HFD for 9 weeks were further fed a HFD either alone or supplemented with 0.2%w/w nomilin for 77 days, nomilin-treated mice had lower body weight, serum glucose, serum insulin, and enhanced glucose tolerance. Our results suggest a novel biological function of nomilin as an agent having anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects that are likely to be mediated through the activation of TGR5. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lipoprotein Subfractions in Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Clinical Significance and Therapeutic Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Nikolic, Dragana; Katsiki, Niki; Montalto, Giuseppe; Isenovic, Esma R.; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P.; Rizzo, Manfredi

    2013-01-01

    Small, dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL) represents an emerging cardiovascular risk factor, since these particles can be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) independently of established risk factors, including plasma lipids. Obese subjects frequently have atherogenic dyslipidaemia, including elevated sdLDL levels, in addition to elevated triglycerides (TG), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and apolipoprotein-B, as well as decreased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Obesity-related co-morbidities, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) are also characterized by dyslipidaemia. Therefore, agents that favourably modulate LDL subclasses may be of clinical value in these subjects. Statins are the lipid-lowering drug of choice. Also, anti-obesity and lipid lowering drugs other than statins could be useful in these patients. However, the effects of anti-obesity drugs on CVD risk factors remain unclear. We review the clinical significance of sdLDL in being overweight and obesity, as well as the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in these individuals; a short comment on HDL subclasses is also included. Our literature search was based on PubMed and Scopus listings. Further research is required to fully explore both the significance of sdLDL and the efficacy of anti-obesity drugs on LDL subfractions in being overweight, obesity and MetS. Improving the lipoprotein profile in these patients may represent an efficient approach for reducing cardiovascular risk. PMID:23507795

  7. The role of lipid and carbohydrate digestive enzyme inhibitors in the management of obesity: a review of current and emerging therapeutic agents

    PubMed Central

    Tucci, Sonia A; Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason CG

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic associated with significant morbidity and mortality in adults and ill health in children. A proven successful approach in weight management has been the disruption of nutrient digestion, with orlistat having been used to treat obesity for the last 10 years. Although orlistat-induced weight loss remains modest, it produces meaningful reductions in risk factors for obesity-related conditions such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, this lipase inhibitor is free of the serious side effects that have dogged appetite-suppressing drugs. This success had driven investigation into new generation nutraceuticals, supplements and pharmaceutical agents that inhibit the breakdown of complex carbohydrates and fats within the gut. This review focuses on agents purported to inhibit intestinal enzymes responsible for macronutrient digestion. Except for some synthetic products, the majority of agents reviewed are either botanical extracts or bacterial products. Currently, carbohydrate digestion inhibitors are under development to improve glycemic control and these may also induce some weight loss. However, colonic fermentation induced side effects, such as excess gas production, remain an issue for these compounds. The α-glucosidase inhibitor acarbose, and the α-amylase inhibitor phaseolamine, have been used in humans with some promising results relating to weight loss. Nonetheless, few of these agents have made it into clinical studies and without any clinical proof of concept or proven efficacy it is unlikely any will enter the market soon. PMID:21437083

  8. Ghrelin is independently associated with anti-mullerian hormone levels in obese but not non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Garin, Margaret C; Butts, Samantha F; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C; Senapati, Suneeta; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-03-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous appetite stimulant that may have a role in ovarian function. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have anovulation and frequently weight management issues; however the associations between ghrelin and hormonal markers in polycystic ovary syndrome have not been well studied. In order to characterize the association between total ghrelin levels and ovarian function and the possible modification of this relationship by obesity, we examined total ghrelin levels and anti-mullerian hormone, total testosterone, and insulin in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Total ghrelin levels were lower in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 45) compared to obese controls (n = 33) (p = 0.005), but similar in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 20) compared to non-obese controls (n = 21) (p = NS). In the obese polycystic ovary syndrome group, anti-mullerian hormone was associated with ghrelin levels independent of age, insulin, and total testosterone (p = 0.008). There was no association between total ghrelin and anti-mullerian hormone levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, non-obese controls, or obese controls (p = NS). Our results provide evidence for a potential relationship between ghrelin and ovarian function in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome that was not observed in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome or controls.

  9. Optimal Anti-cancer Drug Profiles for Effective Penetration of the Anti-cancer Drug Market by Generic Drugs in Japan.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Shoyo; Matsushita, Maiko; Saito, Yoshimasa; Suzuki, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    The increased use of generic drugs is a good indicator of the need to reduce the increasing costs of prescription drugs. Since there are more expensive drugs compared with other therapeutic areas, "oncology" is an important one for generic drugs. The primary objective of this article was to quantify the extent to which generic drugs in Japan occupy each level of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system. The dataset used in this study was created from publicly available information obtained from the IMS Japan Pharmaceutical Market database. Data on the total amount of sales and number of prescriptions for anti-cancer drugs between 2010 and 2016 in Japan were selected. The data were categorized according to the third level of the ATC classification system. All categories of the ATC classification system had increased market shares in Japan between 2010 and 2016. The barriers to market entry were relatively low in L01F (platinum anti-neoplastics), L01C (plant-based neoplastics), L02B (cytostatic hormone antagonists), and L01D (anti-neoplastic antibiotics) but were high in L02A (cytostatic hormones), L01H (protein kinase inhibitors), and L01B (anti-metabolites). Generic cancer drugs could bring savings to Japanese health care systems. Therefore, their development should be directed toward niche markets, such as L02A, L01H, and L01B, and not competitive markets.

  10. Review of the Clinical Effect of Orlistat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiguang

    2018-01-01

    Obesity has been a main risk for the development of diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and many other chronic problems worldwide. Lifestyle modification is the best way to lose weight but very hard to implement, thus pharmacotherapy is regarded as a good add-on to dietary and lifestyle therapies. This review provides an overview of the olistat, a drug for obesity approved by FDA, about its mechanism of action, efficacy for obesity and some other diseases including cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and some cancers, as well as its safety and adverse effects.

  11. Potential drug-drug interactions between anti-cancer agents and community pharmacy dispensed drugs.

    PubMed

    Voll, Marsha L; Yap, Kim D; Terpstra, Wim E; Crul, Mirjam

    2010-10-01

    To identify the prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions between hospital pharmacy dispensed anti-cancer agents and community pharmacy dispensed drugs. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on the haematology/oncology department of the internal medicine ward in a large teaching hospital in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Prescription data from the last 100 patients treated with anti-cancer agents were obtained from Paracelsus, the chemotherapy prescribing system in the hospital. The community pharmacy dispensed drugs of these patients were obtained by using OZIS, a system that allows regionally linked pharmacies to call up active medication on any patient. Both medication lists were manually screened for potential drug-drug interactions by using several information sources on interactions, e.g. Pubmed, the Flockhart P450 table, Micromedex and Dutch reference books. Prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions between anti-cancer agents provided by the hospital pharmacy and drugs dispensed by the community pharmacy. Ninety-one patients were included in the study. A total of 31 potential drug-drug interactions were found in 16 patients, of which 15 interactions were clinically relevant and would have required an intervention. Of these interactions 1 had a level of severity ≥ D, meaning the potential drug-drug interaction could lead to long lasting or permanent damage, or even death. The majority of the interactions requiring an intervention (67%) had a considerable level of evidence (≥ 2) and were based on well-documented case reports or controlled interaction studies. Most of the potential drug-drug interactions involved the antiretroviral drugs (40%), proton pump inhibitors (20%) and antibiotics (20%). The anti-cancer drug most involved in the drug-drug interactions is methotrexate (33%). This study reveals a high prevalence of potential drug-drug interactions between anti-cancer agents provided by the hospital pharmacy and drugs dispensed by the

  12. Anti-tubulin drugs conjugated to anti-ErbB antibodies selectively radiosensitize.

    PubMed

    Adams, Stephen R; Yang, Howard C; Savariar, Elamprakash N; Aguilera, Joe; Crisp, Jessica L; Jones, Karra A; Whitney, Michael A; Lippman, Scott M; Cohen, Ezra E W; Tsien, Roger Y; Advani, Sunil J

    2016-10-04

    Tumour resistance to radiotherapy remains a barrier to improving cancer patient outcomes. To overcome radioresistance, certain drugs have been found to sensitize cells to ionizing radiation (IR). In theory, more potent radiosensitizing drugs should increase tumour kill and improve patient outcomes. In practice, clinical utility of potent radiosensitizing drugs is curtailed by off-target side effects. Here we report potent anti-tubulin drugs conjugated to anti-ErbB antibodies selectively radiosensitize to tumours based on surface receptor expression. While two classes of potent anti-tubulins, auristatins and maytansinoids, indiscriminately radiosensitize tumour cells, conjugating these potent anti-tubulins to anti-ErbB antibodies restrict their radiosensitizing capacity. Of translational significance, we report that a clinically used maytansinoid ADC, ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), with IR prolongs tumour control in target expressing HER2+ tumours but not target negative tumours. In contrast to ErbB signal inhibition, our findings establish an alternative therapeutic paradigm for ErbB-based radiosensitization using antibodies to restrict radiosensitizer delivery.

  13. Anti-tubulin drugs conjugated to anti-ErbB antibodies selectively radiosensitize

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Stephen R.; Yang, Howard C.; Savariar, Elamprakash N.; Aguilera, Joe; Crisp, Jessica L.; Jones, Karra A.; Whitney, Michael A.; Lippman, Scott M.; Cohen, Ezra E. W.; Tsien, Roger Y.; Advani, Sunil J.

    2016-01-01

    Tumour resistance to radiotherapy remains a barrier to improving cancer patient outcomes. To overcome radioresistance, certain drugs have been found to sensitize cells to ionizing radiation (IR). In theory, more potent radiosensitizing drugs should increase tumour kill and improve patient outcomes. In practice, clinical utility of potent radiosensitizing drugs is curtailed by off-target side effects. Here we report potent anti-tubulin drugs conjugated to anti-ErbB antibodies selectively radiosensitize to tumours based on surface receptor expression. While two classes of potent anti-tubulins, auristatins and maytansinoids, indiscriminately radiosensitize tumour cells, conjugating these potent anti-tubulins to anti-ErbB antibodies restrict their radiosensitizing capacity. Of translational significance, we report that a clinically used maytansinoid ADC, ado-trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), with IR prolongs tumour control in target expressing HER2+ tumours but not target negative tumours. In contrast to ErbB signal inhibition, our findings establish an alternative therapeutic paradigm for ErbB-based radiosensitization using antibodies to restrict radiosensitizer delivery. PMID:27698471

  14. 49 CFR 199.101 - Anti-drug plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.101 Anti-drug plan. (b) The Associate Administrator or the State Agency that has submitted a... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anti-drug plan. 199.101 Section 199.101...

  15. New Drug Therapies for the Treatment of Overweight and Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahgerefteh, Babak; Vigue, Michael; Freestone, Zachary; Silver, Scott; Nguyen, Quang

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is a serious and costly disease that is growing in epidemic proportions. Obesity-related hospitalizations have nearly tripled from 1996 to 2009. If the current trend in the growth of obesity continues, the total healthcare costs attributable to obesity could reach $861 billion to $957 billion by 2030. The American Medical Association has officially recognized obesity as a disease. Obesity is a public health crisis affecting approximately more than 33% of Americans and costing the healthcare system more than $190 billion annually. Objectives To review the 2 new drugs that were recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of obesity, lorcaserin HCl (Belviq) and phentermine/topiramate (Qsymia) and their potential impact on the treatment of obese patients. Discussion Lifestyle modification is the first and mainstay treatment for obesity. Antiobesity drugs are indicated as adjuncts to a healthy, low-fat, low-calorie diet and an exercise plan. Currently, 4 drugs are approved by the FDA for the treatment of obesity, 2 of which were approved after June 2012. These 2 drugs, Belviq and Qsymia, have added new tools for the treatment of obesity. In addition to reducing body mass index, these drugs have been shown to reduce hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with diabetes and blood pressure levels in patients with hypertension, as well as to decrease lipid levels in patients with hyperlipidemia. This article reviews the drugs' mechanisms of action, evaluates landmark clinical studies leading to the FDA approval of the 2 drugs, their common side effects, and the benefits these new drugs can provide toward the management of the obesity epidemic that are different from other medications currently available. Conclusion The weight loss seen in patients who are using the 2 new medications has been shown to further improve other cardiometabolic health parameters, including blood pressure, blood glucose levels, and serum lipid

  16. Flurbiprofen ameliorated obesity by attenuating leptin resistance induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, Toru; Yamaguchi, Rie; Noji, Kikuko; Matsuo, Suguru; Baba, Sachiko; Toyoda, Keisuke; Suezawa, Takahiro; Kayano, Takaaki; Tanaka, Shinpei; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins, is involved in the development of obesity. We demonstrated that flurbiprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), exhibited chaperone activity, which reduced protein aggregation and alleviated ER stress-induced leptin resistance, characterized by insensitivity to the actions of the anti-obesity hormone leptin. This result was further supported by flurbiprofen attenuating high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. The other NSAIDs tested did not exhibit such effects, which suggested that this anti-obesity action is mediated independent of NSAIDs. Using ferriteglycidyl methacrylate beads, we identified aldehyde dehydrogenase as the target of flurbiprofen, but not of the other NSAIDs. These results suggest that flurbiprofen may have unique pharmacological properties that reduce the accumulation of unfolded proteins and may represent a new class of drug for the fundamental treatment of obesity. Subject Categories Metabolism; Pharmacology & Drug Discovery PMID:24421337

  17. Drug disposition in obesity: toward evidence-based dosing.

    PubMed

    Knibbe, Catherijne A J; Brill, Margreke J E; van Rongen, Anne; Diepstraten, Jeroen; van der Graaf, Piet Hein; Danhof, Meindert

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and morbid obesity are associated with many physiological changes affecting pharmacokinetics, such as increased blood volume, cardiac output, splanchnic blood flow, and hepatic blood flow. In obesity, drug absorption appears unaltered, although recent evidence suggests that this conclusion may be premature. Volume of distribution may vary largely, but the magnitude and direction of changes seem difficult to predict, with extrapolation on the basis of total body weight being the best approach to date. Changes in clearance may be smaller than in distribution, whereas there is growing evidence that the influence of obesity on clearance can be predicted on the basis of reported changes in the metabolic or elimination pathways involved. For obese children, we propose two methods to distinguish between developmental and obesity-related changes. Future research should focus on the characterization of physiological concepts to predict the optimal dose for each drug in the obese population.

  18. Anti-steatotic and anti-inflammatory roles of syringic acid in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Ham, Ju Ri; Lee, Hae-In; Choi, Ra-Yeong; Sim, Mi-Ok; Seo, Kwon-Il; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the effects of syringic acid (SA) on obese diet-induced hepatic dysfunction. Mice were fed high-fat diet (HFD) with or without SA (0.05%, wt/wt) for 16 weeks. SA reduced the body weight, visceral fat mass, serum levels of leptin, TNFα, IFNγ, IL-6 and MCP-1, insulin resistance, hepatic lipid content, droplets and early fibrosis, whereas it elevated the circulation of adiponectin. SA down-regulated lipogenic genes (Cidea, Pparγ, Srebp-1c, Srebp-2, Hmgcr, Fasn) and inflammatory genes (Tlr4, Myd88, NF-κB, Tnfα, Il6), whereas it up-regulated fatty acid oxidation genes (Pparα, Acsl, Cpt1, Cpt2) in the liver. SA also decreased hepatic lipogenic enzyme activities and elevated fatty acid oxidation enzyme activities relative to the HFD group. These findings suggested that dietary SA possesses anti-obesity, anti-inflammatory and anti-steatotic effects via the regulation of lipid metabolic and inflammatory genes. SA is likely to be a new natural therapeutic agent for obesity or non-alcoholic liver disease.

  19. Anti-Inflammatory Nutrition as a Pharmacological Approach to Treat Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Barry; Ricordi, Camillo

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial condition resulting from improper balances of hormones and gene expression induced by the diet. Obesity also has a strong inflammatory component that can be driven by diet-induced increases in arachidonic acid. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the molecular targets that can be addressed by anti-inflammatory nutrition. These molecular targets range from reduction of proinflammatory eicosanoids to the modulation of features of the innate immune system, such as toll-like receptors and gene transcription factors. From knowledge of the impact of these dietary nutrients on these various molecular targets, it becomes possible to develop a general outline of an anti-inflammatory diet that can offer a unique synergism with more traditional pharmacological approaches in treating obesity and its associated comorbidities. PMID:20953366

  20. Drug reimbursement and GPs' prescribing decisions: a randomized case-vignette study about the pharmacotherapy of obesity associated with type 2 diabetes: how GPs react to drug reimbursement.

    PubMed

    Verger, Pierre; Rolland, Sophie; Paraponaris, Alain; Bouvenot, Julien; Ventelou, Bruno

    2010-08-01

    This study sought to identify the effect of drug reimbursability--a decision made in France by the National Authority for Health--on physicians' prescribing practices for a diet drug such as rimonabant, approved for obese or overweight patients with type-2 diabetes. A cross-sectional survey of French general practitioners (GPs) presented a case-vignette about a patient for whom this drug is indicated in two alternative versions, differing only in its reimbursability, to two separate randomized subsamples of GPs in early 2007, before any decision was made about reimbursement. The results indicate that (i) more than 20% of GPs in private practice would be willing to prescribe a non-reimbursed diet drug for patients with obesity complicated by type 2 diabetes; (ii) the number of GPs willing to prescribe it would increase by 47.6% if the drug were reimbursed, and (iii) such a drug would be adopted at a higher rate by GPs who have regular contacts with pharmaceutical sales representatives. In France, unlike most other countries, drug reimbursement status is a signal of quality. However, our results suggest that a significant proportion of GPs would spontaneously adopt anti-obesity drugs even if they were not reimbursed. Decisions about reimbursement of pharmaceutical products should be made taking into account that reimbursement is likely to intensify prescription.

  1. Obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naderpoor, N; Shorakae, S; Joham, A; Boyle, J; De Courten, B; Teede, H J

    2015-03-01

    Obesity is now a major international health concern. It is increasingly common in young women with reproductive, metabolic and psychological health impacts. Reproductive health impacts are often poorly appreciated and include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), infertility and pregnancy complications. PCOS is the most common endocrine condition in women and is underpinned by hormonal disturbances including insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism. Obesity exacerbates hormonal and clinical features of PCOS and women with PCOS appear at higher risk of obesity, with multiple underlying mechanisms linking the conditions. Lifestyle intervention is first line in management of PCOS to both prevent weight gain and induce weight loss; however improved engagement and sustainability remain challenges with the need for more research. Medications like metformin, orlistat, GLP1 agonists and bariatric surgery have been used with the need for large scale randomised clinical trials to define their roles.

  2. Anti-obesity effects of Arctii Fructus (Arctium lappa) in white/brown adipocytes and high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Dae-Seung; Park, Jinbong; Jeong, Mi-Young; Mun, Jung-Geon; Park, Sung-Joo; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-12-07

    Arctii Fructus is traditionally used in oriental pharmacies as an anti-inflammatory medicine. Although several studies have shown its anti-inflammatory effects, there have been no reports on its use in obesity related studies. In this study, the anti-obesity effect of Arctii Fructus was investigated in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, and the effect was confirmed in white and primary cultured brown adipocytes. Arctii Fructus inhibited weight gain and reduced the mass of white adipose tissue in HFD-induced obese mice. Serum levels of triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol were reduced, and HDL-cholesterol was increased in the Arctii Fructus treated group. In 3T3-L1 cells, a water extract (WAF) and 70% EtOH extract (EtAF) of Arctii Fructus significantly inhibited adipogenesis and suppressed the expression of proliferator-activated receptor gamma and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. In particular, EtAF activated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase. On the other hand, uncoupling protein 1 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, known as brown adipocytes specific genes, were increased in primary cultured brown adipocytes by WAF and EtAF. This study shows that Arctii Fructus prevents the development of obesity through the inhibition of white adipocyte differentiation and activation of brown adipocyte differentiation which suggests that Arctii Fructus could be an effective therapeutic for treating or preventing obesity.

  3. Fatty acid synthase mediates EGFR palmitoylation in EGFR mutated non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ali, Azhar; Levantini, Elena; Teo, Jun Ting; Goggi, Julian; Clohessy, John G; Wu, Chan Shuo; Chen, Leilei; Yang, Henry; Krishnan, Indira; Kocher, Olivier; Zhang, Junyan; Soo, Ross A; Bhakoo, Kishore; Chin, Tan Min; Tenen, Daniel G

    2018-02-15

    Metabolic reprogramming is widely known as a hallmark of cancer cells to allow adaptation of cells to sustain survival signals. In this report, we describe a novel oncogenic signaling pathway exclusively acting in mutated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with acquired tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance. Mutated EGFR mediates TKI resistance through regulation of the fatty acid synthase (FASN), which produces 16-C saturated fatty acid palmitate. Our work shows that the persistent signaling by mutated EGFR in TKI-resistant tumor cells relies on EGFR palmitoylation and can be targeted by Orlistat, an FDA-approved anti-obesity drug. Inhibition of FASN with Orlistat induces EGFR ubiquitination and abrogates EGFR mutant signaling, and reduces tumor growths both in culture systems and in vivo Together, our data provide compelling evidence on the functional interrelationship between mutated EGFR and FASN and that the fatty acid metabolism pathway is a candidate target for acquired TKI-resistant EGFR mutant NSCLC patients. © 2018 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  4. Repurposing psychiatric drugs as anti-cancer agents.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jing; Zhao, Danwei; Liu, Zhixiong; Liu, Fangkun

    2018-04-10

    Cancer is a major public health problem and one of the leading contributors to the global disease burden. The high cost of development of new drugs and the increasingly severe burden of cancer globally have led to increased interest in the search and development of novel, affordable anti-neoplastic medications. Antipsychotic drugs have a long history of clinical use and tolerable safety; they have been used as good targets for drug repurposing. Being used for various psychiatric diseases for decades, antipsychotic drugs are now reported to have potent anti-cancer properties against a wide variety of malignancies in addition to their antipsychotic effects. In this review, an overview of repurposing various psychiatric drugs for cancer treatment is presented, and the putative mechanisms for the anti-neoplastic actions of these antipsychotic drugs are reviewed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Regulation of appetite to treat obesity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gilbert W; Lin, Jieru E; Valentino, Michael A; Colon-Gonzalez, Francheska; Waldman, Scott A

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has escalated into a pandemic over the past few decades. In turn, research efforts have sought to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of energy balance. A host of endogenous mediators regulate appetite and metabolism, and thereby control both short- and long-term energy balance. These mediators, which include gut, pancreatic and adipose neuropeptides, have been targeted in the development of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy, with the goal of amplifying anorexigenic and lipolytic signaling or blocking orexigenic and lipogenic signaling. This article presents the efficacy and safety of these anti-obesity drugs. PMID:21666781

  6. [Prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption in an obese population].

    PubMed

    Cerdá Esteve, Maria A; Barral Tafalla, Diego; Gudelis, Mindaugas; Goday, Albert; Farre Albaladejo, Magi; Cano, Juan F

    2010-04-01

    To establish the prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption in an obese population. We collected data from the clinical records of obese patients attending the Endocrinology and Nutrition Department and Psychiatry Department of Hospital del Mar between June 2005 and May 2006 (n=259). We recorded anthropometric, epidemiological and toxicological data. We also investigated the prevalence of concomitant diseases in this population. Psychoactive drugs were consumed by 37% of obese patients, mainly antidepressants (27%), anxiolytics, sedatives and hypnotics, and anticonvulsants. Moreover, 15% of all patients received combination treatment with two or more psychoactive drugs, mostly the association of an antidepressant and an antiepileptic drug. The prevalence of psychoactive drug consumption in our sample was higher than prevalence data observed in the general population, with antidepressant consumption being three-fold higher. Copyright 2009 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Counterfeit anti-infective drugs.

    PubMed

    Newton, Paul N; Green, Michael D; Fernández, Facundo M; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J

    2006-09-01

    The production of counterfeit or substandard anti-infective drugs is a widespread and under-recognised problem that contributes to morbidity, mortality, and drug resistance, and leads to spurious reporting of resistance and toxicity and loss of confidence in health-care systems. Counterfeit drugs particularly affect the most disadvantaged people in poor countries. Although advances in forensic chemical analysis and simple field tests will enhance drug quality monitoring, improved access to inexpensive genuine medicines, support of drug regulatory authorities, more open reporting, vigorous law enforcement, and more international cooperation with determined political leadership will be essential to counter this threat.

  8. Dietary capsaicin and its anti-obesity potency: from mechanism to clinical implications

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jia; Zheng, Sheng; Feng, Qianyun; Zhang, Qian

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a growing public health problem, which has now been considered as a pandemic non-communicable disease. However, the efficacy of several approaches for weight loss is limited and variable. Thus, alternative anti-obesity treatments are urgently warranted, which should be effective, safe, and widely available. Active compounds isolated from herbs are similar with the practice of Traditional Chinese Medicine, which has a holistic approach that can target to several organs and tissues in the whole body. Capsaicin, a major active compound from chili peppers, has been clearly demonstrated for its numerous beneficial roles in health. In this review, we will focus on the less highlighted aspect, in particular how dietary chili peppers and capsaicin consumption reduce body weight and its potential mechanisms of its anti-obesity effects. With the widespread pandemic of overweight and obesity, the development of more strategies for the treatment of obesity is urgent. Therefore, a better understanding of the role and mechanism of dietary capsaicin consumption and metabolic health can provide critical implications for the early prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:28424369

  9. Flurbiprofen ameliorated obesity by attenuating leptin resistance induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Yamaguchi, Rie; Noji, Kikuko; Matsuo, Suguru; Baba, Sachiko; Toyoda, Keisuke; Suezawa, Takahiro; Kayano, Takaaki; Tanaka, Shinpei; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins, is involved in the development of obesity. We demonstrated that flurbiprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), exhibited chaperone activity, which reduced protein aggregation and alleviated ER stress-induced leptin resistance, characterized by insensitivity to the actions of the anti-obesity hormone leptin. This result was further supported by flurbiprofen attenuating high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. The other NSAIDs tested did not exhibit such effects, which suggested that this anti-obesity action is mediated independent of NSAIDs. Using ferriteglycidyl methacrylate beads, we identified aldehyde dehydrogenase as the target of flurbiprofen, but not of the other NSAIDs. These results suggest that flurbiprofen may have unique pharmacological properties that reduce the accumulation of unfolded proteins and may represent a new class of drug for the fundamental treatment of obesity.

  10. Exploration of the Anti-Inflammatory Drug Space Through Network Pharmacology: Applications for Drug Repurposing

    PubMed Central

    de Anda-Jáuregui, Guillermo; Guo, Kai; McGregor, Brett A.; Hur, Junguk

    2018-01-01

    The quintessential biological response to disease is inflammation. It is a driver and an important element in a wide range of pathological states. Pharmacological management of inflammation is therefore central in the clinical setting. Anti-inflammatory drugs modulate specific molecules involved in the inflammatory response; these drugs are traditionally classified as steroidal and non-steroidal drugs. However, the effects of these drugs are rarely limited to their canonical targets, affecting other molecules and altering biological functions with system-wide effects that can lead to the emergence of secondary therapeutic applications or adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In this study, relationships among anti-inflammatory drugs, functional pathways, and ADRs were explored through network models. We integrated structural drug information, experimental anti-inflammatory drug perturbation gene expression profiles obtained from the Connectivity Map and Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures, functional pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Reactome databases, as well as adverse reaction information from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The network models comprise nodes representing anti-inflammatory drugs, functional pathways, and adverse effects. We identified structural and gene perturbation similarities linking anti-inflammatory drugs. Functional pathways were connected to drugs by implementing Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Drugs and adverse effects were connected based on the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) of an adverse effect in response to a given drug. Through these network models, relationships among anti-inflammatory drugs, their functional effects at the pathway level, and their adverse effects were explored. These networks comprise 70 different anti-inflammatory drugs, 462 functional pathways, and 1,175 ADRs. Network-based properties, such as degree

  11. Exploration of the Anti-Inflammatory Drug Space Through Network Pharmacology: Applications for Drug Repurposing.

    PubMed

    de Anda-Jáuregui, Guillermo; Guo, Kai; McGregor, Brett A; Hur, Junguk

    2018-01-01

    The quintessential biological response to disease is inflammation. It is a driver and an important element in a wide range of pathological states. Pharmacological management of inflammation is therefore central in the clinical setting. Anti-inflammatory drugs modulate specific molecules involved in the inflammatory response; these drugs are traditionally classified as steroidal and non-steroidal drugs. However, the effects of these drugs are rarely limited to their canonical targets, affecting other molecules and altering biological functions with system-wide effects that can lead to the emergence of secondary therapeutic applications or adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In this study, relationships among anti-inflammatory drugs, functional pathways, and ADRs were explored through network models. We integrated structural drug information, experimental anti-inflammatory drug perturbation gene expression profiles obtained from the Connectivity Map and Library of Integrated Network-Based Cellular Signatures, functional pathways in the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Reactome databases, as well as adverse reaction information from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). The network models comprise nodes representing anti-inflammatory drugs, functional pathways, and adverse effects. We identified structural and gene perturbation similarities linking anti-inflammatory drugs. Functional pathways were connected to drugs by implementing Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA). Drugs and adverse effects were connected based on the proportional reporting ratio (PRR) of an adverse effect in response to a given drug. Through these network models, relationships among anti-inflammatory drugs, their functional effects at the pathway level, and their adverse effects were explored. These networks comprise 70 different anti-inflammatory drugs, 462 functional pathways, and 1,175 ADRs. Network-based properties, such as degree

  12. Underutilization of gastroprotective drugs in patients receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Thiéfin, Gérard; Schwalm, Marie-Sophie

    2011-03-01

    To assess the prevalence of gastroprotective agent prescription in patients treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in France and to analyze the determinants of this prescription. A cross-sectional observational study was performed in 2576 patients treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs recruited prospectively in the French primary care system. Thirty-nine percent of the patients (n=1002) received gastroprotective agents, mostly proton pump inhibitors (99.5%). In patients with a single risk factor, the gastroprotection rates were: 50% for age>65, 67% for concurrent use of corticosteroids or antithrombotics, and 87% and 100% for history of uncomplicated and complicated gastroduodenal ulcers. In patients without risk factors, gastroprotective agents were prescribed in 31.8%. Among them, two thirds had symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux or history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug intolerance or dyspepsia. Conversely, 40% (n=256) of at-risk non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users did not receive gastroprotective agents. Gastroprotection was significantly associated with history of gastroduodenal ulcer (OR: 8.2; 95%CI: 4.3-15.6) or history of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug intolerance (OR: 6; 95%CI: 4.5-8.1), gastro-oesophageal reflux (OR: 6; 95%CI: 4.4-8.2), dyspepsia (OR: 5.2; 95%CI: 3.7-7.5), concurrent gastrotoxic treatment (OR: 3.3; 95%CI: 1.9-5.6) and age>65 (OR: 3; 95%CI: 2.3-4.1). Despite widespread recommendations, gastroprotection is still largely underprescribed in patients at risk of gastrointestinal non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug complications in France. Only half of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users above 65 years are prescribed gastroprotective agents. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Healing of the bone with anti-fracture drugs.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Letizia; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2016-12-01

    Fracture healing is a complex physiological process. As impaired fracture healing is more frequent in osteoporotic subjects, anti-osteoporotic drugs could have some impact on this process. Areas covered: We reviewed the current literature to evaluate the effects of these drugs on fracture healing and their potential role in supporting this process, especially when impaired. A PubMed/Medline search was undertaken combining the terms 'fracture healing', 'anti-resorptive drugs', 'anabolic agents', 'anti-osteoporotic drugs'. Expert opinion: As clinical evidence on the role of anti-osteoporotic drugs in the process of fracture healing consists mainly of case reports or studies with a relatively small number of patients, large randomized clinical trials are needed in order to extend to the human setting the promising results on these agents as inductors or co-adjuvants of bone healing derived from animal studies.

  14. Drug repurposing: In-vitro anti-glycation properties of 18 common drugs

    PubMed Central

    Rasheed, Saima; Sánchez, Sara S.; Yousuf, Sammer; Honoré, Stella M.; Choudhary, M. Iqbal

    2018-01-01

    Drug repositioning or repurposing, i.e. identifying new indications for existing drugs, has gained increasing attention in the recent years. This approach enables the scientists to discover “new targets” for known drugs in a cost and time efficient manner. Glycation, the non-enzymatic reaction of sugars with proteins or nucleic acids to form early glycation (Amadori or fructosamine) products, is a key molecular basis of diabetic complications. Inhibiting the process of non-enzymatic protein glycation is one of the key strategies to prevent glycation-mediated diabetic complications. The present study focuses on the anti-glycation activity of 18 drugs, commonly used for the treatment of gastrointestinal, central nervous system, inflammatory diseases, bacterial infections, and gout. This study was carried out by using two in-vitro protein anti-glycation assay models. Results revealed that nimesulide (3), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, possesses a good anti-glycation activity in in-vitro BSA-MG and BSA-glucose glycation models with IC50 values of 330.56 ± 2.90, and 145.46 ± 16.35 μM, respectively. Phloroglucinol dihydrate (11), a drug used for the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases, showed a weak activity in BSA-MG glycation model (IC50 = 654.89 ± 2.50 μM), while it showed a good activity in BSA-glucose assay (IC50 = 148.23 ± 0.15 μM). Trimethylphloroglucinol (9), a drug used for the treatment of pain related to functional disorders of the digestive and biliary tracts, also showed a good antiglycation activity in BSA-MG model (IC50 = 321.15 ± 1.26 μM), while it was found to be inactive in in-vitro BSA-glucose assay (IC50 = 12.95% inhibition). These activities of drugs were compared with the anti-glycation activity of the standard, rutin (IC50 = 294.5 ± 1.50 μM in BSA-MG glycation model, and IC50 = 86.94 ± 0.24 μM in BSA- glucose model). Rest of the drugs exhibited a relatively weak antiglycation activity. This study identifies nimesulide

  15. Obesity promotes resistance to anti-VEGF therapy in breast cancer by up-regulating IL-6 and potentially FGF-2.

    PubMed

    Incio, Joao; Ligibel, Jennifer A; McManus, Daniel T; Suboj, Priya; Jung, Keehoon; Kawaguchi, Kosuke; Pinter, Matthias; Babykutty, Suboj; Chin, Shan M; Vardam, Trupti D; Huang, Yuhui; Rahbari, Nuh N; Roberge, Sylvie; Wang, Dannie; Gomes-Santos, Igor L; Puchner, Stefan B; Schlett, Christopher L; Hoffmman, Udo; Ancukiewicz, Marek; Tolaney, Sara M; Krop, Ian E; Duda, Dan G; Boucher, Yves; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K

    2018-03-14

    Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy has failed to improve survival in patients with breast cancer (BC). Potential mechanisms of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy include the up-regulation of alternative angiogenic and proinflammatory factors. Obesity is associated with hypoxic adipose tissues, including those in the breast, resulting in increased production of some of the aforementioned factors. Hence, we hypothesized that obesity could contribute to anti-VEGF therapy's lack of efficacy. We found that BC patients with obesity harbored increased systemic concentrations of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and/or fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-2), and their tumor vasculature was less sensitive to anti-VEGF treatment. Mouse models revealed that obesity impairs the effects of anti-VEGF on angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. In one murine BC model, obesity was associated with increased IL-6 production from adipocytes and myeloid cells within tumors. IL-6 blockade abrogated the obesity-induced resistance to anti-VEGF therapy in primary and metastatic sites by directly affecting tumor cell proliferation, normalizing tumor vasculature, alleviating hypoxia, and reducing immunosuppression. Similarly, in a second mouse model, where obesity was associated with increased FGF-2, normalization of FGF-2 expression by metformin or specific FGF receptor inhibition decreased vessel density and restored tumor sensitivity to anti-VEGF therapy in obese mice. Collectively, our data indicate that obesity fuels BC resistance to anti-VEGF therapy via the production of inflammatory and angiogenic factors. Copyright © 2018 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  16. Anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngmin; Kwon, Mi-Jin; Choi, Jeong-Wook; Lee, Min-Kyeong; Kim, Chorong; Jung, Jaehun; Aprianita, Heny; Nam, Heesop; Nam, Taek-Jeong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract in C57BL/6N mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet (HFD). We determined the anti-obesity effects of boiled tuna extract (100, 200, or 400 mg/kg) on the progression of HFD-induced obesity for 10 weeks. The mice were divided into 5 groups as follows: the normal diet (ND) group (n=10); the HFD group (n=10); the mice fed HFD and 100 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); those fed a HFD and 200 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10); and those fed a HFD and 400 mg/kg boiled tuna extract group (n=10). Changes in body weight, fat content, serum lipid levels and lipogenic enzyme levels were measured. The consumption of boiled tuna extract lowered epididymal tissue weight and exerted anti-obesity effects, as reflected by the serum glucose, triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL‑C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), insulin and leptin levels. In addition, we demonstrated changes in liver adipogenic- and lipogenic-related protein expression by western blot analysis. Boiled tuna extract downregulated the levels of the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein α, β and δ (C/EBPα, β, δ), and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) adipocyte marker genes. Boiled tuna extract also attenuated adipogenic and lipogenic gene expression, namely the levels of fatty acid synthase (FAS), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) and phosphorylated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase α and β (AMPKα, β) in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, the consumption of boiled tuna extract restored the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) to those of the control group. These results

  17. Obesity and weight management in the elderly: a focus on men.

    PubMed

    Han, T S; Wu, F C W; Lean, M E J

    2013-08-01

    The rising rate of overweight/obesity among the ever-growing ageing population is imposing massive and rapidly changing burdens of ill health. The observation that the BMI value associated with the lowest relative mortality is slightly higher in older than in younger adults, mainly through its reduced impact on coronary heart disease, has often been misinterpreted that obesity is not as harmful in the elderly, who suffer a large range of disabling consequences of obesity. All medical consequences of obesity are multi-factorial and most alleviated by modest, achievable weight loss (5-10 kg) with an evidence-based maintenance strategy. But severe obesity, e.g. BMI >40 may demand greater weight loss e.g. >15 kg to reverse type 2 diabetes. Since relatively reduced physical activity and reduced muscle mass (sarcopenic obesity) are common in the elderly, combining exercise and modest calorie restriction optimally reduces fat mass and preserves muscle mass - age presents no obstacle and reducing polypharmacy is a valuable outcome. The currently licensed drug orlistat has no age-related hazards and is effective in a low fat diet, but the risks from bariatric surgery begin to outweigh benefits above age 60. For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue liraglutide appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Obesity and sarcopenia should be prevented from younger age and during life-transitions including retiral to improve future health outcomes and quality of life, with a focus on those in "obese families". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Role of lipase in the regulation of postprandial gastric acid secretion and emptying of fat in humans: a study with orlistat, a highly specific lipase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Borovicka, J; Schwizer, W; Guttmann, G; Hartmann, D; Kosinski, M; Wastiel, C; Bischof-Delaloye, A; Fried, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—To investigate the importance of lipase on gastric functions, we studied the effects of orlistat, a potent and specific inhibitor of lipase, on postprandial gastric acidity and gastric emptying of fat.
METHODS—Fourteen healthy volunteers participated in a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised study. In a two way cross over study with two test periods of five days, separated by at least 14 days, orlistat 120 mg three times daily or placebo was given with standardised daily meals. In previous experiments we found that this dose almost completely inhibited postprandial duodenal lipase activity. Subjects underwent 28 hour intragastric pH-metry on day 4, and a gastric emptying study with a mixed meal (800 kcal) labelled with 999mTc sulphur colloid (solids) and 111Inthiocyanate (fat) on day 5. Gastric pH data were analysed for three postprandial hours and the interdigestive periods.
RESULTS—Orlistat inhibited almost completely (by 75%) lipase activity and accelerated gastric emptying of both the solid (by 52%) and fat (by 44%) phases of the mixed meal (p<0.03). Orlistat increased postprandial gastric acidity (from a median pH of 3.3 to 2.7; p<0.01). Postprandial cholecystokinin release was lower with orlistat (p<0.03).
CONCLUSION—Lipase has an important role in the regulation of postprandial gastric acid secretion and fat emptying in humans. These effects might be explained by lipolysis induced release of cholecystokinin.


Keywords: lipase; orlistat; gastric secretion; gastric emptying; pH-metry PMID:10807887

  19. Direct anti-atherosclerotic therapy; development of natural anti-atherosclerotic drugs preventing cellular cholesterol retention.

    PubMed

    Orekhov, Alexander N

    2013-01-01

    The results of numerous clinical trials with statins and other drugs have demonstrated the principal possibility of the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis by pharmacotherapy. This review describes the use of cultured human arterial cells for the mass screening of anti-atherosclerotic substances, the investigation of the mechanisms responsible for their atherosclerosis-related effects, and the optimization of anti-atherosclerotic and anti-atherogenic drug and dietary therapies. Natural products can be considered promising drugs for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. Our basic studies have shown that cellular lipidosis is the principal event in the genesis of atherosclerotic lesions. Using cellular models and natural products, we have developed an approach to prevent lipid accumulation in arterial cells. Based on our knowledge of atherosclerosis, we developed drugs that possess direct anti-atherosclerotic activity. Two-year treatment with allicor (garlic powder) has a direct anti-atherosclerotic effect on carotid atherosclerosis in asymptomatic men. Inflaminat (calendula, elder, and violet), which possesses anti-cytokine activity, has been shown to cause the regression of carotid atherosclerosis following the treatment of asymptomatic men for one year. The phytoestrogen-rich drug karinat (garlic powder, extract of grape seeds, green tea leaves, hop cones, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, and ascorbic acid) prevents the development of carotid atherosclerosis in postmenopausal women. Thus, our basic findings were successfully translated into clinical practice. Because of this translation, a novel approach to antiatherosclerotic therapy was developed. Our clinical trial confirmed the efficacy of both the novel approach and the novel drugs.

  20. Nano anti-cancer drugs: pros and cons and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran

    2011-02-01

    For last one decade, scientists are working for developing nano anti-cancer drugs with claim of ideal ones due to their targeted chemotherapic nature. These drugs have many beneficial properties such as targeted drug delivery and gene therapy modalities with minimum side effects. This article describes pros and cons and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. Efforts have been made to address importance, special features, toxicities (general, blood identities, immune system and environmental) and future perspectives of nano anti-cancer drugs. It was concluded that nano anti-cancer drugs may be magic bullet drugs for cancer treatment leading to bright future of the whole world.

  1. A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet vs orlistat plus a low-fat diet for weight loss.

    PubMed

    Yancy, William S; Westman, Eric C; McDuffie, Jennifer R; Grambow, Steven C; Jeffreys, Amy S; Bolton, Jamiyla; Chalecki, Allison; Oddone, Eugene Z

    2010-01-25

    Two potent weight loss therapies, a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (LCKD) and orlistat therapy combined with a low-fat diet (O + LFD), are available to the public but, to our knowledge, have never been compared. Overweight or obese outpatients (n = 146) from the Department of Veterans Affairs primary care clinics in Durham, North Carolina, were randomized to either LCKD instruction (initially, <20 g of carbohydrate daily) or orlistat therapy, 120 mg orally 3 times daily, plus low-fat diet instruction (<30% energy from fat, 500-1000 kcal/d deficit) delivered at group meetings over 48 weeks. Main outcome measures were body weight, blood pressure, fasting serum lipid, and glycemic parameters. The mean age was 52 years and mean body mass index was 39.3 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared); 72% were men, 55% were black, and 32% had type 2 diabetes mellitus. Of the study participants, 57 of the LCKD group (79%) and 65 of the O + LFD group (88%) completed measurements at 48 weeks. Weight loss was similar for the LCKD (expected mean change, -9.5%) and the O + LFD (-8.5%) (P = .60 for comparison) groups. The LCKD had a more beneficial impact than O + LFD on systolic (-5.9 vs 1.5 mm Hg) and diastolic (-4.5 vs 0.4 mm Hg) blood pressures (P < .001 for both comparisons). High-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride levels improved similarly within both groups. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels improved within the O + LFD group only, whereas glucose, insulin, and hemoglobin A(1c) levels improved within the LCKD group only; comparisons between groups, however, were not statistically significant. In a sample of medical outpatients, an LCKD led to similar improvements as O + LFD for weight, serum lipid, and glycemic parameters and was more effective for lowering blood pressure. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00108524.

  2. Clinical features and treatment of drug fever caused by anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yong; Xiao, Heping; Tang, Shenjie; Liang, Li; Sha, Wei; Fang, Yuanyuan

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis is a major global health problem. However, anti-tuberculosis drug treatment has many adverse effects, such as drug-caused fever. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical features and treatments of anti-tuberculosis drugs-induced fever. A total of 78 inpatients and outpatients with pulmonary tuberculosis accompanied by drug fever during the anti-tuberculosis treatment were analysed retrospectively from April 2006 to March 2013. Among the anti-tuberculosis drugs that caused the drug fever, rifampicin was the most common one, followed by para-aminosalicylic and pyrazinamide. The symptoms occurred within 2 months after treatment, mainly in the 1-3 weeks, and the main symptom was high fever with body temperature above 39°C. The accompanying symptoms include rash, chills, headache, stuffy nose, runny nose, nausea, vomiting and joint pain. Routine blood examination found that eosinophilia increased in 15 cases and decreased in another 15. Among 63 patients who underwent liver function tests, there were 10 cases of abnormal function and 4 cases of liver damage. When the drug fever was suspected, the measure of withdrawal was taken first. All the suspected drugs were withdrawn in 59 cases, while gradual withdrawal was conducted in 19 cases. Patients with complications were first treated in accordance with the principles of complications treatment and then were gradually given some drugs after recovery. The patients without complications were gradually given some drugs after the body temperature was back to normal. Drug fever is an allergic reaction, the resolution of which depends on whether it was accompanied by liver damage and/or rash or not. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Type 2 diabetes and obesity in adults.

    PubMed

    Whitmore, Catherine

    There are approximately 2.5 million people in the UK with diabetes; 85-95% of whom have type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance and impaired insulin secretion. As approximately 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight or obese, obesity is seen as a significant contributory factor in its development. This article aims to examine some of the physiological mechanisms by which overweight and obesity contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes, and review some of the approaches to managing overweight and obesity in the person with established type 2 diabetes, including dietary management, the use of reduced carbohydrate diets on glycamic control, anti-diabetes and anti-obesity drugs both in use and in development, and bariatric surgery.

  4. Emerging paradigms in anti-infective drug design.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Michael P; Croft, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for new drugs to treat microbial infections is pressing. The great progress made in the middle part of the twentieth Century was followed by a period of relative inactivity as the medical needs relating to infectious disease in the wealthier nations receded. Growing realisation that anti-infectives are needed in many parts of the world, to treat neglected diseases as well as to combat the burgeoning risk of resistance to existing drugs, has galvanised a new wave of research into anti-microbial drugs. The transfer of knowledge from the Pharmaceutical industry relating to the importance of understanding how to target drugs successfully within the body, and improved understanding of how pathogens interact with their hosts, is driving a series of new paradigms in anti-infective drug design. Here we provide an overview of those processes as an introduction to a series of articles from experts in this area that emerged from a meeting entitled "Emerging Paradigms in Anti-Infective Drug Design" held in London on the 17th and 18th September 2012. The symposium was organised jointly by British Society for Parasitology (BSP) and the Biological & Medicinal Chemistry sector of the Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) and held at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. The symposium set out to cover all aspects of the identification of new therapeutic modalities for the treatment of neglected and tropical diseases. We aimed to bring together leading scientists from all the disciplines working in this field and cover the pharmacology, medicinal chemistry and drug delivery of potential new medicines. Sessions were held on: "Target diseases and targets for drugs", "Target based medicinal chemistry", "Bioavailability and chemistry", "Targeting intracellular microbes", "Alternative approaches and models", and "New anti-infectives - how do we get there?" This symposium was organised by Simon Croft (LSHTM) and Mike Barrett (University of Glasgow) for the BSP, and David

  5. Detection of thermogenesis in rodents in response to anti-obesity drugs and genetic modification

    PubMed Central

    Arch, Jonathan R. S.; Trayhurn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Many compounds and genetic manipulations are claimed to confer resistance to obesity in rodents by raising energy expenditure. Examples taken from recent and older literature, demonstrate that such claims are often based on measurements of energy expenditure after body composition has changed, and depend on comparisons of energy expenditure divided by body weight. This is misleading because white adipose tissue has less influence than lean tissue on energy expenditure. Application of this approach to human data would suggest that human obesity is usually due to a low metabolic rate, which is not an accepted view. Increased energy expenditure per animal is a surer way of demonstrating thermogenesis, but even then it is important to know whether this is due to altered body composition (repartitioning), or increased locomotor activity rather than thermogenesis per se. Regression analysis offers other approaches. The thermogenic response to some compounds has a rapid onset and so cannot be due to altered body composition. These compounds usually mimic or activate the sympathetic nervous system. Thermogenesis occurs in, but may not be confined to, brown adipose tissue. It should not be assumed that weight loss in response to these treatments is due to thermogenesis unless there is a sustained increase in 24-h energy expenditure. Thyroid hormones and fibroblast growth factor 21 also raise energy expenditure before they affect body composition. Some treatments and genetic modifications alter the diurnal rhythm of energy expenditure. It is important to establish whether this is due to altered locomotor activity or efficiency of locomotion. There are no good examples of compounds that do not affect short-term energy expenditure but have a delayed effect. How and under what conditions a genetic modification or compound increases energy expenditure influences the decision on whether to seek drugs for the target or take a candidate drug into clinical studies. PMID:23580228

  6. Anti-Obesity Effects of Onion Extract in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoshinari, Orie; Shiojima, Yoshiaki; Igarashi, Kiharu

    2012-01-01

    Anti-obesity effects of onion extract were determined in obesity and diabetes-prone Zucker diabetic fatty rats by measuring the efficacy of markers concerned with diabetes and obesity. Body and adipose tissue weights in 5% of onion extract-fed group were found to be significantly lower than the control group without onion extract. Fasting blood glucose and HOMA-IR levels were also improved, although the serum insulin and leptin levels did not show any remarkable difference. Serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in both the 3% and 5%-fed group were found to be reduced compared to the control group. Additionally the feeding of the onion extract increased the glucose tolerance. These results suggest that dietary onion extract is beneficial for improving diabetes by decreasing lipid levels. We also examined differentiation ability of rat white preadipocyte cells using the onion extract and its sulfur-containing components. Cycloalliin, S-methyl-L-cysteine, S-propyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide, dimethyl trisulfide, especially S-methyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide were reported to be effective in inhibiting formation of oil drop in the cells, suggesting that these compounds may be involved in the anti-obesity effect of the onion extract. PMID:23201769

  7. DGAT inhibitors for obesity.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Daisuke; Tomoda, Hiroshi

    2007-10-01

    Obesity is characterized by the accumulation of triacylglycerol in adipocytes. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) catalyzes the final reaction of triacylgycerol synthesis. Two isozymes of DGAT, DGAT1 and DGAT2, have been reported. Increased DGAT2 activity has a role in steatosis, while DGAT1 plays a role in very (V)LDL synthesis; increased plasma VLDL concentrations may promote obesity and thus DGAT1 is considered a potential therapeutic target of inhibition for obesity control. Several DGAT inhibitors of natural and synthetic origin have been reported, and their future prospect as anti-obesity drugs is discussed in this review.

  8. 49 CFR 199.101 - Anti-drug plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing...; (2) The name and address of each laboratory that analyzes the specimens collected for drug testing... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Anti-drug plan. 199.101 Section 199.101...

  9. 49 CFR 199.101 - Anti-drug plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing...; (2) The name and address of each laboratory that analyzes the specimens collected for drug testing... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Anti-drug plan. 199.101 Section 199.101...

  10. Nanosized soy phytosome-based thermogel as topical anti-obesity formulation: an approach for acceptable level of evidence of an effective novel herbal weight loss product.

    PubMed

    El-Menshawe, Shahira F; Ali, Adel A; Rabeh, Mohamed A; Khalil, Nermeen M

    2018-01-01

    Herbal supplements are currently available as a safer alternative to manage obesity, which has become a rising problem over the recent years. Many chemical drugs on the market are designed to prevent or manage obesity but high cost, low efficacy, and multiple side effects limit its use. Nano lipo-vesicles phytosomal thermogel of Soybean, Glycine max ( L .) Merrill, was formulated and evaluated in an attempt to investigate its anti-obesity action on body weight gain, adipose tissue size, and lipid profile data. Three different techniques were used to prepare phytosome formulations including solvent evaporation, cosolvency, and salting out. The optimized phytosome formulation was then selected using Design Expert ® (version 7.0.0) depending on the highest entrapment efficiency, minimum particle size (PS), and maximum drug release within 2 hours as responses for further evaluation. The successful phytosome complex formation was investigated by means of Fourier-transform infrared spec troscopy and determination of PS and zeta potential. Phytosome vesicles' shape was evaluated using transmission electron microscope to ensure its spherical shape. After characterization of the optimized phytosome formulation, it was incorporated into a thermogel formulation. The obtained phytosomal thermogel formulation was evaluated for its clarity, homogeneity, pH, and gel transformation temperature besides rheology behavior and permeation study. An in vivo study was done to investigate the anti-weight-gain effect of soy phytosomal ther mogel. EE was found to be >99% for all formulations, PS ranging from 51.66-650.67 while drug release was found to be (77.61-99.78) in range. FTIR and TEM results confirmed the formation of phytosome complex. In vivo study showed a marked reduction in body weight, adipose tissue weight and lipid profile. Concisely, soy phytosomal thermogel was found to have a local anti-obesity effect on the abdomen of experimental male albino rats with a slight systemic

  11. Nanosized soy phytosome-based thermogel as topical anti-obesity formulation: an approach for acceptable level of evidence of an effective novel herbal weight loss product

    PubMed Central

    El-Menshawe, Shahira F; Ali, Adel A; Rabeh, Mohamed A; Khalil, Nermeen M

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Herbal supplements are currently available as a safer alternative to manage obesity, which has become a rising problem over the recent years. Many chemical drugs on the market are designed to prevent or manage obesity but high cost, low efficacy, and multiple side effects limit its use. Nano lipo-vesicles phytosomal thermogel of Soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill, was formulated and evaluated in an attempt to investigate its anti-obesity action on body weight gain, adipose tissue size, and lipid profile data. Methods Three different techniques were used to prepare phytosome formulations including solvent evaporation, cosolvency, and salting out. The optimized phytosome formulation was then selected using Design Expert® (version 7.0.0) depending on the highest entrapment efficiency, minimum particle size (PS), and maximum drug release within 2 hours as responses for further evaluation. The successful phytosome complex formation was investigated by means of Fourier-transform infrared spec troscopy and determination of PS and zeta potential. Phytosome vesicles’ shape was evaluated using transmission electron microscope to ensure its spherical shape. After characterization of the optimized phytosome formulation, it was incorporated into a thermogel formulation. The obtained phytosomal thermogel formulation was evaluated for its clarity, homogeneity, pH, and gel transformation temperature besides rheology behavior and permeation study. An in vivo study was done to investigate the anti-weight-gain effect of soy phytosomal ther mogel. Results EE was found to be >99% for all formulations, PS ranging from 51.66–650.67 while drug release was found to be (77.61–99.78) in range. FTIR and TEM results confirmed the formation of phytosome complex. In vivo study showed a marked reduction in body weight, adipose tissue weight and lipid profile. Conclusion Concisely, soy phytosomal thermogel was found to have a local anti-obesity effect on the abdomen of experimental

  12. Considerations and caveats in anti-virulence drug development

    PubMed Central

    Maura, Damien; Ballok, Alicia E.; Rahme, Laurence G.

    2016-01-01

    As antibiotic resistance remains a major public health threat, anti-virulence therapy research is gaining interest. Hundreds of potential anti-virulence compounds have been examined, but very few have made it to clinical trials and none have been approved. This review surveys the current anti-virulence research field with a focus on the highly resistant and deadly ESKAPE pathogens, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We discuss timely considerations and caveats in anti-virulence drug development, including target identification, administration, preclinical development, and metrics for success in clinical trials. Development of a defined pipeline for anti-virulence agents, which differs in important ways from conventional antibiotics, is imperative for the future success of these critically needed drugs. PMID:27318551

  13. 49 CFR 199.119 - Reporting of anti-drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reporting of anti-drug testing results. 199.119... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.119 Reporting of anti-drug testing results. (a) Each large operator...

  14. 49 CFR 199.119 - Reporting of anti-drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reporting of anti-drug testing results. 199.119... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.119 Reporting of anti-drug testing results. (a) Each large operator...

  15. 49 CFR 199.119 - Reporting of anti-drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reporting of anti-drug testing results. 199.119... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.119 Reporting of anti-drug testing results. (a) Each large operator...

  16. 49 CFR 199.119 - Reporting of anti-drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting of anti-drug testing results. 199.119... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.119 Reporting of anti-drug testing results. (a) Each large operator...

  17. 49 CFR 199.119 - Reporting of anti-drug testing results.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reporting of anti-drug testing results. 199.119... HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING Drug Testing § 199.119 Reporting of anti-drug testing results. (a) Each large operator...

  18. Comanagement of Pediatric Depression and Obesity: A Clear Need for Evidence.

    PubMed

    Mihalopoulos, Nicole L; Spigarelli, Michael G

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a review of the existing literature for the comanagement of depression and obesity in the pediatric population. A review of the current literature was conducted using EBSCOhost and EMBASE to identify evidence and recommendations for the comanagement of depression and obesity among children and adolescents (aged 2-18 years). Additional search criteria included peer-reviewed, English language-only full-text articles published before August 2015. Multiple factors contribute to and influence the interplay of obesity and depression in the pediatric population. These 2 chronic conditions are affected by multiple factors, including the roles of the family, school, health care practitioners, and access to health care. In addition, there are no formal recommendations for the treatment of depression in the setting of obesity for pediatric or adult populations, and there is only medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (orlistat) for the treatment of obesity in the adolescent population. Bariatric surgery may play a role in some adolescents, but larger and long-term clinical studies with the use of therapeutic agents in conjunction with lifestyle modification need to be conducted to support this. The interrelatedness of these 2 separate diseases is not well understood; the presence of 1 of the diseases clearly contributes to the manifestation of the other and likely to the ability to treat the other disease. Current focus is on modifying behavior to decrease weight. Weight loss is associated with improvement in depressive symptoms but may not be adequate to treat depression. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Nature is the best source of anti-inflammatory drugs: indexing natural products for their anti-inflammatory bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Aswad, Miran; Rayan, Mahmoud; Abu-Lafi, Saleh; Falah, Mizied; Raiyn, Jamal; Abdallah, Ziyad; Rayan, Anwar

    2018-01-01

    The aim was to index natural products for less expensive preventive or curative anti-inflammatory therapeutic drugs. A set of 441 anti-inflammatory drugs representing the active domain and 2892 natural products representing the inactive domain was used to construct a predictive model for bioactivity-indexing purposes. The model for indexing the natural products for potential anti-inflammatory activity was constructed using the iterative stochastic elimination algorithm (ISE). ISE is capable of differentiating between active and inactive anti-inflammatory molecules. By applying the prediction model to a mix set of (active/inactive) substances, we managed to capture 38% of the anti-inflammatory drugs in the top 1% of the screened set of chemicals, yielding enrichment factor of 38. Ten natural products that scored highly as potential anti-inflammatory drug candidates are disclosed. Searching the PubMed revealed that only three molecules (Moupinamide, Capsaicin, and Hypaphorine) out of the ten were tested and reported as anti-inflammatory. The other seven phytochemicals await evaluation for their anti-inflammatory activity in wet lab. The proposed anti-inflammatory model can be utilized for the virtual screening of large chemical databases and for indexing natural products for potential anti-inflammatory activity.

  20. Obesity and drug pharmacology: a review of the influence of obesity on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters.

    PubMed

    Smit, Cornelis; De Hoogd, Sjoerd; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2018-03-01

    The rising prevalence of obesity confronts clinicians with dosing problems in the (extreme) overweight population. Obesity has a great impact on key organs that play a role in the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of drugs, however the ultimate impact of these changes on how to adapt the dose may not always be known. Areas covered: In this review, physiological changes associated with obesity are discussed. An overview is provided on the alterations in absorption, distribution, drug metabolism and clearance in (morbid) obesity focusing on general principles that can be extracted from pharmacokinetic studies. Also, relevant pharmacodynamic considerations in obesity are discussed. Expert opinion: Over the last two decades, increased knowledge is generated on PK and PD in obesity. Future research should focus on filling in the knowledge gaps that remain, especially in connecting obesity-related physiological changes with changes in PK and/or PD and vice versa. Ultimately, this knowledge can be used to develop physiologically based PK and PD models on the basis of quantitative systems pharmacology principles. Moreover, efforts should focus on thorough prospective evaluation of developed model-based doses with subsequent implementation of these dosing recommendations in clinical practice.

  1. A review of late-stage CNS drug candidates for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Heal, D J; Gosden, J; Smith, S L

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is an important causative factor in morbidity, disability and premature death. Increasing levels of obesity will impose enormous health, financial and social burdens on worldwide society unless effective interventions are implemented. For many obese individuals, diet and behavioural modification need to be supplemented by pharmacotherapy. Preclinical research has revealed a greater understanding of the complex nature of the hypothalamic regulation of food intake and has generated a wide range of new molecular targets for the development of drug candidates for obesity treatment. As shown by the clinical results that have been obtained with this next generation of therapies, some approaches, for example, fixed-dose drug combinations, have already demonstrated an ability to deliver levels of efficacy that are not achievable with the current antiobesity drug therapies. The regulatory and marketing landscape for development, registration and commercialisation of novel centrally acting drugs for treatment of obesity and related metabolic disorders has changed substantially in recent years. Now a much greater emphasis is placed on tolerability and safety, as well as efficacy. In this review we briefly describe the therapeutic approaches to tackle obesity that are in late-stage clinical development. We then discuss drugs in late-stage development for the treatment of obesity and also future directions.

  2. The use of lorcaserin in the management of obesity: a critical appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Bo; Wang, Yu

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic disease with a high prevalence in both developed and developing countries. Effective management of this worldwide epidemic will have a significant impact on the health care system globally. Lifestyle interventions, such as restricting calorie consumption and increasing physical activity, remain a major component of weight-reduction programs. The development of pharmacotherapy for the management of obesity is still at the infancy stage. Side effects have been the key issue for anti-obesity drugs previously withdrawn from the market. The focus of this review, lorcaserin, is a selective serotonin receptor agonist that is currently undergoing Phase III evaluations. The efficacy of this drug in reducing body weight and improving metabolic parameters of obese patients has been demonstrated in two recent clinical trials. The available evidence indicates that this drug does not show unwanted effects on heart valves or pulmonary artery pressure, and the treatment improves the risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Despite these promising results, additional experimental and clinical studies are critical for the approval of lorcaserin as a new anti-obesity monodrug therapy by the US Food and Drug Administration. PMID:21267355

  3. The use of lorcaserin in the management of obesity: a critical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Bai, Bo; Wang, Yu

    2010-12-20

    Obesity is a chronic disease with a high prevalence in both developed and developing countries. Effective management of this worldwide epidemic will have a significant impact on the health care system globally. Lifestyle interventions, such as restricting calorie consumption and increasing physical activity, remain a major component of weight-reduction programs. The development of pharmacotherapy for the management of obesity is still at the infancy stage. Side effects have been the key issue for anti-obesity drugs previously withdrawn from the market. The focus of this review, lorcaserin, is a selective serotonin receptor agonist that is currently undergoing Phase III evaluations. The efficacy of this drug in reducing body weight and improving metabolic parameters of obese patients has been demonstrated in two recent clinical trials. The available evidence indicates that this drug does not show unwanted effects on heart valves or pulmonary artery pressure, and the treatment improves the risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Despite these promising results, additional experimental and clinical studies are critical for the approval of lorcaserin as a new anti-obesity monodrug therapy by the US Food and Drug Administration.

  4. Saffron: A Natural Potent Antioxidant as a Promising Anti-Obesity Drug

    PubMed Central

    Mashmoul, Maryam; Azlan, Azrina; Khaza’ai, Huzwah; Mohd Yusof, Barakatun Nisak; Mohd Noor, Sabariah

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with various diseases, particularly diabetes, hypertension, osteoarthritis and heart disease. Research on possibilities of herbal extracts and isolated compounds from natural products for treating obesity has an upward trend. Saffron (Crocus Sativus L. Iridaceae) is a source of plant polyphenols/carotenoids, used as important spice and food colorant in different parts of the world. It has also been used in traditional medicine for treatment of different types of illnesses since ancient times. Many of these medicinal properties of saffron can be attributed to a number of its compounds such as crocetin, crocins and other substances having strong antioxidant and radical scavenger properties against a variety of radical oxygen species and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The aim of this article is to assess the potential role of saffron and its constituents in the regulation of metabolic functions, which can beneficially alter obesity pathophysiology. PMID:26784466

  5. Central and Peripheral Molecular Targets for Anti-Obesity Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Valentino, Michael A.; Lin, Jieru E.; Waldman, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has emerged as one of the principle worldwide health concerns of the modern era, and there exists a tremendous unmet clinical need for safe and effective therapies to combat this global pandemic. The prevalence of obesity and its associated co-morbidities, including cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, has focused drug discovery and development on generating effective modalities for the treatment and prevention of obesity. Early efforts in the field of obesity pharmacotherapy centered on agents with indeterminate mechanisms of action producing treatment paradigms characterized by significant off-target effects. During the past two decades, new insights have been made into the physiologic regulation of energy balance and the subordinate central and peripheral circuits coordinating appetite, metabolism, and lipogenesis. These studies have revealed previously unrecognized molecular targets for controlling appetite and managing weight from which has emerged a new wave of targeted pharmacotherapies to prevent and control obesity. PMID:20445536

  6. Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain ASD: Autism Spectrum Disorder BMI: Body Mass Index SSC: Simons Simplex Collection SNP: Single Nucleotide Polymorphism...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0374 TITLE: Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zohreh...SUBTITLE Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT

  7. Feasibility and antitumor efficacy in vivo, of simultaneously targeting glycolysis, glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis using lonidamine, 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine and orlistat in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Madrid, Diana; Dominguez-Gomez, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Fierro, Aurora; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo the feasibility and efficacy of the combination of lonidamine (LND), 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) and orlistat to simultaneously target glycolysis, glutaminolysis and de novo synthesis of fatty acids, respectively. The doses of LND and DON used in humans were translated to mouse doses (77.7 mg/kg and 145.5 mg/kg, respectively) and orlistat was used at 240 mg/kg. Three schedules of LND, DON and orlistat at different doses were administered by intraperitoneal injection to BALB/c mice in a 21-day cycle (schedule 1: LND, 0.5 mg/day; DON, 0.25 mg/day 1, 5 and 9; orlistat, 240 mg/kg/day; schedule 2: LND, 0.1 mg/day; DON, 0.5 mg/day 1, 5 and 9; orlistat, 240 mg/kg/day; schedule 3: LND, 0.5 mg/day; DON, 0.08 mg/day 1, 5 and 9; orlistat, 360 mg/kg/day) to assess tolerability. To determine the antitumor efficacy, a syngeneic tumor model in BALB/c mice was created using colon cancer CT26.WT cells, and a xenogeneic tumor model was created in nude mice using the human colon cancer SW480 cell line. Mice were treated with schedule 1. Animals were weighed, clinically inspected during the experiment and the tumor volume was measured at day 21. The 3 schedules assessed in the tolerability experiments were well tolerated, as mice maintained their weight and no evident clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Combination treatment with schedule 1 significantly decreased tumor growth in each mouse model. No evident signs of toxicity were observed and mice maintained their weight during treatment. The triple metabolic blockade of the malignant phenotype appears feasible and promising for cancer therapy.

  8. Feasibility and antitumor efficacy in vivo, of simultaneously targeting glycolysis, glutaminolysis and fatty acid synthesis using lonidamine, 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine and orlistat in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cervantes-Madrid, Diana; Dominguez-Gomez, Guadalupe; Gonzalez-Fierro, Aurora; Perez-Cardenas, Enrique; Taja-Chayeb, Lucia; Trejo-Becerril, Catalina; Duenas-Gonzalez, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo the feasibility and efficacy of the combination of lonidamine (LND), 6-diazo-5-oxo-L-norleucine (DON) and orlistat to simultaneously target glycolysis, glutaminolysis and de novo synthesis of fatty acids, respectively. The doses of LND and DON used in humans were translated to mouse doses (77.7 mg/kg and 145.5 mg/kg, respectively) and orlistat was used at 240 mg/kg. Three schedules of LND, DON and orlistat at different doses were administered by intraperitoneal injection to BALB/c mice in a 21-day cycle (schedule 1: LND, 0.5 mg/day; DON, 0.25 mg/day 1, 5 and 9; orlistat, 240 mg/kg/day; schedule 2: LND, 0.1 mg/day; DON, 0.5 mg/day 1, 5 and 9; orlistat, 240 mg/kg/day; schedule 3: LND, 0.5 mg/day; DON, 0.08 mg/day 1, 5 and 9; orlistat, 360 mg/kg/day) to assess tolerability. To determine the antitumor efficacy, a syngeneic tumor model in BALB/c mice was created using colon cancer CT26.WT cells, and a xenogeneic tumor model was created in nude mice using the human colon cancer SW480 cell line. Mice were treated with schedule 1. Animals were weighed, clinically inspected during the experiment and the tumor volume was measured at day 21. The 3 schedules assessed in the tolerability experiments were well tolerated, as mice maintained their weight and no evident clinical signs of toxicity were observed. Combination treatment with schedule 1 significantly decreased tumor growth in each mouse model. No evident signs of toxicity were observed and mice maintained their weight during treatment. The triple metabolic blockade of the malignant phenotype appears feasible and promising for cancer therapy. PMID:28454342

  9. Substandard anti-malarial drugs in Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Tipke, Maike; Diallo, Salou; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Störzinger, Dominic; Hoppe-Tichy, Torsten; Sie, Ali; Müller, Olaf

    2008-01-01

    Background There is concern about an increasing infiltration of markets by substandard and fake medications against life-threatening diseases in developing countries. This is particularly worrying with regard to the increasing resistance development of Plasmodium falciparum against affordable anti-malarial medications, which has led to a change to more expensive drugs in most endemic countries. Methods A representative sample of modern anti-malarial medications from licensed (public and private pharmacies, community health workers) and illicit (market and street vendors, shops) sources has been collected in the Nouna Health District in north-western Burkina Faso in 2006. All drugs were tested for their quality with the standard procedures of the German Pharma Health Fund-Minilab. Detected low standard drugs were re-tested with European Pharmacopoeia 2.9.1 standards for disintegration and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy at the laboratory of the Heidelberg University for confirmation. Results Overall, 86 anti-malarial drug samples were collected, of which 77 samples have been included in the final analysis. The sample consisted of 39/77 (50%) chloroquine, 10/77 (13%) pyrimethamine-sulphadoxine, 9/77 (12%) quinine, 6/77 (8%) amodiaquine, 9/77 (12%) artesunate, and 4/77 (5%) artemether-lumefantrine. 32/77 (42%) drug samples were found to be of poor quality, of which 28 samples failed the visual inspection, nine samples had substandard concentrations of the active ingredient, four samples showed poor disintegration, and one sample contained non of the stated active ingredient. The licensed and the illicit market contributed 5/47 (10.6%) and 27/30 (90.0%) samples of substandard drugs respectively. Conclusion These findings provide further evidence for the wide-spread existence of substandard anti-malarial medications in Africa and call for strengthening of the regulatory and quality control capacity of affected countries, particularly in view of the now wider available

  10. Current pharmacotherapies for obesity: A practical perspective.

    PubMed

    Golden, Angela

    2017-10-01

    To review the currently available pharmacotherapies for obesity management with a particular focus on the United States. Narrative review based on literature searches and the latest prescribing information (up to July 2017). Obesity pharmacotherapies may assist those individuals who have obesity, or overweight with comorbidities, who have failed to maintain weight loss with lifestyle modifications alone (caloric restriction and increased physical activity). Currently approved options in the United States include phentermine for short-term use and five obesity pharmacotherapies that can be used long-term (orlistat, lorcaserin, phentermine-topiramate, naltrexone-bupropion, and liraglutide 3.0 mg). If the use of an obesity pharmacotherapy is indicated, treatment should be selected to provide the most appropriate option for each individual and their circumstances. Variables such as contraindications, individual comorbidities, patient choice, patient readiness to incorporate additional behavioral changes (e.g., alcohol prohibition), and cost should guide choices. Each of the obesity pharmacotherapies has advantages and disadvantages that can help guide treatment choice. Those receiving treatment may also have individual preferences based on factors such as administration route, frequency of dosing, and/or safety profile. In addition, some options may be particularly appropriate for patients with common obesity-related complications such as depression or diabetes. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  11. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in...

  12. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in...

  13. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in...

  14. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in...

  15. 21 CFR 250.11 - Thyroid-containing drug preparations intended for treatment of obesity in humans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment of obesity in humans. 250.11 Section 250.11 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION... of obesity in humans. (a) Investigation by the Food and Drug Administration has revealed that a large... laxatives, are being marketed for or as adjuncts to the treatment, control, or management of obesity in...

  16. The Impact of an Obesity Awareness Intervention on Anti-Fat Attitudes and Expectations of Preservice Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingstrom, Catherine A.; Nagel, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity and the decline of physical activity are real concerns for physical educators. Physical educators are in a key position to positively affect physical activity among youth at risk for obesity; however, the presence of an anti-fat bias may inhibit their ability to effectively do so. By addressing anti-fat bias, not only in physical…

  17. Drug withdrawal and hyperphagia: lessons from tobacco and other drugs.

    PubMed

    Edge, Paula J; Gold, Mark S

    2011-01-01

    'Globesity' is a descriptive term for the obesity epidemic now facing the U.S. and indeed, the world. Hyperphagia (i.e. overeating) can lead to metabolic syndrome which in turn can lead to Type 2 diabetes mellitus, heart disease, stroke and some cancers. The World Health Organization even states that more people die each year from the consequences of obesity than from hunger. Something must be done to stem the tsunami of obesity and its resultant medical complications. Our work and that of others suggests that new obesity treatments and anti-obesity medications should be based on those already successful in treating other addictions. This paper looks at empirical evidence linking addictions to food and to drugs such as tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, amphetamines, and cocaine. Hypotheses are put forth as to why hyperphagia is so difficult to treat. Additionally, prenatal programming for addiction is explored. Lessons from successful drug treatment are elucidated and potential pharmaceutical targets for hyperphagia and obesity are suggested.

  18. Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction.

    PubMed

    Volkow, N D; Wang, G J; Fowler, J S; Tomasi, D; Baler, R

    2012-01-01

    Both drug addiction and obesity can be defined as disorders in which the saliency value of one type of reward (drugs and food, respectively) becomes abnormally enhanced relative to, and at the expense of others. This model is consistent with the fact that both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects-partly mediated by dopamine increases in the limbic system-that, under certain circumstances or in vulnerable individuals, could overwhelm the brain's homeostatic control mechanisms. Such parallels have generated significant interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities and trajectories between addiction and obesity. Now, brain imaging discoveries have started to uncover common features between these two conditions and to delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may explain stereotypic and related behavioral deficits in human subjects. These results suggest that both obese and drug-addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning (memory/learning), impulse control (behavioural inhibition), stress reactivity, and interoceptive awareness. Here, we integrate findings predominantly derived from positron emission tomography that shed light on the role of dopamine in drug addiction and in obesity, and propose an updated working model to help identify treatment strategies that may benefit both of these conditions.

  19. Obesity: an endocrine tumor?

    PubMed

    Dizdar, Omer; Alyamaç, Evrim

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most common disorders in clinical practice. The prevalance of obesity has increased by more than 60% since 1990. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting many factors into the blood, known as adipokines, including leptin, adipsin, acylation-stimulating protein, adiponectin, etc. This article examines the hypothesis that obesity may be evaluated as an endocrine tumor, regarding its genetic basis, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes, neovascularisation within the adipose tissue associated with growth, and beneficisal metabolic effects of surgical removal of excess adipose tissue by liposuction. Assuming obesity as an endocrine tumor may bring out new treatment modalities. Liposuction as "cytoreductive surgery", antiangiogenic teraphy or anti-neoplastic drugs may be important components of obesity treatment in future.

  20. Side effects associated with anti-HIV drugs.

    PubMed

    Highleyman, L

    1998-04-01

    Many side effects are associated with the use of anti-HIV drugs, impacting the development of drug resistance and the quality of life for HIV-patients. Concern about side effects is a primary factor in deterring people from beginning HIV therapy. Frequency and severity of side effects vary greatly, but they are frequently more common and severe in people who are taking a new drug or who have advanced HIV disease. Information on side effects comes largely from clinical trials; however, many side effects are not discovered until the drug has been approved and used by larger numbers of people. Side effects vary from serious toxicities that require stopping treatment to uncomfortable or annoying side effects that interfere with daily life. A table categorizes the four major side effects (nausea, fever, skin rash, and fatigue) and divides them into grades that describe their intensity. A chart lists the side effects associated with specific anti-HIV drugs. Suggestions for managing side effects are included.

  1. Structural investigation of chitosan-based microspheres with some anti-inflammatory drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreve, Simina; Kacso, Iren; Popa, Adriana; Raita, Oana; Dragan, Felicia; Bende, A.; Borodi, Gh.; Bratu, I.

    2011-06-01

    The use of chitosan as an excipient in oral formulations, as a drug delivery vehicle for ulcerogenic anti-inflammatory drugs and as base in polyelectrolyte complex systems, to prepare solid release systems as sponges was investigated. The preparation by double emulsification of chitosan hydrogels carrying diclofenac, acetyl-salycilic acid and hydrocortisone acetate as anti-inflammatory drugs is reported. The concentration of anti-inflammatory drug in the chitosan hydrogel generating the sponges was 0.08 mmol. Chitosan-drug loaded sponges with anti-inflammatory drugs were prepared by freeze-drying at -60 °C and 0.009 atm. Structural investigations of the solid formulations were done by Fourier-transformed infrared and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, spectrofluorimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry. The results indicated that the drug molecules are forming temporary chelates in chitosan hydrogels and sponges. Electron paramagnetic resonance demonstrates the presence of free radicals in a wide range and the antioxidant activity for chitosan-drug supramolecular cross-linked assemblies.

  2. Drug Targets for Cardiovascular-Safe Anti-Inflammatory: In Silico Rational Drug Studies

    PubMed Central

    Shahbazi, Sajad; Sahrawat, Tammanna R.; Ray, Monalisa; Dash, Swagatika; Kar, Dattatreya; Singh, Shikha

    2016-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) plays an important role in memory consolidation and synaptic activity, the most fundamental functions of the brain. It converts arachidonic acid to prostaglandin endoperoxide H2. In contrast, if over-expressed, it causes inflammation in response to cytokine, pro-inflammatory molecule, and growth factor. Anti-inflammatory agents, by allosteric or competitive inhibition of COX-2, alleviate the symptoms of inflammation. Coxib family drugs, particularly celecoxib, are the most famous anti-inflammatory agents available in the market showing significant inhibitory effect on COX-2 activity. Due to high cardiovascular risk of this drug group, recent researches are focused on the investigation of new safer drugs for anti-inflammatory diseases. Natural compounds, particularly, phytochemicals are found to be good candidates for drug designing and discovery. In the present study, we performed in silico studies to quantitatively scrutinize the molecular interaction of curcumin and its structural analogs with COX-2, COX-1, FXa and integrin αIIbβIII to investigate their therapeutic potential as a cardiovascular-safe anti-inflammatory medicine (CVSAIM). The results of both ADMET and docking study indicated that out of all the 39 compounds studied, caffeic acid had remarkable interaction with proteins involved in inflammatory response. It was also found to inhibit the proteins that are involved in thrombosis, thereby, having the potential to be developed as therapeutic agent. PMID:27258084

  3. Reporting of harms outcomes: a comparison of journal publications with unpublished clinical study reports of orlistat trials.

    PubMed

    Hodkinson, Alex; Gamble, Carrol; Smith, Catrin Tudur

    2016-04-22

    The quality of harms reporting in journal publications is often poor, which can impede the risk-benefit interpretation of a clinical trial. Clinical study reports can provide more reliable, complete, and informative data on harms compared to the corresponding journal publication. This case study compares the quality and quantity of harms data reported in journal publications and clinical study reports of orlistat trials. Publications related to clinical trials of orlistat were identified through comprehensive literature searches. A request was made to Roche (Genentech; South San Francisco, CA, USA) for clinical study reports related to the orlistat trials identified in our search. We compared adverse events, serious adverse events, and the reporting of 15 harms criteria in both document types and compared meta-analytic results using data from the clinical study reports against the journal publications. Five journal publications with matching clinical study reports were available for five independent clinical trials. Journal publications did not always report the complete list of identified adverse events and serious adverse events. We found some differences in the magnitude of the pooled risk difference between both document types with a statistically significant risk difference for three adverse events and two serious adverse events using data reported in the clinical study reports; these events were of mild intensity and unrelated to the orlistat. The CONSORT harms reporting criteria were often satisfied in the methods section of the clinical study reports (70-90 % of the methods section criteria satisfied in the clinical study reports compared to 10-50 % in the journal publications), but both document types satisfied 80-100 % of the results section criteria, albeit with greater detail being provided in the clinical study reports. In this case study, journal publications provided insufficient information on harms outcomes of clinical trials and did not specify

  4. Obesity: which drug and when?

    PubMed

    Lean, M; Mullan, A

    2007-09-01

    Obesity, with all its consequences, is audaciously confronting medical professionals and health service providers worldwide. Diet and exercise intervention is an essential part of any weight management strategy, but may not succeed in isolation. Effective approaches for routine practice are more likely to involve affordable, efficacious and well-tolerated drug therapy than the more expensive, case selective approach of bariatric surgery. Advancement of pharmacotherapy is expanding the battery of available drugs; the clinician is faced with an increasingly complex therapeutic decision. Which drug to use, and when, is influenced by a range of factors, discussed here. There is a large body of high quality evidence in the literature to support the presently available drugs; however, many questions remain unanswered including duration of therapy and whether longer-term goals of improved morbidity and mortality are achievable. Clinician and patient awareness of these issues will provide a more informed therapeutic decision and ultimately improve the potential for reaching the weight management targets.

  5. Anti-Obesity Effects of Starter Fermented Kimchi on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Hee; Song, Jia-Le; Park, Eui-Seong; Ju, Jaehyun; Kim, Hee-Young; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-01-01

    The anti-obesity effects of starter (Leuconostoc mesenteroides+Lactobacillus plantarum) fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocyte were studied using naturally fermented kimchi (NK), a functional kimchi (FK, NK supplemented with green tea), and FK supplemented with added starters (FKS). Oil red O staining and cellular levels of triglyceride (TG) and glycerol were used to evaluate the in vitro anti-obesity effects of these kimchis in 3T3-L1 cells. The expressions of adipogenesis/lipogenesis-related genes of peroxisome proliferator-active receptor (PPAR)-γ, CCAAT/enhance-binding protein (C/EBP)-α, and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were determined by RT-PCR. Kimchis, especially FKS, markedly decreased TG levels and increased levels of intracellular glycerol and lipid lipolysis. In addition, FKS also reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR-γ, C/EBP-α, and FAS, which are related to adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. These results suggest the anti-obesity effects of FKS were to due to enhanced lipolysis and reduced adipogenesis/lipogenesis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. PMID:26770918

  6. Anti-Cyanide Drugs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    EIIIIIEEEEEI I- IWO -𔃻p8 JOCOPY RESOLUfI()N T 5%% Ln AD 00 Anti-Cyanide Drugs Annual Summary Report Peter Hambright Department of Chemistry Howard University Washington...No. DAMD-17-85-C-5086 Howard University Washington D.C. 20059 TIC Approved for public release; 1L9CT7 distribution unlimited 0 The findings in this...NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT, TASK:.,g. ARE[A & WORK UNIT NUMBERS Howard University , Dept of Chemistry Washington, D.C. 20059 I1

  7. Obesity: Pathophysiology and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Ju; Yao, Jianliang; Ji, Gang; Qian, Long; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Guansheng; Tian, Jie; Nie, Yongzhan; Zhang, Yi Edi.; Gold, Mark S.; Liu, Yijun

    2014-01-01

    Obesity presents a major health hazard of the 21st century. It promotes co-morbid diseases such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes, obstructive sleep apnea, certain types of cancer, and osteoarthritis. Excessive energy intake, physical inactivity, and genetic susceptibility are main causal factors for obesity, while gene mutations, endocrine disorders, medication, or psychiatric illnesses may be underlying causes in some cases. The development and maintenance of obesity may involve central pathophysiological mechanisms such as impaired brain circuit regulation and neuroendocrine hormone dysfunction. Dieting and physical exercise offer the mainstays of obesity treatment, and anti-obesity drugs may be taken in conjunction to reduce appetite or fat absorption. Bariatric surgeries may be performed in overtly obese patients to lessen stomach volume and nutrient absorption, and induce faster satiety. This review provides a summary of literature on the pathophysiological studies of obesity and discusses relevant therapeutic strategies for managing obesity. PMID:25412152

  8. The anti-addiction drug ibogaine and the heart: a delicate relation.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Xaver; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2015-01-29

    The plant indole alkaloid ibogaine has shown promising anti-addictive properties in animal studies. Ibogaine is also anti-addictive in humans as the drug alleviates drug craving and impedes relapse of drug use. Although not licensed as therapeutic drug and despite safety concerns, ibogaine is currently used as an anti-addiction medication in alternative medicine in dozens of clinics worldwide. In recent years, alarming reports of life-threatening complications and sudden death cases, temporally associated with the administration of ibogaine, have been accumulating. These adverse reactions were hypothesised to be associated with ibogaine's propensity to induce cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this review is to recapitulate the current knowledge about ibogaine's effects on the heart and the cardiovascular system, and to assess the cardiac risks associated with the use of this drug in anti- addiction therapy. The actions of 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a less toxic ibogaine congener with anti-addictive properties, are also considered.

  9. The Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine and the Heart: A Delicate Relation

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Xaver; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2015-01-01

    The plant indole alkaloid ibogaine has shown promising anti-addictive properties in animal studies. Ibogaine is also anti-addictive in humans as the drug alleviates drug craving and impedes relapse of drug use. Although not licensed as therapeutic drug and despite safety concerns, ibogaine is currently used as an anti-addiction medication in alternative medicine in dozens of clinics worldwide. In recent years, alarming reports of life-threatening complications and sudden death cases, temporally associated with the administration of ibogaine, have been accumulating. These adverse reactions were hypothesised to be associated with ibogaine’s propensity to induce cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this review is to recapitulate the current knowledge about ibogaine’s effects on the heart and the cardiovascular system, and to assess the cardiac risks associated with the use of this drug in anti- addiction therapy. The actions of 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a less toxic ibogaine congener with anti-addictive properties, are also considered. PMID:25642835

  10. Access to artemisinin-based combination therapies and other anti-malarial drugs in Kinshasa.

    PubMed

    Nkoli Mandoko, P; Sinou, V; Moke Mbongi, D; Ngoyi Mumba, D; Kahunu Mesia, G; Losimba Likwela, J; Bi Shamamba Karhemere, S; Muepu Tshilolo, L; Tamfum Muyembe, J-J; Parzy, D

    2018-06-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies have been available since 2005 in the Democratic Republic of the Congo to treat malaria and to overcome the challenge of anti-malarial drug resistance as well as to improve access to effective treatments. The private sector is the primary distribution source for anti-malarial drugs and thus, has a key position among the supply chain actors for a rational and proper use of anti-malarial drugs. We aimed to assess access to nationally recommended anti-malarial drugs in private sector pharmacies of the capital-city of Kinshasa. We performed a cross-sectional survey of 404 pharmacies. Anti-malarial drugs were stocked in all surveyed pharmacies. Non-artemisinin-based anti-malarial therapies such as quinine or sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, were the most frequently stocked drugs (93.8% of pharmacies). Artemisinin-based combination therapies were stocked in 88% of pharmacies. Artemether-lumefantrine combinations were the most frequently dispensed drugs (93% of pharmacies), but less than 3% were quality-assured products. Other non-officially recommended artemisinin-based therapies including oral monotherapies were widely available. Artemisinin-based combination therapies were widely available in the private pharmacies of Kinshasa. However, the private sector does not guarantee the use of nationally recommended anti-malarial drugs nor does it give priority to quality-assured anti-malarial drugs. These practices contribute to the risk of emergence and spread of resistance to anti-malarial drugs and to increasing treatment costs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. The production and sales of anti-tuberculosis drugs in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yang-Mu; Zhao, Qi-Peng; Ren, Qiao-Meng; Peng, Dan-Lu; Guo, Yan

    2016-10-04

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major infectious disease globally. Adequate and proper use of anti-TB drugs is essential for TB control. This study aims to study China's production capacity and sales situation of anti-TB drugs, and to further discuss the potential for China to contribute to global TB control. The production data of anti-TB drugs in China from 2011 to 2013 and the sales data from 2010 to 2014 were extracted from Ministry of Industry and Information Technology database of China and IMS Health database, respectively. The number of drugs was standardized to the molecular level of the key components before calculating. All data were described and analyzed by Microsoft Excel. First-line drugs were the majority in both sales (89.5 %) and production (92.3 %) of anti-TB drugs in China. The production of rifampicin held the majority share in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and finished products, whilst ethambutol and pyrazinamide were the top two sales in finished products. Fixed-dose combinations only held small percentages in total production and sales weight, though a slight increase was observed. The production and sales of streptomycin showed a tendency of decrease after 2012. The trends and proportion of different anti-TB drugs were similar in production and sales, however, the production weight was much larger than that of sales, especially for rifampicin and isoniazid. First-line drugs were the predominant medicine produced and used in China. While the low production and sales of the second-line TB drugs and FDCs rose concerns for the treatment of multiple drug resistant TB. The redundant production amount, as well as the prompt influence of national policy on drug production and sales, indicated the potential for China to better contribute to global TB control.

  12. Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.

    Both drug addiction and obesity can be defined as disorders in which the saliency value of one type of reward (drugs and food, respectively) becomes abnormally enhanced relative to, and at the expense of others. This model is consistent with the fact that both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects - partly mediated by dopamine increases in the limbic system - that, under certain circumstances or in vulnerable individuals, could overwhelm the brain's homeostatic control mechanisms. Such parallels have generated significant interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities and trajectories between addiction and obesity. Now, brain imaging discoveries have startedmore » to uncover common features between these two conditions and to delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may explain stereotypic and related behavioral deficits in human subjects. These results suggest that both obese and drug addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning (memory/learning), impulse control (behavioral inhibition), stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. Here, we integrate findings predominantly derived from positron emission tomography that investigate the role of dopamine in drug addiction and in obesity and propose an updated working model to help identify treatment strategies that may benefit both of these conditions.« less

  13. Context-Awareness Based Personalized Recommendation of Anti-Hypertension Drugs.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dexin; Jin, Dawei; Goh, Tiong-Thye; Li, Na; Wei, Leiru

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization estimates that almost one-third of the world's adult population are suffering from hypertension which has gradually become a "silent killer". Due to the varieties of anti-hypertensive drugs, patients are interested in how these drugs can be selected to match their respective conditions. This study provides a personalized recommendation service system of anti-hypertensive drugs based on context-awareness and designs a context ontology framework of the service. In addition, this paper introduces a Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL)-based rule to provide high-level context reasoning and information recommendation and to overcome the limitation of ontology reasoning. To make the information recommendation of the drugs more personalized, this study also devises three categories of information recommendation rules that match different priority levels and uses a ranking algorithm to optimize the recommendation. The experiment conducted shows that combining the anti-hypertensive drugs personalized recommendation service context ontology (HyRCO) with the optimized rule reasoning can achieve a higher-quality personalized drug recommendation service. Accordingly this exploratory study of the personalized recommendation service for hypertensive drugs and its method can be easily adopted for other diseases.

  14. Transcriptome analysis revealed anti-obesity effects of the Sodium Alginate in high-fat diet -induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong; Liu, Fang; Gao, Yuan; Xue, Chang-Hu; Li, Robert W; Tang, Qing-Juan

    2018-04-10

    Human obesity and overweight, caused by accumulated of fat, is the most commonly phenomenon from all over the world, especially in Western countries and Chinese mainland during the past three decades. Sodium Alginate, a polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds, has been proved its strong ability on body weight loss and anti-inflammatory response. However, no studies have been explored the effects of Sodium Alginate on colonic transcriptome, especially in obese individuals. Therefore, the current study was designed to detect whether Sodium Alginate could remit obesity and ease chronic metabolism disease through strengthening the bio-functionality of the lower intestine, particularly in colon. The data showed after Sodium Alginate gavaged for four weeks, the body weight, fat accumulation, triglyceride and total cholesterol were ameliorated in high fat diet induced obese mice. Sodium Alginate also improved the blood glucose level and lipopolysaccharides in serum. Furthermore, data from RNA sequence indicated that there were significantly changes in several genes, which involved in lipid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism. In conclusion, these results suggested that Sodium Alginate could effectively suppress obesity and obesity related metabolic syndromes, due to the colonic transcriptome changes. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Healthcare costs and obesity prevention: drug costs and other sector-specific consequences.

    PubMed

    Rappange, David R; Brouwer, Werner B F; Hoogenveen, Rudolf T; Van Baal, Pieter H M

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major contributor to the overall burden of disease (also reducing life expectancy) and associated with high medical costs due to obesity-related diseases. However, obesity prevention, while reducing obesity-related morbidity and mortality, may not result in overall healthcare cost savings because of additional costs in life-years gained. Sector-specific financial consequences of preventing obesity are less well documented, for pharmaceutical spending as well as for other healthcare segments. To estimate the effect of obesity prevention on annual and lifetime drug spending as well as other sector-specific expenditures, i.e. the hospital segment, long-term care segment and primary healthcare. The RIVM (Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment) Chronic Disease Model and Dutch cost of illness data were used to simulate, using a Markov-type model approach, the lifetime expenditures in the pharmaceutical segment and three other healthcare segments for a hypothetical cohort of obese (body mass index [BMI] >or=30 kg/m2), non-smoking people with a starting age of 20 years. In order to assess the sector-specific consequences of obesity prevention, these costs were compared with the costs of two other similar cohorts, i.e. a 'healthy-living' cohort (non-smoking and a BMI >or=18.5 and <25 kg/m2) and a smoking cohort. To assert whether preventing obesity results in cost savings in any of the segments, net present values were estimated using different discount rates. Sensitivity analyses were conducted across key input values and using a broader definition of healthcare. Lifetime drug expenditures are higher for obese people than for 'healthy-living' people, despite shorter life expectancy for the obese. Obesity prevention results in savings on drugs for obesity-related diseases until the age of 74 years, which outweigh additional drug costs for diseases unrelated to obesity in life-years gained. Furthermore, obesity prevention will increase

  16. Pharmacotherapy for childhood obesity: present and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Sherafat-Kazemzadeh, Roya; Yanovski, Susan Z.; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is a serious medical condition associated with significant comorbidities during childhood and adulthood. Lifestyle modifications are essential for treating children with obesity, yet many have insufficient response to improve health with behavioral approaches alone. This review summarizes the relatively sparse data on pharmacotherapy for pediatric obesity and presents information on obesity medications in development. Most previously studied medications demonstrated, at best, modest effects on body weight and obesity-related conditions. It is to be hoped that the future will bring new drugs targeting specific obesity phenotypes that will allow clinicians to use etiology-specific, and therefore more effective, anti-obesity therapies. PMID:22929210

  17. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant ( P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decrease in the plasma glucose and lipid levels in HFD fed mice. In addition, increased in the epididymal fat (E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly ( P < 0.05) reduced on GS administration alone. Finally, quantitative mRNA expression analysis of adiponectin gene was significantly up-regulated in AV supplementation. Further, no effect was observed with the both herbs on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) in the E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract.

  18. Anti-Obesity Effects of Aster spathulifolius Extract in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sa-Jic; Bang, Chae-Young; Guo, Yuan-Ri; Choung, Se-Young

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-obesity and antihyperlipidemic efficacy and molecular mechanisms of Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) in rats with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Rats were separately fed a normal diet or a HFD for 8 weeks, then they were treated with ASE (62.5, 125, or 250 mg/kg) for another 4.5 weeks. The ASE supplementation significantly lowered body weight gain, visceral fat pad weights, serum lipid levels, as well as hepatic lipid levels in HFD-induced obese rats. Histological analysis showed that the ASE-treated group showed lowered numbers of lipid droplets and smaller size of adipocytes compared to the HFD group. To understand the mechanism of action of ASE, the expression of genes and proteins involved in obesity were measured in liver and skeletal muscle. The expression of fatty acid oxidation and thermogenesis-related genes (e.g., PPAR-α, ACO, CPT1, UCP2, and UCP3) of HFD-induced obese rats were increased by ASE treatment. On the other hand, ASE treatment resulted in decreased expression of fat intake-related gene ACC2 and lipogenesis-related genes (e.g., SREBP-1c, ACC1, FAS, SCD1, GPATR, AGPAT, and DGAT). Furthermore, ASE treatment increased the level of phosphorylated AMPKα in obese rats. Similarly, the level of phosphorylated ACC, a target protein of AMPKα in ASE groups, was increased by ASE treatment compared with the HFD group. These results suggest that ASE attenuated visceral fat accumulation and improved hyperlipidemia in HFD-induced obese rats by increasing lipid metabolism through the regulation of AMPK activity and the expression of genes and proteins involved in lipolysis and lipogenesis.

  19. The obesity epidemic and food addiction: clinical similarities to drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    As of 2010 nearly 70% of adult Americans were overweight or obese. Specifically, 35.7% of adult Americans are obese, and this is the highest level of obesity in the recorded history of the United States. A number of environmental factors, most notably the number of fast food outlets, have contributed to the obesity epidemic as well as to the binge prone dynamic. There is evidence that bingeing on sugar-dense, palatable foods increases extracellular dopamine in the striatum and thereby possesses addictive potential. Moreover, elevated blood glucose levels catalyze the absorption of tryptophan through the large neutral amino acid (LNAA) complex and its subsequent conversion into the mood-elevating chemical serotonin. There appear to be several biological and psychological similarities between food addiction and drug dependence including craving and loss of control. Nonetheless there is at least one apparent difference: acute tryptophan depletion does not appear to induce a relapse in recovering drug-dependent individuals, although it may induce dysphoria. In some individuals, palatable foods have palliative properties and can be viewed as a form of self medication. This article will examine environmental factors that have contributed to the obesity epidemic, and will compare the clinical similarities and differences of food addiction and drug dependence.

  20. Causes and consequences of anti-infective drug stock-outs.

    PubMed

    Luans, C; Cardiet, I; Rogé, P; Baslé, B; Le Corre, P; Revest, M; Michelet, C; Tattevin, P

    2014-10-01

    Anti-infective drugs stock-outs are increasingly frequent, and this is unlikely to change. There are numerous causes for this, mostly related to parameters difficult to control: i) 60 to 80% of raw material or components are produced outside of Europe (compared to 20% 30 years ago), with subsequent loss of independence for their procurement; ii) the economic crisis drives the pharmaceutical companies to stop producing drugs of limited profitability (even among important drugs); iii) the enforcement of regulatory requirements and quality control procedures result in an increasing number of drugs being blocked during production. The therapeutic class most affected by drug stock-outs is that of anti-infective drugs, especially injectable ones, and many therapeutic dead ends have recently occurred. We provide an update on this issue, and suggest 2 major actions for improvement: i) to implement a group dedicated to anticipating drug stock-outs within the anti-infective committee in each health care center, with the objectives of organizing and coordinating the response whenever a drug stock-out is deemed at risk (i.e., contingency plans, substitution, communication to prescribers); ii) a national reflection lead by scientific societies, in collaboration with government agencies, upstream of the most problematic drug stock-outs, to elaborate and disseminate consensus guidelines for the management of these stock-outs. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  1. How to fight obesity with antidiabetic drugs: targeting gut or kidney?

    PubMed

    Baretić, M; Troskot, R

    2015-03-01

    The increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes follows the increased prevalence of obesity. Both diseases share common pathophysiological pathways; obesity is in most cases the first step, whereas diabetes is the second one. Weight gain occurs during the treatment of diabetes with drugs causing endogenous or exogenous hyperinsulinemia. Insulin and sulfonylurea are making patients more obese and more insulin resistant. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 agonists) and sodium/glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2 inhibitors) are antidiabetic drugs with weight loss property. GLP-1 agonists mimic an incretin action. They release insulin after a meal during hyperglycemia and suppress glucagon. The weight loss effect is a consequence of central action increased satiety. Some of GLP-1 agonists weight loss is a result of decelerated gastric emptying rate. SGLT2 inhibitors block sodium glucose cotransporter in proximal tubule brush border and produce glucose excretion with urinary loss. Urinary glucose leak results in calories and weight loss. Even a modest weight loss has positive outcome on metabolic features of diabetic patient; such drugs have important role in treatment of type 2 diabetic patients. However, there are some still unresolved questions. The weight loss they produce is modest. Those drugs are expensive and not available to many diabetic patients, they are significantly more expensive compared to "traditional" hypoglycemic drugs. The hypoglycemic endpoint of GLP-1 agonists and SGLT2 inhibitors often requires adding another antidiabetic drug. The most radical and most effective therapy of type 2 diabetes and obesity is bariatric surgery having significant number of diabetes remission.

  2. Risk factors for anti-MRSA drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yasuhisa; Shigemura, Katsumi; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Fujisawa, Masato; Arakawa, Soichi

    2012-11-01

    Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)-related infections have recently been spreading and are difficult to control, partly because affected patients are frequently in a poor condition. This study retrospectively investigated recent MRSA-related infections focusing on the relationship between clinical risk factors and anti-MRSA drug resistance. The patients with MRSA-related infections in Kobe University Hospital (Kobe, Japan) in 2009 were enrolled in the study. The relationships between various clinical risk factors as well as MRSA bacterial DNA concentration with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of anti-MRSA drugs were examined. In total, 44 patients were enrolled in the study and MRSA was isolated from blood (23 patients), urine (12 patients) and nasal secretions (9 patients). There was only one resistant strain to linezolid (LZD) among the anti-MRSA drugs tested, and this strain was considered staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type IIa from phage open-reading frame typing analyses. Statistical analyses showed that MRSA bacterial DNA concentration, cancer and use of a respirator, respectively, had a significant relationship with the MICs of LZD (P=0.0058) and arbekacin (ABK) (P=0.0003), of quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) (P=0.0500) and ABK (P=0.0133), and of Q/D (P=0.0198) and vancomycin (P=0.0036). In conclusion, bacterial DNA concentration, cancer and use of a respirator were found to be significant risk factors for lower susceptibilities to anti-MRSA drugs; one strain was resistant to LZD. We suggest that further investigation and surveillance for MRSA-related infection are necessary for preventing the spread of MRSA-related infections. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  3. Factors influencing neonatal therapeutic effect of anti-MRSA drugs.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, H; Matsuzaki, T; Saito, A; Shimizu, M; Matsumoto, Y

    2005-07-01

    Factors influencing the neonatal therapeutic effect of anti-MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) drugs are investigated. This study took place over a two-year period from April 1998 to March 2000. We calculated the non-adjusted odds ratio for each influential factor to determine the therapeutic effect of anti-MRSA drugs. Significant factors for therapeutic effect were found to be platelet count, urea nitrogen, creatinine, and CRP, each measured before starting administration of anti-MRSA drugs; whether blood drug concentration was measured; and whether pneumonia or septicemia was present. There was a tendency where a better therapeutic effect was gained when the total protein and albumin values were high. We applied multivariate logistic regression analysis to these factors, and found the following independent significant factors: CRP (odds ratio (OR) = 1.582), albumin (OR = 3.079), Cre (OR -0.213), whether blood drug concentration was measured (OR = 3.767), and presence of pneumonia or septicemia (OR = 0.216). This result suggests that consideration should be given to these five important factors when treating MRSA patients.

  4. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs and reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Østensen, Monika; Khamashta, Munther; Lockshin, Michael; Parke, Ann; Brucato, Antonio; Carp, Howard; Doria, Andrea; Rai, Raj; Meroni, Pierluigi; Cetin, Irene; Derksen, Ronald; Branch, Ware; Motta, Mario; Gordon, Caroline; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Spinillo, Arsenio; Friedman, Deborah; Cimaz, Rolando; Czeizel, Andrew; Piette, Jean Charles; Cervera, Ricard; Levy, Roger A; Clementi, Maurizio; De Carolis, Sara; Petri, Michelle; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Faden, David; Valesini, Guido; Tincani, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases in women of childbearing years may necessitate drug treatment during a pregnancy, to control maternal disease activity and to ensure a successful pregnancy outcome. This survey is based on a consensus workshop of international experts discussing effects of anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and biological drugs during pregnancy and lactation. In addition, effects of these drugs on male and female fertility and possible long-term effects on infants exposed to drugs antenatally are discussed where data were available. Recommendations for drug treatment during pregnancy and lactation are given. PMID:16712713

  5. Anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Østensen, Monika; Khamashta, Munther; Lockshin, Michael; Parke, Ann; Brucato, Antonio; Carp, Howard; Doria, Andrea; Rai, Raj; Meroni, Pierluigi; Cetin, Irene; Derksen, Ronald; Branch, Ware; Motta, Mario; Gordon, Caroline; Ruiz-Irastorza, Guillermo; Spinillo, Arsenio; Friedman, Deborah; Cimaz, Rolando; Czeizel, Andrew; Piette, Jean Charles; Cervera, Ricard; Levy, Roger A; Clementi, Maurizio; De Carolis, Sara; Petri, Michelle; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Faden, David; Valesini, Guido; Tincani, Angela

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases in women of childbearing years may necessitate drug treatment during a pregnancy, to control maternal disease activity and to ensure a successful pregnancy outcome. This survey is based on a consensus workshop of international experts discussing effects of anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and biological drugs during pregnancy and lactation. In addition, effects of these drugs on male and female fertility and possible long-term effects on infants exposed to drugs antenatally are discussed where data were available. Recommendations for drug treatment during pregnancy and lactation are given.

  6. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benign oesophageal stricture.

    PubMed Central

    Heller, S R; Fellows, I W; Ogilvie, A L; Atkinson, M

    1982-01-01

    Drug histories were obtained from 76 patients at the time of initial Eder-Puestow dilatation for benign oesophageal stricture. Six patients had consumed drugs known to cause oesophageal ulceration (emepronium bromide and potassium preparations). Of the remaining 70 patients, 22 had regularly taken a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug before the onset of dysphagia compared with 10 patients in a control group matched for age and sex; this difference was significant (p less than 0.02). Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may have a causative role in the formation of oesophageal stricture in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux, in whom they should be prescribed with caution. PMID:6807392

  7. Anti-obesity effects of hispidin and Alpinia zerumbet bioactives in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Tu, Pham Thi Be; Tawata, Shinkichi

    2014-10-15

    Obesity and its related disorders have become leading metabolic diseases. In the present study, we used 3T3-L1 adipocytes to investigate the anti-obesity activity of hispidin and two related compounds that were isolated from Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) rhizomes. The results showed that hispidin, dihydro-5,6-dehydrokawain (DDK), and 5,6-dehydrokawain (DK) have promising anti-obesity properties. In particular, all three compounds significantly increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) concentrations by 81.2% ± 0.06%, 67.0% ± 1.62%, and 56.9% ± 0.19%, respectively. Hispidin also stimulated glycerol release by 276.4% ± 0.8% and inhibited lipid accumulation by 47.8% ± 0.16%. Hispidin and DDK decreased intracellular triglyceride content by 79.5% ± 1.37% and 70.2% ± 1.4%, respectively, and all three compounds inhibited glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) and pancreatic lipase, with hispidin and DDK being the most potent inhibitors. Finally, none of the three compounds reduced 3T3-L1 adipocyte viability. These results highlight the potential for developing hispidin and its derivatives as anti-obesity compounds.

  8. [Obesity: a review of currently used antiobesity drugs and new compounds in clinical development].

    PubMed

    Zieba, Remigiusz

    2007-10-19

    This review summarizes data on currently used antiobesity drugs and new compounds under clinical development. Three antiobesity drugs are currently accepted for long-term use. Sibutramine is a noradrenaline and serotonin reuptake inhibitor which reduces body weight by about 4-5 kg but increases heart rate and arterial blood pressure. Orlistat is a gastrointestinal lipase inhibitor which results in mean weight loss by about 3 kg and reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes in patients with impaired glucose tolerance; however, adverse gastrointestinal effects have been observed. Rimonabant is an endocannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist which induces a 4-5 kg mean weight loss and improves glycemic and lipid profiles, but it induces anxiety and depressive disorders. Unfortunately, there are no data on the chronic administration of these drugs. Other drugs can induce weight loss, e.g. some antidepressants, antiseizure agents, and antidiabetic drugs. The moderate efficacy of currently used antiobesity drugs has led to an intense effort to identify new, safe antiobesity drugs with better therapeutic profiles. The new antiobesity drugs under clinical development include: 1) agents that affect neurotransmitters in the central nervous system, including noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitors (bupropion, radafaxine), selective 5HT2C receptor agonists (lorcaserin), and selective 5HT6 receptor antagonists, 2) agents that modulate the activity of neuropeptides influencing food intake, including leptin analogues, human ciliary neurotrophic factor (Axokine), neuropeptide Y antagonists, and melanine-concentrating hormone antagonists, 3) agents that affect the peripheral satiety signals and brain-gut axis, e.g. selective cholecystokinin receptor A agonists, PYY3-36, agents decreasing ghrelin activity, 4) thermogenic agents, e.g. selective beta3 receptor agonists and selective thyroid hormone receptor beta agonists, and 5) others, e.g. human growth hormone fragment (AOD9604

  9. The complexities of obesity, diabetes, and the development and progression of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Bin; Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Yiwei; Kong, Dejuan; Ali, Shadan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Aamir; Sarkar, Fazlul H.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most lethal malignant diseases with the worst prognosis. It is ranked as the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Many risk factors have been associated with PC. Interestingly, large numbers of epidemiological studies suggest that obesity and diabetes, especially type-2 diabetes, are positively associated with increased risk of PC. Similarly, these chronic diseases (obesity, diabetes and cancer) are also a major public health concern. In the U.S. population, 50 percent are overweight, 30 percent are medically obese and 10 percent have diabetes mellitus (DM). Therefore, obesity and DM have been considered as potential risk factors for cancers; however, the focus of this article is restricted to PC. Although the mechanisms responsible for the development of these chronic diseases leading to the development of PC are not fully understood, the biological importance of the activation of insulin, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathways in insulin resistance mechanism and subsequent induction of compensatory hyperinsulinemia has been proposed. Therefore, targeting insulin/IGF-1 signaling with anti-diabetic drugs for lowering blood insulin levels and reversal of insulin-resistance could be useful strategy for the prevention and/or treatment of PC. A large number of studies have demonstrated that the administration of anti-diabetic drugs such as metformin and thiazolidinediones (TZD) class of PPAR-γ agonists decreases the risk of cancers, suggesting that these agents might be useful anti-tumor agents for the treatment of PC. In this review article, we will discuss the potential roles of metformin and TZD anti-diabetic drugs as anti-tumor agents in the context of PC, and will further discuss the complexities and the possible roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in the pathogenesis of obesity, diabetes and PC. PMID:21129444

  10. Gastric ulcer and the anti-arthritic drugs

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, J. H.; Montgomery, R. D.

    1971-01-01

    Sixteen cases are described of gastric ulcer in patients receiving anti-arthritic drugs. Half of the ulcers were in the antrum or on the greater curve. Ten patients were under treatment with indomethacin and/or prednisone, seven of them receiving both drugs. The ulcers healed readily when the drugs were withdrawn, and in the case of prednisone a continued daily dose of 10 mg or less did not prevent healing. All the patients with haemorrhage were taking aspirin, with or without other drugs. The literature is reviewed, and it is suggested that the increased incidence of peptic ulcer in patients receiving anti-arthritic drugs is confined to gastric ulcer. There is suggestive evidence of an increased susceptibility to antral ulcer in severe rheumatoid disease, which may largely account for the ‘steroid ulcer’. Indomethacin is potentially ulcerogenic, and its combined use with steroids may be inadvisable. Apart from its tendency to produce haemorrhagic erosions, the role of aspirin in the aetiology of chronic ulcer remains doubtful. No serious ill-effects have been reported in the use of ibuprofen or Distalgesic in ulcer subjects. PMID:5576491

  11. Structure-Activity Relationships Based on 3D-QSAR CoMFA/CoMSIA and Design of Aryloxypropanol-Amine Agonists with Selectivity for the Human β3-Adrenergic Receptor and Anti-Obesity and Anti-Diabetic Profiles.

    PubMed

    Lorca, Marcos; Morales-Verdejo, Cesar; Vásquez-Velásquez, David; Andrades-Lagos, Juan; Campanini-Salinas, Javier; Soto-Delgado, Jorge; Recabarren-Gajardo, Gonzalo; Mella, Jaime

    2018-05-16

    The wide tissue distribution of the adrenergic β3 receptor makes it a potential target for the treatment of multiple pathologies such as diabetes, obesity, depression, overactive bladder (OAB), and cancer. Currently, there is only one drug on the market, mirabegron, approved for the treatment of OAB. In the present study, we have carried out an extensive structure-activity relationship analysis of a series of 41 aryloxypropanolamine compounds based on three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship (3D-QSAR) techniques. This is the first combined comparative molecular field analysis (CoMFA) and comparative molecular similarity index analysis (CoMSIA) study in a series of selective aryloxypropanolamines displaying anti-diabetes and anti-obesity pharmacological profiles. The best CoMFA and CoMSIA models presented values of r ² ncv = 0.993 and 0.984 and values of r ² test = 0.865 and 0.918, respectively. The results obtained were subjected to extensive external validation ( q ², r ², r ² m , etc.) and a final series of compounds was designed and their biological activity was predicted (best pEC 50 = 8.561).

  12. Therapeutic drug monitoring of intracellular anti-infective agents.

    PubMed

    D'Avolio, Antonio; Pensi, Debora; Baietto, Lorena; Di Perri, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Many microorganisms, including viruses, some bacteria and fungi, replicate within the cells. Therefore, the efficacy of therapy and the selection of resistances could be related to intracellular concentration of the drugs and to their ability to cross biological membranes and penetrate into various tissue compartments. The efficacy of treatment may be limited by pharmacological factors. Dose-response relationship exists for many agents, and failure to maintain adequate concentrations may allow the development of viral or bacterial resistance, thereby decreasing the probability of response of current and subsequent therapies. The major target of antivirals and many other anti-infective agents is within infected cells. Therefore, clinical outcome ultimately should be related to intracellular drug concentrations. Intracellular pharmacokinetics provides information regarding drug disposition in a compartment where microorganism replication occurs and combined with plasma data may be useful in understanding therapeutic failure in relation to cellular resistance. With a focus on possible methodological biases, this review reports the current state of the art in intracellular, particularly in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, therapeutic drug monitoring of the following anti-infective drugs: antivirals, antifungals and antibiotics. Although measurement of intracellular concentrations needs to be still standardized focusing on each single drug, this review showed some relationships between intracellular concentrations of few anti-infective drugs and their efficacy and/or toxicity. Such relationships should be interpreted with caution, as intracellular concentrations reflect the total amount of drug within the cell and not the effective unbound fraction. The number of clinical studies in that area is, however, rather limited, and not always adequately designed. Then, intracellular drug determination has to be considered a test for research only and not to be carried out

  13. Various anti-motion sickness drugs and core body temperature changes.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Bob; Nakashima, Ann M; Hofer, Kevin D

    2011-04-01

    Blood flow changes and inactivity associated with motion sickness appear to exacerbate the rate of core temperature decrease during subsequent body cooling. We investigated the effects of various classes of anti-motion sickness drugs on core temperature changes. There were 12 healthy male and female subjects (20-35 yr old) who were given selected classes of anti-motion sickness drugs prior to vestibular Coriolis cross coupling induced by graded yaw rotation and periodic pitch-forward head movements in the sagittal plane. All subjects were then immersed in water at 18 degrees C for a maximum of 90 min or until their core temperature reached 35 degrees C. Double-blind randomized trials were administered, including a placebo, a non-immersion control with no drug, and six anti-motion sickness drugs: meclizine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine, promethazine + dexamphetamine, promethazine + caffeine, and scopolamine + dexamphetamine. A 7-d washout period was observed between trials. Core temperature and the severity of sickness were monitored throughout each trial. A repeated measures design was performed on the severity of sickness and core temperature changes prior to motion provocation, immediately after the motion sickness end point, and throughout the period of cold-water immersion. The most effective anti-motion sickness drugs, promethazine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.65 +/- 0.17) and scopolamine + dexamphetamine (with a sickness score/duration of 0.79 +/- 0.17), significantly attenuated the decrease in core temperature. The effect of this attenuation was lower in less effective drugs. Our results suggest that the two most effective anti-motion sickness drugs are also the most effective in attenuating the rate of core temperature decrease.

  14. Aerosolized Surfactants, Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, and Analgesics.

    PubMed

    Willson, Douglas F

    2015-06-01

    Drug delivery by aerosol may have several advantages over other modes, particularly if the lung is the target organ. Aerosol delivery may allow achievement of higher concentrations while minimizing systemic effects and offers convenience, rapid onset of action, and avoidance of the needles and sterile technique necessary with intravenous drug administration. Aerosol delivery may change the pharmacokinetics of many drugs, however, and an awareness of the caveats of aerosolized drug delivery is mandatory to ensure both safety and adequate drug delivery. This paper discusses the administration of surfactants, anti-inflammatory agents, and analgesics by the aerosol route. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. In vivo metabolomic interpretation of the anti-obesity effects of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L.) administration in high-fat diet mice.

    PubMed

    Suh, Dong Ho; Lee, Hye Won; Jung, Eun Sung; Singh, Digar; Kim, Seung-Hyung; Lee, Choong Hwan

    2017-08-01

    The esoteric anti-obesity effects of hyacinth bean (Dolichos lablab L) have largely remained unexplored. Herein, we investigated the anti-obesity mechanisms of hyacinth bean compared to milk thistle, a natural herb employed for ameliorating obesity-related diseases, using high-fat diet (HFD) fed mice towards unfolding the perplexing mechanisms. C57BL/6J mice were orally administered hyacinth bean (25 mg/kg/day) and milk thistle (100 mg/kg/day) for 9 weeks along with HFD. Intriguingly, a number of anti-obesity mechanisms indexed through clinical parameters, suppression in weight gains and liver steatosis were found similar to some disparity. Furthermore, the corresponding metabolic implications were studied through MS-based metabolite profiling, and using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes for metabolic pathways revealing that hyacinth bean or milk thistle administration effectively attenuates the HFD-induced lipid, glucose, and bile acid metabolism, with former specifically attenuates pyruvate-derived amino acids metabolism. Among them, valine, asparagine, and lysine displayed high correlation with blood clinical parameters. A lower dose of hyacinth bean resulted in similar anti-obesity effects as milk thistle, as confirmed by both clinical and metabolomics analyses. Equivocally, we conjecture that hyacinth bean could be used as a potent anti-obesity herbal functional food. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Repositioning drugs for inflammatory disease – fishing for new anti-inflammatory agents

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Christopher J.; Wicker, Sophie M.; Chien, An-Tzu; Tromp, Alisha; Lawrence, Lisa M.; Sun, Xueying; Krissansen, Geoffrey W.; Crosier, Kathryn E.; Crosier, Philip S.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation is an important and appropriate host response to infection or injury. However, dysregulation of this response, with resulting persistent or inappropriate inflammation, underlies a broad range of pathological processes, from inflammatory dermatoses to type 2 diabetes and cancer. As such, identifying new drugs to suppress inflammation is an area of intense interest. Despite notable successes, there still exists an unmet need for new effective therapeutic approaches to treat inflammation. Traditional drug discovery, including structure-based drug design, have largely fallen short of satisfying this unmet need. With faster development times and reduced safety and pharmacokinetic uncertainty, drug repositioning – the process of finding new uses for existing drugs – is emerging as an alternative strategy to traditional drug design that promises an improved risk-reward trade-off. Using a zebrafish in vivo neutrophil migration assay, we undertook a drug repositioning screen to identify unknown anti-inflammatory activities for known drugs. By interrogating a library of 1280 approved drugs for their ability to suppress the recruitment of neutrophils to tail fin injury, we identified a number of drugs with significant anti-inflammatory activity that have not previously been characterized as general anti-inflammatories. Importantly, we reveal that the ten most potent repositioned drugs from our zebrafish screen displayed conserved anti-inflammatory activity in a mouse model of skin inflammation (atopic dermatitis). This study provides compelling evidence that exploiting the zebrafish as an in vivo drug repositioning platform holds promise as a strategy to reveal new anti-inflammatory activities for existing drugs. PMID:25038060

  17. Preformulation characterization and in vivo absorption in beagle dogs of JFD, a novel anti-obesity drug for oral delivery.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yunzhou; Yang, Meiyan; Wang, Yuli; Li, Yanyou; Zhou, Yuanda; Chen, Xiaoping; Shan, Li; Wei, Jun; Gao, Chunsheng

    2015-05-01

    JFD (N-isoleucyl-4-methyl-1,1-cyclopropyl-1-(4-chlorine)phenyl-2-amylamine·HCl) is a novel investigational anti-obesity drug without obvious cardiotoxicity. The objective of this study was to characterize the key physicochemical properties of JFD, including solution-state characterization (ionization constant, partition coefficient, aqueous and pH-solubility profile), solid-state characterization (particle size, thermal analysis, crystallinity and hygroscopicity) and drug-excipient chemical compatibility. A supporting in vivo absorption study was also carried out in beagle dogs. JFD bulk powders are prismatic crystals with a low degree of crystallinity, particle sizes of which are within 2-10 μm. JFD is highly hygroscopic, easily deliquesces to an amorphous glass solid and changes subsequently to another crystal form under an elevated moisture/temperature condition. Similar physical instability was also observed in real-time CheqSol solubility assay. pK(a) (7.49 ± 0.01), log P (5.10 ± 0.02) and intrinsic solubility (S0) (1.75 μg/ml) at 37 °C of JFD were obtained using potentiometric titration method. Based on these solution-state properties, JFD was estimated to be classified as BCS II, thus its dissolution rate may be an absorption-limiting step. Moreover, JFD was more chemically compatible with dibasic calcium phosphate, mannitol, hypromellose and colloidal silicon dioxide than with lactose and magnesium stearate. Further, JFD exhibited an acceptable pharmacokinetic profiling in beagle dogs and the pharmacokinetic parameters T(max), C(max), AUC(0-t) and absolute bioavailability were 1.60 ± 0.81 h, 0.78 ± 0.47 μg/ml, 3.77 ± 1.85 μg·h/ml and 52.30 ± 19.39%, respectively. The preformulation characterization provides valuable information for further development of oral administration of JFD.

  18. Everolimus exhibits anti-tumorigenic activity in obesity-induced ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hui; Zhong, Yan; Jackson, Amanda L; Clark, Leslie H; Kilgore, Josh; Zhang, Lu; Han, Jianjun; Sheng, Xiugui; Gilliam, Timothy P; Gehrig, Paola A; Zhou, Chunxiao; Bae-Jump, Victoria L

    2016-04-12

    Everolimus inhibits mTOR kinase activity and its downstream targets by acting on mTORC1 and has anti-tumorigenic activity in ovarian cancer. Clinical and epidemiologic data find that obesity is associated with worse outcomes in ovarian cancer. In addition, obesity leads to hyperactivation of the mTOR pathway in epithelial tissues, suggesting that mTOR inhibitors may be a logical choice for treatment in obesity-driven cancers. However, it remains unclear if obesity impacts the effect of everolimus on tumor growth in ovarian cancer. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effects of everolimus on cytotoxicity, cell metabolism, apoptosis, cell cycle, cell stress and invasion in human ovarian cancer cells. A genetically engineered mouse model of serous ovarian cancer fed a high fat diet or low fat diet allowed further investigation into the inter-relationship between everolimus and obesity in vivo. Everolimus significantly inhibited cellular proliferation, induced cell cycle G1 arrest and apoptosis, reduced invasion and caused cellular stress via inhibition of mTOR pathways in vitro. Hypoglycemic conditions enhanced the sensitivity of cells to everolimus through the disruption of glycolysis. Moreover, everolimus was found to inhibit ovarian tumor growth in both obese and lean mice. This reduction coincided with a decrease in expression of Ki-67 and phosphorylated-S6, as well as an increase in cleaved caspase 3 and phosphorylated-AKT. Metabolite profiling revealed that everolimus was able to alter tumor metabolism through different metabolic pathways in the obese and lean mice. Our findings support that everolimus may be a promising therapeutic agent for obesity-driven ovarian cancers.

  19. Anti-obesity and pro-diabetic effects of hemochromatosis.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Mousa Al; Abraham, Deveraprabu; Kushner, James P; McClain, Donald A

    2014-10-01

    Levels of tissue iron contribute to determining diabetes risk, but little is known about the effects of higher iron levels on weight, and on the interaction of weight and iron overload on diabetes risk. Therefore, the effect of iron on body mass index and diabetes in individuals with iron overload from hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), compared to non-HH siblings and historical controls was examined. Chart reviews were performed on a cohort of adults (age ≥40, N = 101) with the common C282Y/C282Y HFE genotype, compared to wild type siblings (N = 32) and comparable NHANES cohorts, with respect to body mass index and diabetes status. Males with HH have lower body mass index (BMI) than control siblings. Females had a trend toward decreased BMI that was not significant, possibly related to decreased degrees of iron overload. In both males and females, increased rates of diabetes were seen, especially in the overweight or obese. High tissue iron levels may be both pro- and anti-diabetic. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in HH is likely dependent upon the degree of iron overload, caloric intake, and other genetic and environmental factors, contributing to the observed heterogeneity in the frequency of disease-related morbidities in HH. Copyright © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  20. Comparative evaluation of anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera and Gymnema sylvestre supplementation in high-fat diet fed C57BL/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Pothuraju, Ramesh; Sharma, Raj Kumar; Rather, Sarver Ahmed; Singh, Satvinder

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study was to investigate, anti-obesity effect of Aloe vera (AV), and Gymnema sylvestre (GS) whole extract powders administration to high-fat diet (HFD) fed C57BL/6J mice for 12 weeks. Materials and Methods: At the end of experiment, different parameters such as body weight, feed intake, organ weights, fasting blood glucose, oral glucose tolerance test, plasma lipid levels, and expression analysis of adipocytokines were evaluated. Results: At the end of experimental period, oral administration of both herbs showed a significant (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001) decrease in the plasma glucose and lipid levels in HFD fed mice. In addition, increased in the epididymal fat (E. fat) weight in the HFD group was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced on GS administration alone. Finally, quantitative mRNA expression analysis of adiponectin gene was significantly up-regulated in AV supplementation. Further, no effect was observed with the both herbs on pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor-a) in the E. fat tissue of HFD fed group. Conclusions: The anti-obesity and other metabolic studies depend on the type of diet, different parts of herbal extractions, and animal models used. Further studies are required in this area to strengthen the anti-obesity effects of herbs with active component, and it can be used a pro-drug instead of whole extract. PMID:27757271

  1. Exposure Matching of Pediatric Anti-infective Drugs: Review of Drugs Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration for Pediatric Approval

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Kanecia; Putera, Martin; Hornik, Christoph P.; Smith, P. Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Mulugeta, Yeruk; Burckart, Gilbert J.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Gonzalez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Over the last decade, few novel antibiotics have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pediatric use. For most anti-infective agents, including antibiotics, extrapolation of efficacy from adults to children is possible if the disease and therapeutic exposures are similar between the 2 populations. This approach reduces the number of studies required in children, but relies heavily on exposure matching between children and adults. Failures in exposure matching can lead to delays in pediatric approvals of new anti-infective agents. We sought to determine the extent of exposure matching, defined by a comparison of area under the concentration-time curve, between children and adults, for anti-infective drug products submitted to the FDA for approval. Methods We reviewed anti-infective submissions to the FDA (2002–2014) for pediatric indication. We included drug products administered via oral, intravenous, or intramuscular administration routes, and those with AUC estimates for children in available FDA reports. Our main outcome of interest was the proportion of drugs with median (or mean) pediatric AUC within 20% of the median (or mean) reported adult value. Findings We identified 29 drug products that met inclusion criteria, 14 (48%) of which had mean (or median) AUCs of all submitted age groups within 20% of that in adults. Only route of administration and drug class were associated with pediatric AUC within 20% of adult AUC. Implications Future research is needed to define criteria for and predictors of successful exposure matching of anti-infectives between children and adults. PMID:27364807

  2. Exposure Matching of Pediatric Anti-infective Drugs: Review of Drugs Submitted to the Food and Drug Administration for Pediatric Approval.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Kanecia; Putera, Martin; Hornik, Christoph P; Brian Smith, P; Benjamin, Daniel K; Mulugeta, Yeruk; Burckart, Gilbert J; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Gonzalez, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, few new antibiotics have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for pediatric use. For most anti-infective agents, including antibiotics, extrapolation of efficacy from adults to children is possible if the disease and therapeutic exposures are similar between the 2 populations. This approach reduces the number of studies required in children, but relies heavily on exposure matching between children and adults. Failures in exposure matching can lead to delays in pediatric approvals of new anti-infective agents. We sought to determine the extent of exposure matching, defined by a comparison of area under the concentration-time curve, between children and adults, for anti-infective drug products submitted to the FDA for approval. We reviewed anti-infective submissions to the FDA (2002-2014) for pediatric indication. We included drug products administered via oral, intravenous, or intramuscular administration routes, and those with AUC estimates for children in available FDA reports. Our main outcome of interest was the proportion of drugs with median (or mean) pediatric AUC within 20% of the median (or mean) reported adult value. We identified 29 drug products that met inclusion criteria, 14 (48%) of which had mean (or median) AUCs of all submitted age groups within 20% of that in adults. Only route of administration and drug class were associated with pediatric AUC within 20% of adult AUC. Future research is needed to define criteria for and predictors of successful exposure matching of anti-infectives between children and adults. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Seo, Sangjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Yangha

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC) and nanoemulsion OC (NOC) on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. Methods The rats were randomly separated into three groups: a high-fat (HF) diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks. Results NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not. Conclusion From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue. PMID:24403834

  4. Anti-obesity efficacy of nanoemulsion oleoresin capsicum in obese rats fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joo-Yeon; Lee, Mak-Soon; Jung, Sunyoon; Joo, Hyunjin; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, In-Hwan; Seo, Sangjin; Oh, Soojung; Kim, Yangha

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the effects of oleoresin capsicum (OC) and nanoemulsion OC (NOC) on obesity in obese rats fed a high-fat diet. THE RATS WERE RANDOMLY SEPARATED INTO THREE GROUPS: a high-fat (HF) diet group, HF + OC diet group, and HF + NOC diet group. All groups were fed the diet and water ad libitum for 14 weeks. NOC reduced the body weight and adipose tissue mass, whereas OC did not. OC and NOC reduced mRNA levels of adipogenic genes, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ, sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c, and fatty acid-binding protein in white adipose tissue. The mRNA levels of genes related to β-oxidation or thermogenesis including PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, and uncoupling protein-2 were increased by the OC and NOC relative to the HF group. Both OC and NOC clearly stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity. In particular, PPAR-α, palmitoyltransferase-1α, uncoupling protein-2 expression, and AMPK activity were significantly increased in the NOC group compared to in the OC group. NOC decreased glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity whereas OC did not. From these results, NOC could be suggested as a potential anti-obesity agent in obese rats fed a HF diet. The effects of the NOC on obesity were associated with changes of multiple gene expression, activation of AMPK, and inhibition of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase in white adipose tissue.

  5. Impact of anti-inflammatory nutrients on obesity-associated metabolic-inflammation from childhood through to adulthood.

    PubMed

    Connaughton, Ruth M; McMorrow, Aoibheann M; McGillicuddy, Fiona C; Lithander, Fiona E; Roche, Helen M

    2016-05-01

    Obesity-related metabolic conditions such as insulin resistance (IR), type 2 diabetes and CVD share a number of pathological features, one of which is metabolic-inflammation. Metabolic-inflammation results from the infiltration of immune cells into the adipose tissue, driving a pro-inflammatory environment, which can induce IR. Furthermore, resolution of inflammation, an active process wherein the immune system counteracts pro-inflammatory states, may be dysregulated in obesity. Anti-inflammatory nutritional interventions have focused on attenuating this pro-inflammatory environment. Furthermore, with inherent variability among individuals, establishing at-risk populations who respond favourably to nutritional intervention strategies is important. This review will focus on chronic low-grade metabolic-inflammation, resolution of inflammation and the putative role anti-inflammatory nutrients have as a potential therapy. Finally, in the context of personalised nutrition, the approaches used in defining individuals who respond favourably to nutritional interventions will be highlighted. With increasing prevalence of obesity in younger people, age-dependent biological processes, preventative strategies and therapeutic options are important to help protect against development of obesity-associated co-morbidities.

  6. The use of serotonergic drugs to treat obesity – is there any hope?

    PubMed Central

    Bello, Nicholas T; Liang, Nu-Chu

    2011-01-01

    Surgical interventional strategies for the treatment of obesity are being implemented at an increasing rate. The safety and feasibility of these procedures are questionable for most overweight or obese individuals. The use of long-term pharmacotherapy options, on the other hand, can target a greater portion of the obese population and provide early intervention to help individuals maintain a healthy lifestyle to promote weight loss. Medications that act on the central serotonergic pathways have been a relative mainstay for the treatment of obesity for the last 35 years. The clinical efficacy of these drugs, however, has been encumbered by the potential for drug-associated complications. Two drugs that act, albeit by different mechanisms, on the central serotonergic system to reduce food intake and decrease body weight are sibutramine and lorcaserin. Sibutramine is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, whereas lorcaserin is a selective 5HT2C receptor agonist. The recent worldwide withdrawal of sibutramine and FDA rejection of lorcaserin has changed the landscape not only for serotonin-based therapeutics specifically, but for obesity pharmacotherapy in general. The purpose of this review is to focus on the importance of the serotonergic system in the control of feeding and its potential as a target for obesity pharmacotherapy. Advances in refining and screening more selective receptor agonists and a better understanding of the potential off-target effects of serotonergic drugs are needed to produce beneficial pharmacotherapy. PMID:21448447

  7. Benign stricture of the oesophagus: role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilkins, W E; Ridley, M G; Pozniak, A L

    1984-01-01

    The medication history of patients presenting with benign oesophageal stricture is compared with an age and sex matched control population selected from the community. Fifty five out of 151 consecutive admissions to a dysphagia clinic were found to have benign oesophageal stricture. Twenty six out of 53 (49%) had been prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the year preceding their clinic appointment. Ten patients (19%) had been prescribed other drugs implicated in oesophageal disease over the same period. In the control population, 20 out of 165 (12%) had been prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and 31 out of 165 had been prescribed 'other' drugs in the preceding year. The difference between numbers on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the patient and control groups was highly significant (X2 = 23.87, p less than 0.1%). This study has shown an association between the prescribing of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and benign stricture of the oesophagus. PMID:6714790

  8. Targeted delivery of anti-tuberculosis drugs to macrophages: targeting mannose receptors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filatova, L. Yu; Klyachko, N. L.; Kudryashova, E. V.

    2018-04-01

    The development of systems for targeted delivery of anti-tuberculosis drugs is a challenge of modern biotechnology. Currently, these drugs are encapsulated in a variety of carriers such as liposomes, polymers, emulsions and so on. Despite successful in vitro testing of these systems, virtually no success was achieved in vivo, because of low accessibility of the foci of infection located in alveolar macrophage cells. A promising strategy for increasing the efficiency of therapeutic action of anti-tuberculosis drugs is to encapsulate the agents into mannosylated carriers targeting the mannose receptors of alveolar macrophages. The review addresses the methods for modification of drug substance carriers, such as liposomes and biodegradable polymers, with mannose residues. The use of mannosylated carriers to deliver anti-tuberculosis agents increases the drug circulation time in the blood stream and increases the drug concentration in alveolar macrophage cells. The bibliography includes 113 references.

  9. Assessment of hepatotoxicity of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs on Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Radhika; Kaur, Ramneek; Mukesh, Manishi; Sharma, Vijay L

    2018-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions are inevitable risk factors associated with use of modern medicines. First-line anti-tuberculosis drugs contribute to diverse pathological complications, and hepatotoxicity is one of them. This study investigated the effects of anti-TB drugs in combination (rifampicin [RIF] + isoniazid [INH] + pyrazinamide [PZA]) on Wistar rats. Rats were grouped as control group (saline), toxicant group that was given (30.85 mg/kg b.wt., INH + 61.7 mg/kg b.wt., RIF + 132.65 mg/kg b.wt. PZA in dosage extrapolated from dose that is used in human). Different anti-oxidant enzymes were measured in the liver along with histopathology, hematology, genotoxic effect on bone marrow chromosomes, and DNA fragmentation. In addition, gene and protein expression of CYP2E1, NR1I2, NAT, and CYP7A1 was measured by qPCR and western blot. After administration of anti-TB drugs to Wistar rats for 28 days, there was an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and a decrease in anti-oxidant enzymes. Marked changes in histopathology, hematology, DNA fragmentation, chromosomes, and in gene expression were observed. Results of the study proved increased hepatotoxicity due to combinational treatment of anti-TB drugs and also that CYP2E1, NR1I2, NAT, and CYP7A1 genes play a vital role in anti-TB drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  10. Cardiovascular effects of anti-diabetes drugs

    PubMed Central

    Younk, Lisa M.; Lamos, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease remains the major contributor to morbidity and mortality in diabetes. From the need to reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetes and to ensure that such risk is not exacerbated by drug treatments, governmental regulators and drug manufacturers have focused on clinical trials evaluating cardiovascular outcomes. Areas covered Findings from mechanistic and clinical trials of biguanides, sulfonylureas, thiazolidinediones, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, and sodium-glucose transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors will be reviewed. These drug classes will be compared within the context of available cardiovascular outcomes data. Clinical implications of new study regulations will be examined. Expert opinion Recent cardiovascular studies provide a more comprehensive evaluation of specific anti-diabetes therapy in individuals with high cardiovascular risk. Long-term effects of anti-hyperglycemic agents in patients with lower cardiovascular risk are still speculative. Historical data supports continued use of metformin as a first-line agent. DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 receptor agonists appear to have neutral effects on cardiovascular outcomes. The significantly decreased cardiovascular risk associated with empagliflozin SGLT-2 inhibitor therapy is impressive and may change how practitioners prescribe add-on therapy to metformin. PMID:27268470

  11. Provisions of Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988 Relating to Drug Law Enforcement. Information Memorandum 89-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthias, Mary

    This document describes major provisions of the Anti-Drug Abuse Amendments Act of 1988, a federal law relating to enforcement of controlled substances laws which authorizes over two billion dollars for anti-drug activities. Provisions of the Act relating primarily to drug abuse education, prevention or treatment and regulation of the manufacture,…

  12. Does anti-malarial drug knowledge predict anti-malarial dispensing practice in drug outlets? A survey of medicine retailers in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rusk, Andria; Smith, Nathan; Menya, Diana; Obala, Andrew; Simiyu, Chrispinus; Khwa-Otsyula, Barasa; O'Meara, Wendy

    2012-08-06

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya, where it is the fifth leading cause of death in both children and adults. Effectively managing malaria is dependent upon appropriate treatment. In Kenya, between 17 to 83 percent of febrile individuals first seek treatment for febrile illness over the counter from medicine retailers. Understanding medicine retailer knowledge and behaviour in treating suspected malaria and dispensing anti-malarials is crucial. To investigate medicine retailer knowledge about anti-malarials and their dispensing practices, a survey was conducted of all retail drug outlets that sell anti-malarial medications and serve residents of the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in the Bungoma East District of western Kenya. Most of the medicine retailers surveyed (65%) were able to identify artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as the Kenyan Ministry of Health recommended first-line anti-malarial therapy for uncomplicated malaria. Retailers who correctly identified this treatment were also more likely to recommend AL to adult and paediatric customers. However, the proportion of medicine retailers who recommend the correct treatment is disappointingly low. Only 48% would recommend AL to adults, and 37% would recommend it to children. It was discovered that customer demand has an influence on retailer behaviour. Retailer training and education were found to be correlated with anti-malarial drug knowledge, which in turn is correlated with dispensing practices. Medicine retailer behaviour, including patient referral practice and dispensing practices, are also correlated with knowledge of the first-line anti-malarial medication. The Kenya Ministry of Health guidelines were found to influence retailer drug stocking and dispensing behaviours. Most medicine retailers could identify the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but the percentage that could not is still too high. Furthermore, knowing the MOH recommended

  13. Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits hERG channels: a cardiac arrhythmia risk!

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Stefan; Sandtner, Walter; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2016-01-01

    Ibogaine, an alkaloid derived from the African shrub Tabernanthe iboga, has shown promising anti-addictive properties in animals. Anecdotal evidence suggests that ibogaine is also anti-addictive in humans. Thus, it alleviates drug craving and impedes relapse of drug use. Although not licensed as therapeutic drug, and despite evidence that ibogaine may disturb the rhythm of the heart, this alkaloid is currently used as an anti-addiction drug in alternative medicine. Here we report that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine reduce currents through human ERG potassium channels. Thereby, we provide a mechanism by which ibogaine may generate life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:22458604

  14. Screening of polyphenolic plant extracts for anti-obesity properties in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Boqué, Noemi; Campión, Javier; de la Iglesia, Rocío; de la Garza, Ana L; Milagro, Fermín I; San Román, Belén; Bañuelos, Óscar; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2013-03-30

    Polyphenols have been reported to prevent chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancers, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of the study was to conduct a screening for potential anti-obesity polyphenolic plant extracts using a diet-induced animal model. Rats were fed a high-fat-sucrose (HFS) diet with or without supplementation of different polyphenolic plant extracts (almond, apple, cinnamon, orange blossom, hamamelis, lime blossom, grape vine, and birch) for 56-64 days. Body weight gain was lower in rats supplemented with apple, cinnamon, hamamelis and birch extracts as compared to HFS non-supplemented group. Moreover, apple and cinnamon extracts prevented the increase in fat mass promoted by the HFS diet. Insulin resistance, estimated by the homostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index, was reduced in rats fed apple, cinnamon, hamamelis and birch extracts. Apple extract also prevented the HFS-induced hyperglycaemia and hyperleptinaemia. Only apple and cinnamon extracts were finally considered as potentially important anti-obesogenic extracts, due to their body fat-lowering effects, while the improvement of obesity-related metabolic complications by apple polyphenols highlights this extract as a promising functional food ingredient for the management of obesity and its metabolic complications. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Therapeutic drug monitoring of anti-infective agents in critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Jager, Nynke G L; van Hest, Reinier M; Lipman, Jeffrey; Taccone, Fabio S; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-07-01

    Initial adequate anti-infective therapy is associated with significantly improved clinical outcomes for patients with severe infections. However, in critically ill patients, several pathophysiological and/or iatrogenic factors may affect the pharmacokinetics of anti-infective agents leading to suboptimal drug exposure, in particular during the early phase of therapy. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may assist to overcome this problem. We discuss the available evidence on the use of TDM in critically ill patient populations for a number of anti-infective agents, including aminoglycosides, β-lactams, glycopeptides, antifungals and antivirals. Also, we present the available evidence on the practices of anti-infective TDM and describe the potential utility of TDM to improve treatment outcome in critically ill patients with severe infections. For aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and voriconazole, beneficial effects of TDM have been established on both drug effectiveness and potential side effects. However, for other drugs, therapeutic ranges need to be further defined to optimize treatment prescription in this setting.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effects of insulin.

    PubMed

    Dandona, Paresh; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Mohanty, Priya; Ghanim, Husam

    2007-07-01

    This review deals with the recent observations on the pro-inflammatory effects of glucose and the anti-inflammatory actions of insulin. Apart from being novel, they are central to our understanding of why hyperglycemia is a prognosticator of bad clinical outcomes including patients with acute coronary syndromes, stroke and in patients in the intensive care unit. The pro-inflammatory effect of glucose as well as that of other macronutrients including fast food meals provides the basis of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation in the obese and their propensity to atherosclerotic disease. The anti-inflammatory action of insulin provides a neutralizing effect to balance macronutrient induced inflammation on the one hand and the possibility of using insulin as an anti-inflammatory drug on the other. The actions of macronutrients and insulin described above explain why insulin resistant states like obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and atherosclerosis. They also suggest that insulin may be antiatherogenic.

  17. Treating tuberculosis with high doses of anti-TB drugs: mechanisms and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuhui; Wu, Jianan; Liao, Sha; Sun, Zhaogang

    2017-10-03

    Tuberculosis (TB) is considered as one of the most serious threats to public health in many parts of the world. The threat is even more severe in the developing countries where there is a lack of advanced medical amenities and contemporary anti-TB drugs. In such situations, dosage optimization of existing medication regimens seems to be the only viable option. Therapeutic drug monitoring study results suggest that high-dose treatment regimens can compensate the low serum concentration of anti-TB drugs and shorten the therapy duration. The article presents a critical review on the possible changes that occur in the host and the pathogen upon the administration of standard and high-dose regimens. Some of the most common factors that are responsible for low anti-TB drug concentrations in the serum are differences in hosts' body weight, metabolic processing of the drug, malabsorption and/or drug-drug interaction. Furthermore, failure to reach the cavitary pulmonary and extrapulmonary tissues also contributes to the therapeutic inefficiency of the drugs. In such conditions, administration of higher doses can help in compensating the pathogenic outcomes of enhancement of the pathogen's physical barriers, efflux pumps and genetic mutations. The present article also presents a summary of the recorded treatment outcomes of clinical trials that were conducted to test the efficacy of administration of high dose of anti-tuberculosis drugs. This review will help physicians across the globe to understand the underlying pathophysiological changes (including side effects) that dictate the clinical outcomes in patients administered with standard and/or high dose anti-TB drugs.

  18. MSN anti-cancer nanomedicines: chemotherapy enhancement, overcoming of drug resistance, and metastasis inhibition.

    PubMed

    He, Qianjun; Shi, Jianlin

    2014-01-22

    In the anti-cancer war, there are three main obstacles resulting in high mortality and recurrence rate of cancers: the severe toxic side effect of anti-cancer drugs to normal tissues due to the lack of tumor-selectivity, the multi-drug resistance (MDR) to free chemotherapeutic drugs and the deadly metastases of cancer cells. The development of state-of-art nanomedicines based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) is expected to overcome the above three main obstacles. In the view of the fast development of anti-cancer strategy, this review highlights the most recent advances of MSN anti-cancer nanomedicines in enhancing chemotherapeutic efficacy, overcoming the MDR and inhibiting metastasis. Furthermore, we give an outlook of the future development of MSNs-based anti-cancer nanomedicines, and propose several innovative and forward-looking anti-cancer strategies, including tumor tissue-cell-nuclear successionally targeted drug delivery strategy, tumor cell-selective nuclear-targeted drug delivery strategy, multi-targeting and multi-drug strategy, chemo-/radio-/photodynamic-/ultrasound-/thermo-combined multi-modal therapy by virtue of functionalized hollow/rattle-structured MSNs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Self-Assembled Nanocarriers Based on Amphiphilic Natural Polymers for Anti- Cancer Drug Delivery Applications.

    PubMed

    Sabra, Sally; Abdelmoneem, Mona; Abdelwakil, Mahmoud; Mabrouk, Moustafa Taha; Anwar, Doaa; Mohamed, Rania; Khattab, Sherine; Bekhit, Adnan; Elkhodairy, Kadria; Freag, May; Elzoghby, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Micellization provides numerous merits for the delivery of water insoluble anti-cancer therapeutic agents including a nanosized 'core-shell' drug delivery system. Recently, hydrophobically-modified polysaccharides and proteins are attracting much attention as micelle forming polymers to entrap poorly soluble anti-cancer drugs. By virtue of their small size, the self-assembled micelles can passively target tumor tissues via enhanced permeation and retention effect (EPR). Moreover, the amphiphilic micelles can be exploited for active-targeted drug delivery by attaching specific targeting ligands to the outer micellar hydrophilic surface. Here, we review the conjugation techniques, drug loading methods, physicochemical characteristics of the most important amphiphilic polysaccharides and proteins used as anti-cancer drug delivery systems. Attention focuses on the mechanisms of tumor-targeting and enhanced anti-tumor efficacy of the encapsulated drugs. This review will highlight the remarkable advances of hydrophobized polysaccharide and protein micelles and their potential applications as anti-cancer drug delivery nanosystems. Micellar nanocarriers fabricated from amphiphilic natural polymers hold great promise as vehicles for anti-cancer drugs. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  20. Anti-influenza drugs: the development of sialidase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    von Itzstein, Mark; Thomson, Robin

    2009-01-01

    Viruses, particularly those that are harmful to humans, are the 'silent terrorists' of the twenty-first century. Well over four million humans die per annum as a result of viral infections alone. The scourge of influenza virus has plagued mankind throughout the ages. The fact that new viral strains emerge on a regular basis, particularly out of Asia, establishes a continual socio-economic threat to mankind. The arrival of the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 heightened the threat of a potential human pandemic to the point where many countries have put in place 'preparedness plans' to defend against such an outcome. The discovery of the first designer influenza virus sialidase inhibitor and anti-influenza drug Relenza, and subsequently Tamiflu, has now inspired a number of continuing efforts towards the discovery of next generation anti-influenza drugs. Such drugs may act as 'first-line-of-defence' against the spread of influenza infection and buy time for necessary vaccine development particularly in a human pandemic setting. Furthermore, the fact that influenza virus can develop resistance to therapeutics makes these continuing efforts extremely important. An overview of the role of the virus-associated glycoprotein sialidase (neuraminidase) and some of the most recent developments towards the discovery of anti-influenza drugs based on the inhibition of influenza virus sialidase is provided in this chapter.

  1. "Old drugs" for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis: will the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and anti-nociceptive pathway work?

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaohua; Yu, Xiaowei; Qin, Ling; Zhang, Peng

    2010-12-01

    Based on the newly discovered cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, on the anti-nociceptive pathway and on our preliminary research, we raise a new strategy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) which mainly focuses on the application of old drugs that can activate both of the above mentioned pathways. It has been reported that nicotinic receptor agonists used for the treatment of neurological diseases were expected to be applied to the therapy of inflammatory diseases (RA). Therefore, it is promising that old drugs available in clinics may exert new functions for the treatment of RA, which may greatly reduce the expense of such treatment, once applied. These currently-used old drugs should be considered as another new resource in exploring anti-rheumatic agents under the guidance of the newly discovered cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway and the anti-nociceptive pathway.

  2. The anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and basic molecular studies.

    PubMed

    Huang, J; Wang, Y; Xie, Z; Zhou, Y; Zhang, Y; Wan, X

    2014-10-01

    Many researchers have reported that obesity is a major risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several forms of cancer (such as breast, colon and prostate), pulmonary, osteoarticular and metabolic diseases in the past decades. Recently, the hypolipidemic and anti-obesity effects of green tea in animals and humans have slowly become a hot topic in nutritional and food science research. This review will up-date the information of the anti-obesity effects of green tea in human intervention and animal studies. During recent years, an increasing number of clinical trials have confirmed the beneficial effects of green tea on obesity. However, the optimal dose has not yet been established owing to the very different results from studies with a similar design, which may be caused by differences in the extent of obesity, dietary intake, physical activity intensity, the strength of subjects' compliance to test instruction, the genetic background of populations, body composition and dietary habits. Therefore, further investigations on a larger scale and with longer periods of observation and tighter controls are needed to define optimal doses in subjects with varying degrees of metabolic risk factors and to determine differences in beneficial effects among diverse populations. Moreover, data from laboratory studies have shown that green tea has important roles in fat metabolism by reducing food intake, interrupting lipid emulsification and absorption, suppressing adipogenesis and lipid synthesis and increasing energy expenditure via thermogenesis, fat oxidation and fecal lipid excretion. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain elusive.

  3. Therapeutic Phytogenic Compounds for Obesity and Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hee Soong; Lim, Yun; Kim, Eun-Kyoung

    2014-01-01

    Natural compounds have been used to develop drugs for many decades. Vast diversities and minimum side effects make natural compounds a good source for drug development. However, the composition and concentrations of natural compounds can vary. Despite this inconsistency, half of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved pharmaceuticals are natural compounds or their derivatives. Therefore, it is essential to continuously investigate natural compounds as sources of new pharmaceuticals. This review provides comprehensive information and analysis on natural compounds from plants (phytogenic compounds) that may serve as anti-obesity and/or anti-diabetes therapeutics. Our growing understanding and further exploration of the mechanisms of action of the phytogenic compounds may afford opportunities for development of therapeutic interventions in metabolic diseases. PMID:25421245

  4. Anti-Depressants, Suicide, and Drug Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Jens; Marcotte, Dave E.

    2005-01-01

    Policymakers are increasingly concerned that a relatively new class of anti-depressant drugs, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI), may increase the risk of suicide for at least some patients, particularly children. Prior randomized trials are not informative on this question because of small sample sizes and other limitations. Using…

  5. Parent ads in the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Michael T; Quick, Brian L

    2005-12-01

    The National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign aims not only to reduce drug use by teens and preteens, but also to arm parents with knowledge about specific parenting practices known to reduce the risk of teen drug use. Among the documented successes of the campaign to date was a small, but direct effect on some parenting practices, including parent-child discussions about drug use. To reach a deeper understanding about the substance of the parental ads, we content analyzed the message strategies employed in the campaign's parent ads over the inaugural 5 years of the campaign. Each ad was coded for its major theme, minor subtheme, and featured drug. Among seven possible major themes, the parental anti-drug ads largely featured four: enhance the risk of their child's drug use, encourage monitoring practices, promote parent-child discussions about drug use, or advocate positive involvement behaviors. Moreover, most parental messages addressed marijuana use or addressed drug use in general. Marijuana and inhalant ads largely were risk based, while general drug messages focused on monitoring, parent-child discussions or positive involvement practices.

  6. Does anti-malarial drug knowledge predict anti-malarial dispensing practice in drug outlets? A survey of medicine retailers in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Kenya, where it is the fifth leading cause of death in both children and adults. Effectively managing malaria is dependent upon appropriate treatment. In Kenya, between 17 to 83 percent of febrile individuals first seek treatment for febrile illness over the counter from medicine retailers. Understanding medicine retailer knowledge and behaviour in treating suspected malaria and dispensing anti-malarials is crucial. Methods To investigate medicine retailer knowledge about anti-malarials and their dispensing practices, a survey was conducted of all retail drug outlets that sell anti-malarial medications and serve residents of the Webuye Health and Demographic Surveillance Site in the Bungoma East District of western Kenya. Results Most of the medicine retailers surveyed (65%) were able to identify artemether-lumefantrine (AL) as the Kenyan Ministry of Health recommended first-line anti-malarial therapy for uncomplicated malaria. Retailers who correctly identified this treatment were also more likely to recommend AL to adult and paediatric customers. However, the proportion of medicine retailers who recommend the correct treatment is disappointingly low. Only 48% would recommend AL to adults, and 37% would recommend it to children. It was discovered that customer demand has an influence on retailer behaviour. Retailer training and education were found to be correlated with anti-malarial drug knowledge, which in turn is correlated with dispensing practices. Medicine retailer behaviour, including patient referral practice and dispensing practices, are also correlated with knowledge of the first-line anti-malarial medication. The Kenya Ministry of Health guidelines were found to influence retailer drug stocking and dispensing behaviours. Conclusion Most medicine retailers could identify the recommended first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, but the percentage that could not is still too high

  7. The anti-obesity effect of green tea polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine in rats fed with a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhang, Min; Wu, Tao; Dai, ShengDong; Xu, Jinling; Zhou, Zhongkai

    2015-01-01

    Beneficial effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis, Theaceae) extracts against obesity have been reported; however, the anti-obesity ability of the major components of green tea, polysaccharides, polyphenols and caffeine is not clear. Therefore, experiments with total green tea extracts, polyphenols, polysaccharides, caffeine, and a complex of polysaccharide and polyphenol at a dose of 400 or 800 mg kg⁻¹ were conducted on high-fat diet fed rats for 6 weeks to investigate their anti-obesity effects. The results indicated that polyphenols and polysaccharides were responsible for the suppressive effect of green tea extracts on body weight increase and fat accumulation. Moreover, polyphenols, polysaccharides, or caffeine can improve blood lipid and antioxidant levels, and effectively reduce rat serum leptin levels, inhibit the absorption of fatty acids, and markedly reduce the expression levels of the IL-6 and TNF-α gene. Furthermore, it was shown that polysaccharides and polyphenols were synergistic in reduction of serum leptin levels and in anti-inflammatory activity. These results suggest that the polysaccharide combination with polyphenols might be a potential therapy against obesity.

  8. Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits hERG channels: a cardiac arrhythmia risk.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Xaver; Kovar, Michael; Boehm, Stefan; Sandtner, Walter; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2014-03-01

    Ibogaine, an alkaloid derived from the African shrub Tabernanthe iboga, has shown promising anti-addictive properties in animals. Anecdotal evidence suggests that ibogaine is also anti-addictive in humans. Thus, it alleviates drug craving and impedes relapse of drug use. Although not licensed as therapeutic drug, and despite evidence that ibogaine may disturb the rhythm of the heart, this alkaloid is currently used as an anti-addiction drug in alternative medicine. Here, we report that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine reduce currents through human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels. Thereby, we provide a mechanism by which ibogaine may generate life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Delivering anti-cancer drugs with endosomal pH-sensitive anti-cancer liposomes.

    PubMed

    Moku, Gopikrishna; Gulla, Suresh Kumar; Nimmu, Narendra Varma; Khalid, Sara; Chaudhuri, Arabinda

    2016-04-01

    Numerous prior studies have been reported on the use of pH-sensitive drug carriers such as micelles, liposomes, peptides, polymers, nanoparticles, etc. that are sensitive to the acidic (pH = ∼6.5) microenvironments of tumor tissues. Such systems have been primarily used in the past as effective drug/gene/microRNA carriers for releasing their anti-cancer payloads selectively to tumor cells/tissues. Herein, we report on the development of new liposomal drug carriers prepared from glutamic acid backbone-based cationic amphiphiles containing both endosomal pH-sensitive histidine as well as cellular uptake & solubility enhancing guanidine moieties in their polar head-group regions. The most efficient one among the four presently described endosomal pH-sensitive liposomal drug carriers not only effectively delivers potent anti-cancer drugs (curcumin & paclitaxel) to mouse tumor, but also significantly contributes to inhibiting mouse tumor growth. The findings in the in vitro mechanistic studies are consistent with apoptosis of tumor cells being mediated through increased cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase. Findings in the FRET assay and in vitro drug release studies conducted with the liposomes of the most efficient pH-sensitive lipid demonstrated its pH dependent fusogenic and controlled curcumin release properties. Importantly, the presently described liposomal formulation of curcumin & paclitaxel enhanced overall survivability of tumor bearing mice. To the best of our knowledge, the presently described system (curcumin, paclitaxel and liposomal carrier itself) is the first of its kind pH-sensitive liposomal formulation of potent chemotherapeutics in which the liposomal drug itself exhibits significant mouse tumor growth inhibition properties.

  10. Evolution of pharmacological obesity treatments: focus on adverse side-effect profiles.

    PubMed

    Krentz, A J; Fujioka, K; Hompesch, M

    2016-06-01

    Pharmacotherapy directed toward reducing body weight may provide benefits for both curbing obesity and lowering the risk of obesity-associated comorbidities; however, many weight loss medications have been withdrawn from the market because of serious adverse effects. Examples include pulmonary hypertension (aminorex), cardiovascular toxicity, e.g. flenfluramine-induced valvopathy, stroke [phenylpropanolamine (PPA)], excess non-fatal cardiovascular events (sibutramine), and neuro-psychiatric issues (rimonabant; approved in Europe, but not in the USA). This negative experience has helped mould the current drug development and approval process for new anti-obesity drugs. Differences between the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Medicines Agency, however, in perceptions of risk-benefit considerations for individual drugs have resulted in discrepancies in approval and/or withdrawal of weight-reducing medications. Thus, two drugs recently approved by the FDA, i.e. lorcaserin and phentermine + topiramate extended release, are not available in Europe. In contrast, naltrexone sustained release (SR)/bupropion SR received FDA approval, and liraglutide 3.0 mg was recently approved in both the USA and Europe. Regulatory strategies adopted by the FDA to manage the potential for uncommon but potentially serious post-marketing toxicity include: (i) risk evaluation and mitigation strategy programmes; (ii) stipulating post-marketing safety trials; (iii) considering responder rates and limiting cumulative exposure by discontinuation if weight loss is not attained within a reasonable timeframe; and (iv) requiring large cardiovascular outcome trials before or after approval. We chronicle the adverse effects of anti-obesity pharmacotherapy and consider how the history of high-profile toxicity issues has shaped the current regulatory landscape for new and future weight-reducing drugs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The anti-hepatitis drug use effect and inventory management optimization from the perspective of hospital drug supply chain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhanyu

    2017-09-01

    By analyzing the current hospital anti hepatitis drug use, dosage, indications and drug resistance, this article studied the drug inventory management and cost optimization. The author used drug utilization evaluation method, analyzed the amount and kind distribution of anti hepatitis drugs and made dynamic monitoring of inventory. At the same time, the author puts forward an effective scheme of drug classification management, uses the ABC classification method to classify the drugs according to the average daily dose of drugs, and implements the automatic replenishment plan. The design of pharmaceutical services supply chain includes drug procurement platform, warehouse management system and connect to the hospital system through data exchange. Through the statistical analysis of drug inventory, we put forward the countermeasures of drug logistics optimization. The results showed that drug replenishment plan can effectively improve drugs inventory efficiency.

  12. Role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on intestinal permeability and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Utzeri, Erika; Usai, Paolo

    2017-06-14

    The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is widespread worldwide thanks to their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. However, even more attention is placed upon the recurrence of digestive system complications in the course of their use. Recent data suggests that the complications of the lower gastro-intestinal tract may be as frequent and severe as those of the upper tract. NSAIDs enteropathy is due to enterohepatic recycling of the drugs resulting in a prolonged and repeated exposure of the intestinal mucosa to the compound and its metabolites. Thus leading to so-called topical effects, which, in turn, lead to an impairment of the intestinal barrier. This process determines bacterial translocation and toxic substances of intestinal origin in the portal circulation, leading to an endotoxaemia. This condition could determine a liver inflammatory response and might promote the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, mostly in patients with risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and a high fat diet, which may induce a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis. This alteration of gut microbiota may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its related disorders in two ways: firstly causing a malfunction of the tight junctions that play a critical role in the increase of intestinal permeability, and then secondly leading to the development of insulin resistance, body weight gain, lipogenesis, fibrogenesis and hepatic oxidative stress.

  13. Role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on intestinal permeability and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Utzeri, Erika; Usai, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is widespread worldwide thanks to their analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. However, even more attention is placed upon the recurrence of digestive system complications in the course of their use. Recent data suggests that the complications of the lower gastro-intestinal tract may be as frequent and severe as those of the upper tract. NSAIDs enteropathy is due to enterohepatic recycling of the drugs resulting in a prolonged and repeated exposure of the intestinal mucosa to the compound and its metabolites. Thus leading to so-called topical effects, which, in turn, lead to an impairment of the intestinal barrier. This process determines bacterial translocation and toxic substances of intestinal origin in the portal circulation, leading to an endotoxaemia. This condition could determine a liver inflammatory response and might promote the development of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, mostly in patients with risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and a high fat diet, which may induce a small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and dysbiosis. This alteration of gut microbiota may contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its related disorders in two ways: firstly causing a malfunction of the tight junctions that play a critical role in the increase of intestinal permeability, and then secondly leading to the development of insulin resistance, body weight gain, lipogenesis, fibrogenesis and hepatic oxidative stress. PMID:28652650

  14. Gastrointestinal Traits: Individualizing Therapy for Obesity with Drugs and Devices

    PubMed Central

    Camilleri, Michael; Acosta, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives were to review the discrepancy between numbers of people requiring weight loss treatment and results, and to assess the potential effects of pharmacological treatments (recently approved for obesity) and endoscopically deployed devices on quantitative gastrointestinal traits in development for obesity treatment. Methods We conducted a review of relevant literature to achieve our objectives. Results The 2013 guidelines increased the number of adults recommended for weight loss treatment by 20.9% (116.0 million to 140.2 million). There is an imbalance between efficacy and costs of commercial weight loss programs and drug therapy (average weight loss ~5 kg). The number of bariatric procedures performed in the United States has doubled in the past decade. The efficacy of bariatric surgery is attributed to reduction in the volume of the stomach, nutrient malabsorption with some types of surgery, increased postprandial incretin responses, and activation of farnesoid X receptor mechanisms. These gastrointestinal and behavioral traits identify sub-phenotypes of obesity based on recent research. Conclusions The mechanisms or traits targeted by drug and device treatments include centrally mediated alterations of appetite or satiation, diversion of nutrients, and alteration of stomach capacity, gastric emptying, or incretin hormones. Future treatment may be individualized based on quantitative gastrointestinal and behavioral traits measured in obese patients. PMID:26271184

  15. In vivo photoacoustic monitoring of anti-obesity photothermal lipolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Donghyun; Lee, Jung Ho; Hahn, Sei Kwang; Kim, Chulhong

    2018-02-01

    Obesity with a body mass index is greater than 30 kg/m2 is one of the rapidly growing diseases in advanced societies and can lead to stroke, type 2 diabetes, and heart failure. Common methods of removing subcutaneous adipose tissues are liposuction and laser treatment. In this study, we used photoacoustic imaging to monitor the anti-obesity photothermal degradation process. To improve the photothermal lipid degradation efficiency without any invasive methods, we synthesized hyaluronic acid hollow hold nanosphere adipocyte targeting sequence peptide (HA-HAuNS-ATS) conjugates. The conjugate enhanced the skin penetration ability and biodegradability of the nanoparticles using hyaluronate and enhanced the targeting effect on adipose tissue with adipocyte targeting sequence peptide. Thus, the conjugate can be delivered to the adipose tissue by simply spreading the conjugate on the skin without any invasive method. Then, the photothermal lipolysis and delivery of the conjugate were photoacoustically monitored in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential for photoacoustic method to be applied for photothermal lipolysis monitoring.

  16. Macrolide Hybrid Compounds: Drug Discovery Opportunities in Anti- Infective and Anti-inflammatory Area.

    PubMed

    Paljetak, Hana Cipcic; Tomaskovic, Linda; Matijasic, Mario; Bukvic, Mirjana; Fajdetic, Andrea; Verbanac, Donatella; Peric, Mihaela

    2017-01-01

    Macrolides, polyketide natural products, and their 15-membered semi-synthetic derivatives are composed of substituted macrocyclic lactone ring and used primarily as potent antibiotics. Recently their usefulness was extended to antimalarial and anti-inflammatory area. Hybrid macrolides presented in this article are the next generation semi-synthetic compounds that combine pharmacophores from antibacterial, antimalarial and anti-inflammatory area with 14- and 15-membered azalide scaffolds. Antibacterial azalide hybrids with sulphonamides showed improved activity against resistant streptococci while quinolone conjugates demonstrated full coverage of respiratory pathogens including macrolide resistant strains and their efficacy was confirmed in mouse pneumonia model. Antimalarial macrolide hybrids, mainly involving (chloro)quinoline pharmacophores, showed outstanding activity against chloroquine resistant strains, favourable pharmacokinetics, promising in vivo efficacy as well as encouraging developmental potential. Anti-inflammatory hybrids were obtained by combining macrolides with corticosteroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. They were found active in in vivo animal models of locally induced inflammation, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease and rheumatoid arthritis and demonstrated improved safety over parent steroid drugs. Overall, macrolide hybrids possess significant potential to be developed as potent novel medicines in therapeutic areas of utmost pharmaceutical interest. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. US health policy and prescription drug coverage of FDA-approved medications for the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Gomez, G; Stanford, F C

    2018-03-01

    Obesity is now the most prevalent chronic disease in the United States, which amounts to an estimated $147 billion in health care spending annually. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) enacted in 2010 included provisions for private and public health insurance plans that expanded coverage for lifestyle/behavior modification and bariatric surgery for the treatment of obesity. Pharmacotherapy, however, has not been included despite their evidence-based efficacy. We set out to investigate the coverage of Food and Drug Administration-approved medications for obesity within Medicare, Medicaid and ACA-established marketplace health insurance plans. We examined coverage for phentermine, diethylpropion, phendimetrazine, Benzphentamine, Lorcaserin, Phentermine/Topiramate (Qysmia), Liraglutide (Saxenda) and Buproprion/Naltrexone (Contrave) among Medicare, Medicaid and marketplace insurance plans in 34 states. Among 136 marketplace health insurance plans, 11% had some coverage for the specified drugs in only nine states. Medicare policy strictly excludes drug therapy for obesity. Only seven state Medicaid programs have drug coverage. Obesity requires an integrated approach to combat its public health threat. Broader coverage of pharmacotherapy can make a significant contribution to fighting this complex and chronic disease.

  18. Anti-obesity effects of tea from Mangifera indica L. leaves of the Ubá variety in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Natalia Medina; Toledo, Renata C Lopes; Moreira, Maria E Castro; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Benjamin, Laércio Dos Anjos; de Queiroz, José H; Ribeiro, Andréia Queiroz; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha

    2017-07-01

    Due to the high content of bioactive compounds, herbal teas are being investigated as adjuvant in chronic disease management. Studies have shown that mango leaf tea contain mangiferin, total phenolics and antioxidants, compounds with many functional properties. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of tea from Mangifera indica L. leaves, Ubá variety (TML), in obese rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD). For this, adult male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (n=8): the control group (fed AIN-93 diet), obese group (fed a HFD) and treated group (fed a HFD and supplemented with TML for 8 weeks). We analysed biometric measures and serum biochemical parameters of metabolic control, inflammation and oxidative stress biomarkers, histomorphometry of visceral adipose tissue and mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PPAR-γ), lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The consumption of TML (24.7±2.1mL/day) exerted antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, increasing total antioxidant capacity and interleukin-10 serum concentrations, reduced abdominal fat accumulation, upregulated PPAR-γ and LPL and downregulated FAS expression. Our data suggest that TML has therapeutic potential in treating obesity and related diseases through regulating the expression of transcriptional factors and enzymes associated with adipogenesis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Stockpiling anti-viral drugs for a pandemic: the role of Manufacturer Reserve Programs.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Joseph E; Hsu, Edbert B

    2010-05-01

    To promote stockpiling of anti-viral drugs by non-government organizations such as hospitals, drug manufacturers have introduced Manufacturer Reserve Programs which, for an annual fee, provide the right to buy in the event of a severe outbreak of influenza. We show that these programs enhance drug manufacturer profits but could either increase or decrease the amount of pre-pandemic stockpiling of anti-viral drugs.

  20. Protective effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. on monosodium glutamate-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Parveen; Bhandari, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum(AqE-TFG) seeds on monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Neonatal Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with MSG (4 g/kg b.w.) from day 2 to 14 after birth, on alternate days. After attaining six-weeks of age, MSG-treated rats were administered with AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1 g/kg b.w., orally) or orlistat (10 mg/kg b.w., orally) for 28 days, respectively. Serum chemistry and relevant enzymes in hepato-cardiac tissues were assessed on day 29. Results: AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate amino transferase (AST), alanine amino transferase (ALT), hepatic and cardiac lipid peroxides (MDA) levels and elevation in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes [glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT)] levels. Conclusion: Results were comparable with orlistat, a standard anti-obesity drug, and provide clear evidence that the AqE-TFG treatment offered significant protection against MSG-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress, and may play an important role in amelioration of the free radical generated consequences like dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. PMID:23716888

  1. Anti-epileptic drugs in pediatric traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Tomoko; Litofsky, N Scott

    2016-10-01

    Pediatric post-traumatic epilepsy incidence varies depending on reporting mechanism and injury severity; anti-epileptic drug (AEDs) use also varies with lack of quality evidence-based data. Adverse AED effects are not negligible; some may negatively affect functional outcome. This review focuses on clarifying available data. This review discusses seizures associated with traumatic brain injury in children, including seizure incidence, relationship to severity of injury, potential detrimental effects of seizures, potential benefits of AED, adverse effects of AED, new developments in preventing epileptogenesis, and suggested recommendations for patient management. English language papers were identified from PubMed using search terms including but not excluding the following: adverse drug effects, anti-epileptic drugs, children, electroencephalogram, epilepsy, epileptogenesis, head injury, levetiracetam, pediatrics, phenytoin, post-traumatic epilepsy, prevention, prophylaxis, seizures, and traumatic brain injury. Expert commentary: Identification of high-risk patients for post-traumatic seizures is a key goal. Levetiracetam may prevent epileptogenesis, as may other developments.

  2. Partial Reversal of Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance Owing to Anti-Inflammatory Immunomodulatory Potential of Flaxseed Oil.

    PubMed

    Bashir, Samina; Ali, Shakir; Khan, Farah

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the potential of supplementation of diet with Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum, L.) oil (FXO), on obesity-related inflammation and reversal of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Swiss Albino mice, C57bl/6 mice and co-culture of 3T3-L1 adipocytes - RAW 264.7 macrophages to mimick obese adipose tissue environment were used for the study. Oral gavage of FXO at concentrations of 4, 8 or 16 mg/kg body weight (bwt) for 4 weeks or high-fat diet (HFD, 60% energy as fat) supplemented with dietary FXO (4, 8 or 16 mg/kg bwt) was given to the mice. FXO was characterised using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry. FXO supplemented HFD-fed mice (4 mg/kg bwt exhibited reduced adiposity index, serum glucose levels and triglycerides (8 and 16 mg/kg bwt) and improvement in insulin sensitisation (4, 8 and 16 mg/kg bwt) when compared with HFD mice. The co-culture showed a dose-dependent shift in cytokines towards anti-inflammatory (IL-4) state, with a decrease in pro-inflammatory TNF-α (p < 0.05). For immunomodulatory studies a dose-dependent increase (p < 0.05) was observed in antigen-specific levels of Th2 (IL-4) cytokine, serum anti-ova IgG1 and IgE levels. Suppression in anti-ova IgG2a, IgG2b, and IgG3 and antigen-specific Th1 cytokines like TNF-α and IFN-γ significantly (p < 0.05) was observed at 16 mg/kg bwt dosage. The results indicate that FXO exhibits an anti-inflammatory immunomodulatory potential and may partially relieve symptoms of obesity-associated insulin resistance.

  3. Plants with potential use on obesity and its complications

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa-Gómez, Claudia I.; Rocha-Guzmán, Nuria E.; Gallegos-Infante, J. Alberto; Moreno-Jiménez, Martha R.; Vázquez-Cabral, Blanca D.; González-Laredo, Rubén F.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disease and a growing public health problem worldwide. This disease is a causal component of the metabolic syndrome related with abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, inflammation, among others. There are anti-obesity drugs, affecting the fundamental processes of the weight regulation; however they have shown serious side effects, which outweigh their beneficial effects. Most recent studies on the treatment of obesity and its complications have focused on the potential role of different plants preparation that can exert a positive effect on the mechanisms involved in this pathology. For instance, anti-obesity effects of green tea and its isolated active principles have been reported in both in vitro (cell cultures) and in vivo (animal models) that possess healthy effects, decreasing adipose tissue through reduction of adipocytes differentiation and proliferation. A positive effect in lipid profile, and lipid and carbohydrates metabolisms were demonstrated as well. In addition, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities were studied. However, the consumption of green tea and its products is not that common in Western countries, where other plants with similar bioactivity predominate; nevertheless, the effect extension has not been analyzed in depth, despite of their potential as alternative treatment for obesity. In this review the anti-obesity potential and reported mechanisms of action of diverse plants such as: Camellia sinensis, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Hypericum perforatum, Persea americana, Phaseolus vulgaris, Capsicum annuum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Ilex paraguariensis, Citrus paradisi, Citrus limon, Punica granatum, Aloe vera, Taraxacum officinale and Arachis hypogaea is summarized. We consider the potential of these plants as natural alternative treatments of some metabolic alterations associated with obesity. PMID:26869866

  4. Evaluation and Treatment of Severe Obesity in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Wickham, Edmond P.; DeBoer, Mark D.

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric obesity is highly prevalent in developed countries globally (and worsening in developing countries) and threatens to shorten the lifespan of the current generation. At highest risk for weight-related comorbidities including Type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and dyslipidemia is a sub-set of children with severe obesity, often defined as a body mass index (BMI) percentile ≥99th percentile for age and sex. The pathophysiology of severe obesity in childhood is complex, resulting from the dynamic interplay of a myriad of individual and societal factors including genetic predisposition and health behaviors contributing to energy imbalance. Approximately 4–6% of children have severe obesity, representing a common scenario encountered by providers, and intervention is critical to halt ongoing weight gain and, when possible, reverse the trend. Clinical approaches promoting behavioral weight loss may result in modest, albeit clinically significant, reductions in BMI; however, such changes are often difficult to maintain long-term. Data regarding the impact of targeted pharmacotherapy including agents such as orlistat are limited in the pediatric population and again only suggest modest results. However, increasing evidence suggest that surgical treatment, as an adjunct to ongoing lifestyle changes, may be a promising option in carefully-screened adolescents with severe obesity and weight-related comorbidities who are motivated to adhere to the long-term treatment needs. PMID:25567296

  5. Preclinical models for obesity research

    PubMed Central

    Barrett, Perry; Morgan, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT A multi-dimensional strategy to tackle the global obesity epidemic requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms that underlie this complex condition. Much of the current mechanistic knowledge has arisen from preclinical research performed mostly, but not exclusively, in laboratory mouse and rat strains. These experimental models mimic certain aspects of the human condition and its root causes, particularly the over-consumption of calories and unbalanced diets. As with human obesity, obesity in rodents is the result of complex gene–environment interactions. Here, we review the traditional monogenic models of obesity, their contemporary optogenetic and chemogenetic successors, and the use of dietary manipulations and meal-feeding regimes to recapitulate the complexity of human obesity. We critically appraise the strengths and weaknesses of these different models to explore the underlying mechanisms, including the neural circuits that drive behaviours such as appetite control. We also discuss the use of these models for testing and screening anti-obesity drugs, beneficial bio-actives, and nutritional strategies, with the goal of ultimately translating these findings for the treatment of human obesity. PMID:27821603

  6. Attitudes and Beliefs of Nonspecialist and Specialist Trainee Health and Physical Education Teachers Toward Obese Children: Evidence for "Anti-Fat" Bias.

    PubMed

    Lynagh, Marita; Cliff, Ken; Morgan, Philip J

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the beliefs and attitudes of preservice health and physical education (HPE) specialist and nonspecialist schoolteachers toward obese children. A total of 177 nonspecialist and 62 HPE specialist trainee teachers completed a series of pen-and-paper validated measures of attitudes and beliefs toward obese children. Both groups of preservice teachers reported strong implicit and moderate explicit anti-fat bias. Enrollment in the HPE specialist degree was found to be a significant predictor of both implicit bad/good anti-fat bias (β = 3.97, p = .002) and implicit bias on the stupid/smart scale (β = 2.983, p = .016) of the IAT. Beliefs that obese children were less healthy, more self-conscious, and less satisfied with themselves were strongly endorsed by the majority of participants. HPE specialists were found to have significantly lower expectations for obese children in regard to "reasoning" (mean difference = 0.21, p = .0107) and "cooperation" skills (mean difference = 0.25, p = .0354) compared to nonspecialist trainees. This study is the first to document the strong anti-fat bias of both preservice nonspecialist and HPE specialist teachers. It is also the first to find that preservice HPE specialist teachers have stronger anti-fat biases and differential expectations regarding particular abilities of obese children, compared to nonspecialists. © 2015, American School Health Association.

  7. Comparison of MDCK-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell based permeability assays for anti-malarial drug screening and drug investigations.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiannu; Luong, Thu-Lan; Reese, Necole; Gaona, Heather; Collazo-Velez, Vanessa; Vuong, Chau; Potter, Brittney; Sousa, Jason C; Olmeda, Raul; Li, Qigui; Xie, Lisa; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Ping; Reichard, Greg; Melendez, Victor; Marcsisin, Sean R; Pybus, Brandon S

    2014-01-01

    Malaria is a major health concern and affects over 300million people a year. Accordingly, there is an urgent need for new efficacious anti-malarial drugs. A major challenge in developing new anti-malarial drugs is to design active molecules that have preferable drug-like characteristics. These "drug-like" characteristics include physiochemical properties that affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Compounds with poor ADME profiles will likely fail in vivo due to poor pharmacokinetics and/or other drug delivery related issues. There have been numerous assays developed in order to pre-screen compounds that would likely fail in further development due to poor absorption properties including PAMPA, Caco-2, and MDCK permeability assays. The use of cell-based permeability assays such as Caco-2 and MDCK serve as surrogate indicators of drug absorption and transport, with the two approaches often used interchangeably. We sought to evaluate both approaches in support of anti-malarial drug development. Accordingly, a comparison of both assays was conducted utilizing apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) values determined from liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analyses. Both Caco-2 and MDCK permeability assays produced similar Papp results for potential anti-malarial compounds with low and medium permeability. Differences were observed for compounds with high permeability and compounds that were P-gp substrates. Additionally, the utility of MDCK-MDR1 permeability measurements was demonstrated in probing the role of P-glycoprotein transport in Primaquine-Chloroquine drug-drug interactions in comparison with in vivo pharmacokinetic changes. This study provides an in-depth comparison of the Caco-2 and MDCK-MDR1 cell based permeability assays and illustrates the utility of cell-based permeability assays in anti-malarial drug screening/development in regard to understanding transporter mediated changes in drug absorption

  8. Fishing anti(lymph)angiogenic drugs with zebrafish.

    PubMed

    García-Caballero, Melissa; Quesada, Ana R; Medina, Miguel A; Marí-Beffa, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Zebrafish, an amenable small teleost fish with a complex mammal-like circulatory system, is being increasingly used for drug screening and toxicity studies. It combines the biological complexity of in vivo models with a higher-throughput screening capability compared with other available animal models. Externally growing, transparent embryos, displaying well-defined blood and lymphatic vessels, allow the inexpensive, rapid, and automatable evaluation of drug candidates that are able to inhibit neovascularisation. Here, we briefly review zebrafish as a model for the screening of anti(lymph)angiogenic drugs, with emphasis on the advantages and limitations of the different zebrafish-based in vivo assays. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human genomics and obesity: finding appropriate drug targets.

    PubMed

    Ravussin, E; Bouchard, C

    2000-12-27

    The increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to classify it as a global epidemic. Around the globe, more than a half billion people are overweight, and the chronic disease of obesity represents a major threat to health care systems in developed and developing countries. The major health hazards associated with obesity are the risks of developing diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoarthritis and some forms of cancer. In this paper, we review the prevalence of obesity and its cost to health care systems and present the relative contribution of environmental conditions and genetic makeup to the development of obesity in people. We also discuss the concept of "essential" obesity in an "obesigenic" environment. Though weight gain results from a sustained imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, it is only recently that studies have identified important new mechanisms involved in the regulation of body weight. The etiology of the disease is presented as a feedback model in which afferent signals inform the central controllers in the brain as to the state of the external and internal environment and elicit responses related to the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Pharmaceutical agents may intervene at different levels of this feedback model, i.e., reinforce the afferent signals from the periphery, target the central pathways involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, and increase peripheral energy expenditure and fat oxidation directly. Since obesity results from genetic predisposition, combined with the proactive environmental situation, we discuss new potential targets for generation of drugs that may assist people in gaining control over appetite as well as increasing total energy expenditure and fat oxidation.

  10. The role of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory adipokines on exercise-induced bronchospasm in obese adolescents undergoing treatment.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Patrícia Leão; de Mello, Marco Túlio; Cheik, Nadia Carla; Sanches, Priscila Lima; Piano, Aline; Corgosinho, Flávia Campos; Campos, Raquel Munhoz da Silveira; Carnier, June; Inoue, Daniela; do Nascimento, Claudia Mo; Oyama, Lila M; Tock, Lian; Tufik, Sérgio; Dâmaso, Ana R

    2012-04-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a greater prevalence in exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) in obese adolescents. However, the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines and the repercussions of obesity treatment on EIB need to be explored further. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the role of pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines on EIB in obese adolescents evaluated after long-term interdisciplinary therapy. Thirty-five post-pubertal obese adolescents, including 20 non-EIB (body mass index [BMI] 36 ± 5 kg/m(2)) and 15 EIB (BMI 36 ± 5 kg/m(2)), were enrolled in this study. Body composition was measured by plethysmography, using the BOD POD body composition system, and visceral fat was analyzed by ultrasound. Serum levels of adiponectin and leptin were analyzed. EIB and lung function were evaluated according to the American Thoracic Society criteria. Patients were recruited to a 1-year interdisciplinary intervention of weight loss, consisting of medical, nutritional, exercise, and psychological components. Anthropometrics and lung function variables improved significantly after the therapy in both groups. Furthermore we observed a reduction in EIB occurrence in obese adolescents after treatment. There was an increase in adiponectin levels and a reduction in leptin levels after the therapy. In addition, a low FEV(1) value was a risk factor associated with EIB occurrence at baseline, and was correlated after treatment with changes in anthropometric and maximal O(2) consumption values as well as the adipokines profile. In the present study it was demonstrated that 1 year of interdisciplinary therapy decreased EIB frequency in obese adolescents, paralleled by an increase in lung function and improvement in pro-/anti-inflammatory adipokines.

  11. Purple corn silk: A potential anti-obesity agent with inhibition on adipogenesis and induction on lipolysis and apoptosis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Chaiittianan, Rungsiri; Sutthanut, Khaetthareeya; Rattanathongkom, Ariya

    2017-04-06

    Corn silk or the stigma of Zea mays L. has traditionally been used in weight loss stimulation and treatment of cystitis, urinary infections and obesity. Purple corn silk, rich of polyphenolic substances, was reported on anti-diabetic and anti-obesity effect in animal studies. However, scientific evidence on mechanisms and targets of action of purple corn silk related to adipocyte life cycle has been limited. To determine phytochemical compositions and investigate anti-obesity potential of the purple corn silk focusing on interruption of adipocyte life cycle; effect on pre-adipocyte proliferation, adipogenesis, adipocyte lipolysis, and apoptosis. The ethanolic purple corn silk extract (PCS) was prepared and investigated for phytochemical compositions by LC/MS/MS technique and anti-obesity potential using murine 3T3-L1 cell line. Using methyl thiazole tetrazolium (MTT) assay, the effects on pre-adipocytes and adipocyte viability and on pre-adipocytes proliferation at 24-, 48-, and 72-h incubation period were evaluated. In addition, anti-adipogenesis via inhibition on adipocyte differentiation and reduction of total lipid accumulation was evaluated using Oil Red O staining and spectrophotometric methods, respectively. The lipolysis effect was determined by measurement of glycerol released content using glycerol test kit after 48-h treatment of PCS to adipocytes. Apoptosis inductive effect was done by using 2-(4-Amidinophenyl)-6-indolecarbamidine dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining method. The polyphenols including anthocyanins, quercetin and phenolic acids and derivatives were found as the major chemical compositions of the PCS. With multiple-stages interruption on the adipocyte life cycle, anti-obesity effect of PCS was interestingly demonstrated. When compared to the control, the PCS at concentration range between 250-1000 μg/mL showed anti-adipogenesis effect as expressing of significant inhibition on pre-adipocyte proliferation at all incubation period (43.52±5

  12. Regulation of obesity-related insulin resistance with gut anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Luck, Helen; Tsai, Sue; Chung, Jason; Clemente-Casares, Xavier; Ghazarian, Magar; Revelo, Xavier S; Lei, Helena; Luk, Cynthia T; Shi, Sally Yu; Surendra, Anuradha; Copeland, Julia K; Ahn, Jennifer; Prescott, David; Rasmussen, Brittany A; Chng, Melissa Hui Yen; Engleman, Edgar G; Girardin, Stephen E; Lam, Tony K T; Croitoru, Kenneth; Dunn, Shannon; Philpott, Dana J; Guttman, David S; Woo, Minna; Winer, Shawn; Winer, Daniel A

    2015-04-07

    Obesity has reached epidemic proportions, but little is known about its influence on the intestinal immune system. Here we show that the gut immune system is altered during high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and is a functional regulator of obesity-related insulin resistance (IR) that can be exploited therapeutically. Obesity induces a chronic phenotypic pro-inflammatory shift in bowel lamina propria immune cell populations. Reduction of the gut immune system, using beta7 integrin-deficient mice (Beta7(null)), decreases HFD-induced IR. Treatment of wild-type HFD C57BL/6 mice with the local gut anti-inflammatory, 5-aminosalicyclic acid (5-ASA), reverses bowel inflammation and improves metabolic parameters. These beneficial effects are dependent on adaptive and gut immunity and are associated with reduced gut permeability and endotoxemia, decreased visceral adipose tissue inflammation, and improved antigen-specific tolerance to luminal antigens. Thus, the mucosal immune system affects multiple pathways associated with systemic IR and represents a novel therapeutic target in this disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models in anti-infective drug development: focus on TB

    PubMed Central

    Vaddady, Pavan K; Lee, Richard E; Meibohm, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    For rapid anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug development in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models are useful in evaluating the direct interaction between the drug and the bacteria, thereby guiding the selection of candidate compounds and the optimization of their dosing regimens. Utilizing in vivo drug-clearance profiles from animal and/or human studies and simulating them in an in vitro PK/PD model allows the in-depth characterization of antibiotic activity of new and existing antibacterials by generating time–kill data. These data capture the dynamic interplay between mycobacterial growth and changing drug concentration as encountered during prolonged drug therapy. This review focuses on important PK/PD parameters relevant to anti-TB drug development, provides an overview of in vitro PK/PD models used to evaluate the efficacy of agents against mycobacteria and discusses the related mathematical modeling approaches of time–kill data. Overall, it provides an introduction to in vitro PK/PD models and their application as critical tools in evaluating anti-TB drugs. PMID:21359155

  14. Anti-inflammatory drugs in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Rainsford, K D

    2007-01-01

    Historically, anti-inflammatory drugs had their origins in the serendipitous discovery of certain plants and their extracts being applied for the relief of pain, fever and inflammation. When salicylates were discovered in the mid-19th century to be the active components of Willow Spp., this enabled these compounds to be synthesized and from this, acetyl-salicylic acid or Aspirin was developed. Likewise, the chemical advances of the 19th-20th centuries lead to development of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), most of which were initially organic acids, but later non-acidic compounds were discovered. There were two periods of NSAID drug discovery post-World War 2, the period up to the 1970's which was the pre-prostaglandin period and thereafter up to the latter part of the last century in which their effects on prostaglandin production formed part of the screening in the drug-discovery process. Those drugs developed up to the 1980-late 90's were largely discovered empirically following screening for anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities in laboratory animal models. Some were successfully developed that showed low incidence of gastro-intestinal (GI) side effects (the principal adverse reaction seen with NSAIDs) than seen with their predecessors (e.g. aspirin, indomethacin, phenylbutazone); the GI reactions being detected and screened out in animal assays. In the 1990's an important discovery was made from elegant molecular and cellular biological studies that there are two cyclo-oxygenase (COX) enzyme systems controlling the production of prostanoids [prostaglandins (PGs) and thromboxane (TxA2)]; COX-1 that produces PGs and TxA2 that regulate gastrointestinal, renal, vascular and other physiological functions, and COX-2 that regulates production of PGs involved in inflammation, pain and fever. The stage was set in the 1990's for the discovery and development of drugs to selectively control COX-2 and spare the COX-1 that is central to

  15. High throughput screening for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Rodríguez, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The discovery of new therapeutic options against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, stands as a fundamental need. Currently, there are only two drugs available to treat this neglected disease, which represents a major public health problem in Latin America. Both available therapies, benznidazole and nifurtimox, have significant toxic side effects and their efficacy against the life-threatening symptomatic chronic stage of the disease is variable. Thus, there is an urgent need for new, improved anti-T. cruzi drugs. With the objective to reliably accelerate the drug discovery process against Chagas disease, several advances have been made in the last few years. Availability of engineered reporter gene expressing parasites triggered the development of phenotypic in vitro assays suitable for high throughput screening (HTS) as well as the establishment of new in vivo protocols that allow faster experimental outcomes. Recently, automated high content microscopy approaches have also been used to identify new parasitic inhibitors. These in vitro and in vivo early drug discovery approaches, which hopefully will contribute to bring better anti-T. cruzi drug entities in the near future, are reviewed here.

  16. Miglitol prevents diet-induced obesity by stimulating brown adipose tissue and energy expenditure independent of preventing the digestion of carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Tsutomu; Shimpuku, Mayumi; Kitazumi, Tomoya; Hiraga, Haruna; Nakagawa, Yuko; Shibata, Hiroshi; Okamatsu-Ogura, Yuko; Kikuchi, Osamu; Kim, Hye-jin; Fujita, Yuki; Maruyama, Jun; Susanti, Vina Yanti; Yokota-Hashimoto, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Masaki; Saito, Masayuki; Kitamura, Tadahiro

    2013-01-01

    Miglitol is an alpha-glucosidase inhibitor that improves post-prandial hyperglycemia, and it is the only drug in its class that enters the bloodstream. Anecdotally, miglitol lowers patient body weight more effectively than other alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, but the precise mechanism has not been addressed. Therefore, we analyzed the anti-obesity effects of miglitol in mice and in the HB2 brown adipocyte cell line. Miglitol prevented diet-induced obesity by stimulating energy expenditure without affecting food intake in mice. Long-term miglitol treatment dose-dependently prevented diet-induced obesity and induced mitochondrial gene expression in brown adipose tissue. The anti-obesity effect was independent of preventing carbohydrate digestion in the gastrointestinal tract. Miglitol effectively stimulated energy expenditure in mice fed a high-fat high-monocarbohydrate diet, and intraperitoneal injection of miglitol was sufficient to stimulate energy expenditure in mice. Acarbose, which is a non-absorbable alpha glucosidase inhibitor, also prevented diet-induced obesity, but through a different mechanism: it did not stimulate energy expenditure, but caused indigestion, leading to less energy absorption. Miglitol promoted adrenergic signaling in brown adipocytes in vitro. These data indicate that circulating miglitol stimulates brown adipose tissue and increases energy expenditure, thereby preventing diet-induced obesity. Further optimizing miglitol's effect on brown adipose tissue could lead to a novel anti-obesity drug.

  17. Pathogenesis of Brain Edema and Investigation into Anti-Edema Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Michinaga, Shotaro; Koyama, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Brain edema is a potentially fatal pathological state that occurs after brain injuries such as stroke and head trauma. In the edematous brain, excess accumulation of extracellular fluid results in elevation of intracranial pressure, leading to impaired nerve function. Despite the seriousness of brain edema, only symptomatic treatments to remove edema fluid are currently available. Thus, the development of novel anti-edema drugs is required. The pathogenesis of brain edema is classified as vasogenic or cytotoxic edema. Vasogenic edema is defined as extracellular accumulation of fluid resulting from disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and extravasations of serum proteins, while cytotoxic edema is characterized by cell swelling caused by intracellular accumulation of fluid. Various experimental animal models are often used to investigate mechanisms underlying brain edema. Many soluble factors and functional molecules have been confirmed to induce BBB disruption or cell swelling and drugs targeted to these factors are expected to have anti-edema effects. In this review, we discuss the mechanisms and involvement of factors that induce brain edema formation, and the possibility of anti-edema drugs targeting them. PMID:25941935

  18. Tools for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance: an assessment of the current landscape.

    PubMed

    Nsanzabana, Christian; Djalle, Djibrine; Guérin, Philippe J; Ménard, Didier; González, Iveth J

    2018-02-08

    To limit the spread and impact of anti-malarial drug resistance and react accordingly, surveillance systems able to detect and track in real-time its emergence and spread need to be strengthened or in some places established. Currently, surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance is done by any of three approaches: (1) in vivo studies to assess the efficacy of drugs in patients; (2) in vitro/ex vivo studies to evaluate parasite susceptibility to the drugs; and/or (3) molecular assays to detect validated gene mutations and/or gene copy number changes that are associated with drug resistance. These methods are complementary, as they evaluate different aspects of resistance; however, standardization of methods, especially for in vitro/ex vivo and molecular techniques, is lacking. The World Health Organization has developed a standard protocol for evaluating the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs, which is used by National Malaria Control Programmes to conduct their therapeutic efficacy studies. Regional networks, such as the East African Network for Monitoring Antimalarial Treatment and the Amazon Network for the Surveillance of Antimalarial Drug Resistance, have been set up to strengthen regional capacities for monitoring anti-malarial drug resistance. The Worldwide Antimalarial Resistance Network has been established to collate and provide global spatial and temporal trends information on the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs and resistance. While exchange of information across endemic countries is essential for monitoring anti-malarial resistance, sustainable funding for the surveillance and networking activities remains challenging. The technology landscape for molecular assays is progressing quite rapidly, and easy-to-use and affordable new techniques are becoming available. They also offer the advantage of high throughput analysis from a simple blood spots obtained from a finger prick. New technologies combined with the strengthening of national reference

  19. 75 FR 16148 - Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ..., artesunate rectal suppositories, submitted by the World Health Organization, for the proposed use as a single... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0001] Anti-Infective Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...

  20. Appraisal of adaptive neuro-fuzzy computing technique for estimating anti-obesity properties of a medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Kazemipoor, Mahnaz; Hajifaraji, Majid; Radzi, Che Wan Jasimah Bt Wan Mohamed; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Petković, Dalibor; Mat Kiah, Miss Laiha

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the precision of an adaptive neuro-fuzzy computing technique in estimating the anti-obesity property of a potent medicinal plant in a clinical dietary intervention. Even though a number of mathematical functions such as SPSS analysis have been proposed for modeling the anti-obesity properties estimation in terms of reduction in body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, and body weight loss, there are still disadvantages of the models like very demanding in terms of calculation time. Since it is a very crucial problem, in this paper a process was constructed which simulates the anti-obesity activities of caraway (Carum carvi) a traditional medicine on obese women with adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference (ANFIS) method. The ANFIS results are compared with the support vector regression (SVR) results using root-mean-square error (RMSE) and coefficient of determination (R(2)). The experimental results show that an improvement in predictive accuracy and capability of generalization can be achieved by the ANFIS approach. The following statistical characteristics are obtained for BMI loss estimation: RMSE=0.032118 and R(2)=0.9964 in ANFIS testing and RMSE=0.47287 and R(2)=0.361 in SVR testing. For fat loss estimation: RMSE=0.23787 and R(2)=0.8599 in ANFIS testing and RMSE=0.32822 and R(2)=0.7814 in SVR testing. For weight loss estimation: RMSE=0.00000035601 and R(2)=1 in ANFIS testing and RMSE=0.17192 and R(2)=0.6607 in SVR testing. Because of that, it can be applied for practical purposes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The fourth national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Nhung, N V; Hoa, N B; Sy, D N; Hennig, C M; Dean, A S

    2015-06-01

    Viet Nam's Fourth National Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Survey was conducted in 2011. To determine the prevalence of resistance to the four main first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs in Viet Nam. Eighty clusters were selected using a probability proportion to size approach. Drug susceptibility testing (DST) against the four main first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs was performed. A total of 1629 smear-positive tuberculosis (TB) patients were eligible for culture. Of these, DST results were available for 1312 patients, including 1105 new TB cases, 195 previously treated TB cases and 12 cases with an unknown treatment history. The proportion of cases with resistance to any drug was 32.7% (95%CI 29.1-36.5) among new cases and 54.2% (95%CI 44.3-63.7) among previously treated cases. The proportion of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) cases was 4.0% (95%CI 2.5-5.4) in new cases and 23.3 (95%CI 16.7-29.9) in previously treated cases. The fourth drug resistance survey in Viet Nam found that the proportion of MDR-TB among new and previously treated cases was not significantly different from that in the 2005 survey. The National TB Programme should prioritise the detection and treatment of MDR-TB to reduce transmission of MDR-TB in the community.

  2. Anti-Obesity and Pro-Diabetic Effects of Hemochromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Mousa Al; Abraham, Deveraprabu; Kushner, James P.; McClain, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Levels of tissue iron contribute to determining diabetes risk, but little is known about the effects of higher iron levels on weight, nor on the interaction of weight and iron overload on diabetes risk. We therefore examined the effect of iron on body mass index and diabetes in individuals with iron overload from hereditary hemochromatosis (HH), compared to non-HH siblings and historical controls. Methods Chart reviews were performed on a cohort of adults (age ≥40, N=101) with the common C282Y/C282Y HFE genotype, compared to wild type siblings (N=32) and comparable NHANES cohorts, with respect to body mass index and diabetes status. Results Males with HH have lower body mass index (BMI) than control siblings. Females had a trend toward decreased BMI that was not significant, possibly related to decreased degrees of iron overload. In both males and females, increased rates of diabetes were seen, especially in the overweight or obese. Conclusions High tissue iron levels may be both pro- and anti-diabetic. The prevalence of obesity and diabetes in HH is likely dependent upon the degree of iron overload, caloric intake, and other genetic and environmental factors, contributing to the observed heterogeneity in the frequency of disease-related morbidities in HH. PMID:25044717

  3. Factors Associated with Anti-Tuberculosis Medication Adverse Effects: A Case-Control Study in Lima, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Revilla-Montag, Alejandro; Guillen-Bravo, Sonia; Velez-Segovia, Eduardo; Soria-Montoya, Andrea; Nuñez-Garbin, Alexandra; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Background Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. Methodology and Results A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005–2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls) were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65–9.35), overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17–3.89), anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13–3.92), MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29–19.6), and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03–3.87) were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. Conclusions Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients. PMID:22110689

  4. Factors associated with anti-tuberculosis medication adverse effects: a case-control study in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Chung-Delgado, Kocfa; Revilla-Montag, Alejandro; Guillen-Bravo, Sonia; Velez-Segovia, Eduardo; Soria-Montoya, Andrea; Nuñez-Garbin, Alexandra; Silva-Caso, Wilmer; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    Long-term exposure to anti-tuberculosis medication increases risk of adverse drug reactions and toxicity. The objective of this investigation was to determine factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions in Lima, Peru, with special emphasis on MDR-TB medication, HIV infection, diabetes, age and tobacco use. A case-control study was performed using information from Peruvian TB Programme. A case was defined as having reported an anti-TB adverse drug reaction during 2005-2010 with appropriate notification on clinical records. Controls were defined as not having reported a side effect, receiving anti-TB therapy during the same time that the case had appeared. Crude, and age- and sex-adjusted models were calculated using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). A multivariable model was created to look for independent factors associated with side effect from anti-TB therapy. A total of 720 patients (144 cases and 576 controls) were analyzed. In our multivariable model, age, especially those over 40 years (OR = 3.93; 95%CI: 1.65-9.35), overweight/obesity (OR = 2.13; 95%CI: 1.17-3.89), anemia (OR = 2.10; IC95%: 1.13-3.92), MDR-TB medication (OR = 11.1; 95%CI: 6.29-19.6), and smoking (OR = 2.00; 95%CI: 1.03-3.87) were independently associated with adverse drug reactions. Old age, anemia, MDR-TB medication, overweight/obesity status, and smoking history are independent risk factors associated with anti-tuberculosis adverse drug reactions. Patients with these risk factors should be monitored during the anti-TB therapy. A comprehensive clinical history and additional medical exams, including hematocrit and HIV-ELISA, might be useful to identify these patients.

  5. Metabolic Disorder in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients: Towards a Personalized Approach Using Marine Drug Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Lamonaca, Palma; Prinzi, Giulia; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; Cardaci, Vittorio; Fini, Massimo; Russo, Patrizia

    2017-03-20

    Metabolic disorder has been frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, the exact correlation between obesity, which is a complex metabolic disorder, and COPD remains controversial. The current study summarizes a variety of drugs from marine sources that have anti-obesity effects and proposed potential mechanisms by which lung function can be modulated with the anti-obesity activity. Considering the similar mechanism, such as inflammation, shared between obesity and COPD, the study suggests that marine derivatives that act on the adipose tissues to reduce inflammation may provide beneficial therapeutic effects in COPD subjects with high body mass index (BMI).

  6. A simple, rapid, and sensitive system for the evaluation of anti-viral drugs in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xiaoguang; Department of Medical Microbiology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin 150086; Center for AIDS Research, Kumamoto University, 2-2-1 Honjo, Kumamoto 860-0811

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We established a novel, simple and rapid in vivo system for evaluation of anti-HIV-1 drugs with rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may be applicable for other antiviral drugs, and/or useful for initial screening in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this system, TRI-1144 displayed the most potent anti-HIV-1 activity in vivo. -- Abstract: The lack of small animal models for the evaluation of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) agents hampers drug development. Here, we describe the establishment of a simple and rapid evaluation system in a rat model without animal infection facilities. After intraperitoneal administration of test drugs to rats, antiviralmore » activity in the sera was examined by the MAGI assay. Recently developed inhibitors for HIV-1 entry, two CXCR4 antagonists, TF14016 and FC131, and four fusion inhibitors, T-20, T-20EK, SC29EK, and TRI-1144, were evaluated using HIV-1{sub IIIB} and HIV-1{sub BaL} as representative CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 strains, respectively. CXCR4 antagonists were shown to only possess anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} activity, whereas fusion inhibitors showed both anti-HIV-1{sub IIIB} and anti-HIV-1{sub BaL} activities in rat sera. These results indicate that test drugs were successfully processed into the rat sera and could be detected by the MAGI assay. In this system, TRI-1144 showed the most potent and sustained antiviral activity. Sera from animals not administered drugs showed substantial anti-HIV-1 activity, indicating that relatively high dose or activity of the test drugs might be needed. In conclusion, the novel rat system established here, 'phenotypic drug evaluation', may be applicable for the evaluation of various antiviral drugs in vivo.« less

  7. Inhibition of Mdmx (Mdm4) in vivo induces anti-obesity effects.

    PubMed

    Kon, Ning; Wang, Donglai; Li, Tongyuan; Jiang, Le; Qiang, Li; Gu, Wei

    2018-01-26

    Although cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis remain as major canonical activities of p53 in tumor suppression, the emerging role of p53 in metabolism has been a topic of great interest. Nevertheless, it is not completely understood how p53-mediated metabolic activities are regulated in vivo and whether this part of the activities has an independent role beyond tumor suppression. Mdmx (also called Mdm4), like Mdm2, acts as a major suppressor of p53 but the embryonic lethality of mdmx-null mice creates difficulties to evaluate its physiological significance in metabolism. Here, we report that the embryonic lethality caused by the deficiency of mdmx , in contrast to the case for mdm2 , is fully rescued in the background of p53 3KR/3KR , an acetylation-defective mutant unable to induce cell-cycle arrest, senescence and apoptosis. p53 3KR/3KR /mdmx -/- mice are healthy but skinny without obvious developmental defects. p53 3KR/3KR /mdmx -/- mice are resistant to fat accumulation in adipose tissues upon high fat diet. Notably, the levels of p53 protein are only slightly increased and can be further induced upon DNA damage in p53 3KR/3KR /mdmx -/- mice, suggesting that Mdmx is only partially required for p53 degradation in vivo . Further analyses indicate that the anti-obesity phenotypes in p53 3KR/3KR /mdmx -/- mice are caused by activation of lipid oxidation and thermogenic programs in adipose tissues. These results demonstrate the specific effects of the p53/Mdmx axis in lipid metabolism and adipose tissue remodeling and reveal a surprising role of Mdmx inhibition in anti-obesity effects beyond, commonly expected, tumor suppression. Thus, our study has significant implications regarding Mdmx inhibitors in the treatment of obesity related diseases.

  8. Recent insights in nanotechnology-based drugs and formulations designed for effective anti-cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Piktel, Ewelina; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wątek, Marzena; Wollny, Tomasz; Deptuła, Piotr; Bucki, Robert

    2016-05-26

    The rapid development of nanotechnology provides alternative approaches to overcome several limitations of conventional anti-cancer therapy. Drug targeting using functionalized nanoparticles to advance their transport to the dedicated site, became a new standard in novel anti-cancer methods. In effect, the employment of nanoparticles during design of antineoplastic drugs helps to improve pharmacokinetic properties, with subsequent development of high specific, non-toxic and biocompatible anti-cancer agents. However, the physicochemical and biological diversity of nanomaterials and a broad spectrum of unique features influencing their biological action requires continuous research to assess their activity. Among numerous nanosystems designed to eradicate cancer cells, only a limited number of them entered the clinical trials. It is anticipated that progress in development of nanotechnology-based anti-cancer materials will provide modern, individualized anti-cancer therapies assuring decrease in morbidity and mortality from cancer diseases. In this review we discussed the implication of nanomaterials in design of new drugs for effective antineoplastic therapy and describe a variety of mechanisms and challenges for selective tumor targeting. We emphasized the recent advantages in the field of nanotechnology-based strategies to fight cancer and discussed their part in effective anti-cancer therapy and successful drug delivery.

  9. Physicians' approaches to the use of gastroprotective strategies in low-risk non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S K; Kauldher, S; Targownik, L E

    2006-05-01

    Many doctors unnecessarily prescribe gastroprotective strategies to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs users at low risk of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related gastrointestinal complications. To identify factors that predict the overuse of gastroprotective strategies in low-risk non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users. We distributed a questionnaire to family doctors and general internists consisting of a clinical vignette describing a low-risk hypothetical patient with osteoarthritis who was a candidate for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. Respondents were asked whether they would prescribe this patient a gastroprotective strategy and to estimate the annual risk of that patient developing a gastrointestinal complication with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use. Respondents inappropriately recommending a gastroprotective strategy were compared with respondents who opted not to use gastroprotection. We received 340 responses (response rate of 28.3%), of which 278 supplied analysable data. Thirty-five percent of respondents inappropriately recommended a gastroprotective strategy for the low-risk subject. Inappropriate prescribers were significantly more likely to overestimate the risk of gastrointestinal complications with traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and this was strongly predictive of gastroprotective strategy recommendation in logistic regression. Many doctors inappropriately recommend gastroprotective strategies in low-risk non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users. Improving doctors' awareness of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-associated gastrointestinal risks may lead to a decrease in inappropriate utilization of gastroprotective strategies in low-risk patients.

  10. Food significantly reduces plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Agibothu Kupparam Hemanth; Chandrasekaran, Vedachalam; Kumar, Angadi Kiran; Kawaskar, M; Lavanya, J; Swaminathan, Soumya; Ramachandran, Geetha

    2017-04-01

    Concomitant feeding and anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug administration are likely to reduce nausea and enhance compliance to treatment. However, food could lower plasma drug concentrations. This study was undertaken to examine the effect of food on two-hour plasma concentrations of rifampicin (RMP), isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA), and pharmacokinetics of these drugs in adult TB patients. Newly diagnosed adult TB patients were recruited from the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) treatment centres in Chennai Corporation, Chennai, India. Two-hour post-dosing plasma concentrations were determined in 25 patients, and a semi-intensive pharmacokinetic study was undertaken in six patients. RMP, INH and PZA concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The geometric mean two-hour concentrations with food and under fasting conditions were 2.2 and 5.5 μg/ml for RMP (P<0.001), 3.9 and 11.3 μg/ml for INH (P<0.001), and 18.0 and 28.2 μg/ml for PZA (P<0.001), respectively. Drug administration with food caused the plasma concentration to decrease by 50, 45 and 34 per cent for RMP, INH and PZA, respectively. Significant decreases in peak concentrations and exposures of drugs and delay in time to attain peak concentrations of drugs when taken with food were also observed. Our findings showed that food lowered anti-TB drug concentrations significantly and delayed absorption. Patients may be explained the beneficial effects of taking anti-TB drugs in a fasting state and advised to do so. There is a need for more research on optimization of dosing to maximize efficacy and safety of currently used drugs.

  11. Nose-to-brain drug delivery: An update on clinical challenges and progress towards approval of anti-Alzheimer drugs.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Mukta; Saraf, Swarnlata; Saraf, Shailendra; Antimisiaris, Sophia G; Chougule, Mahavir Bhupal; Shoyele, Sunday A; Alexander, Amit

    2018-07-10

    According to the Alzheimer Association Report (2017), Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the 6th primary cause of death in the USA, which affects nearly 5.5 million people. In the year 2017 itself, the cost of AD treatment in the USA has been reported to rise to $259 billion. This statistic shows the severity of the disease in the USA which is very much similar across the globe. On the other hand, the treatment remains limited to a few conventional oral medications (approved by FDA). These are mainly acting superficially from mild to the moderate AD. The therapeutic efficacy of the drug is not only affected by its reduced concentration in the brain owing to the existence of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) but also due to its low brain permeability. In this context, the intranasal (IN) route of drug administration has emerged as an alternative route over the systemic (oral and parenteral) drug delivery to the brain. The delivery of the drug via an IN route offers various advantages over systemic drug delivery system, as it directly delivers the drug into the brain via olfactory route. Presence of drug in the olfactory bulb, in turn, increases the drug bioavailability in the brain and reduces the drug degradation as well as wastage of the drug through` systemic clearance. However, there is also some limitation associated with IN like poor drug permeation through the nasal mucosa and mucociliary clearance. The delivery system various through novel strategies (nano drug carrier system, colloidal carriers, mucoadhesive devices, controlled delivery system, pro-drug, etc.) are adapted to overcome the above-stated limitations. Although, after all, such successful research claims, very few of the nose-to-brain drug delivery of anti-AD drugs have gained market approval due to lack of sufficient clinical evidence. Onzetra Xsail® is one such marketed preparations approved for IN delivery used for the treatment of a brain disorder; migraine. In the field of patents also, no work is found

  12. Anti-obesity effects of gochujang products prepared using rice koji and soybean meju in rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, H W; Jang, E S; Moon, B S; Lee, J J; Lee, D E; Lee, C H; Shin, C S

    2016-02-01

    The Korean traditional hot sauce gochujang has been reported to have biological activities. Different kinds of gochujang products were prepared based on combinations of a fungal rice koji with two kinds of bacterial soybean mejus. Diets that included gochujang products were fed to rats and anti-obesity effects were investigated. Gochujang products reduced body weight gains, epididymal fat weights, and triglyceride levels in the serum and the liver. Effects were exerted by the diet that included the non-fermented gochujang mixture, increased using a fungal rice koji, and further enhanced using a bacterial soybean meju. Dietary effects were apparently induced via inhibition of the lipogenic enzymes fatty acid synthase, malic enzyme, and lipoprotein lipase by gochujang products in epididymal adipose tissues, and inhibition of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the liver. High levels of capsaicin and genistein in gochujang products are considered to contribute to anti-obesity effects.

  13. Active ingredients from natural botanicals in the treatment of obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W-L; Zhu, L; Jiang, J-G

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is considered as a chronic disease that can induce a series of comorbidities and complications. Chinese medicine has long clinical experiences in the treatment of obesity. This review summarizes the natural products from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) that are reported to have anti-obesity effects in the past two decades. Botanic TCM comprises 90% of total Chinese crude drugs, and generally contains various active ingredients, in which the effective anti-obesity ingredients identified can be divided into saponins, polysaccharides, alkaloids, polyphenols and others. Astragaloside IV, glycyrrhizin, macrostemonoside A, berberine, betaine, capsaicin, matrine, methyl piperate, piperine, rutaecarpine, asimilobine, epigallocatechingallate, magnolol, resveratrol, soybean-isoflavone, α-linolenic acid, emodin, geniposide, phillyrin, salidroside and ursolic acid are specified in this review, and their sources, models, efficacy are described. It is concluded that the mechanisms of these components for the treatment of obesity include: (i) suppression of appetite, increase of satiety, reduction of energy intake; (ii) reduction in the digestion and absorption of exogenous lipid; (iii) attenuation of the synthesis of endogenous lipid; (iv) promotion of the oxidation and expenditure of lipid and (v) improvement of lipid metabolism disorder. Authors believe that the effective compounds from TCM will provide an alternative and hopeful way for the treatment of obesity. © 2014 World Obesity.

  14. Microencapsulation of anti-tumor, antibiotic and thrombolytic drugs in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.; Mosier, Benjamin; Cassanto, John

    1994-01-01

    Encapsulation of cytotoxic or labile drugs enables targeted delivery and sustained release kinetics that are not available with intravenous injection. A new liquid-liquid diffusion process has been developed for forming unique microcapsules that contain both aqueous and hydrocarbon soluble drugs. Microgravity experiments, on sounding rockets (1989-92) and Shuttle missions STS-52 (1992) and STS-56 (1993) using an automated Materials Dispersion Apparatus, produced multi-lamellar microcapsules containing both Cis-platinum (anti-tumor drug) and iodinated poppy seed oil (a radiocontrast medium), surrounded by a polyglyceride skin. Microcapsules formed with amoxicillin (antibiotic) or urokinase (a clot dissolving enzyme), co-encapsulated with IPO, are still intact after two years. Microcapsules were formed with the drug so concentrated that crystals formed inside. Multi-layered microspheres, with both hydrophobic drug compartments, can enable diffusion of complementary drugs from the same microcapsule, e.g. antibiotics and immuno-stimulants to treat resistant infections or multiple fibrinolytic drugs to dissolve emboli. Co-encapsulation of enough radio-contrast medium enables oncologists to monitor the delivery of anti-tumor microcapsules to target tumors using computerized tomography and radiography that would track the distribution of microcapsules after release from the intra-arterial catheter. These microcapsules could have important applications in chemotheraphy of certain liver, kidney, brain and other tumors.

  15. OBESITY-INDUCED HYPERTENSION: INTERACTION OF NEUROHUMORAL AND RENAL MECHANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Hall, John E.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; da Silva, Alexandre A.; Wang, Zhen; Hall, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Excess weight gain, especially when associated with increased visceral adiposity, is a major cause of hypertension, accounting for 65–75% of the risk for human primary (essential) hypertension. Increased renal tubular sodium reabsorption impairs pressure natriuresis and plays an important role in initiating obesity hypertension. The mediators of abnormal kidney function and increased blood pressure during development of obesity hypertension include 1) physical compression of the kidneys by fat in and around the kidneys, 2) activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), and 3) increased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Activation of the RAAS system is likely due, in part, to renal compression as well as SNS activation. However, obesity also causes mineralocorticoid receptor activation independent of aldosterone or angiotensin II. The mechanisms for SNS activation in obesity have not been fully elucidated but appear to require leptin and activation of the brain melanocortin system. With prolonged obesity and development of target organ injury, especially renal injury, obesity-associated hypertension becomes more difficult to control, often requiring multiple antihypertensive drugs and treatment of other risk factors, including dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and diabetes, and inflammation. Unless effective anti-obesity drugs are developed, the impact of obesity on hypertension and related cardiovascular, renal and metabolic disorders is likely to become even more important in the future as the prevalence of obesity continues to increase. PMID:25767285

  16. Management issues in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deedwania, P C; Gupta, R

    2006-10-01

    The metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, central obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The major risk factors leading to this syndrome are physical inactivity and an atherogenic diet and cornerstone clinical feature is abdominal obesity or adiposity. In addition, patients usually have elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, other abnormal lipid parameters, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Impaired fibrinolysis, increased susceptibility to thrombotic events, and raised inflammatory markers are also observed. Given that India has the largest number of subjects with type-2 diabetes in the world it can be extrapolated that this country also has the largest number of patients with the metabolic syndrome. Epidemiological studies confirm a high prevalence. Therapeutic approach involves intervention at a macro-level and control of multiple risk factors using therapeutic lifestyle approaches (diet control and increased physical activity, pharmacotherapy - anti-obesity agents) for control of obesity and visceral obesity, and targeted approach for control of individual risk factors. Pharmacological therapy is a critical step in the management of patients with metabolic syndrome when lifestyle modifications fail to achieve the therapeutic goals. Anti-obesity drugs such as sibutramine and orlistat can be tried to reduce weight and central obesity and jointly control the metabolic syndrome components. Other than weight loss, there is no single best therapy and treatment should consist of treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome. Newer drugs such as the endocannabinoid receptor blocker,rimonabant, appear promising in this regard. Atherogenic dyslipidemia should be controlled initially with statins if there is an increase in LDL cholesterol. If there are other lipid abnormalities then combination therapy of statin with fibrates

  17. New antiobesity agents: lorcaserin (Belviq) and phentermine/topiramate ER (Qsymia).

    PubMed

    Shyh, Grace; Cheng-Lai, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for a wide range of conditions, including cardiovascular disease. Although lifestyle modifications remain the cornerstone for the management of obesity, pharmacologic agents may be a helpful addition to patients who have comorbidities and do not respond adequately to diet and exercise. Lorcaserin and phentermine/topiramate ER are 2 long-awaited agents, approved in 2012 for obesity management, 13 years since orlistat received US Food and Drug Administration approval in 1999. Lorcaserin is a serotonin agonist, whereas phentermine/topiramate is a combination of a sympathomimetic agent and an antiepileptic drug; both these agents have been shown to reduce weight significantly and improve cardiovascular and metabolic parameters, such as blood pressure, lipids, and HbA1C. This article reviews the pharmacology and clinical efficacy and safety of each of these agents. The differences among the three available agents for long-term management of obesity will also be examined.

  18. Prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome in ambulatory obese patients attending pathology laboratories.

    PubMed

    Borel, Jean-Christian; Guerber, Fabrice; Jullian-Desayes, Ingrid; Joyeux-Faure, Marie; Arnol, Nathalie; Taleux, Nellie; Tamisier, Renaud; Pépin, Jean-Louis

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) in the unselected obese is unknown. Our objectives were: (i) to determine the prevalence of OHS in ambulatory obese patients not previously referred to a pulmonologist for suspicion of sleep breathing disorders and (ii) to assess whether venous bicarbonate concentration [HCO 3 - v ] can be used to detect OHS. In this prospective multicentric study, we measured [HCO 3 - v ] in consenting obese patients attending pathology analysis laboratories. Patients with [HCO 3 - v ] ≥ 27 mmol/L were referred to a pulmonologist for comprehensive sleep and respiratory evaluations. Those with [HCO 3 - v ] < 27 mmol/L were randomized to either referral to a pulmonologist or ended the study. For the 1004 screened patients, the [HCO 3 - v ] was ≥27 mmol/L in 24.6% and <27 mmol/L in 45.9%. A total of 29.5% who had previously consulted a pulmonologist were excluded. A population of 241 obese patients underwent sleep and respiratory assessments. The prevalence of OHS in this population was 1.10 (95% CI = 0.51; 2.27). In multivariate analysis, PaCO 2 , forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ), apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI), BMI, use of ≥3 anti-hypertensive drugs, anti-diabetics, proton pump inhibitors and/or paracetamol were related to raised [HCO 3 - v ]. The prevalence of OHS in our obese population was lower than previous estimations based on hospitalized patients or clinical cohorts with sleep breathing disorders. Apart from hypercapnia, increased [HCO 3 - v ] may also reflect multimorbidity and polypharmacy, which should be taken into account when using [HCO 3 - v ] to screen for OHS. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced enteropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnason, I; Hopkinson, N; Zanelli, G; Prouse, P; Smethurst, P; Gumpel, J M; Levi, A J

    1990-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced small intestinal inflammation may have an adverse effect on the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We therefore assessed small intestinal and joint inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis before and after three to nine months' treatment with sulphasalazine (n = 40) and other second line drugs (n = 20), while keeping the dosage of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug at the same level. Sulphasalazine significantly decreased the mean (SD) faecal excretion of 111indium labelled leucocytes from 2.39 (2.22)% to 1.33 (1.13)% (normal less than 1%, p less than 0.01) and improved the joint inflammation as assessed by a variety of parameters. There was no significant correlation between the effects of sulphasalazine treatment on the intestine and the joints. Treatment with other second line drugs had no significant effect on the faecal excretion of 111indium (1.58 (1.04)% and 1.86 (1.51)%, respectively) but improved joint inflammation significantly. The lack of correlation between the intestinal and joint inflammation and their response to treatment suggests that the two are not causally related. PMID:1973396

  20. Drug development strategies for the treatment of obesity: how to ensure efficacy, safety, and sustainable weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Barja-Fernandez, S; Leis, R; Casanueva, FF; Seoane, LM

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide, and approximately 25%–35% of the adult population is obese in some countries. The excess of body fat is associated with adverse health consequences. Considering the limited efficacy of diet and exercise in the current obese population and the use of bariatric surgery only for morbid obesity, it appears that drug therapy is the only available method to address the problem on a large scale. Currently, pharmacological obesity treatment options are limited. However, new antiobesity drugs acting through central nervous system pathways or the peripheral adiposity signals and gastrointestinal tract are under clinical development. One of the most promising approaches is the use of peptides that influence the peripheral satiety signals and brain–gut axis such as GLP-1 analogs. However, considering that any antiobesity drug may affect one or several of the systems that control food intake and energy expenditure, it is unlikely that a single pharmacological agent will be effective as a striking obesity treatment. Thus, future strategies to treat obesity will need to be directed at sustainable weight loss to ensure maximal safety. This strategy will probably require the coadministration of medications that act through different mechanisms. PMID:25489237

  1. Modulating effects of plasma containing anti-malarial antibodies on in vitro anti-malarial drug susceptibility in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Monatrakul, Preeyaporn; Mungthin, Mathirut; Dondorp, Arjen M; Krudsood, Srivicha; Udomsangpetch, Rachanee; Wilairatana, Polrat; White, Nicholas J; Chotivanich, Kesinee

    2010-11-16

    The efficacy of anti-malarial drugs is determined by the level of parasite susceptibility, anti-malarial drug bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, and host factors including immunity. Host immunity improves the in vivo therapeutic efficacy of anti-malarial drugs, but the mechanism and magnitude of this effect has not been characterized. This study characterized the effects of 'immune' plasma to Plasmodium falciparumon the in vitro susceptibility of P. falciparum to anti-malarial drugs. Titres of antibodies against blood stage antigens (mainly the ring-infected erythrocyte surface antigen [RESA]) were measured in plasma samples obtained from Thai patients with acute falciparum malaria. 'Immune' plasma was selected and its effects on in vitro parasite growth and multiplication of the Thai P. falciparum laboratory strain TM267 were assessed by light microscopy. The in vitro susceptibility to quinine and artesunate was then determined in the presence and absence of 'immune' plasma using the 3H-hypoxanthine uptake inhibition method. Drug susceptibility was expressed as the concentrations causing 50% and 90% inhibition (IC50 and IC90), of 3H-hypoxanthine uptake. Incubation with 'immune' plasma reduced parasite maturation and decreased parasite multiplication in a dose dependent manner. 3H-hypoxanthine incorporation after incubation with 'immune' plasma was decreased significantly compared to controls (median [range]; 181.5 [0 to 3,269] cpm versus 1,222.5 [388 to 5,932] cpm) (p= 0.001). As a result 'immune' plasma reduced apparent susceptibility to quinine substantially; median (range) IC50 6.4 (0.5 to 23.8) ng/ml versus 221.5 (174.4 to 250.4) ng/ml (p = 0.02), and also had a borderline effect on artesunate susceptibility; IC50 0.2 (0.02 to 0.3) ng/ml versus 0.8 (0.2 to 2.3) ng/ml (p = 0.08). Effects were greatest at low concentrations, changing the shape of the concentration-effect relationship. IC90 values were not significantly affected; median (range) IC90 448.0 (65

  2. Anti-TNF Therapeutic Drug Monitoring in Postoperative Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wright, Emily K; Kamm, Michael A; De Cruz, Peter; Hamilton, Amy L; Selvaraj, Fabiyola; Princen, Fred; Gorelik, Alexandra; Liew, Danny; Prideaux, Lani; Lawrance, Ian C; Andrews, Jane M; Bampton, Peter A; Jakobovits, Simon L; Florin, Timothy H; Gibson, Peter R; Debinski, Henry; Macrae, Finlay A; Samuel, Douglas; Kronborg, Ian; Radford-Smith, Graham; Gearry, Richard B; Selby, Warwick; Bell, Sally J; Brown, Steven J; Connell, William R

    2018-05-25

    Anti-TNF prevents postoperative Crohn's disease recurrence in most patients but not all. This study aimed to define the relationship between adalimumab pharmacokinetics, maintenance of remission and recurrence. As part of a study of postoperative Crohn's disease management, some patients undergoing resection received prophylactic postoperative adalimumab. In these patients, serum and fecal adalimumab concentration and serum anti-adalimumab antibodies [AAAs] were measured at 6, 12 and 18 months postoperatively. Levels of Crohn's disease activity index [CDAI], C-reactive protein [CRP] and fecal calprotectin [FC] were assessed at 6 and 18 months postoperatively. Body mass index and smoking status were recorded. A colonoscopy was performed at 6 and/or 18 months. Fifty-two patients [32 on monotherapy and 20 on combination therapy with thiopurine] were studied. Adalimumab concentration did not differ significantly between patients in endoscopic remission vs recurrence [Rutgeerts ≥ i2] [9.98µg/mL vs 8.43 µg/mL, p = 0.387]. Patients on adalimumab monotherapy had a significantly lower adalimumab concentration [7.89 µg/mL] than patients on combination therapy [11.725 µg/mL] [p = 0.001], and were significantly more likely to have measurable AAA [31% vs 17%, p = 0.001]. Adalimumab concentrations were lower in patients with detectable AAA compared with those without [3.59 µg/mL vs 12.0 µg/mL, p < 0.001]. Adalimumab was not detected in fecal samples. Adalimumab serum concentrations were lower in obese patients compared with in non-obese patients [p = 0.046]. Adalimumab concentration in patients treated with adalimumab to prevent symptomatic endoscopic recurrence postoperatively is, for most patients, well within the therapeutic window, and is not significantly lower in patients who develop recurrence compared with in those who remain in remission. Mechanisms of anti-TNF failure to prevent postoperative recurrence remain to be determined in these patients.

  3. Anti-obesity effect of kimchi fermented with Weissella koreensis OK1-6 as starter in high-fat diet-induced obese C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Park, J-A; Tirupathi Pichiah, P B; Yu, J-J; Oh, S-H; Daily, J W; Cha, Y-S

    2012-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of kimchi (Korean traditional fermented vegetable) fermented either without starter culture or with a specific starter culture, Weissella koreensis OK1-6. C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups (n = 7); normal diet, HF (high-fat diet), HF-KC (high-fat diet containing 3% kimchi manufactured without starter) and HF-KCO (high-fat diet containing 3% kimchi manufactured with the starter culture W. koreensis OK1-6). After 12 weeks of dietary intervention, the mice were killed, and serum and tissue samples were examined. Serum and hepatic lipid profile, insulin, leptin concentration and expression level of lipid anabolic genes like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, liver X receptor α and SREBP2 were significantly decreased (<0.05) along with body and epididymal fat pad weight in the HF-KCO group compared with the HF-KC and HF group. These results suggested that kimchi fermented with the starter W. koreensis OK1-6 has anti-obesity effects in HF-induced obese mice. These results may contribute to nutraceutical and food industries in developing functional food and probiotics based therapies for the treatment and prevention of obesity. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Development of anti-inflammatory drugs - the research and development process.

    PubMed

    Knowles, Richard Graham

    2014-01-01

    The research and development process for novel drugs to treat inflammatory diseases is described, and several current issues and debates relevant to this are raised: the decline in productivity, attrition, challenges and trends in developing anti-inflammatory drugs, the poor clinical predictivity of experimental models of inflammatory diseases, heterogeneity within inflammatory diseases, 'improving on the Beatles' in treating inflammation, and the relationships between big pharma and biotechs. The pharmaceutical research and development community is responding to these challenges in multiple ways which it is hoped will lead to the discovery and development of a new generation of anti-inflammatory medicines. © 2013 Nordic Pharmacological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Anti-Diabetic Activity and Metabolic Changes Induced by Andrographis paniculata Plant Extract in Obese Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Muhammad Tayyab; Bin Mohd Sarib, Mohamad Syakir; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Abas, Faridah; Ismail, Amin; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Shaari, Khozirah

    2016-08-09

    Andrographis paniculata is an annual herb and widely cultivated in Southeast Asian countries for its medicinal use. In recent investigations, A. paniculata was found to be effective against Type 1 diabetes mellitus (Type 1 DM). Here, we used a non-genetic out-bred Sprague-Dawley rat model to test the antidiabetic activity of A. paniculata against Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM). Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (¹H-NMR) spectroscopy in combination with multivariate data analyses was used to evaluate the A. paniculata and metformin induced metabolic effects on the obese and obese-diabetic (obdb) rat models. Compared to the normal rats, high levels of creatinine, lactate, and allantoin were found in the urine of obese rats, whereas, obese-diabetic rats were marked by high glucose, choline and taurine levels, and low lactate, formate, creatinine, citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinate, dimethylamine, acetoacetate, acetate, allantoin and hippurate levels. Treatment of A. paniculata leaf water extract was found to be quite effective in restoring the disturbed metabolic profile of obdb rats back towards normal conditions. Thisstudy shows the anti-diabetic potential of A. paniculata plant extract and strengthens the idea of using this plant against the diabetes. Further classical genetic methods and state of the art molecular techniques could provide insights into the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and anti-diabetic effects of A. paniculata water extract.

  6. Drug-induced liver injury due to antimicrobials, central nervous system agents, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Devarbhavi, Harshad; Andrade, Raúl J

    2014-05-01

    Antimicrobial agents including antituberculosis (anti-TB) agents are the most common cause of idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) and drug-induced liver failure across the world. Better molecular and genetic biomarkers are acutely needed to help identify those at risk of liver injury particularly for those needing antituberculosis therapy. Some antibiotics such as amoxicillin-clavulanate and isoniazid consistently top the lists of agents in retrospective and prospective DILI databases. Central nervous system agents, particularly antiepileptics, account for the second most common class of agents implicated in DILI registries. Hepatotoxicity from older antiepileptics such as carbamazepine, phenytoin, and phenobarbital are often associated with hypersensitivity features, whereas newer antiepileptic drugs have a more favorable safety profile. Antidepressants and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs carry very low risk of significant liver injury, but their prolific use make them important causes of DILI. Early diagnosis and withdrawal of the offending agent remain the mainstays of minimizing hepatotoxicity. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Gastroprotection during the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. A drug-utilization study.

    PubMed

    Carvajal, Alfonso; Arias, Luis H Martín; Vega, Eva; Sánchez, José Antonio García; Rodríguez, Igor Martín; Ortega, Pilar García; del Pozo, Javier García

    2004-08-01

    There has been an increase of anti-ulcer drug consumption in Spain. A high proportion of this consumption may be due to the use of those drugs as gastroprotective agents when co-prescribed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). The aim of this study was to learn how these treatments are being used: the prevalence of use, the type of drug and the main features of patients. A sample of patients going to pharmacies with a NSAID prescription, with or without a gastroprotective agent, was obtained. A survey questionnaire was distributed to learn clinical and demographic data of the patients. Of the 942 patients interviewed, 41.6% were co-treated with a gastroprotective agent in addition to the NSAID. Most of these patients received proton-pump inhibitors and, to a lesser extent, histamine-2-receptor antagonists, antacids and prostaglandin analogues. The use of gastroprotective agents increased with age, treatment duration and illness chronicity; specialists prescribed a higher proportion of those co-treatments than did general practitioners. There was a high prescription rate of gastroprotective agents; in general, these were used according to recommendations. However, the type of gastroprotective agents being used does not seem to be justified by the current guidelines: histamine-2-receptor antagonists and antacid drugs have not proved their efficacy in this indication. The fact that one in four treatments with gastroprotective drugs was issued to patients without associated risk factors identifies a possible problem where an intervention could be appropriate.

  8. Use of Fixed Dose Combination (FDC) Drugs in India: Central Regulatory Approval and Sales of FDCs Containing Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs), Metformin, or Psychotropic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    McGettigan, Patricia; Roderick, Peter; Mahajan, Rushikesh; Kadam, Abhay; Pollock, Allyson M.

    2015-01-01

    Background In 2012, an Indian parliamentary committee reported that manufacturing licenses for large numbers of fixed dose combination (FDC) drugs had been issued by state authorities without prior approval of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) in violation of rules, and considered that some ambiguity until 1 May 2002 about states’ powers might have contributed. To our knowledge, no systematic enquiry has been undertaken to determine if evidence existed to support these findings. We investigated CDSCO approvals for and availability of oral FDC drugs in four therapeutic areas: analgesia (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), diabetes (metformin), depression/anxiety (anti-depressants/benzodiazepines), and psychosis (anti-psychotics). Methods and Findings This was an ecologic study with a time-trend analysis of FDC sales volumes (2007–2012) and a cross-sectional examination of 2011–2012 data to establish the numbers of formulations on the market with and without a record of CDSCO approval (“approved” and “unapproved”), their branded products, and sales volumes. Data from the CDSCO on approved FDC formulations were compared with sales data from PharmaTrac, a database of national drug sales. We determined the proportions of FDC sales volumes (2011–2012) arising from centrally approved and unapproved formulations and from formulations including drugs banned/restricted internationally. We also determined the proportions of centrally approved and unapproved formulations marketed before and after 1 May 2002, when amendments were made to the drug rules. FDC approvals in India, the United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US) were compared. For NSAID FDCs, 124 formulations were marketed, of which 34 (27%) were centrally approved and 90 (73%) were unapproved; metformin: 25 formulations, 20 (80%) approved, five (20%) unapproved; anti-depressants/benzodiazepines: 16 formulations, three (19%) approved, 13 (81%) unapproved

  9. Therapeutic Potential of Plants as Anti-microbials for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Perumal Samy, Ramar

    2010-01-01

    The uses of traditional medicinal plants for primary health care have steadily increased worldwide in recent years. Scientists are in search of new phytochemicals that could be developed as useful anti-microbials for treatment of infectious diseases. Currently, out of 80% of pharmaceuticals derived from plants, very few are now being used as anti-microbials. Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites that have found anti-microbial properties. This review highlights the current status of traditional medicine, its contribution to modern medicine, recent trends in the evaluation of anti-microbials with a special emphasis upon some tribal medicine, in vitro and in vivo experimental design for screening, and therapeutic efficacy in safety and human clinical trails for commercial outlet. Many of these commercially available compounds are crude preparations administered without performing human clinical trials. Recent methods are useful to standardize the extraction for scientific investigation of new phytochemicals and anti-microbials of traditionally used plants. It is concluded that once the local ethnomedical preparations of traditional sources are scientifically evaluated before dispensing they should replace existing drugs commonly used for the therapeutic treatment of infection. This method should be put into practice for future investigations in the field of ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, ethnobotany and other biological fields for drug discovery. PMID:18955349

  10. Anti-obesity effect of Gymnema sylvestre extract on high fat diet-induced obesity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, V; Bhandari, U; Tripathi, C D; Khanna, G

    2013-12-01

    Gymnema sylvestre R. BR. (Asclepiadaceae) has been used frequently in traditional Indian folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes. Study was performed in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in murine model. Obesity was induced by oral feeding of HFD for 28 days. The anti obesity effect of water soluble fraction of Gymnema sylvestre extract (120 mg/kg, p.o. for 21 days) in HFD fed rats was evaluated by the measurement of body weight gain, food intake, hemodynamic changes (systolic, diastolic, mean blood pressure and heart rate), serum lipid profiles (triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol), leptin, insulin, glucose, apolipoproteins A1 and B, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and antioxidant enzymes such as reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels in liver tissues. Organs and visceral fat pad weight were measured. Histopathological studies were also carried out. Water soluble fraction of G. sylvestre ethanolic extract and rimonabant significantly reduced serum lipids, leptin, insulin, glucose, apolipoprotein B and LDH levels while it significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1 and antioxidant enzymes levels in liver tissue as compared to the HFD fed rats. Histopathological studies of tissues showed no pathological changes. The results of this study show that water soluble fraction of G. sylvestre extract possess antiobesity effect. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Lotus seed epicarp extract as potential antioxidant and anti-obesity additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Suijian; Zhou, Delong

    2013-02-01

    The antioxidative activities of a lotus seed epicarp extract in different concentrations (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 μg.mL(-1)) in pork homogenates representative of Chinese Cantonese Sausage were evaluated using three methods: thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, peroxide values (POVs) and acid values (AVs). Also the cytotoxic and anti-obesity effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were evaluated using an in vitro 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell model. Results showed that the lotus seed epicarp extracts were non-toxic and effective in inhibiting preadipocyte differentiation. Supplementation of pork homogenate with lotus seed epicarp extracts was effective in retarding lipid oxidation. Moreover, the antioxidative and preadipocyte differentiation inhibition effects of the lotus seed epicarp extracts were dose-dependent. Thus, the lotus seed epicarp extract might be a good candidate as an antioxidant and anti-obesity natural additive in Chinese Cantonese Sausage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-TNF-α Drugs Differently Affect the TNFα-sTNFR System and Monocyte Subsets in Patients with Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Bianchini, Elena; Bartolomeo, Regina; Fabiano, Antonella; Manfredini, Marco; Ferrari, Federica; Albertini, Giuseppe; Trenti, Tommaso; Nasi, Milena; Pinti, Marcello; Iannone, Anna; Salvarani, Carlo; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    TNF-α has a central role in the development and maintenance of psoriatic plaques, and its serum levels correlate with disease activity. Anti-TNF-α drugs are, however, ineffective in a relevant percentage of patients for reasons that are currently unknown. To understand whether the response to anti-TNF-α drugs is influenced by the production of anti-drug antibodies or by the modulation of the TNFα-TNFα receptor system, and to identify changes in monocyte phenotype and activity, we analysed 119 psoriatic patients who either responded or did not respond to different anti-TNF-α therapies (adalimumab, etanercept or infliximab), and measured plasma levels of TNF-α, TNF-α soluble receptors, drug and anti-drug antibodies. Moreover, we analyzed the production of TNF-α and TNF-α soluble receptors by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and characterized different monocyte populations. We found that: i) the drug levels varied between responders and non-responders; ii) anti-infliximab antibodies were present in 15% of infliximab-treated patients, while anti-etanercept or anti-adalimumab antibodies were never detected; iii) plasma TNF-α levels were higher in patients treated with etanercept compared to patients treated with adalimumab or infliximab; iv) PBMCs from patients responding to adalimumab and etanercept produced more TNF-α and sTNFRII in vitro than patients responding to infliximab; v) PBMCs from patients not responding to infliximab produce higher levels of TNF-α and sTNFRII than patients responding to infliximab; vi) anti- TNF-α drugs significantly altered monocyte subsets. A complex remodelling of the TNFα-TNFα receptor system thus takes place in patients treated with anti-TNF-α drugs, that involves either the production of anti-drug antibodies or the modulation of monocyte phenotype or inflammatory activity. PMID:27936119

  13. Metabolic Disorder in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Patients: Towards a Personalized Approach Using Marine Drug Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Lamonaca, Palma; Prinzi, Giulia; Kisialiou, Aliaksei; Cardaci, Vittorio; Fini, Massimo; Russo, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic disorder has been frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, the exact correlation between obesity, which is a complex metabolic disorder, and COPD remains controversial. The current study summarizes a variety of drugs from marine sources that have anti-obesity effects and proposed potential mechanisms by which lung function can be modulated with the anti-obesity activity. Considering the similar mechanism, such as inflammation, shared between obesity and COPD, the study suggests that marine derivatives that act on the adipose tissues to reduce inflammation may provide beneficial therapeutic effects in COPD subjects with high body mass index (BMI). PMID:28335527

  14. Long term maintenance of weight loss with non-surgical interventions in obese adults: systematic review and meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Dombrowski, S U; Knittle, K; Avenell, A; Araújo-Soares, V

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically review and describe currently available approaches to supporting maintenance of weight loss in obese adults and to assess the evidence for the effectiveness of these interventions. Design Systematic review with meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, PsycINFO, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Study selection Studies were identified through to January 2014. Randomised trials of interventions to maintain weight loss provided to initially obese adults (aged ≥18) after weight loss of ≥5% body weight with long term (≥12 months) follow-up of weight change (main outcome) were included. Study appraisal and synthesis Potential studies were screened independently and in duplicate; study characteristics and outcomes were extracted. Meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the effects of interventions on weight loss maintenance with the inverse variance method and a random effects model. Results are presented as mean differences in weight change, with 95% confidence intervals. Results 45 trials involving 7788 individuals were included. Behavioural interventions focusing on both food intake and physical activity resulted in an average difference of −1.56 kg (95% confidence interval −2.27 to −0.86 kg; 25 comparisons, 2949 participants) in weight regain compared with controls at 12 months. Orlistat combined with behavioural interventions resulted in a −1.80 kg (−2.54 to −1.06; eight comparisons, 1738 participants) difference compared with placebo at 12 months. All orlistat studies reported higher frequencies of adverse gastrointestinal events in the experimental compared with placebo control groups. A dose-response relation for orlistat treatment was found, with 120 mg doses three times a day leading to greater weight loss maintenance (−2.34 kg, −3.03 to −1.65) compared with 60 mg and 30 mg three times a day (−0.70 kg, 95% confidence interval −1.92 to 0.52), P=0.02. Conclusions Behavioural

  15. Investing in Our Nation's Youth. National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign: Phase II (Final Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This publication presents the findings from an evaluation of Phase II of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign. The number one goal of the campaign was to educate youth to reject illegal drugs. This report evaluates Phase II and focuses on the effect of paid television advertising on awareness of anti-drug messages among youth, teens, and…

  16. A qualitative assessment of the challenges of WHO prequalification for anti-malarial drugs in China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yangmu; Pan, Ke; Peng, Danlu; Stergachis, Andy

    2018-04-03

    While China is a major manufacturer of artemisinin and its derivatives, it lags as a global leader in terms of the total export value of anti-malarial drugs as finished pharmaceutical products ready for marketing and use by patients. This may be due to the limited number of World Health Organization (WHO) prequalified anti-malarial drugs from China. Understanding the reasons for the slow progress of WHO prequalification (PQ) in China can help improve the current situation and may lead to greater efforts in malaria eradication by Chinese manufacturers. In-depth interviews were conducted in China between November 2014 and December 2016. A total of 26 key informants from central government agencies, pharmaceutical companies, universities, and research institutes were interviewed, all of which had current or previous experience overseeing or implementing anti-malarial research and development in China. Chinese anti-malarial drugs that lack WHO PQ are mainly exported for use in the African private market. High upfront costs with unpredictable benefits, as well as limited information and limited technical support on WHO PQ, were reported as the main barriers to obtain WHO PQ for anti-malarial drugs by respondents from Chinese pharmaceutical companies. Potential incentives identified by respondents included tax relief, human resource training and consultation, as well as other incentives related to drug approval, such as China's Fast Track Channel. Government support, as well as innovative incentives and collaboration mechanisms are needed for further adoption of WHO PQ for anti-malarial drugs in China.

  17. Osteoarthritis guidelines: a progressive role for topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    PubMed Central

    Stanos, Steven P

    2013-01-01

    Current treatment guidelines for the treatment of chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis reflect the collective clinical knowledge of international experts in weighing the benefits of pharmacologic therapy options while striving to minimize the negative effects associated with them. Consideration of disease progression, pattern of flares, level of functional impairment or disability, response to treatment, coexisting conditions such as cardiovascular disease or gastrointestinal disorders, and concomitant prescription medication use should be considered when creating a therapeutic plan for a patient with osteoarthritis. Although topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs historically have not been prevalent in many of the guidelines for osteoarthritis treatment, recent evidence-based medicine and new guidelines now support their use as a viable option for the clinician seeking alternatives to typical oral formulations. This article provides a qualitative review of these treatment guidelines and the emerging role of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a therapy option for patients with localized symptoms of osteoarthritis who may be at risk for oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related serious adverse events. PMID:23589694

  18. Osteoarthritis guidelines: a progressive role for topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Stanos, Steven P

    2013-01-01

    Current treatment guidelines for the treatment of chronic pain associated with osteoarthritis reflect the collective clinical knowledge of international experts in weighing the benefits of pharmacologic therapy options while striving to minimize the negative effects associated with them. Consideration of disease progression, pattern of flares, level of functional impairment or disability, response to treatment, coexisting conditions such as cardiovascular disease or gastrointestinal disorders, and concomitant prescription medication use should be considered when creating a therapeutic plan for a patient with osteoarthritis. Although topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs historically have not been prevalent in many of the guidelines for osteoarthritis treatment, recent evidence-based medicine and new guidelines now support their use as a viable option for the clinician seeking alternatives to typical oral formulations. This article provides a qualitative review of these treatment guidelines and the emerging role of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a therapy option for patients with localized symptoms of osteoarthritis who may be at risk for oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-related serious adverse events.

  19. Rescue strategies against non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced gastroduodenal damage.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yun Jeong; Lee, Jeong Sang; Ku, Yang Suh; Hahm, Ki-Baik

    2009-07-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most commonly prescribed drugs worldwide, which attests to their efficacy as analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents as well as anticancer drugs. However, NSAID use also carries a risk of major gastroduodenal events, including symptomatic ulcers and their serious complications that can lead to fatal outcomes. The development of "coxibs" (selective cyclooxygenase-2 [COX-2] inhibitors) offered similar efficacy with reduced toxicity, but this promise of gastroduodenal safety has only partially been fulfilled, and is now dented with associated risks of cardiovascular or intestinal complications. Recent advances in basic science and biotechnology have given insights into molecular mechanisms of NSAID-induced gastroduodenal damage beyond COX-2 inhibition. The emergence of newer kinds of NSAIDs should alleviate gastroduodenal toxicity without compromising innate drug efficacy. In this review, novel strategies for avoiding NSAID-associated gastroduodenal damage will be described.

  20. Animal models for testing anti-prion drugs.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Borges, Natalia; Elezgarai, Saioa R; Eraña, Hasier; Castilla, Joaquín

    2013-01-01

    Prion diseases belong to a group of fatal infectious diseases with no effective therapies available. Throughout the last 35 years, less than 50 different drugs have been tested in different experimental animal models without hopeful results. An important limitation when searching for new drugs is the existence of appropriate models of the disease. The three different possible origins of prion diseases require the existence of different animal models for testing anti-prion compounds. Wild type, over-expressing transgenic mice and other more sophisticated animal models have been used to evaluate a diversity of compounds which some of them were previously tested in different in vitro experimental models. The complexity of prion diseases will require more pre-screening studies, reliable sporadic (or spontaneous) animal models and accurate chemical modifications of the selected compounds before having an effective therapy against human prion diseases. This review is intended to put on display the more relevant animal models that have been used in the search of new antiprion therapies and describe some possible procedures when handling chemical compounds presumed to have anti-prion activity prior to testing them in animal models.

  1. The economic returns of pediatric clinical trials of anti-hypertensive drugs

    PubMed Central

    Baker-Smith, Carissa M.; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Grabowski, Henry G.; Reid, Elizabeth D.; Mangum, Barry; Goldsmith, John V.; Murphy, M. Dianne; Edwards, Rex; Eisenstein, Eric L.; Sun, Jessica; Califf, Robert M.; Li, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background Congress has authorized the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to provide industry sponsors with a 6-month extension of drug marketing rights under the Pediatric Exclusivity Provision if FDA-requested pediatric drug trials are conducted. The cost and economic return of pediatric exclusivity to industry sponsors has been shown to be highly variable. We sought to determine the cost of performing pediatric exclusivity trials within a single therapeutic area and the subsequent economic return to industry sponsors. Methods We evaluated 9 orally administered anti-hypertensive drugs submitted to the FDA under the Pediatric Exclusivity Provision from 1997–2004 and obtained key elements of the clinical trial designs and operations. Estimates of the costs of performing the studies were generated and converted into after-tax cash outflow. Market sales were obtained and converted into after-tax inflows based on 6 months of additional patent protection. Net economic return and net return-to-cost ratios were determined for each drug. Results Of the 9 anti-hypertensive agents studied, an average of 2 studies per drug was performed, including at least 1 pharmacokinetic study and a safety and efficacy study. The median cost of completing a pharmacokinetic trial was $862,000 (range: $556,000–1.8 million). The median cost of performing safety and efficacy trials for these agents was $4.3 million (range: $2.1 million–12.9 million). The ratio of net economic return to cost was 17 (range: 4–64.7). Conclusion We found that, within a cohort of anti-hypertensive drugs, the Pediatric Exclusivity Provision has generated highly variable, yet lucrative returns to industry sponsors. PMID:18926149

  2. The anti-obesity effects of the dietary combination of fermented red ginseng with levan in high fat diet mouse model.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin sun; Lee, Seung Ri; Hwang, Keum Taek; Ji, Geun Eog

    2014-04-01

    In this study, to evaluate the anti-obesity effects of fermented red ginseng (FG), levan (L), and their combination (FGL), we investigated their effects on the weights of body, liver and white adipose tissue, lipid profiles, and biomarkers for insulin resistance in high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese C57BL/6J male mice. Furthermore, the levels of leptin in the serum were measured. FG (150 mg/kg/d), L (100 mg/kg/d), and FGL (150 mg/kg/d of FG plus 100 mg/kg/d of L) were administered orally to mice daily for 11 weeks. After 11 weeks feeding, FGL showed significantly lower body weight and fat mass with decreasing food efficiency ratio than the HFD control mice. In addition, the FGL group was significantly lower in the levels of total cholesterol and fasting blood glucose and score of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. Furthermore, FGL decreased serum leptin levels compared to the HFD control group. Taken together, FGL showed a significant anti-obesity effect in HFD-induced obese mice and prevent insulin and leptin resistance. FGL may be potentially useful for the prevention of obesity. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. [Drug eruptions caused by noncorticoid anti-inflammatory agents].

    PubMed

    Roujeau, J C; Guillaume, J C; Revuz, J; Touraine, R

    1984-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI) may elicit various kinds of cutaneous side effects. The commonest ones are non-specific erythematous eruptions, sometimes with a phototoxic distribution, and urticaria. Vasculitis and severe bullous eruptions (Stevens-Johnson's syndrome and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis) are rare but may have severe outcomes. The overall incidence of cutaneous reactions is about the same for all NSAI, 1 to 3 p. 100, during the clinical studies performed before marketing the drug, but this increases afterwards (up to 45 p. 100 for Benoxaprofen). Drugs with long half-lives may carry a higher risk for severe cutaneous reactions. NSAI are now the main cause of drug induced TEN. Urticarial reactions seem related to pharmacological phenomena while the pathogenic events leading to other kinds of skin reactions remain unknown. An hypersensitivity reaction is postulated. The therapeutic value of corticosteroids for the severe cutaneous side effects of drugs is still controversial.

  4. A Review of Potential Marine-derived Hypotensive and Anti-obesity Peptides.

    PubMed

    Manikkam, V; Vasiljevic, T; Donkor, O N; Mathai, M L

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive peptides are food derived components, usually consisting of 3-20 amino acids, which are inactive when incorporated within their parent protein. Once liberated by enzymatic or chemical hydrolysis, during food processing and gastrointestinal transit, they can potentially provide an array of health benefits to the human body. Owing to an unprecedented increase in the worldwide incidence of obesity and hypertension, medical researchers are focusing on the hypotensive and anti-obesity properties of nutritionally derived bioactive peptides. The role of the renin-angiotensin system has long been established in the aetiology of metabolic diseases and hypertension. Targeting the renin-angiotensin system by inhibiting the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and preventing the formation of angiotensin II can be a potential therapeutic approach to the treatment of hypertension and obesity. Fish-derived proteins and peptides can potentially be excellent sources of bioactive components, mainly as a source of ACE inhibitors. However, increased use of marine sources, poses an unsustainable burden on particular fish stocks, so, the underutilized fish species and by-products can be exploited for this purpose. This paper provides an overview of the techniques involved in the production, isolation, purification, and characterization of bioactive peptides from marine sources, as well as the evaluation of the ACE inhibitory (ACE-I) activity and bioavailability.

  5. Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Hörl, Walter H.

    2010-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit the isoenzymes COX-1 and COX-2 of cyclooxygenase (COX). Renal side effects (e.g., kidney function, fluid and urinary electrolyte excretion) vary with the extent of COX-2-COX-1 selectivity and the administered dose of these compounds. While young healthy subjects will rarely experience adverse renal effects with the use of NSAIDs, elderly patients and those with co-morbibity (e.g., congestive heart failure, liver cirrhosis or chronic kidney disease) and drug combinations (e.g., renin-angiotensin blockers, diuretics plus NSAIDs) may develop acute renal failure. This review summarizes our present knowledge how traditional NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors may affect the kidney under various experimental and clinical conditions, and how these drugs may influence renal inflammation, water transport, sodium and potassium balance and how renal dysfunction or hypertension may result. PMID:27713354

  6. Anti-Cancer Drug Delivery Using Carbohydrate-Based Polymers.

    PubMed

    Ranjbari, Javad; Mokhtarzadeh, Ahad; Alibakhshi, Abbas; Tabarzad, Maryam; Hejazi, Maryam; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2018-02-12

    Polymeric drug delivery systems in the form of nanocarriers are the most interesting vehicles in anticancer therapy. Among different types of biocompatible polymers, carbohydrate-based polymers or polysaccharides are the most common natural polymers with complex structures consisting of long chains of monosaccharide or disaccharide units bound by glycosidic linkages. Their appealing properties such as availability, biocompatibility, biodegradability, low toxicity, high chemical reactivity, facile chemical modification and low cost led to their extensive applications in biomedical and pharmaceutical fields including development of nano-vehicles for delivery of anti-cancer therapeutic agents. Generally, reducing systemic toxicity, increasing short half-lives and tumor localization of agents are the top priorities for a successful cancer therapy. Polysaccharide-based or - coated nanosystems with respect to their advantageous features as well as accumulation in tumor tissue due to enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect can provide promising carrier systems for the delivery of noblest impressive agents. Most challenging factor in cancer therapy was the toxicity of anti-cancer therapeutic agents for normal cells and therefore, targeted delivery of these drugs to the site of action can be considered as an interesting therapeutic strategy. In this regard, several polysaccharides exhibited selective affinity for specific cell types, and so they can act as a targeting agent in drug delivery systems. Accordingly, different aspects of polysaccharide applications in cancer treatment or diagnosis were reviewed in this paper. In this regard, after a brief introduction of polysaccharide structure and its importance, the pharmaceutical usage of carbohydrate-based polymers was considered according to the identity of accompanying active pharmaceutical agents. It was also presented that the carbohydrate based polymers have been extensively considered as promising materials in

  7. Use of anti-TNF drug levels to optimise patient management

    PubMed Central

    Papamichael, Konstantinos; Cheifetz, Adam S

    2016-01-01

    Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) therapies, such as infliximab, adalimumab, certolizumab pegol and golimumab, have been proven to be effective for the treatment of patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. However, 10%–30% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) show no initial clinical benefit to anti-TNF therapy (primary non-response), and over 50% after an initial favourable outcome will lose response over time (secondary loss of response (SLR)). Numerous recent studies in IBD have revealed an exposure–response relationship suggesting a positive correlation between high serum anti-TNF concentrations and favourable therapeutic outcomes including clinical, biomarker and endoscopic remission, whereas antidrug antibodies have been associated with SLR and infusion reactions. Currently, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is typically performed when treatment failure occurs either for SLR, drug intolerance (potential immune-mediated reaction) or infusion reaction (reactive TDM). Nevertheless, recent data demonstrate that proactive TDM and a treat-to-target (trough) therapeutic approach may more effectively optimise anti-TNF therapy efficacy, safety and cost. However, implementing TDM in real-life clinical practice is currently limited by the diversity in study design, therapeutic outcomes and assays used, which have hindered the identification of robust clinically relevant concentration thresholds. This review will focus mainly on the pharmacodynamic properties of anti-TNF therapy and the role of TDM in guiding therapeutic decisions in IBD. PMID:28839870

  8. A systematic review of anti-obesity medicinal plants - an update.

    PubMed

    Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Jouyandeh, Zahra; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-06-19

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, investigating the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicine to treat obesity. Actually we limited our search to such a narrow window of time in order to update our article published before December of 2008. In this update, the search terms were "obesity" and ("herbal medicine" or "plant", "plant medicinal" or "medicine traditional") without narrowing or limiting search items. Publications with available abstracts were reviewed only. Total publications found in the initial search were 651. Total number of publications for review study was 33 by excluding publications related to animals study.Studies with Nigella Sativa, Camellia Sinensis, Crocus Sativus L, Seaweed laminaria Digitata, Xantigen, virgin olive oil, Catechin enriched green tea, Monoselect Camellia, Oolong tea, Yacon syrup, Irvingia Gabonensi, Weighlevel, RCM-104 compound of Camellia Sinensis, Pistachio, Psyllium fibre, black Chinese tea, sea buckthorn and bilberries show significant decreases in body weight. Only, alginate-based brown seaweed and Laminaria Digitata caused an abdominal bloating and upper respiratory tract infection as the side effect in the trial group. No other significant adverse effects were reported in all 33 trials included in this article.In conclusion, Nigella Sativa, Camellia Synensis, Green Tea, and Black Chinese Tea seem to have satisfactory anti-obesity effects. The effect size of these medicinal plants is a critical point that should be considered for interpretation. Although there

  9. A Novel Pleiotropic Anti-Inflammatory Drug to Reduce ARDS Incidence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-07-01

    12 and decided the optimal strategy would be to modify the route of drug delivery from gavage to intravenous (IV). We tested several vehicles and...the most likely reason for these negative results was either our injury model is too severe causing the animals to be moribund or the mode of drug ...Page 1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0288 TITLE: A Novel Pleiotropic Anti-Inflammatory Drug to Reduce ARDS Incidence PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gary

  10. Anti-Obesity Property of Lichen Thamnolia vermicularis Extract in 3T3-L1 Cells and Diet-Induced Obese Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ra-Yeong; Ham, Ju Ri; Yeo, Jiyoung; Hur, Jae-Seoun; Park, Seok-Kyu; Kim, Myung-Joo; Lee, Mi-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Thamnolia vermicularis (TV) is an edible lichen that is prevalent in the alpine zone of East Asia. This study evaluated the feasibility of using TV acetone extracts as a functional food based on experiments using cell line and obese mice. The cellular triglyceride levels and Oil red O staining of 3T3-L1 cells indicated that TV extracts (5 and 10 μg/mL) dose-dependently suppressed adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation compared with the control. The TV extract (0.4%, w/w) in a high-fat diet (HFD) was supplemented to C57BL/6N mice for 12 weeks, and TV extract supplement significantly reduced visceral fat mass and body weight compared with HFD feeding alone. The TV extract also induced significant decreases in serum and hepatic lipids, whereas it increased the serum high-density lipoproteins-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio and fecal lipids levels. Moreover, the TV extract led to significantly lower homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice. Taken together, these results suggest that the TV extract may have anti-obesity effects, including lipid-lowering, and it is a natural resource with the potential for use in obesity management. PMID:29333380

  11. Idalopirdine - a small molecule antagonist of 5-HT6 with therapeutic potential against obesity.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Magdalena; Marcinkowska, Monika; Bucki, Adam; Olczyk, Adrian; Kołaczkowski, Marcin

    2015-12-01

    5HT6 receptor antagonists offer the potential for safe and effective drugs against obesity, because they can reduce weight without causing serious side effects in the cardiovascular system. Also, their anorexic effect is associated with reduced food intake via an enhancement of satiety. In the present study we investigated the anorexic effect of idalopirdine (LuAE58054) in a model of obesity induced by high-fat diet. To induce obesity in rats, the animals were treated with feed with a fat content of 40 %. Body weight was controlled and the amount of food and water consumed was determined. The influence of the test compound on the lipid profile and glucose level was measured, as well as locomotor activity in home cages on the 20th day of the treatment. LuAE58054, at 5 mg kg(-1)/day i.p., was significantly anorectic in this model of obesity. Animals treated with LuAE58054 weighed 8 and 9.2 % less than the control obese animals on the 12th and 21st days, respectively. It significantly reduced food intake and the amount of peritoneal fat in animals, and reduced the level of triglycerides in plasma. LuAE58054 did not have a statistically significant effect on the spontaneous activity of diet-induced obese rats. The present study clearly demonstrates the effectiveness of LuAE58054 in reducing body weight. This compound is in phase III of clinical trials for the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. It is a 5HT6 receptor antagonist and is, therefore, free of those unacceptable side effects that preclude chronic use of anti-obesity drugs with other mechanisms of action. The search for an effective and safe anti-obesity drug is essential for an increasingly obese population; therefore, the anorectic action of LuAE58054 is important and there is a need for more research in this direction.

  12. Physiological Characteristics and Anti-obesity Effect of Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 Isolated from Feces

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Seong-A; Kim, Sae-Hun; Lim, Sang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is strongly associated with several metabolic and chronic diseases and has become a major public health problem of worldwide concern. This study aimed to investigate the physiological characteristics and anti-obesity effects of Lactobacillus plantarum Q180. Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 was isolated from the faces of healthy adults and found to have a lipase inhibitory activity of 83.61±2.32% and inhibited adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells (14.63±1.37%) at a concentration of 100 μg/mL. The strain was investigated for its physiological characteristics. The optimum growth temperature of L. plantarum Q180 was 37℃. Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 showed higher sensitivity to novobiocin in a comparison of fifteen different antibiotics and showed the highest resistance to rifampicin, polymyxin B and vancomycin. The strain showed higher β-galactosidase and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase activities. It also did not produce carcinogenic enzymes such as β-glucuronidase. The survival rate of L. plantarum Q180 in MRS broth containing 0.3% bile was 97.8%. Moreover, the strain showed a 97.2% survival rate after incubation for 3 h in pH 2.0. Lactobacillus plantarum Q180 was displayed resistance to Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus with rates of 55.6%, 38.0% and 47.6%, respectively. These results demonstrate that L. plantarum Q180 has potential as a probiotic with anti-obesity effects. PMID:26761499

  13. Fruit vinegars attenuate cardiac injury via anti-inflammatory and anti-adiposity actions in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Bounihi, Abdenour; Bitam, Arezki; Bouazza, Asma; Yargui, Lyece; Koceir, Elhadj Ahmed

    2017-12-01

    Fruit vinegars (FVs) are used in Mediterranean folk medicine for their hypolipidemic and weight-reducing properties. To investigate the preventive effects of three types of FV, commonly available in Algeria, namely prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill (Cectaceae)], pomegranate [Punica granatum L. (Punicaceae)], and apple [Malus domestica Borkh. (Rosaceae)], against obesity-induced cardiomyopathy and its underlying mechanisms. Seventy-two male Wistar rats were equally divided into 12 groups. The first group served as normal control (distilled water, 7 mL/kg bw), and the remaining groups were respectively treated with distilled water (7 mL/kg bw), acetic acid (0.5% w/v, 7 mL/kg bw) and vinegars of pomegranate, apple or prickly pear (at doses of 3.5, 7 and 14 mL/kg bw, acetic acid content as mentioned above) along with a high-fat diet (HFD). The effects of the oral administration of FV for 18 weeks on the body and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) weights, plasma inflammatory and cardiac enzymes biomarkers, and in heart tissue were evaluated. Vinegars treatments significantly (p < .05) attenuated the HFD-induced increase in bw (0.2-0.5-fold) and VAT mass (0.7-1.8-fold), as well as increase in plasma levels of CRP (0.1-0.3-fold), fibrinogen (0.2-0.3-fold), leptin (1.7-3.7-fold), TNF-α (0.1-0.6-fold), AST (0.9-1.4-fold), CK-MB (0.3-1.4-fold) and LDH (2.7-6.7-fold). Moreover, vinegar treatments preserved myocardial architecture and attenuated cardiac fibrosis. These findings suggest that pomegranate, apple and prickly pear vinegars may prevent HFD-induced obesity and obesity-related cardiac complications, and that this prevention may result from the potent anti-inflammatory and anti-adiposity properties of these vinegars.

  14. Creatinine-based equations for the adjustment of drug dosage in an obese population.

    PubMed

    Bouquegneau, Antoine; Vidal-Petiot, Emmanuelle; Moranne, Olivier; Mariat, Christophe; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Scheen, André-Jean; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie; Flamant, Martin; Delanaye, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    For drug dosing adaptation, the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines recommend using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation, after 'de-indexation' by body surface area (BSA). In pharmacology, the Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation is still recommended to adapt drug dosage. In the context of obesity, adjusted ideal body weight (AIBW) is sometimes preferred to actual body weight (ABW) for the CG equation. The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of the different GFR-estimating equations, non-indexed or de-indexed by BSA for the purpose of drug-dosage adaptation in obese patients. We analysed data from patients with a body mass index (BMI) higher than 30 kg m(-2) who underwent a GFR measurement. eGFR was calculated using the CKD-EPI and Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) equations, de-indexed by BSA, and the CG equation, using either ABW, AIBW or lean body weight (LBW) for the weight variable and compared with measured GFR, expressed in ml min(-1). In our population of obese patients, use of the AIBW instead of the ABW in the CG equation, markedly improved the overall accuracy of this equation [57% for CGABW and 79% for CGAIBW (P < 0.05)]. For high BMI (over 40 kg m(-2)), the accuracy of the CG equations is no different when using LBW than when using AIBW. The MDRD and CKD-EPI equations de-indexed by the BSA also performed well, with an overall higher accuracy for the MDRD de-indexed equation [(80% and 76%, respectively (P < 0.05)]. The de-indexed MDRD equation appeared to be the most suitable for estimating the non-indexed GFR for the purpose of drug dosage adaptation in obese patients. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  15. Obesity treatment: novel peripheral targets

    PubMed Central

    Field, Benjamin C T; Chaudhri, Owais B; Bloom, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Our knowledge of the complex mechanisms underlying energy homeostasis has expanded enormously in recent years. Food intake and body weight are tightly regulated by the hypothalamus, brainstem and reward circuits, on the basis both of cognitive inputs and of diverse humoral and neuronal signals of nutritional status. Several gut hormones, including cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, oxyntomodulin, amylin, pancreatic polypeptide and ghrelin, have been shown to play an important role in regulating short-term food intake. These hormones therefore represent potential targets in the development of novel anti-obesity drugs. This review focuses on the role of gut hormones in short- and long-term regulation of food intake, and on the current state of development of gut hormone-based obesity therapies. PMID:20002077

  16. [Reversible infertility from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Skomsvoll, Johan Fredrik; Rødevand, Erik; Koksvik, Hege Svean; Salvesen, Kjell Asmund; von Düring, Vidar; Rygnestad, Tarjei; Østensen, Monika

    2005-06-02

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors may interfere with ovulation and the rupture of the follicle, causing reversible infertility. Literature review. Reversible infertility is shown both in animal and human studies of these drugs. As determined by ultrasound, the drugs may delay or inhibit ovulation. These findings are also confirmed by a few randomized controlled studies showing an increase in time from the luteinizing hormone surge to rupture of the follicle and an increased size of the unruptured follicle. Most of the hormone analyses show values in accordance with the ovulation/menstrual cycle. Also, two epidemiological studies have shown an association between NSAID use and spontaneous abortion. These studies have methodological weaknesses and their findings have to be elucidated in future studies. Women with fertility problems should avoid not only the selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, but also the traditional NSAIDs. However, women with rheumatic disease responding well to therapy should consult their physicians before stopping treatment. Reduced dose of a NSAID and temporary stop of drug treatment early in the menstrual cycle, or alternative drug treatment, may be a solution. NSAIDs should not be used in the last eight weeks of pregnancy.

  17. Obesity and response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents in patients with select immune-mediated inflammatory diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Siddharth; Facciorusso, Antonio; Singh, Abha G; Casteele, Niels Vande; Zarrinpar, Amir; Prokop, Larry J; Grunvald, Eduardo L; Curtis, Jeffrey R; Sandborn, William J

    2018-01-01

    We sought to evaluate the association between obesity and response to anti-tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF) agents, through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Through a systematic search through January 24, 2017, we identified randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or observational studies in adults with select immune-mediated inflammatory diseases-inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondyloarthropathies (SpA), psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA)-treated with anti-TNF agents, and reporting outcomes, stratified by body mass index (BMI) categories or weight. Primary outcome was failure to achieve clinical remission or response or treatment modification. We performed random effects meta-analysis and estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Based on 54 cohorts including 19,372 patients (23% obese), patients with obesity had 60% higher odds of failing therapy (OR,1.60; 95% CI,1.39-1.83;I2 = 71%). Dose-response relationship was observed (obese vs. normal BMI: OR,1.87 [1.39-2.52]; overweight vs. normal BMI: OR,1.38 [1.11-1.74],p = 0.11); a 1kg/m2 increase in BMI was associated with 6.5% higher odds of failure (OR,1.065 [1.043-1.087]). These effects were observed across patients with rheumatic diseases, but not observed in patients with IBD. Effect was consistent based on dosing regimen/route, study design, exposure definition, and outcome measures. Less than 10% eligible RCTs reported outcomes stratified by BMI. Obesity is an under-reported predictor of inferior response to anti-TNF agents in patients with select immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. A thorough evaluation of obesity as an effect modifier in clinical trials is warranted, and intentional weight loss may serve as adjunctive treatment in patients with obesity failing anti-TNF therapy.

  18. Pediatric obesity: Causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Xu, Shumei; Xue, Ying

    2016-01-01

    , and mitochondrial uncoupling proteins, are known to affect body weight. These molecules serve as potential targets for the pharmacological manipulation of obesity. Sibutramine and orlistat are primariliy used for the treatment of adult obesity, which produces modest weight loss, of 3-8% compared to placebo. For children and obese adolescents, metformin is used in the case of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Octreotide is used for hypothalamic obesity. Bariatric surgery is performed for the treatment of severe childhood obesity. The causes, symptoms, prevention and treatment of pediatric obesity are described in the present review.

  19. The Use of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calabrese, Leonard H.; Rooney, Theodore W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of the mechanism of action and clinical pharmacology of the new nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can help practitioners decide which to use and how to administer them. Indications for and effects of NSAIDs are described. (MT)

  20. Anti-obesity activity of Yamabushitake (Hericium erinaceus) powder in ovariectomized mice, and its potentially active compounds.

    PubMed

    Hiraki, Eri; Furuta, Shoko; Kuwahara, Rika; Takemoto, Naomichi; Nagata, Toshiro; Akasaka, Taiki; Shirouchi, Bungo; Sato, Masao; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2017-07-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) improves the symptoms of menopause. In this study, using ovariectomized mice as a model of menopause, we investigated the anti-obesity effect of this mushroom in menopause. Mice fed diets containing H. erinaceus powder showed significant decreases in the amounts of fat tissue, plasma levels of total cholesterol, and leptin. To determine the mechanism, groups of mice were respectively fed a diet containing H. erinaceus powder, a diet containing ethanol extract of H. erinaceus, and a diet containing a residue of the extract. As a result, H. erinaceus powder was found to increase fecal lipid levels in excreted matter. Further in vitro investigation showed that ethanol extract inhibited the activity of lipase, and four lipase-inhibitory compounds were isolated from the extract: hericenone C, hericenone D, hericenone F, and hericenone G. In short, we suggest that H. erinaceus has an anti-obesity effect during menopause because it decreases the ability to absorb lipids.

  1. International comparison of the factors influencing reimbursement of targeted anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Lim, Carol Sunghye; Lee, Yun-Gyoo; Koh, Youngil; Heo, Dae Seog

    2014-11-29

    Reimbursement policies for anti-cancer drugs vary among countries even though they rely on the same clinical evidence. We compared the pattern of publicly funded drug programs and analyzed major factors influencing the differences. We investigated reimbursement policies for 19 indications with targeted anti-cancer drugs that are used variably across ten countries. The available incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) data were retrieved for each indication. Based on the comparison between actual reimbursement decisions and the ICERs, we formulated a reimbursement adequacy index (RAI): calculating the proportion of cost-effective decisions, either reimbursement of cost-effective indications or non-reimbursement of cost-ineffective indications, out of the total number of indications for each country. The relationship between RAI and other indices were analyzed, including governmental dependency on health technology assessment, as well as other parameters for health expenditure. All the data used in this study were gathered from sources publicly available online. Japan and France were the most likely to reimburse indications (16/19), whereas Sweden and the United Kingdom were the least likely to reimburse them (5/19 and 6/19, respectively). Indications with high cost-effectiveness values were more likely to be reimbursed (ρ = -0.68, P = 0.001). The three countries with high RAI scores each had a healthcare system that was financed by general taxation. Although reimbursement policies for anti-cancer drugs vary among countries, we found a strong correlation of reimbursements for those indications with lower ICERs. Countries with healthcare systems financed by general taxation demonstrated greater cost-effectiveness as evidenced by reimbursement decisions of anti-cancer drugs.

  2. Prescription practice of anti-tuberculosis drugs in Yunnan, China: A clinical audit.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Jinou; Innes, Anh L; Li, Ling; Chiang, Chen-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    China has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). As irrational use and inadequate dosing of anti-TB drugs may contribute to the epidemic of drug-resistant TB, we assessed the drug types and dosages prescribed in the treatment of TB cases in a representative sample of health care facilities in Yunnan. We applied multistage cluster sampling using probability proportion to size to select 28 counties in Yunnan. Consecutive pulmonary TB patients were enrolled from either the TB centers of Yunnan Center of Disease Control or designated TB hospitals. Outcomes of interest included the regimen used in the treatment of new and retreatment TB patients; and the proportion of patients treated with adequate dosing of anti-TB drugs. Furthermore, we assess whether there has been reduction in the use of fluoroquinolone and second line injectables in Tuberculosis Clinical Centre (TCC) after the training activity in late 2012. Of 2390 TB patients enrolled, 582 (24.4%) were prescribed second line anti-TB drugs (18.0% in new cases and 60.9% in retreatment cases); 363(15.2%) prescribed a fluoroquinolone. General hospitals (adjusted odds ratio (adjOR) 1.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-2.66), retreatment TB cases (adjOR 4.75, 95% CI 3.59-6.27), smear positive cases (adjOR 1.69, 95% CI 1.22-2.33), and extrapulmonary TB (adjOR 2.59, 95% CI 1.66-4.03) were significantly associated with the use of fluoroquinolones. The proportion of patients treated with fluoroquinolones decreased from 41.4% before 2013 to 13.5% after 2013 (adjOR 0.19, 95% CI 0.12-0.28) in TCC. The proportion of patients with correct, under and over dosages of isoniazid was 88.2%, 1.5%, and 10.4%, respectively; of rifampicin was 50.2%, 46.8%, and 2.9%; of pyrazinamide was 67.6%, 31.7% and 0.7%; and of ethambutol was 41.4%, 57.5%, and 1.0%. The prescribing practice of anti-TB drugs was not standardized, findings with significant programmatic implication.

  3. Importance of Relating Efficacy Measures to Unbound Drug Concentrations for Anti-Infective Agents

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Schmidt, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY For the optimization of dosing regimens of anti-infective agents, it is imperative to have a good understanding of pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD). Whenever possible, drug efficacy needs to be related to unbound concentrations at the site of action. For anti-infective drugs, the infection site is typically located outside plasma, and a drug must diffuse through capillary membranes to reach its target. Disease- and drug-related factors can contribute to differential tissue distribution. As a result, the assumption that the plasma concentration of drugs represents a suitable surrogate of tissue concentrations may lead to erroneous conclusions. Quantifying drug exposure in tissues represents an opportunity to relate the pharmacologically active concentrations to an observed pharmacodynamic parameter, such as the MIC. Selection of an appropriate specimen to sample and the advantages and limitations of the available sampling techniques require careful consideration. Ultimately, the goal will be to assess the appropriateness of a drug and dosing regimen for a specific pathogen and infection. PMID:23554417

  4. Prevention of Colorectal Cancer by Targeting Obesity-Related Disorders and Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shirakami, Yohei; Ohnishi, Masaya; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Masahito

    2017-04-26

    Colorectal cancer is a major healthcare concern worldwide. Many experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to date to discover agents that help in the prevention of this disease. Chronic inflammation in colonic mucosa and obesity, and its related metabolic abnormalities, are considered to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Therefore, treatments targeting these factors might be a promising strategy to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Among a number of functional foods, various phytochemicals, including tea catechins, which have anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties, and medicinal agents that ameliorate metabolic disorders, might also be beneficial in the prevention of colorectal cancer. In this review article, we summarize the strategies for preventing colorectal cancer by targeting obesity-related disorders and inflammation through nutraceutical and pharmaceutical approaches, and discuss the mechanisms of several phytochemicals and medicinal drugs used in basic and clinical research, especially focusing on the effects of green tea catechins.

  5. Prevention of Colorectal Cancer by Targeting Obesity-Related Disorders and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Shirakami, Yohei; Ohnishi, Masaya; Sakai, Hiroyasu; Tanaka, Takuji; Shimizu, Masahito

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major healthcare concern worldwide. Many experimental and clinical studies have been conducted to date to discover agents that help in the prevention of this disease. Chronic inflammation in colonic mucosa and obesity, and its related metabolic abnormalities, are considered to increase the risk of colorectal cancer. Therefore, treatments targeting these factors might be a promising strategy to prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Among a number of functional foods, various phytochemicals, including tea catechins, which have anti-inflammatory and anti-obesity properties, and medicinal agents that ameliorate metabolic disorders, might also be beneficial in the prevention of colorectal cancer. In this review article, we summarize the strategies for preventing colorectal cancer by targeting obesity-related disorders and inflammation through nutraceutical and pharmaceutical approaches, and discuss the mechanisms of several phytochemicals and medicinal drugs used in basic and clinical research, especially focusing on the effects of green tea catechins. PMID:28445390

  6. Weight loss significantly reduces serum lipocalin-2 levels in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koiou, Ekaterini; Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Katsikis, Ilias; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Kalaitzakis, Emmanuil; Delkos, Dimitrios; Vosnakis, Christos; Panidis, Dimitrios

    2012-01-01

    Serum lipocalin-2 levels are elevated in obese patients. We assessed serum lipocalin-2 levels in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the effects of weight loss or metformin on these levels. Forty-seven overweight/obese patients with PCOS [body mass index (BMI) >27 kg/m(2)] were instructed to follow a low-calorie diet, to exercise and were given orlistat or sibutramine for 6 months. Twenty-five normal weight patients with PCOS (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) were treated with metformin for 6 months. Twenty-five normal weight and 25 overweight/obese healthy female volunteers comprised the control groups. Serum lipocalin-2 levels did not differ between overweight/obese patients with PCOS and overweight/obese controls (p = 0.258), or between normal weight patients with PCOS and normal weight controls (p = 0.878). Lipocalin-2 levels were higher in overweight/obese patients with PCOS than in normal weight patients with PCOS (p < 0.001). In overweight/obese patients with PCOS, weight loss resulted in a fall in lipocalin-2 levels (p < 0.001). In normal weight patients with PCOS, treatment with metformin did not affect lipocalin-2 levels (p = 0.484). In conclusion, PCOS per se is not associated with elevated lipocalin-2 levels. Weight loss induces a significant reduction in lipocalin-2 levels in overweight/obese patients with PCOS.

  7. Synthesis and anti-cancer efficacy of rapid hydrolysed water-soluble paclitaxel pro-drugs.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Beom-Young; Sohn, Jeong-Sun; Hess, Michael; Choi, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Jae-Kon; Jo, Byung-Wook

    2008-01-01

    A new series of poly(ethylene glycol)(PEG)-paclitaxel conjugates that increases water solubility of paclitaxel was synthesized. We developed well-designed self-immolating linkers between a drug and a water-soluble polymer moiety which gave an extremely rapid hydrolysis rate to convert a pro-drug into a parent drug without any reduction in drug efficacy. The self-immolating spacer groups were introduced between the solubilizing PEG and C7-OH of paclitaxel in order to control the rate of enzymatic hydrolysis. All these pro-drugs had a water-solubility of 400 mg/ml or more compared with a solubility of about 0.01 mg/ml. The rate of hydrolysis for the pro-drugs in rat plasma showed considerable variation of t((1/2)) ranging from 0.94 min to 42.7 min. To evaluate the anti-tumor efficacy of the pro-drug which had the fastest enzymatic hydrolysis rate, the growth inhibitory effect (IC(50)), the anti-tumor activity and the anti-metastatic potential of the pro-drug were examined. The pro-drug was potent to inhibit the growth of various cancer cell lines, such as human lung, ovarian, colon and melanoma cancer cells. On the development of melanoma lung colonies in C57B/6 mice following intravenous administration of metastatic murine B16/F10 melanoma cells, the pro-drug seems to be more efficacious than paclitaxel. The reduction of the number of melanoma lung colonies was 46.9% (dose: 5 mg/kg) with pure paclitaxel, and 24.5%, and 40.0% with the pro-drug in the dose of 0.71 mg paclitaxel equivalent/kg and 1.42 mg paclitaxel equivalent/kg, respectively.

  8. Anti-Emetic Drug Effects on Performance Phase 1: Laboratory Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of two anti-emetic drugs, granisetron ( 2 mg p.o.) and ondansetron ( 8 mg p.o.) on basic...drugs of interest, granisetron and ondansetron, were extremely well tolerated and with no obvious side effects when compared to the placebo condition...evidence of any cognitive, psychomotor or subjective state changes caused by either granisetron or ondansetron.

  9. Short-term exercise training reduces anti-inflammatory action of interleukin-10 in adults with obesity.

    PubMed

    Barry, Julianne C; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Durrer, Cody; Jung, Mary E; Mui, Alice L; Little, Jonathan P

    2018-06-06

    A key pathological component of obesity is chronic low-grade inflammation, which is propagated by infiltration of immune cells into tissues and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines that possess anti-inflammatory properties, such as interleukin (IL)-10 and IL6, may also play an important role. This study was designed to determine the impact of short-term exercise on the anti-inflammatory action of IL10 and IL6. Thirty-three inactive obese adults were randomized to two weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Fasting blood samples were collected before and after training. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was measured in whole blood cultures in the presence or absence of IL10 or IL6. IL10 and IL6 receptor expression were measured on circulating monocytes, neutrophils, and T cells. HIIT and MICT reduced the ability of IL10 to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα production, with a greater effect with HIIT (Group × Time and IL10 × Time interactions, p's < 0.05). This reduction in IL10 function was not explained by altered IL10R1 expression, which was unchanged after training (p > 0.05). HIIT and MICT differentially affected IL6 function (Group × Time and IL6 × Time interactions, p's < 0.05) with evidence of reductions in the anti-inflammatory ability of IL6 with HIIT. Neither HIIT nor MICT altered levels of circulating IL10, IL6, or TNFα. The impact of short-term HIIT and MICT resulted in differential effects on anti-inflammatory cytokine function. The clinical implications remain to be determined but these novel findings indicate that measuring anti-inflammatory cytokine action could reveal important immunomodulatory effects of exercise. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Anti-obesity effect of radix Angelica sinensis and candidate causative genes in transcriptome analyses of adipose tissues in high-fat diet-induced mice.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Tao; Zhang, Hao; Duan, Xiaoyue; Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Linjie; Li, Li; Zhang, Hongping; Niu, Lili

    2017-01-30

    We have previously reported that radix Angelica sinensis (RAS) suppressed body weight and altered the expression of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene in mice with high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. In the present study we performed RNA sequencing-mediated transcriptome analysis to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-obesogenic effects of RAS in mice. The results revealed that 36 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in adipose tissues from the RAS supplementation group (DH) and control group (HC). These 36 DEGs were clustered into 297 functional gene ontology (GO) categories, among which several GO annotations and signaling pathways were associated with lipid homeostasis. Six out of the 36 DEGs were identified to be involved in lipid metabolism, with the APOA2 gene a potential anti-obesogenic influence. The expression pattern revealed by RNA-Seq was identical to the results of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Therefore, RAS supplementation in HFD-induced obese mice was associated with an anti-obesogenic global transcriptomic response. This study provides insight into potential applications of RAS in obesity therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Adjuvant Anti-Angiogenesis Drugs Are No Benefit in Kidney Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a recent clinical trial show that post-surgical therapy with two anti-angiogenesis drugs does not improve progression-free survival for patients with kidney cancer and may cause serious side effects.

  12. Mitochondrial chaperones may be targets for anti-cancer drugs

    Cancer.gov

    Scientists at NCI have found that a mitochondrial chaperone protein, TRAP1, may act indirectly as a tumor suppressor as well as a novel target for developing anti-cancer drugs. Chaperone proteins, such as TRAP1, help other proteins adapt to stress, but sc

  13. Anti-obesity effects of Rapha diet® preparation in mice fed a high-fat diet

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jihyun; Kyung, Jangbeen; Kim, Dajeong; Choi, Ehn-Kyoung; Bang, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The anti-obesity activities of Rapha diet® preparation containing silkworm pupa peptide, Garcinia cambogia, white bean extract, mango extract, raspberry extract, cocoa extract, and green tea extract were investigated in mice with dietary obesity. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) containing 3% Rapha diet® preparation for 8 weeks, and blood and tissue parameters of obesity were analyzed. The HFD markedly enhanced body weight gain by increasing the weights of epididymal, perirenal, and mesenteric adipose tissues. The increased body weight gain induced by HFD was significantly reduced by feeding Rapha diet® preparation, in which decreases in the weight of abdominal adipose tissue and the size of abdominal adipocytes were confirmed by microscopic examination. Long-term feeding of HFD increased blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels, leading to hepatic lipid accumulation. However, Rapha diet® preparation not only reversed the blood lipid levels, but also attenuated hepatic steatosis. The results indicate that Rapha diet® preparation could improve HFD-induced obesity by reducing both lipid accumulation and the size of adipocytes. PMID:23326287

  14. Behavioral and pharmacologic therapies for obesity

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Marion L.; Faulconbridge, Lucy F.; Webb, Victoria L.; Wadden, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews novel developments in the behavioral and pharmacologic treatment of obesity and explores the potential contribution of genomics research to weight control. A comprehensive program of lifestyle modification, comprised of diet, physical activity and behavior therapy, induces a mean loss of 7–10% of initial weight in individuals with obesity. Two trials demonstrated that weight loss of this magnitude, combined with increased physical activity, substantially reduced the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance. A third trial is now investigating whether a lifestyle intervention will reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in overweight individuals who already have diabetes mellitus. Pharmacotherapy is recommended, in some patients, as an adjunct to lifestyle modification. Two medications—orlistat and sibutramine—are currently approved in the US for long-term weight loss. Both are efficacious when combined with lifestyle modification, although health concerns have been raised about the use of sibutramine. Several novel combination therapies, which target multiple hypothalamic pathways that regulate appetite and body weight, are currently under investigation. Genomic studies provide further evidence for the role of these pathways in the regulation of body weight. Identification of new genes controlling satiety and energy expenditure may yield valuable clues for the development of novel pharmacologic treatments. PMID:20680034

  15. Leptin deficiency shifts mast cells toward anti-inflammatory actions and protects mice from obesity and diabetes by polarizing M2 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yi; Yu, Xueqing; Chen, Huimei; Sjöberg, Sara; Roux, Joséphine; Zhang, Lijun; Ivoulsou, Al-Habib; Bensaid, Farid; Liu, Conglin; Liu, Jian; Tordjman, Joan; Clement, Karine; Lee, Chih-Hao; Hotamisligil, Gokhan S.; Libby, Peter; Shi, Guo-Ping

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Mast cells (MCs) contribute to the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes. This study demonstrates that leptin deficiency slants MCs toward anti-inflammatory functions. MCs in the white adipose tissues (WAT) of lean humans and mice express negligible leptin. Adoptive transfer of leptin-deficient MCs expanded ex vivo mitigates diet-induced and pre-established obesity and diabetes in mice. Mechanistic studies show that leptin-deficient MCs polarize macrophages from M1 to M2 functions because of impaired cell signaling and an altered balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, but do not affect T-cell differentiation. Rampant body weight gain in ob/ob mice, a strain that lacks leptin, associates with reduced MC content in WAT. In ob/ob mice, genetic depletion of MCs exacerbates obesity and diabetes, and repopulation of ex vivo expanded ob/ob MCs ameliorates these diseases. PMID:26481668

  16. Repurposing of Aspirin and Ibuprofen as Candidate Anti-Cryptococcus Drugs.

    PubMed

    Ogundeji, Adepemi O; Pohl, Carolina H; Sebolai, Olihile M

    2016-08-01

    The usage of fluconazole and amphotericin B in clinical settings is often limited by, among other things, drug resistance development and undesired side effects. Thus, there is a constant need to find new drugs to better manage fungal infections. Toward this end, the study described in this paper considered the repurposing of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and ibuprofen as alternative drugs to control the growth of cryptococcal cells. In vitro susceptibility tests, including a checkerboard assay, were performed to assess the response of Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii to the above-mentioned anti-inflammatory drugs. Next, the capacity of these two drugs to induce stress as well as their mode of action in the killing of cryptococcal cells was determined. The studied fungal strains revealed a response to both aspirin and ibuprofen that was dose dependent, with ibuprofen exerting greater antimicrobial action. More importantly, the MICs of these drugs did not negatively (i) affect growth or (ii) impair the functioning of macrophages; rather, they enhanced the ability of these immune cells to phagocytose cryptococcal cells. Ibuprofen was also shown to act in synergy with fluconazole and amphotericin B. The treatment of cryptococcal cells with aspirin or ibuprofen led to stress induction via activation of the high-osmolarity glycerol (HOG) pathway, and cell death was eventually achieved through reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated membrane damage. The presented data highlight the potential clinical application of aspirin and ibuprofen as candidate anti-Cryptococcus drugs. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. VLED and formula LED in the management of type 2 diabetes: defining the clinical need and research requirements.

    PubMed

    Lean, M

    2011-02-01

    It has been known for many years that substantial weight loss, achieved by bariatric surgery or non-surgical means can mean normalize glucose tolerance. Recent randomized controlled trial evidence indicates that >15 kg weight loss is necessary, to this and it may lead to near normalization (doubling) of life expectancy. Less than 5% of patients achieve this through even the best, evidence-based medical weight management programme (Counterweight http://www.counterweight.org). A weight loss of >15 kg is easily achievable by 8 weeks very low-energy diet (VLED)/LELD (Low energy Liquid-formula Diet) in compliant patients, with little difference between 400 and 800 kcal day(-1) , but weight maintenance after VLED has until recently been so poor that VLED is not, at present, recommended in clinical guidelines. However, mean weight loss close to >15 kg can be maintained 18-24 months using a variety of maintenance strategies. These include a structured reintroduction of foods linked to an education programme with behavioural strategies, intermittent VLED use and prescribable anti-obesity drugs (dexfenfluramine, orlistat, sibutramine). Most of these studies have been in non-diabetic subjects. A new 'curative' paradigm in type 2 diabetes mellitus management, aiming to normalize glucose tolerance and health risks by achieving and maintaining >15 kg loss, as soon as possible after diagnosis, should be highly acceptable to patients, generating many additional Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs). It is likely to be highly cost-effective by avoiding the current recommended, mainly palliative, model, using polypharmacy which provides an overall risk reduction of only 5-10%. Clinical trials are on-going to establish the feasibility of delivering formula (LELD) and a maintenance programme to large numbers of patients within routine primary care. There is urgent need, to run similar studies in diabetic patients. New approaches to long-term (lifelong) maintenance of weight

  18. From rapalogs to anti-aging formula

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2017-01-01

    Inhibitors of mTOR, including clinically available rapalogs such as rapamycin (Sirolimus) and Everolimus, are gerosuppressants, which suppress cellular senescence. Rapamycin slows aging and extends life span in a variety of species from worm to mammals. Rapalogs can prevent age-related diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, neurodegeneration and retinopathy and potentially rejuvenate stem cells, immunity and metabolism. Here, I further suggest how rapamycin can be combined with metformin, inhibitors of angiotensin II signaling (Losartan, Lisinopril), statins (simvastatin, atorvastatin), propranolol, aspirin and a PDE5 inhibitor. Rational combinations of these drugs with physical exercise and an anti-aging diet (Koschei formula) can maximize their anti-aging effects and decrease side effects. PMID:28548953

  19. Anti dermatophytic therapy - Prospects for the discovery of new drugs from natural products

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Luciana Arantes; de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Janaína; Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; de Souza Pitangui, Nayla; Scorzoni, Liliana; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; Giannini, Maria José Soares Mendes; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco

    2013-01-01

    Millions of people and animals suffer from superficial infections caused by a group of highly specialized filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes, which only infect keratinized structures. With the appearance of AIDS, the incidence of dermatophytosis has increased. Current drug therapy used for these infections is often toxic, long-term, and expensive and has limited effectiveness; therefore, the discovery of new anti dermatophytic compounds is a necessity. Natural products have been the most productive source for new drug development. This paper provides a brief review of the current literature regarding the presence of dermatophytes in immunocompromised patients, drug resistance to conventional treatments and new anti dermatophytic treatments. PMID:24688490

  20. Anti dermatophytic therapy--prospects for the discovery of new drugs from natural products.

    PubMed

    Soares, Luciana Arantes; de Cássia Orlandi Sardi, Janaína; Gullo, Fernanda Patrícia; de Souza Pitangui, Nayla; Scorzoni, Liliana; Leite, Fernanda Sangalli; Giannini, Maria José Soares Mendes; Almeida, Ana Marisa Fusco

    2013-12-01

    Millions of people and animals suffer from superficial infections caused by a group of highly specialized filamentous fungi, the dermatophytes, which only infect keratinized structures. With the appearance of AIDS, the incidence of dermatophytosis has increased. Current drug therapy used for these infections is often toxic, long-term, and expensive and has limited effectiveness; therefore, the discovery of new anti dermatophytic compounds is a necessity. Natural products have been the most productive source for new drug development. This paper provides a brief review of the current literature regarding the presence of dermatophytes in immunocompromised patients, drug resistance to conventional treatments and new anti dermatophytic treatments.

  1. Anti-Drug Abuse Strategy Report. State of New York. 1993 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Office, Albany. Statewide Anti-Drug Abuse Council.

    Research shows a clear link between drug and alcohol use and crime and violence. This report describes progress made in 1993 as a result of New York State's anti-drug abuse agenda and priorities for 1994. Efforts exist in three complementary areas: prevention (preventing people from being involved in substance abuse); treatment (treating those who…

  2. Fetal exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and spontaneous abortions

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Sharon; Koren, Gideon; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Bilenko, Natalya; Ratzon, Ronit; Levy, Amalia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Spontaneous abortion is the most common complication of pregnancy. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used during pregnancy. Published data are inconsistent regarding the risk of spontaneous abortion following exposure to NSAIDs. Methods: We performed a historical cohort study involving all women who conceived between January 2003 and December 2009 and who were admitted for delivery or spontaneous abortion at Soroka Medical Center, Clalit Health Services, Israel. A computerized database of medication dispensation was linked with 2 computerized databases containing information on births and spontaneous abortions. We constructed time-varying Cox regression models and adjusted for maternal age, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, obesity, hypercoagulation or inflammatory conditions, recurrent miscarriage, in vitro fertilization of the current pregnancy, intrauterine contraceptive device, ethnic background, tobacco use and year of admission. Results: The cohort included 65 457 women who conceived during the study period; of these, 58 949 (90.1%) were admitted for a birth and 6508 (9.9%) for spontaneous abortion. A total of 4495 (6.9%) pregnant women were exposed to NSAIDs during the study period. Exposure to NSAIDs was not an independent risk factor for spontaneous abortion (nonselective cyclooxygenase [COX] inhibitors: adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99–1.22; selective COX-2 inhibitors: adjusted HR 1.43, 95% CI 0.79–2.59). There was no increased risk for specific NSAID drugs, except for a significantly increased risk with exposure to indomethacin (adjusted HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.70–4.69). We found no dose–response effect. Interpretation: We found no increased risk of spontaneous abortion following exposure to NSAIDs. Further research is needed to assess the risk following exposure to selective COX-2 inhibitors. PMID:24491470

  3. Public health obesity-related TV advertising: lessons learned from tobacco.

    PubMed

    Emery, Sherry L; Szczypka, Glen; Powell, Lisa M; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2007-10-01

    Over the past 25 years, the percent of overweight and obese adults and children in the United States has increased dramatically. The magnitude and scope of the public health threat from obesity have resulted in calls for a national comprehensive obesity prevention strategy, akin to tobacco use prevention strategies undertaken over the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare population exposure to paid media campaigns for tobacco and obesity prevention, draw lessons from tobacco advertising, and compare tobacco and obesity behaviors/influences to identify priorities and pitfalls for further research on obesity adverting. This is a descriptive study. Ratings data for the years 1999-2003, for the top 75 designated market areas in the U.S. were used to quantify exposure levels to anti-obesity and anti-smoking advertising in the U.S. Anti-tobacco campaigns preceded anti-obesity campaigns by several years, and in each year exposure levels--both total and average--for anti-tobacco media campaigns far outweighed those of anti-obesity campaigns. It is important to compare both similarities and differences between smoking- and obesity-related behaviors, which might affect the potential impact of anti-obesity media campaigns. Given the scope of the public health risks attributable to obesity, and the amount of federal, state, and other resources devoted to anti-obesity media campaigns, there is a clear need to evaluate the potential impact of such campaigns efforts. Nonetheless, the challenges are significant in both motivating and monitoring such complex behavior change, and in attributing changes to a given media campaign.

  4. Low-Dose Tramadol and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Combination Therapy Prevents the Transition to Chronic Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Inage, Kazuhide; Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Takane; Suzuki, Miyako; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Go; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-08-01

    Retrospective study. To determine whether low-dose tramadol plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug combination therapy could prevent the transition of acute low back pain to chronic low back pain. Inadequately treated early low back pain transitions to chronic low back pain occur in approximately 30% of affected individuals. The administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is effective for treatment of low back pain in the early stages. However, the treatment of low back pain that is resistant to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is challenging. Patients who presented with acute low back pain at our hospital were considered for inclusion in this study. After the diagnosis of acute low back pain, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration was started. Forty patients with a visual analog scale score of >5 for low back pain 1 month after treatment were finally enrolled. The first 20 patients were included in a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug group, and they continued non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy for 1 month. The next 20 patients were included in a combination group, and they received low-dose tramadol plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug combination therapy for 1 month. The incidence of adverse events and the improvement in the visual analog scale score at 2 months after the start of treatment were analyzed. No adverse events were observed in the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug group. In the combination group, administration was discontinued in 2 patients (10%) due to adverse events immediately following the start of tramadol administration. At 2 months, the improvement in the visual analog scale score was greater in the combination group than in the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug group (p<0.001). Low-dose tramadol plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug combination therapy might decrease the incidence of adverse events and prevent the transition of acute low back pain to chronic low back pain.

  5. Low-Dose Tramadol and Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug Combination Therapy Prevents the Transition to Chronic Low Back Pain

    PubMed Central

    Orita, Sumihisa; Yamauchi, Kazuyo; Suzuki, Takane; Suzuki, Miyako; Sakuma, Yoshihiro; Kubota, Go; Oikawa, Yasuhiro; Sainoh, Takeshi; Sato, Jun; Fujimoto, Kazuki; Shiga, Yasuhiro; Abe, Koki; Kanamoto, Hirohito; Inoue, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Hideyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Ohtori, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose To determine whether low-dose tramadol plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug combination therapy could prevent the transition of acute low back pain to chronic low back pain. Overview of Literature Inadequately treated early low back pain transitions to chronic low back pain occur in approximately 30% of affected individuals. The administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is effective for treatment of low back pain in the early stages. However, the treatment of low back pain that is resistant to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is challenging. Methods Patients who presented with acute low back pain at our hospital were considered for inclusion in this study. After the diagnosis of acute low back pain, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug administration was started. Forty patients with a visual analog scale score of >5 for low back pain 1 month after treatment were finally enrolled. The first 20 patients were included in a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug group, and they continued non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy for 1 month. The next 20 patients were included in a combination group, and they received low-dose tramadol plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug combination therapy for 1 month. The incidence of adverse events and the improvement in the visual analog scale score at 2 months after the start of treatment were analyzed. Results No adverse events were observed in the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug group. In the combination group, administration was discontinued in 2 patients (10%) due to adverse events immediately following the start of tramadol administration. At 2 months, the improvement in the visual analog scale score was greater in the combination group than in the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug group (p<0.001). Conclusions Low-dose tramadol plus non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug combination therapy might decrease the incidence of adverse events and prevent

  6. Comparative Long-Term Effect of Three Anti-P2Y12 Drugs after Percutaneous Angioplasty: An Observational Study Based on Electronic Drug Adherence Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Forni Ogna, Valentina; Bassi, Isabelle; Menetrey, Isabelle; Muller, Olivier; Tousset, Eric; Fontana, Pierre; Eeckhout, Eric; Eap, Chin B.; Vrijens, Bernard; Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Grégoire

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Dual platelet inhibition using anti-P2Y12 drugs and aspirin is the standard of care in patients after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI). Prasugrel and ticagrelor have been shown to be more potent than clopidogrel with less high on-treatment platelet reactivity. Whether differences in long-term adherence to these drugs can partly explain different antiplatelet efficacy has not been studied so far. The objective was to compare the long-term P2Y12 receptor inhibition and drug adherence to different anti-P2Y12 drugs, and to assess the impact of adherence on the pharmacodynamic effect. Methods: Monocentric, prospective, observational study. Stable outpatients treated with clopidogrel 75 mg once daily, prasugrel 10 mg once daily or ticagrelor 90 mg twice daily after PCI with stent implantation were included. Drug adherence was recorded during 6 months using electronic monitoring. Platelet responsiveness was assessed with the vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein platelet reactivity index (VASP-PRI) at inclusion, 3 and 6 months. Results: 120 patients had VASP-PRI and adherence data available. At 6-months, mean VASP-PRI (±SD) was 17.7 ± 11.0% with ticagrelor, 29.2 ± 15.5% with prasugrel and 47.2 ± 17.6% with clopidogrel (ANOVA, P < 0.0001). Median [IQR] taking adherence was 96 [82–100]% with ticagrelor, 100 [97–101]% with prasugrel and 100 [99–101]% with clopidogrel (p = 0.0001). Median [IQR] correct dosing was 88 [73–95]% with ticagrelor, 97 [92.5–98]% with prasugrel and 98 [96–99]% with clopidogrel (p = 0.0001). Anti-P2Y12 drug (p ≤ 0.001) and diabetes (p = 0.014) emerged as predictors of poor antiplatelet response after adjusting for age, BMI, sex, and CYP2C19∗2 carriers status. Conclusion: Drug adherence to anti-P2Y12 drugs assessed with electronic monitoring was very high. However, anti-P2Y12 drugs showed significant differences in antiplatelet activity, with newer anti-P2Y12 drugs ticagrelor and prasugrel exerting a stronger P2Y12

  7. PhytoNanotechnology: Enhancing Delivery of Plant Based Anti-cancer Drugs.

    PubMed

    Khan, Tabassum; Gurav, Pranav

    2017-01-01

    Natural resources continue to be an invaluable source of new, novel chemical entities of therapeutic utility due to the vast structural diversity observed in them. The quest for new and better drugs has witnessed an upsurge in exploring and harnessing nature especially for discovery of antimicrobial, antidiabetic, and anticancer agents. Nature has historically provide us with potent anticancer agents which include vinca alkaloids [vincristine (VCR), vinblastine, vindesine, vinorelbine], taxanes [paclitaxel (PTX), docetaxel], podophyllotoxin and its derivatives [etoposide (ETP), teniposide], camptothecin (CPT) and its derivatives (topotecan, irinotecan), anthracyclines (doxorubicin, daunorubicin, epirubicin, idarubicin), and others. In fact, half of all the anti-cancer drugs approved internationally are either natural products or their derivatives and were developed on the basis of knowledge gained from small molecules or macromolecules that exist in nature. Three new anti-cancer drugs introduced in 2007, viz. trabectedin, epothilone derivative ixabepilone, and temsirolimus were obtained from microbial sources. Selective drug targeting is the need of the current therapeutic regimens for increased activity on cancer cells and reduced toxicity to normal cells. Nanotechnology driven modified drugs and drug delivery systems are being developed and introduced in the market for better cancer treatment and management with good results. The use of nanoparticulate drug carriers can resolve many challenges in drug delivery to the cancer cells that includes: improving drug solubility and stability, extending drug half-lives in the blood, reducing adverse effects in non-target organs, and concentrating drugs at the disease site. This review discusses the scientific ventures and explorations involving application of nanotechnology to some selected plant derived molecules. It presents a comprehensive review of formulation strategies of phytoconstituents in development of novel

  8. Relationship between obesity and anti-Müllerian hormone in reproductive-aged African American women.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Lia A; Carnethon, Mercedes R; de Chavez, Peter J; Ikhena, Deborah E; Neff, Lisa M; Baird, Donna D; Marsh, Erica E

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether there is an association between obesity and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) among reproductive-aged African American women (AAW). From the women participating in an ongoing National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences study, 1,654 AAW aged 23 to 35 were included in this study. Anthropometric measurements, personal health information, and serum AMH and adipokine levels were analyzed. The median body mass index (BMI) was 32.4 kg/m 2 , and the median AMH was 3.18 ng/mL. Participants with obesity had AMH concentrations that were 23.7% lower than those with a BMI ≤25 kg/m 2 (2.9 ng/mL vs. 3.8 ng/mL). In multivariable linear regression models, current BMI (β = -0.015; 95% CI -0.021 to -0.009), BMI at age 18 (β = -0.016; 95% CI -0.024 to -0.008), heaviest reported lifetime weight (β = -0.002; 95% CI -0.003 to -0.001), and leptin (β = -0.016; 95% CI -0.025 to -0.007) were inversely associated with AMH. There was no significant association between adiponectin and AMH. AMH was significantly lower (mean log = 0.91, SE = 0.11) in participants with obesity at age 18 and at enrollment when compared with those who were underweight or normal weight at age 18 but had obesity at enrollment (mean log = 1.16, SE = 0.12). In reproductive-aged AAW there is a significant association between obesity and AMH, suggesting that excess adiposity may compromise ovarian reserve. Effects of obesity on AMH may be cumulative. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  9. A strategy to find novel candidate anti-Alzheimer's disease drugs by constructing interaction networks between drug targets and natural compounds in medical plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Wen; Li, Wen-Xing; Wang, Guang-Hui; Li, Gong-Hua; Liu, Jia-Qian; Zheng, Jun-Juan; Wang, Qian; Li, Hui-Juan; Dai, Shao-Xing; Huang, Jing-Fei

    2018-01-01

    Alzheimer' disease (AD) is an ultimately fatal degenerative brain disorder that has an increasingly large burden on health and social care systems. There are only five drugs for AD on the market, and no new effective medicines have been discovered for many years. Chinese medicinal plants have been used to treat diseases for thousands of years, and screening herbal remedies is a way to develop new drugs. We used molecular docking to screen 30,438 compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) against a comprehensive list of AD target proteins. TCM compounds in the top 0.5% of binding affinity scores for each target protein were selected as our research objects. Structural similarities between existing drugs from DrugBank database and selected TCM compounds as well as the druggability of our candidate compounds were studied. Finally, we searched the CNKI database to obtain studies on anti-AD Chinese plants from 2007 to 2017, and only clinical studies were included. A total of 1,476 compounds (top 0.5%) were selected as drug candidates. Most of these compounds are abundantly found in plants used for treating AD in China, especially the plants from two genera Panax and Morus. We classified the compounds by single target and multiple targets and analyzed the interactions between target proteins and compounds. Analysis of structural similarity revealed that 17 candidate anti-AD compounds were structurally identical to 14 existing approved drugs. Most of them have been reported to have a positive effect in AD. After filtering for compound druggability, we identified 11 anti-AD compounds with favorable properties, seven of which are found in anti-AD Chinese plants. Of 11 anti-AD compounds, four compounds 5,862, 5,863, 5,868, 5,869 have anti-inflammatory activity. The compound 28,814 mainly has immunoregulatory activity. The other six compounds have not yet been reported for any biology activity at present. Natural compounds from TCM provide a broad prospect for the

  10. Koschei the immortal and anti-aging drugs.

    PubMed

    Blagosklonny, M V

    2014-12-04

    In Slavic folklore, Koschei the Immortal was bony, thin and lean. Was his condition caused by severe calorie restriction (CR)? CR deactivates the target of rapamycin pathway and slows down aging. But the life-extending effect of severe CR is limited by starvation. What if Koschei's anti-aging formula included rapamycin? And was rapamycin (or another rapalog) combined with commonly available drugs such as metformin, aspirin, propranolol, angiotensin II receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors.

  11. Koschei the immortal and anti-aging drugs

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, M V

    2014-01-01

    In Slavic folklore, Koschei the Immortal was bony, thin and lean. Was his condition caused by severe calorie restriction (CR)? CR deactivates the target of rapamycin pathway and slows down aging. But the life-extending effect of severe CR is limited by starvation. What if Koschei's anti-aging formula included rapamycin? And was rapamycin (or another rapalog) combined with commonly available drugs such as metformin, aspirin, propranolol, angiotensin II receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. PMID:25476900

  12. A peptidomimetic targeting white fat causes weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys.

    PubMed

    Barnhart, Kirstin F; Christianson, Dawn R; Hanley, Patrick W; Driessen, Wouter H P; Bernacky, Bruce J; Baze, Wallace B; Wen, Sijin; Tian, Mei; Ma, Jingfei; Kolonin, Mikhail G; Saha, Pradip K; Do, Kim-Anh; Hulvat, James F; Gelovani, Juri G; Chan, Lawrence; Arap, Wadih; Pasqualini, Renata

    2011-11-09

    Obesity, defined as body mass index greater than 30, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and a financial burden worldwide. Despite significant efforts in the past decade, very few drugs have been successfully developed for the treatment of obese patients. Biological differences between rodents and primates are a major hurdle for translation of anti-obesity strategies either discovered or developed in rodents into effective human therapeutics. Here, we evaluate the ligand-directed peptidomimetic CKGGRAKDC-GG-(D)(KLAKLAK)(2) (henceforth termed adipotide) in obese Old World monkeys. Treatment with adipotide induced targeted apoptosis within blood vessels of white adipose tissue and resulted in rapid weight loss and improved insulin resistance in obese monkeys. Magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry confirmed a marked reduction in white adipose tissue. At experimentally determined optimal doses, monkeys from three different species displayed predictable and reversible changes in renal proximal tubule function. Together, these data in primates establish adipotide as a prototype in a new class of candidate drugs that may be useful for treating obesity in humans.

  13. Externally controlled on-demand release of anti-HIV drug using magneto-electric nanoparticles as carriers.

    PubMed

    Nair, Madhavan; Guduru, Rakesh; Liang, Ping; Hong, Jeongmin; Sagar, Vidya; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2013-01-01

    Although highly active anti-retroviral therapy has resulted in remarkable decline in the morbidity and mortality in AIDS patients, inadequately low delivery of anti-retroviral drugs across the blood-brain barrier results in virus persistence. The capability of high-efficacy-targeted drug delivery and on-demand release remains a formidable task. Here we report an in vitro study to demonstrate the on-demand release of azidothymidine 5'-triphosphate, an anti-human immunodeficiency virus drug, from 30 nm CoFe2O4@BaTiO3 magneto-electric nanoparticles by applying a low alternating current magnetic field. Magneto-electric nanoparticles as field-controlled drug carriers offer a unique capability of field-triggered release after crossing the blood-brain barrier. Owing to the intrinsic magnetoelectricity, these nanoparticles can couple external magnetic fields with the electric forces in drug-carrier bonds to enable remotely controlled delivery without exploiting heat. Functional and structural integrity of the drug after the release was confirmed in in vitro experiments with human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells and through atomic force microscopy, spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared and mass spectrometry studies.

  14. Pharmacological Evaluation and Preparation of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Containing an N-Acyl Hydrazone Subunit

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Thais Regina Ferreira; Chelucci, Rafael Consolin; Pires, Maria Elisa Lopes; Dutra, Luiz Antonio; Barbieri, Karina Pereira; Bosquesi, Priscila Longhin; Trossini, Gustavo Henrique Goulart; Chung, Man Chin; dos Santos, Jean Leandro

    2014-01-01

    A series of anti-inflammatory derivatives containing an N-acyl hydrazone subunit (4a–e) were synthesized and characterized. Docking studies were performed that suggest that compounds 4a–e bind to cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2 isoforms, but with higher affinity for COX-2. The compounds display similar anti-inflammatory activities in vivo, although compound 4c is the most effective compound for inhibiting rat paw edema, with a reduction in the extent of inflammation of 35.9% and 52.8% at 2 and 4 h, respectively. The anti-inflammatory activity of N-acyl hydrazone derivatives was inferior to their respective parent drugs, except for compound 4c after 5 h. Ulcerogenic studies revealed that compounds 4a–e are less gastrotoxic than the respective parent drug. Compounds 4b–e demonstrated mucosal damage comparable to celecoxib. The in vivo analgesic activities of the compounds are higher than the respective parent drug for compounds 4a–b and 4d–e. Compound 4a was more active than dipyrone in reducing acetic-acid-induced abdominal constrictions. Our results indicate that compounds 4a–e are anti-inflammatory and analgesic compounds with reduced gastrotoxicity compared to their respective parent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:24714090

  15. In vitro efficacy and release study with anti-inflammatory drugs incorporated in adhesive transdermal drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Stefanie; Peters, Nils; Mann, Tobias; Wolber, Rainer; Pörtner, Ralf; Nierle, Jens

    2014-04-01

    The topical application of two different anti-inflammatory extracts incorporated in adhesive transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDSs) was investigated. Therefore, anti-inflammatory properties and percutaneous absorption behavior of adhesive TDDSs were characterized in vitro conducting experiments with a dermatologically relevant human skin model. Anti-inflammatory efficacy against UV irradiation of both TDDSs was determined in vitro with EpiDerm™. The reduction of the release of proinflammatory cytokines by topically applied TDDSs was compared with the reduction during the presence of the specific cyclooxygenase inhibitor diclofenac in the culture medium. A similar anti-inflammatory efficacy of the topically applied TDDSs in comparison with the use of diclofenac in the culture medium should be achieved. Furthermore, percutaneous absorption in efficacy tests was compared with percutaneous absorption in diffusion studies with porcine cadaver skin. Both the topically applied TDDSs showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity. Permeation coefficients through the stratum corneum and the epidermis gained from the release studies on porcine cadaver skin (Magnolia: 2.23·10(-5) cm/h, licorice: 4.68·10(-6) cm/h) were approximately five times lower than the permeation coefficients obtained with the EpiDerm™ skin model (Magnolia: 9.48·10(-5) cm/h, licorice: 24.0·10(-6) cm/h). Therefore, an adjustment of drug doses during experiments with the EpiDerm™ skin model because of weaker skin barrier properties should be considered.

  16. Multi Target Neuroprotective and Neurorestorative Anti-Parkinson and Anti-Alzheimer Drugs Ladostigil and M30 Derived from Rasagiline

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Present anti-PD and -AD drugs have limited symptomatic activity and devoid of neuroprotective and neurorestorative property that is needed for disease modifying action. The complex pathology of PD and AD led us to develop several multi-target neuroprotective and neurorestorative drugs with several CNS targets with the ability for possible disease modifying activity. Employing the pharmacophore of our anti-parkinson drug rasagiline (Azilect, N-propagrgyl-1-R-aminoindan), we have developed a series of novel multi-functional neuroprotective drugs (A) [TV-3326 (N-propargyl-3R-aminoindan-5yl)-ethyl methylcarbamate)], with both cholinesterase-butyrylesterase and brain selective monoamine-oxidase (MAO) A/B inhibitory activities and (B) the iron chelator-radical scavenging-brain selective monoamine oxidase (MAO) A/B inhibitor and M30 possessing the neuroprotective and neurorescuing propargyl moiety of rasagiline, as potential treatment of AD, DLB and PD with dementia. Another series of multi-target drugs (M30, HLA-20 series) which are brain permeable iron chelators and potent selective brain MAO inhibitors were also developed. These series of drugs have the ability of regulating and processing amyloid precursor protein (APP) since APP and alpha-synuclein are metaloproteins (iron-regulated proteins), with an iron responsive element 5"UTR mRNA similar to transferring and ferritin. Ladostigil inhibits brain acetyl and butyrylcholinesterase in rats after oral doses. After chronic but not acute treatment, it inhibits MAO-A and -B in the brain. Ladostigil acts like an anti-depressant in the forced swim test in rats, indicating a potential for anti-depressant activity. Ladostigil prevents the destruction of nigrostriatal neurons induced by infusion of neurotoxin MPTP in mice. The propargylamine moiety of ladostigil confers neuroprotective activity against cytotoxicity induced by ischemia and peroxynitrite in cultured neuronal cells. The multi-target iron chelator M30 has all the

  17. Dried Pomegranate Potentiates Anti-Osteoporotic and Anti-Obesity Activities of Red Clover Dry Extracts in Ovariectomized Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Su Jin; Choi, Beom Rak; Kim, Seung Hee; Yi, Hae Yeon; Park, Hye Rim; Kim, Dong Chul; Choi, Seong Hun; Han, Chang Hyun; Park, Soo Jin; Song, Chang Hyun; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Young Joon

    2015-01-01

    Red clover (RC) shows potential activity against menopausal symptoms and pomegranates have antioxidative and beneficial effects on postmenopausal symptoms; thus, we investigated whether the anti-climacteric activity of RC could be enhanced by the addition of dried pomegranate concentrate powder (PCP) extracts in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Regarding the anti-osteoporotic effects, bone mineral density increased significantly in OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of an RC:PCP 2:1 mixture, respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Additionally, femoral, tibia, and L4 bone resorption was decreased in OVX induced control rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (60 and 120 mg/kg), respectively, compared with OVX control rats. Regarding anti-obesity effects, the OVX induced rats treated with 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture showed a decrease in total fat pad thickness, the mean diameters of adipocytes and the body weights gain compared with OVX induced control rats. The estradiol and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly increased in OVX induced rats treated with the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture (120 mg/kg) compared with OVX induced control rats, also, the uterine atrophy was significantly inhibited in 60 and 120 mg/kg of the RC:PCP 2:1 mixture treatment compared with OVX control rats. In conclusion, our results indicate that PCP enhanced the anti-climacteric effects of RC in OVX rats. The RC:PCP 2:1 mixture used in this study may be a promising new potent and protective agent for relieving climacteric symptoms. PMID:25912038

  18. Pancreatic aquaporin-7: a novel target for anti-diabetic drugs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Ezquerro, Silvia; da Silva, Inês V.; Soveral, Graça; Frühbeck, Gema; Rodríguez, Amaia

    2018-04-01

    aquaporins in the physiology and pathophysiology of the pancreas, highlighting the role of pancreatic AQP7 as a novel player in the control of -cell function and a potential anti-diabetic-drug.

  19. Pancreatic Aquaporin-7: A Novel Target for Anti-diabetic Drugs?

    PubMed Central

    Méndez-Giménez, Leire; Ezquerro, Silvia; da Silva, Inês V.; Soveral, Graça; Frühbeck, Gema; Rodríguez, Amaia

    2018-01-01

    of aquaporins in the physiology and pathophysiology of the pancreas, highlighting the role of pancreatic AQP7 as a novel player in the control of β-cell function and a potential anti-diabetic-drug. PMID:29675407

  20. Fragment-based approaches to anti-HIV drug discovery: state of the art and future opportunities.

    PubMed

    Huang, Boshi; Kang, Dongwei; Zhan, Peng; Liu, Xinyong

    2015-12-01

    The search for additional drugs to treat HIV infection is a continuing effort due to the emergence and spread of HIV strains resistant to nearly all current drugs. The recent literature reveals that fragment-based drug design/discovery (FBDD) has become an effective alternative to conventional high-throughput screening strategies for drug discovery. In this critical review, the authors describe the state of the art in FBDD strategies for the discovery of anti-HIV drug-like compounds. The article focuses on fragment screening techniques, direct fragment-based design and early hit-to-lead progress. Rapid progress in biophysical detection and in silico techniques has greatly aided the application of FBDD to discover candidate agents directed at a variety of anti-HIV targets. Growing evidence suggests that structural insights on key proteins in the HIV life cycle can be applied in the early phase of drug discovery campaigns, providing valuable information on the binding modes and efficiently prompting fragment hit-to-lead progression. The combination of structural insights with improved methodologies for FBDD, including the privileged fragment-based reconstruction approach, fragment hybridization based on crystallographic overlays, fragment growth exploiting dynamic combinatorial chemistry, and high-speed fragment assembly via diversity-oriented synthesis followed by in situ screening, offers the possibility of more efficient and rapid discovery of novel drugs for HIV-1 prevention or treatment. Though the use of FBDD in anti-HIV drug discovery is still in its infancy, it is anticipated that anti-HIV agents developed via fragment-based strategies will be introduced into the clinic in the future.

  1. Public Health Obesity-Related TV Advertising: Lessons Learned from Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Sherry L.; Szczypka, Glen; Powell, Lisa M.; Chaloupka, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past 25 years, the percent of overweight and obese adults and children in the United States has increased dramatically. The magnitude and scope of the public health threat from obesity have resulted in calls for a national comprehensive obesity prevention strategy, akin to tobacco use prevention strategies undertaken over the past two decades. The purpose of this paper is to describe and compare population exposure to paid media campaigns for tobacco and obesity prevention, draw lessons from tobacco advertising, and compare tobacco and obesity behaviors/influences to identify priorities and pitfalls for further research on obesity adverting. Methods This is a descriptive study. Ratings data for the years 1999–2003, for the top 75 designated market areas in the U.S. were used to quantify exposure levels to anti-obesity and anti-smoking advertising in the U.S. Results Anti-tobacco campaigns preceded anti-obesity campaigns by several years, and in each year exposure levels—both total and average—for anti-tobacco media campaigns far outweighed those of anti-obesity campaigns. Conclusions It is important to compare both similarities and differences between smoking- and obesity-related behaviors, which might affect the potential impact of anti-obesity media campaigns. Given the scope of the public health risks attributable to obesity, and the amount of federal, state, and other resources devoted to anti-obesity media campaigns, there is a clear need to evaluate the potential impact of such campaigns efforts. Nonetheless, the challenges are significant in both motivating and monitoring such complex behavior change, and in attributing changes to a given media campaign. PMID:17884574

  2. Rates and reasons for lack of persistence with anti-osteoporotic drugs: analysis of the Campania region database.

    PubMed

    Iolascon, Giovanni; Gimigliano, Francesca; Moretti, Antimo; Riccio, Ilaria; Di Gennaro, Massimo; Illario, Maddalena; Monetti, Valeria Marina; Orlando, Valentina; Menditto, Enrica

    2016-01-01

    Subjects with chronic diseases are more likely to be nonpersistent to pharmacological treatment. Lack of persistence is common among subjects using oral anti-osteoporotic drugs, and leads to increased risk of fragility fracture. The aim of our retrospective study is to analyze the rates and reasons for discontinuation of anti-osteoporotic drugs in the Campania Region. Subjects aged over 40 years were included if they had received at least one prescription for any anti-osteoporotic drugs. Data were obtained from an administrative database of regional data on outpatient drug prescriptions reimbursed by the National Health Service. Patients were followed until the discontinuation of anti-osteoporotic therapy or until the end of the observation period. A total of 30,048 were incident users of anti-osteoporotic drugs: 28,317 (94.2%) females. The mean age of the cohort was 69.0±10.0 years. Weekly bis-phosphonates (51.1%) were the most commonly prescribed drugs. In the overall population, persistence rates were 34.8% after 6 months and 13.4% at one year. A multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis showed that daily regimen (HR 1.9) treatments remained at higher risk of early discontinuation compared to weekly regimen therapies. Our data showed that the persistence to osteoporosis therapy is significantly worse than reported in literature.

  3. The efficacy of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rotator cuff tendinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Boudreault, Jennifer; Desmeules, François; Roy, Jean-Sébastien; Dionne, Clermont; Frémont, Pierre; Macdermid, Joy C

    2014-04-01

    To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Systematic review. A literature search was conducted in 4 databases for randomized controlled trials published until 05/2013, comparing the efficacy of oral anti-inflammatory drugs to any other intervention. Studies characteristics were extracted using a standardized form and the methodological quality was evaluated. Results were summarized qualitatively or quantitatively. The mean methodological score of the 12 included studies was 53.6 ± 8.8%. The majority of studies included acute cases and were underpowered to detect differences in adverse events. Compared to a placebo, oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were found to provide short-term pain relief (pooled mean difference: -2.69; 95% confidence interval: -1.96 to -3.41) but not function. Oral anti-inflammatory- drugs and corticosteroids injections have similar short-term efficacy in terms of pain reduction as well as in function (pooled standardized mean difference: 0.09; 95% confidence interval: -0.25 to 0.44). Low to moderate grade evidence exists regarding the efficacy of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rotator cuff tendinopathy. Oral anti-inflammatory drugs are effective in reducing short-term pain but not function. In terms of pain and function, oral anti-inflammatory drugs in the short term are as effective as corticosteroid injections.

  4. [Convulsions due to an interaction between anti-epileptic drugs and rifampicin].

    PubMed

    Hanrath, Maarten A; Swart, Eleonora L

    2014-01-01

    Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) have a small therapeutic window, so it is important to monitor plasma levels. Inadequate plasma levels may lead to convulsions. Many AEDs are cleared hepatically, and there are many drug interactions that are known to lead to changes in plasma levels. A 54-year-old woman with known epilepsy developed convulsions after using rifampicin and flucloxacillin, despite the use of maintenance treatment in the form of carbamazepine, valproic acid and clonazepam. Since rifampicin is known to induce several cytochrome P450 enzymes and clearance of the anti-epileptic drug used may be affected by this, it can be assumed that the convulsions were caused by rifampicin. This interaction is however not mentioned in the Dutch 'G-standard' database. Rifampicin is known to be a strong inducer of various cytochrome P450 enzymes. This case description shows that the use of rifampicin may lead to convulsions. For this reason, these interactions should be included in the Dutch G-standard database.

  5. Lorcaserin and CP-809101 reduce motor impulsivity and reinstatement of food seeking behavior in male rats: Implications for understanding the anti-obesity property of 5-HT2C receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Silenieks, Leo B; Altherr, Everett B; MacMillan, Cam; Fletcher, Paul J; Pratt, Wayne E

    2016-07-01

    The 5-HT2C receptor agonist lorcaserin (Belviq®) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of obesity. Impulsivity is a contributory feature of some eating disorders. Experiments investigated the effect of lorcaserin and the highly selective 5-HT2C agonist CP-809101 on measures of impulsivity and on reinstatement of food-seeking behaviour, a model of dietary relapse. The effect of both drugs on 22-h deprivation-induced feeding was also examined, as was the effect of prefeeding in each impulsivity test. Lorcaserin (0.3-0.6 mg/kg SC) and CP-809101 (0.6-1 mg/kg SC) reduced premature responding in rats trained on the 5-CSRTT and improved accuracy in a Go-NoGo task by reducing false alarms. At equivalent doses, both drugs also reduced reinstatement for food-seeking behaviour. Neither drug altered impulsive choice measured in a delay-discounting task. Lorcaserin (1-3 mg/kg SC) and CP-809101 (3-6 mg/kg SC) reduced deprivation-induced feeding but only at higher doses. These results suggest that in addition to previously reported effects on satiety and reward, altered impulse control may represent a contributory factor to the anti-obesity property of 5-HT2C receptor agonists. Lorcaserin may promote weight loss by improving adherence to dietary regimens in individuals otherwise prone to relapse and may be beneficial in cases where obesity is associated with eating disorders tied to impulsive traits, such as binge eating disorder.

  6. A systematic review of anti-obesity medicinal plants - an update

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is the most prevalent health problem affecting all age groups, and leads to many complications in the form of chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus Type 2 and stroke. A systematic review about safety and efficacy of herbal medicines in the management of obesity in human was carried out by searching bibliographic data bases such as, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and IranMedex, for studies reported between 30th December 2008 to 23rd April 2012 on human or animals, investigating the beneficial and harmful effects of herbal medicine to treat obesity. Actually we limited our search to such a narrow window of time in order to update our article published before December of 2008. In this update, the search terms were “obesity” and (“herbal medicine” or “plant”, “plant medicinal” or “medicine traditional”) without narrowing or limiting search items. Publications with available abstracts were reviewed only. Total publications found in the initial search were 651. Total number of publications for review study was 33 by excluding publications related to animals study. Studies with Nigella Sativa, Camellia Sinensis, Crocus Sativus L, Seaweed laminaria Digitata, Xantigen, virgin olive oil, Catechin enriched green tea, Monoselect Camellia, Oolong tea, Yacon syrup, Irvingia Gabonensi, Weighlevel, RCM-104 compound of Camellia Sinensis, Pistachio, Psyllium fibre, black Chinese tea, sea buckthorn and bilberries show significant decreases in body weight. Only, alginate-based brown seaweed and Laminaria Digitata caused an abdominal bloating and upper respiratory tract infection as the side effect in the trial group. No other significant adverse effects were reported in all 33 trials included in this article. In conclusion, Nigella Sativa, Camellia Synensis, Green Tea, and Black Chinese Tea seem to have satisfactory anti-obesity effects. The effect size of these medicinal plants is a critical point that should be considered for

  7. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Current status and rational therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Hart, F D; Huskisson, E C

    1984-03-01

    Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), the first of the NSAIDs (introduced in 1899), was initially never referred to as an anti-inflammatory agent. It was the advent of cortisone in 1949 that demonstrated dramatically that corticosteroids had anti-inflammatory properties and the term 'non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug' was first used when phenylbutazone was introduced 3 years later. Since then, the NSAIDs have proliferated. There is to date no good evidence that they halt progression of rheumatoid disease, but by easing pain and diminishing swelling they make life much easier in osteoarthrosis, rheumatoid arthritis and many other types of arthritis, and are the drugs of first choice in acute gout. Their mode (or modes) of action are obscure and though inhibition of cyclo-oxygenase (prostaglandin synthetase) is clearly important, other mechanisms are also involved. The assessment of the anti-inflammatory action of these agents has received considerable attention in clinical trials because, whatever their action may be in experimental animal models, their action in inflamed joints in human patients must be ascertained, since there may be little parallel between the two. Different experimental animal models give different results with various agents and often bear little relation to their therapeutic action in man. No attempt has been made here to review in depth all the NSAIDs that have appeared since 1952. All have anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity and all can cause gastrointestinal side effects, though effectiveness and toxicity vary from drug to drug and patient to patient, there being very great interpatient variability. Non-reactors, patients who apparently fail to respond to certain agents, need further study, for it seems that these subjects may metabolise these agents differently from others. Considerable ingenuity has been shown not only in evolving new NSAIDs but in finding new ways of administering them. The number and variety of NSAIDs in their various

  8. Analysis of analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use in pediatric prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Tânia R; Lopes, Luciane C

    2016-01-01

    Data on clinical practice in pediatrics on the use of analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs considering the best available evidence and regulatory-agency approved use are uncertain. This study aimed to determine the frequency of prescription of these drugs according to the best scientific evidence and use approved by regulatory agencies. This was a cross-sectional study of 150 pediatric prescriptions containing analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, followed by interview with caregivers at 18 locations (nine private drugstores and nine Basic Health Units of the Brazilian Unified Health System). The assessed outcomes included recommended use or use with no contraindication, indications with benefit evidence, and health surveillance agency-approved use. Data were analyzed in electronic databases and the variables were summarized by simple frequency. A total of 164 analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were prescribed to 150 children aged 1-4 years (38.6%). Dipyrone was included in 82 (54.6%) and ibuprofen in 40 (26.6%) prescriptions. Non-recommended uses were identified in 15% of prescriptions and contraindicated uses were observed in 13.3%. Nimesulide (1.5%) is still prescribed to children younger than 12 years. The dose was incorrect in 74.3% of prescriptions containing dipyrone. Of the 211 reported clinical indications, 56 (26.5%) had no evidence of benefit according to the best available scientific evidence and 66 (31.3%) had indications not approved by the regulatory agencies. There are significant discrepancies between clinical practice and recommended use of analgesic, antipyretic, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in pediatrics. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. Improved Consistency in Dosing Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs in Taipei, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Chih; Shih, Hsiu-Chen; Yen, Muh-Yong; Hsu, Yu-Ling; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Lin, Tao-Ping; Bai, Kuan-Jen

    2012-01-01

    Background It was reported that 35.5% of tuberculosis (TB) cases reported in 2003 in Taipei City had no recorded pre-treatment body weight and that among those who had, inconsistent dosing of anti-TB drugs was frequent. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have taken actions to strengthen dosing of anti-TB drugs among general practitioners. Prescribing practices of anti-TB drugs in Taipei City in 2007–2010 were investigated to assess whether interventions on dosing were effective. Methodology/Principal Findings Lists of all notified culture positive TB cases in 2007–2010 were obtained from National TB Registry at Taiwan CDC. A medical audit of TB case management files was performed to collect pretreatment body weight and regimens prescribed at commencement of treatment. Dosages prescribed were compared with dosages recommended. The proportion of patients with recorded pre-treatment body weight was 64.5% in 2003, which increased to 96.5% in 2007–2010 (p<0.001). The proportion of patients treated with consistent dosing of a 3-drug fixed-dose combination (FDC) increased from 73.9% in 2003 to 87.7% in 2007–2010 (p<0.001), and that for 2-drug FDC from 76.0% to 86.1% (p = 0.024), for rifampicin (RMP) from 62.8% to 85.5% (p<0.001), and for isoniazid from 87.8% to 95.3% (p<0.001). In 2007–2010, among 2917 patients treated with either FDCs or RMP in single-drug preparation, the dosage of RMP was adequate (8–12 mg/kg) in 2571(88.1%) patients, too high in 282(9.7%), too low in 64(2.2%). In multinomial logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with adequate dosage of RMP were body weight and preparations of RMP. Patients weighting <40kg (relative risk ratio (rrr) 6010.5, 95% CI 781.1–46249.7) and patients weighting 40–49 kg (rrr 1495.3, 95% CI 200.6–11144.6) were more likely to receive higher-than-recommended dose of RMP. Conclusions/Significance Prescribing practice in the treatment of TB in Taipei City has remarkably improved

  10. Improved consistency in dosing anti-tuberculosis drugs in Taipei, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Chen-Yuan; Yu, Ming-Chih; Shih, Hsiu-Chen; Yen, Muh-Yong; Hsu, Yu-Ling; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Lin, Tao-Ping; Bai, Kuan-Jen

    2012-01-01

    It was reported that 35.5% of tuberculosis (TB) cases reported in 2003 in Taipei City had no recorded pre-treatment body weight and that among those who had, inconsistent dosing of anti-TB drugs was frequent. Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (CDC) have taken actions to strengthen dosing of anti-TB drugs among general practitioners. Prescribing practices of anti-TB drugs in Taipei City in 2007-2010 were investigated to assess whether interventions on dosing were effective. Lists of all notified culture positive TB cases in 2007-2010 were obtained from National TB Registry at Taiwan CDC. A medical audit of TB case management files was performed to collect pretreatment body weight and regimens prescribed at commencement of treatment. Dosages prescribed were compared with dosages recommended. The proportion of patients with recorded pre-treatment body weight was 64.5% in 2003, which increased to 96.5% in 2007-2010 (p<0.001). The proportion of patients treated with consistent dosing of a 3-drug fixed-dose combination (FDC) increased from 73.9% in 2003 to 87.7% in 2007-2010 (p<0.001), and that for 2-drug FDC from 76.0% to 86.1% (p = 0.024), for rifampicin (RMP) from 62.8% to 85.5% (p<0.001), and for isoniazid from 87.8% to 95.3% (p<0.001). In 2007-2010, among 2917 patients treated with either FDCs or RMP in single-drug preparation, the dosage of RMP was adequate (8-12 mg/kg) in 2571(88.1%) patients, too high in 282(9.7%), too low in 64(2.2%). In multinomial logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with adequate dosage of RMP were body weight and preparations of RMP. Patients weighting <40 kg (relative risk ratio (rrr) 6010.5, 95% CI 781.1-46249.7) and patients weighting 40-49 kg (rrr 1495.3, 95% CI 200.6-11144.6) were more likely to receive higher-than-recommended dose of RMP. Prescribing practice in the treatment of TB in Taipei City has remarkably improved after health authorities implemented a series of interventions.

  11. Drug-laden 3D biodegradable label using QR code for anti-counterfeiting of drugs.

    PubMed

    Fei, Jie; Liu, Ran

    2016-06-01

    Wiping out counterfeit drugs is a great task for public health care around the world. The boost of these drugs makes treatment to become potentially harmful or even lethal. In this paper, biodegradable drug-laden QR code label for anti-counterfeiting of drugs is proposed that can provide the non-fluorescence recognition and high capacity. It is fabricated by the laser cutting to achieve the roughness over different surface which causes the difference in the gray levels on the translucent material the QR code pattern, and the micro mold process to obtain the drug-laden biodegradable label. We screened biomaterials presenting the relevant conditions and further requirements of the package. The drug-laden microlabel is on the surface of the troches or the bottom of the capsule and can be read by a simple smartphone QR code reader application. Labeling the pill directly and decoding the information successfully means more convenient and simple operation with non-fluorescence and high capacity in contrast to the traditional methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Drug-induced hepatitis superimposed on the presence of anti-SLA antibody: a case report.

    PubMed

    Etxagibel, Aitziber; Julià, M Rosa; Brotons, Alvaro; Company, M Margarita; Dolz, Carlos

    2008-01-28

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a necroinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and response to immunosuppression. It has the histological features of chronic hepatitis. The onset is usually insidious, but in some patients the presentation may be acute and occasionally severe. Certain drugs can induce chronic hepatitis mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Different autoantibodies have been associated with this process but they are not detectable after drug withdrawal and clinical resolution. We describe a case of drug-induced acute hepatitis associated with antinuclear, antisoluble liver-pancreas and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies in a 66-year-old woman. Abnormal clinical and biochemical parameters resolved after drug withdrawal, but six months later anti-soluble liver-pancreas antibodies remained positive and liver biopsy showed chronic hepatitis and septal fibrosis. Furthermore, our patient has a HLA genotype associated with autoimmune hepatitis. Patient follow-up will disclose whether our patient suffers from an autoimmune disease and if the presence of anti-soluble liver antigens could precede the development of an autoimmune hepatitis, as the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies can precede primary biliary cirrhosis.

  13. Anti-Obesity and Anti-Hyperglycemic Effects of Cinnamaldehyde via altered Ghrelin Secretion and Functional impact on Food Intake and Gastric Emptying

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Susana; Michlig, Stephanie; de Senarclens-Bezençon, Carole; Meylan, Jenny; Meystre, Julie; Pezzoli, Maurizio; Markram, Henry; le Coutre, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon extract is associated to different health benefits but the active ingredients or pathways are unknown. Cinnamaldehyde (CIN) imparts the characteristic flavor to cinnamon and is known to be the main agonist of transient receptor potential-ankyrin receptor 1 (TRPA1). Here, expression of TRPA1 in epithelial mouse stomach cells is described. After receiving a single-dose of CIN, mice significantly reduce cumulative food intake and gastric emptying rates. Co-localization of TRPA1 and ghrelin in enteroendocrine cells of the duodenum is observed both in vivo and in the MGN3-1 cell line, a ghrelin secreting cell model, where incubation with CIN up-regulates expression of TRPA1 and Insulin receptor genes. Ghrelin secreted in the culture medium was quantified following CIN stimulation and we observe that octanoyl and total ghrelin are significantly lower than in control conditions. Additionally, obese mice fed for five weeks with CIN-containing diet significantly reduce their cumulative body weight gain and improve glucose tolerance without detectable modification of insulin secretion. Finally, in adipose tissue up-regulation of genes related to fatty acid oxidation was observed. Taken together, the results confirm anti-hyperglycemic and anti-obesity effects of CIN opening a new approach to investigate how certain spice derived compounds regulate endogenous ghrelin release for therapeutic intervention. PMID:25605129

  14. Remission of Grave's disease after oral anti-thyroid drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Ishtiaq, Osama; Waseem, Sabiha; Haque, M Naeemul; Islam, Najmul; Jabbar, Abdul

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate remission rate of anti-thyroid drug treatment in patients with Grave's disease, and to study the factors associated with remission. A cross sectional study. The Endocrine Department of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi from 1999 to 2000. Seventy four patients of Grave's disease were recruited who were prescribed medical treatment. Grave's disease was diagnosed in the presence of clinical and biochemical hyperthyroidism along with anti-microsomal (AMA) and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (ATA) and thyroid scan. These patients were prescribed oral anti-thyroid drugs using titration regime and followed at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months. Patients were categorized into two groups: "remission group" and "treatment failure group" and results were compared using a chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression model with significance at p < 0.05. A majority of the patients were females (62.6%, n=46). During the follow-up period of 18 months, 41.9% patients went into remission. Univariate analysis showed that the initial free T4 level was significantly different (p < 0.05) in patients in remission and treatment failure groups. Multivariate analysis showed only initial free T4 level was a significant predictor of outcome. Positive AMA patients (n=27) had higher treatment failure (odds ratio: 2.55: 95%, CI 0.69 - 9:31), although the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.13). Remission rates with oral anti-thyroid agents is markedly high. Patients should be offered alternate treatment options to those who do not enter remission during a period of 12-18 months of treatment, those who develop relapse, and those who have aggressive disease on initial presentation.

  15. Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Samantha L; Olds, Timothy; Pettigrew, Simone; Yeatman, Heather; Hyde, Jim; Dragovic, Christine

    2014-02-11

    Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. We used a qualitative advertising reception study. 150 family groups (comprised of 159 parents and 184 children) were shown two Australian government anti-obesity advertisements: Measure Up (focused on problems associated with obesity) and Swap It (focused on solutions for obesity). Families were engaged in a discussion about the visual appeals, verbal messages and their perceptions about the impact of the advertisements on behavioural change. Open coding techniques and a constant comparative method of analysis was used to interpret the data. Many parents had strong personal resonance with the visual imagery within the campaigns. While Swap It had strong 'likeability' with children, many children believed that the messages about overweight and obesity were less personally relevant because they did not perceive themselves to be overweight. The content and delivery style of the verbal messages (the serious risk focused message in Measure Up compared to the upbeat, fun practical message in Swap It) influenced how different audiences (parents and children) interpreted the information that was presented. Parents assimilated practical and instructive messages, while children assimilated messages about weight loss and weight gain. Parents and children recognised that the campaigns were asking individuals to take personal responsibility for their weight status, and were at times critical that the campaigns did not tackle the broader issues associated with the causes and consequences of obesity. The lack

  16. Parent and child interactions with two contrasting anti-obesity advertising campaigns: a qualitative analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Social marketing has been proposed as a framework that may be effectively used to encourage behaviour change relating to obesity. Social advertising (or mass media campaigning) is the most commonly used social marketing strategy to address the issue of obesity. While social advertising has the potential to effectively communicate information about obesity, some argue that the current framing and delivery of these campaigns are ineffective, and may cause more harm than good. Methods We used a qualitative advertising reception study. 150 family groups (comprised of 159 parents and 184 children) were shown two Australian government anti-obesity advertisements: Measure Up (focused on problems associated with obesity) and Swap It (focused on solutions for obesity). Families were engaged in a discussion about the visual appeals, verbal messages and their perceptions about the impact of the advertisements on behavioural change. Open coding techniques and a constant comparative method of analysis was used to interpret the data. Results Many parents had strong personal resonance with the visual imagery within the campaigns. While Swap It had strong ‘likeability’ with children, many children believed that the messages about overweight and obesity were less personally relevant because they did not perceive themselves to be overweight. The content and delivery style of the verbal messages (the serious risk focused message in Measure Up compared to the upbeat, fun practical message in Swap It) influenced how different audiences (parents and children) interpreted the information that was presented. Parents assimilated practical and instructive messages, while children assimilated messages about weight loss and weight gain. Parents and children recognised that the campaigns were asking individuals to take personal responsibility for their weight status, and were at times critical that the campaigns did not tackle the broader issues associated with the causes and

  17. Drugs for Autoimmune Inflammatory Diseases: From Small Molecule Compounds to Anti-TNF Biologics

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ping; Zheng, Ying; Chen, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Although initially described as an anti-tumor mediator, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is generally considered as the master pro-inflammatory cytokine. It plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory bowel disease, ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and psoriasis. Consequently, anti-TNF therapy has become mainstay treatment for autoimmune diseases. Historically, anti-inflammatory agents were developed before the identification of TNF. Salicylates, the active components of Willow spp., were identified in the mid-19th century for the alleviation of pain, fever, and inflammatory responses. Study of this naturally occurring compound led to the discovery of aspirin, which was followed by the development of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) due to the chemical advances in the 19th–20th centuries. Initially, the most of NSAIDs were organic acid, but the non-acidic compounds were also identified as NSAIDs. Although effective in the treatment of inflammatory diseases, NSAIDs have some undesirable and adverse effect, such as ulcers, kidney injury, and bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract. In the past two decades, anti-TNF biologics were developed. Drugs belong to this class include soluble TNF receptor 2 fusion protein and anti-TNF antibodies. The introduction of anti-TNF therapeutics has revolutionized the management of autoimmune diseases, such as RA, psoriatic arthritis (PsA), plaque psoriasis (PP), AS, CD and ulcerative colitis (UC). Nevertheless, up to 40% of patients have no response to anti-TNF treatment. Furthermore, this treatment is associated with some adverse effects such as increased risk of infection, and even triggered the de novo development of autoimmune diseases. Such harmful effect of anti-TNF treatment is likely caused by the global inhibition of TNF biological functions. Therefore, specific inhibition of TNF receptor (TNFR1 or TNFR2) may represent a safer and more

  18. Prevention of type 2 diabetes; a systematic review and meta-analysis of different intervention strategies.

    PubMed

    Merlotti, C; Morabito, A; Pontiroli, A E

    2014-08-01

    Different intervention strategies can prevent type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effectiveness of different strategies. Studies were grouped into 15 different strategies: 1: diet plus physical activity; 2: physical activity; 3-6: anti-diabetic drugs [glitazones, metformin, beta-cell stimulating drugs (sulphanylureas, glinides), alfa-glucosidase inhibitors]; 7-8: cardiovascular drugs (ACE inhibitors, ARB, calcium antagonists); 9-14 [diets, lipid-affecting drugs (orlistat, bezafibrate), vitamins, micronutrients, estrogens, alcohol, coffee]; 15: bariatric surgery. Only controlled studies were included in the analysis, whether randomized, non-randomized, observational studies, whether primarily designed to assess incident cases of diabetes, or performed with other purposes, such as control of hypertension, of ischemic heart disease or prevention of cardiovascular events. Appropriate methodology [preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement] was used. Seventy-one studies (490 813 subjects), published as full papers, were analysed to identify predictors of new cases of T2DM, and were included in a meta-analysis (random-effects model) to study the effect of different strategies. Intervention effect (new cases of diabetes) was expressed as odds ratio (OR), with 95% confidence intervals (C.I.s). Publication bias was formally assessed. Body mass index was in the overweight range for 13 groups, obese or morbidly obese in lipid-affecting drugs and in bariatric surgery. Non-surgical strategies, except for beta-cell stimulating drugs, estrogens and vitamins, were able to prevent T2DM, with different effectiveness, from 0.37 (C.I. 0.26-0.52) to 0.85 (C.I. 0.77-0.93); the most effective strategy was bariatric surgery in morbidly obese subjects [0.16 (C.I. 0.11,0.24)]. At meta-regression analysis, age of subjects and amount of weight lost were associated with effectiveness of

  19. Nanostructured ultra-thin patches for ultrasound-modulated delivery of anti-restenotic drug

    PubMed Central

    Vannozzi, Lorenzo; Ricotti, Leonardo; Filippeschi, Carlo; Sartini, Stefania; Coviello, Vito; Piazza, Vincenzo; Pingue, Pasqualantonio; La Motta, Concettina; Dario, Paolo; Menciassi, Arianna

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to demonstrate the possibility to fabricate ultra-thin polymeric films loaded with an anti-restenotic drug and capable of tunable drug release kinetics for the local treatment of restenosis. Vascular nanopatches are composed of a poly(lactic acid) supporting membrane (thickness: ~250 nm) on which 20 polyelectrolyte bilayers (overall thickness: ~70 nm) are alternatively deposited. The anti-restenotic drug is embedded in the middle of the polyelectrolyte structure, and released by diffusion mechanisms. Nanofilm fabrication procedure and detailed morphological characterization are reported here. Barium titanate nanoparticles (showing piezoelectric properties) are included in the polymeric support and their role is investigated in terms of influence on nanofilm morphology, drug release kinetics, and cell response. Results show an efficient drug release from the polyelectrolyte structure in phosphate-buffered saline, and a clear antiproliferative effect on human smooth muscle cells, which are responsible for restenosis. In addition, preliminary evidences of ultrasound-mediated modulation of drug release kinetics are reported, thus evaluating the influence of barium titanate nanoparticles on the release mechanism. Such data were integrated with quantitative piezoelectric and thermal measurements. These results open new avenues for a fine control of local therapies based on smart responsive materials. PMID:26730191

  20. Paradoxical Effects of Fruit on Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Satya P.; Chung, Hea J.; Kim, Hyeon J.; Hong, Seong T.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is exponentially increasing regardless of its preventable characteristics. The current measures for preventing obesity have failed to address the severity and prevalence of obesity, so alternative approaches based on nutritional and diet changes are attracting attention for the treatment of obesity. Fruit contains large amounts of simple sugars (glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc.), which are well known to induce obesity. Thus, considering the amount of simple sugars found in fruit, it is reasonable to expect that their consumption should contribute to obesity rather than weight reduction. However, epidemiological research has consistently shown that most types of fruit have anti-obesity effects. Thus, due to their anti-obesity effects as well as their vitamin and mineral contents, health organizations are suggesting the consumption of fruit for weight reduction purposes. These contradictory characteristics of fruit with respect to human body weight management motivated us to study previous research to understand the contribution of different types of fruit to weight management. In this review article, we analyze and discuss the relationships between fruit and their anti-obesity effects based on numerous possible underlying mechanisms, and we conclude that each type of fruit has different effects on body weight. PMID:27754404

  1. Anti-inflammatory drugs for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: focus on skeletal muscle-releasing factors.

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Shouta; Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable and a progressive muscle wasting disease, is caused by the absence of dystrophin protein, leading to recurrent muscle fiber damage during contraction. The inflammatory response to fiber damage is a compelling candidate mechanism for disease exacerbation. The only established pharmacological treatment for DMD is corticosteroids to suppress muscle inflammation, however this treatment is limited by its insufficient therapeutic efficacy and considerable side effects. Recent reports show the therapeutic potential of inhibiting or enhancing pro- or anti-inflammatory factors released from DMD skeletal muscles, resulting in significant recovery from muscle atrophy and dysfunction. We discuss and review the recent findings of DMD inflammation and opportunities for drug development targeting specific releasing factors from skeletal muscles. It has been speculated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs targeting specific inflammatory factors are more effective and have less side effects for DMD compared with steroidal drugs. For example, calcium channels, reactive oxygen species, and nuclear factor-κB signaling factors are the most promising targets as master regulators of inflammatory response in DMD skeletal muscles. If they are combined with an oligonucleotide-based exon skipping therapy to restore dystrophin expression, the anti-inflammatory drug therapies may address the present therapeutic limitation of low efficiency for DMD.

  2. Anti-inflammatory drugs for Duchenne muscular dystrophy: focus on skeletal muscle-releasing factors

    PubMed Central

    Miyatake, Shouta; Shimizu-Motohashi, Yuko; Takeda, Shin’ichi; Aoki, Yoshitsugu

    2016-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), an incurable and a progressive muscle wasting disease, is caused by the absence of dystrophin protein, leading to recurrent muscle fiber damage during contraction. The inflammatory response to fiber damage is a compelling candidate mechanism for disease exacerbation. The only established pharmacological treatment for DMD is corticosteroids to suppress muscle inflammation, however this treatment is limited by its insufficient therapeutic efficacy and considerable side effects. Recent reports show the therapeutic potential of inhibiting or enhancing pro- or anti-inflammatory factors released from DMD skeletal muscles, resulting in significant recovery from muscle atrophy and dysfunction. We discuss and review the recent findings of DMD inflammation and opportunities for drug development targeting specific releasing factors from skeletal muscles. It has been speculated that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs targeting specific inflammatory factors are more effective and have less side effects for DMD compared with steroidal drugs. For example, calcium channels, reactive oxygen species, and nuclear factor-κB signaling factors are the most promising targets as master regulators of inflammatory response in DMD skeletal muscles. If they are combined with an oligonucleotide-based exon skipping therapy to restore dystrophin expression, the anti-inflammatory drug therapies may address the present therapeutic limitation of low efficiency for DMD. PMID:27621596

  3. Biodegradable polymers for targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Doppalapudi, Sindhu; Jain, Anjali; Domb, Abraham J; Khan, Wahid

    2016-06-01

    Biodegradable polymers have been used for more than three decades in cancer treatment and have received increased interest in recent years. A range of biodegradable polymeric drug delivery systems designed for localized and systemic administration of therapeutic agents as well as tumor-targeting macromolecules has entered into the clinical phase of development, indicating the significance of biodegradable polymers in cancer therapy. This review elaborates upon applications of biodegradable polymers in the delivery and targeting of anti-cancer agents. Design of various drug delivery systems based on biodegradable polymers has been described. Moreover, the indication of polymers in the targeted delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs via passive, active targeting, and localized drug delivery are also covered. Biodegradable polymer-based drug delivery systems have the potential to deliver the payload to the target and can enhance drug availability at desired sites. Systemic toxicity and serious side effects observed with conventional cancer therapeutics can be significantly reduced with targeted polymeric systems. Still, there are many challenges that need to be met with respect to the degradation kinetics of the system, diffusion of drug payload within solid tumors, targeting tumoral tissue and tumor heterogeneity.

  4. Promising Targets in Anti-cancer Drug Development: Recent Updates.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Bhupinder; Singh, Sandeep; Skvortsova, Ira; Kumar, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease and its genesis and progression are extremely complex. The biggest problem in the anticancer drug development is acquiring of multidrug resistance and relapse. Classical chemotherapeutics directly target the DNA of the cell, while the contemporary anticancer drugs involve molecular-targeted therapy such as targeting the proteins possessing abnormal expression inside the cancer cells. Conventional strategies for the complete eradication of the cancer cells proved ineffective. Targeted chemotherapy was successful in certain malignancies however, the effectiveness has often been limited by drug resistance and side effects on normal tissues and cells. Since last few years, many promising drug targets have been identified for the effective treatment of cancer. The current review article describes some of these promising anticancer targets that include kinases, tubulin, cancer stem cells, monoclonal antibodies and vascular targeting agents. In addition, promising drug candidates under various phases of clinical trials are also described. Multi-acting drugs that simultaneously target different cancer cell signaling pathways may facilitate the process of effective anti-cancer drug development. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  5. Anti-obesity effect of a traditional Chinese dietary habit-blending lard with vegetable oil while cooking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji; Yan, Sisi; Xiao, Haisi; Zhou, Huijuan; Liu, Shuiping; Zeng, Yu; Liu, Biying; Li, Rongfang; Yuan, Zhihang; Wu, Jing; Yi, Jine; Razack, Yarou Bao Sero; Wen, Lixin

    2017-10-31

    Obesity, which is associated with dietary habits, has become a global social problem and causes many metabolic diseases. In China, both percentages of adult obesity and overweight are far lower compared to western countries. It was designed to increase the two levels of daily intake in human, namely 3.8% and 6.5%, which are recommendatory intake (25 g/d) and Chinese citizens' practical intake (41.4 g/d), respectively. The mice were respectively fed with feeds added with soybean oil, lard or the oil blended by both for 12 weeks. In the mice fed with diet containing 3.8% of the three oils or 6.5% blended oil, their body weight, body fat rate, cross-sectional area of adipocytes, adipogenesis and lipogenesis in adipose were decreased, whereas hydrolysis of triglyserides in adipose was increased. This study demonstrated that the oil mixture containing lard and soybean oil had a remarkable anti-obesity effect. It suggests that the traditional Chinese dietary habits using oils blended with lard and soybean oil, might be one of the factors of lower percentages of overweight and obesity in China, and that the increasing of dietary oil intake and the changing of its component resulted in the increasing of obesity rate in China over the past decades.

  6. Three-dimensional quick response code based on inkjet printing of upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles for drug anti-counterfeiting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Minli; Lin, Min; Wang, Shurui; Wang, Xuemin; Zhang, Ge; Hong, Yuan; Dong, Yuqing; Jin, Guorui; Xu, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Medicine counterfeiting is a serious issue worldwide, involving potentially devastating health repercussions. Advanced anti-counterfeit technology for drugs has therefore aroused intensive interest. However, existing anti-counterfeit technologies are associated with drawbacks such as the high cost, complex fabrication process, sophisticated operation and incapability in authenticating drug ingredients. In this contribution, we developed a smart phone recognition based upconversion fluorescent three-dimensional (3D) quick response (QR) code for tracking and anti-counterfeiting of drugs. We firstly formulated three colored inks incorporating upconversion nanoparticles with RGB (i.e., red, green and blue) emission colors. Using a modified inkjet printer, we printed a series of colors by precisely regulating the overlap of these three inks. Meanwhile, we developed a multilayer printing and splitting technology, which significantly increases the information storage capacity per unit area. As an example, we directly printed the upconversion fluorescent 3D QR code on the surface of drug capsules. The 3D QR code consisted of three different color layers with each layer encoded by information of different aspects of the drug. A smart phone APP was designed to decode the multicolor 3D QR code, providing the authenticity and related information of drugs. The developed technology possesses merits in terms of low cost, ease of operation, high throughput and high information capacity, thus holds great potential for drug anti-counterfeiting.Medicine counterfeiting is a serious issue worldwide, involving potentially devastating health repercussions. Advanced anti-counterfeit technology for drugs has therefore aroused intensive interest. However, existing anti-counterfeit technologies are associated with drawbacks such as the high cost, complex fabrication process, sophisticated operation and incapability in authenticating drug ingredients. In this contribution, we developed a

  7. Computer-Aided Structure Based Drug Design Approaches for the Discovery of New Anti-CHIKV Agents.

    PubMed

    Jadav, Surender Singh; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Hilgenfeld, Rolf; Jayaprakash, Venkatesan

    2017-11-10

    Chikungunya is a viral infection caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), an arbovirus transmitted through mosquito (Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus) bite. The virus from sylvatic cycle in Africa mutated to new vector adaptation and became one of the major emerging and re-emerging viral infections in the past decade, affecting more than 40 countries. Efforts are being made by many researches to develop means to prevent and control the infection through vaccines and vector control strategy. On the other hand, search for novel chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of infected patients is on. Approach of repurposed drug is one way of identifying an existing drug for the treatment of CHIKV infection. Review the history of CHIKV nsp2 protease inhibitors derived through structure-based computer-aided drug design along with phytochemicals identified as anti-CHIKV agents. A survey on CHIKV inhibitors reported till date has been carriedout. The data obtained were organized and discussed under natural substances and synthetic derivatives obtained as result of rational design. The review provides a well organized content in chronological order that has highly significant information for medicinal chemist who wish to explore the area of Anti-CHIKV drug design and development. Natural compounds with different scaffolds provides an opportunity to explore Ligand based drug design (LBDD), while rational drug design approaches provides opportunity to explore the Structure based drug design. From the presented mini-review, readers can understand that this area is less explored and has lots of potential in anti-CHIKVviral drug design & development. of reported literature inferred that, unlike other viral proteases, the nsP2 protease can be targeted for CHIKV viral inhibition. The HTVS process for the identification of anti-CHIK agents provided a few successive validated lead compounds against CHIKV infections. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email

  8. Gene signature critical to cancer phenotype as a paradigm for anti-cancer drug discovery

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Erik R.; McMurray, Helene R.; Hassane, Duane C.; Newman, Laurel; Salzman, Peter; Jordan, Craig T.; Land, Hartmut

    2013-01-01

    Malignant cell transformation commonly results in the deregulation of thousands of cellular genes, an observation that suggests a complex biological process and an inherently challenging scenario for the development of effective cancer interventions. To better define the genes/pathways essential to regulating the malignant phenotype, we recently described a novel strategy based on the cooperative nature of carcinogenesis that focuses on genes synergistically deregulated in response to cooperating oncogenic mutations. These so-called “cooperation response genes” (CRGs) are highly enriched for genes critical for the cancer phenotype, thereby suggesting their causal role in the malignant state. Here we show that CRGs play an essential role in drug-mediated anti-cancer activity and that anti-cancer agents can be identified through their ability to antagonize the CRG expression profile. These findings provide proof-of-concept for the use of the CRG signature as a novel means of drug discovery with relevance to underlying anti-cancer drug mechanisms. PMID:22964631

  9. Tuberculosis in Greece: bacteriologically confirmed cases and anti-tuberculosis drug resistance, 1995-2009.

    PubMed

    Papaventsis, D; Nikolaou, S; Karabela, S; Ioannidis, P; Konstantinidou, E; Marinou, I; Sainti, A; Kanavaki, S

    2010-07-15

    The Greek National Reference Laboratory for Mycobacteria is a major source of tuberculosis (TB)-related data for Greece, where the TB burden and epidemiology still need to be better defined. We present data regarding newly diagnosed TB cases and resistance to anti-TB drugs during the last 15 years in Greece. Although the total number of newly detected TB cases has declined, cases among immigrants are increasing. Resistance to first-line anti-TB drugs is widely prevalent, although stable or declining. The implementation of an efficient and effective countrywide TB surveillance system in Greece is urgently needed.

  10. Intragastric acid control in non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug users: comparison of esomeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, J L; Miner, P B; Schlesinger, P K; Liu, S; Silberg, D G

    2006-04-15

    Studies to date have not directly compared the pharmacodynamic efficacies of different proton pump inhibitors in controlling intragastric acidity in patients treated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. To compare acid suppression with once-daily esomeprazole 40 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg and pantoprazole 40 mg in patients receiving non-selective or cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy. In this multicentre, open-label, comparative, three-way crossover study, adult patients (n = 90) receiving non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were randomized to one of six treatment sequences. At the study site, patients were administered esomeprazole 40 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg and pantoprazole 40 mg for 5 days each, with a washout period of > or =10 days between each treatment. Twenty-four-hour pH testing was performed on day 5 of each dosing period. The mean percentage of time during the 24-h pH monitoring period that gastric pH was >4.0 was significantly greater with esomeprazole (74.2%) compared with lansoprazole (66.5%; P < 0.001) and pantoprazole (60.8%; P < 0.001), and significantly greater with esomeprazole (P < 0.05) than with the comparators regardless of whether using non-selective vs. cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. At the doses studied, esomeprazole treatment provides significantly greater gastric acid suppression than lansoprazole or pantoprazole in patients receiving non-selective or cyclo-oxygenase-2-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  11. The antimalarial drug amodiaquine possesses anti-ZIKA virus activities.

    PubMed

    Han, Yingshan; Mesplède, Thibault; Xu, Hongtao; Quan, Yudong; Wainberg, Mark A

    2018-05-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has emerged as a global health threat, particularly in tropical areas, over the past few years. No antiviral therapy or vaccine is available at present. For these reasons, repurposing clinically approved drugs against ZIKV infection may provide rapid and cost-effective global health benefits. Here, we explored this strategy and screened eight FDA-approved drugs for antiviral activity against ZIKV using a cell-based assay. Our results show that the antimalarial drug amodiaquine has anti-ZIKV activity with EC 50 at low micromolar concentrations in cell culture. We further characterized amodiaquine antiviral activity against ZIKV and found that it targets early events of the viral replication cycle. Altogether, our results suggest that amodiaquine may be efficacious for the treatment of ZIKV infection. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Drug-induced hepatitis superimposed on the presence of anti-SLA antibody: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Etxagibel, Aitziber; Julià, M Rosa; Brotons, Alvaro; Company, M Margarita; Dolz, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Autoimmune hepatitis is a necroinflammatory disorder of unknown etiology characterized by the presence of circulating antibodies, hypergammaglobulinemia, and response to immunosuppression. It has the histological features of chronic hepatitis. The onset is usually insidious, but in some patients the presentation may be acute and occasionally severe. Certain drugs can induce chronic hepatitis mimicking autoimmune hepatitis. Different autoantibodies have been associated with this process but they are not detectable after drug withdrawal and clinical resolution. Case presentation We describe a case of drug-induced acute hepatitis associated with antinuclear, antisoluble liver-pancreas and anti-smooth muscle autoantibodies in a 66-year-old woman. Abnormal clinical and biochemical parameters resolved after drug withdrawal, but six months later anti-soluble liver-pancreas antibodies remained positive and liver biopsy showed chronic hepatitis and septal fibrosis. Furthermore, our patient has a HLA genotype associated with autoimmune hepatitis. Conclusion Patient follow-up will disclose whether our patient suffers from an autoimmune disease and if the presence of anti-soluble liver antigens could precede the development of an autoimmune hepatitis, as the presence of antimitochondrial antibodies can precede primary biliary cirrhosis. PMID:18226219

  13. Lipid nanostructured Hydrogels for Topical Delivery of Anti-inflammatory Drugs: Preparation and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo-Robles, Noelia

    Diclofenac sodium is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) used to treat sign or symptoms of osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. However, its clinical usage is limited to some extent due to its toxicity and systemic side effects, including gastrointestinal lesions. The development of lipid nanostructured hydrogel for topical application will solve the problems of first pass metabolism minimize systemic side effect of the anti-inflammatory drugs. Two types of nanotechnologies were used: Lipid Nanostructured Lipid carrier (NLC) and Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN). The difference between both nanotechnologies is that NLC carrier contain liquid and solid lipid, however, the SLN contains solid lipid. Both nanostructured lipid carrier is prepared by high pressure micro-fluidizer technology avoiding solvents use. The use of liquid lipid with solid lipid leads us to imperfection in the matrix which can provide more space for the accommodation of the drug, therefore NLC is the more efficient formulation in drug entrapment.

  14. Comparing effects of "my anti-drug" and "above the influence" on campaign evaluations and marijuana-related perceptions.

    PubMed

    Comello, Maria Leonora G

    2013-01-01

    Two national campaigns--My Anti-Drug and Above the Influence--have been implemented to prevent youth substance use. Although Above the Influence was conceptualized as a major shift in messaging from My Anti-Drug, no studies have reported head-to-head tests of message effects on behavior-relevant outcomes. An experiment was conducted in which participants viewed ads from one of the campaigns and answered questions about ad appeal and emotional tone; campaign appeal; and marijuana-related beliefs. Compared to My Anti-Drug ads, Above the Influence ads were associated with more positive emotional tone and with lower perceptions of marijuana risk. Implications for message design and evaluation are discussed.

  15. Three-dimensional quick response code based on inkjet printing of upconversion fluorescent nanoparticles for drug anti-counterfeiting.

    PubMed

    You, Minli; Lin, Min; Wang, Shurui; Wang, Xuemin; Zhang, Ge; Hong, Yuan; Dong, Yuqing; Jin, Guorui; Xu, Feng

    2016-05-21

    Medicine counterfeiting is a serious issue worldwide, involving potentially devastating health repercussions. Advanced anti-counterfeit technology for drugs has therefore aroused intensive interest. However, existing anti-counterfeit technologies are associated with drawbacks such as the high cost, complex fabrication process, sophisticated operation and incapability in authenticating drug ingredients. In this contribution, we developed a smart phone recognition based upconversion fluorescent three-dimensional (3D) quick response (QR) code for tracking and anti-counterfeiting of drugs. We firstly formulated three colored inks incorporating upconversion nanoparticles with RGB (i.e., red, green and blue) emission colors. Using a modified inkjet printer, we printed a series of colors by precisely regulating the overlap of these three inks. Meanwhile, we developed a multilayer printing and splitting technology, which significantly increases the information storage capacity per unit area. As an example, we directly printed the upconversion fluorescent 3D QR code on the surface of drug capsules. The 3D QR code consisted of three different color layers with each layer encoded by information of different aspects of the drug. A smart phone APP was designed to decode the multicolor 3D QR code, providing the authenticity and related information of drugs. The developed technology possesses merits in terms of low cost, ease of operation, high throughput and high information capacity, thus holds great potential for drug anti-counterfeiting.

  16. Use of Enoxaparin in Obese Adolescents During Bariatric Surgery--a Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Alvina; Vaughns, Janelle D; Ziesenitz, Victoria C; Nadler, Evan P; van den Anker, John N

    2015-10-01

    Obese patients have a higher risk of venous thromboembolism when immobilized due to surgery. The objective of this study was to assess anti-factor Xa activity in adolescent bariatric surgical patients receiving prophylactic enoxaparin. Four morbidly obese adolescents undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy were enrolled. Enoxaparin was administered (40 mg subcutaneous (SC) if BMI ≤50 kg/m(2) or 60 mg SC if BMI >50 kg/m(2)) for prevention of venous thromboembolism every 12 h starting after induction of anesthesia until discharge. Plasma anti-factor Xa activity was assessed over 12 h after the first dose and used as a surrogate marker for enoxaparin levels. Non-compartmental analysis of anti-factor Xa activity levels was performed and compared with previously published studies. Patients recruited were 16 to 18 years of age with a mean BMI of 52.6 ± 5.8 kg/m(2) (>99th BMI percentile). Peak anti-factor Xa activity ranged from 0.20 to 0.23 IU/mL in our study population, compared to 0.38 to 0.53 IU/mL in the cited lean comparator groups. Our current dosing practice of 40 mg SC for individuals with a BMI ≤50 kg/m(2) and 60 mg for individuals with a BMI ≥50 kg/m(2) resulted in anti-factor Xa activity that was sufficient for adequate thromboprophylaxis in adolescent bariatric surgical patients. Our data also demonstrates lower drug exposures in the obese when compared to lean patients. Therefore, randomized controlled efficacy and safety studies are urgently needed to guide the use of low-molecular-weight heparins in the pediatric and adolescent obese population.

  17. Pr