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Sample records for antiangiogenic organoselenium compound

  1. Identification of organoselenium compounds that possess chemopreventive properties in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells.

    PubMed

    Terazawa, Riyako; Garud, Dinesh R; Hamada, Nanako; Fujita, Yasunori; Itoh, Tomohiro; Nozawa, Yoshinori; Nakane, Keita; Deguchi, Takashi; Koketsu, Mamoru; Ito, Masafumi

    2010-10-01

    The process of cancer development consists of three sequential stages termed initiation, promotion, and progression. Oxidative stress damages DNA and introduces mutations into oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, thus contributing to cancer development. Cancer chemoprevention is defined to prevent or delay the development of cancer by the use of natural or synthetic substances. In the present study, we synthesized a series of organoselenium compounds and evaluated their possible chemopreventive properties in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Among 42 organoselenium compounds tested, two compounds, 3-selena-1-dethiacephem 13 and 3-selena-1-dethiacephem 14 strongly activated the Nrf2/ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling and thus markedly increased expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), a phase II antioxidant enzyme. Translocation of Nrf2 to the nucleus preceded HO-1 protein induction by two compounds. The intracellular ROS level was strongly reduced immediately after treatment with these compounds, showing that they are potent antioxidants. Finally, both compounds inhibited cell growth via cell cycle arrest. Our findings suggest that compounds 13 and 14 could not only attenuate oxidative stress through Nrf2/ARE activation and direct ROS scavenging but also inhibit cell growth. Thus, these compounds possess the potential as pharmacological agents for chemoprevention of human prostate cancer.

  2. Chemopreventive mechanisms of α-keto acid metabolites of naturally occurring organoselenium compounds.

    PubMed

    Pinto, John T; Lee, Jeong-In; Sinha, Raghu; MacEwan, Melanie E; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies on the chemopreventive mechanisms of dietary selenium have focused on its incorporation into antioxidative selenoproteins, such as glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase. Several studies, however, have revealed that dietary selenium in the form of L-selenomethionine and the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, also have intrinsic anti-cancer properties. Biochemical mechanisms previously investigated to contribute to their anticancer effects involve β- and γ-lyase reactions. Some pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-containing enzymes can catalyze a β-lyase reaction with Se-methyl-L-selenocysteine (MSC) generating pyruvate and ammonia. Other PLP-enzymes can catalyze a γ-lyase reaction with L-selenomethionine (SM) generating α-ketobutyrate and ammonia. In both cases, a purported third product is methylselenol (CH(3)SeH). Although not directly quantifiable, as a result of its extreme hydrophobicity and high vapor pressure, CH(3)SeH has been indirectly observed to act through the alteration of protein-sulfhydryl moieties on redox-responsive signal and transcription factors, thereby maintaining a non-proliferative intracellular environment. We have considered the possibility that α-keto acid analogues of MSC (i.e., methylselenopyruvate; MSP) and SM (i.e., α-keto-γ-methylselenobutyrate; KMSB), generated via a transamination and/or L-amino acid oxidase reaction may also be chemoprotective. Indeed, these compounds were shown to increase the level of histone-H3 acetylation in human prostate and colon cancer cells. MSP and KMSB structurally resemble butyrate, an inhibitor of several histone deacetylases. Thus, the seleno α-keto acid metabolites of MSC and SM, along with CH(3)SeH derived from β- and γ-lyase reactions, may be potential direct-acting metabolites of organoselenium that lead to de-repression of silenced tumor suppressor proteins and/or regulation of genes and signaling molecules.

  3. Reaction of low-molecular-mass organoselenium compounds (and their sulphur analogues) with inflammation-associated oxidants.

    PubMed

    Carroll, L; Davies, M J; Pattison, D I

    2015-06-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element in mammals, with the majority specifically encoded as seleno-L-cysteine into a range of selenoproteins. Many of these proteins play a key role in modulating oxidative stress, via either direct detoxification of biological oxidants, or repair of oxidised residues. Both selenium- and sulphur-containing residues react readily with the wide range of oxidants (including hydrogen peroxide, radicals, singlet oxygen and hypochlorous, hypobromous, hypothiocyanous and peroxynitrous acids) that are produced during inflammation and have been implicated in the development of a range of inflammatory diseases. Whilst selenium has similar properties to sulphur, it typically exhibits greater reactivity with most oxidants, and there are considerable differences in the subsequent reactivity and ease of repair of the oxidised species that are formed. This review discusses the chemistry of low-molecular-mass organoselenium compounds (e.g. selenoethers, diselenides and selenols) with inflammatory oxidants, with a particular focus on the reaction kinetics and product studies, with the differences in reactivity between selenium and sulphur analogues described in the selected examples. These data provide insight into the therapeutic potential of low-molecular-mass selenium-containing compounds to modulate the activity of both radical and molecular oxidants and provide protection against inflammation-induced damage. Progress in their therapeutic development (including modulation of potential selenium toxicity by strategic design) is demonstrated by a brief summary of some recent studies where novel organoselenium compounds have been used as wound healing or radioprotection agents and in the prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25854915

  4. An Organoselenium Compound Inhibits Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms on Hemodialysis Catheters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Phat L.; Lowry, Nathan; Campbell, Thomas; Reid, Ted W.; Webster, Daniel R.; Tobin, Eric; Aslani, Arash; Mosley, Thomas; Dertien, Janet; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A.

    2012-01-01

    Colonization of central venous catheters (CVCs) by pathogenic bacteria leads to catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs). These colonizing bacteria form highly antibiotic-resistant biofilms. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most frequently isolated pathogens in CRBSIs. Impregnating CVC surfaces with antimicrobial agents has various degrees of effectiveness in reducing the incidence of CRBSIs. We recently showed that organoselenium covalently attached to disks as an antibiofilm agent inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms. In this study, we investigated the ability of an organoselenium coating on hemodialysis catheters (HDCs) to inhibit S. aureus biofilms in vitro and in vivo. S. aureus failed to develop biofilms on HDCs coated with selenocyanatodiacetic acid (SCAA) in either static or flowthrough continuous-culture systems. The SCAA coating also inhibited the development of S. aureus biofilms on HDCs in vivo for 3 days. The SCAA coating was stable and nontoxic to cell culture or animals. This new method for coating the internal and external surfaces of HDCs with SCAA has the potential to prevent catheter-related infections due to S. aureus. PMID:22123688

  5. Binding of a cyclic organoselenium compound with gold nanoparticles (GNP) and its effect on electron transfer properties.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pavitra V; Singh, Beena G; Maiti, Nandita; Iwaoka, Michio; Priyadarsini, K Indira

    2014-12-15

    Binding of a cyclic organoselenium compound, DL-trans-3,4-dihydroxy-1-selenolane (DHSred) with gold nanoparticles (GNP) of different sizes was studied by absorption spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscope (TEM), surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and zeta-potential (ζ) measurements. GNP of different size were synthesized by varying the reaction conditions and their size was determined by DLS and TEM techniques. The absorption spectral data showed red shift in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band indicating increase in the size of GNP on binding to DHSred. SERS studies confirmed that the binding of DHSred with GNP is through selenium center with planar orientation of DHSred on the GNP surface. The product of the number of binding sites (n) in GNP and the binding constant (K) was estimated for GNP of different particle size. The zeta potential (ζ) value of GNP decreased marginally in the presence of DHSred. Further, the binding of DHSred with GNP was found to enhance its reactivity with 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals (ABTS(·-)) and the reactivity increased with decrease in the GNP size. Such enhancement in the reducing ability may have a greater impact on the antioxidant activity of DHSred. PMID:25268822

  6. Facile synthesis, structural evaluation, antimicrobial activity and synergistic effects of novel imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine based organoselenium compounds.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjeev; Sharma, Nidhi; Maurya, Indresh K; Bhasin, Aman K K; Wangoo, Nishima; Brandão, Paula; Félix, Vítor; Bhasin, K K; Sharma, Rohit K

    2016-11-10

    A simple and efficient method has been described to synthesize the hitherto unknown imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine selenides (5a-l) by reaction of 2-chloroimidazo [1,2-a]pyridines with aryl/heteroaryl selenols, generated in situ by reduction of various diselenides with hypophosphorous acid. The crystal structures of 3-nitro-2-(phenylselanyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (5a), 2-(mesitylselanyl)-3-nitro-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (5d) and 3-nitro-2-(pyridin-2-ylselanyl)-imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (5e) were confirmed by X-ray crystallography and the DFT calculations were performed to determine various structural parameters which were correlated with the X-ray crystal structures. The synthesized compounds were subjected to antimicrobial evaluation and it was found that compounds 5a and 5j were active against gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli whereas compound 5e was active against different fungal strains. Time kill assay was performed to understand the microbial activity of synthesized organoselenium compounds and the toxicity of these compounds was evaluated against human cell lines. Synergistic effects of active compounds 5a and 5e were tested with existing antibiotic drugs which exhibited that the antibiotic combination with synthesized organoselenium compounds efficiently enhanced the antimicrobial activity.

  7. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium: 2-hydroxy-5-selenocyanatobenzoic acid as an anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive compound.

    PubMed

    Chagas, Pietro Maria; Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Sari, Marcel Henrique Marcondes; Oliveira, Carla Elena Sartori; Canto, Rômulo Faria Santos; da Luz, Sônia Cristina Almeida; Braga, Antonio Luiz; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2014-03-01

    The present study evaluated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of per oral (p.o.) administration of salicylic acid-derivative organoselenium compounds in chemical models of nociception in mice. The compounds (50 mg/kg; p.o.) were administered 30 and 60 min before the nociceptive behavior and compared to the positive-control, acetylsalicylic acid (ASA; 200 mg/kg; p.o.). In addition, a dose-response curve (25-100 mg/kg) for compounds was carried out in the formalin test. When assessed in the chemical models, acetic acid-induced writhing behavior, formalin and glutamate tests, the compounds showed the following antinociceptive profile 1B>2B>1A>2A, suggesting a chemical structure-dependent relationship. Then, the anti-inflammatory properties and toxicological potential of compound 1B were investigated. Compound 1B, similar to the positive-control, ASA, diminished the edema formation and decreased the myeloperoxidase activity induced by croton oil (2.5%) in the ear tissue. The results also indicate that a single oral administration of 1B caused neither signs of acute toxicity nor those of gastrointestinal injury. The administration of 1B did not alter the water and food intakes, plasma alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activities or urea levels and cerebral or hepatic δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase activity. Salicylic acid-derivative organoseleniums, mainly compound 1B, have been found to be novel compounds with antinociceptive/anti-inflammatory properties; nevertheless, more studies are required to examine their therapeutic potential for pain treatment.

  8. In silico modification of Zn2+ binding group of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) by organoselenium compounds as Homo sapiens class II HDAC inhibitor of cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumo Friend Tambunan, Usman; Bakri, Ridla; Aditya Parikesit, Arli; Ariyani, Titin; Dyah Puspitasari, Ratih; Kerami, Djati

    2016-02-01

    Cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women, and ranks seventh of all cancers worldwide, with 529000 cases in 2008 and more than 85% cases occur in developing countries. One way to treat this cancer is through the inhibition of HDAC enzymes which play a strategic role in the regulation of gene expression. Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid (SAHA) or Vorinostat is a drug which commercially available to treat the cancer, but still has some side effects. This research present in silico SAHA modification in Zinc Binding Group (ZBG) by organoselenium compound to get ligands which less side effect. From molecular docking simulation, and interaction analysis, there are five best ligands, namely CC27, HA27, HB28, IB25, and KA7. These five ligands have better binding affinity than the standards, and also have interaction with Zn2+ cofactor of inhibited HDAC enzymes. This research is expected to produce more potent HDAC inhibitor as novel drug for cervical cancer treatment.

  9. Synthesis, SAR and biological evaluation of a novel series of 1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-3-(2-(3-oxobenzoelenazol-2(3H)-yl)ethyl) urea: Organoselenium compounds for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ye, S; Zheng, X; Hu, T; Zeng, H

    2016-06-30

    Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is an important potential anticancer drug target and closely related to both carcinogenesis and cancer progression. Ethaselen (BBSKE), a novel organoselenium compound inhibiting TrxR1 with selective antitumor effect, while its symmetrical structure results in poor solubility. Carmustine (BCNU), a DNA cross-link agent and also a deactivator of TrxR, is with high toxicity and low selectivity which limit its clinical application to some extents. Herein, a novel compound, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-3-(2-(3-oxobenzoelenazol-2(3H)-yl)ethyl)urea(4a-1), which was designed through the combination of Ethaselen and Carmustine, showed good solubility, good tagetability, low toxicity and excellent antitumor activity by synergism. Using the structure of 4a-1 as a key active scaffold, a series of novel 1-(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-3-(2-(3-oxobenzoelenazol-2(3H)-yl)ethyl)urea was designed, synthesized and evaluated to explore the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of these inhibitors and to improve their antitumor activities. Notably, 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-(2-(6-fluoro-3-oxobenzoselenazol-2(3H)-yl)ethyl)-1-nitrosourea(4b-1) was found to exhibit more potent antitumor activities comparable to 4a-1 against all the four cancer cell lines, including Mia PaCa-2, PANC-1, RKO, LoVo. These results have highlighted compound 4b-1 as a new potential lead candidate for future development of novel potent broad-spectrum antitumor agents. In addition, a SAR model was established to conduct further structural modification.

  10. Transient antiangiogenic treatment improves delivery of cytotoxic compounds and therapeutic outcome in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Sampurna; Wieczorek, Caroline; Schöttle, Jakob; Siobal, Maike; Hinze, Yvonne; Franz, Thomas; Florin, Alexandra; Adamczak, Joanna; Heukamp, Lukas C; Neumaier, Bernd; Ullrich, Roland T

    2014-05-15

    Extensive oncologic experience argues that the most efficacious applications of antiangiogenic agents rely upon a combination with cytotoxic drugs. Yet there remains a lack of clarity about how to optimize scheduling for such drug combinations. Prudent antiangiogenic therapy might transiently normalize blood vessels to improve tumor oxygenation and drug exposure. Using [(15)O]H2O positron emission tomography imaging in a preclinical mouse model of non-small cell lung cancer, we observed that short-term treatment with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor/platelet-derived growth factor receptor inhibitor PTK787 licensed a transient window of improved tumor blood flow. The improvement observed was associated with a reduced leakiness from tumor vessels, consistent with induction of a vascular normalization process. Initiation of a cytotoxic treatment in this window of tumor vessel normalization resulted in increased efficacy, as illustrated by improved outcomes of erlotinib administration after initial PTK787 treatment. Notably, intermittent PTK787 treatment also facilitated long-term tumor regression. In summary, our findings offer strong evidence that short-term antiangiogenic therapy can promote a transient vessel normalization process that improves the delivery and efficacy of a targeted cytotoxic drug. PMID:24675359

  11. K20E, an oxidative-coupling compound of methyl caffeate, exhibits anti-angiogenic activities through down-regulations of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Chun-Hsu; Lin, Wen-Hsin; Chien, Yi-Chung; Liu, Fon-Chang; Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Wu, Chieh-Hsi

    2015-01-15

    Anti-angiogenesis is one of the most popular clinical interventions for cancer chemotherapy. A series of synthesized derivative of methyl caffeate were used to evaluate the anti-angiogenic activity and to investigate possible pharmacological mechanisms in the present study. The most potent anti-angiogenic compound was evaluated in the experiments of murine allograft tumor model and Matrigel plug assay as well as cell models in the human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the LLC1 lung cancer cells. Our results suggested that K20E suppressed the tumor growth in the allograft tumor model and exhibited anti-angiogenic activity in Matrigel plug assay. Besides, HUVEC viability was found to be significantly reduced by arresting cell cycle at G{sub 2}/M phase and apoptosis. Cell migration, invasion, and tube formation of the HUVECs were also markedly suppressed by K20E treatment. K20E largely down-regulated the intracellular and secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the LLC1 cancer cells. Besides, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and its downstream signaling cascades (AKT-mTOR and MEK1/2-ERK1/2) as well as gelatinases were all evidently reduced in the HUVECs treated with K20E. Inversely, K20E can up-regulate the expression levels of p53 and p21 proteins in the HUVECs. Based on these results, our study suggested that K20E possessed inhibiting angiogenesis through regulation of VEGF/VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling cascades in the vascular endothelial cells (VECs). - Highlights: • K20E is an oxidative-coupling compound of methyl caffeate. • K20E exhibits anti-tumor and anti-angiogenesis effects. • K20E suppresses the expressions of VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) proteins. • K20E deactivates VEGFR-2-mediated downstream signaling pathways to inhibit angiogenesis. • K20E up-regulates p53-p21 pathway to induce apoptosis and cell arrest at G2/M phase.

  12. Chemogenesis of an Antiangiogenic Glycosaminoglycan

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this letter we report a facile chemical conversion of heparin, a potent anticoagulant with minimal antiangiogenic activity, into an effective antiangiogenic glycosaminoglycan through optimized chemical approaches. This work highlights the potential for industrial scale production of a therapeutic anticancer glycosaminoglycan. PMID:24944736

  13. Antiangiogenic and antitumor activities of berberine derivative NAX014 compound in a transgenic murine model of HER2/neu-positive mammary carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, Elisa; Damiani, Elisa; Orlando, Fiorenza; Lucarini, Guendalina; Bartozzi, Beatrice; Lombardi, Paolo; Salvatore, Carmela; Geroni, Cristina; Donati, Abele; Provinciali, Mauro

    2015-10-01

    Berberine (BBR) is a natural isoquinoline alkaloid with proven antiangiogenic and anticancer activities. We recently demonstrated that BBR and its synthetic derivative 13-(4-chlorophenylethyl)berberine iodide, NAX014, exert antiproliferative activity against HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, inducing apoptosis, modulating the expression of cell cycle checkpoint molecules involved in cell senescence, and reducing both HER2 expression and phosphorylation on tumor cells. In this study, we examined the anticancer properties of BBR and NAX014 in a transgenic mouse model which spontaneously develops HER2-positive mammary tumors. Repeated intraperitoneal injections of a safety dose (2.5mg/kg) of NAX014 delayed the development of tumors, reducing both the number and size of tumor masses. In vivo sidestream dark field videomicroscopy revealed a significant lower vessel density in mammary tumors from NAX014-treated mice in comparison with the control group. Immunohistochemical evaluation using CD34 antibody confirmed the reduced vessel density in NAX014 group. Statistically significant increase of senescence associated β-galactosidase and p16 expression, and reduced expression of heparanase were observed in tumors from NAX014-treated mice than in tumors from control animals. Finally, NAX014 treatment decreased the level of perforine and granzyme mRNA in mammary tumors. Berberine did not show any statistically significant modulation in comparison with control mice. The results of the present study indicate that NAX014 is more effective than BBR in exerting anticancer activity delaying the development of mammary tumors in mice transgenic for the HER-2/neu oncogene. The antitumor efficacy of NAX014 is mainly related to its effect on tumor vascular network and on induction of tumor cell senescence.

  14. Antiangiogenic cancer treatment: The great discovery and greater complexity (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Maj, Ewa; Papiernik, Diana; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of tumor angiogenesis opened a new path in fighting cancer. The approval of different antiangiogenic agents, most targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling, has either increased the effectiveness of standard chemotherapy or even replaced it by offering better patient outcomes. However, an increasing number of preclinical and clinical observations have shown that the process of angiogenesis is far from clearly understood. Apart from targeting the VEGF pathway, novel strategies aim to influence other molecular factors that are involved in tumor angiogenesis. In addition, naturally occurring compounds seem to offer additional agents for influencing angiogenesis. The first concept of antiangiogenic therapy aimed to destroy tumor vessels, while it turned out that, paradoxically, antiangiogenic drugs normalized vasculature and as a result offered an improvement in chemotherapeutic delivery. In order to design an effective treatment schedule, methods for detecting the time window of normalization and biomarkers predicting patient response are needed. The initial idea that antiangiogenic therapy would be resistance-free failed to materialize and currently we still face the obstacle of resistance to antiangiogenic therapy.

  15. Novel Antiangiogenic Agents in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Berrios, Ricardo L.; Arbiser, Jack L.

    2011-01-01

    Because angiogenesis underlies the pathogenesis of numerous conditions (cancer, psoriasis, macular degeneration), there is a pressing need for continued investigations into angiogenic signaling and potential drug targets. Antiangiogenic agents can be classified as either direct or indirect. Direct antiangiogenics act on untransformed endothelial cells to prevent differentiation and proliferation; indirect antiangiogenics act to inhibit factors involved in proangiogenic signaling. Agents currently available with dermatologic indications are few, while several established and novel biologics targeting various proangiogenic factors are currently being investigated for potential dermatologic uses, but the jury is still out on their efficacy and safety. In this review, we highlight our experience with a group of existing and novel, small molecules that combine several modes of action against angiogenesis in addition to other properties – triarylmethane dyes and fulvene derivatives. PMID:21172300

  16. Gallic acid, a phenolic compound, exerts anti-angiogenic effects via the PTEN/AKT/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiping; Chen, Allen Y; Rojanasakul, Yon; Rankin, Gary O; Chen, Yi Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA), a polyphenol, is widely found in numerous fruits and vegetables, particularly in hickory nuts. In the present study, we found that gallic acid, a natural phenolic compound isolated from fruits and vegetables, had a more potent growth inhibitory effect on two ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3 and A2780/CP70, than the effect on a normal ovarian cell line, IOSE-364. These results demonstrated that GA selectively inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Gene expression was examined by ELISA and western blot analysis, and gene pathways were examined by luciferase assay. It was found that GA inhibited VEGF secretion and suppressed in vitro angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. GA downregulated AKT phosphorylation as well as HIF-1α expression but promoted PTEN expression. The luciferase assay results suggest that the PTEN/AKT/HIF-1α pathway accounts for the inhibitory effect of GA on VEGF expression and in vitro angiogenesis. These findings provide strong support for the high potential of GA in the prevention and therapy of ovarian cancer.

  17. Gallic acid, a phenolic compound, exerts anti-angiogenic effects via the PTEN/AKT/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathway in ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    HE, ZHIPING; CHEN, ALLEN Y.; ROJANASAKUL, YON; RANKIN, GARY O.; CHEN, YI CHARLIE

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA), a polyphenol, is widely found in numerous fruits and vegetables, particularly in hickory nuts. In the present study, we found that gallic acid, a natural phenolic compound isolated from fruits and vegetables, had a more potent growth inhibitory effect on two ovarian cancer cell lines, OVCAR-3 and A2780/CP70, than the effect on a normal ovarian cell line, IOSE-364. These results demonstrated that GA selectively inhibits the growth of cancer cells. Gene expression was examined by ELISA and western blot analysis, and gene pathways were examined by luciferase assay. It was found that GA inhibited VEGF secretion and suppressed in vitro angiogenesis in a concentration-dependent manner. GA downregulated AKT phosphorylation as well as HIF-1α expression but promoted PTEN expression. The luciferase assay results suggest that the PTEN/AKT/HIF-1α pathway accounts for the inhibitory effect of GA on VEGF expression and in vitro angiogenesis. These findings provide strong support for the high potential of GA in the prevention and therapy of ovarian cancer. PMID:26530725

  18. Organoselenium coating on cellulose inhibits the formation of biofilms by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phat L; Hammond, Adrienne A; Mosley, Thomas; Cortez, Janette; Gray, Tracy; Colmer-Hamood, Jane A; Shashtri, Mayank; Spallholz, Julian E; Hamood, Abdul N; Reid, Ted W

    2009-06-01

    Among the most difficult bacterial infections encountered in treating patients are wound infections, which may occur in burn victims, patients with traumatic wounds, necrotic lesions in people with diabetes, and patients with surgical wounds. Within a wound, infecting bacteria frequently develop biofilms. Many current wound dressings are impregnated with antimicrobial agents, such as silver or antibiotics. Diffusion of the agent(s) from the dressing may damage or destroy nearby healthy tissue as well as compromise the effectiveness of the dressing. In contrast, the antimicrobial agent selenium can be covalently attached to the surfaces of a dressing, prolonging its effectiveness. We examined the effectiveness of an organoselenium coating on cellulose discs in inhibiting Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation. Colony biofilm assays revealed that cellulose discs coated with organoselenium completely inhibited P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilm formation. Scanning electron microscopy of the cellulose discs confirmed these results. Additionally, the coating on the cellulose discs was stable and effective after a week of incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. These results demonstrate that 0.2% selenium in a coating on cellulose discs effectively inhibits bacterial attachment and biofilm formation and that, unlike other antimicrobial agents, longer periods of exposure to an aqueous environment do not compromise the effectiveness of the coating.

  19. Antiangiogenic activity of 2-formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lam, K-H; Lee, K K-H; Kok, S H-L; Wong, R S-M; Lau, F-Y; Cheng, G Y-M; Wong, W-Y; Tong, S-W; Chan, K-W; Chan, R Y-K; Tang, J C-O; Cheng, C-H; Hau, D K-P; Bian, Z-X; Gambari, R; Chui, C-H

    2016-05-01

    Tumour growth is closely related to the development of new blood vessels to supply oxygen and nutrients to cancer cells. Without the neovascular formation, tumour volumes cannot increase and undergo metastasis. Antiangiogenesis is one of the most promising approaches for antitumour therapy. The exploration of new antiangiogenic agents would be helpful in antitumour therapy. Quinoline is an aromatic nitrogen compound characterized by a double-ring structure which exhibits a benzene ring fused to pyridine at two adjacent carbon atoms. The high stability of quinoline makes it preferable in a variety of therapeutic and pharmaceutical applications, including antitumour treatment. This work is to examine the potential antiangiogenic activity of the synthetic compound 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride. We found that 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could inhibit the growth of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. Using the diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinogenesis model, 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride showed strong antiangiogenic activity. Furthermore, 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could inhibit the growth of large Hep3B xenografted tumour from the nude mice. We assume that 2-Formyl-8-hydroxy-quinolinium chloride could be a potential antiangiogenic and antitumour agent and it is worthwhile to further study its underlying working mechanism. PMID:27133051

  20. Modeling the effect of oxygen on the amperometric response of immobilized organoselenium-based S-nitrosothiol sensors.

    PubMed

    Höfler, Lajos; Meyerhoff, Mark E

    2011-01-15

    Amperometric detection of S-nitrosothiols (RSNOs) at submicromolar levels in blood samples is of potential importance for monitoring endothelial function and other disease states that involve changes in physiological nitric oxide (NO) production. It is shown here that the elimination of dissolved oxygen from samples is critical when covalently attached diselenocystamine-based amperometric RSNO sensors are used for practical RSNO measurements. The newest generation of RSNO sensors utilizes an amperometric NO gas sensor with a thin organoselenium modified dialysis membrane mounted at the distal sensing tip. Sample RSNOs are catalytically reduced to NO within the dialysis membrane by the immobilized organoselenium species. In the presence of oxygen, the sensitivity of these sensors for measuring low levels of RSNOs (<μM) is greatly reduced. It is demonstrated that the main scavenger of the generated nitric oxide is not the dissolved oxygen but rather superoxide anion radical generated from the reaction of the reduced organoselenium species (the reactive species in the catalytic redox cycle) and dissolved oxygen. Computer simulations of the response of the RSNO sensor using rate constants and diffusion coefficients for the reactions involved, known from the literature or estimated from fitting to the observed amperometric response curves, as well as the specific geometric dimensions of the RSNO sensor, further support that nitric oxide and superoxide anion radical quickly react resulting in near zero sensor sensitivity toward RSNO concentrations in the submicromolar concentration range. Elimination of oxygen from samples helps improve sensor detection limits to ca. 10 nM levels of RSNOs.

  1. Synthesis and antiangiogenic activity of new silybin galloyl esters.

    PubMed

    Gažák, Radek; Valentová, Kateřina; Fuksová, Kateřina; Marhol, Petr; Kuzma, Marek; Medina, Miguel Ángel; Oborná, Ivana; Ulrichová, Jitka; Křen, Vladimír

    2011-10-27

    The synthesis of various silybin monogalloyl esters was developed, and their antiangiogenic activities were evaluated in a variety of in vitro tests with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). A structure-activity relationship (SAR) study found the regioselectivity of the silybin galloylation to be highly significant. Silybin (as an equimolar mixture of two diastereomers A and B) exhibited quite poor antiangiogenic activities, whereas its B stereoisomer is more active than silybin A. The galloylation of phenolic OH groups of natural silybin (a mixture of both isomers) leads to increases in their antiangiogenic activities, which is more apparent with the 7-OH than the 20-OH. In contrast, gallates at aliphatic OH groups either had a comparable activity to the parent compound or are even worse than silybin, which was observed in the case of 3-O-galloylsilybin. The most effective compound from this series (7-O-galloylsilybin) has also been prepared from stereochemically pure silybins A and B to evaluate the effect of stereochemistry on the activity. As with silybin itself, the B isomer of 7-O-galloylsilybin was more active than the A isomer.

  2. Generic Nitric Oxide (NO) Generating Surface by Immobilizing Organoselenium Species via Layer-by-Layer Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun; Welby, Jenna L.; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    A universal nitric oxide (NO) generating surface is assembled via Layer-by-Layer (LbL) deposition of sodium alginate (Alg) and organoselenium modified polyethyleneimine (SePEI) on quartz and polymeric substrates. The immobilized SePEI species is capable of catalytically decomposing S-nitrosothiol species (RSNO) to NO in the presence of thiol reducing agents (e.g., glutathione, cysteine, etc.). The stepwise buildup of the multilayer films is monitored by UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM and surface contact angle measurements. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to study the stoichiometry between the polyanion and polycation, and also the presence of Se in the catalytic LbL film. A reductive annealing process is necessary to improve the stability of freshly coated multilayer films via chain rearrangement. Chemiluminescence measurements illustrate the ability of the LbL films to generate NO from S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) in the presence of S-glutathione (GSH). Enhanced NO fluxes can be achieved by increasing the number of catalytic (SePEI/Alg) bilayers coated on the substrates. Nitric oxide generation is observed even after prolonged contact with sheep whole blood. Preliminary applications of this LbL on silicone rubber tubings and polyurethane catheters reveal similar NO generation behavior from these biomedical grade polymeric substrates. PMID:18710268

  3. Antiangiogenic Steroids in Human Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pietras, Richard J; Weinberg, Olga K

    2005-03-01

    Despite advances in the early detection of tumors and in the use of chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery for disease management, the worldwide mortality from human cancer remains unacceptably high. The treatment of cancer may benefit from the introduction of novel therapies derived from natural products. Natural products have served to provide a basis for many of the pharmaceutical agents in current use in cancer therapy. Emerging research indicates that progressive growth and spread of many solid tumors depends, in part, on the formation of an adequate blood supply, and this process of tumor-associated angiogenesis is reported to have prognostic significance in several human cancers. This review focuses on the potential application in antitumor therapy of naturally-occurring steroids that target tumor-associated angiogenesis. Squalamine, a 7,24 dihydroxylated 24-sulfated cholestane steroid conjugated to a spermidine at position C-3, is known to have strong antiangiogenic activity in vitro, and it significantly disrupts tumor proliferation and progression in laboratory studies. Work on the interactions of squalamine with vascular endothelial cells indicate that it binds with cell membranes, inhibits the membrane Na(+)/H(+) exchanger and may further function as a calmodulin chaperone. These primary actions appear to promote inhibition of several vital steps in angiogenesis, such as blockade of mitogen-induced actin polymerization, cell-cell adhesion and cell migration, leading to suppression of endothelial cell proliferation. Preclinical studies with squalamine have shown additive benefits in tumor growth delay when squalamine is combined with cisplatin, paclitaxel, cyclophosphamide, genistein or radiation therapy. This compound has also been assessed in early phase clinical trials in cancer; squalamine was found to exhibit little systemic toxicity and was generally well tolerated by treated patients with various solid tumor malignancies, including ovarian, non

  4. Organoselenium Small Molecules and Chromium(III) Complexes for Intervention in Chronic Low-grade Inflammation and Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Xu, Huibi; Huang, Kaixun

    2016-01-01

    There is growing evidence to suggest that chronic, low-grade inflammation occurs in abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus and related complications, and that proinflammatory cytokines play an important role in the onset and progression of type 2 diabetes. These findings consequently provide new opportunities for the use of anti-inflammatory strategies to correct the metabolic disorders. Discovery of new synthetic bioactive small molecules to interfere with chronic, low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes has attracted considerable attention in medicinal chemistry. To date, a number of organoselenium small molecules and chromium(III) complexes have been shown to have the potential to alleviate chronic low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes, including ebselen, selenomethionine, chromium picolinate, chromium dinicocysteinate, chromium phenylalaninate, trinuclear chromium propionate, chromium histidinate, chromium nicotinate, etc. Here, we review recent advances in development of organoselenium small molecules and chromium(III) complexes to intervene in chronic low-grade inflammation and type 2 diabetes, and discuss their mode of action, potential molecular mechanisms and toxicity.

  5. [Biological activity of selenorganic compounds at heavy metal salts intoxication].

    PubMed

    Rusetskaya, N Y; Borodulin, V B

    2015-01-01

    Possible mechanisms of the antitoxic action of organoselenium compounds in heavy metal poisoning have been considered. Heavy metal toxicity associated with intensification of free radical oxidation, suppression of the antioxidant system, damage to macromolecules, mitochondria and the genetic material can cause apoptotic cell death or the development of carcinogenesis. Organic selenium compounds are effective antioxidants during heavy metal poisoning; they exhibit higher bioavailability in mammals than inorganic ones and they are able to activate antioxidant defense, bind heavy metal ions and reactive oxygen species formed during metal-induced oxidative stress. One of promising organoselenium compounds is diacetophenonyl selenide (DAPS-25), which is characterized by antioxidant and antitoxic activity, under conditions including heavy metal intoxication.

  6. Treatment with Antiangiogenic Drugs in Multiple Lines in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Hofheinz, R-D; Ronellenfitsch, U; Kubicka, S; Falcone, A; Burkholder, I; Hacker, U T

    2016-01-01

    Background. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), continuing antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression might provide clinical benefit. We synthesized the available evidence in a meta-analysis. Patients and Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the use of antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression. Eligible studies were randomized phase II/III trials. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were the impact of continuing antiangiogenic drugs (i) in subgroups, (ii) in different types of compounds targeting the VEGF-axis (monoclonal antibodies versus tyrosine kinase inhibitors), and (iii) on remission rates and prevention of progression. Results. Eight studies (3,668 patients) were included. Continuing antiangiogenic treatment beyond progression significantly improved PFS (HR 0.64; 95%-CI, 0.55-0.75) and OS (HR 0.83; 95%-CI, 0.76-0.89). PFS was significantly improved in all subgroups with comparable HR. OS was improved in all subgroups stratified by age, gender, and ECOG status. The rate of patients achieving at least stable disease was improved with an OR of 2.25 (95%-CI, 1.41-3.58). Conclusions. This analysis shows a significant PFS and OS benefit as well as a benefit regarding disease stabilization when using antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression in mCRC. Future studies should focus on the optimal sequence of administering antiangiogenic drugs. PMID:27656206

  7. Treatment with Antiangiogenic Drugs in Multiple Lines in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kubicka, S.; Falcone, A.; Burkholder, I.; Hacker, U. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), continuing antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression might provide clinical benefit. We synthesized the available evidence in a meta-analysis. Patients and Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the use of antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression. Eligible studies were randomized phase II/III trials. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were the impact of continuing antiangiogenic drugs (i) in subgroups, (ii) in different types of compounds targeting the VEGF-axis (monoclonal antibodies versus tyrosine kinase inhibitors), and (iii) on remission rates and prevention of progression. Results. Eight studies (3,668 patients) were included. Continuing antiangiogenic treatment beyond progression significantly improved PFS (HR 0.64; 95%-CI, 0.55–0.75) and OS (HR 0.83; 95%-CI, 0.76–0.89). PFS was significantly improved in all subgroups with comparable HR. OS was improved in all subgroups stratified by age, gender, and ECOG status. The rate of patients achieving at least stable disease was improved with an OR of 2.25 (95%-CI, 1.41–3.58). Conclusions. This analysis shows a significant PFS and OS benefit as well as a benefit regarding disease stabilization when using antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression in mCRC. Future studies should focus on the optimal sequence of administering antiangiogenic drugs. PMID:27656206

  8. Treatment with Antiangiogenic Drugs in Multiple Lines in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kubicka, S.; Falcone, A.; Burkholder, I.; Hacker, U. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), continuing antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression might provide clinical benefit. We synthesized the available evidence in a meta-analysis. Patients and Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the use of antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression. Eligible studies were randomized phase II/III trials. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were the impact of continuing antiangiogenic drugs (i) in subgroups, (ii) in different types of compounds targeting the VEGF-axis (monoclonal antibodies versus tyrosine kinase inhibitors), and (iii) on remission rates and prevention of progression. Results. Eight studies (3,668 patients) were included. Continuing antiangiogenic treatment beyond progression significantly improved PFS (HR 0.64; 95%-CI, 0.55–0.75) and OS (HR 0.83; 95%-CI, 0.76–0.89). PFS was significantly improved in all subgroups with comparable HR. OS was improved in all subgroups stratified by age, gender, and ECOG status. The rate of patients achieving at least stable disease was improved with an OR of 2.25 (95%-CI, 1.41–3.58). Conclusions. This analysis shows a significant PFS and OS benefit as well as a benefit regarding disease stabilization when using antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression in mCRC. Future studies should focus on the optimal sequence of administering antiangiogenic drugs.

  9. First Synthesis of the Antiangiogenic Homoisoflavanone, Cremastranone

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bit; Basavarajappa, Halesha D.; Sulaiman, Rania S.; Fei, Xiang; Seo, Seung-Yong; Corson, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    An antiangiogenic homoisoflavanone, cremastranone, was synthesized for the first time. This scalable synthesis, which includes selective demethylation, could be used to develop lead molecules to treat angiogenesis-induced eye diseases. Synthetic cremastranone inhibited the proliferation, migration and tube formation ability of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, important steps in pathological angiogenesis. PMID:25167470

  10. Synthesis and Antiangiogenic Activity of N-Alkylated Levamisole Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Sylvest, Lene; Friis, Tina; Staerk, Dan; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen; Olsen, Christian A.; Houen, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising addition to current cancer treatment strategies. Neutralization of vascular endothelial growth factor by monoclonal antibodies is clinically effective but may cause side effects due to thrombosis. Low molecular weight angiogenesis inhibitors are currently less effective than antibody treatment and are also associated with serious side effects. The discovery of new chemotypes with efficient antiangiogenic activity is therefore of pertinent interest. (S)-Levamisole hydrochloride, an anthelminthic drug approved for human use and with a known clinical profile, was recently shown to be an inhibitor of angiogenesis in vitro and exhibited tumor growth inhibition in mice. Here we describe the synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a series of N-alkylated analogues of levamisole with the aim of characterizing structure–activity relationships with regard to inhibition of angiogenesis. N-Methyllevamisole and p-bromolevamisole proved more effective than the parent compound, (S)-levamisole hydrochloride, with respect to inhibition of angiogenesis and induction of undifferentiated cluster morphology in human umbilical vein endothelial cells grown in co-culture with normal human dermal fibroblasts. Interestingly, the cluster morphology caused by N-methyllevamisole was different than the clusters observed for levamisole, and a third “cord-like” morphology resembling that of the known drug suramin was observed for an aniline-containing derivative. New chemotypes exhibiting antiangiogenic effects in vitro are thus described, and further investigation of their underlying mechanism of action is warranted. PMID:23024819

  11. Tumor angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapy.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Yoshiaki

    2012-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy is an anti-cancer strategy that targets the new vessels that grow to provide oxygen and nutrients to actively proliferating tumor cells. Most of the current anti-cancer reagents used in the clinical setting indiscriminately target all rapidly dividing cells, resulting in severe adverse effects such as immunosuppression, intestinal problems and hair loss. In comparison, anti-angiogenic reagents theoretically have fewer side effects because, except in the uterine endometrium, neoangiogenesis rarely occurs in healthy adults. Currently, the most established approach for limiting tumor angiogenesis is blockade of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway. In line with the results of preclinical studies, significant therapeutic effects of VEGF blockers have been reported in various types of human cancers, even in patients with progressive/recurrent cancer who could not otherwise be treated. However, some patients are refractory to this treatment or acquire resistance to VEGF inhibitors. Moreover, several studies have shown that VEGF blockade damages healthy vessels and results in adverse effects such as hemorrhagic and thrombotic events. In recent research that indicated possible ways to overcome these problems, several VEGF-independent and tumor-selective pro-angiogenic mechanisms were discovered that could be targeted in combination with or without conventional VEGF blockade. These findings offer opportunities to greatly improve current anti-angiogenic treatment for cancer.

  12. Anti-angiogenic Activity and Mechanism of Sesquiterpene Lactones from Centipeda minima.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weihuan; Yu, Xiaobin; Liang, Ning; Ge, Wei; Kwok, Hin Fai; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Li, Yaolan; Chung, Hau Yin

    2016-04-01

    Centipeda minima is a Chinese herbal medicine used in the treatment of various diseases including cancer. An ethanol extract of the herb, its four fractions with different polarities, and two volatile oils prepared by steam distillation (SD) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) were investigated for their anti-angiogenic activity in a wild-type zebrafish model using a quantitative endogenous alkaline phosphatase (EAP) assay. The SFE oil displayed potent anti-angiogenic activity. Fifteen sesquiterpene lactones (SLs; compounds 1-15) isolated from the SFE oil were evaluated for their anti-angiogenic effect. Results revealed that pseudoguaianolide type SLs (1-8) inhibited vessel formation in the zebrafish embryos while guaianolide type SLs (9-15) showed little effect. Among the active ones, 6-O-angeloylenolin (1), a major component of SFE oil, possessed the strongest effect by reducing vessel formation in zebrafish embryos to 40% of the control value at 29.7 µM. Further study using the Tg (fli1a:EGFP) y1-type zebrafish model revealed that it blocked both intersegmental blood vessels (ISVs) and subintestinal vessels plexus (SIVs) formation in zebrafish embryos. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay on the wild-type zebrafish embryos suggested that 6-O-angeloylenolin affected multiple molecular targets related to angiogenesis including VEGF receptor, angiopoietin, and its receptors. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that C. minima possesses anti-angiogenic activity, and 6-O-angeloylenolin is a promising candidate for the development of an anti-angiogenic agent. PMID:27396185

  13. The anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effect of the methanol extract from brittle star

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Mousavi, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anti-angiogenic therapy is a crucial step in cancer treatment. The discovery of new anti-angiogenic compounds from marine organisms has become an attractive concept in anti-cancer therapy. Because little data correlated to the pro- and anti-angiogenic efficacies of Ophiuroidea, which include brittle star, the current study was designed to explore the anti-angiogenic potential of brittle star methanol extract in vitro and in vivo. Methods: The anti-proliferative effect of brittle star extract on A2780cp cells was examined by MTT assays, and transcriptional expression of VEGF and b-FGF was evaluated by RT-PCR. In an in vivo model, 40 fertilized Ross eggs were divided into control and three experimental groups. The experimental groups were incubated with brittle star extract at concentrations of 25, 50 and 100 µg/ml, and photographed by photo-stereomicroscopy. Ultimately, numbers and lengths of vessels were measured by Image J software. Data were analyzed with SPSS software (p<0.05). Results: Results illustrated that the brittle star extract exerted a dose- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect on A2780cp cancer cells. In addition, VEGF and b-FGF expression decreased with brittle star methanol extract treatment. Macroscopic evaluations revealed significant changes in the second and third experimental group compared to controls (p<0.05). Conclusion: These finding revealed the anti-angiogenic effects of brittle star methanol extract in vitro and in vivo confer novel insight into the application of natural marine products in angiogenesis-related pathologies. PMID:26989740

  14. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the anti-angiogenic actions of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Laschke, MW; van Oijen, AE Vorsterman; Scheuer, C; Menger, MD

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE 4-Hydroxybenzyl alcohol (HBA) is a phenolic plant compound, which has been shown to influence many cellular mechanisms. In the present study, we analysed in vitro and in vivo the anti-angiogenic actions of this pleiotropic agent. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Migration and protein expression of HBA- and vehicle-treated endothelial-like eEND2 cells was assessed by cell migration assay and Western blot analyses. HBA action on vascular sprouting was analysed in an aortic ring assay. In vivo anti-angiogenic actions of HBA were studied in the dorsal skinfold chamber model of endometriosis in mice. KEY RESULTS Western blot analyses demonstrated that HBA inhibited proliferation of eEND2 cells, as indicated by down-regulation of proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, and reduced expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase 9. HBA suppressed the migration of eEND2 cells, accompanied by inhibition of actin filament reorganization, revealed by fluorescence staining of the cytoskeleton. In addition, HBA reduced vascular sprouting in the aortic ring assay. Finally, we found, in the dorsal skinfold chamber model in vivo using intravital fluorescence microscopy, that HBA inhibited the vascularization of developing endometriotic lesions, as indicated by a decreased functional capillary density of lesions in HBA-treated mice and a reduced lesion size, compared with control animals. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS HBA targets several angiogenic mechanisms and therefore represents a promising anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of angiogenic diseases, such as endometriosis. PMID:21366552

  15. Dual-targeting anti-angiogenic cyclic peptides as potential drug leads for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Lai Yue; Craik, David J.; Daly, Norelle L.

    2016-01-01

    Peptide analogues derived from bioactive hormones such as somatostatin or certain growth factors have great potential as angiogenesis inhibitors for cancer applications. In an attempt to combat emerging drug resistance many FDA-approved anti-angiogenesis therapies are co-administered with cytotoxic drugs as a combination therapy to target multiple signaling pathways of cancers. However, cancer therapies often encounter limiting factors such as high toxicities and side effects. Here, we combined two anti-angiogenic epitopes that act on different pathways of angiogenesis into a single non-toxic cyclic peptide framework, namely MCoTI-II (Momordica cochinchinensis trypsin inhibitor-II), and subsequently assessed the anti-angiogenic activity of the novel compound. We hypothesized that the combination of these two epitopes would elicit a synergistic effect by targeting different angiogenesis pathways and result in improved potency, compared to that of a single epitope. This novel approach has resulted in the development of a potent, non-toxic, stable and cyclic analogue with nanomolar potency inhibition in in vitro endothelial cell migration and in vivo chorioallantoic membrane angiogenesis assays. This is the first report to use the MCoTI-II framework to develop a 2-in-1 anti-angiogenic peptide, which has the potential to be used as a form of combination therapy for targeting a wide range of cancers. PMID:27734947

  16. Anti-angiogenic peptides for cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Rosca, Elena V; Koskimaki, Jacob E; Rivera, Corban G; Pandey, Niranjan B; Tamiz, Amir P; Popel, Aleksander S

    2011-08-01

    Peptides have emerged as important therapeutics that are being rigorously tested in angiogenesis-dependent diseases due to their low toxicity and high specificity. Since the discovery of endogenous proteins and protein fragments that inhibit microvessel formation (thrombospondin, endostatin) several peptides have shown promise in pre-clinical and clinical studies for cancer. Peptides have been derived from thrombospondin, collagens, chemokines, coagulation cascade proteins, growth factors, and other classes of proteins and target different receptors. Here we survey recent developments for anti-angiogenic peptides with length not exceeding 50 amino acid residues that have shown activity in pre-clinical models of cancer or have been tested in clinical trials; some of the peptides have been modified and optimized, e.g., through L-to-D and non-natural amino acid substitutions. We highlight technological advances in peptide discovery and optimization including computational and bioinformatics tools and novel experimental techniques.

  17. Therapeutic application of anti-angiogenic nanomaterials in cancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Patra, Chitta Ranjan

    2016-06-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, plays a vital role in physiological and pathological processes (embryonic development, wound healing, tumor growth and metastasis). The overall balance of angiogenesis inside the human body is maintained by pro- and anti-angiogenic signals. The processes by which drugs inhibit angiogenesis as well as tumor growth are called the anti-angiogenesis technique, a most promising cancer treatment strategy. Over the last couple of decades, scientists have been developing angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of cancers. However, conventional anti-angiogenic therapy has several limitations including drug resistance that can create problems for a successful therapeutic strategy. Therefore, a new comprehensive treatment strategy using antiangiogenic agents for the treatment of cancer is urgently needed. Recently researchers have been developing and designing several nanoparticles that show anti-angiogenic properties. These nanomedicines could be useful as an alternative strategy for the treatment of various cancers using anti-angiogenic therapy. In this review article, we critically focus on the potential application of anti-angiogenic nanomaterial and nanoparticle based drug/siRNA/peptide delivery systems in cancer therapeutics. We also discuss the basic and clinical perspectives of anti-angiogenesis therapy, highlighting its importance in tumor angiogenesis, current status and future prospects and challenges.Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vasculature, plays a vital role in physiological and pathological processes (embryonic development, wound healing, tumor growth and metastasis). The overall balance of angiogenesis inside the human body is maintained by pro- and anti-angiogenic signals. The processes by which drugs inhibit angiogenesis as well as tumor growth are called the anti-angiogenesis technique, a most promising cancer treatment strategy. Over the

  18. Antiproliferative and Antiangiogenic Effects of Punica granatum Juice (PGJ) in Multiple Myeloma (MM)

    PubMed Central

    Tibullo, Daniele; Caporarello, Nunzia; Giallongo, Cesarina; Anfuso, Carmelina Daniela; Genovese, Claudia; Arlotta, Carmen; Puglisi, Fabrizio; Parrinello, Nunziatina L.; Bramanti, Vincenzo; Romano, Alessandra; Lupo, Gabriella; Toscano, Valeria; Avola, Roberto; Brundo, Maria Violetta; Di Raimondo, Francesco; Raccuia, Salvatore Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a clonal B-cell malignancy characterized by an accumulation of clonal plasma cells (PC) in the bone marrow (BM) leading to bone destruction and BM failure. Despite recent advances in pharmacological therapy, MM remains a largely incurable pathology. Therefore, novel effective and less toxic agents are urgently necessary. In the last few years, pomegranate has been studied for its potential therapeutic properties including treatment and prevention of cancer. Pomegranate juice (PGJ) contains a number of potential active compounds including organic acids, vitamins, sugars, and phenolic components that are all responsible of the pro-apoptotic effects observed in tumor cell line. The aim of present investigation is to assess the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic potential of the PGJ in human multiple myeloma cell lines. Our data demonstrate the anti-proliferative potential of PGJ in MM cells; its ability to induce G0/G1 cell cycle block and its anti-angiogenic effects. Interestingly, sequential combination of bortezomib/PGJ improved the cytotoxic effect of the proteosome inhibitor. We investigated the effect of PGJ on angiogenesis and cell migration/invasion. Interestingly, we observed an inhibitory effect on the tube formation, microvessel outgrowth aorting ring and decreased cell migration and invasion as showed by wound-healing and transwell assays, respectively. Analysis of angiogenic genes expression in endothelial cells confirmed the anti-angiogenic properties of pomegranate. Therefore, PGJ administration could represent a good tool in order to identify novel therapeutic strategies for MM treatment, exploiting its anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic effects. Finally, the present research supports the evidence that PGJ could play a key role of a future therapeutic approach for treatment of MM in order to optimize the pharmacological effect of bortezomib, especially as adjuvant after treatment. PMID:27706074

  19. A Novel Organo-Selenium Bandage that Inhibits Biofilm Development in a Wound by Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Wound Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Tran, Phat L; Patel, Saurabh; Hamood, Abdul N; Enos, Tyler; Mosley, Thomas; Jarvis, Courtney; Desai, Akash; Lin, Pamela; Reid, Ted W

    2014-01-01

    Biofilm formation in wounds is a serious problem which inhibits proper wound healing. One possible contributor to biofilm formation in a wound is the bacteria growing within the overlying bandage. To test this mechanism, we used bandages that contained a coating of organo-selenium that was covalently attached to the bandage. We tested the ability of this coating to kill bacteria on the bandage and in the underlying tissue. The bandage material was tested with both lab strains and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis. It was found that the organo-selenium coated bandage showed inhibition, of biofilm formation on the bandage in vitro (7-8 logs), with all the different bacteria tested, at selenium concentrations in the coating of less than 1.0%. These coatings were found to remain stable for over one month in aqueous solution, 15 min in boiling water, and over 6 years at room temperature. The bandages were also tested on a mouse wound model where the bacteria were injected between the bandage and the wound. Not only did the selenium bandage inhibit biofilm formation in the bandage, but it also inhibited biofilm formation in the wound tissue. Since selenium does not leave the bandage, this would appear to support the idea that a major player in wound biofilm formation is bacteria which grows in the overlying bandage.

  20. Escaping Antiangiogenic Therapy: Strategies Employed by Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Mauricio P.; Sotomayor, Paula; Carrasco-Avino, Gonzalo; Corvalan, Alejandro H.; Owen, Gareth I.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is widely recognized as one of the “hallmarks of cancer”. Consequently, during the last decades the development and testing of commercial angiogenic inhibitors has been a central focus for both basic and clinical cancer research. While antiangiogenic drugs are now incorporated into standard clinical practice, as with all cancer therapies, tumors can eventually become resistant by employing a variety of strategies to receive nutrients and oxygen in the event of therapeutic assault. Herein, we concentrate and review in detail three of the principal mechanisms of antiangiogenic therapy escape: (1) upregulation of compensatory/alternative pathways for angiogenesis; (2) vasculogenic mimicry; and (3) vessel co-option. We suggest that an understanding of how a cancer cell adapts to antiangiogenic therapy may also parallel the mechanisms employed in the bourgeoning tumor and isolated metastatic cells delivering responsible for residual disease. Finally, we speculate on strategies to adapt antiangiogenic therapy for future clinical uses. PMID:27608016

  1. Escaping Antiangiogenic Therapy: Strategies Employed by Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Mauricio P; Sotomayor, Paula; Carrasco-Avino, Gonzalo; Corvalan, Alejandro H; Owen, Gareth I

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is widely recognized as one of the "hallmarks of cancer". Consequently, during the last decades the development and testing of commercial angiogenic inhibitors has been a central focus for both basic and clinical cancer research. While antiangiogenic drugs are now incorporated into standard clinical practice, as with all cancer therapies, tumors can eventually become resistant by employing a variety of strategies to receive nutrients and oxygen in the event of therapeutic assault. Herein, we concentrate and review in detail three of the principal mechanisms of antiangiogenic therapy escape: (1) upregulation of compensatory/alternative pathways for angiogenesis; (2) vasculogenic mimicry; and (3) vessel co-option. We suggest that an understanding of how a cancer cell adapts to antiangiogenic therapy may also parallel the mechanisms employed in the bourgeoning tumor and isolated metastatic cells delivering responsible for residual disease. Finally, we speculate on strategies to adapt antiangiogenic therapy for future clinical uses. PMID:27608016

  2. Modulation of Immunity by Antiangiogenic Molecules in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Terme, Magali; Colussi, Orianne; Marcheteau, Elie; Tanchot, Corinne; Tartour, Eric; Taieb, Julien

    2012-01-01

    In the last decades a new class of therapeutic drugs have been developed that block tumor angiogenesis. These antiangiogenic molecules, which target VEGF or VEGFR, PDGFR, and c-kit, can act not only on endothelial cells but also on immune cells. Some antiangiogenic molecules inhibit the development of immunosuppressive mechanisms developed by the tumors to escape the immune system (such as regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, and immunosuppressive cytokines). These immunomodulatory effects must be characterized in detail to enable a better prescription of these treatments. In this paper we will focus on the impact of anti-angiogenic drugs on immunosuppression and their potential combination with immunotherapeutic strategies. Interestingly, immune parameters or their modulation during treatment could serve as potential biomarkers of response or resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:23320019

  3. ZLM-7 exhibits anti-angiogenic effects via impaired endothelial cell function and blockade of VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min; Huang, Jingjia; Li, Jijia; Qin, Xiyuan; Tang, Xiaoning; Jin, Fang; Chen, Shali; Jiang, Chuanming; Zou, Zizheng; Peng, Kunjian; Nuruzzaman, Mohammed; Zhang, Jianting; Luo, Junli; Liu, Suyou; Luo, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is a promising therapeutic strategy against cancer. In this study, we reported that ZLM-7, a combretastain A-4 (CA-4) derivative, exhibited anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, ZLM-7 induced microtubule cytoskeletal disassembly. It decreased VEGF-induced proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation in endothelial cells, which are critical steps in angiogenesis. In vivo, ZLM-7 significantly inhibited neovascularization in a chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and reduced the microvessel density in tumor tissues of MCF-7 xenograft mouse model. ZLM-7 also displayed comparable antiangiogenic and anti-tumor activities associated with the lead compound CA-4, but exhibited lower toxicity compared with CA-4. The anti-angiogenic effect of ZLM-7 was exerted via blockade of VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling. ZLM-7 treatment suppressed the expression and secretion of VEGF in endothelial cells and MCF-7 cells under hypoxia. Further, ZLM-7 suppressed the VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling mediators including activated AKT, MEK and ERK in endothelial cells. Overall, these results demonstrate that ZLM-7 exhibits anti-angiogenic activities by impairing endothelial cell function and blocking VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling, suggesting that ZLM-7 might be a potential angiogenesis inhibitor. PMID:26967559

  4. Search for Anti-angiogenic Substances from Natural Sources.

    PubMed

    Kotoku, Naoyuki; Arai, Masayoshi; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2016-01-01

    As angiogenesis is critical for tumor growth and metastasis, potent and selective anti-angiogenic agents with novel modes of action are highly needed for anti-cancer drug discovery. In this review, our studies focusing on the search for anti-angiogenic substances from natural sources, such as bastadins, globostellatic acid X methyl esters and cortistatins from marine sponges, and pyripyropenes from marine-derived fungus, together with senegasaponins from medicinal plant, are summarized. PMID:26833441

  5. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel indolocarbazoles with anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Acero, Nuria; Braña, Miguel F; Añorbe, Loreto; Domínguez, Gema; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores; Mitjans, Francesc; Piulats, Jaume

    2012-02-01

    A novel series of indolocarbazoles were synthesized and their antiproliferative activity against HUVEC, LoVo, DLD-1 and ST-486 cell lines, was investigated. Those staurosporine analogs in which a substituted dimethylaminoalkoxy chain was attached to the indolic nitrogen showed interesting activity and selectivity with respect to HUVEC proliferation. The effect on capillary tube formation in 3-dimensional matrigel matrix was studied using the most active compounds. Evaluation of their in vivo anti-angiogenic activity in a murine Lewis lung cancer model was also analyzed.

  6. New perspectives in glioblastoma antiangiogenic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, Alisa Madalina; Purcaru, Stefana Oana; Alexandru, Oana

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GB) is highly vascularised tumour, known to exhibit enhanced infiltrative potential. One of the characteristics of glioblastoma is microvascular proliferation surrounding necrotic areas, as a response to a hypoxic environment, which in turn increases the expression of angiogenic factors and their signalling pathways (RAS/RAF/ERK/MAPK pathway, PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and WTN signalling cascade). Currently, a small number of anti-angiogenic drugs, extending glioblastoma patients survival, are available for clinical use. Most medications are ineffective in clinical therapy of glioblastoma due to acquired malignant cells or intrinsic resistance, angiogenic receptors cross-activation and redundant intracellular signalling, or the inability of the drug to cross the blood-brain barrier and to reach its target in vivo. Researchers have also observed that GB tumours are different in many aspects, even when they derive from the same tissue, which is the reason for personalised therapy. An understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating glioblastoma angiogenesis and invasion may be important in the future development of curative therapeutic approaches for the treatment of this devastating disease. PMID:27358588

  7. Natural phenolic metabolites with anti-angiogenic properties – a review from the chemical point of view

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qiu; Heilmann, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Summary Considering the many secondary natural metabolites available from plants, phenolic compounds play a particularly important role in human health as they occur in significant amounts in many fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants. In this review natural phenolic compounds of plant origin with significant anti-angiogenic properties are discussed. Thirteen representatives from eight different natural or natural-like phenolic subclasses are presented with an emphasis on their synthesis and methods to modify the parent compounds. When available, the consequence of structural variation on the pharmacological activity of the molecules is described. PMID:25815077

  8. Improvement of in vivo anticancer and antiangiogenic potential of thalidomide derivatives.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Patrícia Marçal; da Costa, Marcilia Pinheiro; Carvalho, Adriana Andrade; Cavalcanti, Suellen Melo Tibúrcio; de Oliveira Cardoso, Marcos Veríssimo; de Oliveira Filho, Gevânio Bezerra; de Araújo Viana, Daniel; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Claudia; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro

    2015-09-01

    The strategy of antiangiogenic drugs is based on inhibiting formation of new blood vessels as alternative to limit cancer progression. In this work, we investigated the antitumor and antiangiogenic potential of eight thalidomide derivatives. Most of the molecules was not cytotoxic but 2a, 2d and 3d revealed weak antiproliferative activity on HL-60, Sarcoma 180 (S180) and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Thalidomide, 2a and 2b were able to inhibit tumor growth (53.5%, 67.9% and 67.4%, respectively) in S180-bearing mice and presented moderate and reversible toxicity on liver, kidneys and spleens. Both analogs (2a and 2b) inhibited cell migration of endothelial (HUVEC) and melanoma cells (MDA/MB-435) at 50μg/mL. Immunohistochemistry labeling assays with CD-31 (PECAM-1) antibody showed microvascular density (MVD) was significantly reduced in thalidomide, 2a and 2b groups (30±4.9, 64.6±1.8 and 46.5±19.5%, respectively) (p<0.05). Neovascularization evaluated by Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay (CAM) with compounds 2a and 2b showed reduction of vessels' number (12. 9±2.3 and 14.8±3.3%), neovascularization area (13.1±1.7 and 14.3±1.7%) and total length of vessels (9.2±1.5 and 9.9±1.9%). On the other hand, thalidomide did not alter vascularization parameters. Consequently, addition of thiosemicarbazone pharmacophore group into the phthalimidic ring improved the in vivo antitumor and antiangiogenic potential of the analogs 2a and 2b.

  9. Improvement of in vivo anticancer and antiangiogenic potential of thalidomide derivatives.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Patrícia Marçal; da Costa, Marcilia Pinheiro; Carvalho, Adriana Andrade; Cavalcanti, Suellen Melo Tibúrcio; de Oliveira Cardoso, Marcos Veríssimo; de Oliveira Filho, Gevânio Bezerra; de Araújo Viana, Daniel; Fechine-Jamacaru, Francisco Vagnaldo; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Pessoa, Claudia; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro

    2015-09-01

    The strategy of antiangiogenic drugs is based on inhibiting formation of new blood vessels as alternative to limit cancer progression. In this work, we investigated the antitumor and antiangiogenic potential of eight thalidomide derivatives. Most of the molecules was not cytotoxic but 2a, 2d and 3d revealed weak antiproliferative activity on HL-60, Sarcoma 180 (S180) and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Thalidomide, 2a and 2b were able to inhibit tumor growth (53.5%, 67.9% and 67.4%, respectively) in S180-bearing mice and presented moderate and reversible toxicity on liver, kidneys and spleens. Both analogs (2a and 2b) inhibited cell migration of endothelial (HUVEC) and melanoma cells (MDA/MB-435) at 50μg/mL. Immunohistochemistry labeling assays with CD-31 (PECAM-1) antibody showed microvascular density (MVD) was significantly reduced in thalidomide, 2a and 2b groups (30±4.9, 64.6±1.8 and 46.5±19.5%, respectively) (p<0.05). Neovascularization evaluated by Chorioallantoic Membrane Assay (CAM) with compounds 2a and 2b showed reduction of vessels' number (12. 9±2.3 and 14.8±3.3%), neovascularization area (13.1±1.7 and 14.3±1.7%) and total length of vessels (9.2±1.5 and 9.9±1.9%). On the other hand, thalidomide did not alter vascularization parameters. Consequently, addition of thiosemicarbazone pharmacophore group into the phthalimidic ring improved the in vivo antitumor and antiangiogenic potential of the analogs 2a and 2b. PMID:26134001

  10. Vaccination approach to anti-angiogenic treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Wentink, Madelon Q; Huijbers, Elisabeth J M; de Gruijl, Tanja D; Verheul, Henk M W; Olsson, Anna-Karin; Griffioen, Arjan W

    2015-04-01

    Improvement of patient survival by anti-angiogenic therapy has proven limited. A vaccination approach inducing an immune response against the tumor vasculature combines the benefits of immunotherapy and anti-angiogenesis, and may overcome the limitations of current anti-angiogenic drugs. Strategies to use whole endothelial cell vaccines and DNA- or protein vaccines against key players in the VEGF signaling axis, as well as specific markers of tumor endothelial cells, have been tested in preclinical studies. Current clinical trials are now testing the promise of this specific anti-cancer vaccination approach. This review will highlight the state-of-the-art in this exciting field of cancer research.

  11. Future options of anti-angiogenic cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yihai

    2016-02-15

    In human patients, drugs that block tumor vessel growth are widely used to treat a variety of cancer types. Many rigorous phase 3 clinical trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits; however, the addition of an anti-angiogenic component to conventional therapeutic modalities has generally produced modest survival benefits for cancer patients. Currently, it is unclear why these clinically available drugs targeting the same angiogenic pathways produce dissimilar effects in preclinical models and human patients. In this article, we discuss possible mechanisms of various anti-angiogenic drugs and the future development of optimized treatment regimens.

  12. Computational systems biology approaches to anti-angiogenic cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Finley, Stacey D; Chu, Liang-Hui; Popel, Aleksander S

    2015-02-01

    Angiogenesis is an exquisitely regulated process that is required for physiological processes and is also important in numerous diseases. Tumors utilize angiogenesis to generate the vascular network needed to supply the cancer cells with nutrients and oxygen, and many cancer drugs aim to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. Anti-angiogenic therapy involves inhibiting multiple cell types, molecular targets, and intracellular signaling pathways. Computational tools are useful in guiding treatment strategies, predicting the response to treatment, and identifying new targets of interest. Here, we describe progress that has been made in applying mathematical modeling and bioinformatics approaches to study anti-angiogenic therapeutics in cancer.

  13. Studies targeting α-glucosidase inhibition, antiangiogenic effects, and lipid modification regulation: background, evaluation, and challenges in the development of food ingredients for therapeutic purposes.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Kiyotaka

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of α-glucosidase inhibitors and their inhibitory effects on the digestion of carbohydrates, promising results have been obtained as to the antidiabetic effects of this family of compounds. Antiangiogenic compounds have been identified that suppress tumor growth via a unique mechanism, confirming that such compounds can act as clinically applicable anticancer agents. Lipid peroxidation and lipid glycation have been suggested to play roles in food deterioration and in the pathophysiology of human diseases such as atherogenesis and diabetes, and antioxidative and antiglycative compounds can potentially be used in the prevention of food deterioration as well as to treat disease. On this basis, this review describes studies of α-glucosidase inhibition by mulberry 1-deoxynojirimycin, antiangiogenic effects of rice bran tocotrienol, and membrane lipid peroxidation/glycation and its inhibitors. These studies are ongoing in our work, with an emphasis on analytical techniques.

  14. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment.

  15. Odisolane, a Novel Oxolane Derivative, and Antiangiogenic Constituents from the Fruits of Mulberry (Morus alba L.).

    PubMed

    Lee, Seoung Rak; Park, Jun Yeon; Yu, Jae Sik; Lee, Sung Ok; Ryu, Ja-Young; Choi, Sang-Zin; Kang, Ki Sung; Yamabe, Noriko; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Mulberry, the fruit of Morus alba L., is known as an edible fruit and commonly used in Chinese medicines as a warming agent and as a sedative, tonic, laxative, odontalgic, expectorant, anthelmintic, and emetic. Systemic investigation of the chemical constituents of M. alba fruits led to the identification of a novel oxolane derivative, (R*)-2-((2S*,3R*)-tetrahydro-2-hydroxy-2-methylfuran-3-yl)propanoic acid (1), namely, odisolane, along with five known heterocyclic compounds (2-6). The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of HR-MS, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and NOESY) data analysis. Compound 1 has a novel skeleton that consists of 8 carbon units with an oxolane ring, which until now has never been identified in natural products. The isolated compounds were subjected to several activity tests to verify their biological function. Among them, compounds 1, 3, and 5 significantly inhibited cord formation in HUVECs. The action mechanism of compound 3, which had the strongest antiangiogenic activity, was mediated by decreasing VEGF, p-Akt, and p-ERK protein expression. These results suggest that compounds isolated from M. alba fruits might be beneficial in antiangiogenesis therapy for cancer treatment. PMID:27115720

  16. The first synthesis of the antiangiogenic homoisoflavanone, cremastranone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bit; Basavarajappa, Halesha D; Sulaiman, Rania S; Fei, Xiang; Seo, Seung-Yong; Corson, Timothy W

    2014-10-21

    An antiangiogenic homoisoflavanone, cremastranone, was synthesized for the first time. This scalable synthesis, which includes selective demethylation, could be used to develop lead molecules to treat angiogenesis-induced eye diseases. Synthetic cremastranone inhibited the proliferation, migration and tube formation ability of human retinal microvascular endothelial cells, important steps in pathological angiogenesis.

  17. Optimal combination of antiangiogenic therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ch’ang, Hui-Ju

    2015-01-01

    The success of sorafenib in prolonging survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) makes therapeutic inhibition of angiogenesis a component of treatment for HCC. To enhance therapeutic efficacy, overcome drug resistance and reduce toxicity, combination of antiangiogenic agents with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or other targeted agents were evaluated. Nevertheless, the use of antiangiogenic therapy remains suboptimal regarding dosage, schedule and duration of therapy. The issue is further complicated by combination antiangiogenesis to other cytotoxic or biologic agents. There is no way to determine which patients are most likely respond to a given form of antiangiogenic therapy. Activation of alternative pathways associated with disease progression in patients undergoing antiangiogenic therapy has also been recognized. There is increasing importance in identifying, validating and standardizing potential response biomarkers for antiangiogenesis therapy for HCC patients. In this review, biomarkers for antiangiogenesis therapy including systemic, circulating, tissue and imaging ones are summarized. The strength and deficit of circulating and imaging biomarkers were further demonstrated by a series of studies in HCC patients receiving radiotherapy with or without thalidomide. PMID:26261692

  18. Sharks: a potential source of antiangiogenic factors and tumor treatments.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jung; Kim, Young

    2002-12-01

    Since angiogenesis is a key feature of tumor growth, inhibiting this process is one way to treat cancer. Cartilage is a natural source of material with strong antiangiogenic activity. This report reviews knowledge of the anticancer properties of shark cartilage and clinical information on drugs such as neovastat and squalamine. Because their entire endoskeleton is composed of cartilage, sharks are thought to be an ideal source of angiogenic and tumor growth inhibitors. Shark cartilage extract has shown antiangiogenic and antitumor activities in animals and humans. The oral administration of cartilage extract was efficacious in reducing angiogenesis. Purified antiangiogenic factors from shark cartilage, such as U-995 and neovastat (AE-941), also showed antiangiogenic and antitumor activity. AE-941 is under phase III clinical investigation. Squalamine, a low molecular weight aminosterol, showed strong antitumor activity when combined with chemotherapeutic materials. The angiogenic tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease 3 (TIMP-3) and tumor suppressor protein (snm23) genes from shark cartilage were cloned and characterized. PMID:14961226

  19. Design of novel artemisinin-like derivatives with cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Soomro, Shahid; Langenberg, Tobias; Mahringer, Anne; Konkimalla, V Badireenath; Horwedel, Cindy; Holenya, Pavlo; Brand, Almut; Cetin, Canan; Fricker, Gert; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter; Conway, Edward M; Jansen, Herwig; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-05-01

    Artemisinins are plant products with a wide range of medicinal applications. Most prominently, artesunate is a well tolerated and effective drug for treating malaria, but is also active against several protozoal and schistosomal infections, and additionally exhibits anti-angiogenic, anti-tumorigenic and anti-viral properties. The array of activities of the artemisinins, and the recent emergence of malaria resistance to artesunate, prompted us to synthesize and evaluate several novel artemisinin-like derivatives. Sixteen distinct derivatives were therefore synthesized and the in vitro cytotoxic effects of each were tested with different cell lines. The in vivo anti-angiogenic properties were evaluated using a zebrafish embryo model. We herein report the identification of several novel artemisinin-like compounds that are easily synthesized, stable at room temperature, may overcome drug-resistance pathways and are more active in vitro and in vivo than the commonly used artesunate. These promising findings raise the hopes of identifying safer and more effective strategies to treat a range of infections and cancer. PMID:20629994

  20. IKKβ Regulates VEGF Expression and Is a Potential Therapeutic Target for Ovarian Cancer as an Antiangiogenic Treatment.

    PubMed

    Kinose, Yasuto; Sawada, Kenjiro; Makino, Hiroshi; Ogura, Tomonori; Mizuno, Tomoko; Suzuki, Noriko; Fujikawa, Tomoyuki; Morii, Eiichi; Nakamura, Koji; Sawada, Ikuko; Toda, Aska; Hashimoto, Kae; Isobe, Aki; Mabuchi, Seiji; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Itai, Akiko; Morishige, Ken-ichirou; Kurachi, Hirohisa; Kimura, Tadashi

    2015-04-01

    The prolongation of progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with advanced ovarian cancer by antiangiogenic therapy has been shown in several clinical trials. However, although an anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab) is the only option currently available, its efficacy is limited and it is not cost effective for use in all patients. Therefore, the development of a novel antiangiogenic drug, especially composed of small-molecule compounds, could be a powerful armament for ovarian cancer treatment. As NF-κB signaling has the potential to regulate VEGF expression, we determined to identify whether VEGF expression is associated with NF-κB activation and to investigate the possibility of a novel IKKβ inhibitor, IMD-0354 (IMMD Inc.), as an antiangiogenic drug. Tissue microarrays from 94 ovarian cancer tissues were constructed and immunohistochemical analyses performed. We revealed that IKK phosphorylation is an independent prognostic factor (PFS: 26.1 vs. 49.8 months, P = 0.011), and is positively correlated with high VEGF expression. In in vitro analyses, IMD-0354 robustly inhibited adhesive and invasive activities of ovarian cancer cells without impairing cell viabilities. IMD-0354 significantly suppressed VEGF production from cancer cells, which led to the inhibition of angiogenesis. In a xenograft model, the treatment of IMD-0354 significantly inhibited peritoneal dissemination with a marked reduction of intratumoral blood vessel formation followed by the inhibition of VEGF expression from cancer cells. IMD-0354 is a stable small-molecule drug and has already been administered safely to humans in other trials. Antiangiogenic therapy targeting IKKβ is a potential future option to treat ovarian cancer. PMID:25637316

  1. Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Kahweol, a Coffee Diterpene

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas, Casimiro; Quesada, Ana R.; Medina, Miguel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have shown that unfiltered coffee consumption is associated with a low incidence of cancer. This study aims to identify the effects of kahweol, an antioxidant diterpene contained in unfiltered coffee, on angiogenesis and key inflammatory molecules. Methodology/Principal Findings The experimental procedures included in vivo angiogenesis assays (both the chicken and quail choriallantoic membrane assay and the angiogenesis assay with fluorescent zebrafish), the ex vivo mouse aortic ring assay and the in vitro analysis of the effects of treatment of human endothelial cells with kahweol in cell growth, cell viability, cell migration and zymographic assays, as well as the tube formation assay on Matrigel. Additionally, two inflammation markers were determined, namely, the expression levels of cyclooxygenase 2 and the levels of secreted monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. We show for the first time that kahweol is an anti-angiogenic compound with inhibitory effects in two in vivo and one ex vivo angiogenesis models, with effects on specific steps of the angiogenic process: endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion and tube formation on Matrigel. We also demonstrate the inhibitory effect of kahweol on the endothelial cell potential to remodel extracellular matrix by targeting two key molecules involved in the process, MMP-2 and uPA. Finally, the anti-inflammatory potential of this compound is demonstrated by its inhibition of both COX-2 expression and MCP-1 secretion in endothelial cells. Conclusion/Significance Taken together, our data indicate that, indeed, kahweol behaves as an anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic compound with potential use in antitumoral therapies. These data may contribute to the explanation of the reported antitumoral effects of kahweol, including the recent epidemiological meta-analysis showing that drinking coffee could decrease the risk of certain cancers. PMID:21858104

  2. Evading anti-angiogenic therapy: resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Nandini; De, Pradip; Brian, Leyland-Jones

    2015-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) dependent tumor angiogenesis is an essential step for the initiation and promotion of tumor progression. The hypothesis that VEGF-driven tumor angiogenesis is necessary and sufficient for metastatic progression of the tumor, has been the major premise of the use of anti-VEGF therapy for decades. While the success of anti-VEGF therapy in solid tumors has led to the success of knowledge-based-therapies over the past several years, failures of this therapeutic approach due to the development of inherent/acquired resistance has led to the increased understanding of VEGF-independent angiogenesis. Today, tumor-angiogenesis is not a synonymous term to VEGF-dependent function. The extensive study of VEGF-independent angiogenesis has revealed several key factors responsible for this phenomenon including the role of myeloid cells, and the contribution of entirely new phenomenon like vascular mimicry. In this review, we will present the cellular and molecular factors related to the development of anti-angiogenic resistance following anti-VEGF therapy in different solid tumors. PMID:26692917

  3. Diterpenoids from the roots of Croton crassifolius and their anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Jian; Chung, Hau Yin; Zhang, Yu-Bo; Li, Guo-Qiang; Li, Yao-Lan; Huang, Wei-Huan; Wang, Guo-Cai

    2016-02-01

    Six diterpenoids [crassifolin J, K, L, M, N and O] along with eleven known ones were isolated from the supercritical fluid extract (SFE) of the roots of Croton crassifolius (Euphorbiaceae). Their structures were elucidated using spectroscopic methods (IR, UV, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). The structure and stereochemistry of crassifolin J was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis, and the absolute configurations of crassifolin K-M were determined by CD spectra. Twenty-three diterpenoids from this plant were screened for their anti-angiogenic activity using a wild-type zebrafish in vivo model. Four of the known compounds were active, of which penduliflaworosin possessed the best activity relative to the positive control (SU5416). Further study demonstrated that penduliflaworosin could inhibit vessel formation on Tg(fli1a:EGFP)y1-type zebrafish embryos.

  4. Antiangiogenic properties of cafestol, a coffee diterpene, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuaiyu; Yoon, Yeo Cho; Sung, Mi-Jeong; Hur, Haeng-Jeon; Park, Jae-Ho

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cafestol inhibits tube formation and migration of VEGF-stimulated HUVEC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cafestol inhibits phosphorylation of FAK and Akt. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cafestol decreases NO production. -- Abstract: As angiogenesis plays important roles in tumor growth and metastasis, searching for antiangiogenic compounds is a promising tactic for treating cancers. Cafestol, a diterpene found mainly in unfiltered coffee, provides benefit through varied biological activity, including antitumorigenic, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cafestol on angiogenesis and to uncover the associated mechanism. We show that cafestol inhibits angiogenesis of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells. This inhibition affects the following specific steps of the angiogenic process: proliferation, migration, and tube formation. The inhibitory effects of cafestol are accompanied by decreasing phosphorylation of FAK and Akt and by a decrease in nitric oxide production. Overall, cafestol inhibits angiogenesis by affecting the angiogenic signaling pathway.

  5. Anti-angiogenic properties of ADAMTS-4 in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yi-Ping; Staton, Carolyn A; Cross, Neil; Buttle, David J

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis is an indispensable mechanism in development and in many pathologies, including cancer, synovitis and aberrant wound healing. Many angiogenic stimulators and inhibitors have been investigated, and some have progressed to the clinic. A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) is a group of multifunctional proteinases. ADAMTS-1 and ADAMTS-8 have been reported to be anti-angiogenic. Here, we provide evidence that ADAMTS-4, like ADAMTS-1, is expressed by endothelial cells and binds to vascular endothelial groth factor (VEGF). Moreover, ADAMTS-4 inhibited human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HuDMEC) VEGF-stimulated VEGF receptor (R) R2 phosphorylation, differentiation and migration, suggesting that ADAMTS-4 may be a novel anti-angiogenic molecule. PMID:22264287

  6. [Anti-angiogenic therapies: from theory to practice].

    PubMed

    Bidart, Marie; Berger, François; Pelletier, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    During recent years clear progress has been made in support of tumor pathology. However, the treatment of metastatic disease is now a real therapeutic challenge. Among the new therapeutic strategies, blocking angiogenesis has been the subject of numerous clinical trials. However, if this approach was validated in 2004 by the approval of the first humanized anti-VEGF antibody (bevacizumab or Avastin(®), Roche, 2004), the pre-clinical and clinical studies conducted in the last 5 years have moderated the enthusiasm that these therapies had led in the early 2000s. In November 2011, the US Food and drug administration (FDA) revoke the agency's approval of the breast cancer indication for Avastin(®) because of benefit-risk balance appears negative. This review describes successively the mechanisms of action of antiangiogenic agents, the main anti-angiogenic drugs and the theoretical advantages and practical limitations of these therapies. PMID:24113438

  7. Antiangiogenic activity and direct antitumor effect from a sulfated polysaccharide isolated from seaweed.

    PubMed

    Guerra Dore, Celina Maria P; Faustino Alves, Monique Gabriela C; Santos, Nednaldo D; Cruz, Ana Katarina M; Câmara, Rafael Barros G; Castro, Allisson Jonathan G; Guimarães Alves, Luciana; Nader, Helena B; Leite, Edda Lisboa

    2013-07-01

    Angiogenesis is a dynamic proliferation and differentiation process. It requires endothelial proliferation, migration and tube formation. In this context, endothelial cells are a preferred target for several studies and therapies. Anionic polysaccharides (SV1 and PSV1) from brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were fractionated (SV1), purified (PSV1) and displayed with high total sugars, sulfate content and very low level of protein. The antiangiogenic efficacy of polysaccharides was examined in vivo in the chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model by using fertilized eggs. Decreases in the density of the capillaries were assessed and scored. The results showed that SV1 and PSV1 have an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis. These results were also confirmed by the inhibition of tubulogenesis in rabbit aorta endothelial cell (RAEC) in matrigel. These compounds were assessed in an apoptosis assay (Annexin V-FITC/PI) and cell viability by MTT assay of RAEC. These polysaccharides did not affect the viability and did not have apoptotic or necrotic action. RAEC cell when incubated with SV1and PSV1 showed inhibition of VEGF secretion, observed when compounds were incubated at 25, 50 and 100 μg/μL. The VEGF secretion with the RAEC cell line for 24 h was more effective for PSV1 at 50 μg/μL (71.4%) than for SV1 at 100 μg/μL (75.9%). SV1 and PSV1 had an antiproliferative action (47%) against tumor cell line HeLa. Our results indicate that these sulfated polysaccharides have antiangiogenic and antitumor actions. PMID:23507505

  8. In vitro and ex vivo antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Mostafaie, Ali; Mansouri, Kamran; Bidmeshkipour, Ali; Motlagh, Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Parvaneh, Shahram

    2010-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in the promotion of cancer and its metastasis. Herein, the antiangiogenic activity of Salvia officinalis extract and its fractions was investigated. S. officinalis aerial parts were extracted with ethanol and its successive hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions were evaluated for their antiangiogenic activities using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) capillary tube formation and rat aorta models in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Furthermore, antimigrative effects of the fractions were assessed using a wound healing model. The ethanol extract of S. officinalis (ESO) potently inhibited capillary tube formation in HUVEC and rat aorta models of angiogenesis, and its hexane fraction (HSO) exerted the highest inhibitory effect. In addition, the ethanol extract of S. officinalis and its hexane fraction showed a dose-dependent inhibitory activity on the migration of the endothelial cells in the wound healing model. Furthermore, ESO inhibited endothelial cell proliferation at 50-200 μg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. These findings indicated some new pharmacological activities of S. officinalis such as antiangiogenic in vitro and ex vivo, and antimigrative activity in vitro. Therefore, S. officinalis could be a candidate as a useful herb with therapeutic or preventive activity against angiogenesis related disorders.

  9. Comparison of anti-angiogenic properties of pristine carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicki, Mateusz; Sawosz, Ewa; Grodzik, Marta; Prasek, Marta; Jaworski, Slawomir; Chwalibog, André

    2013-04-01

    Angiogenesis is vital for tumour formation, development and metastasis. Recent reports show that carbon nanomaterials inhibit various angiogenic signalling pathways and, therefore, can be potentially used in anti-angiogenic therapy. In the present study, we compared the effect of different carbon nanomaterials on blood vessel development. Diamond nanoparticles, graphite nanoparticles, graphene nanosheets, multi-wall nanotubes and C60 fullerenes were evaluated for their angiogenic activities using the in ovo chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane model. Diamond nanoparticles and multi-wall nanotubes showed the greatest anti-angiogenic properties. Interestingly, fullerene exhibited the opposite effect, increasing blood vessel development, while graphite nanoparticles and graphene had no effect. Subsequently, protein levels of pro-angiogenic growth factor receptors were analysed, showing that diamond nanoparticles decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor. These results provide new insights into the biological activity of carbon nanomaterials and emphasise the potential use of multi-wall nanotubes and diamond nanoparticles in anti-angiogenic tumour therapy.

  10. Anti-angiogenic peptides identified in thrombospondin type I domains

    SciTech Connect

    Karagiannis, Emmanouil D. . E-mail: ekaragi1@jhmi.edu; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2007-07-20

    Thrombospondin 1, the prototypical protein of the thrombospondin protein family, is a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. Although the effects of the thrombospondin 1 on neovascularization have been well studied, little is known about the anti-angiogenic potency of other proteins or peptide fragments derived from the proteins in this family. Here we identify a set of 18 novel, anti-angiogenic 17- to 20-amino acid peptides that are derived from proteins containing type I thrombospondin motifs. We have named these peptides adamtsostatin-4, adamtsostatin-16, adamtsostatin-18, cartilostatin-1, cartilostatin-2, fibulostatin-6.2, fibulostatin-6.3, papilostatin-1, papilostatin-2, properdistatin, scospondistatin, semastatin-5A.1, semastatin-5A.2, semastatin-5B, thrombostatin containing-1, thrombostatin contaning-3, thrombostatin contaning-6, and wispostatin-1 to reflect their origin. We further demonstrate that these peptides inhibit the proliferation and migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro. The anti-proliferative and anti-migratory properties of the identified peptides may be important in maintaining angiogenic homeostasis in vivo and make these peptides suitable candidates for use as anti-angiogenic pharmaceutical agents in numerous therapeutic applications.

  11. Screening the antiangiogenic activity of medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Zihlif, Malek; Afifi, Fatma; Muhtaseb, Ruba; Al-Khatib, Sondos; Abaza, Ismail; Naffa, Randa

    2012-02-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the growth, invasion, and metastasis of most solid tumors and has become a valuable pharmacological target for cancer prevention and treatment. This study was performed to assess the antiangiogenic activity of 31 medicinal plants grown and sold in Jordan. The antiangiogenic activity was assessed using the rat aortic ring assay. Out of 31 extracts, 15 extracts showed more than 50 % inhibition of the blood vessels outgrowth from the primary tissue explants (p = 0.000). Three of these 15 extracts showed a potential cytotoxic effect on normal fibroblast cells. Four extracts shared antiangiogenic and antiproliferative activity towards MCF7 breast cancer cell lines. Eight extracts demonstrated selective antiangiogenic activity. This is the first report demonstrating the potential antiangiogenic activity of Artemisia judaica, Aloysia citriodora, Salvia egyptiaca, and Calendula arvensis. Some extracts with antiangiogenic activity exhibited selectivity against the endothelial cells proliferation, demonstrating a direct inhibitory activity against the key step in tumor angiogenesis. PMID:22174075

  12. Targeting CD9 produces stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects predominantly in activated endothelial cells during angiogenesis: A novel antiangiogenic therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Kamisasanuki, Taro; Tokushige, Saori; Terasaki, Hiroto; Khai, Ngin Cin; Wang, Yuqing; Sakamoto, Taiji; Kosai, Ken-ichiro

    2011-09-16

    Highlights: {yields} CD9 plays stimulus-independent roles in angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. {yields} Targeting CD9 expression is effective in an angiogenic disease model. {yields} Targeting CD9 expression predominantly affects activated endothelial cells. {yields} CD9 is involved in endothelial cell proliferation, but not survival. {yields} CD9 is part of angiogenic machinery in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. -- Abstract: The precise roles of tetraspanin CD9 are unclear. Here we show that CD9 plays a stimulus-independent role in angiogenesis and that inhibiting CD9 expression or function is a potential antiangiogenic therapy. Knocking down CD9 expression significantly inhibited in vitro endothelial cell migration and invasion induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) or hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). Injecting CD9-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA-CD9) markedly inhibited HGF- or VEGF-induced subconjunctival angiogenesis in vivo. Both results revealed potent and stimulus-independent antiangiogenic effects of targeting CD9. Furthermore, intravitreous injections of siRNA-CD9 or anti-CD9 antibodies were therapeutically effective for laser-induced retinal and choroidal neovascularization in mice, a representative ocular angiogenic disease model. In terms of the mechanism, growth factor receptor and downstream signaling activation were not affected, whereas abnormal localization of integrins and membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase was observed during angiogenesis, by knocking down CD9 expression. Notably, knocking down CD9 expression did not induce death and mildly inhibited proliferation of quiescent endothelial cells under conditions without an angiogenic stimulus. Thus, CD9 does not directly affect growth factor-induced signal transduction, which is required in angiogenesis and normal vasculature, but is part of the angiogenesis machinery in endothelial cells during angiogenesis. In conclusion, targeting CD9 produced stimulus

  13. Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid from citrus, shows anti-angiogenic activity in a zebrafish in vivo model and HUVEC in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Lam, Kai Heng; Alex, Deepa; Lam, In Kei; Tsui, Stephen Kwok Wing; Yang, Zi Feng; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen

    2011-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicinal herbs are a rich source of compounds with reported anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects. Growing evidence shows the codependence of chronic inflammation and angiogenesis, and the potential benefits of targeting angiogenesis in the treatment of chronic inflammation and targeting inflammation in the treatment of diseases with impaired angiogenesis. We hypothesized that the anti-inflammatory activity of the natural compounds may owe at least some of its efficacy to their anti-angiogenic activity and hence we investigated the anti-angiogenic activity of these compounds in vivo in zebrafish embryos and in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavonoid from citrus fruits, showed anti-angiogenic activity in both assays. Nobiletin inhibited the formation of intersegmental vessels (ISVs) in live transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) in the vasculature. Cell cycle analysis of dissociated zebrafish embryo cells showed that nobiletin induced G0/G1 phase accumulation in a dose-dependent manner in GFP-positive endothelial cells. Nobiletin also dose-dependently induced VEGF-A mRNA expression. In HUVECs, nobiletin inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and, to a greater extent, tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. As in the in vivo study, nobiletin induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest in HUVECs. However, this arrest was not accompanied by an increase in apoptosis, indicating a cytostatic effect of nobiletin. This study, for the first time, identifies nobiletin as having potent anti-angiogenic activity and suggests that nobiletin has a great potential for future research and development as a cytostatic anti-proliferative agent.

  14. Antiangiogenic therapy: creating a unique "window" of opportunity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Michelle I; Sessa, William C

    2004-12-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy for solid tumors clearly destroys tumor vasculature and reduces tumor growth. As an unexpected bonus, drugs that neutralize VEGF signaling generate a "normalization window" for tumor vasculature. This occurs via the recruitment of pericytes to the tumor vasculature, an effect associated with the transient stabilization of vessels and improved oxygen delivery to hypoxic zones. The normalization process is mediated by angiopoietin-1 and matrix metalloproteinases and creates a window of opportunity for improved sensitivity to ionizing radiation and the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs.

  15. Possible new organoselenium supplement--evaluation of its influence on the kidneys in comparison with inorganic sodium selenite.

    PubMed

    Musik, Irena; Hordyjewska, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the possibility of using of the new selenoorganic ring compound, 3-(o-chlorobenzoylamino)-2-(o-tolylimino)-4-methyl-4-selenazoline, as a selenium supplement by investigating the influence of its short-term administration on Se accumulation and antioxidant status in kidney. For 10 days, adolescent male Wistar rats were treated with saline (control group), Na(2)SeO(3) (Se-IN group) or the studied compound (Se-ORG group) (5 x 10(-4) mg Se/g of once a day) via a stomach tube. The selenium concentration, total antioxidant status (TAS), activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx), concentrations of ascorbic acid (AA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) and concentration of malonyldialdehyde (MDA) were determined in the kidney homogenates. TAS was significantly reduced in the Se-ORG group compared to the control. Reduced glutathione was markedly decreased in Se-treated animals compared to the control and in the Se-ORG group compared to the Se-IN group. Malonyldialdehyde was significantly increased in the Se-supplemented groups compared to the control group but considerably less so in the Se-ORG group. All other studied parameters displayed no significant differences. No increase in the accumulation of selenium and the partial impairment of the antioxidant status and enhancement of lipid peroxidation in the kidneys resulting from Se treatment could suggest that in the first period of administration, excess selenium was excreted with urine, leading to a disturbance of kidney functions. Comparison of the effect of our compound with that exerted by inorganic Na(2)SeO(3) suggests that the studied compound could be considered as a possible supplement after further investigations, including determination of selenium excretion with urine, as well as repetition of this study using a wide range of doses and periods of supplementation.

  16. Biomarkers in Tumor Angiogenesis and Anti-Angiogenic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Pircher, Andreas; Hilbe, Wolfgang; Heidegger, Isabel; Drevs, Joachim; Tichelli, André; Medinger, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis has been identified to play a critical role in tumor growth and tumor progression, and is regulated by a balance of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic cytokines. Among them VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) and its signaling through its receptors are of crucial relevance. Inhibition of VEGF signaling by monoclonal antibodies or small molecules (kinase inhibitors) has already been successfully established for the treatment of different cancer entities and multiple new drugs are being tested in clinical trials. However not all patients are likely to respond to these therapies, but to date there are no reliable biomarkers available to predict therapy response. Many studies integrated biomarker programs in their study protocols, thus several potential biomarkers have been identified which are currently under clinical investigation in prospective randomized studies. This review intends to give an overview of the described potential biomarkers as well as different imaging techniques such as ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging that can indicate benefit, resistance and toxicity to anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:22072937

  17. Evaluation of Antioxidant and Antiangiogenic Properties of Caesalpinia Echinata Extracts

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Gomes, Elisangela Christhianne Barbosa; Jimenez, George Chaves; da Silva, Luis Claudio Nascimento; de Sá, Fabrício Bezerra; de Souza, Karen Pena Cavalcanti; Paiva, Gerson S.; de Souza, Ivone Antônia

    2014-01-01

    Natural products contain important combinations of ingredients, which may to some extent help to modulate the effects produced by oxidation substrates in biological systems. It is known that substances capable of modulating the action of these oxidants on tissue may be important allies in the control of neovascularization in pathological processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties of an ethanol extract of Caesalpinia echinata. The evaluation of antioxidant properties was tested using two methods (DPPH inhibition and sequestration of nitric oxide). The antiangiogenic properties were evaluated using the inflammatory angiogenesis model in the corneas of rats. The extract of C. echinata demonstrated a high capacity to inhibit free radicals, with IC50 equal to 42.404 µg/mL for the DPPH test and 234.2 µg/mL for nitric oxide. Moreover, it showed itself capable of inhibiting the inflammatory angiogenic response by 77.49%. These data suggest that biochemical components belonging to the extract of C. echinata interfere in mechanisms that control the angiogenic process, mediated by substrates belonging to the arachidonic acid cascade, although the data described above also suggest that the NO buffer may contribute to some extent to the reduction in the angiogenic response. PMID:24563668

  18. Anti-angiogenic agents in metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Konda, Bhavana; Shum, Helen; Rajdev, Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major public health concern being the third leading cause of cancer mortality in the United States. The availability of better therapeutic options has led to a decline in cancer mortality in these patients. Surgical resection should be considered in all stages of the disease. The use of conversion therapy has made surgery a potentially curative option even in patients with initially unresectable metastatic disease. In this review we discuss the role of various anti-angiogenic agents in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC). We describe the mechanism of action of these agents, and the rationale for their use in combination with chemotherapy. We also review important clinical studies that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of these agents in mCRC patients. Despite the discovery of several promising anti-angiogenic agents, mCRC remains an incurable disease with a median overall survival of just over 2 years in patients exposed to all available treatment regimens. Further insights into tumor biology and tumor microenvironment may help improve outcomes in these patients. PMID:26191351

  19. Homoleptic phosphino copper(I) complexes with in vitro and in vivo dual cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Gandin, V; Trenti, A; Porchia, M; Tisato, F; Giorgetti, M; Zanusso, I; Trevisi, L; Marzano, C

    2015-11-01

    Homoleptic, tetrahedral Cu(i) complexes of the type [Cu(P)4]BF4 (1-3), where P are the phosphine ligands, 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (PTA), 3,7-diacetyl-1,3,7-triaza-5-phosphabicyclo[3.3.1]nonane (DAPTA) and 2-thia-1,3,5-triaza-phosphoaadamantane-2,2-dioxide (PTA-SO2), have been prepared. Novel complexes [Cu(DAPTA)4]BF42 and [Cu(PTA-SO2)4]BF43 have been fully characterized by means of spectroscopic methods, corroborated by XAS-EXAFS analysis of 2. In vitro cell culture experiments revealed a significant antiproliferative activity for Cu(i) compounds against several human cancer cell lines derived from solid tumors with preferential cell growth inhibition towards tumour compared to non-malignant cells. In vitro monitoring of migration and capillary-like tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) showed an anti-angiogenic effect of copper(i) complexes at sub-cytotoxic concentrations. In vivo studies on the antitumor efficacy and ability to inhibit angiogenesis confirmed the dual cytotoxic and anti-angiogenic properties of Cu(i) derivatives.

  20. Gastrointestinal Toxicities With Combined Antiangiogenic and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Pollom, Erqi L.; Deng, Lei; Pai, Reetesh K.; Brown, J. Martin; Giaccia, Amato; Loo, Billy W.; Shultz, David B.; Le, Quynh Thu; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2015-07-01

    Combining the latest targeted biologic agents with the most advanced radiation technologies has been an exciting development in the treatment of cancer patients. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an ablative radiation approach that has become established for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, and it has been increasingly used in combination with biologic agents, including those targeting angiogenesis-specific pathways. Multiple reports have emerged describing unanticipated toxicities arising from the combination of SBRT and angiogenesis-targeting agents, particularly of late luminal gastrointestinal toxicities. In this review, we summarize the literature describing these toxicities, explore the biological mechanism of action of toxicity with the combined use of antiangiogenic therapies, and discuss areas of future research, so that this combination of treatment modalities can continue to be used in broader clinical contexts.

  1. Antiangiogenic Therapy for Glioblastoma: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Batchelor, Tracy T.; Reardon, David A.; de Groot, John F.; Wick, Wolfgang; Weller, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is characterized by high expression levels of pro-angiogenic cytokines and microvascular proliferation, highlighting the potential value of treatments targeting angiogenesis. Antiangiogenic treatment likely achieves a beneficial impact through multiple mechanisms of action. Ultimately, however, alternative pro-angiogenic signal transduction pathways are activated leading to the development of resistance, even in tumors that initially respond. The identification of biomarkers or imaging parameters to predict response and to herald resistance is of high priority. Despite promising phase 2 clinical trial results and patient benefit in terms of clinical improvement and longer progression-free survival, an overall survival benefit has not been demonstrated in 4 randomized phase 3 trials of bevacizumab or cilengitide in newly diagnosed glioblastoma or cediranib or enzastaurin recurrent glioblastoma. However, future studies are warranted: predictive markers may allow appropriate patient enrichment, combination with chemotherapy may ultimately prove successful in improving overall survival, and novel agents targeting multiple pro-angiogenic pathways may prove effective. PMID:25398844

  2. Anti-angiogenic and cytotoxicity studies of some medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kwok-Wen; Salhimi, Salizawati Muhamad; Majid, Amin Malik; Chan, Kit-Lam

    2010-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays an important role in tumor formation and proliferation. The development of anti-angiogenic agents to block new blood vessel growth will inhibit metastasis and induce apoptosis of the cancer cells. Nine medicinal plants, Strobilanthes crispus, Phyllanthus niruri, Phyllanthus pulcher, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ailanthus malabarica, Irvingia malayana, Smilax myosotiflora, Tinospora crispa and blumea balsamifera were screened for anti-angiogenic properties using the rat aortic ring assay. Of these, the methanol extracts of Phyllanthus species and Irvingia malayana exhibited the highest activity. At 100 microg/mL, P. pulcher, P. niruri, P. urinaria and I. malayana recorded an inhibition of 78.8 %, 59.5 %, 56.7 % and 46.4 %, respectively, against rat aortic vascular growth. Their activities were further investigated by the tube formation assay involving human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on Matrigel. I. malayana, P. niruri and P. urinaria showed a significant decrease of 45.5, 37.9 and 35.6 %, respectively, whilst P. pulcher showed a much lower decrease of 15.5 % when compared with that of the rat aortic ring assay. All the plant extracts were evaluated for cytotoxicity on a panel of human cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. None of them displayed acute cytotoxicity. The HPLC of P. niruri, P. urinaria and P. pulcher indicated the extracts contained some identical chromatographic peaks of lignans. Further fractionation of I. malayana yielded betulinic acid reported in this plant for the first time and at 100 microg/mL it exhibited a 67.3 % inhibition of vessel outgrowth and 46.5 % inhibition of tube formation. PMID:20112179

  3. Antiangiogenic effects of melatonin in endothelial cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-García, Virginia; González, Alicia; Alonso-González, Carolina; Martínez-Campa, Carlos; Cos, Samuel

    2013-05-01

    Endothelial cells represent one of the critical cellular elements in tumor microenvironment playing a crucial role in the growth and progression of cancer through controlling angiogenesis. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) produced from tumor cells is essential for the expansion of breast cancer and may function in both paracrine and autocrine manners to promote proliferation, growth, survival and migration of endothelial cells. Since melatonin regulates tumor microenvironment by decreasing the secretion of VEGF by malignant epithelial cells and also regulates VEGF expression in human breast cancer cells, the aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic activity of melatonin against the pro-angiogenic effects of breast cancer cells. In this work, we demonstrate that melatonin strongly inhibited the proliferation as well as invasion/migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Melatonin disrupted tube formation and counteracted the VEGF-stimulated tubular network formation by HUVEC. In addition, conditioned media collected from human breast cancer cells were angiogenically active and stimulated tubule length formation and this effect was significantly counteracted by the addition of anti-VEGF or melatonin. Melatonin also disintegrated preformed capillary network. All these findings demonstrate that melatonin may play a role in the paracrine interactions that take place between malignant epithelial cells and proximal endothelial cells. Melatonin could be important in reducing endothelial cell proliferation, invasion, migration and tube formation, through a downregulatory action on VEGF. Taken together, our findings suggest that melatonin could potentially be beneficial as an antiangiogenic agent in breast cancer with possible future clinical applications. PMID:23473980

  4. Antiangiogenic activities of 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib on the tumor vasculature.

    PubMed

    Virrey, Jenilyn J; Liu, Zhi; Cho, Hee-Yeon; Kardosh, Adel; Golden, Encouse B; Louie, Stan G; Gaffney, Kevin J; Petasis, Nicos A; Schönthal, Axel H; Chen, Thomas C; Hofman, Florence M

    2010-03-01

    Our laboratory has previously shown that a novel compound, 2,5-dimethyl-celecoxib (DMC), which is structurally similar to the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib but lacks the COX-2-inhibitory function, mimics the antitumor effects of celecoxib. Most studies on DMC, however, focused on its effects on tumor cells. Here, we investigated the activities of DMC as an antiangiogenic agent in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Using primary cultures of human glioma specimens, we found that DMC treatment was cytotoxic to tumor-associated brain endothelial cells (TuBEC), which was mediated through the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. In contrast, confluent cultures of quiescent human BEC did not undergo cell death. DMC potently suppressed the proliferation and migration of the TuBEC. DMC caused no apparent effects on the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8 but inhibited the secretion of endothelin-1 in tumor-associated EC. DMC treatment of glioma xenografts in mice resulted in smaller tumors with a pronounced reduction in microvessel density compared with untreated mice. In vitro and in vivo analyses confirmed that DMC has antivascular activity. Considering that DMC targets both tumor cells and tumor-associated ECs, this agent is a promising anticancer drug.

  5. The anti-angiogenic effect and novel mechanisms of action of Combretastatin A-4

    PubMed Central

    Su, Min; Huang, Jingjia; Liu, Suyou; Xiao, Yuhang; Qin, Xiyuan; Liu, Jia; Pi, Chaoqiong; Luo, Tiao; Li, Jijia; Chen, Xianghui; Luo, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA4) is the lead compound of a relatively new class of vascular disrupting agents that target existing tumor blood vessels. Recent studies showed the CA4 might inhibit angiogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which CA4 exerts its anti-angiogenic effects are not fully understood. In this study, we revealed that CA4 inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In in vivo assay, CA4 suppressed neovascularization in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and decreased the microvessel density in tumor tissues of a breast cancer MCF-7 xenograft mouse model. In addition, CA4 decreased the expression level and secretion of VEGF both in MCF-7 cells and HUVECs under hypoxia, as well as the activation of VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling mediators following VEGF stimulation in HUVECs. Moreover, VEGF and VEGFR-2 expression in tumor tissues of the mouse xenograft model were down-regulated following CA4 treatment. Taken together, results from the current work provide clear evidence that CA4 functions in endothelial cell system to inhibit angiogenesis, at least in part, by attenuating VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. PMID:27338725

  6. Antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties of phenolic extract from Pleurotus tuber-regium.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shaoling; Lai, Tsz ching; Chen, Lei; Kwok, Hin fai; Lau, Clara Bik-san; Cheung, Peter C K

    2014-10-01

    Pleurotus tuber-regium (Fries) Singer (PTR), both an edible and a medicinal mushroom also known as tiger milk mushroom, has experienced growing popularity and economic importance due to its flavor, nutritive value, and medicinal effects. In this study, the antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of a 60% ethanol extract (EE) obtained from the sclerotium of PTR were investigated. Typical phenolic compounds including protocatechuic, chlorogenic, syringic, ferulic, and folic acid were identified and quantified in EE by the HPLC-UV-ESI/MS analyses. EE possessed strong antioxidant activity and could dose-dependently inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) migration and tube formation. qPCR results showed that VEGF-induced FGF, ANG-Tie, and MMP gene expression as well as VEGFR were down-regulated at the mRNA level after treated with EE, suggesting that multiple molecular targets related to angiogenesis was involved. Furthermore, EE also inhibited the formation of subintestinal vessel plexus (SIVs) in zebrafish embryos in vivo. All of these suggested that EE of PTR could be the source of potential inhibitors to target angiogenesis. PMID:25185869

  7. Identification and biological activities of a new antiangiogenic small molecule that suppresses mitochondrial reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Ju Yeol; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} YCG063 was screened as a new angiogenesis inhibitor which suppresses mitochondrial ROS generation in a phenotypic cell-based screening of a small molecule-focused library. {yields} The compound inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis in a dose-dependent manner. {yields} This new small molecule tool will provide a basis for a better understanding of angiogenesis driven under hypoxic conditions. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) are associated with multiple cellular functions such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. In particular, high levels of mitochondrial ROS in hypoxic cells regulate many angiogenesis-related diseases, including cancer and ischemic disorders. Here we report a new angiogenesis inhibitor, YCG063, which suppressed mitochondrial ROS generation in a phenotypic cell-based screening of a small molecule-focused library with an ArrayScan HCS reader. YCG063 suppressed mitochondrial ROS generation under a hypoxic condition in a dose-dependent manner, leading to the inhibition of in vitro angiogenic tube formation and chemoinvasion as well as in vivo angiogenesis of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) at non-toxic doses. In addition, YCG063 decreased the expression levels of HIF-1{alpha} and its target gene, VEGF. Collectively, a new antiangiogenic small molecule that suppresses mitochondrial ROS was identified. This new small molecule tool will provide a basis for a better understanding of angiogenesis driven under hypoxic conditions.

  8. The anti-angiogenic effect and novel mechanisms of action of Combretastatin A-4.

    PubMed

    Su, Min; Huang, Jingjia; Liu, Suyou; Xiao, Yuhang; Qin, Xiyuan; Liu, Jia; Pi, Chaoqiong; Luo, Tiao; Li, Jijia; Chen, Xianghui; Luo, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Combretastatin A-4 (CA4) is the lead compound of a relatively new class of vascular disrupting agents that target existing tumor blood vessels. Recent studies showed the CA4 might inhibit angiogenesis. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which CA4 exerts its anti-angiogenic effects are not fully understood. In this study, we revealed that CA4 inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced proliferation, migration and capillary-like tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). In in vivo assay, CA4 suppressed neovascularization in chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model and decreased the microvessel density in tumor tissues of a breast cancer MCF-7 xenograft mouse model. In addition, CA4 decreased the expression level and secretion of VEGF both in MCF-7 cells and HUVECs under hypoxia, as well as the activation of VEGFR-2 and its downstream signaling mediators following VEGF stimulation in HUVECs. Moreover, VEGF and VEGFR-2 expression in tumor tissues of the mouse xenograft model were down-regulated following CA4 treatment. Taken together, results from the current work provide clear evidence that CA4 functions in endothelial cell system to inhibit angiogenesis, at least in part, by attenuating VEGF/VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. PMID:27338725

  9. Anti-angiogenic actions of the mangosteen polyphenolic xanthone derivative α-mangostin

    PubMed Central

    Jittiporn, Kanjana; Suwanpradid, Jutamas; Patel, Chintan; Rojas, Modesto; Thirawarapan, Suwan; Moongkarndi, Primchanien; Suvitayavat, Wisuda; Caldwell, Ruth B.

    2014-01-01

    Retinal neovascularization is a major cause of vision loss in diseases characterized by retinal ischemia and is characterized by the pathological growth of abnormal vessels. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is known to play an important role in this process. Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in up regulation of VEGF associated with neovascularization in various tissues. Hence, compounds with anti-oxidant actions can prevent neovascularization. α-mangostin, a component of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn), has been shown to have an anti-oxidant property in pathological conditions involving angiogenesis such as cancer. However, the effect of α-mangostin on ROS formation and angiogenic function in microvascular endothelial cells has not been studied. Hence, this study demonstrated the anti-angiogenic effects of α-mangostin in relation to ROS formation in bovine retinal endothelial cells (REC). α-mangostin significantly and dose-dependently reduced formation of ROS in hypoxia-treated REC. α-mangostin also significantly and dose-dependently suppressed VEGF-induced increases in permeability, proliferation, migration and tube formation in REC and blocked angiogenic sprouting in the ex vivo aortic ring assay. In addition, α-mangostin inhibited VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2-MAPK. According to our results, α-mangostin reduces oxidative stress and limits VEGF-induced angiogenesis through a process involving abrogation of VEGFR2 and ERK1/2-MAPK activation. PMID:24721607

  10. Resistance to Antiangiogenic Therapies by Metabolic Symbiosis in Renal Cell Carcinoma PDX Models and Patients.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Valerio, Gabriela; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Bassani, Nicklas; Vidal, August; Ochoa-de-Olza, María; Suárez, Cristina; García-Del-Muro, Xavier; Carles, Joan; Viñals, Francesc; Graupera, Mariona; Indraccolo, Stefano; Casanovas, Oriol

    2016-05-10

    Antiangiogenic drugs are used clinically for treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) as a standard first-line treatment. Nevertheless, these agents primarily serve to stabilize disease, and resistance eventually develops concomitant with progression. Here, we implicate metabolic symbiosis between tumor cells distal and proximal to remaining vessels as a mechanism of resistance to antiangiogenic therapies in patient-derived RCC orthoxenograft (PDX) models and in clinical samples. This metabolic patterning is regulated by the mTOR pathway, and its inhibition effectively blocks metabolic symbiosis in PDX models. Clinically, patients treated with antiangiogenics consistently present with histologic signatures of metabolic symbiosis that are exacerbated in resistant tumors. Furthermore, the mTOR pathway is also associated in clinical samples, and its inhibition eliminates symbiotic patterning in patient samples. Overall, these data support a mechanism of resistance to antiangiogenics involving metabolic compartmentalization of tumor cells that can be inhibited by mTOR-targeted drugs.

  11. FAK regulates platelet extravasation and tumor growth after antiangiogenic therapy withdrawal

    PubMed Central

    Haemmerle, Monika; Bottsford-Miller, Justin; Pradeep, Sunila; Taylor, Morgan L.; Hansen, Jean M.; Dalton, Heather J.; Stone, Rebecca L.; Cho, Min Soon; Nick, Alpa M.; Nagaraja, Archana S.; Gutschner, Tony; Gharpure, Kshipra M.; Mangala, Lingegowda S.; Han, Hee Dong; Zand, Behrouz; Armaiz-Pena, Guillermo N.; Wu, Sherry Y.; Pecot, Chad V.; Burns, Alan R.; Lopez-Berestein, Gabriel; Afshar-Kharghan, Vahid; Sood, Anil K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies in patients with ovarian cancer suggest that tumor growth may be accelerated following cessation of antiangiogenesis therapy; however, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we aimed to compare the effects of therapy withdrawal to those of continuous treatment with various antiangiogenic agents. Cessation of therapy with pazopanib, bevacizumab, and the human and murine anti-VEGF antibody B20 was associated with substantial tumor growth in mouse models of ovarian cancer. Increased tumor growth was accompanied by tumor hypoxia, increased tumor angiogenesis, and vascular leakage. Moreover, we found hypoxia-induced ADP production and platelet infiltration into tumors after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy, and lowering platelet counts markedly inhibited tumor rebound after withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in platelets regulated their migration into the tumor microenvironment, and FAK-deficient platelets completely prevented the rebound tumor growth. Additionally, combined therapy with a FAK inhibitor and the antiangiogenic agents pazopanib and bevacizumab reduced tumor growth and inhibited negative effects following withdrawal of antiangiogenic therapy. In summary, these results suggest that FAK may be a unique target in situations in which antiangiogenic agents are withdrawn, and dual targeting of FAK and VEGF could have therapeutic implications for ovarian cancer management. PMID:27064283

  12. Beyond Bevacizumab: An Outlook to New Anti-Angiogenics for the Treatment of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mahner, Sven; Woelber, Linn; Mueller, Volkmar; Witzel, Isabell; Prieske, Katharina; Grimm, Donata; Keller-v Amsberg, Gunhild; Trillsch, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the monoclonal vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibody bevacizumab, several alternative anti-angiogenic treatment strategies for ovarian cancer patients have been evaluated in clinical trials. Apart from targeting extracellular receptors by the antibody aflibercept or the peptibody trebananib, the multikinase inhibitors pazopanib, nintedanib, cediranib, sunitinib, and sorafenib were developed to interfere with VEGF receptors and multiple additional intracellular pathways. Nintedanib and pazopanib significantly improved progression-free survival in two positive phase III trials for first-line therapy. A reliable effect on overall survival could, however, not be observed for any anti-angiogenic first-line therapies so far. In terms of recurrent disease, two positive phase III trials revealed that trebananib and cediranib are effective anti-angiogenic agents for this indication. Patient selection and biomarker guided prediction of response seems to be a central aspect for future studies. Combining anti-angiogenics with other targeted therapies to possibly spare chemotherapy in certain constellations represents another very interesting future perspective for clinical trials. This short review gives an overview of current clinical trials for anti-angiogenic treatment strategies beyond bevacizumab. In this context, possible future perspectives combining anti-angiogenics with other targeted therapies and the need for specific biomarkers predicting response are elucidated. PMID:26500886

  13. Cytokines, angiogenic, and antiangiogenic factors and bioactive lipids in preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Das, Undurti N

    2015-09-01

    Preeclampsia is a low-grade systemic inflammatory condition in which oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction occurs. Plasma levels of soluble receptor for vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR)-1, also known as sFlt1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1), an antiangiogenic factor have been reported to be elevated in preeclampsia. It was reported that pregnant mice deficient in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity show a preeclampsia-like phenotype due to a deficiency or absence of 2-methoxyoestradiol (2-ME), a natural metabolite of estradiol that is elevated during the third trimester of normal human pregnancy. Additionally, autoantibodies (AT1-AAs) that bind and activate the angiotensin II receptor type 1 a (AT1 receptor) also have a role in preeclampsia. None of these abnormalities are consistently seen in all the patients with preeclampsia and some of them are not specific to pregnancy. Preeclampsia could occur due to an imbalance between pro- and antiangiogenic factors. VEGF, an angiogenic factor, is necessary for the transport of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to endothelial cells. Hence reduced VEGF levels decrease the availability of PUFAs to endothelial cells. This leads to a decrease in the formation of anti-inflammatory and angiogenic factors: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins from PUFAs. Lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins, and PUFAs suppress insulin resistance; activation of leukocytes, platelets, and macrophages; production of interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α; and oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction; and enhance production of prostacyclin and nitric oxide (NO). Estrogen enhances the formation of lipoxin A4 and NO. PUFAs also augment the production of NO and inhibit the activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme and antagonize the actions of angiotensin II. Thus, PUFAs can prevent activation of angiotensin II receptor type 1 a (AT1 receptor). Patients with preeclampsia have decreased plasma

  14. Azaindole derivatives are inhibitors of microtubule dynamics, with anti-cancer and anti-angiogenic activities

    PubMed Central

    Prudent, Renaud; Vassal-Stermann, Émilie; Nguyen, Chi-Hung; Mollaret, Marjorie; Viallet, Jean; Desroches-Castan, Agnès; Martinez, Anne; Barette, Caroline; Pillet, Catherine; Valdameri, Glaucio; Soleilhac, Emmanuelle; Di Pietro, Attilio; Feige, Jean-Jacques; Billaud, Marc; Florent, Jean-Claude; Lafanechère, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Drugs targeting microtubules are commonly used for cancer treatment. However, the potency of microtubule inhibitors used clinically is limited by the emergence of resistance. We thus designed a strategy to find new cell-permeable microtubule-targeting agents. Experimental Approach Using a cell-based assay designed to probe for microtubule polymerization status, we screened a chemical library and identified two azaindole derivatives, CM01 and CM02, as cell-permeable microtubule-depolymerizing agents. The mechanism of the anti-tumour effects of these two compounds was further investigated both in vivo and in vitro. Key Results CM01 and CM02 induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and exerted potent cytostatic effects on several cancer cell lines including multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines. In vitro experiments revealed that the azaindole derivatives inhibited tubulin polymerization and competed with colchicines for this effect, strongly indicating that tubulin is the cellular target of these azaindole derivatives. In vivo experiments, using a chicken chorioallantoic xenograft tumour assay, established that these compounds exert a potent anti-tumour effect. Furthermore, an assay probing the growth of vessels out of endothelial cell spheroids showed that CM01 and CM02 exert anti-angiogenic activities. Conclusions and Implications CM01 and CM02 are reversible microtubule-depolymerizing agents that exert potent cytostatic effects on human cancer cells of diverse origins, including MDR cells. They were also shown to inhibit angiogenesis and tumour growth in chorioallantoic breast cancer xenografts. Hence, these azaindole derivatives are attractive candidates for further preclinical investigations. PMID:23004938

  15. Triple-negative breast cancer: role of antiangiogenic agents.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Sally; Rugo, Hope S

    2010-01-01

    New blood vessel formation plays an important role in breast cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. Tumor growth is preceded by the development of new blood vessels, which provide a pathway for metastases and nutrients essential for growth. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key angiogenic mediator that stimulates endothelial cell proliferation and regulates vascular permeability. Highly proliferative tumors, such as those that are negative for the estrogen, progesterone, and HER2/neu receptors have enhanced angiogenesis that supports rapid growth and early metastases and have been found to have high levels of VEGF. Drugs developed to inhibit the angiogenic process may be particularly effective in triple-negative breast cancer. Subset analyses have demonstrated efficacy with combinations of the VEGF antibody bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy and, to a limited degree, with other antiangiogenic agents. Many targeted biologic agents in development inhibit angiogenesis including those that inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin, fibroblast growth factor, Notch, hypoxic inducible factor, 2-methoxyestradiol, insulin like growth factor, matrix metalloproteinase, and others. Ongoing studies are focusing on the effects of these agents in triple-negative disease, and there is an urgent need to identify markers that can predict response to specific targeted therapy. PMID:20164688

  16. Direct Antiangiogenic Actions of Cadmium on Human Vascular Endothelial Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Woods, J. M.; Leone, M.; Klosowska, K.; Lamar, P. C.; Shaknovsky, T. J.; Prozialeck, W. C.

    2008-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a primary target of cadmium (Cd) toxicity, but little is known regarding a potential mechanism whereby Cd may inhibit angiogenesis. Recent findings showing that Cd can disrupt cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion suggested that Cd might inhibit angiogenesis by altering the function of VE-cadherin, a molecule that is essential for angiogenesis. To address this issue, endothelial cells (ECs) were exposed to Cd in the presence of serum and subjected to angiogenesis-related cell migration and tube formation assays. Initial examination of cytotoxicity showed that ECs are rather resistant to the acute cytotoxic effects of Cd even at concentrations up to 1mM. However, 10μM Cd decreased migration of ECs. Cd concentrations of 500nM and greater significantly reduced organization of microvascular ECs into tubes. These antiangiogenic effects were evident even when ECs were preincubated with Cd and then washed to remove free Cd, indicating that Cd acted directly on the cells rather than on the extracellular matrix. Immunolocalization studies showed that Cd caused the redistribution of VE-cadherin from cell-cell contacts. These findings indicate that Cd acts in an angiostatic manner on ECs, and that this effect may involve alterations in the localization and function of VE cadherin. PMID:18243643

  17. Antiangiogenic therapy in oncology: current status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Jayson, Gordon C; Kerbel, Robert; Ellis, Lee M; Harris, Adrian L

    2016-07-30

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels from pre-existing vessels, has been validated as a target in several tumour types through randomised trials, incorporating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway inhibitors into the therapeutic armoury. Although some tumours such as renal cell carcinoma, ovarian and cervical cancers, and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are sensitive to these drugs, others such as prostate cancer, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, and melanoma are resistant. Even when drugs have yielded significant results, improvements in progression-free survival, and, in some cases, overall survival, are modest. Thus, a crucial issue in development of these drugs is the search for predictive biomarkers-tests that predict which patients will, and will not, benefit before initiation of therapy. Development of biomarkers is important because of the need to balance efficacy, toxicity, and cost. Novel combinations of these drugs with other antiangiogenics or other classes of drugs are being developed, and the appreciation that these drugs have immunomodulatory and other modes of action will lead to combination regimens that capitalise on these newly understood mechanisms. PMID:26853587

  18. Programmed Translational Readthrough Generates Anti-Angiogenic VEGF-Ax

    PubMed Central

    Eswarappa, Sandeepa M.; Potdar, Alka A.; Koch, William J.; Fan, Yi; Vasu, Kommireddy; Lindner, Daniel; Willard, Belinda; Graham, Linda M.; DiCorleto, Paul E.; Fox, Paul L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Translational readthrough, observed primarily in less complex organisms from viruses to Drosophila, expands the proteome by translating select transcripts beyond the canonical stop codon. Here we show that vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGFA) mRNA in mammalian endothelial cells undergoes programmed translational readthrough (PTR) generating VEGF-Ax, an isoform containing a unique 22-amino acid C-terminus extension. A cis-acting element in the VEGFA 3′UTR serves a dual function, not only encoding the appended peptide, but also directing the PTR by decoding the UGA stop codon as serine. Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) A2/B1 binds this element and promotes readthrough. Remarkably, VEGF-Ax exhibits anti-angiogenic activity in contrast to the pro-angiogenic activity of VEGF-A. Pathophysiological significance of VEGF-Ax is indicated by robust expression in multiple human tissues, but depletion in colon adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, genome-wide analysis revealed AGO1 and MTCH2 as authentic readthrough targets. Overall, our studies reveal a novel protein-regulated PTR event in a vertebrate system. PMID:24949972

  19. α-Tocopherol suppresses antiangiogenic effect of δ-tocotrienol in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Akira; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Tsuduki, Tsuyoshi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2015-04-01

    Recently, tocotrienol (T3), a less well-known form of vitamin E, has gained attention as a potent hypocholesterolemic, anticancer and antiangiogenic agent. However, tocopherol (Toc), a commonly consumed form of vitamin E, has been reported to inhibit T3's effects (hypocholesterolemic and anticancer activity). There has been no report on Toc's effect on the antiangiogenic action of T3 during cotreatment. The aim of this study is to determine if and to what extent Toc affects the antiangiogenic effects of δ-T3 (the most potent isomer). This was achieved through cotreatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with δ-T3 and Toc (α-, β-, γ- and δ-isomers). Toc, especially α-Toc, attenuated δ-T3-induced cytotoxicity and tube degradation in cotreated HUVECs, while α-Toc treatments did not exhibit any effects. A rat aortic ring assay also showed inhibition of δ-T3's antiangiogenic effects by α-Toc. Further, in HUVEC study, cell cycle arrest and proapoptotic gene expression (p21, p27, caspase-3 and caspase-9) which were induced by δ-T3 were decreased by α-Toc treatment. α-Toc also suppressed δ-T3-induced dephosphorylation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and Akt pathway proteins. Additionally, uptake of δ-T3 into HUVECs was decreased by α-Toc. Here we demonstrate that α-Toc not only has little antiangiogenic effect on endothelial cells but also reduces the antiangiogenic effects of δ-T3 through modulation of its cellular uptake and of relevant signal transduction pathways. Understanding T3's antiangiogenic effects and interaction with Toc is important for developing medical applications.

  20. Metabolic and hypoxic adaptation to anti-angiogenic therapy: a target for induced essentiality

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, Alan; Harris, Adrian L

    2015-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic therapy has increased the progression-free survival of many cancer patients but has had little effect on overall survival, even in colon cancer (average 6–8 weeks) due to resistance. The current licensed targeted therapies all inhibit VEGF signalling (Table1). Many mechanisms of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy have been identified that enable cancers to bypass the angiogenic blockade. In addition, over the last decade, there has been increasing evidence for the role that the hypoxic and metabolic responses play in tumour adaptation to anti-angiogenic therapy. The hypoxic tumour response, through the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs), induces major gene expression, metabolic and phenotypic changes, including increased invasion and metastasis. Pre-clinical studies combining anti-angiogenics with inhibitors of tumour hypoxic and metabolic adaptation have shown great promise, and combination clinical trials have been instigated. Understanding individual patient response and the response timing, given the opposing effects of vascular normalisation versus reduced perfusion seen with anti-angiogenics, provides a further hurdle in the paradigm of personalised therapeutic intervention. Additional approaches for targeting the hypoxic tumour microenvironment are being investigated in pre-clinical and clinical studies that have potential for producing synthetic lethality in combination with anti-angiogenic therapy as a future therapeutic strategy. PMID:25700172

  1. AntiAngioPred: A Server for Prediction of Anti-Angiogenic Peptides.

    PubMed

    Ettayapuram Ramaprasad, Azhagiya Singam; Singh, Sandeep; Gajendra P S, Raghava; Venkatesan, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    The process of angiogenesis is a vital step towards the formation of malignant tumors. Anti-angiogenic peptides are therefore promising candidates in the treatment of cancer. In this study, we have collected anti-angiogenic peptides from the literature and analyzed the residue preference in these peptides. Residues like Cys, Pro, Ser, Arg, Trp, Thr and Gly are preferred while Ala, Asp, Ile, Leu, Val and Phe are not preferred in these peptides. There is a positional preference of Ser, Pro, Trp and Cys in the N terminal region and Cys, Gly and Arg in the C terminal region of anti-angiogenic peptides. Motif analysis suggests the motifs "CG-G", "TC", "SC", "SP-S", etc., which are highly prominent in anti-angiogenic peptides. Based on the primary analysis, we developed prediction models using different machine learning based methods. The maximum accuracy and MCC for amino acid composition based model is 80.9% and 0.62 respectively. The performance of the models on independent dataset is also reasonable. Based on the above study, we have developed a user-friendly web server named "AntiAngioPred" for the prediction of anti-angiogenic peptides. AntiAngioPred web server is freely accessible at http://clri.res.in/subramanian/tools/antiangiopred/index.html (mirror site: http://crdd.osdd.net/raghava/antiangiopred/). PMID:26335203

  2. Antiangiogenic Effects of Noscapine Enhance Radioresponse for GL261 Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Newcomb, Elizabeth W. Lukyanov, Yevgeniy; Alonso-Basanta, Michelle; Esencay, Min; Smirnova, Iva; Schnee, Tona; Shao Yongzhao; Devitt, Mary Louise; Zagzag, David; McBride, William; Formenti, Silvia C.

    2008-08-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of noscapine, a tubulin-binding drug, in combination with radiation in a murine glioma model. Methods and Materials: The human T98G and murine GL261 glioma cell lines treated with noscapine, radiation, or both were assayed for clonogenic survival. Mice with established GL261 hind limb tumors were treated with noscapine, radiation, or both to evaluate the effect of noscapine on radioresponse. In a separate experiment with the same treatment groups, 7 days after radiation, tumors were resected and immunostained to measure proliferation rate, apoptosis, and angiogenic activity. Results: Noscapine reduced clonogenic survival without enhancement of radiosensitivity in vitro. Noscapine combined with radiation significantly increased tumor growth delay: 5, 8, 13, and 18 days for control, noscapine alone, radiation alone, and the combination treatment, respectively (p < 0.001). To assess the effect of the combination of noscapine plus radiation on the tumor vasculature, tubule formation by the murine endothelial 2H11 cells was tested. Noscapine with radiation significantly inhibited tubule formation compared with radiation alone. By immunohistochemistry, tumors treated with the combination of noscapine plus radiation showed a decrease in BrdU incorporation, an increase in apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end labeling, and a decrease in tumor vessel density compared with tumors treated with radiation alone. Conclusion: Noscapine enhanced the sensitivity of GL261 glioma tumors to radiation, resulting in a significant tumor growth delay. An antiangiogenic mechanism contributed to the effect. These findings are clinically relevant, particularly in view of the mild toxicity profile of this drug.

  3. Anti-angiogenic effect of high doses of ascorbic acid

    PubMed Central

    Mikirova, Nina A; Ichim, Thomas E; Riordan, Neil H

    2008-01-01

    Pharmaceutical doses of ascorbic acid (AA, vitamin C, or its salts) have been reported to exert anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. One proposed mechanism involves direct cytotoxicity mediated by accumulation of ascorbic acid radicals and hydrogen peroxide in the extracellular environment of tumor cells. However, therapeutic effects have been reported at concentrations insufficient to induce direct tumor cell death. We hypothesized that AA may exert anti-angiogenic effects. To test this, we expanded endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from peripheral blood and assessed, whether or not high dose AA would inhibit EPC ability to migrate, change energy metabolism, and tube formation ability. We also evaluated the effects of high dose AA on angiogenic activities of HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) and HUAECs (human umbilical arterial endothelial cells). According to our data, concentrations of AA higher than 100 mg/dl suppressed capillary-like tube formation on Matrigel for all cells tested and the effect was more pronounced for progenitor cells in comparison with mature cells. Co-culture of differentiated endothelial cells with progenitor cells showed that there was incorporation of EPCs in vessels formed by HUVECs and HUAECs. Cell migration was assessed using an in vitro wound healing model. The results of these experiments showed an inverse correlation between AA concentrations relative to both cell migration and gap filling capacity. Suppression of NO (nitric oxide) generation appeared to be one of the mechanisms by which AA mediated angiostatic effects. This study supports further investigation into non-cytotoxic antitumor activities of AA. PMID:18789157

  4. The Anti-angiogenic Peptide Anginex Disrupts the Cell Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Pilch, Jan; Franzin, Carla M.; Knowles, Lynn M.; Ferrer, Fernando J.; Marassi, Francesca M.; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2010-01-01

    Anginex is a synthetic beta-sheet peptide with anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor activity. When added to cultured endothelial cells at concentrations ranging from 2.5 μM to 25 μM, anginex induced cell death, which was reflected by a strong increase of subdiploid cells and fragments, loss of cellular ATP, and LDH release. Cytotoxicity remained the same whether cells were treated with anginex at 4 °C or at 37 °C. At low temperatures, fluorescein-conjugated anginex accumulated on the endothelial surface, but did not reach into the cytoplasm, indicating that the cell membrane is the primary target for the peptide. Within minutes of treatment, anginex caused endothelial cells to take up propidium iodide and undergo depolarization, both parameters characteristic for permeabilization of the cell membrane. This process was amplified when cells were activated with hydrogen peroxide. Red blood cell membranes were essentially unaffected by anginex. Anginex bound lipid bilayers with high affinity and with a clear preference for anionic over zwitterionic phospholipids. Structural studies by circular dichroism and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance showed that anginex forms a beta-sheet and adopts a unique and highly ordered conformation upon binding to lipid membranes. This is consistent with lipid micellization or the formation of pore-forming beta-barrels. The data suggest that the cytotoxicity of anginex stems from its ability to target and disrupt the endothelial cell membrane, providing a possible explanation for the angiostatic activity of the peptide. PMID:16403516

  5. Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Metastatic Activity of Synthetic Phosphoethanolamine

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Adilson Kleber; Freitas, Vanessa Morais; Levy, Débora; Ruiz, Jorge Luiz Mária; Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo; Rici, Rose Eli Grassi; Filho, Otaviano Mendonça R.; Chierice, Gilberto Orivaldo; Maria, Durvanei Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common type of kidney cancer, and represents the third most common urological malignancy. Despite the advent of targeted therapies for RCC and the improvement of the lifespan of patients, its cost-effectiveness restricted the therapeutic efficacy. In a recent report, we showed that synthetic phosphoethanolamine (Pho-s) has a broad antitumor activity on a variety of tumor cells and showed potent inhibitor effects on tumor progress in vivo. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that murine renal carcinoma (Renca) is more sensitive to Pho-s when compared to normal immortalized rat proximal tubule cells (IRPTC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In vitro anti-angiogenic activity assays show that Pho-s inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, migration and tube formation. In addition, Pho-s has anti-proliferative effects on HUVEC by inducing a cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. It causes a decrease in cyclin D1 mRNA, VEGFR1 gene transcription and VEGFR1 receptor expression. Pho-s also induces nuclear fragmentation and affects the organization of the cytoskeleton through the disruption of actin filaments. Additionally, Pho-s induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. The putative therapeutic potential of Pho-s was validated in a renal carcinoma model, on which our remarkable in vivo results show that Pho-s potentially inhibits lung metastasis in nude mice, with a superior efficacy when compared to Sunitinib. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our findings provide evidence that Pho-s is a compound that potently inhibits lung metastasis, suggesting that it is a promising novel candidate drug for future developments. PMID:23516420

  6. Modulating Antiangiogenic Resistance by Inhibiting the Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 Pathway in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Yuan; Wei, Jun; Piao, Yuji; Fuller, Gregory; Qiao, Wei; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the mechanism of treatment failure of VEGF signaling inhibitors for malignant glioma patients would provide insight into approaches to overcome therapeutic resistance. In this study, we demonstrate that human glioblastoma tumors failing bevacizumab have an increase in the mean percentage of p-STAT3-expressing cells compared to samples taken from patients failing non-antiangiogenic therapy containing regimens. Likewise, in murine xenograft models of glioblastoma, the mean percentage of p-STAT3-expressing cells in the gliomas resistant to antiangiogenic therapy was markedly elevated relative to controls. Administration of the JAK/STAT3 inhibitor AZD1480 alone and in combination with cediranib reduced the infiltration of VEGF inhibitor-induced p-STAT3 macrophages. Thus, the combination of AZD1480 with cediranib markedly reduced tumor volume, and microvascular density, indicating that up regulation of the STAT3 pathway can mediate resistance to antiangiogenic therapy and combinational approaches may delay or overcome resistance. PMID:23013619

  7. Antiangiogenic and proapoptotic activities of allyl isothiocyanate inhibit ascites tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Akhilesh; D'Souza, Saritha S; Tickoo, Sanjay; Salimath, Bharathi P; Singh, H B

    2009-03-01

    The authors investigate the antiangiogenic and proapoptotic effects of mustard essential oil containing allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) and explore its mechanism of action on Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells. Swiss albino mice transplanted with EAT cells were used to study the effect of AITC. AITC was effective at a concentration of 10 mum as demonstrated by the inhibition of proliferation of EAT cells when compared with the normal HEK293 cells. It significantly reduced ascites secretion and tumor cell proliferation by about 80% and inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor expression in tumor-bearing mice in vivo. It also reduced vessel sprouting and exhibited potent antiangiogenic activity in the chorioallantoic membrane and cornea of the rat. AITC arrested the growth of EAT cells by inducing apoptosis and effectively arrested cell cycle progression at the G1 phase. The results clearly suggest that AITC inhibits tumor growth by both antiangiogenic and proapoptotic mechanisms.

  8. Biomarkers of evasive resistance predict disease progression in cancer patients treated with antiangiogenic therapies.

    PubMed

    Pircher, Andreas; Jöhrer, Karin; Kocher, Florian; Steiner, Normann; Graziadei, Ivo; Heidegger, Isabel; Pichler, Renate; Leonhartsberger, Nicolai; Kremser, Christian; Kern, Johann; Untergasser, Gerold; Gunsilius, Eberhard; Hilbe, Wolfgang

    2016-04-12

    Numerous antiangiogenic agents are approved for the treatment of oncological diseases. However, almost all patients develop evasive resistance mechanisms against antiangiogenic therapies. Currently no predictive biomarker for therapy resistance or response has been established. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify biomarkers predicting the development of therapy resistance in patients with hepatocellular cancer (n = 11), renal cell cancer (n = 7) and non-small cell lung cancer (n = 2). Thereby we measured levels of angiogenic growth factors, tumor perfusion, circulating endothelial cells (CEC), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) and tumor endothelial markers (TEM) in patients during the course of therapy with antiangiogenic agents, and correlated them with the time to antiangiogenic progression (aTTP). Importantly, at disease progression, we observed an increase of proangiogenic factors, upregulation of CEC/CEP levels and downregulation of TEMs, such as Robo4 and endothelial cell-specific chemotaxis regulator (ECSCR), reflecting the formation of torturous tumor vessels. Increased TEM expression levels tended to correlate with prolonged aTTP (ECSCR high = 275 days vs. ECSCR low = 92.5 days; p = 0.07 and for Robo4 high = 387 days vs. Robo4 low = 90.0 days; p = 0.08). This indicates that loss of vascular stabilization factors aggravates the development of antiangiogenic resistance. Thus, our observations confirm that CEP/CEC populations, proangiogenic cytokines and TEMs contribute to evasive resistance in antiangiogenic treated patients. Higher TEM expression during disease progression may have clinical and pathophysiological implications, however, validation of our results is warranted for further biomarker development.

  9. Biomarkers of evasive resistance predict disease progression in cancer patients treated with antiangiogenic therapies

    PubMed Central

    Pircher, Andreas; Jöhrer, Karin; Kocher, Florian; Steiner, Normann; Graziadei, Ivo; Heidegger, Isabel; Pichler, Renate; Leonhartsberger, Nicolai; Kremser, Christian; Kern, Johann; Untergasser, Gerold; Gunsilius, Eberhard; Hilbe, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Numerous antiangiogenic agents are approved for the treatment of oncological diseases. However, almost all patients develop evasive resistance mechanisms against antiangiogenic therapies. Currently no predictive biomarker for therapy resistance or response has been established. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify biomarkers predicting the development of therapy resistance in patients with hepatocellular cancer (n = 11), renal cell cancer (n = 7) and non-small cell lung cancer (n = 2). Thereby we measured levels of angiogenic growth factors, tumor perfusion, circulating endothelial cells (CEC), circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEP) and tumor endothelial markers (TEM) in patients during the course of therapy with antiangiogenic agents, and correlated them with the time to antiangiogenic progression (aTTP). Importantly, at disease progression, we observed an increase of proangiogenic factors, upregulation of CEC/CEP levels and downregulation of TEMs, such as Robo4 and endothelial cell-specific chemotaxis regulator (ECSCR), reflecting the formation of torturous tumor vessels. Increased TEM expression levels tended to correlate with prolonged aTTP (ECSCR high = 275 days vs. ECSCR low = 92.5 days; p = 0.07 and for Robo4 high = 387 days vs. Robo4 low = 90.0 days; p = 0.08). This indicates that loss of vascular stabilization factors aggravates the development of antiangiogenic resistance. Thus, our observations confirm that CEP/CEC populations, proangiogenic cytokines and TEMs contribute to evasive resistance in antiangiogenic treated patients. Higher TEM expression during disease progression may have clinical and pathophysiological implications, however, validation of our results is warranted for further biomarker development. PMID:26956051

  10. AE-941, a multifunctional antiangiogenic compound: trials in renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Ronald M

    2003-08-01

    The therapy of renal cell carcinoma remains a challenge for medical oncologists and urologists. During the past 10 years, the molecular abnormalities occurring in various subtypes of renal cancer, such as clear cell renal carcinoma, have been well described. The genetic abnormalities found in clear cell tumours involve chromosome 3p and, additionally, hypermethylation of the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) gene can be detected. The VHL protein is involved in the angiogenic cascade in non-hypoxic conditions, and the possible role of mutant or hypermethylated VHL protein in promoting angiogenesis is, therefore, of interest. The majority of patients with renal cell carcinoma who receive treatment, such as IL-2 and/or IFN, fail and develop progressive disease. Therapy is therefore inadequate and novel approaches, such as those inhibiting angiogenesis, are of interest. The agent AE-941 (Neovostat trade mark; AEterna) was developed based on the observation that shark cartilage may contain biologically active inhibitors of angiogenesis. A variety of in vitro and in vivo activities of this preparation have been identified. At the molecular level, AE-941 appears to exhibit four different potential mechanisms of action: modulation of matrix proteases; inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor binding to its receptor; induction of endothelial cell apoptosis; and stimulation of angiostatin production. The antitumour effects of AE-941 are seen in multiple murine models and involve not only effects on primary tumour growth but also on development of metastases. AE-941 is administered orally and has an excellent toxicity profile. Of interest are the findings in patients with renal cell carcinoma. Preliminary trials in this setting have suggested that responses to AE-941 occur and that patients receiving higher doses of this agent may have improved survival. Based on these preliminary data, a large, multi-institutional, randomised, Phase III trial of this agent has now been conducted in patients with metastatic clear cell carcinoma of the kidney. Over 300 patients have been entered into this trial, accrual is complete and results still remain preliminary. The clinical studies in a malignancy such as renal cell carcinoma will provide sentinel and potentially important observations on the clinical effectiveness of this agent.

  11. Synthesis and Evaluation of New 4-Chloro-2-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-5-(aliphatic/cyclic saturated amino)pyridazin-3(2H)-one Derivatives as Anticancer, Antiangiogenic, and Antioxidant Agents.

    PubMed

    Kamble, Vinod T; Sawant, Ajay S; Sawant, Sanjay S; Pisal, Parshuram M; Gacche, Rajesh N; Kamble, Sonali S; Kamble, Vilas A

    2015-05-01

    Pyridazinones are widely recognized as versatile scaffolds with a wide spectrum of biological activities. In the present work, a series of new 4-chloro-2-(3-chloro-4-fluorophenyl)-5-(aliphatic/cyclic saturated amino)pyridazin-3(2H)-one derivatives 4a-i were synthesized and characterized by spectral techniques. The inhibitory effects of the synthesized compounds 4a-i on the viability of three human cancer cell lines, HEP3BPN 11 (liver), MDA 453 (breast), and HL 60 (leukemia), were assessed using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay. Among the compounds 4a-i screened, 4g and 4i exhibited inhibitory activity very close to the standard methotrexate; therefore, these lead compounds were further tested for their potential to inhibit the proangiogenic cytokines involved in tumor progression. Compound 4g was found to be a potent antiangiogenic agent against TNFα, VEGF, FGFb, and TGFβ, whereas 4i showed potent antiangiogenic activity against TNFα, VEGF, FGFb, and leptin. All the compounds 4a-i were screened for their antioxidant activities using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazine (DPPH), OH, and superoxide anion radicals. Compound 4f showed better OH radical scavenging activity than the standard ascorbic acid. PMID:25846009

  12. Anti-angiogenic activity of macrolactin A and its succinyl derivative is mediated through inhibition of class I PI3K activity and its signaling.

    PubMed

    Kang, Youra; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Kim, Mi Yeong; Banskota, Suhrid; Gautam, Jaya; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, macrolactin compounds, macrolactin A (MA) and 7-O-succinyl macrolactin A (SMA), were investigated for their anti-angiogenic activities and action mechanism. MA and SMA inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis induced by three different classes of pro-angiogenic factors, VEGF, IL-8, and TNF-α. SMA exhibited stronger anti-angiogenic activity than MA, and such anti-angiogenic activity of SMA was consistently observed in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell-inoculated CAM assay showing dose-dependent suppression of tumor growth and tumor-induced angiogenesis. In an in vitro PI3K competitive activity assay, SMA induced concentration-dependent inhibition of class I PI3K isoforms, p110α, p110β, p110δ, and p110γ. In addition, non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src, which is involved in the activation of PI3K heterodimer, was suppressed by MA and SMA. Correspondingly, MA and SMA significantly inhibited the stimulus-induced phosphorylation of Akt, mTOR, p70S6K, and ribosomal S6 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). At the same time, the stimulus-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and activation of NF-κB were significantly suppressed by MA and SMA. Moreover, the macrolactins suppressed NF-κB-regulated HSP90 protein expression, which stabilizes phosphorylated Akt and NADPH oxidase. Suppression of NF-κB in macrolactin-treated HUVECs with concurrent inhibition of rS6 indicates that MAs effectively block angiogenesis through down-regulation of genes related to angiogenesis at both transcriptional and translational levels. Taken together, the results demonstrate that anti-angiogenic effect of MA and SMA is mediated through inhibition of PI3K/Akt and NADPH oxidase-derived ROS/NF-κB signaling pathways. These results further indicate that MA and SMA may be applicable for treatment of various diseases associated with angiogenesis.

  13. Apelin as a marker for monitoring the tumor vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Takara, Kazuhiro; Yamakawa, Daishi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents transiently normalize tumor vessel structure and improve vessel function, thereby providing a window of opportunity for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Currently, there are no reliable predictors or markers reflecting this vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Apelin, the expression of which is regulated by hypoxia, and which has well-described roles in tumor progression, is an easily measured secreted protein. Here, we show that apelin can be used as a marker for the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Mice bearing s.c. tumors resulting from inoculation of the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 were treated with a single injection of bevacizumab, a mAb neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor. Tumor growth, vessel density, pericyte coverage, tumor hypoxia, and small molecule delivery were determined at four different times after treatment with bevacizumab (days 1, 3, 5, and 8). Tumor growth and vessel density were significantly reduced after bevacizumab treatment, which also significantly increased tumor vessel maturity, and improved tumor hypoxia and small molecule delivery between days 3 and 5. These effects abated by day 8, suggesting that a time window for vessel normalization was opened between days 3 and 5 during bevacizumab treatment in this model. Apelin mRNA expression and plasma apelin levels decreased transiently at day 5 post-treatment, coinciding with vessel normalization. Thus, apelin is a potential indicator of the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26475217

  14. Apelin as a marker for monitoring the tumor vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Takara, Kazuhiro; Yamakawa, Daishi; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic agents transiently normalize tumor vessel structure and improve vessel function, thereby providing a window of opportunity for enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Currently, there are no reliable predictors or markers reflecting this vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Apelin, the expression of which is regulated by hypoxia, and which has well-described roles in tumor progression, is an easily measured secreted protein. Here, we show that apelin can be used as a marker for the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy. Mice bearing s.c. tumors resulting from inoculation of the colon adenocarcinoma cell line HT29 were treated with a single injection of bevacizumab, a mAb neutralizing vascular endothelial growth factor. Tumor growth, vessel density, pericyte coverage, tumor hypoxia, and small molecule delivery were determined at four different times after treatment with bevacizumab (days 1, 3, 5, and 8). Tumor growth and vessel density were significantly reduced after bevacizumab treatment, which also significantly increased tumor vessel maturity, and improved tumor hypoxia and small molecule delivery between days 3 and 5. These effects abated by day 8, suggesting that a time window for vessel normalization was opened between days 3 and 5 during bevacizumab treatment in this model. Apelin mRNA expression and plasma apelin levels decreased transiently at day 5 post-treatment, coinciding with vessel normalization. Thus, apelin is a potential indicator of the vessel normalization window during antiangiogenic therapy.

  15. Anti-angiogenic activity of Morinda citrifolia extracts and its chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Beh, Hooi-Kheng; Seow, Lay-Jing; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Abdul Majid, Amin Malik Shah; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Ismail, Norhayati; Ismail, Zhari

    2012-01-01

    Morinda citrifolia L. has been used for the treatment of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect of M. citrifolia fruits and leaves. Anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in vivo using the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and isolation were performed to identify the active constituent, and high-performance liquid chromatography analysis was then used to quantify the amount of this active constituent in the active extracts and fraction. The methanol extracts of fruits and leaves of M. citrifolia and the subsequent chloroform fraction of the fruit methanolic extract were found to have potential anti-angiogenic activity and were more potent compared to suramin. Scopoletin was identified as one of the chemical constituents that may be partly responsible for the anti-angiogenic activity of M. citrifolia fruits. The present findings further support the use of M. citrifolia in cancer or other pathological conditions related to angiogenesis.

  16. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs.

    PubMed

    El-Aarag, Bishoy Y A; Kasai, Tomonari; Zahran, Magdy A H; Zakhary, Nadia I; Shigehiro, Tsukasa; Sekhar, Sreeja C; Agwa, Hussein S; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kakuta, Hiroki; Seno, Masaharu

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer. The anti-angiogenicity of thalidomide has inspired a second wave of research on this teratogenic drug. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of two thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs by studying their anti-proliferative effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Their action on the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 was also assessed. Furthermore, their effect on angiogenesis was evaluated through wound healing, migration, tube formation, and nitric oxide (NO) assays. Results illustrated that the proliferation of HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells was not significantly affected by thalidomide at 6.25-100μM. Thalidomide failed to block angiogenesis at similar concentrations. By contrast, thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs exhibited significant anti-proliferative action on HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells without causing cytotoxicity and also showed powerful anti-angiogenicity in wound healing, migration, tube formation, and NO assays. Thalidomide analogs 1 and 2 demonstrated more potent activity to suppress expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 than thalidomide. Analog 1 consistently, showed the highest potency and efficacy in all the assays. Taken together, our results support further development and evaluation of novel thalidomide analogs as anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agents.

  17. Effects of 5HPP-33,an antiangiogenic thalidomide analog, in mouse whole embryo culture

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thalidomide is a well-known example of a teratogen which has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis. As a result of its targeted effect on immature blood vessels, anti-angiogenic specific chemical analogs were developed to maximize this mechanism of thalidomide e...

  18. In vitro anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs.

    PubMed

    El-Aarag, Bishoy Y A; Kasai, Tomonari; Zahran, Magdy A H; Zakhary, Nadia I; Shigehiro, Tsukasa; Sekhar, Sreeja C; Agwa, Hussein S; Mizutani, Akifumi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kakuta, Hiroki; Seno, Masaharu

    2014-08-01

    Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as a promising strategy in the treatment of cancer. The anti-angiogenicity of thalidomide has inspired a second wave of research on this teratogenic drug. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic activities of two thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs by studying their anti-proliferative effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. Their action on the expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 was also assessed. Furthermore, their effect on angiogenesis was evaluated through wound healing, migration, tube formation, and nitric oxide (NO) assays. Results illustrated that the proliferation of HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells was not significantly affected by thalidomide at 6.25-100μM. Thalidomide failed to block angiogenesis at similar concentrations. By contrast, thalidomide dithiocarbamate analogs exhibited significant anti-proliferative action on HUVECs and MDA-MB-231 cells without causing cytotoxicity and also showed powerful anti-angiogenicity in wound healing, migration, tube formation, and NO assays. Thalidomide analogs 1 and 2 demonstrated more potent activity to suppress expression levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, VEGF165, and MMP-2 than thalidomide. Analog 1 consistently, showed the highest potency and efficacy in all the assays. Taken together, our results support further development and evaluation of novel thalidomide analogs as anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic agents. PMID:24859059

  19. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ): diagnostic criteria and possible pathogenic mechanisms of an unexpected anti-angiogenic side effect.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Dileep; Ivanovski, Saso; Slevin, Mark; Hamlet, Stephen; Pop, Tudor S; Brinzaniuc, Klara; Petcu, Eugen B; Miroiu, Rodica I

    2013-01-14

    Recently, bisphosphonates (BPs) have been widely used in medical practice as anti-resorptive agents owing to their anti-osteoclatic action. In addition, these compounds are also used for their analgesic action and their potential anti-tumour effect. Patients treated with BPs may subsequently develop osteonecrosis of the jaw or maxillary bone after minor local trauma including dental work, recently labelled as bisphosphonate osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ). However, the etiopathogenic mechanisms of this pathological condition are poorly understood. Although, several pathways have been proposed for BRONJ occurrence, no single model can explain all morphological changes observed at the macro- and microscopic level. Recent research suggests that BPs may promote an anti-angiogenic effect which contributes directly to the clinical features associated with BRONJ. Remarkably, the anti-angiogenic effect promoting BRONJ might be in keeping with the anti-neoplastic action of BPs. The current review, presents clinical diagnostic criteria. In addition, based on our own experience we describe the histopathological criteria for diagnosis of BRONJ and the possible pathways which may lead to this frustrating pathological condition.

  20. The inhibition of MAPK potentiates the anti-angiogenic efficacy of mTOR inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Dormond-Meuwly, Anne; Roulin, Didier; Dufour, Marc; Benoit, Michael; Demartines, Nicolas; Dormond, Olivier

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} Targeting mTOR in endothelial cell activates MAPK. {yields} Blocking MAPK enhances the anti-angiogenic effects of mTOR inhibitors. {yields} The anti-angiogenic efficacy of ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR is superior to that of rapamycin. -- Abstract: The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) which is part of two functionally distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, plays an important role in vascular endothelial cells. Indeed, the inhibition of mTOR with an allosteric inhibitor such as rapamycin reduces the growth of endothelial cell in vitro and inhibits angiogenesis in vivo. Recent studies have shown that blocking mTOR results in the activation of other prosurvival signals such as Akt or MAPK which counteract the growth inhibitory properties of mTOR inhibitors. However, little is known about the interactions between mTOR and MAPK in endothelial cells and their relevance to angiogenesis. Here we found that blocking mTOR with ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR or with rapamycin induced the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in endothelial cells. Downregulation of mTORC1 but not mTORC2 had similar effects showing that the inhibition of mTORC1 is responsible for the activation of MAPK. Treatment of endothelial cells with mTOR inhibitors in combination with MAPK inhibitors reduced endothelial cell survival, proliferation, migration and tube formation more significantly than either inhibition alone. Similarly, in a tumor xenograft model, the anti-angiogenic efficacy of mTOR inhibitors was enhanced by the pharmacological blockade of MAPK. Taken together these results show that blocking mTORC1 in endothelial cells activates MAPK and that a combined inhibition of MAPK and mTOR has additive anti-angiogenic effects. They also provide a rationale to target both mTOR and MAPK simultaneously in anti-angiogenic treatment.

  1. Development of a novel class of mitochondrial ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) modulators as promising antiangiogenic leads.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hye Jin; Cho, Misun; Kim, Yonghyo; Han, Gyoonhee; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2014-10-01

    Recently, we identified a novel therapeutic target and a small molecule for regulating angiogenesis. Our study showed that ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein (UQCRB) of the mitochondrial complex III plays a crucial role in hypoxia-induced angiogenesis via mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated signaling. Herein, we developed new synthetic small molecules that specifically bind to UQCRB and regulate its function. To improve the pharmacological properties of 6-((1-hydroxynaphthalen-4-ylamino)dioxysulfone)-2H-naphtho[1,8-bc]thiophen-2-one (HDNT), a small molecule that targets UQCRB, a series of HDNT derivatives were designed and synthesized. Several derivatives showed a significant increase in hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) inhibitory potency compared to HDNT. The compounds bound to UQCRB and suppressed mitochondrial ROS-mediated hypoxic signaling, resulting in potent inhibition of angiogenesis without inducing cytotoxicity. Notably, one of these new derivatives significantly suppressed tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model. Therefore, these mitochondrial UQCRB modulators could be potential leads for the development of novel antiangiogenic agents.

  2. Talin1 targeting potentiates anti-angiogenic therapy by attenuating invasion and stem-like features of glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wonyoung; Kim, Sung Heon; Cho, Hee Jin; Jin, Juyoun; Lee, Jeongwu; Joo, Kyeung Min; Nam, Do-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) possesses florid angiogenesis. However, the anti-angiogenic agent, Bevacizumab, did not improve overall survival of GBM patients. For more durable anti-angiogenic treatment, we interrogated resistant mechanisms of GBM against Bevacizumab. Serial orthotopic transplantation of in vivo Bevacizumab-treated GBM cells provoked complete refractoriness to the anti-angiogenic treatment. These tumors were also highly enriched with malignant phenotypes such as invasiveness, epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and stem-like features. Through transcriptome analysis, we identified that Talin1 (TLN1) significantly increased in the refractory GBMs. Inhibition of TLN1 not only attenuated malignant characteristics of GBM cells but also reversed the resistance to the Bevacizumab treatment. These data implicate TLN1 as a novel therapeutic target for GBM to overcome resistance to anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:26336988

  3. Preclinical Assessment of the Efficacy of Anti-Angiogenic Therapies in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Barral, Matthias; Raballand, Annemilaï; Dohan, Anthony; Soyer, Philippe; Pocard, Marc; Bonnin, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a complex affliction in which comorbidities can bias global outcome of cancer therapy. Better methods are thus warranted to directly assess effects of therapy on tumor angiogenesis and growth. As tumor angiogenesis is invariably associated with changes in local blood flow, we assessed the utility of ultrasound imaging in evaluation of the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy in a spontaneous transgenic mouse model of HCC. Blood flow velocities were measured monthly in the celiac trunk before and after administration of sorafenib or bevacizumab at doses corresponding to those currently used in clinical practice. Concordant with clinical experience, sorafenib, but not bevacizumab, reduced microvascular density and suppressed tumor growth relative to controls. Evolution of blood flow velocities correlated with microvascular density and with the evolution of tumor size. Ultrasound imaging thus provides a useful non-invasive tool for preclinical evaluation of new anti-angiogenic therapies for HCC. PMID:26626491

  4. Modeling and predicting optimal treatment scheduling between the antiangiogenic drug sunitinib and irinotecan in preclinical settings.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S; Tod, M; Ouerdani, A; Emde, A; Yarden, Y; Adda Berkane, A; Kassour, S; Wei, M X; Freyer, G; You, B; Grenier, E; Ribba, B

    2015-12-01

    We present a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations used to quantify the complex dynamics of the interactions between tumor growth, vasculature generation, and antiangiogenic treatment. The primary dataset consists of longitudinal tumor size measurements (1,371 total observations) in 105 colorectal tumor-bearing mice. Mice received single or combination administration of sunitinib, an antiangiogenic agent, and/or irinotecan, a cytotoxic agent. Depending on the dataset, parameter estimation was performed either using a mixed-effect approach or by nonlinear least squares. Through a log-likelihood ratio test, we conclude that there is a potential synergistic interaction between sunitinib when administered in combination with irinotecan in preclinical settings. Model simulations were then compared to data from a follow-up preclinical experiment. We conclude that the model has predictive value in identifying the therapeutic window in which the timing between the administrations of these two drugs is most effective. PMID:26904386

  5. Longitudinal Tracing of Spontaneous Regression and Anti-angiogenic Response of Individual Microadenomas during Colon Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Pilhan; Kim, Jun Ki; Kim, Yi Rang; Fukumura, Dai; Yun, Seok Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for the progression of cancer, but its involvement in the initial phase of colon tumorigenesis is not well understood. Using intravital endomicroscopy, we visualized the natural history of early pre-tumorous lesions and adenomas in the colon of conditional Apc-knockout and Apc/Kras double mutant mouse models. Early lesions emerged about 4 weeks after the onset of somatic mutations, accompanying vascular dilation when the size of lesions reached about 200 μm, but most lesions regressed spontaneously and cleared within 10 weeks after their emergence. Anti-angiogenic treatments with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) antagonists reduced the size of the early lesions and the number of polyps. We found surprisingly that anti-angiogenic treatments delayed the natural clearance of transient lesions by up to several weeks in both genetic models. The results represent the previously unexpected role of early angiogenesis on the spontaneous regression of early-stage colon tumors. PMID:25897337

  6. In vitro and in vivo anti-angiogenic activity of girinimbine isolated from Murraya koenigii

    PubMed Central

    Iman, Venoos; Karimian, Hamed; Mohan, Syam; Hobani, Yahya Hasan; Noordin, Mohamed Ibrahim; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Noor, Suzita Mohd

    2015-01-01

    Girinimbine is a carbazole alkaloid isolated from the stem bark and root of Murraya koenigii. Here we report that girinimbine is an inhibitor of angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. MTT results showed that girinimbine inhibited proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells, while results from endothelial cell invasion, migration, tube formation, and wound healing assays demonstrated significant time- and dose-dependent inhibition by girinimbine. A proteome profiler array done on girinimbine-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells showed that girinimbine had mediated regulation of pro-angiogenic and anti-angiogenic proteins. The anti-angiogenic potential of girinimbine was also evidenced in vivo in the zebrafish embryo model wherein girinimbine inhibited neo vessel formation in zebrafish embryos following 24 hours of exposure. Together, these results showed that girinimbine could effectively suppress angiogenesis, suggestive of its therapeutic potential as a novel angiogenesis inhibitor. PMID:25767375

  7. Evaluation of antiangiogenic and antoxidant properties of Parkia speciosa Hassk extracts.

    PubMed

    Aisha, Abdalrahim F A; Abu-Salah, Khalid M; Alrokayan, Salman A; Ismail, Zhari; Abdulmajid, Amin Malik Shah

    2012-01-01

    Parkia speciosa Hassk is a traditional medicinal plant with strong antioxidant and hypoglycemic properties. This study aims to investigate the total phenolic content, antioxidant, cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effect of eight extracts from P. speciosa empty pods. The extracts were found to contain high levels of total phenols and demonstrated strong antioxidant effect in DPPH scavenging test. In rat aortic rings, P. speciosa extracts significantly inhibited the microvessel outgrowth from aortic tissue explants by more than 50%. The antiangiogenic activity was further confirmed by tube formation on matrigel matrix involving human endothelial cells. Cytotoxic effect was evaluated by XTT test on endothelial cells as a model of angiogenesis versus a panel of human cancer and normal cell lines. Basically the extracts did not show acute cytotoxicity. Morphology examination of endothelial cells indicated induction of autophagy characterized by formation of plenty of cytoplasmic vacuoles. The extracts were found to work by decreasing expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in endothelial cells. PMID:22186303

  8. Prior exposure to chemotherapy: a marker of sensitivity and selection for antiangiogenic therapy in breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Xynos, Ioannis D; Tanna, Nikhil; Patten, Darren K; Palmieri, Carlo

    2014-02-01

    The identification of patients who are more likely to derive benefit from antiangiogenic therapy is a key to refine patient selection and so maximize clinical benefit, and reduce unnecessary treatment costs. Improved patient selection will equally be effective in minimizing the exposure of non-eligible patients to ineffectual treatment which could be associated with adverse effects as well as delaying effective treatment. Herein, we review the literature from clinical trials suggesting that the addition of antiangiogenic agents to chemotherapy for the treatment of HER-2 negative metastatic breast cancer in patients previously exposed to chemotherapy may deliver differential therapeutic benefit and may serve as a selection criteria in the current absence of a robust biomarker.

  9. Antiangiogenic activity of mononuclear copper(II) polypyridyl complexes for the treatment of cancers.

    PubMed

    Nagababu, Penumaka; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Thulasiram, Bathini; Devi, C Shobha; Satyanarayana, S; Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2015-07-01

    A series of four new mononuclear copper(II) polypyridyl complexes (1-4) have been designed, developed, and thoroughly characterized by several physicochemical techniques. The CT-DNA binding properties of 1-4 have been investigated by absorption, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. All the complexes especially 1 and 4 exhibit cytotoxicity toward several cancer cell lines, suggesting their anticancer properties as observed by several in vitro assays. Additionally, the complexes show inhibition of endothelial cell (HUVECs) proliferation, indicating their antiangiogenic nature. In vivo chick embryo angiogenesis assay again confirms the antiangiogenic properties of 1 and 4. The formation of excessive intracellular ROS (H2O2 and O2(•-)) and upregulation of BAX induced by copper(II) complexes may be the plausible mechanisms behind their anticancer activities. The present study may offer a basis for the development of new transition metal complexes through suitable choice of ligands for cancer therapeutics by controlling tumor angiogenesis.

  10. Antiangiogenic agents and the skin: cutaneous adverse effects of sorafenib, sunitinib, and bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Ara, M; Pastushenko, E

    2014-12-01

    As new antiangiogenic therapies have been introduced and added to the therapeutic arsenal against various types of cancer, previously unknown adverse effects have been detected. These effects negatively impact patients' quality of life and can even make it necessary to suspend treatment. Adverse skin reactions occur in 90% of patients treated with angiogenesis inhibitors. In some cases, a correlation has been observed between the severity of reactions and treatment efficacy and tumor response. It is therefore extremely important that dermatologists be able to recognize and manage these reactions. Moreover, in order to avoid the unjustified withdrawal of potentially life-extending treatments, dermatologists must be able to differentiate between non-life-threatening reactions and life-threatening reactions that necessitate the suspension of treatment. In this review article, we analyze the main cutaneous adverse effects of the most common antiangiogenic agents. PMID:24766821

  11. Resistance to antiangiogenic therapy is directed by vascular phenotype, vessel stabilization, and maturation in malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Scheffrahn, Inka; Bartling, Sönke; Weis, Joachim; von Felbert, Verena; Middleton, Mark; Kato, Masahi; Ergün, Süleyman; Augustin, Hellmut G.

    2010-01-01

    Angiogenesis is not only dependent on endothelial cell invasion and proliferation, it also requires pericyte coverage of vascular sprouts for stabilization of vascular walls. Clinical efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors targeting the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling pathway is still limited to date. We hypothesized that the level of vessel maturation is critically involved in the response to antiangiogenic therapies. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated the vascular network in spontaneously developing melanomas of MT/ret transgenic mice after using PTK787/ZK222584 for anti-VEGF therapy but also analyzed human melanoma metastases taken at clinical relapse in patients undergoing adjuvant treatment using bevacizumab. Both experimental settings showed that tumor vessels, which are resistant to anti-VEGF therapy, are characterized by enhanced vessel diameter and normalization of the vascular bed by coverage of mature pericytes and immunoreactivity for desmin, NG-2, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, and the late-stage maturity marker α smooth muscle actin. Our findings emphasize that the level of mural cell differentiation and stabilization of the vascular wall significantly contribute to the response toward antiangiogenic therapy in melanoma. This study may be useful in paving the way toward a more rational development of second generation antiangiogenic combination therapies and in providing, for the first time, a murine model to study this. PMID:20194633

  12. Antiangiogenic activity of low-temperature lysozyme from a marine bacterium in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Liu, Jincheng; Su, Ai; Sun, Mi; Wang, Chunbo

    2009-11-01

    We extracted marine low-temperature lysozyme (MLTL), a novel lysozyme, from a marine microorganism through fermentation. Our previous study suggested that a low molecular weight (16 kDa) may exert anti-tumor activity through antiangiogenesis. In this study, we extracted a high weight (39 kDa) and investigated its antiangiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro. Using zebrafish embryos as an in vivo study model, we found that treatment with MLTL significantly inhibited the growth of subintestinal vessels (SIVs) in a dose-dependent manner and that 400 µg/ml MLTL was sufficient to block the growth of SIVs. An in vitro study conducted using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) revealed that MLTL suppressed the proliferation, migration and tube formation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, assays by flow cytometry and DNA electrophoresis indicated that MLTL was able to induce apoptosis of HUVECs. Moreover, further study demonstrated that the disruption of intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis may play an important role in MLTL induced apoptosis of HUVECs. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate for the first time that MLTL inhibits angiogenesis through its pleiotropic effects on vascular endothelial cells and induces apoptosis through regulation of cellular Ca2+ levels. The results of this study also revealed a possible mechanism underlying the antiangiogenic effect of MLTL and suggested that MLTL may be a promising new antiangiogenic agent for use in cancer therapy.

  13. Endothelial Side Population Cells Contribute to Tumor Angiogenesis and Antiangiogenic Drug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Naito, Hisamichi; Wakabayashi, Taku; Kidoya, Hiroyasu; Muramatsu, Fumitaka; Takara, Kazuhiro; Eino, Daisuke; Yamane, Keitaro; Iba, Tomohiro; Takakura, Nobuyuki

    2016-06-01

    Angiogenesis plays a crucial role in tumor growth, with an undisputed contribution of resident endothelial cells (EC) to new blood vessels in the tumor. Here, we report the definition of a small population of vascular-resident stem/progenitor-like EC that contributes predominantly to new blood vessel formation in the tumor. Although the surface markers of this population are similar to other ECs, those from the lung vasculature possess colony-forming ability in vitro and contribute to angiogenesis in vivo These specific ECs actively proliferate in lung tumors, and the percentage of this population significantly increases in the tumor vasculature relative to normal lung tissue. Using genetic recombination and bone marrow transplant models, we show that these cells are phenotypically true ECs and do not originate from hematopoietic cells. After treatment of tumors with antiangiogenic drugs, these specific ECs selectively survived and remained in the tumor. Together, our results established that ECs in the peripheral vasculature are heterogeneous and that stem/progenitor-like ECs play an indispensable role in tumor angiogenesis as EC-supplying cells. The lack of susceptibility of these ECs to antiangiogenic drugs may account for resistance of the tumor to this drug type. Thus, inhibiting these ECs might provide a promising strategy to overcome antiangiogenic drug resistance. Cancer Res; 76(11); 3200-10. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27197162

  14. Platycodin D inhibits tumor growth by antiangiogenic activity via blocking VEGFR2-mediated signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Luan, Xin; Gao, Yun-Ge; Guan, Ying-Yun; Xu, Jian-Rong; Lu, Qin; Zhao, Mei; Liu, Ya-Rong; Liu, Hai-Jun; Fang, Chao; Chen, Hong-Zhuan

    2014-11-15

    Platycodin D (PD) is an active component mainly isolated from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum. Recent studies proved that PD exhibited inhibitory effect on proliferation, migration, invasion and xenograft growth of diverse cancer cell lines. However, whether PD is suppressive for angiogenesis, an important hallmark in cancer development, remains unknown. Here, we found that PD could dose-dependently inhibit human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation, motility, migration and tube formation. PD also significantly inhibited angiogenesis in the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). Moreover, the antiangiogenic activity of PD contributed to its in vivo anticancer potency shown in the decreased microvessel density and delayed growth of HCT-15 xenograft in mice with no overt toxicity. Western blot analysis indicated that PD inhibited the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream protein kinase including PLCγ1, JAK2, FAK, Src, and Akt in endothelial cells. Molecular docking simulation showed that PD formed hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions within the ATP binding pocket of VEGFR2 kinase domain. The present study firstly revealed the high antiangiogenic activity and the underlying molecular basis of PD, suggesting that PD may be a potential antiangiogenic agent for angiogenesis-related diseases. - Highlights: • Platycodin D inhibits HUVEC proliferation, motility, migration and tube formation. • Platycodin D inhibits the angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane. • Platycodin D suppresses the angiogenesis and growth of HCT-15 xenograft in mice. • Platycodin D inhibits the phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and downstream kinases in HUVEC.

  15. Collateral damage: toxic effects of targeted antiangiogenic therapies in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Rebecca L; Sood, Anil K; Coleman, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    First-line chemotherapy fails in more than 20% of patients with epithelial ovarian cancer and about 40–50% of women who respond to initial treatment relapse within 2 years. In the recurrent setting, second-line chemotherapeutic agents have a 15–20% response rate with no cures. Fortunately, clinical investigations that have assessed the efficacy of new, biologically targeted therapies have reinvigorated therapeutic options for patients living with ovarian and other malignancies. In view of the fact that ovarian cancer is one of the most angiogenic neoplasms, there is great hope that implementing targeted agents with antiangiogenic properties will improve outcomes. However, as experience grows with the antitumour activity of these drugs, new toxic effects are emerging. The effects of antiangiogenic agents on molecules and processes that also have physiologically important roles in healthy tissues are at the crux of these toxic effects, or “collateral damage”. This review discusses the leading toxic effects encountered and anticipated in clinical investigation and practice with antiangiogenic agents in patients with ovarian cancer, with particular focus on potential management strategies. PMID:20226736

  16. Inhibition of VEGF mediated corneal neovascularization by anti-angiogenic peptide nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Senturk, Berna; Cubuk, M Ozgur; Ozmen, M Cuneyt; Aydin, Bahri; Guler, Mustafa O; Tekinay, Ayse B

    2016-11-01

    Atypical angiogenesis is one of the major symptoms of severe eye diseases, including corneal neovascularization, and the complex nature of abnormal vascularization requires targeted methods with high biocompatibility. The targeting of VEGF is the most common approach for preventing angiogenesis, and the LPPR peptide sequence is known to strongly inhibit VEGF activity by binding to the VEGF receptor neuropilin-1. Here, the LPPR epitope is presented on a peptide amphiphile nanofiber system to benefit from multivalency and increase the anti-angiogenic function of the epitope. Peptide amphiphile nanofibers are especially useful for ocular delivery applications due to their ability to remain on the site of interest for extended periods of time, facilitating the long-term presentation of bioactive sequences. Consequently, the LPPR sequence was integrated into a self-assembled peptide amphiphile network to increase its efficiency in the prevention of neovascularization. Anti-angiogenic effects of the peptide nanofibers were investigated by using both in vitro and in vivo models. LPPR-PA nanofibers inhibited endothelial cell proliferation, tube formation, and migration to a greater extent than the soluble LPPR peptide in vitro. In addition, the LPPR-PA nanofiber system led to the prevention of vascular maturation and the regression of angiogenesis in a suture-induced corneal angiogenesis model. These results show that the anti-angiogenic activity exhibited by LPPR peptide nanofibers may be utilized as a promising approach for the treatment of corneal angiogenesis. PMID:27616429

  17. Anti-angiogenic activity and intracellular distribution of epigallocatechin-3-gallate analogs.

    PubMed

    Piyaviriyakul, Suratsawadee; Shimizu, Kosuke; Asakawa, Tomohiro; Kan, Toshiyuki; Siripong, Pongpun; Oku, Naoto

    2011-01-01

    Angiogenesis, a process of construction of new blood capillaries, is crucial for tumor progression and metastasis. Our previous studies demonstrated that a component of green tea, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), suppressed angiogenesis and subsequent tumor growth. In this study, to elucidate the detailed mechanism of the anti-angiogenic effect of EGCG and to enhance the antiangiogenic activity of EGCG, we designed and synthesized EGCG derivatives and examined their biological effect and intracellular localization in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). EGCG derivatives aminopentyl dideoxyEGCG and aminopentyl dideoxygallocatechin-3-gallate (cis-APDOEGCG and trans-APDOEGCG) had an enhanced inhibitory effect on the proliferation when used at more than 30 µM. To elucidate antiangiogenic effect of EGCG, we used a 1 µM concentration for subsequent experiments where no effect on proliferation was observed. These EGCG derivatives showed a stronger inhibitory effect on migration, invasion, and tube formation by HUVECs than the non-derivatized EGCG. Furthermore, the derivatives induced a change in the distribution of F-actin and subsequent morphology of the HUVECs. Next, we synthesized fluorescent TokyoGreen-conjugated EGCG derivative (EGCG-TG) and observed the distribution in HUVECs under a confocal laser scanning microscope. Abundant fluorescence was observed in the cells after a 3-h incubation, and was localized in mitochondria as well as in cytoplasm. These results suggest that EGCG was incorporated into the HUVECs, that a portion of it entered into their mitochondria. PMID:21372391

  18. Clinical Implication of Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Regorafenib in Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Jung Min; Paeng, Jin Chul; Won, Jae-Kyung; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Jeong, Seung-Yong; Park, Kyu Joo; Lee, Kyung-Hun; Kim, Jee Hyun; Kim, Tae-You

    2015-01-01

    Background Regorafenib induces distinct radiological changes that represent its anti-angiogenic effect. However, clinical implication of the changes is unclear. Methods Tumor attenuation as measured by Hounsfield units (HU) in contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and cavitary changes of lung metastases were analyzed in association with treatment outcome of metastatic colorectal cancer patients (N = 80) treated with regorafenib in a prospective study. Results 141 lesions in 72 patients were analyzed with HU. After 2 cycles of regorafenib, 87.5% of patients showed decrease of HU (Median change -23.9%, range -61.5%–20.7%). Lesional attenuation change was modestly associated with metabolic changes of 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography-CT (Pearson’s r = 0.37, p = 0.002). Among 53 patients with lung metastases, 17 (32.1%) developed cavitary changes. There were no differences in disease control rate, progression-free survival, or overall survival according to the radiological changes. At the time of progressive disease (PD) according to RECIST 1.1, HU was lower than baseline in 86.0% (43/50) and cavitary change of lung metastasis persisted without refilling in 84.6% (11/13). Conclusion Regorafenib showed prominent anti-angiogenic effect in colorectal cancer, but the changes were not associated with treatment outcome. However, the anti-angiogenic effects persisted at the time of PD, which suggests that we may need to develop new treatment strategies. PMID:26671465

  19. Human RNASET2 derivatives as potential anti-angiogenic agents: actin binding sequence identification and characterization

    PubMed Central

    Nesiel-Nuttman, Liron; Doron, Shani; Schwartz, Betty; Shoseyov, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Human RNASET2 (hRNASET2) has been demonstrated to exert antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic effects independent of its ribonuclease capacity. We suggested that RNASET2 exerts its antiangiogenic and antitumorigenic activities via binding to actin and consequently inhibits cell motility. We focused herein on the identification of the actin binding site of hRNASET2 using defined sequences encountered within the whole hRNASET2 protein. For that purpose we designed 29 different hRNASET2-derived peptides. The 29 peptides were examined for their ability to bind immobilized actin. Two selected peptides-A103-Q159 consisting of 57 amino acids and peptide K108-K133 consisting of 26 amino acids were demonstrated to have the highest actin binding ability and concomitantly the most potent anti-angiogenic activity. Further analyses on the putative mechanisms associated with angiogenesis inhibition exerted by peptide K108-K133 involved its location during treatment within the HUVE cells. Peptide K108-K133 readily penetrates the cell membrane within 10 min of incubation. In addition, supplementation with angiogenin delays the entrance of peptide K108-K133 to the cell suggesting competition on the same cell internalization route. The peptide was demonstrated to co-localize with angiogenin, suggesting that both molecules bind analogous cellular epitopes, similar to our previously reported data for ACTIBIND and trT2-50. PMID:25815360

  20. Efficacy and Toxicity Assessment of Different Antibody Based Antiangiogenic Drugs by Computational Docking Method

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sayan; Chatterjee, Gopa; Ghosh, Moumita; Das, Bishwajit

    2016-01-01

    Bevacizumab and trastuzumab are two antibody based antiangiogenic drugs that are in clinical practice for the treatment of different cancers. Presently applications of these drugs are based on the empirical choice of clinical experts that follow towards population based clinical trials and, hence, their molecular efficacies in terms of quantitative estimates are not being explored. Moreover, different clinical trials with these drugs showed different toxicity symptoms in patients. Here, using molecular docking study, we made an attempt to reveal the molecular rationale regarding their efficacy and off-target toxicity. Though our study reinforces their antiangiogenic potentiality and, among the two, trastuzumab has much higher efficacy; however, this study also reveals that compared to bevacizumab, trastuzumab has higher toxicity effect, specially on the cardiovascular system. This study also reveals the molecular rationale of ocular dysfunction by antiangiogenic drugs. The molecular rationale of toxicity as revealed in this study may help in the judicious choice as well as therapeutic scheduling of these drugs in different cancers. PMID:27047544

  1. Antiangiogenic Activity and Pharmacogenomics of Medicinal Plants from Traditional Korean Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ean-Jeong; Kuete, Victor; Krusche, Benjamin; Schröder, Sven; Greten, Henry Johannes; Arend, Joachim; Lee, Ik-Soo; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Aim. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic properties of 59 plants used in traditional Korean medicine. Selected phytochemicals were investigated in more detail for their modes of action. Methods. A modified chicken-chorioallantoic-membrane (CAM) assay using quail eggs was applied to test for antiangiogenic effects of plant extracts. A molecular docking in silico approached the binding of plant constituents to the vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1, VEGFR2). Microarray-based mRNA expression profiling was employed to correlate the 50% inhibition concentrations (IC50) of a panel of 60 NCI cell lines to these phytochemicals. Results. Extracts from Acer mono leaves, Reynoutria sachalniensis fruits, Cinnamomum japonicum stems, Eurya japonica leaves, Adenophora racemosa whole plant, Caryopteris incana leaves-stems, and Schisandra chinensis stems inhibited angiogenesis more than 50% in quail eggs. Selected phytochemicals from Korean plants were analyzed in more detail using microarray-based mRNA expression profiles and molecular docking to VEGFR1 and VEGFR2. These results indicate multifactorial modes of action of these natural products. Conclusion. The antiangiogenic activity of plants used in traditional Korean medicine implicates their possible application for diseases where inhibition of blood vessel formation is desired, for example, cancer, macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and others. PMID:23970927

  2. EphrinB2 repression through ZEB2 mediates tumour invasion and anti-angiogenic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Depner, C.; zum Buttel, H.; Böğürcü, N.; Cuesta, A. M.; Aburto, M. R.; Seidel, S.; Finkelmeier, F.; Foss, F.; Hofmann, J.; Kaulich, K.; Barbus, S.; Segarra, M.; Reifenberger, G.; Garvalov, B. K.; Acker, T.; Acker-Palmer, A.

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse invasion of the surrounding brain parenchyma is a major obstacle in the treatment of gliomas with various therapeutics, including anti-angiogenic agents. Here we identify the epi-/genetic and microenvironmental downregulation of ephrinB2 as a crucial step that promotes tumour invasion by abrogation of repulsive signals. We demonstrate that ephrinB2 is downregulated in human gliomas as a consequence of promoter hypermethylation and gene deletion. Consistently, genetic deletion of ephrinB2 in a murine high-grade glioma model increases invasion. Importantly, ephrinB2 gene silencing is complemented by a hypoxia-induced transcriptional repression. Mechanistically, hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α induces the EMT repressor ZEB2, which directly downregulates ephrinB2 through promoter binding to enhance tumour invasiveness. This mechanism is activated following anti-angiogenic treatment of gliomas and is efficiently blocked by disrupting ZEB2 activity. Taken together, our results identify ZEB2 as an attractive therapeutic target to inhibit tumour invasion and counteract tumour resistance mechanisms induced by anti-angiogenic treatment strategies. PMID:27470974

  3. Soluble Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Decoy Receptor FP3 Exerts Potent Antiangiogenic Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yu, De-Chao; Lee, Jung-Sun; Yoo, Ji Young; Shin, Hyewon; Deng, Hongxin; Wei, Yuquan; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2012-01-01

    The binding of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to its receptors stimulates tumor growth; therefore, modulation of VEGF would be a viable approach for antiangiogenic therapy. We constructed a series of soluble decoy receptors containing different VEGF receptor 1 (FLT1) and VEGF receptor 2 (KDR) extracellular domains fused with the Fc region of human immunoglobulin (Ig) and evaluated their antiangiogenic effects and antitumor effects. Results of in vitro binding and cell proliferation assays revealed that decoy receptor FP3 had the highest affinity to VEGF-A and -B. Compared with bevacizumab, FP3 more effectively inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and vessel sprouting from rat aortic rings. FP3 significantly reduced phosphorylation of AKT and ERK1/2, critical proteins in the VEGF-mediated survival pathway in endothelial cells. Moreover, FP3 inhibited tumor growth in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), breast cancer (MCF-7), and colorectal cancer (LoVo) tumor models, and reduced microvessel density in tumor tissues. The FP3-mediated inhibition of tumor growth was significantly higher than that of bevacizumab at the same dose. FP3 also demonstrated synergistic antitumor effects when combined with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Taken together, FP3 shows a high affinity for VEGF and produced antiangiogenic effects, suggesting its potential for treating angiogenesis-related diseases such as cancer. PMID:22273580

  4. Screening of antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate extracts of phylum Mollusca from South East Coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Azad, Raj Vardhan; Saxena, Rohit; Ghose, Supriyo; Biswas, Nihar Ranjan; Velpandian, Thirumurthy

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antiangiogenic potential of twenty two marine invertebrate species of Phylum Mollusca from south east coast of India. Methods Live specimens of molluscan species were collected and their methanolic extracts were evaluated for preliminary antiangiogenic activity using the in ovo chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay. The extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity using chemical cautery induced corneal neovascularization assay in rats and oxygen induced retinopathy assay in rat pups. Results In the chick chorio-allantoic membrane assay, four methanolic extracts of marine molluscan species viz. Meretrix meretrix, Meretrix casta, Telescopium telescopium and Bursa crumena methanolic extracts exhibited noticeable antiangiogenic activity at the tested concentration of 200 µg whereby they significantly inhibited the VEGF induced proliferation of new blood vessels. Among these four extracts, the methanolic extract of Meretrix casta exhibited relatively higher degree of antiangiogenic activity with an inhibitiory percentage (64.63%) of the VEGF induced neovascularization followed by the methanolic extracts of Telescopium telescopium (62.02%), Bursa crumena (60.48%) and Meretrix meretrix (47.01%). These four methanolic extracts were further evaluated for in vivo antiangiogenic activity whereby the methanolic extract of Telescopium telescopium exhibited most noticeable inhibition (42.58%) of the corneal neovascularization in rats in comparison to the sham treated group, and also exhibited most noticeable inhibition (31.31%) of the oxygen induced retinal neovascularization in rat pups in comparison to the hyperoxia group that was observed for considerable retinal neovascularization. Conclusions The significant antiangiogenic activity evinced by the extract of Telescopium telescopium merits further investigation for ocular neovascular diseases. PMID:25183067

  5. Advanced Chemoembolization by Anti-angiogenic Calcium-Phosphate Ceramic Microspheres Targeting the Vascular Heterogeneity of Cancer Xenografts.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Makoto; Yoshihisa, Hajime; Yano, Kyoko; Choijamts, Batsuren; Tsugu, Hitoshi; Tachibana, Katsuro; Aizawa, Mamoru

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop an advanced method of anti-angiogenic chemoembolization to target morphological vascular heterogeneity in tumors and further the therapeutic efficacy of cancer treatment. This new chemoembolization approach was designed using resorbable calcium-phosphate ceramic microspheres (CPMs), in a mixture of three different sizes, which were loaded with an anti-angiogenic agent to target the tumor vasculature in highly angiogenic solid tumors in humans in vivo. The human uterine carcinosarcoma cell line, FU-MMT-3, was used in this study because the tumor is highly aggressive and exhibits a poor response to radiotherapy and chemotherapeutic agents that are in current use. CPMs loaded with TNP-470, an anti-angiogenic agent, were injected into FU-MMT-3 xenografts in nude mice three times per week for 8 weeks. The treatment with TNP-470-loaded CPMs of three different diameters achieved a greater suppression of tumor growth in comparison to treatment with single-size TNP-470-loaded CPMs alone, and the control. Severe loss of body weight was not observed in any mice treated with any size of TNP-470-loaded CPMs. These results suggest that treatment with a mixture of differently-sized anti-angiogenic CPMs might be more effective than treatment with CPMs of a single size. This advanced chemoembolization method, which incorporated an anti-angiogenic agent to target the morphological vascular heterogeneity of tumors may contribute to effective treatment of locally advanced or recurrent solid tumors.

  6. CPU-12, a novel synthesized oxazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivative, showed superior anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiping; Deng, Ya-Hui; Yang, Ling; Chen, Yijuan; Lawali, Manzo; Sun, Li-Ping; Liu, Yu

    2015-09-01

    Angiogenesis is a crucial requirement for malignant tumor growth, progression and metastasis. Tumor-derived factors stimulate formation of new blood vessels which actively support tumor growth and spread. Various of drugs have been applied to inhibit tumor angiogenesis. CPU-12, 4-chloro-N-(4-((2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-5-methyloxazolo[5,4-d] pyrimidin-7-yl)amino)phenyl)benzamide, is a novel oxazolo[5,4-d]pyrimidine derivative that showed potent activity in inhibiting VEGF-induced angiogenesis in vitro and ex-vivo. In cell toxicity experiments, CPU-12 significantly inhibited the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) proliferation in a dose-dependent manner with a low IC50 value at 9.30 ± 1.24 μM. In vitro, CPU-12 remarkably inhibited HUVEC's migration, chemotactic invasion and capillary-like tube formation in a dose-dependent manner. In ex-vivo, CPU-12 effectively inhibited new microvessels sprouting from the rat aortic ring. In addition, the downstream signalings of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), including the phosphorylation of PI3K, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK, were effectively down-regulated by CPU-12. These evidences suggested that angiogenic response via the induction of VEGFR through distinct signal transduction pathways regulating proliferation, migration and tube formation of endothelial cells was significantly inhibited by the novel small molecule compound CPU-12 in vitro and ex-vivo. In conclusion, CPU-12 showed superior anti-angiogenic activity in vitro.

  7. Characterization of the Conformational Alterations, Reduced Anticoagulant Activity, and Enhanced Antiangiogenic Activity of Prelatent Antithrombin*

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Benjamin; Swanson, Richard; Schedin-Weiss, Sophia; Ramirez, Ben; Izaguirre, Gonzalo; Gettins, Peter G. W.; Olson, Steven T.

    2008-01-01

    A conformationally altered prelatent form of antithrombin that possesses both anticoagulant and antiangiogenic activities is produced during the conversion of native to latent antithrombin (Larsson, H., Akerud, P., Nordling, K., Raub-Segall, E., Claesson-Welsh, L., and Björk, I. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 11996–12002). Here, we show that the previously characterized prelatent antithrombin is a mixture of native antithrombin and a modified, true prelatent antithrombin that are resolvable by heparin-agarose chromatography. Kinetic analyses revealed that prelatent antithrombin is an intermediate in the conversion of native to latent antithrombin whose formation is favored by stabilizing anions of the Hofmeister series. Purified prelatent antithrombin had reduced anticoagulant function compared with native antithrombin, due to a reduced heparin affinity and consequent impaired ability of heparin to either bridge prelatent antithrombin and coagulation proteases in a ternary complex or to induce full conformational activation of the serpin. Significantly, prelatent antithrombin possessed an antiangiogenic activity more potent than that of latent antithrombin, based on the relative abilities of the two forms to inhibit endothelial cell growth. The prelatent form was conformationally altered from native antithrombin as judged from an attenuation of tryptophan fluorescence changes following heparin activation and a reduced thermal stability. The alterations are consistent with the limited structural changes involving strand 1C observed in a prelatent form of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Dupont, D. M., Blouse, G. E., Hansen, M., Mathiasen, L., Kjelgaard, S., Jensen, J. K., Christensen, A., Gils, A., Declerck, P. J., Andreasen, P. A., and Wind, T. (2006) J. Biol. Chem. 281, 36071–36081), since the 1H NMR spectrum, electrophoretic mobility, and proteolytic susceptibility of prelatent antithrombin most resemble those of native rather than those of latent antithrombin

  8. Immune Consequences of Decreasing Tumor Vasculature with Antiangiogenic Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors in Combination with Therapeutic Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Farsaci, Benedetto; Donahue, Renee N.; Coplin, Michael A.; Grenga, Italia; Lepone, Lauren M.; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Hodge, James W.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects on the tumor microenvironment of combining antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) with therapeutic vaccines, and in particular, how vascular changes affect tumor-infiltrating immune cells. We conducted studies using a TKI (sunitinib or sorafenib) in combination with recombinant vaccines in 2 murine tumor models: colon carcinoma (MC38-CEA) and breast cancer (4T1). Tumor vasculature was measured by immunohistochemistry using 3 endothelial cell markers: CD31 (mature), CD105 (immature/proliferating), and CD11b (monocytic). We assessed oxygenation, tight junctions, compactness, and pressure within tumors, along with the frequency and phenotype of tumor-infiltrating T lymphocytes (TIL), myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) following treatment with antiangiogenic TKIs alone, vaccine alone, or the combination of a TKI with vaccine. The combined regimen decreased tumor vasculature, compactness, tight junctions, and pressure, leading to vascular normalization and increased tumor oxygenation. This combination therapy also increased TILs, including tumor antigen-specific CD8 T cells, and elevated the expression of activation markers FAS-L, CXCL-9, CD31, and CD105 in MDSCs and TAMs, leading to reduced tumor volumes and an increase in the number of tumor-free animals. The improved antitumor activity induced by combining antiangiogenic TKIs with vaccine may be the result of activated lymphoid and myeloid cells in the tumor microenvironment, resulting from vascular normalization, decreased tumor-cell density, and the consequent improvement in vascular perfusion and oxygenation. Therapies that alter tumor architecture can thus have a dramatic impact on the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:25092771

  9. Combinatorial anti-angiogenic gene therapy in a human malignant mesothelioma model.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Shuji; Takagi-Kimura, Misato; Kasahara, Noriyuki

    2015-08-01

    Anti-angiogenic gene therapy represents a promising strategy for cancer; however, it has rarely been tested in malignant mesothelioma, a highly aggressive tumor associated with asbestos with poor prognosis. In the present study, we investigated whether anti-angiogenic factors such as angiostatin, endostatin and the soluble form of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (sFlk1) were able to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation via lentivirus-mediated gene transfer into malignant mesothelioma cells in culture. We also assessed whether a dual-agent strategy had greater therapeutic benefit. Human malignant pleural mesothelioma MSTO-211H cells were transduced using lentiviral vectors that individually expressed angiostatin, endostatin and sFlk1 and linked to enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) marker gene expression via an internal ribosome entry site. The lentivirus expressing EGFP alone was used as a control. The resultant cells designated as MSTO-A, MSTO-E, MSTO-F and MSTO-C were confirmed by western blot analysis and fluorescence microscopy to stably express the corresponding proteins. No differences were observed in the in vitro growth rates between any of these cells. However, co-culture of MSTO-A, MSTO-E and MSTO-F showed significant suppression of human umbilical endothelial cell growth in vitro compared with that of MSTO-C. Furthermore, a combination of any two among MSTO-A, MSTO-E and MSTO-F significantly enhanced efficacy. These results suggest that combinatorial anti-angiogenic gene therapy targeting different pathways of endothelial growth factor signaling has the potential for greater therapeutic efficacy than that of a single-agent regimen.

  10. Antiangiogenic Synergism of Integrin-Targeted Fumagillin Nanoparticles and Atorvastatin in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Patrick M.; Caruthers, Shelton D.; Zhang, Huiying; Williams, Todd A.; Wickline, Samuel A.; Lanza, Gregory M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Studies were performed to develop a prolonged antiangiogenesis therapy regimen based on theranostic ανβ3–targeted nanoparticles. BACKGROUND Antiangiogenesis therapy may normalize atherosclerotic plaque vasculature and promote plaque stabilization.ανβ3–targeted paramagnetic nanoparticles can quantify atherosclerotic angiogenesis and incorporate fumagillin to elicit acute antiangiogenic effects. METHODS In the first experiment, hyperlipidemic rabbits received ανβ3–targeted fumagillin nanoparticles (0, 30, or 90 μg/kg) with either a continued high fat diet or conversion to standard chow. The antiangiogenic response was followed for 4 weeks by MR molecular imaging with ανβ3–targeted paramagnetic nanoparticles. In a second 8-week study, atherosclerotic rabbits received atorvastatin (0 or 44 mg/kg diet) alone or with ανβ3–targeted fumagillin nanoparticles (only week 0 vs. weeks 0 and 4), and angiogenesis was monitored with MR molecular imaging. Histology was performed to determine the location of bound nanoparticles and to correlate the level of MRI enhancement with the density of angiogenic vessels. RESULTS ανβ3–targeted fumagillin nanoparticles reduced the neovascular signal by 50 to 75% at 1-week, and maintained this effect for 3 weeks regardless of diet and drug dose. In the second study, atherosclerotic rabbits receiving statin alone had no antineovascular benefit over 8 weeks. ανβ3–targeted fumagillin nanoparticles decreased aortic angiogenesis for 3 weeks as in study one and readministration on week 4 reproduced the 3-week antineovascular response with no carry over benefit. However, atorvastatin and two doses of ανβ3–targeted fumagillin nanoparticles (0 and 4 weeks) achieved marked and sustainable antiangiogenesis. Microscopic studies corroborated the high correlation between MR signal and neovessel counts and confirmed that the ανβ3-targeted nanoparticles were constrained to the vasculature of the aortic

  11. New Anti-angiogenic Leading Structure Discovered in the Fruit of Cimicifuga yunnanensis

    PubMed Central

    Nian, Yin; Yang, Jing; Liu, Tong-Yang; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Ji-Hong; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Cimyunnins A–C (1–3), characterized with an unusual fused cyclopentenone ring G, together with cimyunnin D (4), possessing a highly rearranged γ-lactone ring F, were characterized from the fruit of Cimicifuga yunnanensis. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, X-ray diffraction, and density functional theory calculations. In addition, cimyunnin A exhibited comparable anti-angiogenic activities to those of sunitinib, a clinically-used first-line angiogenesis inhibitor, in the in vitro and ex vivo studies. PMID:25762443

  12. Gorham-Stout Disease of the Skull Base With Hearing Loss: Dramatic Recovery and Antiangiogenic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Akifumi; Ozeki, Michio; Kuze, Bunya; Asano, Takahiko; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. We present a 6-year-old male with GSD involving the skull base who presented with recurrent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, severe hearing loss, and facial palsy secondary to cerebellar herniation into the internal auditory canal. After 2 months of treatment with pegylated interferon (IFN) α-2b (50 μg/week), his hearing recovered dramatically. Two years later, new bone formation appeared radiologically and IFN was switched to sirolimus. One year after the switch, CSF rhinorrhea disappeared. Antiangiogenic therapy might inhibit proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in osteolytic lesions and lead to new bone formation.

  13. In vitro assays of angiogenesis for assessment of angiogenic and anti-angiogenic agents

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Anne M.

    2009-01-01

    Blood vessels, either in insufficient numbers or in excess, contribute to the pathogenesis of many diseases. Agents that stimulate angiogenesis can improve blood flow in patients with ischemic diseases, whereas anti-angiogenic agents are used to treat disorders ranging from macular degeneration to cancer. In this review I describe in vitro assays that can be used to assess the activity of agents that affect angiogenesis. Means of quantifying endothelial cell matrix degradation, migration, proliferation, apoptosis and morphogenesis are discussed, as are embryoid body, aortic ring and metatarsal assays of vessel outgrowth. Strengths and limitations of these techniques are also addressed. PMID:17631914

  14. Gorham-Stout Disease of the Skull Base With Hearing Loss: Dramatic Recovery and Antiangiogenic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Nozawa, Akifumi; Ozeki, Michio; Kuze, Bunya; Asano, Takahiko; Matsuoka, Kentaro; Fukao, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-01

    Gorham-Stout disease (GSD) is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. We present a 6-year-old male with GSD involving the skull base who presented with recurrent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) rhinorrhea, severe hearing loss, and facial palsy secondary to cerebellar herniation into the internal auditory canal. After 2 months of treatment with pegylated interferon (IFN) α-2b (50 μg/week), his hearing recovered dramatically. Two years later, new bone formation appeared radiologically and IFN was switched to sirolimus. One year after the switch, CSF rhinorrhea disappeared. Antiangiogenic therapy might inhibit proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in osteolytic lesions and lead to new bone formation. PMID:26713883

  15. P7170: A Novel Molecule with Unique Profile of mTORC1/C2 and Activin Receptor-like Kinase 1 Inhibition Leading to Antitumor and Antiangiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Jalota-Badhwar, Archana; Bhatia, Dimple R; Boreddy, Srinivas; Joshi, Asavari; Venkatraman, Magesh; Desai, Nikesh; Chaudhari, Sarika; Bose, Julie; Kolla, Lakshmi S; Deore, Vijaykumar; Yewalkar, Nilambari; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Rajiv; Damre, Anagha; More, Avinash; Sharma, Somesh; Agarwal, Veena R

    2015-05-01

    The mTOR pathway is often upregulated in cancer and thus intensively pursued as a target to design novel anticancer therapies. Approved and emerging drugs targeting the mTOR pathway have positively affected the clinical landscape. Recently, activin receptor-like kinase 1 (ALK1), belonging to the TGFβ receptor family, has been reported as an emerging target for antiangiogenic cancer therapy. Here, we describe a novel orally efficacious compound, P7170, that inhibits mTORC1/mTORC2/ALK1 activity with a potent cell growth inhibition. In cell-based assays, P7170 strongly inhibited (IC50 < 10 nmol/L) the phosphorylation of p70S6K (T389) and pAKT (S473). In many cancer cell lines, such as prostate, ovarian, colon, and renal, P7170 treatment resulted in marked cell growth inhibition. Furthermore, it induced G1-S cell-cycle arrest and autophagy. In vitro HUVEC tube formation, in vivo Matrigel plug, and rat aorta ring assays demonstrated that P7170 exhibited significant antiangiogenic activity. In addition, ALK1 knockdown studies in HUVEC confirmed that the antiangiogenic activity of P7170 was primarily due to ALK1 inhibition. Strong inhibition of ALK1 in addition to mTORC1/mTORC2 differentiates P7170 in its mechanism of action in comparison with existing inhibitors. In vivo mouse xenograft studies revealed P7170 to exhibit a significant dose-dependent tumor growth inhibition in a broad range of human tumor types when administered orally at 10 to 20 mg/kg doses. The distinctive pharmacological profile with favorable pharmacokinetic parameters and in vivo efficacy makes P7170 an attractive candidate for clinical development. It is currently being tested in phase I clinical studies.

  16. Antitumor and antiangiogenic activity of Schisandra chinensis polysaccharide in a renal cell carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Qu, Hai-Ming; Liu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Chun-Ying

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antitumor and antiangiogenic effects of the Schisandra chinensis polysaccharides (SCP) in selected renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells and evaluate its potential mechanism of action. In vitro, endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by Caki-1 was blockaded in response to SCP treatment for 48h. In vivo, a significant tumor growth inhibition effect was observed after SCP administration for 4 weeks. Moreover, SCP treatment decreased the level of VEGF, CD31 and CD34 in RCC tumor tissues. Further analysis of the tumor inhibition mechanism indicated that the number of apoptotic tumor cells increased significantly; the expression of Bax and p53 increased; and the expression of Bcl-2 decreased dramatically in transplanted tumor tissues following SCP administration. These results indicated that the potential mechanisms involved by which SCP exerted its antitumor and antiangiogenic activity might be associated with the up-regulation of Bax and p53, downregulation of Bcl-2, as well as the reduction of VEGF, CD31 and CD34 in xenografted tumors. These findings demonstrated that the SCP is a potential antitumor agent for RCC treatment.

  17. Anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic activity of JAK inhibitor AZD1480

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Hong; Herrmann, Andreas; Reckamp, Karen; Zhang, Wang; Pal, Sumanta; Hedvat, Michael; Zhang, Chunyan; Liang, Wei; Scuto, Anna; Weng, Shaobu; Morosini, Deborah; Cao, Zhu A.; Zinda, Michael; Figlin, Robert; Huszar, Dennis; Jove, Richard; Yu, Hua

    2011-01-01

    STAT3 has important functions in both tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment to facilitate cancer progression. The STAT regulatory kinase JAK has been strongly implicated in promoting oncogenesis of various solid tumors, including through the use of JAK kinase inhibitors such as AZD1480. However, direct evidence that JAK drives STAT3 function and cancer pathogenesis at the level of the tumor microenvironment has yet to be established clearly. In this study, we show that AZD1480 inhibits STAT3 in tumor-associated myeloid cells, reducing their number and inhibiting tumor metastasis. Myeloid cell-mediated angiogenesis was also diminished by AZD1480, with additional direct inhibition of endothelial cell function in vitro and in vivo. AZD1480 blocked lung infiltration of myeloid cells and formation of pulmonary metastases in both mouse syngeneic experimental and spontaneous metastatic models. Furthermore, AZD1480 reduced angiogenesis and metastasis in a human xenograft tumor model. Although the effects of AZD1480 on the tumor microenvironment were important for the observed anti-angiogenic activity, constitutive activation of STAT3 in tumor cells themselves could block these anti-angiogenic effects demonstrating the complexity of the JAK/STAT signaling network in tumor progression. Together, our results indicated that AZD1480 can effectively inhibit tumor angiogenesis and metastasis mediated by STAT3 in stromal cells as well as tumor cells. PMID:21920898

  18. Antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1, DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell transfer, inhibits ocular neovascularization

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Han; Sonoda, Koh-Hei; Hijioka, Kuniaki; Qiao, Hong; Oshima, Yuji; Ishibashi, Tatsuro

    2009-04-17

    Ocular neovascularization (NV) is the primary cause of blindness in a wide range of ocular diseases. The exact mechanism underlying the pathogenesis of ocular NV is not yet well understood, and so there is no satisfactory therapy for ocular NV. Here, we describe a strategy targeting Flk-1, a self-antigen overexpressed on proliferating endothelial cells in ocular NV, by antiangiogenic immunotherapy-DNA vaccine and adoptive T cell therapy. An oral DNA vaccine encoding Flk-1 carried by attenuated Salmonella typhimurium markedly suppressed development of laser-induced choroidal NV. We further demonstrated that adoptive transfer of vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells reduced pathological preretinal NV, with a concomitant facilitation of physiological revascularization after oxygen-induced retinal vessel obliteration. However, physiological retinal vascular development was unaffected in neonatal mice transferred with vaccine-induced CD8{sup +} T cells. These findings suggested that antiangiogenic immunotherapy targeting Flk-1 such as vaccination and adoptive immunotherapy may contribute to future therapies for ocular NV.

  19. Blood-based biomarkers for monitoring antiangiogenic therapy in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Garzotto, Analia; Díaz-García, C Vanesa; Agudo-López, Alba; Prieto García, Elena; Ponce, Santiago; López-Martín, José A; Paz-Ares, Luis; Iglesias, Lara; Agulló-Ortuño, M Teresa

    2016-10-01

    Tumor angiogenesis pathways have been identified as important therapeutic targets in non-small cell lung cancer. However, no biomarkers have been described as predictors of response to antiangiogenic therapy in these patients. In this study, plasma levels of VEGF, bFGF, E-selectin, and S-ICAM and gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from non-small cell lung cancer patients treated with chemotherapy plus bevacizumab were analyzed before and after treatment. Values were correlated with clinicopathological characteristics and treatment response. Plasma factor levels were measured using commercially available ELISA kits. The TaqMan(®) human angiogenesis array was used to investigate the effect of treatment on gene expression profiles. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology enrichment analysis was performed for differentially expressed genes using WEB-based GEne SeT AnaLysis Toolkit. Our results suggest a benefit for patients with increased plasma levels of VEGF, E-selectin, and S-ICAM in the course of bevacizumab treatment. Also, we identified differentially expressed genes between paired blood samples from patients before and after treatment, and significantly perturbed pathways were predicted. These changes in gene expression and levels of plasma factors could be used to assess the effectiveness of antiangiogenic therapy, in addition to standard clinical and radiological evaluations. PMID:27568331

  20. Challenges in Combining Antiangiogenic Therapy With Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Haydar, Ali A.; Faraj, Walid; Khalifeh, Mohammad; Taslakian, Bedros; Yehia, Zeinab Abou; Temraz, Sally; Brown, Karen T.; Abou-Alfa, Ghassan K.; Shamseddine, Ali

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The combination of systemic antiangiogenic therapy and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for the treatment of unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the subject of several ongoing clinical trials. We present a series of patients treated with sorafenib and TACE at our institution, highlighting the technical challenges of combining these two modalities of treatment. METHODS: We retrospectively identified patients with HCC treated with TACE and sorafenib at our institution. RESULTS: Five patients were treated with the combination of TACE and sorafenib given off-protocol based on preliminary reports in the literature. The first four patients started sorafenib 7 days prior to TACE resulting in intratumoral vascular pruning and poor visualization of lesions on angiography. This was managed by either superselective angiography or lobar TACE. The fifth patient stopped sorafenib 7 days prior to TACE with full visualization of multiple hypervascular lesions on angiography prior to embolization. CONCLUSIONS: Our observations suggest that the biologically preferable strategy of continuous antiangiogenic therapy should be weighed against the possibility of suboptimal TACE due to poor visualization of lesions on angiography and safety. PMID:25276263

  1. Synergistic effect of antiangiogenic nanotherapy combined with methotrexate in the treatment of experimental inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hui-fang; Hu, Grace; Wickline, Samuel A; Lanza, Gregory M; Pham, Christine TN

    2011-01-01

    Aim This study examines the effect of combining the antiangiogenic effect of αvβ3-targeted fumagillin nanoparticles with the conventional antirheumatic drug methotrexate for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Method Arthritis was induced in mice by K/BxN serum transfer, and disease activity was monitored by clinical score and change in ankle thickness. Groups of mice received nanoparticles or methotrexate as single therapy or nanoparticles and methotrexate as combination therapy. Results We found that animals treated with a pulse dose of fumagillin nanoparticles followed by methotrexate had significantly improved and sustained clinical response compared with those treated with either agent alone. Histological analysis confirmed a significant decrease in inflammatory cell influx, bone erosions, cartilage damage and angiogenesis with the combination therapy. Conclusion Analysis of plasma cytokine levels suggests that fumagillin nanoparticles enhanced the systemic anti-inflammatory effects of methotrexate. Antiangiogenic nanotherapy may represent a promising approach for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis when combined with a conventional antirheumatic drug. PMID:20874021

  2. Cilengitide: The First Anti-Angiogenic Small Molecule Drug Candidate. Design, Synthesis and Clinical Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Rechenmacher, Florian; Kessler, Horst

    2010-01-01

    Cilengitide, a cyclic RGD pentapeptide, is currently in clinical phase III for treatment of glioblastomas and in phase II for several other tumors. This drug is the first anti-angiogenic small molecule targeting the integrins αvβ3, αvβ5 and α5β1. It was developed by us in the early 90s by a novel procedure, the spatial screening. This strategy resulted in c(RGDfV), the first superactive αvβ3 inhibitor (100 to 1000 times increased activity over the linear reference peptides), which in addition exhibited high selectivity against the platelet receptor αIIbβ3. This cyclic peptide was later modified by N-methylation of one peptide bond to yield an even greater antagonistic activity in c(RGDf(NMe)V). This peptide was then dubbed Cilengitide and is currently developed as drug by the company Merck-Serono (Germany). This article describes the chemical development of Cilengitide, the biochemical background of its activity and a short review about the present clinical trials. The positive anti-angiogenic effects in cancer treatment can be further increased by combination with “classical” anti-cancer therapies. Several clinical trials in this direction are under investigation. PMID:21269250

  3. Antiangiogenic Activity of Acer tegmentosum Maxim Water Extract in Vitro and in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eok-Cheon; Kim, So Hun; Piao, Shan-Ji; Kim, Tack-Joong; Bae, Kiho; Kim, Han Sung; Hong, Soon-Sun; Lee, Byoung Ick; Nam, Moonsuk

    2015-07-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of new blood vessels, is critical for tumor growth and metastasis. Notably, tumors themselves can lead to angiogenesis by inducing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is one of the most potent angiogenic factors. Inhibition of angiogenesis is currently perceived as one of the most promising strategies for the blockage of tumor growth. In this study, we investigated the effects of Acer tegmentosum maxim water extract (ATME) on angiogenesis and its underlying signal mechanism. We studied the antiangiogenic activity of ATME by using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). ATME strongly inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial cell proliferation, migration, invasion, and tube formation, as well as vessel sprouting in a rat aortic ring sprouting assay. Moreover, we found that the p44/42 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathway is involved in the inhibition of angiogenesis by ATME. Moreover, when we performed the in vivo matrigel plug assay, VEGF-induced angiogenesis was potently reduced when compared to that for the control group. Taken together, these results suggest that ATME exhibits potent antiangiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro and that these effects are regulated by the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway.

  4. Pyripyropenes, fungal sesquiterpenes conjugated with alpha-pyrone and pyridine moieties, exhibits anti-angiogenic activity against human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Asami; Arai, Masayoshi; Fujita, Mayumi; Kobayashi, Motomasa

    2009-07-01

    In the course of our search for anti-angiogenic substances, pyripyropenes A (1), B (2), and D (3) were re-discovered as selective anti-proliferative substances against human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from a marine-derived fungus of Aspergillus sp. Pyripyropenes showed potent anti-proliferative activity against HUVECs with IC(50) values of the range of 0.1-1.8 muM, which were cytostatic at 0.05 to 20 muM. The selective index was more than 55-fold in comparison with those of several tumor cell lines. Compound 1 inhibited vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced migration and tubular formation of HUVECs, while 1 showed no effect on the VEGF-induced phosphorylations of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2, p38, and Akt. Pyripyropenes were originally isolated as an inhibitor of acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT-2). While, the expression level of ACATs between HUVECs and other tumor cell lines did not correspond to the selective index of the anti-proliferative activity of compound 1. Moreover, ACATs inhibitor, 2,2-dimethyl-N-(2,4,6-trimethoxyphenyl)dodecanamide (CI-976), showed growth inhibitory activity with only poor selectivity (2.4-fold) between HUVECs and human epidermoid carcinoma KB3-1 cells. PMID:19571395

  5. Thrombospondin-1 as a Paradigm for the Development of Antiangiogenic Agents Endowed with Multiple Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Rusnati, Marco; Urbinati, Chiara; Bonifacio, Silvia; Presta, Marco; Taraboletti, Giulia

    2010-01-01

    Uncontrolled neovascularization occurs in several angiogenesis-dependent diseases, including cancer. Neovascularization is tightly controlled by the balance between angiogenic growth factors and antiangiogenic agents. The various natural angiogenesis inhibitors identified so far affect neovascularization by different mechanisms of action. Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is a matricellular modular glycoprotein that acts as a powerful endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. It acts both indirectly, by sequestering angiogenic growth factors and effectors in the extracellular environment, and directly, by inducing an antiangiogenic program in endothelial cells following engagement of specific receptors including CD36, CD47, integrins and proteoglycans (all involved in angiogenesis ). In view of its central, multifaceted role in angiogenesis, TSP-1 has served as a source of antiangiogenic tools, including TSP-1 fragments, synthetic peptides and peptidomimetics, gene therapy strategies, and agents that up-regulate TSP-1 expression. This review discusses TSP-1-based inhibitors of angiogenesis, their mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential, drawing our experience with angiogenic growth factor-interacting TSP-1 peptides, and the possibility of exploiting them to design novel antiangiogenic agents.

  6. Antiangiogenic therapy using endostatin increases the number of ALDH+ lung cancer stem cells by generating intratumor hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Yu-yi; Wang, Yi-qin; Wang, Xia; Liu, Yan-Yang; Wang, Jian-Tao; Du, Chi; Wang, Li; Li, Mei; Luo, Feng; Jiang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy is becoming a promising option for cancer treatment. However, many investigations have recently indicated that these therapies may have limited efficacy, and the cancers in most patients eventually develop resistance to these therapies. There is considerable recently acquired evidence for an association of such resistance with cancer stem-like cells (CSLCs). Here, we used xenograft tumor murine models to further suggest that antiangiogenic agents actually increase the invasive and metastatic properties of lung cancer cells. In our experiments with murine lung cancer xenografts, we found that the antiangiogenic agent endostatin increased the population of ALDH+ cells, and did so by generating intratumoral hypoxia in the xenografts. We further showed endostatin to cause an increase in the CSLC population by accelerating the generation of tumor hypoxia and by recruiting TAMs, MDSCs and Treg cells, which are inflammatory and immunosuppressive cells and which can secrete cytokines and growth factors such as IL-6, EGF, and TGF-β into the tumor microenvironment. All these factors are related with increased CSLC population in tumors. These results imply that improving the clinical efficacy of antiangiogenic treatments will require the concurrent use of CSLC-targeting agents. PMID:27703219

  7. Copper improves the anti-angiogenic activity of disulfiram through the EGFR/Src/VEGF pathway in gliomas.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Fu, Shi-Yuan; Wang, Li-Hui; Wang, Fang-Yang; Wang, Nan-Nan; Cao, Qi; Wang, Ya-Ting; Yang, Jing-Yu; Wu, Chun-Fu

    2015-12-01

    Disulfiram (DSF) possesses anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in a copper (Cu)-dependent manner. DSF also potently inhibits angiogenesis, but the effect of Cu on this anti-angiogenic activity is unknown. Here we show that DSF inhibits the proliferation, migration, invasion, adhesion and complex tube formation of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Aortic ring assays and Matrigel plug assays revealed that DSF significantly inhibited the formation of microvessels. Importantly, Cu improved the anti-angiogenic activity of DSF in all these assays, while copper alone had no effect. DSF/Cu treatment of U87 human glioblastoma cells resulted in suppression of VEGF secretion through the EGFR/c-Src/VEGF pathway. Reduction of EGFR phosphorylation disables recruitment of multiple Src homology 2 (SH2) domains, resulting in transcriptional down-regulation of VEGF. The role of EGFR/c-Src/VEGF pathway was further confirmed by using specific inhibitor, which significantly improved the anti-angiogenic activity of DSF/Cu. DSF/Cu also exerted increased anti-tumor effects on subcutaneous and intracerebral U87 xenograft models by reducing microvessel density (MVD) and VEGF expression. These results indicate that Cu improves the anti-angiogenic activity of DSF by targeting the EGFR/Src/VEGF signaling pathway, thus providing a rationale for the use of DSF/Cu rather than DSF alone as an angiogenesis inhibitor in clinical applications.

  8. Anticancer and antiangiogenic activity of surfactant-free nanoparticles based on self-assembled polymeric derivatives of vitamin E: structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Palao-Suay, Raquel; Aguilar, María Rosa; Parra-Ruiz, Francisco J; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Mar; Parra, Juan; Sánchez-Rodríguez, Carolina; Sanz-Fernández, Ricardo; Rodrigáñez, Laura; Román, Julio San

    2015-05-11

    α-Tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS) is a well-known mitochondrially targeted anticancer compound, however, it is highly hydrophobic and toxic. In order to improve its activity and reduce its toxicity, new surfactant-free biologically active nanoparticles (NP) were synthesized. A methacrylic derivative of α-TOS (MTOS) was prepared and incorporated in amphiphilic pseudoblock copolymers when copolymerized with N-vinylpyrrolidone (VP) by free radical polymerization (poly(VP-co-MTOS)). The selected poly(VP-co-MTOS) copolymers formed surfactant-free NP by nanoprecipitation with sizes between 96 and 220 nm and narrow size distribution, and the in vitro biological activity was tested. In order to understand the structure-activity relationship three other methacrylic monomers were synthesized and characterized: MVE did not have the succinate group, SPHY did not have the chromanol ring, and MPHY did not have both the succinate group and the chromanol ring. The corresponding families of copolymers (poly(VP-co-MVE), poly(VP-co-SPHY), and poly(VP-co-MPHY)) were synthesized and characterized, and their biological activity was compared to poly(VP-co-MTOS). Both poly(VP-co-MTOS) and poly(VP-co-MVE) presented triple action: reduced cell viability of cancer cells with little or no harm to normal cells (anticancer), reduced viability of proliferating endothelial cells with little or no harm to quiescent endothelial cells (antiangiogenic), and efficiently encapsulated hydrophobic molecules (nanocarrier). The anticancer and antiangiogenic activity of the synthesized copolymers is demonstrated as the active compound (vitamin E or α-tocopheryl succinate) do not need to be cleaved to trigger the biological action targeting ubiquinone binding sites of complex II. Poly(VP-co-SPHY) and poly(VP-co-MPHY) also formed surfactant-free NP that were also endocyted by the assayed cells; however, these NP did not selectively reduce cell viability of cancer cells. Therefore, the chromanol ring of the

  9. Is copper chelation an effective anti-angiogenic strategy for cancer treatment?

    PubMed

    Antoniades, V; Sioga, A; Dietrich, E M; Meditskou, S; Ekonomou, L; Antoniades, K

    2013-12-01

    Angiogenesis and the acquisition of an angiogenic phenotype is important for cancer cell proliferation. Copper in an essential trace element that participates in many enzymatic complexes like the cytochrome c, superoxide dismutase and lysyl oxidase and it is involved in processes, like embryogenesis, growth, angiogenesis and carcinogenesis. In particular, its involvement in carcinogenesis was described for the first time in oral submucous fibrosis, where fibroblasts produce large amounts of collagen in the presence of copper. Copper's action in carcinogenesis is two-fold: (1) it participates in reactions with an increased redox potential that result in the production of oxidative products and oxidative stress. Through this mechanism, copper may cause DNA mutations in the nucleus and mitochondria or alterations to membrane phospholipids, (2) it participates in angiogenesis even in the absence of angiogenic molecules, as it was reported for the first time in rabbit cornea models with copolymer pellets charged with PGE1. Copper chelation regimens like penicillamine and tetrathiomolybdate are being described in the literature as having anti-angiogenic, anti-fibrotic and anti-inflammatory actions. Animal models of brain cancer that evaluated the anti-angiogenic properties of copper, have proven evidence of the reduction of tumor's microvascular supply, tumor volume and vascular permeability after plasma copper levels reduction. Interestingly, plasma copper levels reduction was shown to suppress micrometastases generation in mice models of breast cancer. We hypothesize that copper chelation therapy: increases oxidative stress in cancer cells to a level that does not allow survival because of the reduction of anti-oxidative enzymes production. It may also result in inhibition of angiogenesis and of the initiation of the angiogenic switch, because copper normally enhances endothelial cell migration and proliferation, improves binding of growth factors to endothelial cells

  10. CXCR2 Inhibition Combined with Sorafenib Improved Antitumor and Antiangiogenic Response in Preclinical Models of Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Devapatla, Bharat; Sharma, Ankur; Woo, Sukyung

    2015-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy is important for the treatment of gynecological cancer. However, the therapeutic benefit derived from these treatments is transient, predominantly due to the selective activation of compensatory proangiogenic pathways that lead to rapid development of resistance. We aimed to identify and target potential alternative signaling to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, with a view toward developing a combination of antiangiogenic agents to provide extended therapeutic benefits. We developed a preclinical in vivo phenotypic resistance model of ovarian cancer resistant to antiangiogenic therapy. We measured dynamic changes in secreted chemokines and angiogenic signaling in tumors and plasma in response to anti-VEGF treatment, as tumors advanced from the initial responsive phase to progressive disease. In tumors that progressed following sorafenib treatment, gene and protein expression levels of proangiogenic CXC chemokines and their receptors were significantly elevated, compared with responsive tumors. The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8), also known as interleukin-8 (IL-8) increase was time-dependent and coincided with the dynamics of tumor progression. We used SB225002, a pharmacological inhibitor of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), to disrupt the CXC chemokine-mediated functions of ovarian cancer cells in in vitro assays of cell growth inhibition, spheroid formation, and cell migration. The combination of CXCR2 inhibitor with sorafenib led to a synergistic inhibition of cell growth in vitro, and further stabilized tumor progression following sorafenib in vivo. Our results suggest that CXCR2-mediated chemokines may represent an important compensatory pathway that promotes resistance to antiangiogenic therapy in ovarian cancer. Thus, simultaneous blockage of this proangiogenic cytokine pathway using CXCR2 inhibitors and the VEGF receptor (VEGFR) pathway could improve the outcomes of antiangiogenic therapy

  11. CXCR2 Inhibition Combined with Sorafenib Improved Antitumor and Antiangiogenic Response in Preclinical Models of Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Devapatla, Bharat; Sharma, Ankur; Woo, Sukyung

    2015-01-01

    Antiangiogenic therapy is important for the treatment of gynecological cancer. However, the therapeutic benefit derived from these treatments is transient, predominantly due to the selective activation of compensatory proangiogenic pathways that lead to rapid development of resistance. We aimed to identify and target potential alternative signaling to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy, with a view toward developing a combination of antiangiogenic agents to provide extended therapeutic benefits. We developed a preclinical in vivo phenotypic resistance model of ovarian cancer resistant to antiangiogenic therapy. We measured dynamic changes in secreted chemokines and angiogenic signaling in tumors and plasma in response to anti-VEGF treatment, as tumors advanced from the initial responsive phase to progressive disease. In tumors that progressed following sorafenib treatment, gene and protein expression levels of proangiogenic CXC chemokines and their receptors were significantly elevated, compared with responsive tumors. The chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8 (CXCL8), also known as interleukin-8 (IL-8) increase was time-dependent and coincided with the dynamics of tumor progression. We used SB225002, a pharmacological inhibitor of chemokine (C-X-C motif) receptor 2 (CXCR2), to disrupt the CXC chemokine-mediated functions of ovarian cancer cells in in vitro assays of cell growth inhibition, spheroid formation, and cell migration. The combination of CXCR2 inhibitor with sorafenib led to a synergistic inhibition of cell growth in vitro, and further stabilized tumor progression following sorafenib in vivo. Our results suggest that CXCR2-mediated chemokines may represent an important compensatory pathway that promotes resistance to antiangiogenic therapy in ovarian cancer. Thus, simultaneous blockage of this proangiogenic cytokine pathway using CXCR2 inhibitors and the VEGF receptor (VEGFR) pathway could improve the outcomes of antiangiogenic therapy

  12. Rapid chemotherapy-induced acute endothelial progenitor cell mobilization: implications for antiangiogenic drugs as chemosensitizing agents

    PubMed Central

    Shaked, Yuval; Henke, Erik; Roodhart, Jeanine; Mancuso, Patrizia; Langenberg, Marlies; Colleoni, Marco; Daenen, Laura G.; Man, Shan; Xu, Ping; Emmenegger, Urban; Tang, Terence; Zhu, Zhenping; Witte, Larry; Strieter, Robert M.; Bertolini, Francesco; Voest, Emile; Benezra, Robert; Kerbel, Robert S.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain how antiangiogenic drugs enhance the treatment efficacy of cytotoxic chemotherapy including impairing the ability of chemotherapy-responsive tumors to regrow after therapy. With respect to the latter, we show that certain chemotherapy drugs, e.g. paclitaxel, can rapidly induce pro-angiogenic bone marrow derived circulating endothelial cell (CEP) mobilization, and subsequent tumor homing, whereas others, e.g. gemcitabine, did not. Acute CEP mobilization was mediated, at least in part, by systemic induction of SDF-1α and could be prevented by various procedures such as treatment with anti-VEGFR2 blocking antibodies or by paclitaxel treatment in CEP-deficient Id-mutant mice, both of which resulted in enhanced anti-tumor effects mediated by paclitaxel, but not gemcitabine. PMID:18772115

  13. Structural characterization and effect on anti-angiogenic activity of a fucoidan from Sargassum fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Cong, Qifei; Chen, Huanjun; Liao, Wenfeng; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Peipei; Qin, Yi; Dong, Qun; Ding, Kan

    2016-01-20

    A fucoidan FP08S2 was isolated from the boiling-water extract of Sargassum fusiforme, purified by CaCl2 precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300. FP08S2 contained fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, glucuronic acid, and 20.8% sulfate. The sulfate groups were attached to diverse positions of fucose, xylose, mannose, and galactose residues. The backbone of FP08S2 consisted of alternate 1,2-linked α-D-Manp and 1,4-linked β-D-GlcpA. Sugar composition analysis and ESI-MS revealed that the oligosaccharides from branches contained fucose, xylose, galactose, glucuronic acid and sulfate. FP08S2 could significantly inhibit tube formation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) dose-dependently. These results suggested that the fucoidan FP08S2 from brown seaweeds S. fusiforme could be a potent anti-angiogenic agent.

  14. Avian area vasculosa and CAM as rapid in vivo pro-angiogenic and antiangiogenic models.

    PubMed

    Makanya, Andrew N; Styp-Rekowska, Beata; Dimova, Ivanka; Djonov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    Angiogenesis, the development of new blood vessels from preexisting ones, is driven by coordinated signaling pathways governed by specific molecules, hemodynamic forces, and endothelial and periendothelial cells. The processes involve adhesion, migration, and survival machinery within the target endothelial and periendothelial cells. Factors that interfere with any of these processes may therefore influence angiogenesis either positively (pro-angiogenesis) or negatively (antiangiogenesis). The avian area vasculosa (AV) and the avian chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) are two useful tools for studying both angiogenesis and antiangiogenesis since they are amenable to both intravascular and topical administration of target, agents, are relatively rapid assays, and can be adapted very easily to study angiogenesis-dependent processes, such as tumor growth. Both models provide a physiological setting that permits investigation of pro-angiogenic and antiangiogenic agent interactions in vivo. PMID:25468605

  15. In Vitro and In Vivo Antiangiogenic Activity of Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum).

    PubMed

    Bae, Hong-Sook; Kim, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Da Hye; Hosoya, Takahiro; Kumazawa, Shigenori; Jun, Mira; Kim, Oh-Yoen; Kim, Sun Wook; Ahn, Mok-Ryeon

    2016-04-01

    Crowberry, Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum, is widely used in folk medicine and grows naturally in Korea. Although some constituents and biological activity of Korean crowberry have been examined, there is little detailed information available. In this study, we investigated the effects of ethanol extracts of crowberry (EECB) on the inhibition of angiogenesis, both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of EECB were tested on in vitro models of angiogenesis, that is, tube formation and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). EECB exhibited significant inhibitory effects on tube formation of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, crowberry significantly suppressed the proliferation of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, strong antiangiogenic activity of EECB samples was observed in the in vivo assay using chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). These results indicate that crowberry may have potential applications in the prevention and treatment of angiogenesis-dependent human diseases. PMID:27396205

  16. Structural characterization and effect on anti-angiogenic activity of a fucoidan from Sargassum fusiforme.

    PubMed

    Cong, Qifei; Chen, Huanjun; Liao, Wenfeng; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Peipei; Qin, Yi; Dong, Qun; Ding, Kan

    2016-01-20

    A fucoidan FP08S2 was isolated from the boiling-water extract of Sargassum fusiforme, purified by CaCl2 precipitation and chromatography on DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300. FP08S2 contained fucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, glucuronic acid, and 20.8% sulfate. The sulfate groups were attached to diverse positions of fucose, xylose, mannose, and galactose residues. The backbone of FP08S2 consisted of alternate 1,2-linked α-D-Manp and 1,4-linked β-D-GlcpA. Sugar composition analysis and ESI-MS revealed that the oligosaccharides from branches contained fucose, xylose, galactose, glucuronic acid and sulfate. FP08S2 could significantly inhibit tube formation and migration of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) dose-dependently. These results suggested that the fucoidan FP08S2 from brown seaweeds S. fusiforme could be a potent anti-angiogenic agent. PMID:26572427

  17. Tumor dynamics in response to antiangiogenic therapy with oral metronomic topotecan and pazopanib in neuroblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sushil; Mokhtari, Reza Bayat; Oliveira, Indhira Dias; Islam, Syed; Toledo, Silvia Regina Caminada; Yeger, Herman; Baruchel, Sylvain

    2013-08-01

    Metronomic chemotherapy, combined with targeted antiangiogenic drugs, has demonstrated significant anticancer efficacy in various studies. Though, tumors do acquire resistance. Here, we have investigated the effect of prolonged therapy with oral metronomic topotecan and pazopanib on tumor behavior in a neuroblastoma mouse xenograft model. SK-N-BE(2) xenograft-bearing mice were treated with either of the following regimens (daily, orally): vehicle (control), 150 mg/kg pazopanib, 1.0 mg/kg topotecan, and combination of topotecan and pazopanib. Planned durations of treatment for each regimen were 28, 56, and 80 days or until the end point, after which animals were sacrificed. We found that only combination-treated animals survived until 80 days. Combination halted tumor growth for up to 50 days, after which gradual growth was observed. Unlike single agents, all three durations of combination significantly lowered microvessel densities compared to the control. However, the tumors treated with the combination for 56 and 80 days had higher pericyte coverage compared to control and those treated for 28 days. The proliferative and mitotic indices of combination-treated tumors were higher after 28 days of treatment and comparable after 56 days and 80 days of treatment compared to control. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot, and real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed that combination treatment increased the hypoxia and angiogenic expression. Immunohistochemistry for Glut-1 and hexokinase II expression revealed a metabolic switch toward elevated glycolysis in the combination-treated tumors. We conclude that prolonged combination therapy with metronomic topotecan and pazopanib demonstrates sustained antiangiogenic activity but also incurs resistance potentially mediated by elevated glycolysis.

  18. Total alkaloids of Rubus alceifolius Poir shows anti-angiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinyan; Lin, Wei; Zhuang, Qunchuan; Zhong, Xiaoyong; Cao, Zhiyun; Hong, Zhenfeng; Peng, Jun

    2014-11-01

    Total alkaloids is an active ingredient of the natural plant Rubus alceifolius Poir, commonly used for the treatment of various cancers. Antitumor effects may be mediated through anti-angiogenic mechanisms. As such, the goal of the present study was to investigate and evaluate the effect of total alkaloids in Rubus alceifolius Poir (TARAP) on tumor angiogenesis and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of TARAP action in vivo and in vitro. A chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay was used to assess angiogenesis in vivo. An MTT assay was performed to determine the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with and without treatment. Cell cycle progression of HUVECs was examined by FACS analysis with propidium iodide staining. HUVEC migration was determined using a scratch wound method. Tube formation of HUVECs was assessed with an ECMatrix gel system, and mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HUVECs and HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells were examined by RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Our results showed that TARAP inhibited angiogenesis in the CAM model in vivo and inhibited HUVEC proliferation via blocking cell cycle G1 to S progression in a dose- and time-dependent manners in vitro. Moreover, TARAP inhibited HUVEC migration and tube formation and downregulated mRNA and protein expression of VEGF-A in both HepG2 cells and HUVECs. Our findings suggest that the anti-angiogenic activity of TARAP may partly contribute to its antitumor properties and may be valuable for the treatment of diseases involving pathologic angiogenesis such as cancer.

  19. Zingiber officinale attenuates retinal microvascular changes in diabetic rats via anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Dongare, Shirish; Mathur, Rajani; Saxena, Rohit; Mathur, Sandeep; Agarwal, Renu; Nag, Tapas C.; Srivastava, Sushma; Kumar, Pankaj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of long-standing diabetes. Several complex interconnecting biochemical pathways are activated in response to hyperglycemia. These pathways culminate into proinflammatory and angiogenic effects that bring about structural and functional damage to the retinal vasculature. Since Zingiber officinale (ginger) is known for its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties, we investigated the effects of its extract standardized to 5% 6-gingerol, the major active constituent of ginger, in attenuating retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Methods Diabetic rats were treated orally with the vehicle or the ginger extract (75 mg/kg/day) over a period of 24 weeks along with regular monitoring of bodyweight and blood glucose and weekly fundus photography. At the end of the 24-week treatment, the retinas were isolated for histopathological examination under a light microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and determination of the retinal tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. Results Oral administration of the ginger extract resulted in significant reduction of hyperglycemia, the diameter of the retinal vessels, and vascular basement membrane thickness. Improvement in the architecture of the retinal vasculature was associated with significantly reduced expression of NF-κB and reduced activity of TNF-α and VEGF in the retinal tissue in the ginger extract–treated group compared to the vehicle-treated group. Conclusions The current study showed that ginger extract containing 5% of 6-gingerol attenuates the retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes through anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic actions. Although precise molecular targets remain to be determined, 6-gingerol seems to be a potential candidate for further investigation. PMID:27293376

  20. Anti-angiogenic activities of CRBGP from buccal glands of lampreys (Lampetra japonica).

    PubMed

    Jiang, Qi; Liu, Yu; Duan, Dandan; Gou, Meng; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jihong; Li, Qingwei; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    Cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs), characterized by 16 conserved cysteines, are distributed in a wide range of organisms, such as secernenteas, amphibians, reptiles and mammals. In the previous studies, a novel CRISP family member (cysteine-rich buccal gland protein, CRBGP) was separated from the buccal gland of lampreys (Lampetra japonica, L. japonica). Lamprey CRBGP could not only suppress depolarization-induced contraction of rat tail arterial smooth muscle, but also block voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSCs). In the present study, the anti-angiogenic activities of lamprey CRBGP were investigated using endothelial cells and chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) models. In vitro assays, lamprey CRBGP is able to induce human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis by disturbing the calcium homeostasis and mitochondria functions. In addition, lamprey CRBGP could inhibit proliferation, adhesion, migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs by affecting the organization of F-actin and expression level of matrix metallo-proteinase 2 (MMP-2), matrix metallo-proteinase 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) which are related to angiogenesis. In vivo assays, lamprey CRBGP could suppress the blood vessel formation in CAM models. Therefore, lamprey CRBGP is an important protein present in the buccal gland of lampreys and might help lampreys suppress the contraction of blood vessels, nociceptive responses and wound healing of host fishes during their feeding time. In addition, lamprey CRBGP might have the potential to act as an effective anti-angiogenic factor for the treatment of abnormal angiogenesis induced diseases.

  1. Compounds of the 1,5-di(4-R-phenyl)- 3-selenopentanediones-1,5 series interaction with the basidiomycete Lentinula edodes lectins: computations and experiment.

    PubMed

    Pankratov, Alexei N; Tsivileva, Olga M; Drevko, Boris I; Nikitina, Valentina E

    2011-06-01

    The role of spatial and electron structure, hydrophobic properties and concentration of organoselenium compounds on their interaction with fungal metabolites--extracellular lectins of Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom) has been considered. By the hybrid method of density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) theory level, spatial and electronic structure of the 1,5-diphenyl-3-selenopentanedione-1,5 (preparation DAPS-25), 1,5-di(4-methoxyphenyl)-3-selenopentanedione-1,5 and 1,5-di(4-ethoxyphenyl)-3-selenopentanedione-1,5 molecules has been studied. The above molecules have been stated to be substantially similar to each other by their electronic and spatial characteristics. By means of the QSAR properties evaluation by the atomic-additive schemes, it has been shown that the molecules of the preparation DAPS-25, its dimethoxy- and diethoxy-substituted are close to each other by the hydrophilic-lipophilic balance, whereas di-n-octoxy derivative DAPS-25 is explicitly hydrophobic. The hemagglutinating activity of lectins in the presence of the preparation DAPS-25 and its alkyloxy-substituted increases, therewith the most effective addition is 1,5-di(4-ethoxyphenyl)-3-selenopentanedione-1,5. Apparently, the greater effectiveness of the said substance compared to DAPS -25 is caused by the formation of hydrogen bonds with a participation of unshared electron pairs of oxygen atoms from the ethoxy groups and mobile hydrogen atoms from the OH groups of glycoconjugates on erythrocytes surface. The positive effect of 1,5-di(4-n-octoxyphenyl)-3-selenopentanedione-1,5 is not so prominent, since the enlarged alkyl chain shields the aromatic fragments of organoselenium molecule participating in the binding with lectin. PMID:21469757

  2. Dimethyl sulfoxide-caused changes in pro- and anti-angiogenic factor levels could contribute to an anti-angiogenic response in HeLa cells.

    PubMed

    Şimşek, Ece; Aydemir, Esra Arslan; İmir, Nilüfer; Koçak, Orhan; Kuruoğlu, Aykut; Fışkın, Kayahan

    2015-10-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is widely used in biological research as a general solvent. While it has been previously demonstrated that DMSO possesses a wide range of pharmacological effects, there is no published work regarding the effects of DMSO on pro-angiogenic factor levels. This study was designed to investigate the possible effects of DMSO on the levels of three pro-angiogenic factors released from HeLa cells in vitro. Cells were treated with two different and previously determined concentrations of DMSO. The cytotoxic effects of DMSO concentrations on HeLa cells were determined via MTT. Survival rates of DMSO-treated cells were determined by Invitrogen live/dead viability/cytotoxicity kit and trypan blue exclusion assay. Changes in the pro-angiogenic levels in media were evaluated by Cayman's Substance P Enzyme Immunoassay ELISA kit. Vascular endothelial growth factor ELISA kit and interferon gamma ELISA kit for substance P, VEGF and IFNγ respectively. Changes in substance P levels were corrected by standard western blotting. Changes in VEGF and IFNγ levels were corrected both by western blot and real time PCR. Treatment with 1.4 μM DMSO caused a time-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation at 24, 48 and 72 h. 1.4 μM DMSO caused a significant reduction in VEGF levels at 72 h of incubation and sharp increases in IFNγ levels at both 48 and 72 h of incubation. According to real time PCR analyses, DMSO (1.4 μM) exhibited an inhibitory effect on VEGF but acted as an augmenter of IFNγ release on HeLa cells in vitro. This is the first report showing that the general solvent DMSO suppressed HeLa cell proliferation, decreased the levels of two pro-angiogenic factors (substance P and VEGF) and increased the release of an anti-angiogenic factor IFNγ in vitro.

  3. Synthesis, Physicochemical Studies, Molecular Dynamics Simulations, and Metal-Ion-Dependent Antiproliferative and Antiangiogenic Properties of Cone ICL670-Substituted Calix[4]arenes

    PubMed Central

    Rouge, Pascal; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Cézard, Christine; Boudesocque, Stéphanie; Ourouda, Roger; Amant, Carole; Gaboriau, François; Forfar, Isabelle; Guillon, Jean; Guillon, Emmanuel; Vanquelef, Enguerran; Cieplak, Piotr; Dupradeau, François-Yves; Dupont, Laurent

    2014-01-01

    Iron chelators, through their capacity to modulate the iron concentration in cells, are promising molecules for cancer chemotherapy. Chelators with high lipophilicity easily enter into cells and deplete the iron intracellular pool. Consequently, iron-dependent enzymes, such as ribonucleotide reductase, which is over-expressed in cancer cells, become nonfunctional. A series of calix[4]arene derivatives substituted at the lower rim by ICL670, a strong FeIII chelator, have been synthesized. Physicochemical properties and antiproliferative, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis effects of two calix[4]arenes mono- (5a) or disubstituted (5b) with ICL670 have been studied. These compounds form metal complexes in a ratio of one to two ligands per FeIII atom as shown by combined analyses of the protometric titration curves and ESIMS spectra. The grafting of an ICL670 group on a calix[4]arene core does not significantly alter the acid–base properties, but improves the iron-chelating and lipophilicity properties. The best antiproliferative and anti-angiogenic results were obtained with calix[4]arene ligand 5a, which possesses the highest corresponding properties. Analyses of molecular dynamics simulations performed on the two calix[4]arenes provide three-dimensional structures of the complexes and proved 5a to be the most stable upon complexation. PMID:25599014

  4. Anti-Angiogenic Properties of BDDPM, a Bromophenol from Marine Red Alga Rhodomela confervoides, with Multi Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition Effects

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuaiyu; Wang, Li-Jun; Jiang, Bo; Wu, Ning; Li, Xiangqian; Liu, Shaofang; Luo, Jiao; Shi, Dayong

    2015-01-01

    Bis-(2,3-dibromo-4,5-dihydroxy-phenyl)-methane (BDDPM) is a bromophenol first isolated from Rhodomelaceae confervoides. Our previous studies showed that BDDPM exerts PTP1B-inhibiting activity and anti-cancer activity against a wide range of tumor cells while it also showed lower cytotoxicity against normal cells. In the present study, we found that BDDPM exhibits significant activities toward angiogenesis in vitro. BDDPM inhibits multiple angiogenesis processes, including endothelial cell sprouting, migration, proliferation, and tube formation. Further kinase assays investigations found that BDDPM is a potent selective, but multi-target, receptor tyrosine kinase (RTKs) inhibitor. BDDPM (10 μM) inhibits the activities of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 and 3 (FGFR2, 3), vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) (inhibition rate: 57.7%, 78.6%, 78.5% and 71.1%, respectively). Moreover, BDDPM also decreases the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), as well as nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose dependent manner. These results indicate that BDDPM can be exploited as an anti-angiogenic drug, or as a lead compound for the development of novel multi-target RTKs inhibitors. PMID:26075871

  5. Anti-angiogenic drugs for second-line treatment of NSCLC patients: just new pawns on the chessboard?

    PubMed

    Bronte, Giuseppe; Passiglia, Francesco; Galvano, Antonio; Russo, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is one of the main pathways targeted to treat cancer. Bevacizumab added survival benefit when combined with platinum-based chemotherapy in NSCLC. Recently, Phase III trials showed survival benefit when anti-angiogenic drugs are added to docetaxel as second-line treatment for NSCLC. These anti-angiogenic agents include nintedanib and ramucirumab, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor and a monoclonal antibody, respectively, which target receptors involved in angiogenesis. These studies have some similarities and differences. We propose a new algorithm for treatment sequences in performance status 0-1 patients with non-oncogene-addicted NSCLC type adenocarcinoma. Indeed clearer scientific evidences are available for this subgroup of patients.

  6. Vasculatures in Tumors Growing From Preirradiated Tissues: Formed by Vasculogenesis and Resistant to Radiation and Antiangiogenic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Fang-Hsin; Chiang, Chi-Shiun; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Fu, Sheng-Yung; Tsai, Chien-Sheng; Jung, Shih-Ming; Wen, Chih-Jen; Lee, Chung-Chi; Hong, Ji-Hong

    2011-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate vasculatures and microenvironment in tumors growing from preirradiated tissues (pre-IR tumors) and study the vascular responses of pre-IR tumors to radiation and antiangiogenic therapy. Methods and Materials: Transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate C1 tumors were implanted into unirradiated or preirradiated tissues and examined for vascularity, hypoxia, and tumor-associated macrophage (TAM) infiltrates by immunohistochemistry. The origin of tumor endothelial cells was studied by green fluorescent protein-tagged bone marrow (GFP-BM) transplantation. The response of tumor endothelial cells to radiation and antiangiogenic agent was evaluated by apoptotic assay. Results: The pre-IR tumors had obvious tumor bed effects (TBE), with slower growth rate, lower microvascular density (MVD), and more necrotic and hypoxic fraction compared with control tumors. The vessels were dilated, tightly adhered with pericytes, and incorporated with transplanted GFP-BM cells. In addition, hypoxic regions became aggregated with TAM. As pre-IR tumors developed, the TBE was overcome at the tumor edge where the MVD increased, TAM did not aggregate, and the GFP-BM cells did not incorporate into the vessels. The vessels at tumor edge were more sensitive to the following ionizing radiation and antiangiogenic agent than those in the central low MVD regions. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that vasculatures in regions with TBE are mainly formed by vasculogenesis and resistant to radiation and antiangiogenic therapy. Tumor bed effects could be overcome at the edge of larger tumors, but where vasculatures are formed by angiogenesis and sensitive to both treatments. Vasculatures formed by vasculogenesis should be the crucial target for the treatment of recurrent tumors after radiotherapy.

  7. Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Triptolide in Rheumatoid Arthritis by Targeting Angiogenic Cascade

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Wei; Li, Xiangbin; Su, Xiaohui; Wan, Hongye; Sun, Yanqun; Lin, Na

    2013-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by a pre-vascular seriously inflammatory phase, followed by a vascular phase with high increase in vessel growth. Since angiogenesis has been considered as an essential event in perpetuating inflammatory and immune responses, as well as supporting pannus growth and development of RA, inhibition of angiogenesis has been proposed as a novel therapeutic strategy for RA. Triptolide, a diterpenoid triepoxide from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook F, has been extensively used in treatment of RA patients. It also acts as a small molecule inhibitor of tumor angiogenesis in several cancer types. However, it is unclear whether triptolide possesses an anti-angiogenic effect in RA. To address this problem, we constructed collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) model using DA rats by the injection of bovine type II collagen. Then, CIA rats were treated with triptolide (11–45 µg/kg/day) starting on the day 1 after first immunization. The arthritis scores (P<0.05) and the arthritis incidence (P<0.05) of inflamed joints were both significantly decreased in triptolide-treated CIA rats compared to vehicle CIA rats. More interestingly, doses of 11∼45 µg/kg triptolide could markedly reduce the capillaries, small, medium and large vessel density in synovial membrane tissues of inflamed joints (all P<0.05). Moreover, triptolide inhibited matrigel-induced cell adhesion of HFLS–RA and HUVEC. It also disrupted tube formation of HUVEC on matrigel and suppressed the VEGF-induced chemotactic migration of HFLS–RA and HUVEC, respectively. Furthermore, triptolide significantly reduced the expression of angiogenic activators including TNF-α, IL-17, VEGF, VEGFR, Ang-1, Ang-2 and Tie2, as well as suppressed the IL1-β-induced phosphorylated of ERK, p38 and JNK at protein levels. In conclusion, our data suggest for the first time that triptolide may possess anti-angiogenic effect in RA both in vivo and in vitro assay systems by downregulating the angiogenic

  8. Norcantharidin: a potential antiangiogenic agent for gallbladder cancers in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing-Tao; Fan, Yue-Zu; Chen, Chun-Qiu; Zhao, Zhe-Ming; Sun, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Our objective was to explore the antiangiogenic activity of norcantharidin (NCTD) as an angiogenic inhibitor for gallbladder cancers. In vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the effects of NCTD on HUVECs, chicken CAM capillaries and gallbladder cancer xenograft angiogenesis in nude mice were respectively done. The MTT method was used to assay the cytotoxicity of NCTD on HUVECs. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate HUVEC apoptosis. The scraping line method, matrigel invasion assay and tube formation assay were used to detect the migration, invasion and tube formation of HUVECs. A digital camera was used to observe chicken CAM capillaries. Experiments with NCTD in a xenograft model were used to observe the effect of NCTD on xenograft growth and survival of mice with xenografts. CD₃₄ immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry and micro-MRA were used, respectively, to determine MVD, cell apoptosis and hemodynamic analysis of the xenografts. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR were used, respectively, to detect the expression of VEGF, Ang-2, TSP, TIMP-2 proteins/mRNAs of the xenografts. The xenograft MVD associated with tumor volume, the PCNA/apoptosis ratio and related-protein expression was evaluated simultaneously. We found that NCTD effectively inhibited the proliferation, migration, invasion and capillary-like tube formation of HUVECs in vitro; it reduced angiogenesis and directly destroyed the formed CAM capillaries in vivo. In the experiments in mice, NCTD not only inhibited significantly xenograft proliferation and growth, prolonged survival time of mice with xenografts, decreased the xenograft MVD and vascular perfusion, but also, similarly to ES, decreased significantly the expression of VEGF or Ang-2 protein/mRNA, increased the expression of TSP or TIMP-2 protein/mRNA. Moreover, the xenograft MVD was positively related with tumor volume, PCNA/apoptosis ratio, and VEGF or Ang-2 expression, respectively (all P<0.05), but negatively correlated with TSP or

  9. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and gamma in antiangiogenic effect of pomegranate peel extract

    PubMed Central

    Dana, Nasim; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Rafiee, Laleh

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Herbal medicines are promising cancer preventive candidates. It has been shown that Punica granatum L. could inhibit angiogenesis and tumor invasion. In this study, we investigated whether the anti-angiogenic effect of pomegranate peel extract (PPE) is partly attributable to Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation in the Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs). Materials and Methods: Ethanol extract from PPE was prepared. HUVECs were treated in four groups (with PPE (10 μg/ml) alone, PPE with or without PPARγ (T0070907) and α (GW6471) antagonists, and control group). The possible effect of PPARs on angiogenic regulation was checked by Matrigel assay. The mRNA expression levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was detected by Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR). Results: PPE significantly inhibited both tube formation (size, length, and junction of tubes) and VEGF mRNA expression (P<0.05). Our results showed that the anti-angiogenic effects of PPE were significantly reversed by both PPAR antagonists (P<0.05). There was no difference between PPE plus antagonists groups and the control group. Conclusion: In summary our results showed that the anti-angiogenic effects of PPE could be mediated in part through PPAR dependent pathway. PMID:27096071

  10. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Anti-Angiogenic and Skin Whitening Activities of Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica Hara Extract

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hyun-Joo; Cho, Young-Wook; Lim, Hye-Won; Choi, Hojin; Ji, Dam-Jung; Lim, Chang-Jin

    2013-01-01

    This work aimed to assess some pharmacological activities of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara. The dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara were extracted with 70% ethanol to generate the powdered extract, named PLE. Anti-angiogenic activity was detected using chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated via analyzing nitric oxide (NO) content, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in the stimulated macrophage cells. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and -2 (MMP-2) activities in the culture media were detected using zymography. PLE exhibits an anti-angiogenic activity in the CAM assay, and displays an inhibitory action on the generation of NO in the LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. In the stimulated macrophage cells, it is able to diminish the enhanced ROS level. It can potently scavenge the stable DPPH free radical. It suppresses the induction of iNOS and COX-2 and the enhanced MMP-9 activity in the stimulated macrophage cells. Both monooxygenase and oxidase activities of tyrosinase were strongly inhibited by PLE. Taken together, the dried roots of P. leptostachya var. asiatica Hara possess anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and skin whitening activities, which might partly provide its therapeutic efficacy in traditional medicine. PMID:24009862

  11. In vitro and in vivo antiangiogenic activity of desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide through inhibition of VEGFR2 and Axl pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xueping; Chen, Minfeng; Nie, Qiulin; Hu, Jianyang; Zhuo, Zhenjian; Yiu, Anita; Chen, Heru; Xu, Nanhui; Huang, Maohua; Ye, Kaihe; Bai, Liangliang; Ye, Wencai; Zhang, Dongmei

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenic process is regulated by multiple proangiogenic pathways, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) and Axl receptor tyrosine kinase (Axl). Axl is one of many important factors involved in anti-VEGF resistance. Inhibition of VEGF/VEGFR2 signaling pathway alone fails to block tumor neovascularization. Therefore, discovery of novel agents targeting multiple angiogenesis pathways is in demand. Desacetylvinblastine monohydrazide (DAVLBH), a derivative of vinblastine (VLB), has been reported exhibit an anticancer activity via its cytotoxic effect. However, little attention has been paid to the antiangiogenic properties of DAVLBH. Here, we firstly reported that DAVLBH exerted a more potent antiangiogenic effect than VLB in vitro and in vivo, which was associated with inactivation of VEGF/VEGFR2 and Gas6/Axl signaling pathways. We found that DAVLBH inhibited VEGF- and Gas6-induced HUVECs proliferation, migration, tube formation and vessel sprouts formation in vitro and ex vivo. It significantly inhibited in vivo tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth in HeLa xenografts. It also inhibited Gas6-induced pericytes recruitment to endothelial tubes accompanied with a decrease in expression and activation of Axl. Besides, it could block the compensatory up-regulating expression and activation of Axl in response to bevacizumab treatment in HUVECs. Taken together, our results suggest that DAVLBH potently inhibits angiogenesis-mediated tumor growth through blockage of the activation of VEGF/VEGFR2 and Gas6/Axl pathways and it might serve as a promising antiangiogenic agent for the cancer therapy. PMID:27186435

  12. Markers of Response to Antiangiogenic Therapies in Colorectal Cancer: Where Are We Now and What Should Be Next?

    PubMed Central

    Cidon, E. Una; Alonso, P.; Masters, B.

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), it remains the second most common cause of cancer-related death in the Western world. Angiogenesis is a complex process that involves the formation of new blood vessels from preexisting vessels. It is essential for promoting cancer survival, growth, and dissemination. The inhibition of angiogenesis has been shown to prevent tumor progression experimentally, and several chemotherapeutic targets of tumor angiogenesis have been identified. These include anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatments, such as bevacizumab (a VEGF-specific binding antibody) and anti-VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors, although antiangiogenic therapy has been shown to be effective in the treatment of several cancers, including CRC. However, it is also associated with its own side effects and financial costs. Therefore, the identification of biomarkers that are able to identify patients who are more likely to benefit from antiangiogenic treatment is very important. This article intends to be a concise summary of the potential biomarkers that can predict or prognosticate the benefit of antiangiogenic treatments in CRC, and also what we can expect in the near future. PMID:27147901

  13. A simplified synthesis of novel dictyostatin analogues with in vitro activity against epothilone B-resistant cells and antiangiogenic activity in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Laura L; Jiménez, Maria; Camarco, Daniel P; Zhu, Wei; Daghestani, Hikmat N; Balachandran, Raghavan; Reese, Celeste E; Lazo, John S; Hukriede, Neil A; Curran, Dennis P; Day, Billy W; Vogt, Andreas

    2011-06-01

    The natural product (--)-dictyostatin is a microtubule-stabilizing agent that potently inhibits the growth of human cancer cells, including paclitaxel-resistant clones. Extensive structure-activity relationship studies have revealed several regions of the molecule that can be altered without loss of activity. The most potent synthetic dictyostatin analogue described to date, 6-epi-dictyostatin, has superior in vivo antitumor activity against human breast cancer xenografts compared with paclitaxel. In spite of their encouraging activities in preclinical studies, the complex chemical structure of the dictyostatins presents a major obstacle for their development into novel antineoplastic therapies. We recently reported a streamlined synthesis of 16-desmethyl-25,26-dihydrodictyostatins and found several agents that, when compared with 6-epi-dictyostatin, retained nanomolar activity in cellular microtubule-bundling assays but had lost activity against paclitaxel-resistant cells with mutations in β-tubulin. Extending these studies, we applied the new, highly convergent synthesis to generate 25,26-dihydrodictyostatin and 6-epi-25,26-dihydrodictyostatin. Both compounds were potent microtubule-perturbing agents that induced mitotic arrest and microtubule assembly in vitro and in intact cells. In vitro radioligand binding studies showed that 25,26-dihydrodictyostatin and its C6-epimer were capable of displacing [3H]paclitaxel and [14C]epothilone B from microtubules with potencies comparable to (--)-dictyostatin and discodermolide. Both compounds inhibited the growth of paclitaxel- and epothilone B-resistant cell lines at low nanomolar concentrations, synergized with paclitaxel in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells, and had antiangiogenic activity in transgenic zebrafish larvae. These data identify 25,26-dihydrodictyostatin and 6-epi-25,26-dihydrodictyostatin as candidates for scale-up synthesis and further preclinical development.

  14. A novel orally bioavailable inhibitor of kinase insert domain-containing receptor induces antiangiogenic effects and prevents tumor growth in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sepp-Lorenzino, Laura; Rands, Elaine; Mao, Xianzhi; Connolly, Brett; Shipman, Jennifer; Antanavage, Joanne; Hill, Susan; Davis, Lenora; Beck, Stephen; Rickert, Keith; Coll, Kathleen; Ciecko, Patrice; Fraley, Mark; Hoffman, William; Hartman, George; Heimbrook, David; Gibbs, Jackson; Kohl, Nancy; Thomas, Kenneth

    2004-01-15

    A strategy for antagonizing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) -induced angiogenesis is to inhibit the kinase activity of its receptor, kinase insert domain-containing receptor (KDR), the first committed and perhaps the last unique step in the VEGF signaling cascade. We synthesized a novel ATP-competitive KDR tyrosine kinase inhibitor that potently suppresses human and mouse KDR activity in enzyme (IC(50) = 7.8-19.5 nM) and cell-based assays (IC(50) = 8 nM). The compound was bioavailable in vivo, leading to a dose-dependent decrease in basal- and VEGF-stimulated KDR tyrosine phosphorylation in lungs from naïve and tumor-bearing mice (IC(50) = 23 nM). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics guided drug dose selection for antitumor efficacy studies. HT1080 nude mice xenografts were treated orally twice daily with vehicle, or 33 or 133 mg/kg of compound. These doses afforded trough plasma concentrations approximately equal to the IC(50) for inhibition of KDR autophosphorylation in vivo for the 33 mg/kg group, and higher than the IC(99) for the 133 mg/kg group. Chronic treatment at these doses was well-tolerated and resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of tumor growth, decreased tumor vascularization, decreased proliferation, and enhanced cell death. Antitumor efficacy correlated with inhibition of KDR tyrosine phosphorylation in the tumor, as well as in a surrogate tissue (lung). Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics assessment indicated that the degree of tumor growth inhibition correlated directly with the extent of inhibition of KDR tyrosine phosphorylation in tumor or lung at trough. These observations highlight the need to design antiangiogenic drug regimens to ensure constant target suppression and to take advantage of PD end points to guide dose selection.

  15. Glioma cell VEGFR-2 confers resistance to chemotherapeutic and antiangiogenic treatments in PTEN-deficient glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Tobias; Sahm, Felix; Blaes, Jonas; Osswald, Matthias; Rübmann, Petra; Milford, David; Urban, Severino; Jestaedt, Leonie; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Hertenstein, Anne; Pfenning, Philipp-Niclas; Ruiz de Almodóvar, Carmen; Wick, Antje; Winkler, Frank; von Deimling, Andreas; Platten, Michael; Wick, Wolfgang; Weiler, Markus

    2015-10-13

    Loss of the tumor suppressor phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a prerequisite for tumor cell-specific expression of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2 in glioblastoma defining a subgroup prone to develop evasive resistance towards antiangiogenic treatments. Immunohistochemical analysis of human tumor tissues showed VEGFR-2 expression in glioma cells in 19% of specimens examined, mainly in the infiltration zone. Glioma cell VEGFR-2 positivity was restricted to PTEN-deficient tumor specimens. PTEN overexpression reduced VEGFR-2 expression in vitro, as well as knock-down of raptor or rictor. Genetic interference with VEGFR-2 revealed proproliferative, antiinvasive and chemoprotective functions for VEGFR-2 in glioma cells. VEGFR-2-dependent cellular effects were concomitant with activation of 'kappa-light-chain-enhancer' of activated B-cells, protein kinase B, and N-myc downstream regulated gene 1. Two-photon in vivo microscopy revealed that expression of VEGFR-2 in glioma cells hampers antiangiogenesis. Bevacizumab induces a proinvasive response in VEGFR-2-positive glioma cells. Patients with PTEN-negative glioblastomas had a shorter survival after initiation of bevacizumab therapy compared with PTEN-positive glioblastomas. Conclusively, expression of VEGFR-2 in glioma cells indicates an aggressive glioblastoma subgroup developing early resistance to temozolomide or bevacizumab. Loss of PTEN may serve as a biomarker identifying those tumors upfront by routine neuropathological methods.

  16. Viola tricolor Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Exhibits Antiangiogenic Activity on Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani Hesari, Taghi; Mortazavian, Seyed Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and water fractions (0–800 μg/mL) of Viola tricolor were investigated in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition, antiangiogenic effect of EtOAc fraction was evaluated on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The quality of EtOAc fraction was also characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that EtOAc fraction was the most potent among all fractions with maximal effect on MCF-7 and minimal toxicity against normal murine fibroblast L929 cells. Apoptosis induction by EtOAc fraction was confirmed by increased sub-G1 peak of propidium iodide (PI) stained cells. This fraction triggered the apoptotic pathway by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 level. Moreover, treatment with EtOAc fraction significantly decreased the diameter of vessels on CAM, while the number of newly formed blood vessels was not suppressed significantly. Analysis of quality of EtOAc fraction using HPLC fingerprint showed six major peaks with different retention times. The results of the present study suggest that V. tricolor has potential anticancer property by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:25243166

  17. Anti-Angiogenic Therapy: Strategies to Develop Potent VEGFR-2 Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Future Prospect.

    PubMed

    Shi, Leilei; Zhou, Jianfeng; Wu, Jifeng; Shen, Yuemao; Li, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis has always been a major gap for effective cancer therapy. Interruption of aberrant angiogenesis by specific inhibitors targeting receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) has been of great interests to medicinal chemists. Among the factors that are involved in tumor angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is validated as the most closely related factor which can drive angiogenesis through binding with its natural ligand VEGF. The well-validated VEGF-driven VEGFR-2 signaling pathway can stimulate many endothelial responses, including increasing vessel permeability and enhancing endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation. Consequently, circumventing angiogenesis by VEGFR-2 inhibitors represents a promising strategy for counteracting various VEGFR-2-mediated disorders as well as drug resistance. Over the past decades, a considerable number of novel small molecular VEGFR-2 inhibitors have been exploited with diverse chemical scaffolds. Especially, recent frequently launched inhibitors have declared their research values and therapeutic potentials in oncology. Still, the antiangiogenesis based treatment remains an ongoing challenge. In this review, a comprehensive retrospective of newly emerged VEGFR-2 inhibitors have been summarized, with the emphasis on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigation, and also binding patterns of representative inhibitors with biotargets. On the basis of all of this information, varied strategies for developing potent VEGFR-2 inhibitors and the future prospect of the clinical application of antiangiogenic inhibitors are discussed hereby.

  18. Anti-angiogenic therapy (bevacizumab) in the management of oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Maha M; Afifi, Marwa M

    2016-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP), a mucocutaneous chronic inflammatory disease, is conventionally managed using topical corticosteroid therapy. Given the fact that OLP is strongly linked to angiogenesis, anti-angiogenic drugs, such as bevacizumab, might be introduced as an alternative treatment for contraindicated, non-responsive patients. The aim of the present study was to report the short-term effectiveness and safety of intralesional bevacizumab injection in the management of atrophic/erosive OLP. A case series study was conducted in patients with atrophic/erosive OLP in the buccal mucosa, assigned to receive either 2.5 mg of bevacizumab, by intralesional injection (n = 20, test), or topical 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide ointment (n = 20, control). The size, score, and pain intensity of the lesions were assessed pre- and post-treatment. Tissue biopsies were collected for histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural examination. After 1 wk, the test group had significant reductions both in lesion seize and in pain scores compared with controls. A marked decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 immunoexpression was noted in tissue biopsies from bevacizumab-treated lesions compared with control lesions. Furthermore, ultrastructural examination of OLP tissue specimens revealed significant healing signs associated with bevacizumab treatment. Short-term data suggest that intralesional bevacizumab injection effectively and safely achieved resolution of atrophic/erosive OLP lesions without disease exacerbations during a 3-month follow-up period. PMID:26892241

  19. Viola tricolor induces apoptosis in cancer cells and exhibits antiangiogenic activity on chicken chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani Hesari, Taghi; Mortazavian, Seyed Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and water fractions (0-800 μg/mL) of Viola tricolor were investigated in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition, antiangiogenic effect of EtOAc fraction was evaluated on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The quality of EtOAc fraction was also characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that EtOAc fraction was the most potent among all fractions with maximal effect on MCF-7 and minimal toxicity against normal murine fibroblast L929 cells. Apoptosis induction by EtOAc fraction was confirmed by increased sub-G1 peak of propidium iodide (PI) stained cells. This fraction triggered the apoptotic pathway by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 level. Moreover, treatment with EtOAc fraction significantly decreased the diameter of vessels on CAM, while the number of newly formed blood vessels was not suppressed significantly. Analysis of quality of EtOAc fraction using HPLC fingerprint showed six major peaks with different retention times. The results of the present study suggest that V. tricolor has potential anticancer property by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis.

  20. [Anti-angiogenic effects of aldosterone antagonists in the fibrin chamber in rats].

    PubMed

    Guggino, S; Mechine Neuville, A; Weltin, D; Imbs, J L; Stephan, D

    2003-01-01

    Spironolactone, a diuretic antagonist of aldosterone has an unexplained side effect of amenorrhea which could be due to an angiogenesis inhibition. In this study we compared the effects of spironolactone, canrenone an active metabolite of spironolactone and eplerenone a more selective mineralocorticoid antagonist in rats implanted with a fibrin gel chamber. Perforated plexiglass chambers filled with rat fibrin, spironolactone (50 microM), canrenone (100 microM), eplerenone (500 microM), DMSO (0.05%) and control were implanted into the dorsal subcutaneous space of wistar rats. After 14 days of implantation, an invasion of the fibrin gel chamber by neovascularised buds had occurred through the holes. The number of vessels in the central field and in two or three peripheral fields covering the surface of the bud, were measured for each drug tested and compared to the control. In spironolactone treated chambers, the numbers of peripheral and central vessels were significantly reduced compared to control (p < 0.001). Canrenone, eplerenone and DMSO did not reduce the number of vessels (m +/- ESM, ANOVA followed by Newman-Keuls test). Spironolactone but not canrenone, nor eplerenone inhibited vessels formation in vivo. This antiangiogenic activity appeared to be not related to the antimineralocorticoid effect of spironolactone. PMID:12945230

  1. Computational modelling of anti-angiogenic therapies based on multiparametric molecular imaging data.

    PubMed

    Titz, Benjamin; Kozak, Kevin R; Jeraj, Robert

    2012-10-01

    Computational tumour models have emerged as powerful tools for the optimization of cancer therapies; ideally, these models should incorporate patient-specific imaging data indicative of therapeutic response. The purpose of this study was to develop a tumour modelling framework in order to simulate the therapeutic effects of anti-angiogenic agents based upon clinical molecular imaging data. The model was applied to positron emission tomography (PET) data of cellular proliferation and hypoxia from a phase I clinical trial of bevacizumab, an antibody that neutralizes the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). When using pre-therapy PET data in combination with literature-based dose response parameters, simulated follow-up hypoxia data yielded good qualitative agreement with imaged hypoxia levels. Improving the quantitative agreement with follow-up hypoxia and proliferation PET data required tuning of the maximum vascular growth fraction (VGF(max)) and the tumour cell cycle time to patient-specific values. VGF(max) was found to be the most sensitive model parameter (CV = 22%). Assuming availability of patient-specific, intratumoural VEGF levels, we show how bevacizumab dose levels can potentially be 'tailored' to improve levels of tumour hypoxia while maintaining proliferative response, both of which are critically important in the context of combination therapy. Our results suggest that, upon further validation, the application of image-driven computational models may afford opportunities to optimize dosing regimens and combination therapies in a patient-specific manner.

  2. Normal tissues toxicities triggered by combined anti-angiogenic and radiation therapies: hurdles might be ahead

    PubMed Central

    Mangoni, M; Vozenin, M-C; Biti, G; Deutsch, E

    2012-01-01

    Background: Combined-modality therapy is a promising approach to improve the therapeutic index of radiotherapy. However, these improvements could come at the cost of increased toxicities. Clinical trials evaluating anti-tumour efficacy of bevacizumab combined with radiotherapy have encountered unexpected side effects. This study is the first systematic evaluation of normal tissue toxicity triggered by anti-angiogenic agents combined with radiation therapy in mice. Methods: Effect of a mouse anti-VEGF antibody was monitored on acute toxicity studying radiation-induced intestinal ulceration (12 Gy TBI); on subacute toxicity using a model of oral mucositis (16.5 Gy); on late radiation injuries by monitoring lung fibrosis (bleomycin and 19 Gy). Results: Combination of irradiation with anti-VEGF antibody enhanced intestinal damages with severe epithelial ulcerations, had no adverse impact on oral mucositis and dramatically worsened the fibrotic picture induced by bleomycin and irradiation to the lung. Interpretation: These reports bring to light the important questions about safety and underscore the need for appropriate preclinical modelling of the impact on normal tissues of novel drug–radiation regimens. Our findings also highlight the complexity of anti-VEGF action, which could in defined conditions exert tissue-specific protection. The findings indicate that the combination of targeted drugs with radiotherapy should be approached with caution. PMID:22691970

  3. [Antiangiogenic treatment of pediatric CNS tumors in Hungary with the Kieran schedule].

    PubMed

    Hauser, Péter; Vancsó, Ildikó; Pócza, Tímea; Schuler, Dezső; Garami, Miklós

    2013-12-01

    In Hungary a new oral antiangiogenic treatment was introduced in cases of primary chemoresistant or recurrent pediatric CNS tumors, called Kieran schedule. The early results of this treatment were analyzed. From 2010 at Semmelweis University on individual decisions a daily combined per oral treatment was introduced in pediatric patients with recurrent or progressive CNS tumor (Kieran schedule: thalidomid, celecoxib, etoposid and cyclophosphamid). Efficacy of therapy was analyzed in terms of demographic data, histology, side effects and tolerability in a retrospective manner. From 2010 through 2013, twenty patients were treated with Kieran schedule (medulloblastoma: 3, ependymoma: 5, anaplastic astrocytoma: 2, GBM: 4, plexus choroideus carcinoma: 1, central primitive neuroectodermal tumor: 1, optic glioma: 2, brainstem tumor: 2). Median treatment time and median progression-free survival were 0.60 and 0.61 years, respectively. Based on the preliminary analysis of a limited cohort of patients, the therapy was efficient in those cases of medulloblastoma, ependymoma, high-grade and optic gliomas, where the expected survival time was more than 3 months at start of treatment. Side effects were slight myelosuppresion in terms of previous therapy, 16% transient ischemic attack (TIA)-like episodes. During therapy patients could live their everyday life. Kieran schedule was well-tolerable and efficient with good quality of life in certain cases of pediatric CNS tumors.

  4. Raman spectral study of anti-angiogenic drugs on the role of chick vascular

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ruixiang; Chen, Rong; Chen, Qisong; Lin, Juqiang; Pan, Jianji; Lin, Shaojun; Li, Chao; Li, Yongzeng; Feng, Shangyuan

    2009-08-01

    Inhibit angiogenesis is one of the important tumor therapy. If the mechanism of vascular changes can be detected at molecular level, it will have therapeutic significance. Raman spectroscopy, which can be applied to the structural analysis of solid, liquid or solution of biological molecules, is a non-destructive spectral technology holding very rich information. Basing on Confocal Raman Microscope, a unique system is developed for obtaining the different Raman spectra of the chick embryo vascular with the anti-angiogenic drugs - thalidomide and without. In the study, the location and shape of the average Raman spectra of vessels in drug 5h were very similar to the ones without medicine, and the intensity of some characteristic peaks changed, such as 1441cm-1,1527cm-1 and 1657cm-1 showing markedly increasing, while the 971cm-1 and 1081cm-1 decreasing. This change was due to anti- angiogenic drugs that caused the nucleic acid, protein, phospholipids, and other important biological molecules of the vessels on the structure or content tovary. PCA was used to distinguish between the two kinds of vascular with the result that they were accurately partitioned.The study indicated that Raman spectroscopy could be an effective tool for detection of the mechanism of vascular changes.

  5. Adenovirus-mediated delivery of antiangiogenic genes as an antitumor approach.

    PubMed

    Régulier, E; Paul, S; Marigliano, M; Kintz, J; Poitevin, Y; Ledoux, C; Roecklin, D; Cauet, G; Calenda, V; Homann, H E

    2001-01-01

    Based on the observation that the growth of solid tumors is dependent on the formation of new blood vessels, therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting angiogenesis have been proposed. A number of proteins with angiostatic activity have been described, but their development as therapeutic agents has been hampered by difficulties in their production and their poor pharmacokinetics. These limitations may be resolved using a gene therapy approach whereby the genes are delivered and expressed in vivo. Here we compared adenoviral delivery of endostatin, proliferin-related protein (PRP), and interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP10) genes. Recombinant adenoviruses carrying the three angiostatic genes express biologically active gene products as determined in vitro in endothelial cell proliferation and migration assays, and in vivo by inhibition of neoangiogenesis in rat chambers. Eradication of established tumors in vivo, in the murine B16F10 melanoma model in immunocompetent mice, was not achieved by intratumoral injection of the different vectors. However, the combination of intravenous plus intratumoral injections allowed rejection of tumors. Ad-PRP or Ad-IP10 were significantly more efficient than Ad-endostatin, leading to complete tumor rejection and prolonged survival in a high proportion of treated animals. These data support the use of in vivo gene delivery approaches to produce high-circulating and local levels of antiangiogenic agents for the therapy of local and metastatic human tumors. PMID:11219493

  6. Inulin based micelles loaded with curcumin or celecoxib with effective anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Mandracchia, Delia; Tripodo, Giuseppe; Trapani, Adriana; Ruggieri, Simona; Annese, Tiziana; Chlapanidas, Theodora; Trapani, Giuseppe; Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-10-10

    Curcumin (CUR) and celecoxib (CLX) are two highly hydrophobic drugs which show bioavailability problems due to their poor aqueous solubility. The aim of this study was to encapsulate each of these drugs in micelles based on biodegradable and amphiphilic polymers to investigate their anti-angiogenesis activity. Here we use an amphiphilic polymer, based on two natural substances from renewable resources (Inulin and Vitamin E, INVITE), as a self-assembling system for the drug delivery of CUR and CLX. By the in vivo assay of chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) it was assessed that both INVITE-CUR and INVITE-CLX micelles possess remarkable anti-angiogenic activity, while the INVITE micelles alone resulted intrinsically pro-angiogenic. Furthermore, it has been shown that encapsulation of CUR and CLX in INVITE micelles enhances of several magnitudes the water-solubility of CUR and CLX (14·10(5) and 3·10(2) times for CUR and CLX, respectively). These results may have interesting implications not only in anticancer or diabetic maculopathy therapy based on the anti-angiogenesis strategy but also for regenerative medicine where over-production of new vessels is required.

  7. A ribonuclease inhibitor expresses anti-angiogenic properties and leads to reduced tumor growth in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Polakowski, I. J.; Lewis, M. K.; Muthukkaruppan, V. R.; Erdman, B.; Kubai, L.; Auerbach, R.

    1993-01-01

    Our experiments were designed to determine whether recombinant ribonuclease inhibitor (RNasin) could inhibit angiogenesis and reduce tumor growth in adult mice. We used the Fajardo disc angiogenesis assay as the primary means of measuring new blood vessel growth. This assay measures the penetration of cells into a polyvinyl alcohol sponge with a central core of ELVAX-coated sponge containing test substances. Cell penetration was reduced to 29.3% of control (phosphate-buffered saline; heat-inactivated RNasin) values. Endothelial cell influx was measured by lectin staining and confirmed by culturing cells isolated from sponges by collagenase treatment. RNasin also reduced the augmented reaction evoked by either basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) or sodium orthovanadate. To confirm the anti-angiogenic activity of RNasin, Hydron-coated polyvinyl sponges containing bFGF or bFGF plus RNasin were implanted into adult mouse corneas. bFGF induced a strong angiogenic response that was almost completely inhibited by RNasin. RNasin-containing ELVAX-coated sponges implanted subcutaneously underneath an intradermal inoculum of C755 mammary tumor cells caused significant reduction in tumor growth (P < 0.005). The antitumor effect of RNasin correlated with its effect on tumor-induced neovascularization, suggesting that the ability of RNasin to affect tumor growth was due to its ability to inhibit angiogenesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 PMID:7688185

  8. Twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome: an anti-angiogenic state?

    PubMed Central

    KUSANOVIC, Juan Pedro; ROMERO, Roberto; ESPINOZA, Jimmy; NIEN, Jyh Kae; KIM, Chong Jai; MITTAL, Pooja; EDWIN, Sam; EREZ, Offer; GOTSCH, Francesca; MAZAKI-TOVI, Shali; THAN, Nandor G.; SOTO, Eleazar; CAMACHO, Natalia; GOMEZ, Ricardo; QUINTERO, Ruben; HASSAN, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective An imbalanced chronic blood flow between the donor and recipient twin through placental vascular anastomoses is the accepted pathophysiology of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1) mRNA is overexpressed only in the syncytiotrophoblast of the donor twin in some cases of TTTS. This study was conducted to determine maternal plasma concentrations of placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble VEGFR-1, and soluble endoglin (s-Eng) in monochorionic-diamniotic pregnancies with and without TTTS. Study design This case-control study included monochorionic-diamniotic pregnancies between 16–26 weeks with and without TTTS. Maternal plasma concentrations of PlGF, sVEGFR-1 and s-Eng were determined with ELISA. A p-value <.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Patients with TTTS had higher median plasma concentrations of s-Eng [14.8 ng/ml vs. 7.8 ng/ml; p<0.001] and sVEGFR-1 [6383.1 pg/ml vs. 3220.1 pg/ml; p<0.001]; and lower median plasma concentrations of PlGF [115.5 pg/ml vs. 359.3 pg/ml; p=0.002] than those without TTTS. Conclusions We propose that an anti-angiogenic state may be present in some cases of TTTS. PMID:18395032

  9. Anti-angiogenic therapy (bevacizumab) in the management of oral lichen planus.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Maha M; Afifi, Marwa M

    2016-04-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP), a mucocutaneous chronic inflammatory disease, is conventionally managed using topical corticosteroid therapy. Given the fact that OLP is strongly linked to angiogenesis, anti-angiogenic drugs, such as bevacizumab, might be introduced as an alternative treatment for contraindicated, non-responsive patients. The aim of the present study was to report the short-term effectiveness and safety of intralesional bevacizumab injection in the management of atrophic/erosive OLP. A case series study was conducted in patients with atrophic/erosive OLP in the buccal mucosa, assigned to receive either 2.5 mg of bevacizumab, by intralesional injection (n = 20, test), or topical 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide ointment (n = 20, control). The size, score, and pain intensity of the lesions were assessed pre- and post-treatment. Tissue biopsies were collected for histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural examination. After 1 wk, the test group had significant reductions both in lesion seize and in pain scores compared with controls. A marked decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 immunoexpression was noted in tissue biopsies from bevacizumab-treated lesions compared with control lesions. Furthermore, ultrastructural examination of OLP tissue specimens revealed significant healing signs associated with bevacizumab treatment. Short-term data suggest that intralesional bevacizumab injection effectively and safely achieved resolution of atrophic/erosive OLP lesions without disease exacerbations during a 3-month follow-up period.

  10. Fibrocyte-like cells mediate acquired resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy with bevacizumab

    PubMed Central

    Mitsuhashi, Atsushi; Goto, Hisatsugu; Saijo, Atsuro; Trung, Van The; Aono, Yoshinori; Ogino, Hirokazu; Kuramoto, Takuya; Tabata, Sho; Uehara, Hisanori; Izumi, Keisuke; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hidefusa; Gotoh, Masashi; Kakiuchi, Soji; Hanibuchi, Masaki; Yano, Seiji; Yokomise, Hiroyasu; Sakiyama, Shoji; Nishioka, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab exerts anti-angiogenic effects in cancer patients by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, its use is still limited due to the development of resistance to the treatment. Such resistance can be regulated by various factors, although the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Here we show that bone marrow-derived fibrocyte-like cells, defined as alpha-1 type I collagen-positive and CXCR4-positive cells, contribute to the acquired resistance to bevacizumab. In mouse models of malignant pleural mesothelioma and lung cancer, fibrocyte-like cells mediate the resistance to bevacizumab as the main producer of fibroblast growth factor 2. In clinical specimens of lung cancer, the number of fibrocyte-like cells is significantly increased in bevacizumab-treated tumours, and correlates with the number of treatment cycles, as well as CD31-positive vessels. Our results identify fibrocyte-like cells as a promising cell biomarker and a potential therapeutic target to overcome resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. PMID:26635184

  11. Anti-angiogenic therapy via cationic liposome-mediated systemic siRNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Tagami, Tatsuaki; Suzuki, Takuya; Matsunaga, Mariko; Nakamura, Kazuya; Moriyoshi, Naoto; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2012-01-17

    siRNA has been touted as a therapeutic molecule against genetic diseases, which include cancers. But several challenging issues remain in order to achieve efficient systemic siRNA delivery and a sufficient therapeutic effect for siRNA in vivo. Cationic liposome shows promise as a carrier for nucleic acids, as it can selectively bind to angiogenic tumor blood vessels. In this way, anti-angiogenic therapy via cationic liposome-mediated systemic siRNA delivery could be achieved in cancer therapy. In the present study, we proved our assumption by preparing various kinds of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated siRNA/cationic liposome complexes (siRNA-lipoplexes) and screening the avidity of these siRNA-lipoplexes upon angiogenic tumor blood vessels by means of a murine dorsal air sac (DAS) model. The lipoplex, having a lipid composition of DC-6-14/POPC/CHOL/DOPE/mPEG(2000)-DSPE=20/30/30/20/5 (molar ratio) and a charge ratio of cationic liposome and siRNA=3.81 (+/-), showed a higher binding index to newly formed blood vessels. Systemic injection with the lipoplex containing siRNA for the Argonaute2 gene (apoptosis-inducible siRNA) resulted in significant anti-tumor effect without severe side effects in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma. Our results indicate that the PEGylated cationic liposome-mediated systemic delivery of cytotoxic siRNA achieves anti-angiogenesis, resulting in the suppression of tumor growth. PMID:22101286

  12. Anti-angiogenic poly-L-lysine dendrimer binds heparin and neutralizes its activity.

    PubMed

    Al-Jamal, Khuloud T; Al-Jamal, Wafa T; Kostarelos, Kostas; Turton, John A; Florence, Alexander T

    2012-01-01

    The interaction between heparin, a polyanion, and a polycationic dendrimer with a glycine core and lysine branches Gly-Lys63(NH2)64 has been investigated. Complexation was assessed by transmission electron microscopy, size and zeta potential measurements, methylene blue spectroscopy, and measuring the anti-coagulant activity of heparin in vitro and in vivo. Complete association between the heparin and the dendrimer occurred a 1:1 mass ratio (2:1 molar ratio or +/-charge ratio) with formation of quasi-spherical complexes in the size range of 99-147 nm with a negative zeta potential (-47 mV). Heparin-dendrimer (dendriplex) formation led to a concentration-dependent neutralization of the anticoagulant activity of heparin in human plasma in vitro, with complete loss of activity at a 1:1 mass ratio. The anticoagulant activity of the dendriplexes in Sprague-Dawley rats was also evaluated after subcutaneous administration with uncomplexed heparin as a comparator. The in vivo anticoagulant activity of heparin in plasma, evaluated using an antifactor Xa assay, was abolished after complexation. Measurement of [(3)H]-heparin showed that both free heparin and dendriplexes were present in plasma and in organs. Such data confirmed stably the formation of dendriplexes, which could be essential in developing novel dendrimer-based anti-angiogenic therapeutics suitable in combinatory therapeutics and theranostics. PMID:25755989

  13. Anti-angiogenic effects and mechanisms of zerumin A from Alpinia caerulea.

    PubMed

    He, Zhi-Heng; Gilli, Christian; Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lau, Clara Bik-San; Greger, Harald; Brecker, Lothar; Ge, Wei; But, Paul Pui-Hay

    2012-05-01

    Alpinia caerulea (R.Br.) Bentham, a perennial herb growing in tropical and subtropical Australia, is used as a flavouring spice and a ginger substitute. Its fruit has been used as indigenous food among the aboriginal Australians; 95% ethanol extracts of the dried fruits, leaves, rhizomes and roots of this plant were investigated in a zebrafish model by quantitative endogenous alkaline phosphatase assay. Only the fruit extract showed potential anti-angiogenic effect, inhibiting vessel formation by 25% at 20μg/ml. Two diterpenoids were isolated and identified as zerumin A and (E)-8(17),12-labdadiene-15,16-dial. Zerumin A, which had mainly accumulated in the fruits and bearing a carboxylic group, could dose-dependently inhibit vessel formation, in both wild-type and Tg(fli1a:EGFP)y1 zebrafish embryos. The semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay on wild type zebrafish embryos suggested that zerumin A affected multiple molecular targets related to angiogenesis. Further investigation, by human umbilical vein endothelial cell assays, revealed that zerumin A specifically inhibited the proliferation and migration steps, to prevent angiogenesis progress.

  14. Antiangiogenic treatment delays chondrocyte maturation and bone formation during limb skeletogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Melinda; Gentili, Chiara; Koyama, Eiki; Zasloff, Michael; Pacifici, Maurizio

    2002-01-01

    Hypertrophic chondrocytes have important roles in promoting invasion of cartilage by blood vessels and its replacement with bone. However, it is unclear whether blood vessels exert reciprocal positive influences on chondrocyte maturation and function. Therefore, we implanted beads containing the antiangiogenic molecule squalamine around humeral anlagen in chick embryo wing buds and monitored the effects over time. Fluorescence microscopy showed that the drug diffused from the beads and accumulated in humeral perichondrial tissues, indicating that these tissues were the predominant targets of drug action. Diaphyseal chondrocyte maturation was indeed delayed in squalamine-treated humeri, as indicated by reduced cell hypertrophy and expression of type X collagen, transferrin, and Indian hedgehog (Ihh). Although reduced in amount, Ihh maintained a striking distribution in treated and control humeri, being associated with diaphyseal chondrocytes as well as inner perichondrial layer. These decreases were accompanied by lack of cartilage invasion and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP+) cells and a significant longitudinal growth retardation. Recovery occurred at later developmental times, when in fact expression in treated humeri of markers such as matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) appeared to exceed that in controls. Treating primary cultures of hypertrophic chondrocytes and osteoblasts with squalamine revealed no obvious changes in cell phenotype. These data provide evidence that perichondrial tissues and blood vessels in particular influence chondrocyte maturation in a positive manner and may cooperate with hypertrophic chondrocytes in dictating the normal pace and location of the transition from cartilage to bone. PMID:11771670

  15. Deep sequencing reveals microRNAs predictive of antiangiogenic drug response

    PubMed Central

    García-Donas, Jesús; Beuselinck, Benoit; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Graña, Osvaldo; Schöffski, Patrick; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Bechter, Oliver; Apellániz-Ruiz, Maria; Leandro-García, Luis Javier; Esteban, Emilio; Castellano, Daniel E.; González del Alba, Aranzazu; Climent, Miguel Angel; Hernando, Susana; Arranz, José Angel; Morente, Manuel; Pisano, David G.; Robledo, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The majority of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients are treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in first-line treatment; however, a fraction are refractory to these antiangiogenic drugs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules proven to be accurate biomarkers in cancer. Here, we identified miRNAs predictive of progressive disease under TKI treatment through deep sequencing of 74 metastatic clear cell RCC cases uniformly treated with these drugs. Twenty-nine miRNAs were differentially expressed in the tumors of patients who progressed under TKI therapy (P values from 6 × 10–9 to 3 × 10–3). Among 6 miRNAs selected for validation in an independent series, the most relevant associations corresponded to miR–1307-3p, miR–155-5p, and miR–221-3p (P = 4.6 × 10–3, 6.5 × 10–3, and 3.4 × 10–2, respectively). Furthermore, a 2 miRNA–based classifier discriminated individuals with progressive disease upon TKI treatment (AUC = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.64–0.85; P = 1.3 × 10–4) with better predictive value than clinicopathological risk factors commonly used. We also identified miRNAs significantly associated with progression-free survival and overall survival (P = 6.8 × 10–8 and 7.8 × 10–7 for top hits, respectively), and 7 overlapped with early progressive disease. In conclusion, this is the first miRNome comprehensive study, to our knowledge, that demonstrates a predictive value of miRNAs for TKI response and provides a new set of relevant markers that can help rationalize metastatic RCC treatment. PMID:27699216

  16. Imaging Biomarker Dynamics in an Intracranial Murine Glioma Study of Radiation and Antiangiogenic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Caroline; Jalali, Shahrzad; Foltz, Warren; Burrell, Kelly; Wildgoose, Petra; Lindsay, Patricia; Graves, Christian; Camphausen, Kevin; Milosevic, Michael; Jaffray, David; Zadeh, Gelareh; Ménard, Cynthia

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: There is a growing need for noninvasive biomarkers to guide individualized spatiotemporal delivery of radiation therapy (RT) and antiangiogenic (AA) therapy for brain tumors. This study explored early biomarkers of response to RT and the AA agent sunitinib (SU), in a murine intracranial glioma model, using serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Mice with MRI-visible tumors were stratified by tumor size into 4 therapy arms: control, RT, SU, and SU plus RT (SURT). Single-fraction conformal RT was delivered using MRI and on-line cone beam computed tomography (CT) guidance. Serial MR images (T2-weighted, diffusion, dynamic contrast-enhanced and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted scans) were acquired biweekly to evaluate tumor volume, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and tumor perfusion and permeability responses (K{sub trans}, K{sub ep}). Results: Mice in all treatment arms survived longer than those in control, with a median survival of 35 days for SURT (P<.0001) and 30 days for RT (P=.009) and SU (P=.01) mice vs 26 days for control mice. At Day 3, ADC rise was greater with RT than without (P=.002). Sunitinib treatment reduced tumor perfusion/permeability values with mean K{sub trans} reduction of 27.6% for SU (P=.04) and 26.3% for SURT (P=.04) mice and mean K{sub ep} reduction of 38.1% for SU (P=.01) and 27.3% for SURT (P=.02) mice. The magnitude of individual mouse ADC responses at Days 3 and 7 correlated with subsequent tumor growth rate R values of −0.878 (P=.002) and −0.80 (P=.01), respectively. Conclusions: Early quantitative changes in diffusion and perfusion MRI measures reflect treatment responses soon after starting therapy and thereby raise the potential for these imaging biomarkers to guide adaptive and potentially individualized therapy approaches in the future.

  17. MRI biomarkers identify the differential response of glioblastoma multiforme to anti-angiogenic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Shahrzad; Chung, Caroline; Foltz, Warren; Burrell, Kelly; Singh, Sanjay; Hill, Richard; Zadeh, Gelareh

    2014-01-01

    Background Although anti-angiogenic therapy (AATx) holds great promise for treatment of malignant gliomas, its therapeutic efficacy is not well understood and can potentially increase the aggressive recurrence of gliomas. It is essential to establish sensitive, noninvasive biomarkers that can detect failure of AATx and tumor recurrence early so that timely adaptive therapy can be instituted. We investigated the efficacy of MRI biomarkers that can detect response to different classes of AATxs used alone or in combination with radiation. Methods Murine intracranial glioma xenografts (NOD/SCID) were treated with sunitinib, VEGF-trap or B20 (a bevacizumab equivalent) alone or in combination with radiation. MRI images were acquired longitudinally before and after treatment, and various MRI parameters (apparent diffusion coefficient, T1w + contrast, dynamic contrast-enhanced [DCE], initial area under the contrast enhancement curve, and cerebral blood flow) were correlated to tumor cell proliferation, overall tumor growth, and tumor vascularity. Results Combinatorial therapies reduced tumor growth rate more efficiently than monotherapies. Apparent diffusion coefficient was an accurate measure of tumor cell density. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-trap or B20, but not sunitinib, resulted in significant reduction or complete loss of contrast enhancement. This reduction was not due to a reduction in tumor growth or microvascular density, but rather was explained by a reduction in vessel permeability and perfusion. We established that contrast enhancement does not accurately reflect tumor volume or vascular density; however, DCE-derived parameters can be used as efficient noninvasive biomarkers of response to AATx. Conclusions MRI parameters following therapy vary based on class of AATx. Validation of clinically relevant MRI parameters for individual AATx agents is necessary before incorporation into routine practice. PMID:24759636

  18. Deep sequencing reveals microRNAs predictive of antiangiogenic drug response

    PubMed Central

    García-Donas, Jesús; Beuselinck, Benoit; Inglada-Pérez, Lucía; Graña, Osvaldo; Schöffski, Patrick; Wozniak, Agnieszka; Bechter, Oliver; Apellániz-Ruiz, Maria; Leandro-García, Luis Javier; Esteban, Emilio; Castellano, Daniel E.; González del Alba, Aranzazu; Climent, Miguel Angel; Hernando, Susana; Arranz, José Angel; Morente, Manuel; Pisano, David G.; Robledo, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    The majority of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients are treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) in first-line treatment; however, a fraction are refractory to these antiangiogenic drugs. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulatory molecules proven to be accurate biomarkers in cancer. Here, we identified miRNAs predictive of progressive disease under TKI treatment through deep sequencing of 74 metastatic clear cell RCC cases uniformly treated with these drugs. Twenty-nine miRNAs were differentially expressed in the tumors of patients who progressed under TKI therapy (P values from 6 × 10–9 to 3 × 10–3). Among 6 miRNAs selected for validation in an independent series, the most relevant associations corresponded to miR–1307-3p, miR–155-5p, and miR–221-3p (P = 4.6 × 10–3, 6.5 × 10–3, and 3.4 × 10–2, respectively). Furthermore, a 2 miRNA–based classifier discriminated individuals with progressive disease upon TKI treatment (AUC = 0.75, 95% CI, 0.64–0.85; P = 1.3 × 10–4) with better predictive value than clinicopathological risk factors commonly used. We also identified miRNAs significantly associated with progression-free survival and overall survival (P = 6.8 × 10–8 and 7.8 × 10–7 for top hits, respectively), and 7 overlapped with early progressive disease. In conclusion, this is the first miRNome comprehensive study, to our knowledge, that demonstrates a predictive value of miRNAs for TKI response and provides a new set of relevant markers that can help rationalize metastatic RCC treatment.

  19. Enhanced anti-angiogenic effect of a deletion mutant of plasminogen kringle 5 on neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cai, Weibin; Ma, Jianfang; Li, Chaoyang; Yang, Zhonghan; Yang, Xia; Liu, Wei; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Mintao; Gao, Guoquan

    2005-12-15

    Kringle 5 (K5), a proteolytic fragment of plasminogen, has been proved to be an angiogenic inhibitor. Previously, we have evaluated the effect of K5 on the vascular leakage and neovascularization in a rat model of oxygen-induced retinopathy. In this study, we expressed K5 and a deletion mutant of K5 (K5 mutant) in a prokaryocyte expression system and purified them by affinity chromatography. K5 mutant was generated by deleting 11 amino acids from K5 while retaining the three disulfide bonds. The anti-angiogenic activity of intact K5 and K5 mutant were compared in endothelial cells and retinal neovascularization rat model. K5 mutant inhibited the proliferation of primary human retinal capillary endothelial cells (HRCEC) in a concentration-dependent manner, with an apparent EC50 of approximate 35 nmol/L, which is twofold more potent than intact K5. In the even higher concentration range, K5 mutant did not inhibit pericytes from the same origin of HRCEC, which suggested an endothelial cell-specific inhibition. K5 mutant had no effect on normal liver cells and Bel7402 hepatoma cells even at high concentration range either. Intravitreal injection of the K5 and mutant in the oxygen-induced retinopathy rat model both resulted in significantly fewer neovascular tufts and nonperfusion area than controls with PBS injection, as shown by fluorescein angiography. Furthermore, K5 mutant exhibited more strong inhibition effect on neovascularization than intact K5 by quantification of vascular cells. These results suggest that this K5 deletion mutant is a more potent angiogenic inhibitor than intact K5 and may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of those disorders with neovascularization, such as solid tumor, diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, and hyperplasia of prostate. PMID:16167344

  20. Quality of Animal Experiments in Anti-Angiogenic Cancer Drug Development – A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Martić-Kehl, Marianne Isabelle; Wernery, Jannis; Folkers, Gerd; Schubiger, Pius August

    2015-01-01

    Translation from preclinical animal research to clinical bedside has proven to be difficult to impossible in many fields of research (e.g. acute stroke, ALS and HIV vaccination development) with oncology showing particularly low translation rates (5% vs. 20% for cardiovascular diseases). Several investigations on published preclinical animal research have revealed that apart from plain species differences, translational problems can arise from low study quality (e.g. study design) or non-representative experimental conditions (e.g. treatment schedule). This review assessed the published experimental circumstances and quality of anti-angiogenic cancer drug development in 232 in vivo studies. The quality of study design was often insufficient; at least the information published about the experiments was not satisfactory in most cases. There was no quality improvement over time, with the exception of conflict of interest statements. This increase presumably arose mainly because journal guidelines request such statements more often recently. Visual inspection of data and a cluster analysis confirmed a trend described in literature that low study quality tends to overestimate study outcome. It was also found that experimental outcome was more favorable when a potential drug was investigated as the main focus of a study, compared to drugs that were used as comparison interventions. We assume that this effect arises from the frequent neglect of blinding investigators towards treatment arms and refer to it as hypothesis bias. In conclusion, the reporting and presumably also the experimental performance of animal studies in drug development for oncology suffer from similar shortcomings as other fields of research (such as stroke or ALS). We consider it necessary to enforce experimental quality and reporting that corresponds to the level of clinical studies. It seems that only clear journal guidelines or guidelines from licensing authorities, where failure to fulfill

  1. Change in Pattern of Relapse After Antiangiogenic Therapy in High-Grade Glioma

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, Ashwatha; Kunnakkat, Saroj D.; Medabalmi, Praveen; Golfinos, John; Parker, Erik; Knopp, Edmond; Zagzag, David; Eagan, Patricia; Gruber, Deborah; Gruber, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Local recurrence is the dominant pattern of relapse in high-grade glioma (HGG) after conventional therapy. The recent use of antiangiogenic therapy has shown impressive radiologic and clinical responses in adult HGG. The preclinical data suggesting increased invasiveness after angiogenic blockade have necessitated a detailed analysis of the pattern of recurrence after therapy. Methods and Materials: A total of 162 consecutive patients with HGG, either newly diagnosed (n = 58) or with recurrent disease (n = 104) underwent therapy with bevacizumab at 10 mg/kg every 2 weeks and conventional chemotherapy with or without involved field radiotherapy until disease progression. The pattern of recurrence and interval to progression were the primary aims of the present study. Diffuse invasive recurrence (DIR) was defined as the involvement of multiple lobes with or without crossing the midline. Results: At a median follow-up of 7 months (range, 1-37), 105 patients had recurrence, and 79 patients ultimately developed DIR. The interval to progression was similar in the DIR and local recurrence groups (6.5 and 6.3 months, p = .296). The hazard risk of DIR increased exponentially with time and was similar in those with newly diagnosed and recurrent HGG (R{sup 2} = 0.957). The duration of bevacizumab therapy increased the interval to recurrence (p < .0001) and improved overall survival (p < .0001). However, the pattern of relapse did not affect overall survival (p = .253). Conclusion: Along with an increase in median progression-free survival, bevacizumab therapy increased the risk of DIR in HGG patients. The risk of increased invasion with prolonged angiogenic blockade should be addressed in future clinical trials.

  2. Bone marrow derived myeloid cells orchestrate antiangiogenic resistance in glioblastoma through coordinated molecular networks.

    PubMed

    Achyut, B R; Shankar, Adarsh; Iskander, A S M; Ara, Roxan; Angara, Kartik; Zeng, Peng; Knight, Robert A; Scicli, Alfonso G; Arbab, Ali S

    2015-12-28

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is a hypervascular and malignant form of brain tumors. Anti-angiogenic therapies (AAT) were used as an adjuvant against VEGF-VEGFR pathway to normalize blood vessels in clinical and preclinical studies, which resulted into marked hypoxia and recruited bone marrow derived cells (BMDCs) to the tumor microenvironment (TME). In vivo animal models to track BMDCs and investigate molecular mechanisms in AAT resistance are rare. We exploited recently established chimeric mouse to develop orthotopic U251 tumor, which uses as low as 5 × 10(6) GFP+ BM cells in athymic nude mice and engrafted >70% GFP+ cells within 14 days. Our unpublished data and published studies have indicated the involvement of immunosuppressive myeloid cells in therapeutic resistance in glioma. Similarly, in the present study, vatalanib significantly increased CD68+ myeloid cells, and CD133+, CD34+ and Tie2+ endothelial cell signatures. Therefore, we tested inhibition of CSF1R+ myeloid cells using GW2580 that reduced tumor growth by decreasing myeloid (Gr1+ CD11b+ and F4/80+) and angiogenic (CD202b+ and VEGFR2+) cell signatures in TME. CSF1R blockade significantly decreased inflammatory, proangiogenic and immunosuppressive molecular signatures compared to vehicle, vatalanib or combination. TCK1 or CXCL7, a potent chemoattractant and activator of neutrophils, was observed as most significantly decreased cytokine in CSF1R blockade. ERK MAPK pathway was involved in cytokine network regulation. In conclusion, present study confirmed the contribution of myeloid cells in GBM development and therapeutic resistance using chimeric mouse model. We identified novel molecular networks including CXCL7 chemokine as a promising target for future studies. Nonetheless, survival studies are required to assess the beneficial effect of CSF1R blockade. PMID:26404753

  3. Anti-angiogenic effects of pterogynidine alkaloid isolated from Alchornea glandulosa

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Flávia CM; Rocha, Ana; Pirraco, Ana; Regasini, Luis O; Silva, Dulce HS; Bolzani, Vanderlan S; Azevedo, Isabel; Carlos, Iracilda Z; Soares, Raquel

    2009-01-01

    Background Angiogenesis, a complex multistep process that comprehends proliferation, migration and anastomosis of endothelial cells (EC), has a major role in the development of pathologic conditions such as inflammatory diseases, tumor growth and metastasis. Brazilian flora, the most diverse in the world, is an interesting spot to prospect for new chemical leads, being an important source of new anticancer drugs. Plant-derived alkaloids have traditionally been of interest due to their pronounced physiological activities. We investigated the anti-angiogenic potential of the naturally occurring guanidine alkaloid pterogynidine (Pt) isolated from the Brazilian plant Alchornea glandulosa. The purpose of this study was to examine which features of the angiogenic process could be disturbed by Pt. Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with 8 μM Pt and cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and capillary-like structures formation were addressed. Nuclear factor κB (NFκB), a transcription factor implicated in these processes, was also evaluated in HUVEC incubated with Pt. Quantifications were expressed as mean ± SD of five independent experiments and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by the Dunnet test was used. Results A significant decrease in proliferation and invasion capacity and an effective increase in apoptosis as assessed by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), double-chamber and terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay, respectively, have been found. Pt also led to a drastic reduction in the number of capillary-like structures formation when HUVEC were cultured on growth factor reduced-Matrigel (GFR-Matrigel) coated plates. In addition, incubation of HUVEC with Pt resulted in reduced NFκB activity. Conclusion These findings emphasize the potential use of Pt against pathological situations where angiogenesis is stimulated as tumor development. PMID:19463163

  4. Characterization of a Pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidine Inhibitor of Cyclin-Dependent Kinases 2 and 5 and Aurora A With Pro-Apoptotic and Anti-Angiogenic Activity In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Řezníčková, Eva; Weitensteiner, Sabine; Havlíček, Libor; Jorda, Radek; Gucký, Tomáš; Berka, Karel; Bazgier, Václav; Zahler, Stefan; Kryštof, Vladimír; Strnad, Miroslav

    2015-12-01

    Selective inhibitors of kinases that regulate the cell cycle, such as cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) and aurora kinases, could potentially become powerful tools for the treatment of cancer. We prepared and studied a series of 3,5,7-trisubstituted pyrazolo[4,3-d]pyrimidines, a new CDK inhibitor scaffold, to assess their CDK2 inhibitory and antiproliferative activities. A new compound, 2i, which preferentially inhibits CDK2, CDK5, and aurora A was identified. Both biochemical and cellular assays indicated that treatment with compound 2i caused the downregulation of cyclins A and B, the dephosphorylation of histone H3 at Ser10, and the induction of mitochondrial apoptosis in the HCT-116 colon cancer cell line. It also reduced migration as well as tube and lamellipodia formation in human endothelial cells. The kinase inhibitory profile of compound 2i suggests that its anti-angiogenic activity is linked to CDK5 inhibition. This dual mode of action involving apoptosis induction in cancer cells and the blocking of angiogenesis-like activity in endothelial cells offers possible therapeutic potential. PMID:26198005

  5. Molecular features of interaction between VEGFA and anti-angiogenic drugs used in retinal diseases: a computational approach

    PubMed Central

    Platania, Chiara B. M.; Di Paola, Luisa; Leggio, Gian M.; Romano, Giovanni L.; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore; Bucolo, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Anti-angiogenic agents are biological drugs used for treatment of retinal neovascular degenerative diseases. In this study, we aimed at in silico analysis of interaction of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA), the main mediator of angiogenesis, with binding domains of anti-angiogenic agents used for treatment of retinal diseases, such as ranibizumab, bevacizumab and aflibercept. The analysis of anti-VEGF/VEGFA complexes was carried out by means of protein-protein docking and molecular dynamics (MD) coupled to molecular mechanics-Poisson Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA) calculation. Molecular dynamics simulation was further analyzed by protein contact networks. Rough energetic evaluation with protein-protein docking scores revealed that aflibercept/VEGFA complex was characterized by electrostatic stabilization, whereas ranibizumab and bevacizumab complexes were stabilized by Van der Waals (VdW) energy term; these results were confirmed by MM-PBSA. Comparison of MM-PBSA predicted energy terms with experimental binding parameters reported in literature indicated that the high association rate (Kon) of aflibercept to VEGFA was consistent with high stabilizing electrostatic energy. On the other hand, the relatively low experimental dissociation rate (Koff) of ranibizumab may be attributed to lower conformational fluctuations of the ranibizumab/VEGFA complex, higher number of contacts and hydrogen bonds in comparison to bevacizumab and aflibercept. Thus, the anti-angiogenic agents have been found to be considerably different both in terms of molecular interactions and stabilizing energy. Characterization of such features can improve the design of novel biological drugs potentially useful in clinical practice. PMID:26578958

  6. Selective eradication of tumor vascular pericytes by peptide-conjugated nanoparticles for antiangiogenic therapy of melanoma lung metastasis.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ying-Yun; Luan, Xin; Xu, Jian-Rong; Liu, Ya-Rong; Lu, Qin; Wang, Chao; Liu, Hai-Jun; Gao, Yun-Ge; Chen, Hong-Zhuan; Fang, Chao

    2014-03-01

    Antiangiogenic cancer therapy based on nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) is emerging as a promising new approach besides the proved molecular-targeted antiangiogenic agents. The current nano-DDS are restricted to the targeting to tumor vascular endothelial cells, but seldom efforts have been made to target the tumor vascular pericytes which are also actively involved in tumor angiogenesis. In this study, we developed a new nano-DDS, TH10 peptide (TAASGVRSMH) conjugated nanoparticles loading docetaxel (TH10-DTX-NP) that can target the NG2 proteoglycan highly expressed in tumor vascular pericytes, for the investigation of therapeutic efficacy in the mice bearing B16F10-luc-G5 melanoma experimental lung metastasis. The results demonstrated that TH10-DTX-NP achieved controlled drug release in PBS and the mixture of rat plasma and PBS (1:1, v/v), and exhibited favorable in vivo long-circulating feature. TH10 peptide conjugation facilitated the nanoparticle internalization in pericytes via the interaction between TH10 and NG2 receptor, leading to more inhibition of pericyte viability and migration. TH10-conjugated nanoparticles could accurately target the vascular pericytes of B16F10-luc-G5 lung metastasis, where DTX-induced pronounceable pericyte apoptosis. TH10-DTX-NP significantly prolonged the mice survival with no obvious toxicity, and this enhanced antitumor effect was closely related with the decreased pericyte density and microvessel density in the lung metastases. The present research reveals the potency and significance of targeting tumor vascular pericytes using nano-DDS in antiangiogenic cancer therapy.

  7. Lipophilization of somatostatin analog RC-160 with long chain fatty acid improves its antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, P; Mukherjee, R

    2000-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of the somatostatin analogue RC-160 having antiproliferative activity, is limited by its short serum half life. To overcome this limitation, fatty acids namely butanoic acid and myristic acid were conjugated to the N-terminal residue of RC-160. The lipophilized derivatives of RC-160 were synthesized, purified by reverse phase HPLC and characterized by ES-mass spectroscopy. The antiproliferative activity of lipophilized derivatives of RC-160 on the growth of MIA-PaCa2 (human pancreatic carcinoma), DU145 (human prostate carcinoma), ECV304 (human umbilical chord endothelioma), as well as their antiangiogenic activity was evaluated in vitro. The relative stability of myristoyl-RC-160 towards degradation by proteases and serum was also determined. Myristoyl-RC-160 exhibited significantly higher antiproliferative efficacy than RC-160, on the above cell lines (P<0.01). Receptor binding assays, demonstrated that the affinity of RC-160 towards somatostatin receptors remains unaltered by myristoylation. Unlike RC-160, the myristoylated derivative was found to have significantly greater resistance to protease and serum degradation (P<0.01). Myristoyl-RC-160 exhibited significantly greater antiproliferative activity on ECV304, than RC-160 (P<0.01). Myristoyl RC-160 could also inhibit capillary tube formation more efficiently than RC-160 in a dose dependent manner, suggesting that it possessed enhanced antiangiogenic activity in vitro (P<0.001). Lipophilization of RC-160 with long chain fatty acids like myristic acid endows it with improved antiproliferative and antiangiogenic activity, stability and therapeutic index. British Journal of Pharmacology (2000) 109, 101 - 109

  8. Combination of anti-angiogenic therapies reduces osteolysis and tumor burden in experimental breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bachelier, Richard; Confavreux, Cyrille B; Peyruchaud, Olivier; Croset, Martine; Goehrig, Delphine; van der Pluijm, Gabri; Clézardin, Philippe

    2014-09-15

    The clinical efficacy of anti-angiogenic monotherapies in metastatic breast cancer is less than originally anticipated, and it is not clear what the response of bone metastasis to anti-angiogenic therapies is. Here, we examined the impact of neutralizing tumor-derived vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in animal models of subcutaneous tumor growth and bone metastasis formation. Silencing of VEGF expression (Sh-VEGF) in osteotropic human MDA-MB-231/B02 breast cancer cells led to a substantial growth inhibition of subcutaneous Sh-VEGF B02 tumor xenografts, as a result of reduced angiogenesis, when compared to that observed with animals bearing mock-transfected (Sc-VEGF) B02 tumors. However, there was scant evidence that either the silencing of tumor-derived VEGF or the use of a VEGF-neutralizing antibody (bevacizumab) affected B02 breast cancer bone metastasis progression in animals. We also examined the effect of vatalanib (a VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor) in this mouse model of bone metastasis. However, vatalanib failed to inhibit bone metastasis caused by B02 breast cancer cells. In sharp contrast, vatalanib in combination with bevacizumab reduced not only bone destruction but also skeletal tumor growth in animals bearing breast cancer bone metastases, when compared with either agent alone. Thus, our study highlights the importance of targeting both the tumor compartment and the host tissue (i.e., skeleton) to efficiently block the development of bone metastasis. We believe this is a crucially important observation as the clinical benefit of anti-angiogenic monotherapies in metastatic breast cancer is relatively modest. PMID:24615579

  9. Artesunate reduces chicken chorioallantoic membrane neovascularisation and exhibits antiangiogenic and apoptotic activity on human microvascular dermal endothelial cell.

    PubMed

    Huan-huan, Chen; Li-Li, You; Shang-Bin, Li

    2004-08-10

    Artesunate (ART), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin extracted from the Chinese herb Artemisia annua, is a safe and effective antimalarial drug. ART has now been analyzed for its anti-angiogenic activity in vivo and in vitro. The anti-angiogenic effect in vivo was evaluated on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) neovascularisation model. ART started to significantly inhibit CAM angiogenesis at a low concentration of 10 nm/100 microl/egg, and completely inhibited the angiogenesis at 80 nm/100 microl/egg. The inhibitory effect of in vitro angiogenesis was tested on the models of proliferation and differentiation of human microvascular dermal endothelial cell line, an important representive of endothelial cells, as well as immunocytochemistry assay for two major VEGF receptors (Flt-1 and KDR/flk-1) expressions. The results showed that ART could remarkably inhibit proliferation and differentiation of endothelial cells in a dose-dependent form in a range of 12.5-100 microM. ART also could reduce Flt-1 and KDR/flk-1 expressions in a range of 0.1-0.5 microM. Furthermore, we examined the apoptosis of human microvascular dermal endothelial cell line induced by ART. The apoptosis was detected by morphological assay of ethidium bromide (EB)/acridine orange (AO) dual staining as well as DNA fragmentation assay of TUNEL labeling and quantified by flowcytometric PI assay. Our results suggest that the antiangiogenic effect induced by ART might occur by the induction of cellular apoptosis. These findings and the known low toxicity indicated ART might be a promising candidate for angiogenesis inhibitors. PMID:15219940

  10. Three novel synthetic retinoids, Re 80, Am 580 and Am 80, all exhibit anti-angiogenic activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, T; Okayasu, I; Ashino, H; Morita, I; Murota, S; Shudo, K

    1993-11-01

    In a previous study, we demonstrated that retinoic acid or a synthetic retinoid, Ch 55 ((E)-4-[3-(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)-3-oxo-1-propenyl]benzoic acid), significantly affects in vivo angiogenesis, on the basis of our working hypothesis that a cell differentiation modulator could also exhibit anti-angiogenic activity. In the present study, three novel synthetic retinoids, Re 80 (4-[1-hydroxy-3-oxo-3-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3-hydroxy-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl- 2- naphthalenyl)-1-propenyl]benzoic acid), Am 580 (4-[(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro- 5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)carboxamido]benzoic acid) and Am 80 (4-[(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)carbamoyl] benzoic acid), whose cell differentiation-modulating effects are roughly comparable to or more potent than that of Ch 55, which was the most effective angiostatic retinoid identified previously, were examined. Their anti-angiogenic effects were tested in an in vivo assay system involving chorioallantoic membranes of growing chick embryos. They were all found to exert dose-dependent anti-angiogenic effects in the picomolar range. Their rank order for inhibitory potency was Re 80 > Am 580 > Am 80, the ID50 values being 6.3, 23 and 28 pmol/egg, respectively. These results indicate that treatment involving these three novel synthetic retinoids might have potential therapeutic efficacy in various angiogenesis-dependent disorders, including solid tumors, psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and diabetic retinopathy.

  11. Development of a Novel In Vitro Human Tissue-Based Angiogenesis Assay to Evaluate the Effect of Antiangiogenic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Woltering, Eugene A.; Lewis, James M.; Maxwell, P. Johnstone; Frey, Daniel J.; Wang, Yi-Zarn; Rothermel, John; Anthony, Catherine T.; Balster, Douglas A.; O’Leary, J. Patrick; Harrison, Lynn H.

    2003-01-01

    Objective To describe a novel in vitro human tissue-based angiogenic model that can predict an individual tumor’s response to antiangiogenic drugs. Summary Background Data A number of in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays exist, but they do not provide potentially useful information for the treatment of an individual patient. Clonogenic assays have been used to evaluate the response of an individual’s tumor to antineoplastic agents, but these tumor fragments are cultured in an environment that does not lead to neovessel growth. The authors have previously demonstrated that human vein disks or human tumor xenograft fragments incorporated into a 0.3% fibrin-thrombin clot will develop angiogenic vessel growth from the cut edge of the vessel disk or xenograft fragment. Methods Fresh human tumor or normal tissue disks (2 × 1 mm) from fresh surgical specimens were incorporated into fibrin-thrombin clots overlain with nutrient medium containing either 20% fetal bovine serum alone or in combination with Epothilone B, a tubulin inhibitor with antiangiogenic properties. Tissue disks were visually assessed over time to determine the percentage of wells that developed an angiogenic response. Neovessel growth, density, and length were graded at intervals using a semiquantitative visual neovessel growth-rating scheme (angiogenic index, 0–16 scale) devised in the authors’ laboratory. Results Epothilone B treatment at doses of 10−6 mol/L and 10−8 mol/L decreased the number of wells that developed an invasive angiogenic response and limited the development of vessels that invaded the matrix. At these doses, Epothilone B also caused regression of vessels in wells that had been allowed to develop an angiogenic response. Treatment of tumors or normal tissues with Epothilone B at doses less than 10−8 mol/L was ineffective. Conclusions Epothilone B may be an effective antiangiogenic agent in a variety of tumor types. The authors speculate that this in vitro model might

  12. Siphonaxanthin, a Green Algal Carotenoid, as a Novel Functional Compound

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Tatsuya; Ganesan, Ponesakki; Li, Zhuosi; Manabe, Yuki; Hirata, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Siphonaxanthin is a specific keto-carotenoid in green algae whose bio-functional properties are yet to be identified. This review focuses on siphonaxanthin as a bioactive compound and outlines the evidence associated with functionality. Siphonaxanthin has been reported to potently inhibit the viability of human leukemia HL-60 cells via induction of apoptosis. In comparison with fucoxanthin, siphonaxanthin markedly reduced cell viability as early as 6 h after treatment. The cellular uptake of siphonaxanthin was 2-fold higher than fucoxanthin. It has been proposed that siphonaxanthin possesses significant anti-angiogenic activity in studies using human umbilical vein endothelial cells and rat aortic ring. The results of these studies suggested that the anti-angiogenic effect of siphonaxanthin is due to the down-regulation of signal transduction by fibroblast growth factor receptor-1 in vascular endothelial cells. Siphonaxanthin also exhibited inhibitory effects on antigen-induced degranulation of mast cells. These findings open up new avenues for future research on siphonaxanthin as a bioactive compound, and additional investigation, especially in vivo studies, are required to validate these findings. In addition, further studies are needed to determine its bioavailability and metabolic fate. PMID:24950294

  13. Schedule-Dependent Antiangiogenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Chemotherapy on Vascular Endothelial and Retinoblastoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Ursula; Mena, Hebe A.; Negrotto, Soledad; Arana, Eloisa; Pascual-Pasto, Guillem; Laurent, Viviana; Suñol, Mariona; Chantada, Guillermo L.; Carcaboso, Angel M.; Schaiquevich, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment of retinoblastoma involves using the maximum dose of chemotherapy that induces tumor control and is tolerated by patients. The impact of dose and schedule on the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy has not been studied. Our aim was to gain insight into the cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effect of the treatment scheme of chemotherapy used in retinoblastoma by means of different in vitro models and to evaluate potential effects on multi-drug resistance proteins. Two commercial and two patient-derived retinoblastoma cell types and two human vascular endothelial cell types were exposed to increasing concentrations of melphalan or topotecan in a conventional (single exposure) or metronomic (7-day continuous exposure) treatment scheme. The concentration of chemotherapy causing a 50% decrease in cell proliferation (IC50) was determined by MTT and induction of apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Expression of ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC1 after conventional or metronomic treatments was assessed by RT-qPCR. We also evaluated the in vivo response to conventional (0.6 mg/kg once a week for 2 weeks) and metronomic (5 days a week for 2 weeks) topotecan in a retinoblastoma xenograft model. Melphalan and topotecan were cytotoxic to both retinoblastoma and endothelial cells after conventional and metronomic treatments. A significant decrease in the IC50 (median, 13-fold; range: 3–23) was observed following metronomic chemotherapy treatment in retinoblastoma and endothelial cell types compared to conventional treatment (p<0.05). Metronomic topotecan or melphalan significantly inhibited in vitro tube formation in HUVEC and EPC compared to vehicle-treated cells (p<0.05). Both treatment schemes induced apoptosis and/or necrosis in all cell models. No significant difference was observed in the expression of ABCB1, ABCC1 or ABCG2 when comparing cells treated with melphalan or topotecan between treatment schedules at the IC50 or with control cells (p>0.05). In mice, continuous

  14. Schedule-Dependent Antiangiogenic and Cytotoxic Effects of Chemotherapy on Vascular Endothelial and Retinoblastoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Winter, Ursula; Mena, Hebe A; Negrotto, Soledad; Arana, Eloisa; Pascual-Pasto, Guillem; Laurent, Viviana; Suñol, Mariona; Chantada, Guillermo L; Carcaboso, Angel M; Schaiquevich, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Current treatment of retinoblastoma involves using the maximum dose of chemotherapy that induces tumor control and is tolerated by patients. The impact of dose and schedule on the cytotoxicity of chemotherapy has not been studied. Our aim was to gain insight into the cytotoxic and antiangiogenic effect of the treatment scheme of chemotherapy used in retinoblastoma by means of different in vitro models and to evaluate potential effects on multi-drug resistance proteins. Two commercial and two patient-derived retinoblastoma cell types and two human vascular endothelial cell types were exposed to increasing concentrations of melphalan or topotecan in a conventional (single exposure) or metronomic (7-day continuous exposure) treatment scheme. The concentration of chemotherapy causing a 50% decrease in cell proliferation (IC50) was determined by MTT and induction of apoptosis was evaluated by flow cytometry. Expression of ABCB1, ABCG2 and ABCC1 after conventional or metronomic treatments was assessed by RT-qPCR. We also evaluated the in vivo response to conventional (0.6 mg/kg once a week for 2 weeks) and metronomic (5 days a week for 2 weeks) topotecan in a retinoblastoma xenograft model. Melphalan and topotecan were cytotoxic to both retinoblastoma and endothelial cells after conventional and metronomic treatments. A significant decrease in the IC50 (median, 13-fold; range: 3-23) was observed following metronomic chemotherapy treatment in retinoblastoma and endothelial cell types compared to conventional treatment (p<0.05). Metronomic topotecan or melphalan significantly inhibited in vitro tube formation in HUVEC and EPC compared to vehicle-treated cells (p<0.05). Both treatment schemes induced apoptosis and/or necrosis in all cell models. No significant difference was observed in the expression of ABCB1, ABCC1 or ABCG2 when comparing cells treated with melphalan or topotecan between treatment schedules at the IC50 or with control cells (p>0.05). In mice, continuous

  15. Lipoxins exert antiangiogenic and anti-inflammatory effects on Kaposi's sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Marginean, Alexandru; Sharma-Walia, Neelam

    2015-08-01

    Lipoxin A4 (LXA4) is an endogenously produced host molecule with anti-inflammatory resolution effects. Previous studies demonstrated it to be involved in anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis and in a possible anticancer role via interaction with its receptor, lipoxin A 4 receptor (ALXR). Here, we examined the effects of LXA4 and its epimer 15-epi-LXA4 in inhibiting proinflammatory and angiogenic functions in a human Kaposi's sarcoma tumor-derived cell line (KS-IMM). KS-IMM cells expressed increased levels of inflammatory cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) pathway enzymes when compared with human microvascular dermal endothelial cells (HMVEC-d). KS-IMM cells secreted high levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and chemotactic leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Treatment with LXA4 or 15-epi-LXA4 effectively reduced the levels of COX-2, 5-LO proteins, and secretion of PGE2 and LTB4 in KS-IMM cells. LXA4 or 15-epi-LXA4 treatment also decreased secretion of proinflammatory interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8 cytokines but induced the secretion of anti-inflammatory IL-10. LXA4 treatment reduced the phosphorylation of VEGF receptor (VEGFR) and ephrin family receptor tyrosine kinases. LXA4 treatment effectively induced dephosphorylation of multiple cellular kinases such as Focal Adhesion Kinase, Protein kinase B, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells, and Extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK)1/2, and reduced angiogenic factor VEGF-C secretion in KS cells. LX treatment drastically induced the Src-homology 2 domain-containing phosphatase tyrosine (Y542) phosphatase and reduced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation at sites Y1059, Y1175, and Y1212. Treatment of KS-IMM cells with LXA4 resulted in selective localization of VEGFR-2 in nonlipid raft (non-LR) and ALXR to LR fractions. These results demonstrated that LXA4 or 15-epi-LXA4 induce anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic effects in KS cells and suggest that treatment with LXs is

  16. Diminished oligomerization in the synthesis of new anti-angiogenic cyclic peptide using solution instead of solid-phase cyclization.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Sandra; Clarhaut, Jonathan; Péraudeau, Elodie; Vincenzi, Marian; Soum, Claire; Rossi, Filomena; Guillon, Jean; Papot, Sébastien; Ronga, Luisa

    2016-05-01

    The design and synthesis of novel peptides that inhibit angiogenesis is an important area for anti-angiogenic drug development. Cyclic and small peptides present several advantages for therapeutic application, including stability, solubility, increased bio-availability and lack of immune response in the host cell. We describe here the synthesis and biological evaluations of a new cyclic peptide analog of CBO-P11: cyclo(RIKPHE), designated herein as CBO-P23M, a hexamer peptide encompassing residues 82 to 86 of VEGF which are involved in the interaction with VEGF receptor-2. CBO-P23M was prepared using in solution cyclization, therefore reducing the peptide cyclodimerization occurred during solid-phase cyclization. The cyclic dimer of CBO-P23M, which was obtained as the main side product during synthesis of the corresponding monomer, was also isolated and investigated. Both peptides markedly reduce VEGF-A-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR-2 and Erk1/2. Moreover, they exhibit anti-angiogenic activity in an in vitro morphogenesis study. Therefore CBO-P23M and CBO-P23M dimer appear as attractive candidates for the development of novel angiogenesis inhibitors for the treatment of cancer and other angiogenesis-related diseases. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers (Pept Sci) 106: 368-375, 2016.

  17. IGFBP-4 Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Tumorigenic Effects Are Associated with Anti-Cathepsin B Activity1

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, María J; Ball, Marguerite; Rukhlova, Marina; Slinn, Jacqueline; L'Abbe, Denis; Iqbal, Umar; Monette, Robert; Hagedorn, Martin; O'Connor-McCourt, Maureen D; Durocher, Yves; Stanimirovic, Danica B

    2013-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 4 (IGFBP-4/IBP-4) has potent IGF-independent anti-angiogenic and antitumorigenic effects. In this study, we demonstrated that these activities are located in the IGFBP-4 C-terminal protein fragment (CIBP-4), a region containing a thyroglobulin type 1 (Tg1) domain. Proteins bearing Tg1 domains have been shown to inhibit cathepsins, lysosomal enzymes involved in basement membrane degradation and implicated in tumor invasion and angiogenesis. In our studies, CIBP-4 was shown to internalize and co-localize with lysosomal-like structures in both endothelial cells (ECs) and glioblastoma U87MG cells. CIBP-4 also inhibited both growth factor-induced EC tubulogenesis in Matrigel and the concomitant increases in intracellular cathepsin B (CatB) activity. In vitro assays confirmed CIBP-4 capacity to block recombinant CatB activity. Biodistribution analysis of intravenously injected CIBP-4-Cy5.5 in a glioblastoma tumor xenograft model indicated targeted accumulation of CIBP-4 in tumors. Most importantly, CIBP-4 reduced tumor growth in this animal model by 60%. Pleiotropic anti-angiogenic and anti-tumorigenic activities of CIBP-4 most likely underlie its observed therapeutic potential against glioblastoma. PMID:23633927

  18. Synergy between an antiangiogenic integrin alphav antagonist and an antibody-cytokine fusion protein eradicates spontaneous tumor metastases.

    PubMed

    Lode, H N; Moehler, T; Xiang, R; Jonczyk, A; Gillies, S D; Cheresh, D A; Reisfeld, R A

    1999-02-16

    The suppression and eradication of primary tumors and distant metastases is a major goal of alternative treatment strategies for cancer, such as inhibition of angiogenesis and targeted immunotherapy. We report here a synergy between two novel monotherapies directed against vascular and tumor compartments, respectively, a tumor vasculature-specific antiangiogenic integrin alphav antagonist and tumor-specific antibody-interleukin 2 (IL-2) fusion proteins. Simultaneous and sequential combination of these monotherapies effectively eradicated spontaneous liver metastases in a poorly immunogenic syngeneic model of neuroblastoma. This was in contrast to controls subjected to monotherapies with either an antiangiogenic integrin alphav antagonist or antibody-IL-2 fusion proteins, which were only partially effective at the dose levels applied. Furthermore, simultaneous treatments with the integrin alphav antagonist and tumor-specific antibody-IL-2 fusion proteins induced dramatic primary tumor regressions in three syngeneic murine tumor models, i.e., melanoma, colon carcinoma, and neuroblastoma. However, each agent used as monotherapy induced only a delay in tumor growth. A mechanism for this synergism was suggested because the antitumor response was accompanied by a simultaneous 50% reduction in tumor vessel density and a 5-fold increase in inflammatory cells in the tumor microenvironment. Subsequently, tumor necrosis was demonstrated only in animals receiving the combination therapy, but not when each agent was applied as monotherapy. The results suggest that these synergistic treatment modalities may provide a novel and effective tool for future therapies of metastatic cancer.

  19. Antiangiogenic effects of oxymatrine on pancreatic cancer by inhibition of the NF-κB-mediated VEGF signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Zhang, Jianhong; Luo, Jiang; Lai, Fuji; Wang, Zhaohong; Tong, Hongfei; Lu, Dian; Bu, Heqi; Zhang, Riyuan; Lin, Shengzhang

    2013-08-01

    Oxymatrine, the main alkaloid component in the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Sophora japonica (Sophora flavescens Ait), has been reported to have antitumor properties. However, the mechanisms of action in human pancreatic cancer are not well established to date. In the present study, we investigated the antiangiogenic effects of oxymatrine on human pancreatic cancer as well as the possible mechanisms involved. The results of the cell viability assay showed that treatment of PANC-1 pancreatic cancer cells with oxymatrine resulted in cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner. To investigate the possible mechanisms involved in these events, we performed western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The results revealed that oxymatrine decreased the expression of angiogenesis-associated factors, including nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Finally, the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of oxymatrine on human pancreatic cancer were further confirmed in pancreatic cancer xenograft tumors in nude mice. In conclusion, our studies for the first time suggest that oxymatrine has potential antitumor effects on pancreatic cancer via suppression of angiogenesis, probably through regulation of the expression of the NF-κB-mediated VEGF signaling pathway. PMID:23754270

  20. Butyrate-induced proapoptotic and antiangiogenic pathways in EAT cells require activation of CAD and downregulation of VEGF

    SciTech Connect

    Belakavadi, Madesh . E-mail: belakama@umdnj.edu; Prabhakar, B.T.; Salimath, Bharathi P.

    2005-10-07

    Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid produced in the colon, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and apoptosis in transformed cell lines. In this report, we study the effects of butyrate (BuA) on the growth of Ehrlich ascites tumor (EAT) cells in vivo. BuA, when injected intraperitoneally (i.p) into mice, inhibited proliferation of EAT cells. Further, induction of apoptosis in EAT cells was monitored by nuclear condensation, annexin-V staining, DNA fragmentation, and translocation of caspase-activated DNase into nucleus upon BuA-treatment. Ac-DEVD-CHO, a caspase-3 inhibitor, completely inhibited BuA-induced apoptosis, indicating that activation of caspase-3 mediates the apoptotic pathway in EAT cells. The proapoptotic effect of BuA also reflects on the antiangiogenic pathway in EAT cells. The antiangiogenic effect of BuA in vivo was demonstrated by the downregulation of the secretion of VEGF in EAT cells. CD31 immunohistochemical staining of peritoneum sections clearly indicated a potential angioinhibitory effect of BuA in EAT cells. These results suggest that BuA, besides regulating other fundamental cellular processes, is able to modulate the expression/secretion of the key angiogenic growth factor VEGF in EAT cells.

  1. Multigenic lentiviral vectors for combined and tissue-specific expression of miRNA- and protein-based antiangiogenic factors

    PubMed Central

    Askou, Anne Louise; Aagaard, Lars; Kostic, Corinne; Arsenijevic, Yvan; Hollensen, Anne Kruse; Bek, Toke; Jensen, Thomas Gryesten; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm; Corydon, Thomas Juhl

    2015-01-01

    Lentivirus-based gene delivery vectors carrying multiple gene cassettes are powerful tools in gene transfer studies and gene therapy, allowing coexpression of multiple therapeutic factors and, if desired, fluorescent reporters. Current strategies to express transgenes and microRNA (miRNA) clusters from a single vector have certain limitations that affect transgene expression levels and/or vector titers. In this study, we describe a novel vector design that facilitates combined expression of therapeutic RNA- and protein-based antiangiogenic factors as well as a fluorescent reporter from back-to-back RNApolII-driven expression cassettes. This configuration allows effective production of intron-embedded miRNAs that are released upon transduction of target cells. Exploiting such multigenic lentiviral vectors, we demonstrate robust miRNA-directed downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, leading to reduced angiogenesis, and parallel impairment of angiogenic pathways by codelivering the gene encoding pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF). Notably, subretinal injections of lentiviral vectors reveal efficient retinal pigment epithelium-specific gene expression driven by the VMD2 promoter, verifying that multigenic lentiviral vectors can be produced with high titers sufficient for in vivo applications. Altogether, our results suggest the potential applicability of combined miRNA- and protein-encoding lentiviral vectors in antiangiogenic gene therapy, including new combination therapies for amelioration of age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26052532

  2. Molecularly Characterized Solvent Extracts and Saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L. Show High Anti-Angiogenic, Anti-Tumor, Brine Shrimp, and Fibroblast NIH/3T3 Cell Line Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Mir Azam; Ahmad, Waqar; Ali, Gowhar; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant's samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq), saponins (Ph.Sp) were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed against Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line following contact toxicity and MTT cells viability assays, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt, and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131, and 164 compounds, respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75, and 461.53 μg/ml, respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19, and 342.53 μg/ml, respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50, and 71.50% cytotoxicity, respectively, at 1000 μg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160, and 175 μg/ml, respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer. PMID:27065865

  3. Molecularly Characterized Solvent Extracts and Saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L. Show High Anti-Angiogenic, Anti-Tumor, Brine Shrimp, and Fibroblast NIH/3T3 Cell Line Cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Mir Azam; Ahmad, Waqar; Ali, Gowhar; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant's samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq), saponins (Ph.Sp) were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed against Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line following contact toxicity and MTT cells viability assays, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt, and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131, and 164 compounds, respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75, and 461.53 μg/ml, respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19, and 342.53 μg/ml, respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50, and 71.50% cytotoxicity, respectively, at 1000 μg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160, and 175 μg/ml, respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer.

  4. Molecularly Characterized Solvent Extracts and Saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L. Show High Anti-Angiogenic, Anti-Tumor, Brine Shrimp, and Fibroblast NIH/3T3 Cell Line Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Mir Azam; Ahmad, Waqar; Ali, Gowhar; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant's samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq), saponins (Ph.Sp) were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed against Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line following contact toxicity and MTT cells viability assays, respectively. The GC–MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt, and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131, and 164 compounds, respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75, and 461.53 μg/ml, respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19, and 342.53 μg/ml, respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50, and 71.50% cytotoxicity, respectively, at 1000 μg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160, and 175 μg/ml, respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer. PMID:27065865

  5. Differential expression of anti-angiogenic factors and guidance genes in the developing macula

    PubMed Central

    Kozulin, Peter; Natoli, Riccardo; O’Brien, Keely M. Bumsted; Madigan, Michele C.

    2009-01-01

    . Furthermore, we found significant upregulation of three anti-angiogenic factors in the macula: pigment epithelium derived factor (PEDF), natriuretic peptide precurusor B (NPPB), and collagen type IVα2. Differential expression of several members of the ephrin and semaphorin axon guidance gene families, PEDF, and NPPB was verified by QRT–PCR. Localization of PEDF and Eph-A6 mRNAs in sections of macaque retina shows expression of both genes concentrates in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) at the developing fovea, consistent with an involvement in definition of the foveal avascular area. Conclusions Because the axons of macular ganglion cells exit the retina from around 8 WG, we suggest that the axon guidance genes highly expressed at the macula at 19–20 WG are also involved in vascular patterning, along with PEDF and NPPB. Localization of both PEDF and Eph-A6 mRNAs to the GCL of the developing fovea supports this idea. It is possible that specialization of the macular vessels, including definition of the foveal avascular area, is mediated by processes that piggyback on axon guidance mechanisms in effect earlier in development. These findings may be useful to understand the vulnerability of the macula to degeneration and to develop new therapeutic strategies to inhibit neovascularization. PMID:19145251

  6. A Decade of Experience in Developing Preclinical Models of Advanced- or Early-Stage Spontaneous Metastasis to Study Antiangiogenic Drugs, Metronomic Chemotherapy, and the Tumor Microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Kerbel, Robert S

    2015-01-01

    The clinical circumstance of treating spontaneous metastatic disease, after resection of primary tumors, whether advanced/overt or microscopic in nature, is seldom modeled in mice and may be a major factor in explaining the frequent discordance between preclinical and clinical therapeutic outcomes where the trend is "overprediction" of positive results in preclinical mouse model studies. To evaluate this hypothesis, a research program was initiated a decade ago to develop multiple models of metastasis in mice, using variants of human tumor cell lines selected in vivo for enhanced spontaneous metastatic aggressiveness after surgical resection of established orthotopic primary tumors. These models have included breast, renal, and colorectal carcinomas; ovarian cancer (but without prior surgery); and malignant melanoma. They have been used primarily for experimental therapeutic investigations involving various antiangiogenic drugs alone or with chemotherapy, especially "metronomic" low-dose chemotherapy. The various translational studies undertaken have revealed a number of clinically relevant findings. These include the following: (i) the potential of metronomic chemotherapy, especially when combined with a vascular endothelial growth factor pathway targeting drug to successfully treat advanced metastatic disease; (ii) the development of relapsed spontaneous brain metastases in mice with melanoma or breast cancer whose systemic metastatic disease is successfully controlled for a period with a given therapy; (iii) foreshadowing the failure of adjuvant antiangiogenic drug-based phase III trials; (iv) recapitulating the failure of oral antiangiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors plus standard chemotherapy in contrast to the modest successes of antiangiogenic antibodies plus chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer; and (v) revealing "vessel co-option" and absence of angiogenesis as a determinant of intrinsic resistance or minimal responsiveness to antiangiogenic therapy

  7. 3D modeling of effects of increased oxygenation and activity concentration in tumors treated with radionuclides and antiangiogenic drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerloef, Jakob H.; Kindblom, Jon; Bernhardt, Peter

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Formation of new blood vessels (angiogenesis) in response to hypoxia is a fundamental event in the process of tumor growth and metastatic dissemination. However, abnormalities in tumor neovasculature often induce increased interstitial pressure (IP) and further reduce oxygenation (pO{sub 2}) of tumor cells. In radiotherapy, well-oxygenated tumors favor treatment. Antiangiogenic drugs may lower IP in the tumor, improving perfusion, pO{sub 2} and drug uptake, by reducing the number of malfunctioning vessels in the tissue. This study aims to create a model for quantifying the effects of altered pO{sub 2}-distribution due to antiangiogenic treatment in combination with radionuclide therapy. Methods: Based on experimental data, describing the effects of antiangiogenic agents on oxygenation of GlioblastomaMultiforme (GBM), a single cell based 3D model, including 10{sup 10} tumor cells, was developed, showing how radionuclide therapy response improves as tumor oxygenation approaches normal tissue levels. The nuclides studied were {sup 90}Y, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, and {sup 211}At. The absorbed dose levels required for a tumor control probability (TCP) of 0.990 are compared for three different log-normal pO{sub 2}-distributions: {mu}{sub 1} = 2.483, {sigma}{sub 1} = 0.711; {mu}{sub 2} = 2.946, {sigma}{sub 2} = 0.689; {mu}{sub 3} = 3.689, and {sigma}{sub 3} = 0.330. The normal tissue absorbed doses will, in turn, depend on this. These distributions were chosen to represent the expected oxygen levels in an untreated hypoxic tumor, a hypoxic tumor treated with an anti-VEGF agent, and in normal, fully-oxygenated tissue, respectively. The former two are fitted to experimental data. The geometric oxygen distributions are simulated using two different patterns: one Monte Carlo based and one radially increasing, while keeping the log-normal volumetric distributions intact. Oxygen and activity are distributed, according to the same pattern. Results: As tumor pO{sub 2

  8. Antiangiogenic agents significantly improve survival in tumor-bearing mice by increasing tolerance to chemotherapy-induced toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Danfang; Hedlund, Eva-Maria E.; Lim, Sharon; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Yin; Sun, Baocun; Cao, Yihai

    2011-01-01

    Chemotherapy-induced broad toxicities are the leading cause of the drug-induced mortality in cancer patients. Antiangiogenic drugs (ADs) in combination with chemotherapy are widely used as front-line therapy for the treatment of various human cancers. However, the beneficial mechanisms underlying combination therapy are poorly understood. Here we show that, in several murine tumor models, administration of sunitinib markedly reduced chemotherapy-induced bone marrow toxicity. Intriguingly, in a sequential treatment regimen, delivery of ADs followed by chemotherapy demonstrated superior survival benefits compared with simultaneous administration of two drugs. In murine tumor models, we show that VEGF increased chemotoxicity by synergistically suppressing bone marrow hematopoiesis with cytostatic drugs. These findings shed light on molecular mechanisms by which ADs in combination with chemotherapy produce survival benefits in cancer patients and provide conceptual information guiding future designs of clinical trials, current practice, and optimization of ADs for the treatment of cancer. PMID:21367692

  9. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Grace Z.; Aye, Christina Y.L.; Lewandowski, Adam J.; Davis, Esther F.; Khoo, Cheen P.; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T.; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J.; O’Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A.; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M.; Watt, Suzanne M.

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (−17.7±16.4% versus −9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth. PMID:27456522

  10. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Grace Z; Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Davis, Esther F; Khoo, Cheen P; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J; O'Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M; Watt, Suzanne M; Leeson, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (-17.7±16.4% versus -9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth.

  11. Purification and characterization of a stimulator of plasmin generation from the antiangiogenic agent Neovastat: identification as immunoglobulin kappa light chain.

    PubMed

    Boivin, Dominique; Provençal, Mathieu; Gendron, Sébastien; Ratel, David; Demeule, Michel; Gingras, Denis; Béliveau, Richard

    2004-11-15

    We have recently shown that Neovastat, an antiangiogenic extract from shark cartilage, stimulates the in vitro activation of plasminogen by facilitating the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA)-dependent conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. In this report, we describe the purification and characterization of the stimulatory molecules. Neovastat was subjected to a three-step purification procedure including gel filtration, preparative isoelectric focusing, and preparative SDS-PAGE. Two 28-kDa proteins with pIs of approximately 4.5 and 6.5 were purified to apparent homogeneity and identified as immunoglobulin (Ig) kappa light chains by N-terminal microsequencing. Ig light chains do not directly stimulate the activity of tPA or plasmin, suggesting a mechanism of action involving an interaction with plasminogen. Kinetic analysis showed that both Ig light chains accelerate the in vitro tPA-dependent conversion of plasminogen in plasmin by increasing the affinity of tPA for plasminogen by 32- and 38-fold (Km decrease from 456 nM to 12-14 nM). Shark Ig light chains also stimulated the degradation of fibrin by the tPA/plasminogen system in an in vitro assay. A direct interaction between Ig light chains and plasminogen (KA=4.0-5.5 x 10(7) M(-1); KD=18-25 nM) and with tPA (KA=2.8 x 10(7) M(-1); KD=36 nM) was demonstrated using real time binding measured by surface plasmon resonance. Ig light chain is the first molecule associated with the antiangiogenic activity of Neovastat to be purified and identified. PMID:15488468

  12. Association of Maternal Antiangiogenic Profile at Birth With Early Postnatal Loss of Microvascular Density in Offspring of Hypertensive Pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Yu, Grace Z; Aye, Christina Y L; Lewandowski, Adam J; Davis, Esther F; Khoo, Cheen P; Newton, Laura; Yang, Cheng T; Al Haj Zen, Ayman; Simpson, Lisa J; O'Brien, Kathryn; Cook, David A; Granne, Ingrid; Kyriakou, Theodosios; Channon, Keith M; Watt, Suzanne M; Leeson, Paul

    2016-09-01

    Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are more likely to have microvascular rarefaction and increased blood pressure in later life. We tested the hypothesis that maternal angiogenic profile during a hypertensive pregnancy is associated with fetal vasculogenic capacity and abnormal postnatal microvascular remodeling. Infants (n=255) born after either hypertensive or normotensive pregnancies were recruited for quantification of postnatal dermal microvascular structure at birth and 3 months of age. Vasculogenic cell potential was assessed in umbilical vein endothelial cells from 55 offspring based on in vitro microvessel tube formation and proliferation assays. Maternal angiogenic profile (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, soluble endoglin, vascular endothelial growth factor, and placental growth factor) was measured from postpartum plasma samples to characterize severity of pregnancy disorder. At birth, offspring born after hypertensive pregnancy had similar microvessel density to those born after a normotensive pregnancy, but during the first 3 postnatal months, they had an almost 2-fold greater reduction in total vessel density (-17.7±16.4% versus -9.9±18.7%; P=0.002). This postnatal loss varied according to the vasculogenic capacity of the endothelial cells of the infant at birth (r=0.49; P=0.02). The degree of reduction in both in vitro and postnatal in vivo vascular development was proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation. In conclusion, our data indicate that offspring born to hypertensive pregnancies have reduced vasculogenic capacity at birth that predicts microvessel density loss over the first 3 postnatal months. Degree of postnatal microvessel reduction is proportional to levels of antiangiogenic factors in the maternal circulation at birth. PMID:27456522

  13. The evaluation of anti-angiogenic effects of Endostar on rabbit VX2 portal vein tumor thrombus using perfusion MSCT

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There were many treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), in which targeted anti-angiogenic drug therapy is becoming a popular research topic. However, an objective and non-invasive method that can evaluate the treatment effects is still lacking. Methods Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits implanted with VX2 tumor thrombus in portal vein were randomly assigned into 3 groups: Endostar, saline, or control, six in each group. Multi-slice CT (MSCT) perfusion scanning was performed to measure the differences in blood flow (TBF), tissue blood volume (TBV), and capillary permeability time the surface (PS) before and after Endostar treatment, between Endostar and saline treatment. Two weeks after treatment, both Endostar and saline groups underwent CT perfusion scan. The rabbits then were sacrificed by air embolism, and specimens of tumor thrombosis were collected. Immunohistochemistry assay was also performed to compare the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in PVTT after Endostar, saline and placebo treatment. Results In Endostar group, PVTT CT perfusion parameters (TBF, TBV, PS) significantly decreased after the treatment (p <0.05). Post-treatment PVTT CT perfusion parameters (TBF, TBV, PS) were significantly lower in Endostar group than in Saline group (p <0.05). VEGF is mainly expressed in cytoplasma. After Endostar treatment, the expression of VEGF in PVTT was markedly reduced. There was also significant difference on post-treatment VEGF protein expression measured by Immunohistochemistry assay between Endostar group and control group (p <0.05). Post-treatment PVTT CT perfusion parameters (TBF, TBV, PS) were positively correlated with VEGF protein expression in all 3 groups (rs > 0, p <0.05). Conclusions Multi-slice CT perfusion imaging can evaluate the anti-angiogenic effects of Endostar for the VX2 tumor thrombus in portal vein, and provide quantitative functional information. PMID:25608952

  14. Anti-angiogenic activity of gecko aqueous extracts and its macromolecular components in CAM and HUVE-12 cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Zhen; Huang, Shu-Qiong; Liu, Jian-Ting; Jiang, Gui-Xiang; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Gecko is a kind of traditional Chinese medicine with remarkable antineoplastic activity. However, undefined mechanisms and ambiguity regarding active ingredients limit new drug development from gecko. This study was conducted to assess anti-angiogenic properties of the aqueous extracts of fresh gecko (AG) or macromolecular components separated from AG (M-AG). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) approach was applied to detect the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion of the tumor cells treated with AG or M-AG. The effect of AG or M-AG on vascular endothelial cell proliferation and migratory ability was analyzed by tetrazolium dye colorimetric method, transwell and wound-healing assays. Chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays were used to ensure the anti-angiogenic activity of M-AG in vivo. The results showed that AG or M-AG inhibited the VEGF secretion of tumor cells, the relative inhibition rates of AG and M-AG being 27.2% and 53.2% respectively at a concentration of 20 μL/mL. AG and M-AG inhibited the vascular endothelial (VE) cell proliferation with IC50 values of 11.5 ± 0.5 μL/mL and 12.9 ± 0.4 μL/mL respectively. The VE cell migration potential was inhibited significantly (p<0.01) by the AG (≥ 24 μL/mL) or M-AG (≥ 12 μL/ mL) treatment. In vivo, neovascularization of CAM treated with M-AG was inhibited significantly (p<0.05) at a concentration of 0.4 μL/mL. This study provided evidence that anti-angiogenesis is one of the anti-tumor mechanisms of AG and M-AG, with the latter as a promising active component.

  15. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Orme, Christopher J.; Luther, Thomas A.; Jones, Michael G.

    2010-08-10

    A PBI compound that includes imidazole nitrogens, at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2--, where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The PBI compound may exhibit similar thermal properties in comparison to the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may exhibit a solubility in an organic solvent greater than the solubility of the unsubstituted PBI. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may occur at about room temperature and/or at about atmospheric pressure. Substituting may use at least five equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted or, preferably, about fifteen equivalents.

  16. Polybenzimidazole compounds

    DOEpatents

    Klaehn, John R.; Peterson, Eric S.; Orme, Christopher J.; Jones, Michael G.; Wertsching, Alan K.; Luther, Thomas A.; Trowbridge, Tammy L.

    2011-11-22

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with a moiety containing a carbonyl group, the substituted imidazole nitrogens being bonded to carbon of the carbonyl group. At least 85% of the nitrogens may be substituted. The carbonyl-containing moiety may include RCO--, where R is alkoxy or haloalkyl. The PBI compound may exhibit a first temperature marking an onset of weight loss corresponding to reversion of the substituted PBI that is less than a second temperature marking an onset of decomposition of an otherwise identical PBI compound without the substituted moiety. The PBI compound may be included in separatory media. A substituted PBI synthesis method may include providing a parent PBI in a less than 5 wt % solvent solution. Substituting may use more than 5 equivalents in relation to the imidazole nitrogens to be substituted.

  17. Sp1 inhibition-mediated upregulation of VEGF 165 b induced by rh-endostatin enhances antiangiogenic and anticancer effect of rh-endostatin in A549.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-yu; Zhu, Fang; Hu, Jian-li; Peng, Gang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Xu; Zhang, Rui-guang; Chen, Ling-juan; Liu, Pian; Luo, Ming; Sun, Zhi-hua; Ren, Jing-hua; Huang, Li-li; Wu, Gang

    2011-08-01

    Recombinant human endostatin (rh-endostatin), a potential antiangiogenic agent, is used in non-small cell lung carcinoma treatment and represses vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF) levels in tumor cell. However, precise affection of rh-endostatin on the proangiogenic VEGF isoforms (VEGF(165)) or antiangiogenic VEGF isoforms (VEGF(165)b) is not clear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that rh-endostatin could alter expression of these isoforms to regulate tumor growth. A549 cells were exposed to rh-endostatin, and the expression of VEGF(165) and VEGF(165)b was detected. The role of SP1 as a regulator of isoform expression was investigated. We then examined the anticancer and antiangiogenic efficacy of rh-endostatin in combination with exogenous VEGF(165)b against A549 cells, EA.HY 926 cells and xenograft model of human lung cancer. rh-Endostatin reduced VEGF(165) and induced VEGF(165)b as well as inhibited SP1 in A549 cells. SP1 inhibitor (betulinic acid) also developed those changes. VEGF(165)b-rh-endostatin combination was highly synergistic and inhibited growth, survival, and migration of A549 cells, VEGF-mediated VEGFR2 phosphorylation in EA.HY 926 cells, and tumor growth in xenograft model of human lung cancer. rh-Endostatin downregulates proangiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) isoform and upregulates antiangiogenic VEGFA isoform, possibly through inhibition of SP1. Furthermore, VEGF(165)b sensitizes A549 to rh-endostatin treatment and enhances the anticancer effect of rh-endostatin.

  18. Placental-Specific sFLT-1 e15a Protein Is Increased in Preeclampsia, Antagonizes Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Signaling, and Has Antiangiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Kirsten R; Kaitu'u-Lino, Tu'uhevaha J; Hastie, Roxanne; Hannan, Natalie J; Ye, Louie; Binder, Natalie; Cannon, Ping; Tuohey, Laura; Johns, Terrance G; Shub, Alexis; Tong, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    In preeclampsia, the antiangiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT-1) is released from placenta into the maternal circulation, causing endothelial dysfunction and organ injury. A recently described splice variant, sFLT-1 e15a, is primate specific and the most abundant placentally derived sFLT-1. Therefore, it may be the major sFLT-1 isoform contributing to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. sFLT-1 e15a protein remains poorly characterized: its bioactivity has not been comprehensively examined, and serum levels in normal and preeclamptic pregnancy have not been reported. We generated and validated an sFLT-1 e15a-specific ELISA to further characterize serum levels during pregnancy, and in the presence of preeclampsia. Furthermore, we performed assays to examine the bioactivity and antiangiogenic properties of sFLT-1 e15a protein. sFLT-1 e15a was expressed in the syncytiotrophoblast, and serum levels rose across pregnancy. Strikingly, serum levels were increased 10-fold in preterm preeclampsia compared with normotensive controls. We confirmed sFLT-1 e15a is bioactive and is able to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor signaling of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 and block downstream Akt phosphorylation. Furthermore, sFLT-1 e15a has antiangiogenic properties. sFLT-1 e15a decreased endothelial cell migration, invasion, and inhibited endothelial cell tube formation. Administering sFLT-1 e15a blocked vascular endothelial growth factor induced sprouts from mouse aortic rings ex vivo. We have demonstrated that sFLT-1 e15a is increased in preeclampsia, antagonizes vascular endothelial growth factor signaling, and has antiangiogenic activity. Future development of diagnostics and therapeutics for preeclampsia should consider targeting placentally derived sFLT-1 e15a.

  19. MO-G-BRF-05: Determining Response to Anti-Angiogenic Therapies with Monte Carlo Tumor Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Valentinuzzi, D; Simoncic, U; Jeraj, R; Titz, B

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Patient response to anti-angiogenic therapies with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor - tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR TKIs) is heterogeneous. This study investigates key biological characteristics that drive differences in patient response via Monte Carlo computational modeling capable of simulating tumor response to therapy with VEGFR TKI. Methods: VEGFR TKIs potently block receptors, responsible for promoting angiogenesis in tumors. The model incorporates drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, as well as patientspecific data of cellular proliferation derived from [18F]FLT-PET data. Sensitivity of tumor response was assessed for multiple parameters, including initial partial oxygen tension (pO{sub 2}), cell cycle time, daily vascular growth fraction, and daily vascular regression fraction. Results were benchmarked to clinical data (patient 2 weeks on VEGFR TKI, followed by 1-week drug holiday). The tumor pO{sub 2} was assumed to be uniform. Results: Among the investigated parameters, the simulated proliferation was most sensitive to the initial tumor pO{sub 2}. Initial change of 5 mmHg can already Result in significantly different levels of proliferation. The model reveals that hypoxic tumors (pO{sub 2} ≥ 20 mmHg) show the highest decrease of proliferation, experiencing mean FLT standardized uptake value (SUVmean) decrease for at least 50% at the end of the clinical trial (day 21). Oxygenated tumors (pO{sub 2} 20 mmHg) show a transient SUV decrease (30–50%) at the end of the treatment with VEGFR TKI (day 14) but experience a rapid SUV rebound close to the pre-treatment SUV levels (70–110%) at the time of a drug holiday (day 14–21) - the phenomenon known as a proliferative flare. Conclusion: Model's high sensitivity to initial pO{sub 2} clearly emphasizes the need for experimental assessment of the pretreatment tumor hypoxia status, as it might be predictive of response to antiangiogenic therapies and the occurrence of

  20. Enhancement of the antiangiogenic activity of interleukin-12 by peptide targeted delivery of the cytokine to alphavbeta3 integrin.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Erin B; Akhtar, Nasim; Steinberg, Howard; Wang, Zun-Yi; Lindstrom, Mary J; Padilla, Marcia L; Auerbach, Robert; Helfand, Stuart C

    2004-12-01

    We engineered a fusion protein, mrIL-12vp [mouse recombinant interleukin (IL)-12 linked to vascular peptide], linking the vascular homing peptide CDCRGDCFC (RGD-4C), a ligand for alphavbeta3 integrin, to mrIL-12 to target IL-12 directly to tumor neovasculature. The fusion protein stimulated IFN-gamma production in vitro and in vivo, indicating its biological activity was consistent with mrIL-12. Immunofluorescence techniques showed mrIL-12vp specifically bound to alphavbeta3 integrin-positive cells but not to alphavbeta3 integrin-negative cells. In corneal angiogenesis assays using BALB/c mice treated with either 0.5 microg/mouse/d of mrIL-12vp or mrIL-12 delivered by subcutaneous continuous infusion, mrIL-12vp inhibited corneal neovascularization by 67% compared with only a slight reduction (13%) in angiogenesis in the mrIL-12-treated animals (P = 0.008). IL-12 receptor knockout mice given mrIL-12vp showed a marked decrease in the area of corneal neovascularization compared with mice treated with mrIL-12. These results indicate that mrIL-12vp inhibits angiogenesis through IL-12-dependent and IL-12-independent mechanisms, and its augmented antiangiogenic activity may be due to suppression of endothelial cell signaling pathways by the RGD-4C portion of the fusion protein. Mice injected with NXS2 neuroblastoma cells and treated with mrIL-12vp showed significant suppression of tumor growth compared with mice treated with mrIL-12 (P = 0.03). Mice did not show signs of IL-12 toxicity when treated with mrIL-12vp, although hepatic necrosis was present in mrIL-12-treated mice. Localization of IL-12 to neovasculature significantly enhances the antiangiogenic effect, augments antitumor activity, and decreases toxicity of IL-12, offering a promising strategy for expanding development of IL-12 for treatment of cancer patients.

  1. Anti-angiogenic effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts in human umbilical vein endothelial cells with antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Suk; Shukla, Shruti; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae) has long been used as a traditional herb in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Korean medicinal practices since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine. This study reports for the first time the potent ability of N. nucifera leaf extracts to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as their antioxidant efficacy in various scavenging models and an analysis of their chemical composition. In vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model using fertilized chicken eggs, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by using cell viability, cell proliferation and tube formation assays, and by determining intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. The antioxidant efficacy of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined in various scavenging models, including total phenolic and flavonoid content. The chemical composition of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed the presence of different phytochemicals. The IC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging activities of water and methanol extracts were found to be 1699.47 and 514.36 μg ml(-1), and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 85.01 ± 2.32 and 147.63 ± 2.23 mg GAE g dry mass(-1) and 35.38 ± 1.32 and 41.86 ± 1.07 mg QA g dry mass(-1), respectively. N. nucifera leaf extracts (10-100 μg ml(-1)) exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis, as well as VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation in HUVECs. In this study, N. nucifera leaf extracts displayed potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on VEGF-induced angiogenesis. N. nucifera exerted an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation, as well as CAM angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, N. nucifera leaf extracts significantly blocked VEGF-induced ROS production in HUVECs, confirming

  2. Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Nelumbo nucifera Leaf Extracts in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells with Antioxidant Potential

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae) has long been used as a traditional herb in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Korean medicinal practices since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine. This study reports for the first time the potent ability of N. nucifera leaf extracts to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as their antioxidant efficacy in various scavenging models and an analysis of their chemical composition. In vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model using fertilized chicken eggs, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by using cell viability, cell proliferation and tube formation assays, and by determining intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. The antioxidant efficacy of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined in various scavenging models, including total phenolic and flavonoid content. The chemical composition of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed the presence of different phytochemicals. The IC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging activities of water and methanol extracts were found to be 1699.47 and 514.36 μg ml−1, and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 85.01 ± 2.32 and 147.63 ± 2.23 mg GAE g dry mass−1 and 35.38 ± 1.32 and 41.86 ± 1.07 mg QA g dry mass−1, respectively. N. nucifera leaf extracts (10–100 μg ml−1) exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis, as well as VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation in HUVECs. In this study, N. nucifera leaf extracts displayed potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on VEGF-induced angiogenesis. N. nucifera exerted an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation, as well as CAM angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, N. nucifera leaf extracts significantly blocked VEGF-induced ROS production in HUVECs, confirming

  3. Anti-angiogenic effect of Nelumbo nucifera leaf extracts in human umbilical vein endothelial cells with antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Suk; Shukla, Shruti; Kim, Jung-Ae; Kim, Myunghee

    2015-01-01

    Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn (Nymphaeaceae) has long been used as a traditional herb in Chinese, Japanese, Indian, and Korean medicinal practices since prehistoric times and flourishes today as the primary form of medicine. This study reports for the first time the potent ability of N. nucifera leaf extracts to inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, as well as their antioxidant efficacy in various scavenging models and an analysis of their chemical composition. In vivo anti-angiogenic activity was evaluated in a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model using fertilized chicken eggs, in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by using cell viability, cell proliferation and tube formation assays, and by determining intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitro. The antioxidant efficacy of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined in various scavenging models, including total phenolic and flavonoid content. The chemical composition of N. nucifera leaf extracts was determined by GC-MS analysis, which revealed the presence of different phytochemicals. The IC50 values for the DPPH radical scavenging activities of water and methanol extracts were found to be 1699.47 and 514.36 μg ml(-1), and their total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 85.01 ± 2.32 and 147.63 ± 2.23 mg GAE g dry mass(-1) and 35.38 ± 1.32 and 41.86 ± 1.07 mg QA g dry mass(-1), respectively. N. nucifera leaf extracts (10-100 μg ml(-1)) exhibited significant dose-dependent inhibition of VEGF-induced angiogenesis, as well as VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation in HUVECs. In this study, N. nucifera leaf extracts displayed potent antioxidant and inhibitory effects on VEGF-induced angiogenesis. N. nucifera exerted an inhibitory effect on VEGF-induced proliferation and tube formation, as well as CAM angiogenesis in vivo. Moreover, N. nucifera leaf extracts significantly blocked VEGF-induced ROS production in HUVECs, confirming

  4. Aponecrotic, antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of a novel dextran derivative on breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Di Benedetto, Mélanie; Starzec, Anna; Colombo, Bruno M; Briane, Dominique; Perret, Gérard Y; Kraemer, Michel; Crépin, Michel

    2002-04-01

    1. Since the sodium phenylacetate (NaPa) was reported to enhance the inhibitory effect of carboxymethyl benzylamide dextran (CMDB) on the breast cancer growth, we performed the esterification of CMDB with NaPa to obtain a new drug carrying the characteristics of these two components. A new molecule, phenylacetate carboxymethyl benzylamide dextran, was named NaPaC. 2. We investigated in vitro and in vivo the effects of NaPaC on MCF-7ras cell growth as well as its apoptotic and antiangiogenic effects in comparison to NaPa and CMDB. In addition, we assessed in vitro the antiproliferative effects of these drugs on other breast cancer cells, including MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7. 3. In vitro, NaPaC inhibited MCF-7ras cell proliferation by 40% at concentration lower than that of CMDB and NaPa (12 microM vs 73 microM and 10 mM). IC(50)s were 6 and 28 microM for NaPaC and CMDB, respectively. The similar results were obtained for three other breast cancer cell lines. NaPaC reduced the DNA replication and induced cell recruitment in G(0)/G(1) phase more efficiently than its components. Moreover, it induced a cell death at concentration 1000-fold lower than NaPa. 4. In vivo, CMDB (150 mg kg(-1)) and NaPa (40 mg kg(-1)) inhibited the MCF-7ras tumour growth by 37 and 57%, respectively, whereas NaPaC (15 mg kg(-1)) decreased tumour growth by 66% without toxicity. 5. NaPa or CMDB reduced the microvessel number in tumour by 50% after 7 weeks of treatment. NaPaC had the same effect after only 2 weeks. After 7 weeks, it generated a large necrosis area without detectable microvessels. In vitro, NaPaC inhibited human endothelial cell proliferation more efficiently than CMDB or NaPa. NaPaC interacts with vascular endothelial growth factor as observed by affinity electrophoresis. 6. NaPaC acts like NaPa and CMDB but in more potent manner than components used separately. Its antiproliferative, aponecrotic and anti-angiogenic actions make it a good candidate for a new anti

  5. Aponecrotic, antiangiogenic and antiproliferative effects of a novel dextran derivative on breast cancer growth in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Benedetto, Mélanie Di; Starzec, Anna; Colombo, Bruno M; Briane, Dominique; Perret, Gérard Y; Kraemer, Michel; Crépin, Michel

    2002-01-01

    1 Since the sodium phenylacetate (NaPa) was reported to enhance the inhibitory effect of carboxymethyl benzylamide dextran (CMDB) on the breast cancer growth, we performed the esterification of CMDB with NaPa to obtain a new drug carrying the characteristics of these two components. A new molecule, phenylacetate carboxymethyl benzylamide dextran, was named NaPaC. We investigated in vitro and in vivo the effects of NaPaC on MCF-7ras cell growth as well as its apoptotic and antiangiogenic effects in comparison to NaPa and CMDB. In addition, we assessed in vitro the antiproliferative effects of these drugs on other breast cancer cells, including MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-435 and MCF-7. In vitro, NaPaC inhibited MCF-7ras cell proliferation by 40% at concentration lower than that of CMDB and NaPa (12 μM vs 73 μM and 10 mM). IC50s were 6 and 28 μM for NaPaC and CMDB, respectively. The similar results were obtained for three other breast cancer cell lines. NaPaC reduced the DNA replication and induced cell recruitment in G0/G1 phase more efficiently than its components. Moreover, it induced a cell death at concentration 1000-fold lower than NaPa. In vivo, CMDB (150 mg kg−1) and NaPa (40 mg kg−1) inhibited the MCF-7ras tumour growth by 37 and 57%, respectively, whereas NaPaC (15 mg kg−1) decreased tumour growth by 66% without toxicity. NaPa or CMDB reduced the microvessel number in tumour by 50% after 7 weeks of treatment. NaPaC had the same effect after only 2 weeks. After 7 weeks, it generated a large necrosis area without detectable microvessels. In vitro, NaPaC inhibited human endothelial cell proliferation more efficiently than CMDB or NaPa. NaPaC interacts with vascular endothelial growth factor as observed by affinity electrophoresis. NaPaC acts like NaPa and CMDB but in more potent manner than components used separately. Its antiproliferative, aponecrotic and anti-angiogenic actions make it a good candidate for a new anti-cancer drug. PMID

  6. Multipurpose Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Specially formulated derivatives of an unusual basic compound known as Alcide may be the answer to effective treatment and prevention of the disease bovine mastitis, a bacterial inflammation of a cow's mammary gland that results in loss of milk production and in extreme cases, death. Manufactured by Alcide Corporation the Alcide compound has killed all tested bacteria, virus and fungi, shortly after contact, with minimal toxic effects on humans or animals. Alcide Corporation credits the existence of the mastitis treatment/prevention products to assistance provided the company by NERAC, Inc.

  7. Imaging integrin α(v)β(3) positive glioma with a novel RGD dimer probe and the impact of antiangiogenic agent (Endostar) on its tumor uptake.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hua; Chen, Haojun; Sun, Yonghong; Wan, Ying; Wang, Fan; Jia, Bing; Su, Xinhui

    2013-07-10

    Integrin αvβ3 has been recognized to play an important role in angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis. It will be of interest to apply this promising target for tumor imaging and visualization of tumor angiogenesis in vivo. In this study, a novel integrin αvβ3 targetting imaging probe, (99m)Tc-HYNIC-E[c(RGDfK)]2, was used to investigate the glioma uptake in vitro and in vivo before and after treatment with an antiangiogenic agent, endostar. The results indicated that U87MG glioma cells have high expression of integrin αvβ3 and special uptake of (99m)Tc-HYNIC-E[c(RGDfK)]2 both in cell line and in tumor xenograft. The endostatin analogue endostar can inhibit the expression of integrin αvβ3 receptors in both U87MG cells in vitro and glioma tissues, which suggested that integrin pathway may play a role in antiangiogenic effect of Endostar. (99m)Tc-HYNIC-E[c(RGDfK)]2 may be a promising molecular imaging probe for integrin αvβ3 positive tumor imaging and open up the possibility to establish an molecular imaging modality for assessment of tomor antiangiogenic therapy.

  8. Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin, exerts antiangiogenic effect via blocking VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of KDR/Flk-1 of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, Yun; Yang, Yong . E-mail: anticancer_drug@yahoo.com.cn; Lu, Na; You, Qi-dong; Wang, Sen; Gao, Ying; Chen, Yan; Guo, Qing-Long . E-mail: valianty@hotmail.com

    2007-09-14

    Endostar, a novel recombinant human endostatin expressed and purified in Escherichia coli with an additional nine-amino acid sequence and forming another his-tag structure, was approved by the SFDA in 2005 for the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer. But its mechanism of action has not been illustrated before. In this study, we examined the antiangiogenic activities of endostar in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that endostar suppressed the VEGF-stimulated proliferation, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Endostar blocked microvessel sprouting from rat aortic rings in vitro. Moreover, it could inhibit the formation of new capillaries from pre-existing vessels in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay and affect the growth of vessels in tumor. We further found the antiangiogenic effects of endostar were correlated with the VEGF-triggered signaling. Endostar suppressed the VEGF-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of KDR/Flk-1(VEGFR-2) as well as the overall VEGFR-2 expression and the activation of ERK, p38 MAPK, and AKT in HUVECs. Collectively, these data indicated the relationship between endostar and VEGF signal pathways and provided a molecular basis for the antiangiogenic effects of endostar.

  9. Continuous anti-angiogenic therapy after tumor progression in patients with recurrent high-grade epithelial ovarian cancer: phase I trial experience

    PubMed Central

    Janku, Filip; Piha-Paul, Sarina; Naing, Aung; Hong, David; Westin, Shannon; Coleman, Robert L.; Sood, Anil K.; Tsimberidou, Apostolia M.; Subbiah, Vivek; Wheler, Jennifer; Zinner, Ralph; Lu, Karen; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Fu, Siqing

    2016-01-01

    High-grade epithelial ovarian cancer (HG-EOC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy worldwide Once patients develop chemoresistance, effective novel strategies are required to improve prognosis We analyzed characteristics and outcomes of 242 consecutive patients with HG-EOC participating in 94 phase I clinical trials at The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center. Baseline lactate dehydrogenase levels, albumin levels, and number of metastatic sites were independent predictors of overall survival (OS). Receiving more than 1 phase I protocol was associated with improved OS (p < 0.001). Regimens including a chemotherapeutic agent plus bevacizumab or Aurora A kinase inhibitor led to a median progression-free survival (PFS) duration of more than 6 months. Although patients receiving bevacizumab-based regimens in the phase I clinical trials had significantly longer PFS than those receiving other anti-angiogenic therapies (p = 0.017), patients treated with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (VEGFR-TKIs) had significantly longer OS (12.2 months) than those not treated with VEGFR-TKIs (8.6 months, p = 0.015). In conclusion, anti-angiogenic therapy is one of the most important strategies for the treatment of HG-EOC, even in those who have already experienced tumor progression. Therefore, eligible patients with HG-EOC should be encouraged to participate in novel phase I studies of anti-angiogenic therapies, even after disease progression. PMID:27147567

  10. Perfluorinated Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds such as the perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) and their derivatives are important man-made chemicals that have wide consumer and industrial applications. They are relatively contemporary chemicals, being in use only since the 1950s, and until recently, have be...

  11. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

  12. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of photoaffinity probes of antiangiogenic homoisoflavonoids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bit; Sun, Wei; Lee, Hyungjun; Basavarajappa, Halesha; Sulaiman, Rania S; Sishtla, Kamakshi; Fei, Xiang; Corson, Timothy W; Seo, Seung-Yong

    2016-09-01

    A naturally occurring homoisoflavonoid, cremastranone (1) inhibited angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We developed an analogue SH-11037 (2) which is more potent than cremastranone in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) and blocks neovascularization in animal models. Despite their efficacy, the mechanism of these compounds is not yet fully known. In the course of building on a strong foundation of SAR and creating a novel chemical tool for target identification of homoisoflavonoid-binding proteins, various types of photoaffinity probes were designed and synthesized in which benzophenone and biotin were attached to homoisoflavanonoids using PEG linkers on either the C-3' or C-7 position. Notably, the photoaffinity probes linking on the phenol group of the C-3' position retain excellent activity of inhibiting retinal endothelial cell proliferation with up to 72nM of GI50.

  13. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of photoaffinity probes of antiangiogenic homoisoflavonoids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bit; Sun, Wei; Lee, Hyungjun; Basavarajappa, Halesha; Sulaiman, Rania S; Sishtla, Kamakshi; Fei, Xiang; Corson, Timothy W; Seo, Seung-Yong

    2016-09-01

    A naturally occurring homoisoflavonoid, cremastranone (1) inhibited angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. We developed an analogue SH-11037 (2) which is more potent than cremastranone in human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRECs) and blocks neovascularization in animal models. Despite their efficacy, the mechanism of these compounds is not yet fully known. In the course of building on a strong foundation of SAR and creating a novel chemical tool for target identification of homoisoflavonoid-binding proteins, various types of photoaffinity probes were designed and synthesized in which benzophenone and biotin were attached to homoisoflavanonoids using PEG linkers on either the C-3' or C-7 position. Notably, the photoaffinity probes linking on the phenol group of the C-3' position retain excellent activity of inhibiting retinal endothelial cell proliferation with up to 72nM of GI50. PMID:27481561

  14. Orthotopic animal model of pseudomyxoma peritonei: An in vivo model to test anti-angiogenic drug effects.

    PubMed

    Dohan, Anthony; Lousquy, Ruben; Eveno, Clarisse; Goere, Diane; Broqueres-You, Dong; Kaci, Rachid; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Launay, Jean-Marie; Soyer, Philippe; Bonnin, Philippe; Pocard, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis confined to the peritoneal cavity. The rarity of PMP in humans makes evaluation of the disease biological features and new therapeutic strategies difficult. Accordingly, there is a need for animal models of PMP. Human PMP tissue was i.p. grafted and grown into nude mice, then constituted into reliable and reproducible orthotopic models. Histological and immunostaining analysis was performed. Bevacizumab was injected twice a week either during tumor growth or after cytoreductive surgery. In vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis was performed using barium sulfate or isolectin microangiography and Doppler ultrasonography of the superior mesenteric artery. Tumor angiogenesis was confirmed by the presence of tortuous vascular networks with high levels of expression of CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin, and desmin. Doppler ultrasonography of the superior mesenteric artery revealed a twofold increase in blood flow velocity compared with tumor-free mice (P < 0.001). Bevacizumab administration was correlated with the normalization of tumor vascularity when injected during tumor growth and with the stabilization of the histological and hemodynamic findings when injected after cytoreductive surgery. Our PMP models mimic human PMP. Our results confirmed the presence of tumor angiogenesis related to PMP growth. Our murine model allows researchers to actually bench test and evaluate, in preclinical studies, the efficacy of new therapeutic strategies and anti-angiogenic therapies. PMID:24814606

  15. Orthotopic animal model of pseudomyxoma peritonei: An in vivo model to test anti-angiogenic drug effects.

    PubMed

    Dohan, Anthony; Lousquy, Ruben; Eveno, Clarisse; Goere, Diane; Broqueres-You, Dong; Kaci, Rachid; Lehmann-Che, Jacqueline; Launay, Jean-Marie; Soyer, Philippe; Bonnin, Philippe; Pocard, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is an uncommon peritoneal mucinous carcinomatosis confined to the peritoneal cavity. The rarity of PMP in humans makes evaluation of the disease biological features and new therapeutic strategies difficult. Accordingly, there is a need for animal models of PMP. Human PMP tissue was i.p. grafted and grown into nude mice, then constituted into reliable and reproducible orthotopic models. Histological and immunostaining analysis was performed. Bevacizumab was injected twice a week either during tumor growth or after cytoreductive surgery. In vivo imaging of tumor angiogenesis was performed using barium sulfate or isolectin microangiography and Doppler ultrasonography of the superior mesenteric artery. Tumor angiogenesis was confirmed by the presence of tortuous vascular networks with high levels of expression of CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin, and desmin. Doppler ultrasonography of the superior mesenteric artery revealed a twofold increase in blood flow velocity compared with tumor-free mice (P < 0.001). Bevacizumab administration was correlated with the normalization of tumor vascularity when injected during tumor growth and with the stabilization of the histological and hemodynamic findings when injected after cytoreductive surgery. Our PMP models mimic human PMP. Our results confirmed the presence of tumor angiogenesis related to PMP growth. Our murine model allows researchers to actually bench test and evaluate, in preclinical studies, the efficacy of new therapeutic strategies and anti-angiogenic therapies.

  16. Identification of two novel Chlorotoxin derivatives CA4 and CTX-23 with chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tengfei; Fan, Zheng; Li, Wenxin; Dietel, Barbara; Wu, Yingliang; Beckmann, Matthias W; Wrosch, Jana K; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y; Cao, Zhijian; Savaskan, Nicolai E

    2016-02-02

    Brain tumors are fast proliferating and destructive within the brain microenvironment. Effective chemotherapeutic strategies are currently lacking which combat this deadly disease curatively. The glioma-specific chloride ion channel represents a specific target for therapy. Chlorotoxin (CTX), a peptide derived from scorpion venom, has been shown to be specific and efficacious in blocking glioma Cl(-) channel activity. Here, we report on two new derivatives (termed CA4 and CTX-23) designed and generated on the basis of the peptide sequence alignments of CTX and BmKCT. The novel peptides CA4 and CTX-23 are both effective in reducing glioma cell proliferation. In addition, CTX, CA4 and CTX-23 impact on cell migration and spheroid migration. These effects are accompanied by diminished cell extensions and increased nuclear sizes. Furthermore, we found that CA4 and CTX-23 are selective with low toxicity against primary neurons and astrocytes. In the ex vivo VOGiM, which maintain the entire brain tumor microenvironment, both CTX and CA4 display anti-tumor activity and reduce tumor volume. Hence, CTX and CA4 reveal anti-angiogenic properties with endothelial and angiogenic hotspots disrupting activities. These data report on the identification of two novel CTX derivatives with multiple anti-glioma properties including anti-angiogenesis.

  17. Identification of two novel Chlorotoxin derivatives CA4 and CTX-23 with chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic potential

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Tengfei; Fan, Zheng; Li, Wenxin; Dietel, Barbara; Wu, Yingliang; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Wrosch, Jana K.; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y.; Cao, Zhijian; Savaskan, Nicolai E.

    2016-01-01

    Brain tumors are fast proliferating and destructive within the brain microenvironment. Effective chemotherapeutic strategies are currently lacking which combat this deadly disease curatively. The glioma-specific chloride ion channel represents a specific target for therapy. Chlorotoxin (CTX), a peptide derived from scorpion venom, has been shown to be specific and efficacious in blocking glioma Cl− channel activity. Here, we report on two new derivatives (termed CA4 and CTX-23) designed and generated on the basis of the peptide sequence alignments of CTX and BmKCT. The novel peptides CA4 and CTX-23 are both effective in reducing glioma cell proliferation. In addition, CTX, CA4 and CTX-23 impact on cell migration and spheroid migration. These effects are accompanied by diminished cell extensions and increased nuclear sizes. Furthermore, we found that CA4 and CTX-23 are selective with low toxicity against primary neurons and astrocytes. In the ex vivo VOGiM, which maintain the entire brain tumor microenvironment, both CTX and CA4 display anti-tumor activity and reduce tumor volume. Hence, CTX and CA4 reveal anti-angiogenic properties with endothelial and angiogenic hotspots disrupting activities. These data report on the identification of two novel CTX derivatives with multiple anti-glioma properties including anti-angiogenesis. PMID:26831010

  18. Novel isonahocol E3 exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects in endothelin-1-stimulated human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sah, Shyam K; Kim, Byung-Hak; Park, Geon-Tae; Kim, Sunghwan; Hwa Jang, Kyoung; Eun Jeon, Ju; Shin, Jongheon; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2013-10-25

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is reported to be a potent mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factor that plays a vital role in both physiological and pathological processes. ET-1 is implicated in dermal cell proliferation and skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. ET-1, endothelin ETA receptor, and endothelin ETB receptor could be potential targets for developing specific therapeutics to treat such disorders. Here, we provide the first report that an isonahocol [2,-5-dihydroxy-3-(13-hydroxy-3,-7,-11,-15-tetramethyl-12-oxo-hexadeca-2,-6,-14-trienyl)-phenyl]- acetic acid methyl ester (isonahocol E3) from the brown algae Sargassum siliquastrum has functional antagonistic activities against ET-1 induced inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects. Isonahocol E3 significantly inhibited ET-1-induced cell proliferation, as well as inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and pro-angiogenic factors including metalloproteinases in immortalized human keratinocytes. We also found that isonahocol E3 reduced expression level of endothelin ETA receptor, and endothelin ETB receptor as well as suppressed ET-1-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that isonahocol E3 can exert anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities at least by regulating the expression of ET-1 receptors and ERK signaling pathway.

  19. Novel isonahocol E(3) exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic effects in endothelin-1-stimulated human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Sah, Shyam Kishor; Kim, Byung-Hak; Park, Geon-Tae; Kim, Sunghwam; Jang, Kyoung Hwa; Jeon, Ju Eun; Shin, Jongheon; Kim, Tae-Yoon

    2013-11-15

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is reported to be a potent mitogenic and pro-angiogenic factor that plays a vital role in both physiological and pathological processes. ET-1 is implicated in dermal cell proliferation and skin disorders, such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. ET-1, endothelin ET(A) receptor, and endothelin ET(B) receptor could be potential targets for developing specific therapeutics to treat such disorders. Here, we provide the first report that an isonahocol [2,-5-hihydroxy-3-(13-hydroxy-3,-7,-11,-15-tetramethyl-12-oxo-hexadeca-2,-6,-14-trienyl)-phenyl]-acetic acid methyl ester (isonahocol E(3)) from the brown algae Sargassum siliquastrum has functional antagonistic activities against ET-1 induced inflammatory and proangiogenic effects. Isonahocol E(3) significantly inhibited ET-1-induced cell proliferation, as well as inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and pro-angiogenic factors including metalloproteinases in immortalized human keratinocytes. We also found that isonahocol E(3) reduced expression level of endothelin ET(A) receptor, and endothelin ET(B) receptor as well as suppressed ET-1 induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosporylation. Taken together, our results suggest that isonahocol E(3) can exert anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenic activities at least by regulating the expression of ET-1 receptors and ERK signaling pathway.

  20. Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity and antiangiogenic activity of copper(II) complexes with 1-adamantoyl hydrazone bearing pyridine rings.

    PubMed

    Rodić, Marko V; Leovac, Vukadin M; Jovanović, Ljiljana S; Spasojević, Vojislav; Joksović, Milan D; Stanojković, Tatjana; Matić, Ivana Z; Vojinović-Ješić, Ljiljana S; Marković, Violeta

    2016-06-10

    Three novel copper complexes with tridentate N2O ligand di(2-pyridil) ketone 1-adamantoyl hydrazone (Addpy) of the formula [Cu(II)2Cu(I)2(Addpy)2Br2(μ-Br4)] (1), catena-poly[CuCl(μ-Addpy)(μ-Cl)CuCl2]n (2) and [Cu(Addpy)(NCS)2] (3) were synthesized. Complexes are characterized by X-ray crystallography, spectral (UV-Vis, FTIR), electrochemical (CV) analyses, and magnetochemical measurements. Investigation of anticancer potential of Cu(II) complexes, mode of cell death, apoptosis, and inhibition of angiogenesis were performed. All tested malignant cell lines (HeLa, LS174, A549, K562, and MDA-MB-231) showed high sensitivity to the examined Cu(II) complexes. It has been shown that the complexes induce apoptosis in the caspase 3-dependent manner, whereas the anti-angiogenic effects of 1, 2, and 3 have been confirmed in EA.hy926 cells using a tube formation assay. PMID:27084495

  1. Naringenin exerts anti-angiogenic effects in human endothelial cells: Involvement of ERRα/VEGF/KDR signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Qunyi; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Liudi; Chen, Lu; Du, Yongli; Ye, Ting; Shi, Xiaojin

    2016-06-01

    Naringenin (Nar), most abundant in oranges and tomatoes, are known for the hypocholesterolemic, anti-estrogenic, hypolipidemic, anti-hypertensive, and anti-inflammatory activities. Here, the present study was designed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anti-angiogenesis of Nar. Inhibition of angiogenesis was determined in vitro by using proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and tube-formation assays in Nar-treated human endothelial cell. Finally, CAM assays were used to assess inhibitory effect of Nar on physiological angiogenesis in vivo. The data suggest that Nar should be a direct ERRα inhibitor capable of inhibiting angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, including endothelial cell proliferation, survival, migration and capillary-like structures formation of HUVECs, as well as reduced neovascularization of the CAM. Furthermore, the effects exerted by Nar are cell cycle related and mediated by VEGF/KDR signaling pathway along with downregulation of certain proangiogenic inflammatory cytokines. Our data thus provide potential molecular mechanisms through which Nar manifests it as a promising anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer agent. PMID:27105956

  2. Binding assay and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of ACTIBIND, a protein with anticarcinogenic and antiangiogenic activities

    SciTech Connect

    Leeuw, Marina de; Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Schwartz, Betty; Shoseyov, Oded; Almog, Orna

    2007-08-01

    Native ACTIBIND was successfully crystallized and it was shown that the interaction between ACTIBIND and actin is in a molar ratio of 1:2, with a binding constant of 16.17 × 10{sup 4} M{sup −1}. ACTIBIND is a T2 RNase extracellular glycoprotein produced by the mould Aspergillus niger B1 (CMI CC 324626) that possesses anticarcinogenic and antiangiogenic activities. ACTIBIND was found to be an actin-binding protein that interacts with rabbit muscle actin in a 1:2 molar ratio (ACTIBIND:actin) with a binding constant of 16.17 × 10{sup 4} M{sup −1}. Autoclave-treated ACTIBIND (EI-ACTIBIND) lost its RNase activity, but its actin-binding ability was conserved. ACTIBIND crystals were grown using 20% PEG 3350, 0.2 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solution at room temperature (293 K). One to four single crystals appeared in each droplet within a few days and grew to approximate dimensions of 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm after about two weeks. Diffraction studies of these crystals at low temperature (100 K) indicated that they belong to the P3{sub 1}21 space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 78, b = 78, c = 104 Å.

  3. Binding assay and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of ACTIBIND, a protein with anticarcinogenic and antiangiogenic activities

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Marina; Roiz, Levava; Smirnoff, Patricia; Schwartz, Betty; Shoseyov, Oded; Almog, Orna

    2007-01-01

    ACTIBIND is a T2 RNase extracellular glycoprotein produced by the mould Aspergillus niger B1 (CMI CC 324626) that possesses anticarcinogenic and antiangiogenic activities. ACTIBIND was found to be an actin-binding protein that interacts with rabbit muscle actin in a 1:2 molar ratio (ACTIBIND:actin) with a binding constant of 16.17 × 104  M −1. Autoclave-treated ACTIBIND (EI-ACTIBIND) lost its RNase activity, but its actin-binding ability was conserved. ACTIBIND crystals were grown using 20% PEG 3350, 0.2 M ammonium dihydrogen phosphate solution at room temperature (293 K). One to four single crystals appeared in each droplet within a few days and grew to approximate dimensions of 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 mm after about two weeks. Diffraction studies of these crystals at low temperature (100 K) indicated that they belong to the P3121 space group, with unit-cell parameters a = 78, b = 78, c = 104 Å. PMID:17671376

  4. Identification of novel targets for antiangiogenic therapy by comparing the gene expressions of tumor and normal endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Tsuguteru; Hida, Yasuhiro; Ohga, Noritaka; Sato, Hideshi; Kai, Toshihiro; Matsuki, Yasushi; Takasu, Hideo; Akiyama, Kosuke; Maishi, Nako; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Shinohara, Nobuo; Nonomura, Katsuya; Hida, Kyoko

    2014-05-01

    Targeting tumor angiogenesis is an established strategy for cancer therapy. Because angiogenesis is not limited to pathological conditions such as cancer, molecular markers that can distinguish between physiological and pathological angiogenesis are required to develop more effective and safer approaches for cancer treatment. To identify such molecules, we determined the gene expression profiles of murine tumor endothelial cells (mTEC) and murine normal endothelial cells using DNA microarray analysis followed by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis. We identified 131 genes that were differentially upregulated in mTEC. Functional analysis using siRNA-mediated gene silencing revealed five novel tumor endothelial cell markers that were involved in the proliferation or migration of mTEC. The expression of DEF6 and TMEM176B was upregulated in tumor vessels of human renal cell carcinoma specimens, suggesting that they are potential targets for antiangiogenic intervention for renal cell carcinoma. Comparative gene expression analysis revealed molecular differences between tumor endothelial cells and normal endothelial cells and identified novel tumor endothelial cell markers that may be exploited to target tumor angiogenesis for cancer treatment. PMID:24602018

  5. Increased Lung Expression of Anti-Angiogenic Factors in Down Syndrome: Potential Role in Abnormal Lung Vascular Growth and the Risk for Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Galambos, Csaba; Minic, Angela D.; Bush, Douglas; Nguyen, Dominique; Dodson, Blair; Seedorf, Gregory; Abman, Steven H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Infants with Down syndrome (DS) or Trisomy 21, are at high risk for developing pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but mechanisms that increase susceptibility are poorly understood. Laboratory studies have shown that early disruption of angiogenesis during development impairs vascular and alveolar growth and causes PAH. Human chromosome 21 encodes known anti-angiogenic factors, including collagen18a1 (endostatin, ES), ß-amyloid peptide (BAP) and Down Syndrome Critical Region 1 (DSCR-1). Therefore, we hypothesized that fetal lungs from subjects with DS are characterized by early over-expression of anti-angiogenic factors and have abnormal lung vascular growth in utero. Methods Human fetal lung tissue from DS and non-DS subjects were obtained from a biorepository. Quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to assay 84 angiogenesis-associated genes and individual qRT-PCR was performed for ES, amyloid protein precursor (APP) and DSCR1. Western blot analysis (WBA) was used to assay lung ES, APP and DSCR-1 protein contents. Lung vessel density and wall thickness were determined by morphometric analysis. Results The angiogenesis array identified up-regulation of three anti-angiogenic genes: COL18A1 (ES), COL4A3 (tumstatin) and TIMP3 (tissue inhibitor of metallopeptidase 3) in DS lungs. Single qRT-PCR and WBA showed striking elevations of ES and APP mRNA (p = 0.022 and p = 0.001) and protein (p = 0.040 and p = 0.002; respectively). Vessel density was reduced (p = 0.041) and vessel wall thickness was increased in DS lung tissue (p = 0.033) when compared to non-DS subjects. Conclusions We conclude that lung anti-angiogenic factors, including COL18A1 (ES), COL4A3, TIMP3 and APP are over-expressed and fetal lung vessel growth is decreased in subjects with DS. We speculate that increased fetal lung anti-angiogenic factor expression due to trisomy 21 impairs lung vascular growth and signaling, which impairs alveolarization and

  6. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  7. Organic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shankland, Kenneth

    For many years, powder X-ray diffraction was used primarily as a fingerprinting method for phase identification in the context of molecular organic materials. In the early 1990s, with only a few notable exceptions, structures of even moderate complexity were not solvable from PXRD data alone. Global optimisation methods and highly-modified direct methods have transformed this situation by specifically exploiting some well-known properties of molecular compounds. This chapter will consider some of these properties.

  8. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  9. Beer and beer compounds: physiological effects on skin health.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Becker, T; Qian, F; Ring, J

    2014-02-01

    Beer is one of the earliest human inventions and globally the most consumed alcoholic beverage in terms of volume. In addition to water, the 'German Beer Purity Law', based on the Bavarian Beer Purity Law from 1516, allows only barley, hops, yeasts and water for beer brewing. The extracts of these ingredients, especially the hops, contain an abundance of polyphenols such as kaempferol, quercetin, tyrosol, ferulic acid, xanthohumol/isoxanthohumol/8-prenylnaringenin, α-bitter acids like humulone and β-bitter acids like lupulone. 8-prenylnaringenin is the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These compounds have been shown to possess various anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic, anti-melanogenic, anti-osteoporotic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Epidemiological studies on the association between beer drinking and skin disease are limited while direct evidence of beer compounds in clinical application is lacking. Potential uses of these substances in dermatology may include treatment of atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, pigmentary disorders, skin infections, skin ageing, skin cancers and photoprotections, which require an optimization of the biostability and topical delivery of these compounds. Further studies are needed to determine the bioavailability of these compounds and their possible beneficial health effects when taken by moderate beer consumption. PMID:23802910

  10. Beer and beer compounds: physiological effects on skin health.

    PubMed

    Chen, W; Becker, T; Qian, F; Ring, J

    2014-02-01

    Beer is one of the earliest human inventions and globally the most consumed alcoholic beverage in terms of volume. In addition to water, the 'German Beer Purity Law', based on the Bavarian Beer Purity Law from 1516, allows only barley, hops, yeasts and water for beer brewing. The extracts of these ingredients, especially the hops, contain an abundance of polyphenols such as kaempferol, quercetin, tyrosol, ferulic acid, xanthohumol/isoxanthohumol/8-prenylnaringenin, α-bitter acids like humulone and β-bitter acids like lupulone. 8-prenylnaringenin is the most potent phytoestrogen known to date. These compounds have been shown to possess various anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-angiogenic, anti-melanogenic, anti-osteoporotic and anti-carcinogenic effects. Epidemiological studies on the association between beer drinking and skin disease are limited while direct evidence of beer compounds in clinical application is lacking. Potential uses of these substances in dermatology may include treatment of atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, pigmentary disorders, skin infections, skin ageing, skin cancers and photoprotections, which require an optimization of the biostability and topical delivery of these compounds. Further studies are needed to determine the bioavailability of these compounds and their possible beneficial health effects when taken by moderate beer consumption.

  11. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  12. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  13. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  14. Anti-tumour activity of two novel compounds in cisplatin-resistant testicular germ cell cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nitzsche, B; Gloesenkamp, C; Schrader, M; Hoffmann, B; Zengerling, F; Balabanov, S; Honecker, F; Höpfner, M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Resistance to cisplatin-based chemotherapy is associated with poor prognosis in testicular germ cell cancer, emphasising the need for new therapeutic approaches. In this respect, the therapeutic concept of anti-angiogenesis is of particular interest. In a previous study, we presented two novel anti-angiogenic compounds, HP-2 and HP-14, blocking the tyrosine kinase activity of angiogenic growth factor receptors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and related signalling pathways in testicular cancer. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of these new compounds in platinum-resistant testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), in vitro and in vivo. Methods and results: Drug-induced changes in cell proliferation of the cisplatin-sensitive TGCT cell line 2102EP and its cisplatin-resistant counterpart 2102EP-R, both expressing the VEGFR-2, were evaluated by crystal violet staining. Both compounds inhibited the growth of cisplatin-resistant TGCT cells in a dose-dependent manner. In combination experiments with cisplatin, HP-14 revealed additive growth-inhibitory effects in TGCT cells, irrespective of the level of cisplatin resistance. Anti-angiogenic effects of HP compounds were confirmed by tube formation assays with freshly isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Using TGCT cells inoculated onto the chorioallantoic membrane of fertilised chicken eggs (chicken chorioallantoic membrane assay), the anti-angiogenic and anti-proliferative potency of the novel compounds was also demonstrated in vivo. Gene expression profiling revealed changes in the expression pattern of genes related to DNA damage detection and repair, as well as in chaperone function after treatment with both cisplatin and HP-14, alone or in combination. This suggests that HP-14 can revert the lost effectiveness of cisplatin in the resistant cells by altering the expression of critical genes. Conclusion: The novel compound HP-14 effectively inhibits the

  15. Biophysical characterization, including disulfide bond assignments, of the anti-angiogenic type 1 domains of human thrombospondin-1.

    PubMed

    Huwiler, Kristin G; Vestling, Martha M; Annis, Douglas S; Mosher, Deane F

    2002-12-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1), a modular secreted glycoprotein, possesses anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. This activity has been localized to the thrombospondin type 1 repeats/domains (TSR). A TSP1 monomer contains three TSRs, each with a hydrophobic cluster with three conserved tryptophans (WxxWxxW), a basic cluster with two conserved arginines (RxR), and six conserved cysteines. Using the baculovirus system, we expressed TSRs of human TSP1 as either the three domains in tandem (P123) or the third domain alone (P3) and demonstrated that both P123 and P3 at nanomolar concentrations inhibit either basic fibroblast-growth-factor or sphingosine-1-phosphate induced endothelial cell migration. Far-UV circular dichroism (CD) indicated that P123 and P3 have a common global fold that is very similar to properdin, a protein with six TSRs. Near-UV CD and fluorescence quenching studies indicated the conserved tryptophans are in a structured, partially solvent-accessible, positively charged environment. N-terminal sequence and mass spectrometry analysis of trypsin-digested TSRs indicated that the RFK linker sequence between P1 and P2 is readily proteolyzed and the conserved arginines are solvent accessible. By a combination of proteolysis and mass spectrometry, the recombinant TSRs were determined to be fully disulfide bonded with a connectivity of 1-5, 2-6, and 3-4 (cysteines are numbered sequentially from N- to C-terminus). TSRs are found in numerous extracellular proteins. These TSRs share the hydrophobic and basic clusters of the TSP TSRs but some have quite different placement of cysteine residues. We propose a sorting of TSRs into six groups that reconciles our results with information about other TSRs.

  16. MMP14 Cleavage of VEGFR1 in the Cornea Leads to a VEGF-Trap Antiangiogenic Effect

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyu-Yeon; Dugas-Ford, Jennifer; Lee, Hyun; Chang, Jin-Hong; Azar, Dimitri T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine the possible antiangiogenic effect of metalloproteinase (MMP) 14 cleavage of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1) in the cornea. Methods Recombinant mouse (rm) VEGFR1 was incubated with various concentrations of recombinant MMP14 to examine proteolysis in vitro. The reaction mixture was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and stained with Coomassie blue. The fragments resulting from rmVEGFR1 cleavage by MMP14 were subjected to Edman degradation, and the amino acid sequences were aligned with rmVEGFR1 sequences. Surface plasmon resonance was used to determine the equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) between MMP14 and rmVEGFR1. The KD value of rmVEGFR1 and the 59.8-kDa cleavage product binding to VEGF-A165 was also determined. Cell proliferation assays were performed in the presence of VEGF-A165 plus the 59.8-kDa VEGFR1 fragment or VEGF-A165 alone. Results Matrix metalloproteinase 14 binds and cleaves rmVEGFR1 to produce 59.8-kDa (N-terminal fragment, Ig domains 1–5), 35-kDa (C-terminal fragment containing IgG and His-tag), and 21-kDa (Ig domains 6–7) fragments. The 59.8-kDa fragment showed binding to VEGF-A165 and inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial cell mitogenesis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that VEGFR1 cleavage by MMP14 in the cornea leads to a VEGF-trap effect, reducing the proangiogenic effect of VEGF-A165, thereby reducing corneal angiogenesis. PMID:26284550

  17. Antiangiogenic Therapy with Human Apolipoprotein(a) Kringle V and Paclitaxel in a Human Ovarian Cancer Mouse Model12

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Yun, Seok-Joong; Lee, Sun-Joo; Langley, Robert R.; Yoon, Yeup; Yi, Lee S.H.; Bae, Duk-Soo; Kim, Jang-Seong; Kim, Sun Jin

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The present study compared the effect of combination therapy using human apolipoprotein(a) kringle V (rhLK8) to conventional chemotherapy with paclitaxel for human ovarian carcinoma producing high or low levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human ovarian carcinoma cells producing high (SKOV3ip1) or low (HeyA8) levels of VEGF were implanted into the peritoneal cavity of female nude mice. Seven days later, mice were randomized into four groups: control (vehicle), paclitaxel [5 mg/kg, weekly intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection], rhLK8 (50 mg/kg, daily i.p. injection), or the combination of paclitaxel and rhLK8. Mice were treated for 4 weeks and examined by necropsy. RESULTS: In mice implanted with SKOV3ip1 cells, rhLK8 treatment had no significant effect on tumor incidence or the volume of ascites but induced a significant decrease in tumor weight compared with control mice. Paclitaxel significantly reduced tumor weight and ascites volume, and combination treatment with paclitaxel and rhLK8 had an additive therapeutic effect. Similarly, in HeyA8 mice, the effect of combination treatment on tumor weight and tumor incidence was statistically significantly greater than that of paclitaxel or rhLK8 alone. Immunohistochemical analysis showed a significant decrease in microvessel density and a marked increase of apoptosis in tumor and tumor-associated endothelial cells in response to combination treatment with paclitaxel and rhLK8. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these results suggest that antiangiogenic therapy with rhLK8 in combination with taxane-based conventional chemotherapy could be effective for the treatment of ovarian carcinomas, regardless of VEGF status. PMID:25180060

  18. The copper chelator trientine has an antiangiogenic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma, possibly through inhibition of interleukin-8 production.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Michihisa; Nakajima, Tomoki; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Tadashi; Takashima, Hidetaka; Mitsumoto, Yasuhide; Katagishi, Tatsuo; Okanoue, Takeshi; Kagawa, Keizo

    2002-12-10

    Recent studies have revealed that copper is an important cofactor for several angiogenic agents. We examined the antiangiogenic effect against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of the copper chelator trientine, especially focusing on the relationship between copper and interleukin-8 (IL-8), a potent angiogenic factor produced by hepatoma cells. HuH-7 hepatoma cells were transplanted into nude mice and the growth of xenograft tumors was compared to and without administration of trientine. Using the resected tumor, microvessel density, apoptotic potential and proliferative activity were analyzed histologically and IL-8 mRNA was semiquantified by RT-PCR. In addition, HuH-7 cells were cultured in control medium, medium supplemented with copper, medium supplemented with trientine and medium supplemented with both copper and trientine. Human IL-8 levels were measured in the supernatants by ELISA. Using the extracts from cultured cells, IL-8 mRNA was semiquantified by RT-PCR. Trientine suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors significantly. Histologically, apoptotic potential was increased significantly and microvessel density, decreased. The production of IL-8 from the tumor was suppressed by trientine. In vitro, IL-8 production by HuH-7 cells in copper-containing medium was significantly greater than that in copper-free medium, and this effect was weakened when trientine was added. However, no significant change was apparent when trientine was added to the medium alone. In conclusion, the chelating effect of trientine prevented copper from functioning as a cofactor in angiogenesis, which resulted in reduced IL-8 production from HuH-7 cells.

  19. Enzastaurin, an inhibitor of PKCβ, Enhances Antiangiogenic Effects and Cytotoxicity of Radiation against Endothelial Cells1,2

    PubMed Central

    Spalding, Aaron C; Zeitlin, Benjamin D; Wilder-Romans, Kari; Davis, Mary E; Nor, Jacques E; Lawrence, Theodore S; Ben-Josef, Edgar

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: Angiogenesis plays an important role in pancreas cancer pathobiology. Pancreatic tumor cells secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), activating endothelial cell protein kinase C beta (PKCβ) that phosphorylates GSK3β to suppress apoptosis and promote endothelial cell proliferation and microvessel formation. We used Enzastaurin (Enz) to test the hypothesis that inhibition of PKCβ results in radiosensitization of endothelial cells in culture and in vivo. MATERIALS/METHODS: We measured PKCβ phosphorylation, VEGF pathway signaling, colony formation, and capillary sprout formation in primary human dermal microvessel endothelial cells (HDMECs) after Enz or radiation (RT) treatment. Microvessel density and tumor volume of human pancreatic cancer xenografts in nude mice were measured after treatment with Enz, RT, or both. RESULTS: Enz inhibited PKCβ and radiosensitized HDMEC with an enhancement ratio of 1.31 ± 0.05. Enz combined with RT reduced HDMEC capillary sprouting to a greater extent than either agent alone. Enz prevented radiation-induced GSK3β phosphorylation of serine 9 while having no direct effect on VEGFR phosphorylation. Treatment of xenografts with Enz and radiation produced greater reductions in microvessel density than either treatment alone. The reduction in microvessel density corresponded with increased tumor growth delay. CONCLUSIONS: Enz-induced PKCβ inhibition radiosensitizes human endothelial cells and enhances the antiangiogenic effects of RT. The combination of Enz and RT reduced microvessel density and resulted in increased growth delay in pancreatic cancer xenografts, without increase in toxicity. These results provide the rationale for combining PKCβ inhibition with radiation and further investigating such regimens in pancreatic cancer. PMID:19043530

  20. Polymeric Nanostructure Compiled with Multifunctional Components To Exert Tumor-Targeted Delivery of Antiangiogenic Gene for Tumor Growth Suppression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qixian; Qi, Ruogu; Chen, Xiyi; Yang, Xi; Huang, Xing; Xiao, Haihua; Wang, Xinhuan; Dong, Wenfei

    2016-09-21

    Nucleic acid-based therapy has emerged as a revolutionary methodology for treatment of the diseases related to protein dysfunction; however, lack of systemically applicable synthetic delivery systems limits its current usage in local applications, particularly for DNA-based therapy with regard to the poor bioavailability in the systemic administrations. To overcome this obstacle, we compiled multiple chemistry-based strategies into the manufacture of the gene delivery formulations to pursue improved tolerability of DNA to the enzymatic degradation in the biological milieu and prolonged retention in the systemic circulation. Here, we constructed a distinctive multilayered functional architecture: plasmid DNA (pDNA) was electrostatically complexed with cationic poly(lysine) (polyplex) as the interior pDNA reservoir, which was further cross-linked by redox-responsive disulfide cross-linking to minimize the occurrence of polyplex disassembly through exchange reaction with the biological charged components. Still, the pDNA reservoir was spatially protected by a sequential thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) palisade as the intermediate barrier and a biocompatible hydrophilic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) shell with the aim of preventing the accessibility of the biological species, particularly the nuclease degradation to the pDNA payload. Subsequent investigations validated the utilities of these strategies in accomplishing prolonged blood retention. In an attempt to apply this method for tumor therapy, ligand cyclic (Arg-Gly-Asp) peptide was attached at the distal end of PEG, validating prompted tumor-targeted delivery and gene expression of the loaded antiangiogenic gene at the targeted tumor cells and accordingly exerting antiangiogenesis of the tumors for abrogation of tumor growth. Together with its excellent safe profile, the proposed formulation suggests potential utility as a practical gene delivery system for treatment of intractable diseases. PMID

  1. Synergistic Effect of Anti-Angiogenic and Radiation Therapy: Quantitative Evaluation with Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Lee, Myoungsun; Kim, Jin; Woo, Chul Woong; Jeong, Seong-Yun; Choi, Eun Kyung; Kim, Namkug; Lee, Jin Seong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We assessed the effects of anti-angiogenic therapy (AAT) on radiation therapy (RT), evaluating the tumor growth and perfusion patterns on dynamic contrast enhanced MR (DCE-MR) images. Methods Thirteen nude mice with heterotopic xenograft cancer of human lung cancer cell line were used. To observe the interval change of the tumor size and demonstrate the time-signal intensity enhancement curve of the tumor, the mice were subdivided into four groups: control (n = 2), AAT (n = 2), RT (n = 5), and combined therapy (AART, n = 4). DCE-MR images were taken four weeks after treatment. Perfusion parameters were obtained based on the Brix model. To compare the interval size changes in the RT group with those in the AART group, repeated measures ANOVA was used. Perfusion parameters in both the RT and AART groups were compared using a Mann-Whitney U test. Results Tumor growth was more suppressed in AART group than in the other groups. Control group showed the rapid wash-in and wash-out pattern on DCE-MR images. In contrast to RT group with delayed and prolonged enhancement, both AAT and AART groups showed the rapid wash-in and plateau pattern. The signal intensity in the plateau/time to peak enhancement (P<0.016) and the maximum enhancement ratio (P<0.016) of AART group were higher than those of RT group. Conclusions AART showed synergistic effects in anticancer treatment. The pattern of the time-intensity curve on the DCE-MR images in each group implies that AAT might help maintain the perfusion in the cancer of AART group. PMID:26862906

  2. Effect of antiangiogenic therapy on luciferase activity in a cytomegalovirus- or HSP70-promoter-transfected M21 tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hundt, Walter; Schink, Christian; Steinbach, Silke; O'Connell-Rodwell, Caitlin E.; Kiessling, Andreas; Librizzi, Damiano; Burbelko, Mykhaylo; Guccione, Samira

    2012-06-01

    We investigated the effect of targeted gene therapy on heat shock protein 70 expression (Hsp70) and protein production (HSP70) in a melanoma tumor model (M21; M21-L). M21 and M21-L cells transfected with a plasmid containing the Hsp70 (Hspa1b) or the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter and the luciferase reporter gene were injected into mice; the resulting tumors grew to a size of 650 mm3. Mice (five per group) were intravenously treated with an Arg-Gly-Asp peptide-nanoparticle/Raf-1 kinase inhibitor protein complex [RGD-NP/RAF(-)] or with a nanoparticle control. Bioluminescence imaging (IVIS®, Xenogen, USA) was performed at 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after the treatment cycle. Western blot analysis of HSP70 protein was performed to monitor protein expression. The size of the treated M21 tumors remained fairly constant (647.8+/-103.4 mm2 at the beginning versus 704.8+/-94.4 mm3 at the end of the experiment). The size of the M21-L tumors increased, similar to the untreated control tumors. Bioluminescent imaging demonstrated that when transcription was controlled by the CMV promoter, luciferase activity decreased to 17.9%+/-4.3% of baseline values in the treated M21 tumors. When transcription was controlled by the Hsp70 promoter, the highest luciferase activity (4.5+/-0.7-fold increase over base-line values) was seen 24 h after injection in the M21 tumors; however, no luciferase activity was seen in the M21-L tumors. In accordance with bioluminescent imaging, western blot analysis showed a peak in HSP70 production at 24 h after the injection of the RGD-NP/RAF(-) complex in the M21 tumors; however, no HSP70 protein induction was seen in the M21-L tumors. Thus, targeted antiangiogenic therapy can induce Hsp70 expression and HSP70 protein in melanoma tumors.

  3. Lessons from the Fourth Metronomic and Anti-angiogenic Therapy Meeting, 24–25 June 2014, Milan

    PubMed Central

    Bouche, Gauthier; André, Nicolas; Banavali, Shripad; Berthold, Frank; Berruti, Alfredo; Bocci, Guido; Brandi, Giovanni; Cavallaro, Ugo; Cinieri, Saviero; Colleoni, Marco; Curigliano, Giuseppe; Desidero, Teresa Di; Eniu, Alexandru; Fazio, Nicola; Kerbel, Robert; Hutchinson, Lisa; Ledzewicz, Urszula; Munzone, Elisabetta; Pasquier, Eddy; Graciela Scharovsky, O; Shaked, Yuval; Štěrba, Jaroslav; Villalba, Martin; Bertolini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    The Fourth Metronomic and Anti-angiogenic Therapy Meeting was held in Milan 24–25 June 2014. The meeting was a true translational meeting where researchers and clinicians shared their results, experiences, and insights in order to continue gathering useful evidence on metronomic approaches. Several speakers emphasised that exact mechanisms of action, best timing, and optimal dosage are still not well understood and that the field would learn a lot from ancillary studies performed during the clinical trials of metronomic chemotherapies. From the pre-clinical side, new research findings indicate additional possible mechanisms of actions of metronomic schedule on the immune and blood vessel compartments of the tumour micro-environment. New clinical results of metronomic chemotherapy were presented in particular in paediatric cancers [especially neuroblastoma and central nervous system (CNS) tumours], in angiosarcoma (together with beta-blockers), in hepatocellular carcinoma, in prostate cancer, and in breast cancer. The use of repurposed drugs such as metformin, celecoxib, or valproic acid in the metronomic regimen was reported and highlighted the potential of other candidate drugs to be repurposed. The clinical experiences from low- and middle-income countries with affordable regimens gave very encouraging results which will allow more patients to be effectively treated in economies where new drugs are not accessible. Looking at the impact of metronomic approaches that have been shown to be effective, it was admitted that those approaches were rarely used in clinical practice, in part because of the absence of commercial interest for companies. However, performing well-designed clinical trials of metronomic and repurposing approaches demonstrating substantial improvement, especially in populations with the greatest unmet needs, may be an easier solution than addressing the financial issue. Metronomics should always be seen as a chance to come up with new innovative

  4. Mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapeutic and anti-angiogenic drugs as novel targets for pancreatic cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tamburrino, Anna; Piro, Geny; Carbone, Carmine; Tortora, Giampaolo; Melisi, Davide

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains one of the most lethal and poorly understood human malignancies and will continue to be a major unsolved health problem in the 21st century. Despite efforts over the past three decades to improve diagnosis and treatment, the prognosis for patients with pancreatic cancer is extremely poor with or without treatment, and incidence rates are virtually identical to mortality rates. Although advances have been made through the identification of relevant molecular pathways in pancreatic cancer, there is still a critical, unmet need for the translation of these findings into effective therapeutic strategies that could reduce the intrinsic drug resistance of this disease and for the integration of these molecularly targeted agents into established combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy regimens in order to improve patients’ survival. Tumors are heterogeneous cellular entities whose growth and progression depend on reciprocal interactions between genetically altered neoplastic cells and a non-neoplastic microenvironment. To date, most of the mechanisms of resistance studied have been related to tumor cell-autonomous signaling pathways. However, recent data suggest a putative important role of tumor microenvironment in the development and maintenance of resistance to classic chemotherapeutic and targeted therapies. This present review is meant to describe and discuss some of the most important advances in the comprehension of the tumor cell-autonomous and tumor microenvironment-related molecular mechanisms responsible for the resistance of pancreatic cancer to the proapoptotic activity of the classic chemotherapeutic agents and to the most novel anti-angiogenic drugs. We present some of the emerging therapeutic targets for the modulation of this resistant phenotype. PMID:23641216

  5. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  6. Novel PI3K/AKT targeting anti-angiogenic activities of 4-vinylphenol, a new therapeutic potential of a well-known styrene metabolite

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Grace Gar-Lee; Lee, Julia Kin-Ming; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Cheng, Ling; Wong, Eric Chun-Wai; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Hua; Leung, Hoi-Wing; Wong, Yuk-Lau; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2015-01-01

    The pneumo- and hepato-toxicity of 4-vinylphenol (4VP), a styrene metabolite, has been previously reported. Nevertheless, the present study reported the novel anti-angiogenic activities of 4VP which was firstly isolated from the aqueous extract of a Chinese medicinal herb Hedyotis diffusa. Our results showed that 4VP at non-toxic dose effectively suppressed migration, tube formation, adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins, as well as protein and mRNA expressions of metalloproteinase-2 of human endothelial cells (HUVEC and HMEC-1). Investigation of the signal transduction revealed that 4VP down-regulated PI3K/AKT and p38 MAPK. Besides, 4VP interfered with the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, the translocation and expression of NFkappaB. In zebrafish embryo model, the new blood vessel growth was significantly blocked by 4VP (6.25–12.5 μg/mL medium). The VEGF-induced blood vessel formation in Matrigel plugs in C57BL/6 mice was suppressed by 4VP (20–100 μg/mL matrigel). In addition, the blood vessel number and tumor size were reduced by intraperitoneal 4VP (0.2–2 mg/kg) in 4T1 breast tumor-bearing BALB/c mice, with doxorubicin as positive control. Together, the in vitro and in vivo anti-angiogenic activities of 4VP were demonstrated for the first time. These findings suggest that 4VP has great potential to be further developed as an anti-angiogenic agent. PMID:26053458

  7. Impact of Metronomic UFT/Cyclophosphamide Chemotherapy and Antiangiogenic Drug Assessed in a New Preclinical Model of Locally Advanced Orthotopic Hepatocellular Carcinoma1

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Terence C; Man, Shan; Lee, Christina R; Xu, Ping; Kerbel, Robert S

    2010-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an intrinsically chemotherapy refractory malignancy. Development of effective therapeutic regimens would be facilitated by improved preclinical HCC models. Currently, most models consist of subcutaneous human tumor transplants in immunodeficient mice; however, these do not reproduce the extensive liver disease associated with HCC or metastasize. To address this deficiency, we developed an orthotopic model. Human HCC cells were transfected with the gene encoding secretable β-subunit human choriogonadotropin (β-hCG), which was used as a surrogate marker of tumor burden. The HCC cells were implanted into the left liver lobe of severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice, after which the efficacy of different therapies was evaluated on established, but liver-confined human Hep3B cell line HCC. Treatments included sorafenib or metronomic chemotherapy using cyclophosphamide (CTX), UFT, an oral 5-fluorouracil prodrug, or doxorubicin either alone or in various combinations, with or without an antiangiogenic agent, DC101, an anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 antibody. Sorafenib inhibited tumor growth in a dose-dependent manner but caused severe weight loss in SCID mice, thus necessitating use of DC101 in subsequent experiments. Although less toxicity was observed using either single or doublet metronomic chemotherapy without any added antiangiogenic agent, none, provided survival benefit. In contrast, significantly improved overall survival was observed using various combinations of metronomic chemotherapy regimens such as UFT + CTX with DC101. In conclusion, using this model of liver-confined but advanced HCC suggests that the efficacy of a targeted antiangiogenic drug or metronomic chemotherapy can be mutually enhanced by concurrent combination treatment. PMID:20234820

  8. An immature B cell population from peripheral blood serves as surrogate marker for monitoring tumor angiogenesis and anti-angiogenic therapy in mouse models.

    PubMed

    Fagiani, Ernesta; Bill, Ruben; Pisarsky, Laura; Ivanek, Robert; Rüegg, Curzio; Christofori, Gerhard

    2015-07-01

    Tumor growth depends on the formation of new blood vessels (tumor angiogenesis) either from preexisting vessels or by the recruitment of bone marrow-derived cells. Despite encouraging results obtained with preclinical cancer models, the therapeutic targeting of tumor angiogenesis has thus far failed to deliver an enduring clinical response in cancer patients. One major obstacle for improving anti-angiogenic therapy is the lack of validated biomarkers, which allow patient stratification for suitable treatment and a rapid assessment of therapy response. Toward these goals, we have employed several mouse models of tumor angiogenesis to identify cell populations circulating in their blood that correlated with the extent of tumor angiogenesis and therapy response. Flow cytometry analyses of different combinations of cell surface markers that define subsets of bone marrow-derived cells were performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tumor-bearing and healthy mice. We identified one cell population, CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low), that was increased in levels during active tumor angiogenesis in a variety of transgenic and syngeneic transplantation mouse models of cancer. Treatment with various anti-angiogenic drugs did not affect CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low) cells in healthy mice, whereas in tumor-bearing mice, a consistent reduction in their levels was observed. Gene expression profiling of CD45(dim)VEGFR1(-)CD31(low) cells characterized these cells as an immature B cell population. These immature B cells were then directly validated as surrogate marker for tumor angiogenesis and of pharmacologic responses to anti-angiogenic therapies in various mouse models of cancer. PMID:26021306

  9. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, J.E.; Jamieson, D.R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula shown in the diagram wherein R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] each independently is H, C[sub 1-4]-alkyl, C[sub 1-4]-alkoxy, Cl or Br, or R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R[sub 1] and R[sub 2] are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1--3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1--3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  10. Bismaleimide compounds

    DOEpatents

    Adams, Johnnie E.; Jamieson, Donald R.

    1986-01-14

    Bismaleimides of the formula ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 each independently is H, C.sub.1-4 -alkyl, C.sub.1-4 -alkoxy, C1 or Br, or R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 together form a fused 6-membered hydrocarbon aromatic ring, with the proviso that R.sub.1 and R.sub.2 are not t-butyl or t-butoxy; X is O, S or Se; n is 1-3; and the alkylene bridging group, optionally, is substituted by 1-3 methyl groups or by fluorine, form polybismaleimide resins which have valuable physical properties. Uniquely, these compounds permit extended cure times, i.e., they remain fluid for a time sufficient to permit the formation of a homogeneous melt prior to curing.

  11. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  12. New compounds able to control hepatic cholesterol metabolism: Is it possible to avoid statin treatment in aged people?

    PubMed Central

    Trapani, Laura; Segatto, Marco; Pallottini, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    Aging is characterized by the loss of homeostasis that leads to changes in the biochemical composition of tissues, reduced ability to respond adaptively to environmental stimuli, and increased susceptibility and vulnerability to diseases including coronary artery diseases, carotid artery disease and brain vessel disease. Hypercholesterolemia is one of the primary risk factors for these pathologies, whose incidence is highly related to aging. Almost 25% of men and 42% of women older than 65 years have a serum total cholesterol level greater than 240 mg/dL. The mechanisms behind this age-related increase in plasma cholesterol are still incompletely understood, thus, the control of plasma cholesterol content in aged people is more challenging than in adults. In this review the different pharmacological approaches to reduce plasma cholesterol levels, particularly in aged people, will be discussed. In brief, current therapies are mostly based on the prescription of statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors) that are pretty effective but that exert several side effects. More attention should be given to potential drug interactions, potential age-related changes in drug pharmacokinetics, adverse effects such as myopathy and competing risks when statins are prescribed to old patients. In combination or in alternative to statin therapy, other agents might be required to reduce low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. Among the available drugs, the most commonly prescribed are those addressed to reduce cholesterol absorption, to modulate lipoprotein lipase activity and bile acid sequestrants: even these pharmacological interventions are not exempt from side effects. The use of antioxidants or organoselenium compounds and the discovery of new proteins able to modulate exclusively LDL receptor recycling such as Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin 9 and SEC24 offer new pharmacological approaches to selectively reduce the main causes of

  13. The Efficacy of Combining Antiangiogenic Agents with Chemotherapy for Patients with Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Who Failed First-Line Chemotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bijun; Zhang, Yaxiong; Kang, Shiyang; Zhou, Ting; Hong, Shaodong; Qin, Tao; Hu, Zhihuang; Fang, Wenfeng; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Background The clinical outcomes of patients with NSCLC who progressed after first-line treatments remain poor. The purpose of this study was to assess the advantage of antiangiogenic therapy plus standard treatment versus standard treatment alone for this population of patients. Methods We conducted a rigorous search using electronic databases for eligible studies reporting antiangiogenic therapy combined with standard second-line chemotherapy versus standard second-line treatment for patient who progressed after front-line treatment. Pooled risk ratio and 95% confidence intervals were calculated using proper statistical method. Predefined subgroup analyses were conducted to identify the potential proper patients. Results Thirteen phase II/III RCTs which involved a total of 8358 participants were included. Overall, there was significant improvement in OS (HR 0.94, 95%CI: 0.89-0.99, p=0.03), PFS (HR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.76-0.84, p<0.00001), ORR (RR 1.75, 95%CI: 1.55-1.98, p<0.00001) and DCR (RR 1.23, 95%CI: 1.18-1.28, p<0.00001) in the group with antiangiogenic therapy plus standard treatment versus the group with standard treatment alone. Subgroup analysis showed that OS benefit was presented only in patients treated with docetaxel plus antiangiogenic agents (HR 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86-0.99, p=0.02) and patients with non-squamous NSCLC (HR for OS 0.92, 95%CI: 0.86-0.99, p=0.02). Conclusions This study revealed that the addition of antiangiogenic agents to the standard treatments could provide clinical benefit to NSCLC patients who failed their first-line therapy. Furthermore, proper selection of the combined standard cytotoxic agent, as well as the patient population by tumor histology, is warranted for future studies and clinical application of antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26034985

  14. Efficacy of Addition of Antiangiogenic Agents to Taxanes-Containing Chemotherapy in Advanced Nonsmall-Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Jin; Yang, Yun-Peng; Yang, Bi-Jun; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Yu-Xiang; Hong, Shao-Dong; Zhang, Ya-Xiong; Zhao, Hong-Yun; Huang, Yan; Zhang, Li

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Preclinical researches indicated a potential synergistic effect of taxanes-containing chemotherapy (TCC) and antiangiogenic agents (AAs) on the treatment of advanced nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The advantage of adding AA to TCC in the real world remains confusing. We summarized the current evidences from relevant phase II/III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) by performing this meta-analyses. Electronic databases were searched for eligible literatures. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for outcomes were calculated using RevMan 5.2. A total of 14 phase II/III RCTs involving 9703 participants were included. Compared to standard TCC, the addition of AA was associated with the significant better OS (HR 0.92, 95% CI 0.87–0.97, P = 0.002), prolonged progression-free survival (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.71–0.87, P < 0.00001), superior response rate (risk ratio [RR] 1.69, 95% CI 1.47–1.95, P < 0.0001), and disease control rate (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08–1.32, P < 0.00001). Subgroup analyses indicated that patient treated with monoclonal antibodies (HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.82–0.96, P = 0.02) as well as application in second-line (HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.85–0.96, P = 0.02) acquired significant OS improvement. Other clinical factors directing significant OS improvement by the combination strategy included nonsquamous cancer (P = 0.002), nonsmokers (P = 0.0005), and female (P = 0.02). Toxicities were greater but generally mild or moderate in the combination group, and were mostly manageable. In summary, the addition of AAs to TCC could improve prognosis of advanced NSCLC. Furthermore, proper selection of patient population and AAs is crucial for clinical trials design and clinical practice in the future. PMID:26252298

  15. Anti-angiogenic action of PPARγ ligand in human umbilical vein endothelial cells is mediated by PTEN upregulation and VEGFR-2 downregulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Young; Ahn, Jin Hee; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong

    2011-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation has anti-angiogenic and apoptotic effects in endothelial cells. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of the anti-angiogenic action of a novel PPARγ ligand, KR-62980. KR-62980 inhibited in vitro basal tube formation and in vivo neovascularization in mice induced by Matrigel containing vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF(165), 5 ng/ml). VEGF(165)-induced cell proliferation and chemotactic migration in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were also suppressed by KR-62980, in a mechanism accompanied by apoptotic cell death. KR-62980 downregulated the VEGF(165)-induced VEGFR-2 expression but increased the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) expression in parallel with reduced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), PI3K p85α, and p38 MAPK. The knockdown of PTEN expression abolished KR-62980-suppressed cell proliferation and angiogenesis. All of the effects of KR-62980 disappeared with pretreatment of bisphenol A diaglycidyl ether (BADGE), a PPARγ antagonist. In summary, KR-62980 inhibited VEGF(165)-induced angiogenesis in HUVECs by PPARγ-mediated dual mechanisms: VEGFR-2 downregulation and PTEN upregulation.

  16. Immunoglobulin Fc domain fusion to apolipoprotein(a) kringle V significantly prolongs plasma half-life without affecting its anti-angiogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hyun-Kyung; Lee, Ho-Jeong; Ahn, Jin-Hyung; Lim, In-Hwan; Moon, Jae-Hoon; Yoon, Yeup; Yi, Lee S H; Kim, Sun Jin; Kim, Jang-Seong

    2013-06-01

    Angiogenesis is crucial for tumor growth and metastasis. Blocking this process is, therefore, a potentially powerful approach for the treatment of cancer. Human apolipoprotein(a) kringle V (rhLK8) is an angiogenesis inhibitor and is currently under development as an anti-cancer therapeutic. However, a relatively short in vivo half-life limits its widespread clinical use. This study was performed to evaluate whether fusion of an Fc domain to rhLK8 can extend plasma half-life. RhLK8-Fc fusion protein was expressed in CHO DG44 cells as a dimer and was readily purified by protein G affinity chromatography. The anti-angiogenic activity of rhLK8-Fc was similar to that of rhLK8, as determined by migration and tube formation assays with endothelial cells in vitro and a chorioallantoic membrane assay in vivo. Pharmacokinetic profiles in mice after single intravenous administration of rhLK8 or rhLK8-Fc showed that Fc fusion significantly increased the elimination half-life (t(½)) and the systemic exposure (AUC(inf)) of the protein, in parallel with a significant decrease in total clearance (CL). These data suggest that Fc fusion to rhLK8 is a powerful strategy for extending the plasma half-life of rhLK8 without affecting its anti-angiogenic activity, and could thus improve the clinical applicability of rhLK8.

  17. Inhibition of STAT3 signaling and induction of SHP1 mediate antiangiogenic and antitumor activities of ergosterol peroxide in U266 multiple myeloma cells

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ergosterol peroxide (EP) derived from edible mushroom has been shown to exert anti-tumor activity in several cancer cells. In the present study, anti-angiogenic activity of EP was investigated with the underlying molecular mechanisms in human multiple myeloma U266 cells. Results Despite weak cytotoxicity against U266 cells, EP suppressed phosphorylation, DNA binding activity and nuclear translocalization of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in U266 cells at nontoxic concentrations. Also, EP inhibited phosphorylation of the upstream kinases Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) and Src in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EP increased the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 at protein and mRNA levels, and conversely silencing of the SHP-1 gene clearly blocked EP-mediated STAT3 inactivation. In addition, EP significantly decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), one of STAT3 target genes at cellular and protein levels as well as disrupted in vitro tube formation assay. Moreover, EP significantly suppressed the growth of U266 cells inoculated in female BALB/c athymic nude mice and immunohistochemistry revealed that EP effectively reduced the expression of STAT3 and CD34 in tumor sections compared to untreated control. Conclusion These findings suggest that EP can exert antitumor activity in multiple myeloma U266 cells partly with antiangiogenic activity targeting JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway as a potent cancer preventive agent for treatment of multiple myeloma cells. PMID:22260501

  18. A pilot trial of the anti-angiogenic copper lowering agent tetrathiomolybdate in combination with irinotecan, 5-flurouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Kent A.; Pan, Quintin; Brewer, George J.; Henja, Gwen F.; Merajver, Sofia D.; Zalupski, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Tetrathiomolybdate (TM) is an oral copper chelator under development as an anti-angiogenic agent. We evaluated TM in combination with irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL). Serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-8 were measured to evaluate the anti-angiogenic effect. Twenty-four patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were treated. The combination with IFL was well tolerated and dose intensity of IFL was maintained during combination therapy with TM. By intention to treat analysis, the overall response rate (RR) was 25% (95% CI 9.8–46.7) and the median time to progression (TTP) was 5.6 months (95% CI 2.7–7.7). VEGF levels were correlated with TTP, as were changes in VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6. TM can be safely added to IFL without compromising dose intensity or diminishing the expected RR. Changes in serum VEGF, IL-8, and IL-6 after treatment may directly reflect changes in CRC tissue angiogenesis. PMID:18712502

  19. [Antiangiogenic treatment of cancer].

    PubMed

    Mauriz, José L; Linares, Pedro; González, Paquita; Culebras, Jesús M

    2005-07-01

    The process of formation of new vessels from pre-existing capillaries is called angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a complex process which involves distinct cells, soluble components and factors related to the extra-cellular matrix and which is highly important in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes in the body. Angiogenesis regulation takes place through a perfect equilibrium between the production and release of different stimulatory and inhibitory factors which vary in relation to needs and tissue types. A large number of diseases are characterized by alterations in the angiogenic process, either by an insufficiency or by excessive angiogenesis. The requirement of blood vessel proliferation for tumor growth was observed more than a century ago. Angiogenic treatment would have an indirect antitumoral action, inhibiting tumor vascularization and impairing the supply of essential nutrients for tumoral growth and development.

  20. Anti-angiogenic VEGFA164B isoform mRNA is more abundant in E2-inactive, atretic follicles while expression of angiogenic VEGFA isoforms is greater in granulosa cells from developing bovine follicles prior to the LH surge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) is expressed by granulosa cells of the follicle and if its actions are blocked, ovulation and antral follicle development is inhibited. However, the role of anti-angiogenic VEGFA isoforms in bovine dominant follicle development, especially prior to and a...

  1. Upregulation of miRNA3195 and miRNA374b Mediates the Anti-Angiogenic Properties of Melatonin in Hypoxic PC-3 Prostate Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Eun Jung; Won, Gunho; Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Sangyoon; Kim, Sung-hoon

    2015-01-01

    Recently microRNAs (miRNAs) have been attractive targets with their key roles in biological regulation through post-transcription to control mRNA stability and protein translation. Though melatonin was known as an anti-angiogenic agent, the underlying mechanism of melatonin in PC-3 prostate cancer cells under hypoxia still remains unclear. Thus, in the current study, we elucidated the important roles of miRNAs in melatonin-induced anti-angiogenic activity in hypoxic PC-3 cells. miRNA array revealed that 33 miRNAs (>2 folds) including miRNA3195 and miRNA 374b were significantly upregulated and 16 miRNAs were downregulated in melatonin-treated PC-3 cells under hypoxia compared to untreated control. Melatonin significantly attenuated the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1 alpha, HIF-2 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) at mRNA level in hypoxic PC-3 cells. Consistently, melatonin enhanced the expression of miRNA3195 and miRNA 374b in hypoxic PC-3 cells by qRT-PCR analysis. Of note, overexpression of miRNA3195 and miRNA374b mimics attenuated the mRNA levels of angiogenesis related genes such as HIF-1alpha, HIF-2 alpha and VEGF in PC-3 cells under hypoxia. Furthermore, overexpression of miRNA3195 and miRNA374b suppressed typical angiogenic protein VEGF at the protein level and VEGF production induced by melatonin, while antisense oligonucleotides against miRNA 3195 or miRNA 374b did not affect VEGF production induced by melatonin. Also, overexpression of miR3195 or miR374b reduced HIF-1 alpha immunofluorescent expression in hypoxic PC-3 compared to untreated control. Overall, our findings suggest that upregulation of miRNA3195 and miRNA374b mediates anti-angiogenic property induced by melatonin in hypoxic PC-3 cells. PMID:25553085

  2. Anti-angiogenic activity of VXM01, an oral T-cell vaccine against VEGF receptor 2, in patients with advanced pancreatic cancer: A randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 1 trial

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz-Winnenthal, Friedrich H; Hohmann, Nicolas; Niethammer, Andreas G; Friedrich, Tobias; Lubenau, Heinz; Springer, Marco; Breiner, Klaus M; Mikus, Gerd; Weitz, Jürgen; Ulrich, Alexis; Buechler, Markus W; Pianka, Frank; Klaiber, Ulla; Diener, Markus; Leowardi, Christine; Schimmack, Simon; Sisic, Leila; Keller, Anne-Valerie; Koc, Ruhan; Springfeld, Christoph; Knebel, Philipp; Schmidt, Thomas; Ge, Yingzi; Bucur, Mariana; Stamova, Slava; Podola, Lilli; Haefeli, Walter E; Grenacher, Lars; Beckhove, Philipp

    2015-01-01

    VEGFR-2 is expressed on tumor vasculature and a target for anti-angiogenic intervention. VXM01 is a first in kind orally applied tumor vaccine based on live, attenuated Salmonella bacteria carrying an expression plasmid, encoding VEGFR-2. We here studied the safety, tolerability, T effector (Teff), T regulatory (Treg) and humoral responses to VEGFR2 and anti-angiogenic effects in advanced pancreatic cancer patients in a randomized, dose escalation phase I clinical trial. Results of the first 3 mo observation period are reported. Locally advanced or metastatic, pancreatic cancer patients were enrolled. In five escalating dose groups, 30 patients received VXM01 and 15 placebo on days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Treatment was well tolerated at all dose levels. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed. Salmonella excretion and salmonella-specific humoral immune responses occurred in the two highest dose groups. VEGFR2 specific Teff, but not Treg responses were overall increased in vaccinated patients. We furthermore observed a significant reduction of tumor perfusion after 38 d in vaccinated patients together with increased levels of serum biomarkers indicative of anti-angiogenic activity, VEGF-A, and collagen IV. Vaccine specific Teff responses significantly correlated with reductions of tumor perfusion and high levels of preexisting VEGFR2-specific Teff while those showing no antiangiogenic activity had low levels of preexisting VEGFR2 specific Teff, showed a transient early increase of VEGFR2-specific Treg and reduced levels of VEGFR2-specific Teff at later time points – pointing to the possibility that early anti-angiogenic activity might be based at least in part on specific reactivation of preexisting memory T cells. PMID:26137397

  3. Investigating the effects of combined photodynamic and anti-angiogenic therapies using a three-dimensional in-vivo brain tumor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Magalhães, Nzola; Liaw, Lih-Huei L.; Li, Linda; Liogys, Angela; Madsen, Steen J.; Hirschberg, Henry; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2006-02-01

    An in-vivo tumor model composed of multicellular human glioma spheroids implanted on a shell-less chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), has been developed. Following removal of a portion of the ectodermal epithelium layer of the CAM, human glioma spheroids were implanted on day 7 of embryonic development. Tumor invasion, rapid growth and vasculature formation were observed 7 days post implantation. Single tumor cell migration towards blood vessels, angiogenesis and satellite tumor growth were also evident. The human tumor/CAM model is being used to examine the effects of combined ALA PDT and anti-angiogenic agents. The shell-less CAM is well suited for topical, i.p. and i.v. photosensitizer and/or drug application.

  4. Pleiotropic Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Oncogenic Activities of the Novel Mithralog Demycarosyl-3D-ß-D-Digitoxosyl-Mithramycin SK (EC-8042).

    PubMed

    Fernández-Guizán, Azahara; López-Soto, Alejandro; Acebes-Huerta, Andrea; Huergo-Zapico, Leticia; Villa-Álvarez, Mónica; Núñez, Luz-Elena; Morís, Francisco; Gonzalez, Segundo

    2015-01-01

    Demycarosyl-3D-ß-D-digitoxosyl-mithramycin SK (DIG-MSK) is a recently isolated analogue of mithramycin A (MTA) that showed differences with MTA in the DNA binding strength and selectivity. These differences correlated with a better therapeutic index and less toxicity in animal studies. Herein, we show that DIG-MSK displays a potent anti-tumor activity against different types of cancer cell lines, ovarian tumor cells being particularly sensitive to this drug. Of relevance, DIG-MSK exerts low toxicity on fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, this toxicity being significantly lower than that of MTA. In correlation with its antitumor activity, DIG-MSK strongly inhibited Sp1-mediated transcription and endogenous Sp1 mRNA expression, which correlated with the inhibition of the expression of key Sp1-regulated genes involved in tumorigenesis, including VEGFA, BCL2L1 (Bcl-XL), hTERT, BRCA2, MYC and SRC in several ovarian cells. Significantly, DIG-MSK was a stronger inhibitor of VEGFA expression than MTA. Accordingly, DIG-MSK also exhibited potent anti-angiogenic activity on microvascular endothelial cells. Likewise, it significantly inhibited the gene expression of VEGFR1, VEGFR2, FGFR, PDGFB and PDGFRA and, additionally, it induced the expression of the anti-angiogenic factors angiostatin and tunstatin. These effects correlated with a pro-apoptotic effect on proliferating microvascular endothelial cells and the inhibition of the formation of endothelial capillary structures. Overall, the pleiotropic activity of DIG-MSK in inhibiting key oncogenic and angiogenic pathways, together with its low toxicity profile, highlight the therapeutic potential of this new drug. PMID:26536461

  5. Monte Carlo study of the dose enhancement effect of gold nanoparticles during X-ray therapies and evaluation of the anti-angiogenic effect on tumour capillary vessels.

    PubMed

    Amato, Ernesto; Italiano, Antonio; Leotta, Salvatore; Pergolizzi, Stefano; Torrisi, Lorenzo

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are a promising radiosensitizer agent in radiotherapy. Through a simulation performed with the Geant4 Monte Carlo code, we evaluated the dose enhancement effect of GNPs during therapies with an x-ray tube operating at 150 kV (E = 55 keV and E(max) = 150 keV) and we studied the impact of GNP diffusion out of the tumour vessels, in terms of antiangiogenic and cytotoxic effects. Firstly, a single x-ray beam was assumed to irradiate a parallelepiped volume of soft tissue, in which a GNP-doped "target" volume was placed at different depths. Average dose enhancement factors (DEF) in presence of GNPs were obtained as a function of the target depth and GNP concentration, uniformly distributed; values ranging between 1.6 for 10 mg Au/g at 0 cm and 7.2 for 200 mg Au/g at 5 cm were determined. Furtherly, a second geometry was adopted, in which a blood capillary vessel (10 μm thick and 10 μm of inner radius) was placed at the centre of a cubic volume of soft tissue; doses and DEFs to the capillary endothelium as well as to the surrounding viable tumour were evaluated, for different models of GNP diffusion. Our results indicate that the radial DEF profiles around the vessel are in close relationship with the radial profiles of GNP concentration assumed, except for at sharp gradients of concentration. DEFs at the endothelium ranged from 1.6 to 6.5, for GNP concentrations in the blood of 10 and 200 mg/ml, respectively. These data can be helpful for the development of new and more specific GNP-based radiosensitizers of potential interest in radiotherapy, exploiting the combined benefit of anti-angiogenic and cytotoxic dose enhancement effects. PMID:23694913

  6. Imaging anti-angiogenic treatment response with DCE-VCT, DCE-MRI and DWI in an animal model of breast cancer bone metastasis.

    PubMed

    Bäuerle, Tobias; Bartling, Sönke; Berger, Martin; Schmitt-Gräff, Annette; Hilbig, Heidegard; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Delorme, Stefan; Kiessling, Fabian

    2010-02-01

    As current classification systems for the assessment of treatment response in bone metastasis do not meet the needs of oncologists, new imaging biomarkers are desirable. Therefore, the diagnostic impact of dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE)-volumetric computed tomography (VCT) (descriptive analysis), DCE-MRI (two-compartment model) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for monitoring anti-angiogenic therapy effects of the VEGF antibody bevacizumab in breast cancer bone metastases in rats was studied. Nude rats (n=8 animals treated with bevacizumab and n=9 untreated control rats) with site-specific osteolytic bone metastasis of the hind leg were imaged with a 1.5T clinical MRI-scanner in an animal coil as well as in a volumetric CT-scanner at days 30, 40, 50 and 60 after inoculation of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. From these data, osteolytic lesion size (OLS), peak enhancement (PE), area under the curve (AUC), amplitude (A), exchange rate constant (k(ep)) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were determined in bone metastases. Prior to changes in OLS (p< or =0.05 at days 50 and 60) there was already a significant decrease in PE, AUC and A (p< or =0.05 at days 40-60) in treated animals compared to controls. However, for k(ep) and ADC there were no significant differences between the groups at any time point (p>0.05 at days 40-60). In conclusion, anti-angiogenic treatment response in osteolytic breast cancer bone metastases can be assessed early with surrogate markers of vascularization, while DWI appears to be insensitive.

  7. Vicrostatin - an anti-invasive multi-integrin targeting chimeric disintegrin with tumor anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic activities.

    PubMed

    Minea, Radu O; Helchowski, Corey M; Zidovetzki, Samuel J; Costa, Fritz K; Swenson, Stephen D; Markland, Francis S

    2010-06-03

    Similar to other integrin-targeting strategies, disintegrins have previously shown good efficacy in animal cancer models with favorable pharmacological attributes and translational potential. Nonetheless, these polypeptides are notoriously difficult to produce recombinantly due to their particular structure requiring the correct pairing of multiple disulfide bonds for biological activity. Here, we show that a sequence-engineered disintegrin (called vicrostatin or VCN) can be reliably produced in large scale amounts directly in the oxidative cytoplasm of Origami B E. coli. Through multiple integrin ligation (i.e., alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, and alpha5beta1), VCN targets both endothelial and cancer cells significantly inhibiting their motility through a reconstituted basement membrane. Interestingly, in a manner distinct from other integrin ligands but reminiscent of some ECM-derived endogenous anti-angiogenic fragments previously described in the literature, VCN profoundly disrupts the actin cytoskeleton of endothelial cells (EC) inducing a rapid disassembly of stress fibers and actin reorganization, ultimately interfering with EC's ability to invade and form tubes (tubulogenesis). Moreover, here we show for the first time that the addition of a disintegrin to tubulogenic EC sandwiched in vitro between two Matrigel layers negatively impacts their survival despite the presence of abundant haptotactic cues. A liposomal formulation of VCN (LVCN) was further evaluated in vivo in two animal cancer models with different growth characteristics. Our data demonstrate that LVCN is well tolerated while exerting a significant delay in tumor growth and an increase in the survival of treated animals. These results can be partially explained by potent tumor anti-angiogenic and pro-apoptotic effects induced by LVCN.

  8. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy of methylnaltrexone in resolving constipation induced by different opioid subtypes combined with laboratory analysis of immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic effects of methylnaltrexone

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is one of the major symptoms in palliative care with a prevalence of 30-50%. Methylnaltrexone for the treatment of OIC is significantly more effective than placebo, but only in about fifty percent of the patients regardless of dose increase. Dose increases cause increased toxicity without additional efficacy, and are therefore not recommended. While methylnaltrexone is a μ-receptor antagonist, only a few opioids are solely μ-receptor agonists. Therefore, the response to methylnaltrexone may be determined by the receptor-profile of a specific opioid. In addition, methylnaltrexone may also affect the immune system and angiogenesis as was found in pre-clinical studies. Primary aim of this study is to determine differences in the efficacy of methylnaltrexone prescribed to resolve opioid induced constipation between three commonly used opioid subtypes: morphine sulphate, oxycodone and fentanyl. Secondary aim is to explore potential immunomodulatory and antiangiogenic effects of methylnaltrexone. Methods In this multi-center, prospective, parallel group trial we will evaluate the efficacy of methylnaltrexone in resolving OIC occurring as a side effect of the most common opioid subtypes: morphine, oxycodone and fentanyl. In total 195 patients with OIC despite prophylactic laxatives will receive methylnaltrexone every other day up to fourteen days. Patients will report its effect in a laxation diary. Group allocation is based on the opioid type the patient is using. At the start and end of the study period patients complete the Bowel Function Index questionnaire. A subgroup of the patients will donate blood for analysis of immunomodulatory- and anti-angiogenic effects of methylnaltrexone. Discussion In this study we aim to determine the efficacy of methylnaltrexone per opioid subtype to reduce constipation. We expect that the outcome of this study will improve the clinical use of methylnaltraxone. Trial registration This trial

  9. Olmesartan Potentiates the Anti-Angiogenic Effect of Sorafenib in Mice Bearing Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma: Role of Angiotensin (1–7)

    PubMed Central

    Abd-Alhaseeb, Mohammad M.; Zaitone, Sawsan A.; Abou-El-Ela, Soad H.; Moustafa, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    Local renin-angiotensin systems exist in various malignant tumor tissues; this suggests that the main effector peptide, angiotensin II, could act as a key factor in tumor growth. The underlying mechanisms for the anti-angiogenic effect of angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers need to be further evaluated. The present study was carried out to investigate the anti-angiogenic effect of olmesartan alone or in combination with sorafenib, an angiotensin (1–7) agonist or an angiotensin (1–7) antagonist in Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma-bearing mice. The tumor was induced by intradermal injection of Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells into mice. Tumor discs were used to evaluate the microvessel density; the serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I); and their intratumoral receptors, VEGF receptor-2 and IGF-I receptor, respectively. All parameters were determined following the treatment course, which lasted for 21 days post-inoculation. Monotherapy with olmesartan and its combination with sorafenib resulted in a significant reduction in microvessel density and serum levels of VEGF and IGF-I, as well as their intratumoral receptors. In addition, the combination of olmesartan (30 mg/kg) with an angiotensin (1–7) agonist reduced the microvessel density, IGF-I serum levels and the levels of its intratumoral receptor. In conclusion, olmesartan reduced the levels of the angiogenesis markers IGF-I and VEGF and down-regulated the intratumoral expression of their receptors in a dose-dependent manner, and these effects were dependent on the angiotensin (1–7) receptor. These results suggest that olmesartan is a promising adjuvant to sorafenib in the treatment of cancer. PMID:24465768

  10. The corpora lutea proangiogenic state of VEGF system components is turned to antiangiogenic at the later phase of the oestrous cycle in cows.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, A; Macías-Valencia, R; Fierro-Fierro, F; Gutiérrez, C G; Rosales-Torres, A M

    2015-02-01

    Blood vessel expansion and reduction in the corpus luteum (CL) is regulated by the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) system and linked to the maintenance of the CL. The VEGF system has both angiogenic and antiangiogenic ligands and receptors. Our objective was to evaluate the relationship between the mRNA expression of angiogenic and antiangiogenic members of the VEGF system in the CL, throughout the luteal phase of the oestrous cycle in cows. The CL of 18 cows were collected by transvaginal surgery on days 4, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 of the oestrous cycle and the mRNA expression of VEGF system components was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA expression of VEGF ligands and receptors increased (P<0.05) from the early- and mid-luteal phase (days 4 to 12) reaching its maximum expression on day 15 of the cycle. We found no expression of VEGF164b throughout the cycle. Expression of sVEGFR1 did not change during the oestrous cycle and exceeded that of the VEGFR1 by 100 times. Nonetheless, as VEGFR1 increased, the relationship between the soluble and membrane receptor decreased (P<0.01). In contrast, the expression of VEGFR2 was higher than that of its soluble isoform for all days studied, however, the ratio between the membrane-bound and its soluble counterpart decreased continuously throughout the cycle (P<0.01). Our results show that the expression levels for VEGF ligands, receptors and their antagonistic counterparts are adjusted during CL development and regression, to upregulate angiogenesis early in the oestrous cycle and restrict it at the time of luteolysis. PMID:25229247

  11. Marine compounds inhibit growth of multiple myeloma in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Normann; Ribatti, Domenico; Willenbacher, Wolfgang; Jöhrer, Karin; Kern, Johann; Marinaccio, Christian; Aracil, Miguel; García-Fernández, Luis F.; Gastl, Guenther

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The prognosis of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) is still dismal despite recent improvements achieved by introducing new therapeutic agents. However, there remains an urgent need for progress in myeloma drug development. We here show that novel marine-derived compounds can exert potent anti-myeloma activity. Experimental Design Nine marine-derived compounds were applied at low nM concentrations (0.1-100 nM) to MM cell lines (OPM-2, NCI-H929, U266, RPMI-8226), to primary human myeloma cells and to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. In addition, eGFP-transgenic MM cell lines growing with mesenchymal cells from bone marrow were used to visualize tumors by fluorescence stereomicroscopy. Anti-myelomaactivities were studied in vitro in 3D spheroids and in vivo in myeloma xenografts on chicken embryos. Tumor size was analyzed by measuring GFP content with a GFP ELISA. Anti-angiogenic activities of compounds were tested in an in vivo gelatin sponge assay with conditioned media from primary bone marrow-derived endothelial cells. Results We identified a subset of marine compounds with strong anti-myeloma activity in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, some of the compounds inhibited myeloma-related angiogenesis in the in vivo gelatin sponge assay. They merit further drug development to improve treatment options for MM. PMID:25860931

  12. Compounding in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Zdoryk, Oleksandr A; Georgiyants, Victoriya A; Gryzodub, Oleksandr I; Schnatz, Rick

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutical compounding in modern Ukraine has a rich history and goes back to ancient times. Today in the Ukraine, there is a revival of compounding practice, the opening of private compounding pharmacies, updating of legislative framework and requirements of the State Pharmacopeia of Ukraine for compounding preparations, and the introduction of Good Pharmaceutical Practice. PMID:23696172

  13. Pharmacy compounding urban legends.

    PubMed

    Kastango, Eric S

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews and clarifies a small sampling of the myths, or urban legends, about compounding. Included are comments on United sTates Pharmacopeia Chapter 797, environmental issues related to sterile compounding, and suggested resources for clarification of some of these myths. This article recommends a knowledge-based partnership between compounding pharmacists and pharmaceutical manufacturers to improve compounding activities and quality assurance methods to ensure that compounded medications are safe.

  14. Phytodegradation of organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Newman, Lee A; Reynolds, Charles M

    2004-06-01

    The phytodegradation of organic compounds can take place inside the plant or within the rhizosphere of the plant. Many different compounds and classes of compounds can be removed from the environment by this method, including solvents in groundwater, petroleum and aromatic compounds in soils, and volatile compounds in the air. Although still a relatively new area of research, there are many laboratories studying the underlying science necessary for a wide range of applications for plant-based remediation of organic contaminants.

  15. Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Microalgae in Chronic Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Talero, Elena; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Ávila-Román, Javier; Rodríguez-Luna, Azahara; Alcaide, Antonio; Motilva, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    The risk of onset of cancer is influenced by poorly controlled chronic inflammatory processes. Inflammatory diseases related to cancer development include inflammatory bowel disease, which can lead to colon cancer, or actinic keratosis, associated with chronic exposure to ultraviolet light, which can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. Chronic inflammatory states expose these patients to a number of signals with tumorigenic effects, including nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activation, pro-inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins release and ROS production. In addition, the participation of inflammasomes, autophagy and sirtuins has been demonstrated in pathological processes such as inflammation and cancer. Chemoprevention consists in the use of drugs, vitamins, or nutritional supplements to reduce the risk of developing or having a recurrence of cancer. Numerous in vitro and animal studies have established the potential colon and skin cancer chemopreventive properties of substances from marine environment, including microalgae species and their products (carotenoids, fatty acids, glycolipids, polysaccharides and proteins). This review summarizes the main mechanisms of actions of these compounds in the chemoprevention of these cancers. These actions include suppression of cell proliferation, induction of apoptosis, stimulation of antimetastatic and antiangiogenic responses and increased antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:26437418

  16. Evaluating the Potential Bioactivity of a Novel Compound ER1626

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tianling; Liu, Hongyi; Xiao, Hong; Xiang, Hua

    2014-01-01

    Background ER1626, a novel compound, is a derivate of indeno-isoquinoline ketone. This study was designed to evaluate the biological activity and potential anti-tumor mechanism of ER1626. Method MTT assay, scratch assay and flow cytometry were used to determine cell proliferation, cell migration and cell cycle distribution as well as cell apoptosis on human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and endometrial cancer Ishikawa cells. We also explored the antiangiogenic effect of ER1626 on HUVEC cells and chicken embryos. The expression of estrogen receptor protein was investigated with western-blot analysis. Results ER1626 down-regulated the expression of estrogen receptor α protein and up-regulated β protein in MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells. The value of IC50 of ER1626 on MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells were respectively 8.52 and 3.08 µmol/L. Meanwhile, ER1626 decreased VEGF secretion of MCF-7 and Ishikawa cells, disturbed the formation of VEGF-stimulated tubular structure in HUVEC cells, and inhibited the angiogenesis on the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Scratch assay revealed that ER1626 suppressed the migration of MCF-7, Ishikawa and HUVEC cells. In addition to induction tumor cell apoptosis, ER1626 arrested cell cycle in G1/G0 phase in MCF-7 cells and G2/M phase in Ishikawa cells. Conclusion In conclusion, our results demonstrated that ER1626 has favorable bioactivities to be a potential candidate against breast cancer and angiogenesis. PMID:24475135

  17. Dinitroso and polynitroso compounds

    PubMed Central

    Gowenlock, Brian G.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2005-01-01

    The growing interest in the chemistry of C-nitroso compounds (RN=O; R = alkyl or aryl group) is due in part to the recognition of their participation in various metabolic processes of nitrogen-containing compounds. C-Nitroso compounds have a rich organic chemistry in their own right, displaying interesting intra- and intermolecular dimerization processes and addition reactions with unsaturated compounds. In addition, they have a fascinating coordination chemistry. While most of the attention has been directed towards C-nitroso compounds containing a single –NO moiety, there is an emerging area of research dealing with dinitroso and polynitroso compounds. In this critical review, we present and discuss the synthetic routes and properties of these relatively unexplored dinitroso and polynitroso compounds, and suggest areas of further development involving these compounds. (126 references.) PMID:16100619

  18. Compounds affecting cholesterol absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy H. (Inventor); Koo, Sung I. (Inventor); Noh, Sang K. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A class of novel compounds is described for use in affecting lymphatic absorption of cholesterol. Compounds of particular interest are defined by Formula I: ##STR1## or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  19. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy. PMID:25635250

  20. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy.

  1. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy. PMID:25635250

  2. Regulating compounding pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Noble, Ashley

    2015-06-01

    (1) The Pew Charitable Trusts identified 27 compounding incidents that resulted in 89 deaths since 2001. (2) Unlike drug manufacturers, compounding pharmacies are generally not required to report adverse events associated with their products to the FDA. (3) Federal law on drug compounding was updated in 2013 to create a new group of compounders called "outsourcing facilities." Over 50 facilities in 23 states are now registered with the FDA.

  3. ICAM-1-Targeted, Lcn2 siRNA-Encapsulating Liposomes are Potent Anti-angiogenic Agents for Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Peng; Yang, Jiang; Jia, Di; Moses, Marsha A.; Auguste, Debra T.

    2016-01-01

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is a promising therapeutic target as well as a potential diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer. It has been previously shown to promote breast cancer progression by inducing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells as well as by enhancing angiogenesis. Lcn2 levels in urine and tissue samples of breast cancer patients has also been correlated with breast cancer status and poor patient prognosis. In this study, we have engineered a novel liposomal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system to target triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) via a recently identified molecular target, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This ICAM-1-targeted, Lcn2 siRNA- encapsulating liposome (ICAM-Lcn2-LP) binds human TNBC MDA-MB-231cells significantly stronger than non-neoplastic MCF-10A cells. Efficient Lcn2 knockdown by ICAM-Lcn2-LPs led to a significant reduction in the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from MDA-MB-231 cells, which, in turn, led to reduced angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Angiogenesis (neovascularization) is a requirement for solid tumor growth and progression, and its inhibition is an important therapeutic strategy for human cancers. Our results indicate that a tumor-specific strategy such as the TNBC-targeted, anti-angiogenic therapeutic approach developed here, may be clinically useful in inhibiting TNBC progression. PMID:26722369

  4. 9:00-9:15. Antiangiogenic Treatment with Endostatin Results in Uncoupling of Blood Flow and Glucose Metabolism in Human Tumors.

    PubMed

    Mullani; Herbst; Abbruzzese; Charnsangavej; Kim; Tran; Barron; Lamki; Gould

    2000-07-01

    Endostatin is a novel antiangiogenic agent currently in phase I trials. In the context of this trial, we are evaluating the use of non-invasive imaging with PET to determine the relationship between tumor blood flow and glucose metabolism in imaged tumors from treated patients.Ten patients have been treated with escalating daily iv Endostatin doses of 30 to 180 mg/m(2). PET images were obtained before the start of therapy and again after 28 days of treatment. Each patient was scanned with Oxygen-15 labeled water for estimation of tumor blood flow and Flourine-18 labeled FDG to estimate tumor metabolic activity. In most cases, two distinct tumor-bearing sites were analyzed in each patient. Thus, a total of 19 tumors were imaged. Regional blood flow and standard uptake values (SUV) were computed at baseline and 28 days post treatment and the percentage change in blood flow and SUV plotted as a function of Endostatin dose.Both blood flow and glucose metabolism in the imaged tumors were observed to increase in patients treated with

  5. Phenylboronic acid-sugar grafted polymer architecture as a dual stimuli-responsive gene carrier for targeted anti-angiogenic tumor therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinhwan; Lee, Yeong Mi; Kim, Hyunwoo; Park, Dongsik; Kim, Jihoon; Kim, Won Jong

    2016-01-01

    We present a cationic polymer architecture composed of phenylboronic acid (PBA), sugar-installed polyethylenimine (PEI), and polyethylene glycol (PEG). The chemical bonding of PBA with the diol in the sugar enabled the crosslinking of low-molecular-weight (MW) PEI to form high-MW PEI, resulting in strong interaction with anionic DNA for gene delivery. Inside the cell, the binding of PBA and sugar was disrupted by either acidic endosomal pH or intracellular ATP, so gene payloads were released effectively. This dual stimuli-responsive gene release drove the polymer to deliver DNA for high transfection efficiency with low cytotoxicity. In addition, PBA moiety with PEGylation facilitated the binding of polymer/DNA polyplexes to sialylated glycoprotein which is overexpressed on the tumor cell membrane, and thus provided high tumor targeting ability. Therapeutic application of our polymer was demonstrated as an anti-angiogenic gene delivery agent for tumor growth inhibition. Our judicious designed polymer structure based on PBA provides enormous potential as a gene delivery agent for effective gene therapy by stimuli-responsiveness and tumor targeting.

  6. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of diosgenin isolated from traditional medicinal plant, Costus speciosus (Koen ex.Retz.) Sm.

    PubMed

    Selim, Samy; Al Jaouni, Soad

    2016-08-01

    Costus speciosus is an important medicinal plant widely used in several indigenous medicinal formulations. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antiangiogenic activities of diosgenin isolated from C. speciosus. The diosgenin was isolated from C. speciosus by HPTLC and its biological activities were studied by different protocols. The results demonstrated that LPS stimulated TNF-α generation in RAW 264.7 macrophage culture supernatant up to 3.7-fold of the control and that sample treatment (50 μg/mL) resulted in a highly significant inhibitory effect on LPS-stimulated TNF-α (p < 0.01) in a similar manner to methotrexate inhibitory effect. The tested sample possessed an effective antioxidant scavenging affinity against DPPH radicals as compared with the standard antioxidant activity of vitamin C. The results presented here may suggest that diosgenin isolated from C. speciosus possess anticancer, apoptotic and inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. PMID:26222585

  7. Anti-tumoral, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic efficacy of a tetravalent bispecific antibody (TAvi6) targeting VEGF-A and angiopoietin-2.

    PubMed

    Scheuer, Werner; Thomas, Markus; Hanke, Petra; Sam, Johannes; Osl, Franz; Weininger, Diana; Baehner, Monika; Seeber, Stefan; Kettenberger, Hubert; Schanzer, Jürgen; Brinkmann, Ulrich; Weidner, K Michael; Regula, Jörg; Klein, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A blockade has been validated clinically as a treatment for human cancers. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is a key regulator of blood vessel remodeling and maturation. In tumors, Ang-2 is up-regulated and an unfavorable prognostic factor. Recent data demonstrated that Ang-2 inhibition mediates anti-tumoral effects. We generated a tetravalent bispecific antibody (Ang-2-VEGF-TAvi6) targeting VEGF-A with 2 arms based on bevacizumab (Avastin®), and targeting Ang-2 with 2 arms based on a novel anti-Ang-2 antibody (LC06). The two Ang-2-targeting single-chain variable fragments are disulfide-stabilized and fused to the C-terminus of the heavy chain of bevacizumab. Treatment with Ang-2-VEGF-A-TAvi6 led to a complete abrogation of angiogenesis in the cornea micropocket assay. Metastatic spread and tumor growth of subcutaneous, orthotopic and anti-VEGF-A resistant tumors were also efficiently inhibited. These data further establish Ang-2-VEGF bispecific antibodies as a promising anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic and anti-tumor agent for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26864324

  8. In vitro and in vivo antiangiogenic activity of a novel deca-peptide derived from human tissue-type plasminogen activator kringle 2

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Li; Xu, Xun; Zhao, Hui; Gu, Qing; Zou, Haidong

    2010-06-11

    A synthetic deca-peptide corresponding to the amino acid sequence Arg{sup 54}-Trp{sup 63} of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) kringle 2 domain, named TKII-10, is produced and tested for its ability to inhibit endothelial cell proliferation, migration, tube formation in vitro, and angiogenesis in vivo. At the same time, another peptide TKII-10S composed of the same 10 amino acids as TKII-10, but in a different sequence, is also produced and tested. The results show that TKII-10 potently inhibits VEGF-stimulated endothelial cell migration and tube formation in a dose-dependent, as well as sequence-dependent, manner in vitro while it is inactive in inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, TKII-10 potently inhibits angiogenesis in chick chorioallantoic membrane and mouse cornea. The middle four amino acids DGDA in their sequence play an important role in TKII-10 angiogenesis inhibition{sub .} These results suggest that TKII-10 is a novel angiogenesis inhibitor that may serve as a prototype for antiangiogenic drug development.

  9. Powerful anti-tumor and anti-angiogenic activity of a new anti-vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 peptide in colorectal cancer models.

    PubMed

    Cicatiello, Valeria; Apicella, Ivana; Tudisco, Laura; Tarallo, Valeria; Formisano, Luigi; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Kim, Younghee; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Orlandi, Augusto; Ambati, Jayakrishna; Ruvo, Menotti; Bianco, Roberto; De Falco, Sandro

    2015-04-30

    To assess the therapeutic outcome of selective block of VEGFR1, we have evaluated the activity of a new specific antagonist of VEGFR1, named iVR1 (inhibitor of VEGFR1), in syngenic and xenograft colorectal cancer models, in an artificial model of metastatization, and in laser-induced choroid neovascularization. iVR1 inhibited tumor growth and neoangiogenesis in both models of colorectal cancer, with an extent similar to that of bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody anti-VEGF-A. It potently inhibited VEGFR1 phosphorylation in vivo, determining a strong inhibition of the recruitment of monocyte-macrophages and of mural cells as confirmed, in vitro, by the ability to inhibit macrophages migration. iVR1 was able to synergize with irinotecan determining a shrinkage of tumors that became undetectable after three weeks of combined treatment. Such treatment induced a significant prolongation of survival similar to that observed with bevacizumab and irinotecan combination. iVR1 also fully prevented lung invasion by HCT-116 cells injected in mouse tail vein. Also, iVR1 impressively inhibited choroid neovascularization after a single intravitreal injection. Collectively, data showed the strong potential of iVR1 peptide as a new anti-tumor and anti-metastatic agent and demonstrate the high flexibility of VEGFR1 antagonists as therapeutic anti-angiogenic agents in different pathological contexts. PMID:25868854

  10. ICAM-1-Targeted, Lcn2 siRNA-Encapsulating Liposomes are Potent Anti-angiogenic Agents for Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Peng; Yang, Jiang; Jia, Di; Moses, Marsha A; Auguste, Debra T

    2016-01-01

    Lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) is a promising therapeutic target as well as a potential diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer. It has been previously shown to promote breast cancer progression by inducing the epithelial to mesenchymal transition in breast cancer cells as well as by enhancing angiogenesis. Lcn2 levels in urine and tissue samples of breast cancer patients has also been correlated with breast cancer status and poor patient prognosis. In this study, we have engineered a novel liposomal small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery system to target triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) via a recently identified molecular target, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). This ICAM-1-targeted, Lcn2 siRNA- encapsulating liposome (ICAM-Lcn2-LP) binds human TNBC MDA-MB-231cells significantly stronger than non-neoplastic MCF-10A cells. Efficient Lcn2 knockdown by ICAM-Lcn2-LPs led to a significant reduction in the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from MDA-MB-231 cells, which, in turn, led to reduced angiogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. Angiogenesis (neovascularization) is a requirement for solid tumor growth and progression, and its inhibition is an important therapeutic strategy for human cancers. Our results indicate that a tumor-specific strategy such as the TNBC-targeted, anti-angiogenic therapeutic approach developed here, may be clinically useful in inhibiting TNBC progression.

  11. Antiangiogenic properties of substituted (Z)-(±)-2-(N-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ol/one analogs and their derivatives.

    PubMed

    Venkateswaran, Amudhan; Reddy, Y Thirupathi; Sonar, Vijaykumar N; Muthusamy, Venkatraj; Crooks, Peter A; Freeman, Michael L; Sekhar, Konjeti R

    2010-12-15

    In the past half century research efforts have defined a critical role for angiogenesis in tumor growth and metastasis. We previously reported that inhibition of a novel target, ENOX1, by a (Z)-2-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene) quinuclidin-3-ol, suppressed tumor angiogenesis. The present study was undertaken in order to establish structure-activity relationships for quinuclidine analogs. The angiogenesis inhibiting activity of a series of substituted (Z)-(±)-2-(N-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ols (1a-1k), (Z)-2-benzylindol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ones (2a-2h), (Z)-(±)-2-(1H/N-methyl-indol-3-ylmethylene)quinuclidin-3-ols (3a-3b), and substituted (Z)-(±)-2-(N-benzenesulfonylindol-3-yl-methylene)quinuclidin-3-ols and their derivatives (4a-4d) that incorporate a variety of substituents in both the indole and N-benzyl moieties was evaluated using Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) subjected to in vitro cell migration scratch assays, tubule formation in Matrigel, cell viability and proliferation assays. In total, 25 different analogs were evaluated. Based on in vitro cell migration scratch assays, eight analogs were identified as potent angiogenesis inhibitors at 10 μM, a concentration that was determined to be nontoxic by colony formation assay. In addition, this approach identified a potent antiangiogenic ENOX1 inhibitor, analog 4b.

  12. A new anti-angiogenic small molecule, G0811, inhibits angiogenesis via targeting hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α signal transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Jung, Hye Jin; Kwon, Ho Jeong

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •G0811 suppresses HIF-1α expression without cell toxicity. •G0811 exhibits anti-angiogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. •G0811 provides a new molecular scaffold for the development of therapeutics targeting angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Regulation of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α stabilization, which in turn contributes to adaptation of tumor cells to hypoxia has been highlighted as a promising therapeutic target in angiogenesis-related diseases. We have identified a new small molecule, G0811, as a potent angiogenesis inhibitor that targets HIF-1α signal transduction. G0811 suppressed HIF-1α stability in cancer cells and inhibited in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis, as validated by tube formation, chemoinvasion, and chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assays. In addition, G0811 effectively decreased the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which is one of target genes of HIF-1α. However, G0811 did not exhibit anti-proliferative activities or toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at effective doses. These results demonstrate that G0811 could be a new angiogenesis inhibitor that acts by targeting HIF-1α signal transduction pathway.

  13. Rapamycin/DiR loaded lipid-polyaniline nanoparticles for dual-modal imaging guided enhanced photothermal and antiangiogenic combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinping; Guo, Fang; Yu, Meng; Liu, Li; Tan, Fengping; Yan, Ran; Li, Nan

    2016-09-10

    Imaging-guided photothermal therapy (PTT) has promising application for treating tumors. Nevertheless, so far imaging-guided photothermal drug-delivery systems have been developed with limited success for tumor chemo-photothermal therapy. In this study, as the proof-of-concept, a stimuli-responsive tumor-targeting rapamycin/DiR loaded lipid-polyaniline nanoparticle (RDLPNP) for dual-modal imaging-guided enhanced PTT efficacy is reported for the first time. In this system, polyaniline (PANI) with π-π electronic conjugated system and effective photothermal efficiency is chosen as the appropriate model receptor of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and loaded cyanine probe (e.g., 1,1-dioctadecyl-3,3,3,3-tetramethylindotricarbocyanine iodide, DiR) acts as the donor of near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF). In addition, rapamycin (RAPA), which is used as the antiangiogenesis chemotherapeutic drug, can cutdown the tumor vessels and delay tumor growth obviously. After intravenous treatment of RDLPNPs into Hela tumor bearing mice, fluorescent (from DiR) and enhanced photoacoustic (from DLPNPs) signals were found in tumor site over time, which reached to peak at the 6h time point. After irradiating with an NIR laser, a good anti-tumor effect was observed owing to the enhanced photothermal and antiangiogenic effect of RDLPNPs. These results show that the multifunctional nanoparticle can be used as a promising imaging-guided photothermal drug delivery nanoplatform for cancer therapy.

  14. Anti-tumoral, anti-angiogenic and anti-metastatic efficacy of a tetravalent bispecific antibody (TAvi6) targeting VEGF-A and angiopoietin-2

    PubMed Central

    Scheuer, Werner; Thomas, Markus; Hanke, Petra; Sam, Johannes; Osl, Franz; Weininger, Diana; Baehner, Monika; Seeber, Stefan; Kettenberger, Hubert; Schanzer, Jürgen; Brinkmann, Ulrich; Weidner, K. Michael; Regula, Jörg; Klein, Christian

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A blockade has been validated clinically as a treatment for human cancers. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) is a key regulator of blood vessel remodeling and maturation. In tumors, Ang-2 is up-regulated and an unfavorable prognostic factor. Recent data demonstrated that Ang-2 inhibition mediates anti-tumoral effects. We generated a tetravalent bispecific antibody (Ang-2-VEGF-TAvi6) targeting VEGF-A with 2 arms based on bevacizumab (Avastin®), and targeting Ang-2 with 2 arms based on a novel anti-Ang-2 antibody (LC06). The two Ang-2-targeting single-chain variable fragments are disulfide-stabilized and fused to the C-terminus of the heavy chain of bevacizumab. Treatment with Ang-2-VEGF-A-TAvi6 led to a complete abrogation of angiogenesis in the cornea micropocket assay. Metastatic spread and tumor growth of subcutaneous, orthotopic and anti-VEGF-A resistant tumors were also efficiently inhibited. These data further establish Ang-2-VEGF bispecific antibodies as a promising anti-angiogenic, anti-metastatic and anti-tumor agent for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26864324

  15. Ecotoxicology of organofluorous compounds.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret B; Loi, Eva I H; Kwok, Karen Y; Lam, Paul K S

    2012-01-01

    Organofluorous compounds have been developed for myriad purposes in a variety of fields, including manufacturing, industry, agriculture, and medicine. The widespread use and application of these compounds has led to increasing concern about their potential ecological toxicity, particularly because of the stability of the C-F bond, which can result in chemical persistence in the environment. This chapter reviews the chemical properties and ecotoxicology of four groups of organofluorous compounds: fluorinated refrigerants and propellants, per- and polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), fluorinated pesticides, and fluoroquinolone antibiotics. These groups vary in their environmental fate and partitioning, but each raises concern in terms of ecological risk on both the regional and global scale, particularly those compounds with long environmental half-lives. Further research on the occurrence and toxicities of many of these compounds is needed for a more comprehensive understanding of their ecological effects.

  16. XAFS Model Compound Library

    DOE Data Explorer

    Newville, Matthew

    The XAFS Model Compound Library contains XAFS data on model compounds. The term "model" compounds refers to compounds of homogeneous and well-known crystallographic or molecular structure. Each data file in this library has an associated atoms.inp file that can be converted to a feff.inp file using the program ATOMS. (See the related Searchable Atoms.inp Archive at http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/adb/) This Library exists because XAFS data on model compounds is useful for several reasons, including comparing to unknown data for "fingerprinting" and testing calculations and analysis methods. The collection here is currently limited, but is growing. The focus to date has been on inorganic compounds and minerals of interest to the geochemical community. [Copied, with editing, from http://cars9.uchicago.edu/~newville/ModelLib/

  17. Preparation of uranium compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kiplinger, Jaqueline L; Montreal, Marisa J; Thomson, Robert K; Cantat, Thibault; Travia, Nicholas E

    2013-02-19

    UI.sub.3(1,4-dioxane).sub.1.5 and UI.sub.4(1,4-dioxane).sub.2, were synthesized in high yield by reacting turnings of elemental uranium with iodine dissolved in 1,4-dioxane under mild conditions. These molecular compounds of uranium are thermally stable and excellent precursor materials for synthesizing other molecular compounds of uranium including alkoxide, amide, organometallic, and halide compounds.

  18. Nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds and processes

    DOEpatents

    Lerom, M.W.; Peters, H.M.

    1975-07-08

    This patent relates to the nitrodifluoraminoterphenyl compounds: 3,3''-bis (difluoramino)-2,2'' 4,4', 4'',6,6',6''-octanitro-m-terphenyl (DDONT) and 3,3''-bis(difluoramino)-2,2',2''4,4',4'',6,6',6''-nonanitro-m-terphenyl (DDNONA). Procedures are described wherein diamino precursors of the indicated compounds are prepared and the final compounds are obtained by a fluorination operation. The compounds are highly energetic and suitable for use as explosives and particularly in exploding bridge wire (EBW) detonators. (auth)

  19. A dual-targeting PDGFRβ/VEGF-A molecule assembled from stable antibody fragments demonstrates anti-angiogenic activity in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Debra G; Frank, Amanda; Vu, Tuyen; Ardourel, Dan; Ostrander, Craig; Stevens, Brenda; Julien, Susan; Franke, Secil; Meengs, Brent; Brody, Jennifer; Presnell, Scott; Hamacher, Nels B; Lantry, Megan; Wolf, Anitra; Bukowski, Tom; Rosler, Robert; Yen, Cindy; Anderson-Haley, Monica; Brasel, Kenneth; Pan, Qi; Franklin, Hank; Thompson, Penny; Dodds, Mike; Underwood, Sara; Peterson, Scott; Sivakumar, Pallavur V; Snavely, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Targeting angiogenesis is a promising approach to the treatment of solid tumors and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Inhibition of vascularization has been validated by the successful marketing of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target specific growth factors or their receptors, but there is considerable room for improvement in existing therapies. Combination of mAbs targeting both the VeGF and pDGF pathways has the potential to increase the efficacy of anti-angiogenic therapy without the accompanying toxicities of tyrosine kinase inhibitors and the inability to combine efficiently with traditional chemotherapeutics. However, development costs and regulatory issues have limited the use of combinatorial approaches for the generation of more efficacious treatments. The concept of mediating disease pathology by targeting two antigens with one therapeutic was proposed over two decades ago. While mAbs are particularly suitable candidates for a dual-targeting approach, engineering bispecificity into one molecule can be difficult due to issues with expression and stability, which play a significant role in manufacturability. Here, we address these issues upstream in the process of developing a bispecific antibody (bsAb). Single-chain antibody fragments (scFvs) targeting pDGFRβ and VeGF-A were selected for superior stability. the scFvs were fused to both termini of human Fc to generate a bispecific, tetravalent molecule. resulting molecule displays potent activity, binds both targets simultaneously, and is stable in serum. assembly of a bsAb using stable monomeric units allowed development of an anti-pDGFRB/VeGF-A antibody capable of attenuating angiogenesis through two distinct pathways and represents an efficient method for rapid engineering of dual-targeting molecules. PMID:20065654

  20. An oncolytic adenovirus enhances antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects of a replication-deficient adenovirus encoding endostatin by rescuing its selective replication in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ran-yi; Zhou, Ling; Zhang, Yan-ling; Huang, Bi-jun; Ke, Miao-la; Chen, Jie-min; Li, Li-xia; Fu, Xiang; Wu, Jiang-xue; Huang, Wenlin

    2013-12-13

    Highlights: •H101 promotes endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication. •H101 rescued Ad-Endo replication by supplying E1A and E1B19k proteins. •Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 in NPC cells. •Ad-Endo and oncolytic Ad H101 have synergistic antitumor effects on NPC. -- Abstract: A replication-deficient adenovirus (Ad) encoding secreted human endostatin (Ad-Endo) has been demonstrated to have promising antiangiogenic and antitumoral effects. The E1B55k-deleted Ad H101 can selectively lyse cancer cells. In this study, we explored the antitumor effects and cross-interactions of Ad-Endo and H101 on nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The results showed that H101 dramatically promoted endostatin expression by Ad-Endo via rescuing Ad-Endo replication in NPC cells, and the expressed endostatin proteins significantly inhibited the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells. E1A and E1B19k products are required for the rescuing of H101 to Ad-Endo replication in CNE-1 and CNE-2 cells, but not in C666-1 cells. On the other hand, Ad-Endo enhanced the cytotoxicity of H101 by enhancing Ad replication in NPC cells. The combination of H101 and Ad-Endo significantly inhibited CNE-2 xenografts growth through the increased endostatin expression and Ad replication. These findings indicate that the combination of Ad-Endo gene therapy and oncolytic Ad therapeutics could be promising in comprehensive treatment of NPC.

  1. Comprehensive Evaluation of the Anti-Angiogenic and Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Endostar on Liver Cancer through Optical Molecular Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Zhenwen; Chi, Chongwei; Jia, Xiaohua; Tian, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Molecular imaging enables non-invasive monitoring of tumor growth, progression, and drug treatment response, and it has become an important tool to promote biological studies in recent years. In this study, we comprehensively evaluated the in vivo anti-angiogenic and anti-neoplastic effects of Endostar on liver cancer based on the optical molecular imaging systems including micro-computer tomography (Micro-CT), bioluminescence molecular imaging (BLI) and fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT). Firefly luciferase (fLuc) and green fluorescent protein (GFP) dual labeled human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HCC-LM3-fLuc-GFP cells) were used to establish the subcutaneous and orthotopic liver tumor model. After the tumor cells were implanted 14∼18 days, Endostar (5 mg/kg/day) was administered through an intravenous tail vein injection for continuous 14 days. The computer tomography angiography (CTA) and BLI were carried out for the subcutaneous tumor model. FMT was executed for the orthotopic tumor model. The CTA data showed that tumor vessel formation and the peritumoral vasculature of subcutaneous tumor in the Endostar treatment group was significantly inhibited compared to the control group. The BLI data exhibited the obvious tumor inhibition day 8 post-treatment. The FMT detected the tumor suppression effects of Endostar as early as day 4 post-treatment and measured the tumor location. The above data confirmed the effects of Endostar on anti-angiogenesis and tumor suppression on liver cancer. Our system combined CTA, BLI, and FMT to offer more comprehensive information about the effects of Endostar on the suppression of vessel and tumor formation. Optical molecular imaging system enabled the non-invasive and reliable assessment of anti-tumor drug efficacy on liver cancer. PMID:24416426

  2. Development of a highly-potent anti-angiogenic VEGF8-109 heterodimer by directed blocking of its VEGFR-2 binding site.

    PubMed

    Ghavamipour, Fahimeh; Shahangian, S Shirin; Sajedi, Reza H; Arab, S Shahriar; Mansouri, Kamran; Aghamaali, Mahmoud Reza

    2014-10-01

    Angiogenesis is a hallmark of various pathological conditions and is controlled by a variety of angiogenic factors. Blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as the most pivotal stimulator of angiogenesis offers a promising therapeutic approach for some diseases, typically cancer. In the present study, a heterodimeric antagonistic VEGF was precisely designed based on structural information of recently-crystallized VEGF/VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2/fetal liver kinase 1/kinase domain region) complex. Directed blocking of kinase domain region occurs via substitution of a VEGF receptor binding site by two peptide segments in one pole, whereas the binding domain of the other pole of VEGF was intact. Candidate peptides for substitution were selected considering to some sequence and structural criteria. A reliable model of modified VEGF was built, refined using molecular dynamics simulation and docked with VEGFR-2. Docking analysis revealed that binding affinity of mutant VEGF was notably diminished, corroborating our design. Heterodimeric VEGF was expressed, refolded and highly purified by two-step affinity chromatography. Dimerization of this antagonist was confirmed using some analytical techniques. Spectroscopic studies assured us to obtain the heterodimeric form of VEGF. Some angiogenic in vitro assays such endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation indicated that this antagonist is not only strongly capable of inhibiting angiogenesis (half maximal inhibitory concentration of 33 and 24 ng · mL(-1) , respectively), but also showed the highest inhibitory effect compared to all other heterodimeric VEGF variants. The high anti-angiogenic potency of this VEGF antagonist may allow its future use as an anti-tumor agent. PMID:25132001

  3. HL-217, a new topical anti-angiogenic agent, inhibits retinal vascular leakage and pathogenic subretinal neovascularization in Vldlr{sup −/−} mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Junghyun; Kim, Chan-Sik; Jo, Kyuhyung; Cho, Yun-Seok; Kim, Hyun-Gyu; Lee, Geun-Hyeog; Lee, Yun Mi; Sohn, Eunjin; Kim, Jin Sook

    2015-01-02

    Highlights: • HL-217 is a new synthetic topical anti-angiogenic agent. • HL-217 attenuated subretinal neovascularization in Vldlr{sup −/−} mice. • HL-217 blocked the binding of PDGF-BB to PDGFRβ. - Abstract: HL-217 is a new synthetic angiogenesis inhibitor. Platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) is a vasoactive factor and has been implicated in proliferative retinopathies. In this study, we examined the mechanism of action and efficacy of topical application of HL-217 on subretinal neovascularization in very low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (Vldlr{sup −/−}) mice. In three-week-old male Vldlr{sup −/−} mice, HL-217 (1.5 or 3 mg/ml) was administered twice per day for 4 weeks by topical eye drop instillation. Neovascular areas were then measured. We used a protein array to evaluate the expression levels of angiogenic factors. The inhibitory effect of HL-217 on the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction was evaluated in vitro. The neovascular area in the Vldlr{sup −/−} mice was significantly reduced by HL-217. Additionally, HL-217 decreased the expression levels of PDGF-BB protein and VEGF mRNA. Moreover, HL-217 dose-dependently inhibited the PDGF-BB/PDGFRβ interaction (IC{sub 50} = 38.9 ± 0.7 μM). These results suggest that HL-217 is a potent inhibitor of PDGF-BB. HL-217, when applied topically, is an effective inhibitor of subretinal neovascularization due to its ability to inhibit the pro-angiogenic effects of PDGF-BB.

  4. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI Assessing the Antiangiogenic Effect of Silencing HIF-1α with Targeted Multifunctional ECO/siRNA Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Malamas, Anthony S; Jin, Erlei; Gujrati, Maneesh; Lu, Zheng-Rong

    2016-07-01

    Stabilization of hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α), a biomarker of hypoxia, in hypoxic tumors mediates a variety of downstream genes promoting tumor angiogenesis and cancer cell survival as well as invasion, and compromising therapeutic outcome. In this study, dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) with a biodegradable macromolecular MRI contrast agent was used to noninvasively assess the antiangiogenic effect of RGD-targeted multifunctional lipid ECO/siHIF-1α nanoparticles in a mouse HT29 colon cancer model. The RGD-targeted ECO/siHIF-1α nanoparticles resulted in over 50% reduction in tumor size after intravenous injection at a dose of 2.0 mg of siRNA/kg every 3 days for 3 weeks compared to a saline control. DCE-MRI revealed significant decline in vascularity and over a 70% reduction in the tumor blood flow, permeability-surface area product, and plasma volume fraction vascular parameters in the tumor treated with the targeted ECO/siHIF-1α nanoparticles. The treatment with targeted ECO/siRNA nanoparticles resulted in significant silencing of HIF-1α expression at the protein level, which also significantly suppressed the expression of VEGF, Glut-1, HKII, PDK-1, LDHA, and CAIX, which are all important players in tumor angiogenesis, glycolytic metabolism, and pH regulation. By possessing the ability to elicit a multifaceted effect on tumor biology, silencing HIF-1α with RGD-targeted ECO/siHIF-1α nanoparticles has great promise as a single therapy or in combination with traditional chemotherapy or radiation strategies to improve cancer treatment. PMID:27264671

  5. Continuous administration of bevacizumab plus capecitabine, even after acquired resistance to bevacizumab, restored anti-angiogenic and antitumor effect in a human colorectal cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Toshiki; Sugimoto, Masamichi; Harada, Suguru; Yorozu, Keigo; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Kaname

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neutralizing therapy with bevacizumab has become increasingly important for treating colorectal cancer. It was demonstrated that second-line chemotherapy together with bevacizumab after disease progression (PD) on first-line therapy including bevacizumab showed clinical benefits in metastatic colorectal and breast cancers (ML18147 trial, TANIA trial). One of the rationales for these trials was that the refractoriness to first-line therapy is caused by resistance to not so much bevacizumab as to the chemotherapeutic agents. Nevertheless, resistance to bevacizumab cannot be ruled out because VEGF-independent angiogenesis has been reported to be a mechanism of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. In this study, we used a xenograft model with the human colon cancer HT-29 cells to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of continued administration of bevacizumab plus capecitabine even after resistance to bevacizumab was acquired. The combination of capecitabine plus bevacizumab exhibited significantly stronger antitumor and anti-angiogenic activities than did monotherapy with either agent. Capecitabine treatment significantly increased the intratumoral VEGF level compared with the control group; however, the combination with bevacizumab neutralized the VEGF. Among angiogenic factors other than VEGF, intratumoral galectin-3, which reportedly promotes angiogenesis both dependent on, and independently of VEGF, was significantly decreased in the capecitabine group and the combination group compared with the control group. In an in vitro experiment, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an active metabolite of capecitabine, inhibited galectin-3 production by HT-29 cells. These results suggested that capecitabine has a dual mode of action: namely, inhibition of tumor cell growth and inhibition of galectin-3 production by tumor cells. Thus, capecitabine and bevacizumab may work in a mutually complementary manner in tumor angiogenesis inhibition

  6. Early Assessment of Colorectal Cancer Patients with Liver Metastases Treated with Antiangiogenic Drugs: The Role of Intravoxel Incoherent Motion in Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Granata, Vincenza; Fusco, Roberta; Catalano, Orlando; Filice, Salvatore; Amato, Daniela Maria; Nasti, Guglielmo; Avallone, Antonio; Izzo, Francesco; Petrillo, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the feasibility and effectiveness of quantitative intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) of Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in the assessment of liver metastases treated with targeted chemotherapy agents. Methods 12 patients with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer were enrolled and received neoadjuvant FOLFIRI (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan) plus bevacizumab therapy. DWI was performed for 36 metastases at baseline and after 14 days from starting the treatment. In addition to the basic IVIM metrics, the product between pseudo-diffusivity and perfusion fraction was considered as a descriptor roughly analogous to the flow. Median diffusion parameters of Region of Interest (ROI) were used as representative values for each lesion. Normalized parameters in comparison with the median value of spleen were also collected. The percentual change of the diffusion parameters was calculated. The response to chemotherapy was evaluated according the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) as calculated on whole-body CT scan obtained three months after treatment. Mann Whitney test and Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were performed. Results 24 lesions were categorized as responding and 12 as not responding. There was no statistically significant difference among absolute and normalized diffusion parameters between the pretreatment and the post-treatment findings. Instead, the perfusion fraction (fp) values showed a statistical difference between responder and non-responder lesions: sensitivity and specificity of fp variation was 62% and 93%, respectively. Conclusions IVIM parameters represent a valuable tool in the evaluation of the anti-angiogenic therapy in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. A percentage change of fp represents the most effective DWI marker in the assessment of tumor response. PMID:26566221

  7. Synthetic Site-Selectively Mono-6-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Dodecasaccharide Shows Anti-Angiogenic Properties In Vitro and Sensitizes Tumors to Cisplatin In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Avizienyte, Egle; Cole, Claire L.; Rushton, Graham; Miller, Gavin J.; Bugatti, Antonella; Presta, Marco; Gardiner, John M.; Jayson, Gordon C.

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulphate (HS), a ubiquitously expressed glycosaminoglycan (GAG), regulates multiple cellular functions by mediating interactions between numerous growth factors and their cell surface cognate receptors. However, the structural specificity of HS in these interactions remains largely undefined. Here, we used completely synthetic, structurally defined, alternating N-sulfated glucosamine (NS) and 2-O-sulfated iduronate (IS) residues to generate dodecasaccharides ([NSIS]6) that contained no, one or six glucosamine 6-O-sulfates (6S). The aim was to address how 6S contributes to the potential of defined HS dodecasaccharides to inhibit the angiogenic growth factors FGF2 and VEGF165, in vitro and in vivo. We show that the addition of a single 6S at the non-reducing end of [NSIS]6, i.e. [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5, significantly augments the inhibition of FGF2-dependent endothelial cell proliferation, migration and sprouting in vitro when compared to the non-6S variant. In contrast, the fully 6-O-sulfated dodecasaccharide, [NSIS6S]6, is not a potent inhibitor of FGF2. Addition of a single 6S did not significantly improve inhibitory properties of [NSIS]6 when tested against VEGF165-dependent endothelial cell functions.In vivo, [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 blocked FGF2-dependent blood vessel formation without affecting tumor growth. Reduction of non-FGF2-dependent ovarian tumor growth occurred when [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 was combined with cisplatin. The degree of inhibition by [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 in combination with cisplatin in vivo equated with that induced by bevacizumab and sunitinib when administered with cisplatin. Evaluation of post-treatment vasculature revealed that [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 treatment had the greatest impact on tumor blood vessel size and lumen formation. Our data for the first time demonstrate that synthetic, structurally defined oligosaccharides have potential to be developed as active anti-angiogenic agents that sensitize tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27490176

  8. Synthetic Site-Selectively Mono-6-O-Sulfated Heparan Sulfate Dodecasaccharide Shows Anti-Angiogenic Properties In Vitro and Sensitizes Tumors to Cisplatin In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Avizienyte, Egle; Cole, Claire L; Rushton, Graham; Miller, Gavin J; Bugatti, Antonella; Presta, Marco; Gardiner, John M; Jayson, Gordon C

    2016-01-01

    Heparan sulphate (HS), a ubiquitously expressed glycosaminoglycan (GAG), regulates multiple cellular functions by mediating interactions between numerous growth factors and their cell surface cognate receptors. However, the structural specificity of HS in these interactions remains largely undefined. Here, we used completely synthetic, structurally defined, alternating N-sulfated glucosamine (NS) and 2-O-sulfated iduronate (IS) residues to generate dodecasaccharides ([NSIS]6) that contained no, one or six glucosamine 6-O-sulfates (6S). The aim was to address how 6S contributes to the potential of defined HS dodecasaccharides to inhibit the angiogenic growth factors FGF2 and VEGF165, in vitro and in vivo. We show that the addition of a single 6S at the non-reducing end of [NSIS]6, i.e. [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5, significantly augments the inhibition of FGF2-dependent endothelial cell proliferation, migration and sprouting in vitro when compared to the non-6S variant. In contrast, the fully 6-O-sulfated dodecasaccharide, [NSIS6S]6, is not a potent inhibitor of FGF2. Addition of a single 6S did not significantly improve inhibitory properties of [NSIS]6 when tested against VEGF165-dependent endothelial cell functions.In vivo, [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 blocked FGF2-dependent blood vessel formation without affecting tumor growth. Reduction of non-FGF2-dependent ovarian tumor growth occurred when [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 was combined with cisplatin. The degree of inhibition by [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 in combination with cisplatin in vivo equated with that induced by bevacizumab and sunitinib when administered with cisplatin. Evaluation of post-treatment vasculature revealed that [NSIS6S]-[NSIS]5 treatment had the greatest impact on tumor blood vessel size and lumen formation. Our data for the first time demonstrate that synthetic, structurally defined oligosaccharides have potential to be developed as active anti-angiogenic agents that sensitize tumors to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27490176

  9. The feasibility of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT for monitoring early response of Endostar antiangiogenic therapy in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma xenograft model compared with 18F-FDG

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Sheng; Zhang, Caiyuan; Cheng, Weiwei; Hai, Wangxi; Yin, Bing; Wang, Dengbin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Radiolabeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides have been developed for PET imaging of integrin avβ3 in the tumor vasculature, leading to great potential for noninvasively evaluating tumor angiogenesis and monitoring antiangiogenic treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate a novel one-step labeled integrin-targeted tracer, 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2, for PET/CT for detecting tumor angiogenesis and monitoring the early therapeutic efficacy of antiangiogenic agent Endostar in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) xenograft model. Experimental design and results Mice bearing NPC underwent 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT at baseline and after 2, 4, 7, and 14 days of consecutive treatment with Endostar or PBS, compared with 18F-FDG PET/CT. Tumors were harvested at all imaging time points for histopathological analysis with H & E and microvessel density (MVD) and integrin avβ3 immunostaining. The maximum percent injected dose per gram of body weight (%ID/gmax) tumor uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT was significantly lower than that in the control group starting from day 2 (p < 0.01), much earlier and more accurately than that of 18F-FDG PET/CT. Moreover, a moderate linear correlation was observed between tumor MVD and the corresponding tumor uptake of 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT (r = 0.853, p < 0.01). Conclusions 18F-AlF-NOTA-PRGD2 PET/CT can be used for in vivo angiogenesis imaging and monitoring early response to Endostar antiangiogenic treatment in NPC xenograft model, favoring its potential clinical translation. PMID:27029065

  10. Olive oil compounds inhibit vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 phosphorylation

    SciTech Connect

    Lamy, Sylvie Ouanouki, Amira; Béliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.

    2014-03-10

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: • We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. • Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. • Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for

  11. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Goodman, M.M.

    1983-06-29

    The compound 15-(p-(/sup 125/I)-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  12. Heart testing compound

    DOEpatents

    Knapp, Jr., Furn F.; Goodman, Mark M.

    1985-01-01

    The compound 15-(p-[.sup.125 I]-iodophenyl)-6-tellurapentadecanoic acid is disclosed as a myocardial imaging agent having rapid and pronounced uptake, prolonged myocardial retention, and low in vivo deiodination.

  13. Anti-Fog Compound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Tracer Chemical Corporation's TRX Anti-Fog Composition is an inexpensive product which prevents condensation on plastic and glass surfaces. It was the result from a Tech Briefs article detailing a Johnson Space Center compound.

  14. Compound composite odontoma

    PubMed Central

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas. PMID:27194882

  15. Compound composite odontoma.

    PubMed

    Girish, G; Bavle, Radhika M; Singh, Manish Kumar; Prasad, Sahana N

    2016-01-01

    The term odontoma has been used as a descriptor for any tumor of odontogenic origin. It is a growth in which both epithelial and mesenchymal cells exhibits complete differentiation. Odontomas are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasm. They are usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. Odontomas, according to the World Health Organization, are classified into complex odontoma and compound odontomas. The present paper reports a case of compound composite odontomas.

  16. Chemistry of peroxide compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volnov, I. I.

    1981-01-01

    The history of Soviet research from 1866 to 1967 on peroxide compounds is reviewed. This research dealt mainly with peroxide kinetics, reactivity and characteristics, peroxide production processes, and more recently with superoxides and ozonides and emphasis on the higher oxides of group 1 and 2 elements. Solid state fluidized bed synthesis and production of high purity products based on the relative solubilities of the initial, intermediate, and final compounds and elements in liquid ammonia are discussed.

  17. Compounding a Problem?

    PubMed

    Berlin, Joey

    2016-01-01

    Allergist-immunologists say a U.S. Pharmacopeia proposal will mess with an allergy treatment system that's worked for more than a century. The revised standards, if adopted, would remove a key exemption separating allergen extract preparations from the stricter requirements of other compounds. Immunologists say the exemption has allowed them to compound allergen extracts in their own offices, and they've done so safely and effectively millions of times a year.

  18. Understanding medication compounding issues.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Rodney W

    2014-04-01

    The potential for contamination of compounded products and the resulting infections are a serious threat to patient safety. Immediate use products are used frequently in the perioperative department, and perioperative nurses should be familiar with the guidelines and practices that aim to reduce the contamination that can occur during the sterile compounding process. Four common themes lead to successful compounding: quality (eg, product identification, purity, stability, compatibility, risk level assessment), the environment (eg, using a segregated compounding area with specialized airflow capabilities, reducing particulate matter, practicing proper hand hygiene, performing gloved fingertip sampling, properly cleaning equipment and work areas), personnel activities (eg, familiarity with types of containers used and how often they can be accessed, following expiration dates and the number of times containers can be accessed), and the control process (eg, process monitoring, quality improvement). If a third-party vendor is contracted to handle compounding for a facility, perioperative personnel should be aware of the responsibilities for the facility and the vendor to ensure a quality compounding program. PMID:24674793

  19. Effects of cordycepin on HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells: Potential antiproliferative, antimetastatic and anti-angiogenic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    LU, HAISHENG; LI, XITING; ZHANG, JIANYING; SHI, HUI; ZHU, XIAOFENG; HE, XIAOSHUN

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a hypervascular tumor and accumulating evidence suggests that angiogenesis plays an important role in HCC development. Cordycepin, also known as 3′-deoxyadenosine, is a derivative of adenosine, and numerous cellular enzymes cannot differentiate the two. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cordycepin regulates proliferation, migration and angiogenesis in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell line (EA.hy926) and in a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). MTT was used to assess cell proliferation. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry (propidium iodide staining). Transwell and wound healing assays were used to analyze the migration and invasion of HepG2 and EA.hy926 cells. Angiogenesis in EA.hy926 cells was assessed using a tube formation assay. Cordycepin strongly suppressed HepG2 and EA.hy926 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Cordycepin induced EA.hy926 cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner (2,000 μg/ml: 50.20±1.55% vs. 0 μg/ml: 2.62±0.19%; P<0.01). Cordycepin inhibited EA.hy926 cell migration (percentage of wound healing area, 2,000 μg/ml: 3.45±0.29% vs. 0 μg/ml: 85.48±0.84%; P<0.05), as well as tube formation (total length of tubular structure, 1,000 μg/ml: 107±39 μm vs. 0 μg/ml: 936±56 μm; P<0.05). Cordycepin also efficiently inhibited HepG2 cell invasion and migration. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the cytosol from EA.hy926 cells showed that cordycepin was stable for 3 h. In conclusion, cordycepin not only inhibited human HepG2 cell proliferation and invasion, but also induced apoptosis and inhibited migration and angiogenesis in vascular endothelial cells, suggesting that cordycepin may be used as a novel anti-angiogenic therapy in HCC. PMID:24765175

  20. Nonpost mold cure compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Akihiro

    1997-08-01

    The recent low price trend of electronic products has made IC manufacturing efficiency a top priority in the semiconductor industry. Post mold cure (PMC) process, which generally involves heating the packages in the oven at 175 C for 4 to 8 hours, takes up much longer time than most other assembly processes. If this PMC process can be reduced or eliminated, semiconductor makers will be rewarded with a much higher cost merit. We define the purpose of Non-PMC as 'to get high reliability with suitable physical and electrical properties without PMC'. We compared carious properties of molding compound before and after PMC. We found that curing reaction has almost complete through DSC and C-NMR measurement, but several properties have not stabilized yet, and that not all properties after PMC were better than before PMC. We developed new grade of molding compound considering these facts. And we found that main factors to accomplish non-PMC compound are curability and flowability, and more, increasing of fundamental properties. To accomplish non-PMC, at first, molding compound need to have very high curability. Generally speaking, too high curability causes low flowability, and causes incomplete filing, wire sweep, pad shift, and weak adhesion to inner parts of IC packages. To prevent these failures, various compound properties were studied, and we achieved in adding good flowability to very high curable molding compound. Finally, anti-popcorn property was improved by adding low moisture, high adhesion, high Tg, and high flexural strengths at high temperature. Through this study, we developed new compound grade for various package, especially large QFP using standard ECN resin.

  1. Metalloid compounds as drugs

    PubMed Central

    Sekhon, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    The six elements commonly known as metalloids are boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium. Metalloid containing compounds have been used as antiprotozoal drugs. Boron-based drugs, the benzoxaboroles have been exploited as potential treatments for neglected tropical diseases. Arsenic has been used as a medicinal agent and arsphenamine was the main drug used to treat syphilis. Arsenic trioxide has been approved for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Pentavalent antimonials have been the recommended drug for visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Tellurium (IV) compounds may have important roles in thiol redox biological activity in the human body, and ammonium trichloro (dioxoethylene-O, O’-)tellurate (AS101) may be a promising agent for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease. Organosilicon compounds have been shown to be effective in vitro multidrug-resistance reverting agents. PMID:24019824

  2. Sulfur compounds in coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attar, A.; Corcoran, W. H.

    1977-01-01

    The literature on the chemical structure of the organic sulfur compounds (or functional groups) in coal is reviewed. Four methods were applied in the literature to study the sulfur compounds in coal: direct spectrometric and chemical analysis, depolymerization in drastic conditions, depolymerization in mild conditions, and studies on simulated coal. The data suggest that most of the organic sulfur in coal is in the form of thiophenic structures and aromatic and aliphatic sulfides. The relative abundance of the sulfur groups in bituminous coal is estimated as 50:30:20%, respectively. The ratio changes during processing and during the chemical analysis. The main effects are the transformation during processing of sulfides to the more stable thiophenic compounds and the elimination of hydrogen sulfide.

  3. Compound management beyond efficiency.

    PubMed

    Burr, Ian; Winchester, Toby; Keighley, Wilma; Sewing, Andreas

    2009-06-01

    Codeveloping alongside chemistry and in vitro screening, compound management was one of the first areas in research recognizing the need for efficient processes and workflows. Material management groups have centralized, automated, miniaturized and, importantly, found out what not to do with compounds. While driving down cost and improving quality in storage and processing, researchers still face the challenge of interfacing optimally with changing business processes, in screening groups, and with external vendors and focusing on biologicals in many companies. Here we review our strategy to provide a seamless link between compound acquisition and screening operations and the impact of material management on quality of the downstream processes. Although this is driven in part by new technologies and improved quality control within material management, redefining team structures and roles also drives job satisfaction and motivation in our teams with a subsequent positive impact on cycle times and customer feedback.

  4. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Hayatsu, R.; Studier, M. H.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of whether organic compounds originated in meteorites as a primary condensate from a solar gas or whether they were introduced as a secondary product into the meteorite during its residence in a parent body is examined by initially attempting to reconstruct the physical conditions during condensation (temperature, pressure, time) from clues in the inorganic matrix of the meteorite. The condensation behavior of carbon under these conditions is then analyzed on the basis of thermodynamic calculations, and compounds synthesized in model experiments on the condensation of carbon are compared with those actually found in meteorites. Organic compounds in meteorites seem to have formed by catalytic reactions of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and ammonia in the solar nebula at 360 to 400 K temperature and about 3 to 7.6 microtorr pressure. The onset of these reactions was triggered by the formation of suitable catalysts (magnetite, hydrated silicates) at these temperatures.

  5. Phytochemical screening of Artemisia arborescens L. by means of advanced chromatographic techniques for identification of health-promoting compounds.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rosaria; Ragusa, Salvatore; Russo, Marina; Certo, Giovanna; Franchina, Flavio A; Zanotto, Antonio; Grasso, Elisa; Mondello, Luigi; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia arborescens, also known as tree wormwood, is a typical species of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used in folk medicine for its antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient properties. In the current study, the application of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC), allowed to obtain a detailed fingerprint of the essential oil from A. arborescens aerial parts, highlighting an abundant presence of chamazulene followed by camphor, β-thujone, myrcene, and α-pinene. Moreover, flavonoids in the dichloromethane extract were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography with photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detections (HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCI-MS). Six polymethoxyflavones were identified and three of them, including chrysosplenetin, eupatin, and cirsilineol, were described in this species for the first time. The anti-angiogenic activity was investigated in the dichloromethane extract by two in vivo models, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and zebrafish embryos. Results showed that this extract produced a strong reduction on vessel formation, both on zebrafish (57% of inhibition, 0.1 mg/mL) and chick chorioallantoic membrane (58% of inhibition, 0.8 mg/mL). The high separation power and sensitivity of the analytical methodology applied confirmed the safety of A. arborescens essential oil for human consumption, due to the very low level of the psychotrope α-thujone determined. Moreover, the knowledge of the flavonoidic profile holds a great significance for the use of A. arborescens as a valuable source of anti-angiogenic compounds that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant.

  6. Phytochemical screening of Artemisia arborescens L. by means of advanced chromatographic techniques for identification of health-promoting compounds.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rosaria; Ragusa, Salvatore; Russo, Marina; Certo, Giovanna; Franchina, Flavio A; Zanotto, Antonio; Grasso, Elisa; Mondello, Luigi; Germanò, Maria Paola

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia arborescens, also known as tree wormwood, is a typical species of the Mediterranean flora. It has been used in folk medicine for its antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient properties. In the current study, the application of multidimensional comprehensive gas chromatography (GC×GC), allowed to obtain a detailed fingerprint of the essential oil from A. arborescens aerial parts, highlighting an abundant presence of chamazulene followed by camphor, β-thujone, myrcene, and α-pinene. Moreover, flavonoids in the dichloromethane extract were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography with photodiode array and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry detections (HPLC-PDA and HPLC-APCI-MS). Six polymethoxyflavones were identified and three of them, including chrysosplenetin, eupatin, and cirsilineol, were described in this species for the first time. The anti-angiogenic activity was investigated in the dichloromethane extract by two in vivo models, chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and zebrafish embryos. Results showed that this extract produced a strong reduction on vessel formation, both on zebrafish (57% of inhibition, 0.1 mg/mL) and chick chorioallantoic membrane (58% of inhibition, 0.8 mg/mL). The high separation power and sensitivity of the analytical methodology applied confirmed the safety of A. arborescens essential oil for human consumption, due to the very low level of the psychotrope α-thujone determined. Moreover, the knowledge of the flavonoidic profile holds a great significance for the use of A. arborescens as a valuable source of anti-angiogenic compounds that might contribute to the valorization of the phytotherapeutic potential of this plant. PMID:26476295

  7. Microoptical compound lens

    DOEpatents

    Sweatt, William C.; Gill, David D.

    2007-10-23

    An apposition microoptical compound lens comprises a plurality of lenslets arrayed around a segment of a hollow, three-dimensional optical shell. The lenslets collect light from an object and focus the light rays onto the concentric, curved front surface of a coherent fiber bundle. The fiber bundle transports the light rays to a planar detector, forming a plurality of sub-images that can be reconstructed as a full image. The microoptical compound lens can have a small size (millimeters), wide field of view (up to 180.degree.), and adequate resolution for object recognition and tracking.

  8. Ramucirumab: a novel antiangiogenic agent.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Roopma; Taketa, Takashi; Sudo, Kazuki; Blum-Murphy, Mariela; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2013-06-01

    Ramucirumab (IMC-1121B) is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGFR2 and can inhibit angiogenesis, a quintessential mechanism for promoting tumor growth and metastasis. Several antiangiogenesis agents are already approved for cancer therapy; however, ramucirumab's selectivity for VEGFR2 makes it interesting. The selectivity of an agent can improve safety and efficacy. This article describes the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, safety and clinical trial results of ramucirumab with particular emphasis on gastric cancer.

  9. PERSISTENT PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have gained notoriety in the recent past. Global distribution of PFCs in wildlife, environmental samples and humans has sparked a recent increase in new investigations concerning PFCs. Historically PFCs have been used in a wide variety of consume...

  10. 8-fluoropurine compounds

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Namavari, Mohammad; Phelps, Michael E.

    2001-01-01

    An efficient, regiocontrolled approach to the synthesis of 8-fluoropurines by direct fluorination of purines with dilute elemental fluorine, or acetyl hypofluorite, is provided. In a preferred embodiment, a purine compound is dissolved in a polar solvent and reacted with a dilute mixture of F.sub.2 in He or other inert gas.

  11. Fun with Ionic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logerwell, Mollianne G.; Sterling, Donna R.

    2007-01-01

    Ionic bonding is a fundamental topic in high school chemistry, yet it continues to be a concept that students struggle to understand. Even if they understand atomic structure and ion formation, it can be difficult for students to visualize how ions fit together to form compounds. This article describes several engaging activities that help…

  12. Boron and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Boron and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 42 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  13. Beryllium and compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Beryllium and compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 41 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  14. Selenium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenium and Compounds ; CASRN 7782 - 49 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  15. Zinc and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Zinc and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 66 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  16. Lead and compounds (inorganic)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Lead and compounds ( inorganic ) ; CASRN 7439 - 92 - 1 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for

  17. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    DOEpatents

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1990-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  18. Energies of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Wiberg, K.B.

    1995-07-01

    The studies included hydrolysis of ketals, hydration of alkenes, barrier to rotation about C-O bonds in esters and acids, hydrolysis of lactones, reduction of ketones, non-bonded interactions, and enthalpies of vaporization of ketones, ketals, and other compounds.

  19. Compound floating pivot micromechanisms

    DOEpatents

    Garcia, Ernest J.

    2001-04-24

    A new class of tilting micromechanical mechanisms have been developed. These new mechanisms use compound floating pivot structures to attain far greater tilt angles than are practical using other micromechanical techniques. The new mechanisms are also capable of bi-directional tilt about multiple axes.

  20. Aminopropyl thiophene compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, M.M.; Knapp, F.F.

    1990-04-03

    This patent describes radiopharmaceuticals useful in brain imaging comprising radiohalogenated thienylethylamine derivatives. The compounds are 5-halo-thiophene-2-isopropyl amines able to cross the blood-brain barrier and be retained for a sufficient length of time to allow the evaluation of regional blood flow by radioimaging of the brain.

  1. Urinary Compounds in Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcorn, A.; Berney, T.; Bretherton, K.; Mills, M.; Savery, D.; Shattock, P.

    2004-01-01

    Although earlier claims to identify specific compounds in the urine of people with autism had been discredited, it was subsequently suggested that there might be biochemical characteristics that were specific to early childhood, particularly in those who also did not have a severe degree of intellectual disability This study was to establish…

  2. Barium and Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Barium and Compounds ; CASRN 7440 - 39 - 3 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  3. Noun Compounding in Thai.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fasold, Ralph William August

    The present study, a slightly revised version of the author's 1968 Ph.D. thesis presented to the University of Chicago, investigates compound formation in Thai. Chapter 1 summarizes the transformational generative theory on which the study is based, discusses the concept that Thai is a "simple" language in comparison with English, and briefly…

  4. Toxicity of dipyridyl compounds and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Shenggang; Crooks, Peter A; Wei, Xiaochen; de Leon, Jose

    2004-01-01

    Five dipyridyl isomers, 2,2'-, 2,3'-, 2,4'-, 3,3'-, and 4,4'-dipyridyl, are products resulting from the pyrolytic degradation of tobacco products and degradation of the herbicide paraquat, and therefore may be present in the environment. In this article, the toxicological properties of these dipyridyl isomers in humans and animals are reviewed. Epidemiological studies suggest that cancerous skin lesions in workers involved in the manufacturing of paraquat may be associated with exposure to dipyridyl compounds. Experimental animal studies suggest that dipyridyl isomers may have several toxicological effects. Three of the dipyridyl isomers (the 2,2', 2,4', and 4,4' isomers) appear to be inducers of some metabolic enzymes. The 2,2'-dipyridyl isomer, an iron chelator, appears to influence vasospasm in primate models of stroke. The cytotoxic effects of 2,2'-dipyridyl on several leukemia cell lines have been reported, and a potent teratogenic effect of 2,2'-dipyridyl has been observed in rats. Based on the results of paraquat studies in experimental animal models, it has been proposed that paraquat may have deleterious effects on dopaminergic neurons. These findings support the epidemiological evidence that paraquat exposure may be associated with the development of Parkinson's disease. Studies designed to determine an association between paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease are complicated by the possibility that metabolic changes may influence the neurotoxicity of paraquat and/or its metabolites. Preliminary unpublished data in mice show that 300-mg/kg doses of 2,2'-dipyridyl are neurotoxic, and 300-mg/kg doses of 2,4'- and 4,4'-dipyridyls are lethal. These results are consistent with earlier studies in Sherman rats using high 2,2'- and 4,4'-dipyridyl doses. New studies are needed to further explore the toxicological properties of dipyridyls and their potential public health impact.

  5. Organic compounds in meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawless, J. G.

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies of carbonaceous chondrites provide evidence that certain organic compounds are indigenous and the result of an abiotic, chemical synthesis. The results of several investigators have established the presence of amino acids and precursors, mono- and dicarboxylic acids, N-heterocycles, and hydrocarbons as well as other compounds. For example, studies of the Murchison and Murray meteorites have revealed the presence of at least 40 amino acids with nearly equal abundances of D and L isomers. The population consists of both protein and nonprotein amino acids including a wide variety of linear, cyclic, and polyfunctional types. Results show a trend of decreasing concentration with increasing carbon number, with the most abundant being glycine (41 n Moles/g). These and other results to be reviewed provide persuasive support for the theory of chemical evolution and provide the only natural evidence for the protobiological subset of molecules from which life on earth may have arisen.

  6. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1987-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burn for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  7. Antifungal compounds from cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Shishido, Tânia K; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P D; Fiore, Marli F; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-04-13

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders.

  8. Compound chondrules fused cold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbard, Alexander

    2015-07-01

    About 4-5% of chondrules are compound: two separate chondrules stuck together. This is commonly believed to be the result of the two component chondrules having collided shortly after forming, while still molten. This allows high velocity impacts to result in sticking. However, at T ∼ 1100 K, the temperature below which chondrules collide as solids (and hence usually bounce), coalescence times for droplets of appropriate composition are measured in tens of seconds. Even at 1025 K, at which temperature theory predicts that the chondrules must have collided extremely slowly to have stuck together, the coalescence time scale is still less than an hour. These coalescence time scales are too short for the collision of molten chondrules to explain the observed frequency of compound chondrules. We suggest instead a scenario where chondrules stuck together in slow collisions while fully solid; and the resulting chondrule pair was subsequently briefly heated to a temperature in the range of 900-1025 K. In that temperature window the coalescence time is finite but long, covering a span of hours to a decade. This is particularly interesting because those temperatures are precisely the critical window for thermally ionized MRI activity, so compound chondrules provide a possible probe into that vital regime.

  9. Compound cycle engine program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bobula, G. A.; Wintucky, W. T.; Castor, J. G.

    1986-01-01

    The Compound Cycle Engine (CCE) is a highly turbocharged, power compounded power plant which combines the lightweight pressure rise capability of a gas turbine with the high efficiency of a diesel. When optimized for a rotorcraft, the CCE will reduce fuel burned for a typical 2 hr (plus 30 min reserve) mission by 30 to 40 percent when compared to a conventional advanced technology gas turbine. The CCE can provide a 50 percent increase in range-payload product on this mission. A program to establish the technology base for a Compound Cycle Engine is presented. The goal of this program is to research and develop those technologies which are barriers to demonstrating a multicylinder diesel core in the early 1990's. The major activity underway is a three-phased contract with the Garrett Turbine Engine Company to perform: (1) a light helicopter feasibility study, (2) component technology development, and (3) lubricant and material research and development. Other related activities are also presented.

  10. Antifungal Compounds from Cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Shishido, Tânia K.; Humisto, Anu; Jokela, Jouni; Liu, Liwei; Wahlsten, Matti; Tamrakar, Anisha; Fewer, David P.; Permi, Perttu; Andreote, Ana P. D.; Fiore, Marli F.; Sivonen, Kaarina

    2015-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are photosynthetic prokaryotes found in a range of environments. They are infamous for the production of toxins, as well as bioactive compounds, which exhibit anticancer, antimicrobial and protease inhibition activities. Cyanobacteria produce a broad range of antifungals belonging to structural classes, such as peptides, polyketides and alkaloids. Here, we tested cyanobacteria from a wide variety of environments for antifungal activity. The potent antifungal macrolide scytophycin was detected in Anabaena sp. HAN21/1, Anabaena cf. cylindrica PH133, Nostoc sp. HAN11/1 and Scytonema sp. HAN3/2. To our knowledge, this is the first description of Anabaena strains that produce scytophycins. We detected antifungal glycolipopeptide hassallidin production in Anabaena spp. BIR JV1 and HAN7/1 and in Nostoc spp. 6sf Calc and CENA 219. These strains were isolated from brackish and freshwater samples collected in Brazil, the Czech Republic and Finland. In addition, three cyanobacterial strains, Fischerella sp. CENA 298, Scytonema hofmanni PCC 7110 and Nostoc sp. N107.3, produced unidentified antifungal compounds that warrant further characterization. Interestingly, all of the strains shown to produce antifungal compounds in this study belong to Nostocales or Stigonematales cyanobacterial orders. PMID:25871291

  11. Toxic compounds in honey.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Nazmul; Khalil, Md Ibrahim; Islam, Md Asiful; Gan, Siew Hua

    2014-07-01

    There is a wealth of information about the nutritional and medicinal properties of honey. However, honey may contain compounds that may lead to toxicity. A compound not naturally present in honey, named 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), may be formed during the heating or preservation processes of honey. HMF has gained much interest, as it is commonly detected in honey samples, especially samples that have been stored for a long time. HMF is a compound that may be mutagenic, carcinogenic and cytotoxic. It has also been reported that honey can be contaminated with heavy metals such as lead, arsenic, mercury and cadmium. Honey produced from the nectar of Rhododendron ponticum contains alkaloids that can be poisonous to humans, while honey collected from Andromeda flowers contains grayanotoxins, which can cause paralysis of limbs in humans and eventually leads to death. In addition, Melicope ternata and Coriaria arborea from New Zealand produce toxic honey that can be fatal. There are reports that honey is not safe to be consumed when it is collected from Datura plants (from Mexico and Hungary), belladonna flowers and Hyoscamus niger plants (from Hungary), Serjania lethalis (from Brazil), Gelsemium sempervirens (from the American Southwest), Kalmia latifolia, Tripetalia paniculata and Ledum palustre. Although the symptoms of poisoning due to honey consumption may differ depending on the source of toxins, most common symptoms generally include dizziness, nausea, vomiting, convulsions, headache, palpitations or even death. It has been suggested that honey should not be considered a completely safe food.

  12. Design, Synthesis, in Vitro, and in Vivo Anticancer and Antiangiogenic Activity of Novel 3-Arylaminobenzofuran Derivatives Targeting the Colchicine Site on Tubulin

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Prencipe, Filippo; Lopez-Cara, Carlota; Ortega, Santiago Schiaffino; Brancale, Andrea; Hamel, Ernest; Castagliuolo, Ignazio; Mitola, Stefania; Ronca, Roberto; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Porcù, Elena; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2015-01-01

    A new series of compounds characterized by the presence of a 2-methoxy/ethoxycarbonyl group, combined with either no substituent or a methoxy group at each of the four possible positions of the benzene portion of the 3-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyanilino)benzo[b]furan skeleton, were evaluated for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells in culture and, for selected, highly active compounds, inhibition of tubulin polymerization, cell cycle effects, and in vivo potency. The greatest antiproliferative activity occurred with a methoxy group introduced at the C-6 position, the least with this substituent at C-4. Thus far, the most promising compound in this series was 2-methoxycarbonyl-3-(3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyanilino)-6-methoxybenzo-[b]furan (3g), which inhibited cancer cell growth at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 values of 0.3–27 nM), bound to the colchicine site of tubulin, induced apoptosis, and showed, both in vitro and in vivo, potent vascular disrupting properties derived from the effect of this compound on vascular endothelial cells. Compound 3g had in vivo antitumor activity in a murine model comparable to the activity obtained with combretastatin A-4 phosphate. PMID:25785605

  13. Altered Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and -9 Expression/Activity Links Placental Ischemia and Anti-angiogenic sFlt-1 to Uteroplacental and Vascular Remodeling and Collagen Deposition in Hypertensive Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Mata, Karina M.; Mazzuca, Marc Q.; Khalil, Raouf A.

    2014-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a complication of pregnancy manifested as maternal hypertension and often fetal growth restriction. Placental ischemia could be an initiating event, but the linking mechanisms leading to hypertension and growth restriction are unclear. We have shown an upregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) during normal pregnancy (Norm-Preg). To test the role of MMPs in hypertensive-pregnancy (HTN-Preg), maternal and fetal parameters, MMPs expression, activity and distribution, and collagen and elastin content were measured in uterus, placenta and aorta of Norm-Preg rats and in rat model of reduced uteroplacental perfusion pressure (RUPP). Maternal blood pressure was higher, and uterine, placental and aortic weight, and the litter size and pup weight were less in RUPP than Norm-Preg rats. Western blots and gelatin zymography revealed decreases in amount and gelatinase activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in uterus, placenta and aorta of RUPP compared with Norm-Preg rats. Immunohistochemistry confirmed reduced MMPs in uterus, placenta and aortic media of RUPP rats. Collagen, but not elastin, was more abundant in uterus, placenta and aorta of RUPP than Norm-Preg rats. The anti-angiogenic factor soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1) decreased MMPs in uterus, placenta and aorta of Norm-Preg rats, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) reversed the decreases in MMPs in tissues of RUPP rats. Thus placental ischemia and anti-angiogenic sFlt-1 decrease uterine, placental and vascular MMP-2 and MMP-9, leading to increased uteroplacental and vascular collagen, and growth-restrictive remodeling in HTN-Preg. Angiogenic factors and MMP activators may reverse the decrease in MMPs and enhance growth-permissive remodeling in preeclampsia. PMID:24704473

  14. Offset Compound Gear Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Mark A.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.

    2010-01-01

    The Offset Compound Gear Drive is an in-line, discrete, two-speed device utilizing a special offset compound gear that has both an internal tooth configuration on the input end and external tooth configuration on the output end, thus allowing it to mesh in series, simultaneously, with both a smaller external tooth input gear and a larger internal tooth output gear. This unique geometry and offset axis permits the compound gear to mesh with the smaller diameter input gear and the larger diameter output gear, both of which are on the same central, or primary, centerline. This configuration results in a compact in-line reduction gear set consisting of fewer gears and bearings than a conventional planetary gear train. Switching between the two output ratios is accomplished through a main control clutch and sprag. Power flow to the above is transmitted through concentric power paths. Low-speed operation is accomplished in two meshes. For the purpose of illustrating the low-speed output operation, the following example pitch diameters are given. A 5.0 pitch diameter (PD) input gear to 7.50 PD (internal tooth) intermediate gear (0.667 reduction mesh), and a 7.50 PD (external tooth) intermediate gear to a 10.00 PD output gear (0.750 reduction mesh). Note that it is not required that the intermediate gears on the offset axis be of the same diameter. For this example, the resultant low-speed ratio is 2:1 (output speed = 0.500; product of stage one 0.667 reduction and stage two 0.750 stage reduction). The design is not restricted to the example pitch diameters, or output ratio. From the output gear, power is transmitted through a hollow drive shaft, which, in turn, drives a sprag during which time the main clutch is disengaged.

  15. Arsenic compounds and cancer.

    PubMed

    Axelson, O

    1980-01-01

    Exposure to arsenic compounds has been epidemiologically associated with various types of cancers, particularly cancer of the lung among copper smelters and pesticide workers, whereas skin cancers and liver angiosarcomas have been associated with ingestion of arsenic for treatment of skin disorders, especially psoriasis. Attempts to reproduce cancer in animals have been mainly unsuccessful, however. Experimental evidence suggests that arsenic inhibits DNA repair; this might help to explain the somewhat conflicting observations from epidemiologic studies and animal experiments with regard to carcinogenicity, and perhaps also cardiovascular morbidity related to arsenic exposure. PMID:7463514

  16. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, Stephen B.; Koo, Myoung-Seo

    1992-01-01

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  17. Boronated porphyrin compounds

    DOEpatents

    Kahl, S.B.; Koo, M.S.

    1992-09-22

    A compound is described having the structure ##STR1## where R preferably is ##STR2## and most preferably R.sup.3 is a closo-carborane and R.sup.2 is --H, an alkyl or aryl having 1 to about 7 carbon atoms, This invention was made with Government support under NIH Grant No. CA-37961 awarded by the Department of Health and Human Services and under the Associated Universities Inc. Contract No. De-AC02-76CH00016 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The Government has rights in this invention.

  18. Turbo compound engine

    SciTech Connect

    Okada, M.; Sekiyama, S.

    1988-06-07

    A turbo compound engine is described comprising: an engine having an exhaust gas passage and a crankshaft; a power turbine disposed in the exhaust gas passage so as to recover the exhaust gas energy; driving power transmission means for drivingly connecting the power turbine and the crankshaft so as to transmit the driving power; a fluid passage connected to a portion of the exhaust passage which lies between the power turbine and the engine; and fluid passage switching means for closing the exhaust passage upstream of the fluid passage while opening the fluid passage during exhaust braking.

  19. Titanium alkoxide compound

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2007-08-14

    A titanium alkoxide composition is provided, as represented by the chemical formula (OC.sub.6H.sub.5N).sub.2Ti(OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2).sub.2. As prepared, the compound is a crystalline substance with a hexavalent titanium atom bonded to two OC.sub.6H.sub.5NH.sub.2 groups and two OC.sub.6H.sub.5N groups with a theoretical molecular weight of 480.38, comprising 60.01% C, 5.04% H and 11.66% N.

  20. Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed The Special Risks of Pharmacy Compounding Get Consumer Updates by E-mail Consumer ... page: A Troubling Trend What You Can Do Pharmacy compounding is a practice in which a licensed ...

  1. Organometallic chemistry of bimetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C.P.

    1991-07-01

    This report consists of six sections: heterobimetallic dihydrides, early-late transition metal heterobimetallic compounds, amphiphilic carbene complexes and hydroxycarbene complexes, diiron compounds with bridging hydrocarbon ligands, diphosphine chelates with natural bite angles near 120 degrees, and synthesis and reactions of M=M compounds. (WET)

  2. Sulfur compounds in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S.; Ahearn, M.

    1989-01-01

    Cometary atmospheres exhibit abundant sulfur and sulfur compounds, which are absent in planetary atmospheres. Sulfur compounds were also detected in interstellar media, including SO, SO2, CS, etc., but excluding S2 which was identified only in IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d. Fluorescence calculations are used to analyze the B-X system of S2 which appeared in IUE and ground-based spectra of IRAS-Araki-Alcock 1983d. Single- and multiple-cycle fluorescence calculations indicate that fluorescent equilibrium accounts for the observed spectra despite the fact that the S2 lifetime against solar ultraviolet radiation is relatively short. This analysis confirms unambiguously that emission peaks in the 3000 to 4000 A spectral range of the ground-based data are due to the B-X bands of S2. New evidence is presented of at least one S2 outburst before it was detected by A'Hearn, Feldman, and Schleicher. The time variation of S2 outgassing rates and discussion on the correlation between solar wind flux and the S2 outbursts will be presented.

  3. Potential risks of pharmacy compounding.

    PubMed

    Gudeman, Jennifer; Jozwiakowski, Michael; Chollet, John; Randell, Michael

    2013-03-01

    Pharmacy compounding involves the preparation of customized medications that are not commercially available for individual patients with specialized medical needs. Traditional pharmacy compounding is appropriate when done on a small scale by pharmacists who prepare the medication based on an individual prescription. However, the regulatory oversight of pharmacy compounding is significantly less rigorous than that required for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drugs; as such, compounded drugs may pose additional risks to patients. FDA-approved drugs are made and tested in accordance with good manufacturing practice regulations (GMPs), which are federal statutes that govern the production and testing of pharmaceutical products. In contrast, compounded drugs are exempt from GMPs, and testing to assess product quality is inconsistent. Unlike FDA-approved drugs, pharmacy-compounded products are not clinically evaluated for safety or efficacy. In addition, compounded preparations do not have standard product labeling or prescribing information with instructions for safe use. Compounding pharmacies are not required to report adverse events to the FDA, which is mandatory for manufacturers of FDA-regulated medications. Some pharmacies engage in activities that extend beyond the boundaries of traditional pharmacy compounding, such as large-scale production of compounded medications without individual patient prescriptions, compounding drugs that have not been approved for use in the US, and creating copies of FDA-approved drugs. Compounding drugs in the absence of GMPs increases the potential for preparation errors. When compounding is performed on a large scale, such errors may adversely affect many patients. Published reports of independent testing by the FDA, state agencies, and others consistently show that compounded drugs fail to meet specifications at a considerably higher rate than FDA-approved drugs. Compounded sterile preparations pose the additional risk

  4. Microoptical telescope compound eye.

    PubMed

    Duparré, Jacques; Schreiber, Peter; Matthes, André; Pshenay-Severin, Ekaterina; Bräuer, Andreas; Tünnermann, Andreas; Völkel, Reinhard; Eisner, Martin; Scharf, Toralf

    2005-02-01

    A new optical concept for compact digital image acquisition devices with large field of view is developed and proofed experimentally. Archetypes for the imaging system are compound eyes of small insects and the Gabor-Superlens. A paraxial 3x3 matrix formalism is used to describe the telescope arrangement of three microlens arrays with different pitch to find first order parameters of the imaging system. A 2mm thin imaging system with 21x3 channels, 70 masculinex10 masculine field of view and 4.5mm x 0.5mm image size is optimized and analyzed using sequential and non-sequential raytracing and fabricated by microoptics technology. Anamorphic lenses, where the parameters are a function of the considered optical channel, are used to achieve a homogeneous optical performance over the whole field of view. Captured images are presented and compared to simulation results. PMID:19494951

  5. Integrating computational and chemical biology tools in the discovery of antiangiogenic small molecule ligands of FGF2 derived from endogenous inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Foglieni, Chiara; Pagano, Katiuscia; Lessi, Marco; Bugatti, Antonella; Moroni, Elisabetta; Pinessi, Denise; Resovi, Andrea; Ribatti, Domenico; Bertini, Sabrina; Ragona, Laura; Bellina, Fabio; Rusnati, Marco; Colombo, Giorgio; Taraboletti, Giulia

    2016-01-01

    The FGFs/FGFRs system is a recognized actionable target for therapeutic approaches aimed at inhibiting tumor growth, angiogenesis, metastasis, and resistance to therapy. We previously identified a non-peptidic compound (SM27) that retains the structural and functional properties of the FGF2-binding sequence of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a major endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis. Here we identified new small molecule inhibitors of FGF2 based on the initial lead. A similarity-based screening of small molecule libraries, followed by docking calculations and experimental studies, allowed selecting 7 bi-naphthalenic compounds that bound FGF2 inhibiting its binding to both heparan sulfate proteoglycans and FGFR-1. The compounds inhibit FGF2 activity in in vitro and ex vivo models of angiogenesis, with improved potency over SM27. Comparative analysis of the selected hits, complemented by NMR and biochemical analysis of 4 newly synthesized functionalized phenylamino-substituted naphthalenes, allowed identifying the minimal stereochemical requirements to improve the design of naphthalene sulfonates as FGF2 inhibitors. PMID:27000667

  6. Oil-in-water biocompatible microemulsion as a carrier for the antitumor drug compound methyl dihydrojasmonate

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Gisela Bevilacqua Rolfsen Ferreira; Scarpa, Maria Virginia; Carlos, Iracilda Zepone; Quilles, Marcela Bassi; Lia, Raphael Carlos Comeli; do Egito, Eryvaldo Socrates Tabosa; de Oliveira, Anselmo Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Methyl dihydrojasmonate (MJ) has been studied because of its application as an antitumor drug compound. However, as MJ is a poorly water-soluble compound, a suitable oil-in-water microemulsion (ME) has been studied in order to provide its solubilization in an aqueous media and to allow its administration by the parenteral route. The ME used in this work was characterized on the pseudo-ternary phase diagram by dynamic light scattering and rheological measurements. Regardless of the drug presence, the droplet size was directly dependent on the oil/surfactant (O/S) ratio. Furthermore, the drug incorporation into the ME significantly increased the ME diameter, mainly at low O/S ratios. The rheological evaluation of the systems showed that in the absence of drug a Newtonian behavior was observed. On the other hand, in the presence of MJ the ME systems revealed pseudoplastic behavior, independently of the O/S ratio. The in vivo studies demonstrated that not only was the effect on the tumor inhibition inversely dependent on the MJ-loaded ME administered dose, but also it was slightly higher than the doxorubicin alone, which was used as the positive control. Additionally, a small antiangiogenic effect for MJ-loaded ME was found at doses in which it possesses antitumor activity. MJ revealed to be nontoxic at doses higher than 350 mg/kg, which was higher than the dose that provides tumor-inhibition effect in this study. Because the MJ-loaded ME was shown to have anticancer activity comparable to doxorubicin, the ME described here may be considered a suitable vehicle for parenteral administration of MJ. PMID:25609963

  7. Compounded oral ketamine.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Jack P; Hahn, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    The nonnarcotic nonaddictive neuropathic pain reliever ketamine, which was synthesized in the early 1960s by Parke-Davis, was first administered to human patients in 1965. Used by the U. S. military as a field anesthetic during the Vietnam War, it slowly became popular as both an induction and maintenance agent for the general anesthesia required during brief surgical procedures. The use of ketamine in the past has been limited primarily to intravenous administration in hospitalized patients. Very recently, several published reports have described the use of low-dose ketamine for the relief of pain, refractory depression, and anxiety in patients with or without cancer. Because chronic pain, depression, and anxiety often occur in hospice patients with or without cancer and in palliative care patients who are not eligible for hospice, the discovery of new and effective uses for an established drug to treat those conditions has excited interest in the palliative care community. We support that interest with this case report, which describes our experience in treating a 44-year-old male hospice patient with severe constant anxiety, fear, and depression in addition to multiple near-terminal comorbid physical conditions that produce chronic pain. Prior treatments prescribed to resolve this patient's pain, anxiety, and depression had proven ineffective. However, a single low-dose (0.5 mg/kg) subcutaneous test injection of ketamine provided dramatic relief from those symptoms for 80 hours, although the anesthetic effects of that drug are not of long duration. This good outcome has been sustained to date by daily treatment with a compounded flavored oral ketamine solution (40 mg/5 mL) that is not commercially available. Flavoring the solution masks the bitter taste of ketamine and renders the treatment palatable. We found ketamine to be a well-tolerated and effective treatment for the triad of severe anxiety, chronic pain, and severe depression in a hospice patient with

  8. Compound chondrules: an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, H. C., Jr.; Hewins, R. H.; Atre, N.; Lofgren, G. E.

    1994-07-01

    Compound chondrules are considered to be the product of collisions between molten chondrules during chondrule formation Wasson, J. T. et al. (1994) have argued that some compound chondrules are formed when a chondrule with an accretional rim experienced a flash-melting event similar to a chondrule-forming event. We have designed experiments to investigate the formation of compound chondrules by both methods. Experiments were performed on a Deltech vertical muffle tube furnace to form synthetic chondrules to use as accretion rim material. For our experimental conditions, it is clear that compound chondrules can only be made by a collisional event. Our changes maintain their spherical shape and produce distinct boundaries between charges that are similar to natural compound chondrules. Furthermore, collision event(s) between chondrules will cause nucleation if they are molten and undercooled, thus producing chondrule textures. Flash melting chondrules with accretionary rims will not produce compound chondrules but will produce new chondrules with new textures.

  9. Pluto's Nonvolatile Chemical Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, Richard; Cook, Jason C.; Cruikshank, Dale P.; Dalle Ore, Cristina M.; Earle, Alissa M.; Ennico, Kimberly; Jennings, Donald; Howett, Carly; Kaiser, Ralf-Ingo; Linscott, Ivan; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, Catherine B.; Parker, Alex Harrison; Parker, Joel Wm.; Philippe, Sylvain; Protopapa, Silvia; Quirico, Eric; Reuter, D. C.; Schmitt, Bernard; Singer, Kelsi N.; Spencer, John R.; Stansberry, John A.; Stern, S. Alan; Tsang, Constantine; Verbiscer, Anne J.; Weaver, Harold A.; Weigle, G. E.; Young, Leslie

    2016-10-01

    Despite the migration of Pluto's volatile ices (N2, CO, and CH4) around the surface on seasonal timescales, the planet's non-volatile materials are not completely hidden from view. They occur in a variety of provinces formed over a wide range of timescales, including rugged mountains and chasms, the floors of mid-latitude craters, and an equatorial belt of especially dark and reddish material typified by the informally named Cthulhu Regio. NASA's New Horizons probe observed several of these regions at spatial resolutions as fine as 3 km/pixel with its LEISA imaging spectrometer, covering wavelengths from 1.25 to 2.5 microns. Various compounds that are much lighter than the tholin-like macromolecules responsible for the reddish coloration, but that are not volatile at Pluto surface temperatures such as methanol (CH3OH) and ethane (C2H6) have characteristic absorption bands within LEISA's wavelength range. This presentation will describe their geographic distributions and attempt to constrain their origins. Possibilities include an inheritance from Pluto's primordial composition (the likely source of H2O ice seen on Pluto's surface) or ongoing production from volatile precursors through photochemistry in Pluto's atmosphere or through radiolysis on Pluto's surface. New laboratory data inform the analysis.This work was supported by NASA's New Horizons project.

  10. Compound power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.R.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes a compound motor for a vehicle. It comprises: an engine defining therein a chamber for the combustion of fuel, an intake passage leading to the combustion chamber and an exhaust passage leading from the combustion chamber; a drive shaft extending from the engine; means in the engine for rotating the drive shaft in response to the combustion of fuel in the chamber; a rotary compressor at the entry end of the intake passage; a turbine at the exit end of the exhaust passage, the turbine being drivable by exhaust gases from the combustion chamber; means for selectively transferring rotational motion of the turbine to the compressor, the transferring means including a clutch for mechanically connecting or disconnecting the compressor from the turbine; a planetary gear set having a sun gear member, a ring gear member surrounding the sun gear member, a planet gear member rotatable about its own axis and meshed between the sun gear member and the ring gear member, and a planet carrier member upon which the planet gear member is mounted for revolution about the sun gear member; a gear train between one of the members of the planetary gear set and the turbine; another one of the members of the planetary gear set being driven by the shaft extending from the engine; and a final output shaft driven by a third member of the planetary gear set.

  11. Compounding in synthetic aperture imaging.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jens Munk; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-09-01

    A method for obtaining compound images using synthetic aperture data is investigated using a convex array transducer. The new approach allows spatial compounding to be performed for any number of angles without reducing the frame rate or temporal resolution. This important feature is an intrinsic property of how the compound images are constructed using synthetic aperture data and an improvement compared with how spatial compounding is obtained using conventional methods. The synthetic aperture compound images are created by exploiting the linearity of delay-and-sum beamformation for data collected from multiple spherical emissions to synthesize multiple transmit and receive apertures, corresponding to imaging the tissue from multiple directions. The many images are added incoherently, to produce a single compound image. Using a 192-element, 3.5-MHz, λ-pitch transducer, it is demonstrated from tissue-phantom measurements that the speckle is reduced and the contrast resolution improved when applying synthetic aperture compound imaging. At a depth of 4 cm, the size of the synthesized apertures is optimized for lesion detection based on the speckle information density. This is a performance measure for tissue contrast resolution which quantifies the tradeoff between resolution loss and speckle reduction. The speckle information density is improved by 25% when comparing synthetic aperture compounding to a similar setup for compounding using dynamic receive focusing. The cystic resolution and clutter levels are measured using a wire phantom setup and compared with conventional application of the array, as well as to synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. If the full aperture is used for synthetic aperture compounding, the cystic resolution is improved by 41% compared with conventional imaging, and is at least as good as what can be obtained using synthetic aperture imaging without compounding. PMID:23007781

  12. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, M.; Matchett, S.A.

    1992-06-23

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines. 2 figs.

  13. Method of preparing metallocene compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenblum, Myron; Matchett, Stephen A.

    1992-01-01

    This invention describes a novel method of preparing metallocene compounds. The invention is based on synthesis of novel bis cyclopentadienides that, under appropriate conditions, will either encapsulate a transition metal to produce a metallocene such as ferrocene, or ferrocene derivative, or will yield a polymeric metallocene. Compounds produced by this process are useful as catalysts in propulsion systems, or as anti-knock compounds in gasolines.

  14. Method of producing cyclohexasilane compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Elangovan, Arumugasamy; Anderson, Kenneth; Boudjouk, Philip R; Schulz, Douglas L

    2015-03-10

    A method of preparing a cyclohexasilane compound from trichlorosilane is provided. The method includes contacting trichlorosilane with a reagent composition to produce a compound containing a tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion, such as a tetradecachlorocyclohexasilane dianion. The reagent composition typically includes (a) tertiary polyamine ligand; and (b) a deprotonating reagent, such as a tertiary amine having a pKa of at least about 10.5. Methods of converting the tetradecahalocyclohexasilane dianion-containing compound to cyclohexasilane or a dodecaorganocyclohexasilane are also provided.

  15. New England Compounding Center Indictment.

    PubMed

    Cabaleiro, Joe

    2015-01-01

    This article is a review of the lapses in compliance with United States Pharmacopeia standards and pharmacy law as alleged by the New England Compounding Center indictment. This indictment was a result of an outbreak of fungal meningitis traced to fungal contamination of compounded methylprednisolone suspension for epidural steroid injections. This article is also intended as a gap analysis for compounders to review compliance at their own facility, and, if necessary, take the appropriate steps to implement best practices. PMID:26685489

  16. Organic Compounds in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Grorge

    2001-01-01

    Carbonaceous meteorites are relatively enriched in soluble organic compounds. To date, these compounds provide the only record available to study a range of organic chemical processes in the early Solar System chemistry. The Murchison meteorite is the best-characterized carbonaceous meteorite with respect to organic chemistry. The study of its organic compounds has related principally to aqueous meteorite parent body chemistry and compounds of potential importance for the origin of life. Among the classes of organic compounds found in Murchison are amino acids, amides, carboxylic acids, hydroxy acids, sulfonic acids, phosphonic acids, purines and pyrimidines (Table 1). Compounds such as these were quite likely delivered to the early Earth in asteroids and comets. Until now, polyhydroxylated compounds (polyols), including sugars (polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones), sugar alcohols, sugar acids, etc., had not been identified in Murchison. Ribose and deoxyribose, five-carbon sugars, are central to the role of contemporary nucleic acids, DNA and RNA. Glycerol, a three-carbon sugar alcohol, is a constituent of all known biological membranes. Due to the relative lability of sugars, some researchers have questioned the lifetime of sugars under the presumed conditions on the early Earth and postulated other (more stable) compounds as constituents of the first replicating molecules. The identification of potential sources and/or formation mechanisms of pre-biotic polyols would add to the understanding of what organic compounds were available, and for what length of time, on the ancient Earth.

  17. Biomedical Compounds from Marine organisms

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Rajeev Kumar; Zi-rong, Xu

    2004-01-01

    The Ocean, which is called the ‘mother of origin of life’, is also the source of structurally unique natural products that are mainly accumulated in living organisms. Several of these compounds show pharmacological activities and are helpful for the invention and discovery of bioactive compounds, primarily for deadly diseases like cancer, acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), arthritis, etc., while other compounds have been developed as analgesics or to treat inflammation, etc. The life-saving drugs are mainly found abundantly in microorganisms, algae and invertebrates, while they are scarce in vertebrates. Modern technologies have opened vast areas of research for the extraction of biomedical compounds from oceans and seas.

  18. Antimicrobial compounds in tears.

    PubMed

    McDermott, Alison M

    2013-12-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here.

  19. Saturn's Stratospheric Oxygen Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Paul N.; Delgado Díaz, Héctor E.; Bjoraker, Gordon; Hesman, Brigette; Achterberg, Richard

    2016-10-01

    There are three known oxygenated species present in Saturn's upper atmosphere: H2O, CO and CO2. The ultimate source of the water must be external to Saturn as Saturn's cold tropopause effectively prevents any internal water from reaching the upper atmosphere. The carbon monoxide and dioxide source(s) could be internal, external, produced by the photochemical interaction of water with Saturn's stratospheric hydrocarbons or some combination of all of these. At this point it is not clear what the external source(s) are.Cassini's Composite InfraRed Spectrometer (CIRS) has detected emission lines of H2O and CO2 (Hesman et al., DPS 2015, 311.16 & Abbas et al. 2013, Ap. J. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/776/2/73) on Saturn. CIRS also retrieves the temperature of the stratosphere using CH4 lines at 7.7 microns. Using CIRS retrieved temperatures, the mole fraction of H2O at the 0.5-5 mbar level can be retrieved and the CO2 mole fraction at ~1-10 mbar. Coupled with ground based observations of CO (Cavalié et al., 2010, A&A, DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/200912909) these observations provide a complete oxygen compound data set to test photochemical models.Preliminary results will be presented with an emphasis on upper limit analysis to determine the percentage of stratospheric CO and CO2 that can be produced photochemically from CIRS observational constraints on the H2O profile.

  20. Antimicrobial Compounds in Tears

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Alison M.

    2013-01-01

    The tear film coats the cornea and conjunctiva and serves several important functions. It provides lubrication, prevents drying of the ocular surface epithelia, helps provide a smooth surface for refracting light, supplies oxygen and is an important component of the innate defense system of the eye providing protection against a range of potential pathogens. This review describes both classic antimicrobial compounds found in tears such as lysozyme and some more recently identified such as members of the cationic antimicrobial peptide family and surfactant protein-D as well as potential new candidate molecules that may contribute to antimicrobial protection. As is readily evident from the literature review herein, tears, like all mucosal fluids, contain a plethora of molecules with known antimicrobial effects. That all of these are active in vivo is debatable as many are present in low concentrations, may be influenced by other tear components such as the ionic environment, and antimicrobial action may be only one of several activities ascribed to the molecule. However, there are many studies showing synergistic/additive interactions between several of the tear antimicrobials and it is highly likely that cooperativity between molecules is the primary way tears are able to afford significant antimicrobial protection to the ocular surface in vivo. In addition to effects on pathogen growth and survival some tear components prevent epithelial cell invasion and promote the epithelial expression of innate defense molecules. Given the protective role of tears a number of scenarios can be envisaged that may affect the amount and/or activity of tear antimicrobials and hence compromise tear immunity. Two such situations, dry eye disease and contact lens wear, are discussed here. PMID:23880529

  1. Making solutions from hydrated compounds.

    PubMed

    Adams, Dany Spencer

    2008-05-01

    INTRODUCTIONSolution making typically involves dissolving dry chemicals in water or other specified solvent. The amount of chemical to be added to a solvent depends on the final concentration or molarity (M) needed for the finished solution and the total amount in liters (L) of solution required. However, some chemicals come with water molecules attached. The molecular weight (MW) of such compounds, listed as formula weight (FW) on the bottle, includes the mass of the water. Whenever you would use the MW of an unhydrated compound in calculations, use instead the MW of the hydrated compound. If a recipe tells how many grams to use of the unhydrated compound, determine the target concentration and then calculate the grams to use of hydrated compound. When using a hydrated compound, the attached water molecules contribute water to the solution, potentially diluting the final concentration (if the solvent is water). Therefore, you must account for the contribution of water from the hydrated compound when determining the volume of solvent (water) to add. This article describes the calculations involved in making solutions from hydrated compounds.

  2. Morphological Dynamics in Compound Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuperman, Victor; Bertram, Raymond; Baayen, R. Harald

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores the time-course of morphological processing of trimorphemic Finnish compounds. We find evidence for the parallel access to full-forms and morphological constituents diagnosed by the early effects of compound frequency, as well as early effects of left constituent frequency and family size. We also observe an interaction between…

  3. Compound odontoma in a dog.

    PubMed

    Hale, F A; Wilcock, B P

    1996-09-01

    Compound odontomas are rare tumors of dental origin. Though benign, their effect as a space occupying lesion can be dramatic. A large compound odontoma in the caudal right mandible of a five and a half month old dog was managed by surgical enucleation of the abnormal tissues. No recurrence was evident 6 months later.

  4. Bilingual Reading of Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, In Yeong; Wang, Min; Kim, Say Young

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether bilingual readers activate constituents of compound words in one language while processing compound words in the other language via decomposition. Two experiments using a lexical decision task were conducted with adult Korean-English bilingual readers. In Experiment 1, the lexical decision of real English…

  5. METHOD OF REDUCING PLUTONIUM COMPOUNDS

    DOEpatents

    Johns, I.B.

    1958-06-01

    A method is described for reducing plutonium compounds in aqueous solution from a higher to a lower valence state. This reduction of valence is achieved by treating the aqueous solution of higher valence plutonium compounds with hydrogen in contact with an activated platinum catalyst.

  6. Devices for collecting chemical compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, Jill R; Groenewold, Gary S

    2013-12-24

    A device for sampling chemical compounds from fixed surfaces and related methods are disclosed. The device may include a vacuum source, a chamber and a sorbent material. The device may utilize vacuum extraction to volatilize the chemical compounds from a fixed surface so that they may be sorbed by the sorbent material. The sorbent material may then be analyzed using conventional thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS) instrumentation to determine presence of the chemical compounds. The methods may include detecting release and presence of one or more chemical compounds and determining the efficacy of decontamination. The device may be useful in collection and analysis of a variety of chemical compounds, such as residual chemical warfare agents, chemical attribution signatures and toxic industrial chemicals.

  7. Assimilation of Unusual Carbon Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middelhoven, Wouter J.

    Yeast taxa traditionally are distinguished by growth tests on several sugars and organic acids. During the last decades it became apparent that many yeast species assimilate a much greater variety of naturally occurring carbon compounds as sole source of carbon and energy. These abilities are indicative of a greater role of yeasts in the carbon cycle than previously assumed. Especially in acidic soils and other habitats, yeasts may play a role in the degradation of carbon compounds. Such compounds include purines like uric acid and adenine, aliphatic amines, diamines and hydroxyamines, phenolics and other benzene compounds and polysaccharides. Assimilation of purines and amines is a feature of many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes. However, benzene compounds are degraded by only a few ascomycetous yeasts (e.g. the Stephanoascus/ Blastobotrys clade and black yeastlike fungi) but by many basidiomycetes, e.g. Filobasidiales, Trichosporonales, red yeasts producing ballistoconidia and related species, but not by Tremellales. Assimilation of polysaccharides is wide-spread among basidiomycetes

  8. Macrocyclic compounds as corrosion inhibitors

    SciTech Connect

    Quraishi, M.A.; Rawat, J.; Ajmal, M.

    1998-12-01

    The influence of three macrocyclic compounds on corrosion of mild steel (MS) in hydrochloric acid (HCl) was investigated using weight loss, potentiodynamic polarization, alternating current (AC) impedance, and hydrogen permeation techniques. All the investigated compounds showed significant efficiencies and reduced permeation of hydrogen through MS in HCl. Inhibition efficiency (IE) varied with the nature and concentrations of the inhibitors, temperature, and concentrations of the acid solutions. The addition of iodide ions (I{sup {minus}}) increased IE of all the tested compounds as a result of the synergistic effect. Potentiodynamic polarization results revealed that macrocyclic compounds acted as mixed inhibitors in 1 M HCl to 5 M HCl. Adsorption on the metal surface obeyed Temkin`s adsorption isotherm. Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) of the polished MS surface, exposed with tetraphenyldithia-octaazacyclotetradeca-hexaene (PTAT) proved adsorption of this compound on the surface through nitrogen and sulfur atoms.

  9. Bilayer Effects of Antimalarial Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ramsey, Nicole B.; Andersen, Olaf S.

    2015-01-01

    Because of the perpetual development of resistance to current therapies for malaria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture developed the Malaria Box to facilitate the drug development process. We tested the 80 most potent compounds from the box for bilayer-mediated effects on membrane protein conformational changes (a measure of likely toxicity) in a gramicidin-based stopped flow fluorescence assay. Among the Malaria Box compounds tested, four compounds altered membrane properties (p< 0.05); MMV007384 stood out as a potent bilayer-perturbing compound that is toxic in many cell-based assays, suggesting that testing for membrane perturbation could help identify toxic compounds. In any case, MMV007384 should be approached with caution, if at all. PMID:26551613

  10. Membrane rejection of nitrogen compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S.; Lueptow, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    Rejection characteristics of nitrogen compounds were examined for reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, and low-pressure reverse osmosis membranes. The rejection of nitrogen compounds is explained by integrating experimental results with calculations using the extended Nernst-Planck model coupled with a steric hindrance model. The molecular weight and chemical structure of nitrogen compounds appear to be less important in determining rejection than electrostatic properties. The rejection is greatest when the Donnan potential exceeds 0.05 V or when the ratio of the solute radius to the pore radius is greater than 0.8. The transport of solute in the pore is dominated by diffusion, although convective transport is significant for organic nitrogen compounds. Electromigration contributes negligibly to the overall solute transport in the membrane. Urea, a small organic compound, has lower rejection than ionic compounds such as ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite, indicating the critical role of electrostatic interaction in rejection. This suggests that better treatment efficiency for organic nitrogen compounds can be obtained after ammonification of urea.

  11. Photoprotective compounds from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Rajesh P; Richa; Sinha, Rajeshwar P; Singh, Shailendra P; Häder, Donat-P

    2010-06-01

    The substantial loss in the stratospheric ozone layer and consequent increase in solar ultraviolet radiation on the earth's surface have augmented the interest in searching for natural photoprotective compounds in organisms of marine as well as freshwater ecosystems. A number of photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), scytonemin, carotenoids and several other UV-absorbing substances of unknown chemical structure have been identified from different organisms. MAAs form the most common class of UV-absorbing compounds known to occur widely in various marine organisms; however, several compounds having UV-screening properties still need to be identified. The synthesis of scytonemin, a predominant UV-A-photoprotective pigment, is exclusively reported in cyanobacteria. Carotenoids are important components of the photosynthetic apparatus that serve both light-harvesting and photoprotective functions, either by direct quenching of the singlet oxygen or other toxic reactive oxygen species or by dissipating the excess energy in the photosynthetic apparatus. The production of photoprotective compounds is affected by several environmental factors such as different wavelengths of UVR, desiccation, nutrients, salt concentration, light as well as dark period, and still there is controversy about the biosynthesis of various photoprotective compounds. Recent studies have focused on marine organisms as a source of natural bioactive molecules having a photoprotective role, their biosynthesis and commercial application. However, there is a need for extensive work to explore the photoprotective role of various UV-absorbing compounds from marine habitats so that a range of biotechnological and pharmaceutical applications can be found.

  12. Compound curvature laser window development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verhoff, Vincent G.

    1993-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed and implemented a unique process for forming flawless compound curvature laser windows. These windows represent a major part of specialized, nonintrusive laser data acquisition systems used in a variety of compressor and turbine research test facilities. This report summarizes the main aspects of compound curvature laser window development. It is an overview of the methodology and the peculiarities associated with the formulation of these windows. Included in this discussion is new information regarding procedures for compound curvature laser window development.

  13. Regulation of Compound Leaf Development

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yuan; Chen, Rujin

    2013-01-01

    Leaf morphology is one of the most variable, yet inheritable, traits in the plant kingdom. How plants develop a variety of forms and shapes is a major biological question. Here, we discuss some recent progress in understanding the development of compound or dissected leaves in model species, such as tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), Cardamine hirsuta and Medicago truncatula, with an emphasis on recent discoveries in legumes. We also discuss progress in gene regulations and hormonal actions in compound leaf development. These studies facilitate our understanding of the underlying regulatory mechanisms and put forward a prospective in compound leaf studies. PMID:27135488

  14. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1993-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains colloidal silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{sup TM}, LEXAN{sup TM}, LUCITE{sup TM}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  15. The Chemiluminescence of Organometallic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstikov, Genrikh A.; Bulgakov, Ramil G.; Kazakov, Valeri P.

    1985-11-01

    Studies on the liquid-phase and gas-phase reactions of organometallic compounds accompanied by the emission of light are described systematically and discussed. The influence of the magnetic field on the chemiluminescence of Grignard reagents and the study of the electrochemiluminescence of solutions of organometallic compounds are examined. The ways leading to further development of the field of the chemiluminescence of organometallic compounds and certain possible applications of the phenomenon in the monitoring of industrial processes are discussed. The bibliography includes 80 references.

  16. New syntheses of diazo compounds.

    PubMed

    Maas, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Diazo compounds (R1R2C=N2) are known as versatile and useful substrates for an array of chemical transformations and, therefore, diazo chemistry is still far from losing anything of its long-standing fascination. In addition to many studies on the subsequent chemistry of the diazo group, the inventory of methods for the preparation of diazo compounds is continuously supplemented by new methods and novel variations of established procedures. Several of these synthetic approaches take into account the lability and remarkable chemical reactivity of certain classes of diazo compounds, and environmentally more benign procedures also continue to be developed. PMID:19790217

  17. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1995-08-22

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces is disclosed. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired. 5 figs.

  18. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, Michael S.

    1995-01-01

    A polishing compound for plastic surfaces. The compound contains by weight approximately 4 to 17 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 6 parts mineral spirits, 2.5 to 15 parts abrasive particles, and 2.5 to 10 parts water. The abrasive is tripoli or a similar material that contains fine particles silica. Preferably, most of the abrasive particles are less than approximately 10 microns, more preferably less than approximately 5 microns in size. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS.TM., LEXAN.TM., LUCITE.TM., polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  19. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA`s fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  20. Crystallographic properties of fertilizer compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, A.W.; Dillard, E.F.; Thrasher, R.D.; Waerstad, K.R.; Hunter, S.R.; Kohler, J.J.; Scheib, R.M.

    1991-02-01

    This bulletin is a compilation of crystallographic data collected at NFERC on 450 fertilizer-related compounds. In TVA's fertilizer R and D program, petrographic examination, XRD, and infrared spectroscopy are combined with conventional chemical analysis methods in identifying the individual compounds that occur in fertilizer materials. This handbook brings together the results of these characterization studies and supplemental crystallographic data from the literature. It is in one-compound-per-page, loose-leaf format, ordered alphabetically by IUPAC name. Indexes provided include IUPAC name, formula, group, alternate formula, synonyms, x-ray data, optical data. Tables are given for solids, compounds in commercial MAP and DAP, and matrix materials in phosphate rock.

  1. Compound cueing in free recall

    PubMed Central

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  2. Polishing compound for plastic surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Stowell, M.S.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of a polishing compound for plastic materials. The compound includes approximately by approximately by weight 25 to 80 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, 1 to 12 parts mineral spirits, 50 to 155 parts abrasive paste, and 15 to 60 parts water. Preferably, the compound includes approximately 37 to 42 parts at least one petroleum distillate lubricant, up to 8 parts mineral spirits, 95 to 110 parts abrasive paste, and 50 to 55 parts water. The proportions of the ingredients are varied in accordance with the particular application. The compound is used on PLEXIGLAS{trademark}, LEXAN{trademark}, LUCITE{trademark}, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and similar plastic materials whenever a smooth, clear polished surface is desired.

  3. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1996-01-01

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chloated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis.

  4. Detection of chlorinated aromatic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1996-02-06

    A method for making a composition for measuring the concentration of chlorinated aromatic compounds in aqueous fluids, and an optical probe for use with the method are disclosed. The composition comprises a hydrophobic polymer matrix, preferably polyamide, with a fluorescent indicator uniformly dispersed therein. The indicator fluoresces in the presence of the chlorinated aromatic compounds with an intensity dependent on the concentration of these compounds in the fluid of interest, such as 8-amino-2-naphthalene sulfonate. The probe includes a hollow cylindrical housing that contains the composition in its distal end. The probe admits an aqueous fluid to the probe interior for exposure to the composition. An optical fiber transmits excitation light from a remote source to the composition while the indicator reacts with chlorinated aromatic compounds present in the fluid. The resulting fluorescence light signal is reflected to a second optical fiber that transmits the light to a spectrophotometer for analysis. 5 figs.

  5. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Hung Sui; Yang, Xiao-Qing; McBreen, James

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li.sup.+ ion in alkali metal batteries.

  6. Aza compounds as anion receptors

    DOEpatents

    Lee, H.S.; Yang, X.Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-01-06

    A family of aza-ether based compounds including linear, multi-branched and aza-crown ethers is provided. When added to non-aqueous battery electrolytes, the family of aza-ether based compounds acts as neutral receptors to complex the anion moiety of the electrolyte salt thereby increasing the conductivity and the transference number of Li{sup +} ion in alkali metal batteries. 3 figs.

  7. Photochemical dimerization of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, R.H.; Brown, S.H.; Muedas, C.A.; Ferguson, R.R.

    1992-04-14

    This patent describes improvement in a Group IIb photosensitized vapor phase dimerization of an organic compound in which a gaseous mixture of a Group IIB metal and the organic compound is irradiated in a reaction zone with a photosensitizing amount of radiant energy. The improvement comprises: a continuous stream of the gaseous mixture is passed as a vapor phase in a single pass through the reaction zone at a temperature at which the thus-produced dimer condenses immediately upon the formation thereof; the starting gaseous mixture comprises hydrogen and two ethylenically unsaturated compounds selected from the group consisting of alkenes of at least six carbon atoms, unsaturated nitriles, unsaturated epoxides, unsaturated silanes, unsaturated amines, unsaturated phosphines, and fluorinated alkenes; the gaseous mixture comprises nitrous oxide and the organic compound is a saturated compound with C-H bond strengths greater than 100 kcal/mol or a mixture of the saturated compound and an alkene; or the starting gaseous comprises an activating amount of hydrogen and the dimerization is a dehydrodimerization or cross-dimerization of a saturated hydrocarbon.

  8. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes

    PubMed Central

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L’Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A.; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  9. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories. PMID:23690574

  10. Miniature curved artificial compound eyes.

    PubMed

    Floreano, Dario; Pericet-Camara, Ramon; Viollet, Stéphane; Ruffier, Franck; Brückner, Andreas; Leitel, Robert; Buss, Wolfgang; Menouni, Mohsine; Expert, Fabien; Juston, Raphaël; Dobrzynski, Michal Karol; L'Eplattenier, Geraud; Recktenwald, Fabian; Mallot, Hanspeter A; Franceschini, Nicolas

    2013-06-01

    In most animal species, vision is mediated by compound eyes, which offer lower resolution than vertebrate single-lens eyes, but significantly larger fields of view with negligible distortion and spherical aberration, as well as high temporal resolution in a tiny package. Compound eyes are ideally suited for fast panoramic motion perception. Engineering a miniature artificial compound eye is challenging because it requires accurate alignment of photoreceptive and optical components on a curved surface. Here, we describe a unique design method for biomimetic compound eyes featuring a panoramic, undistorted field of view in a very thin package. The design consists of three planar layers of separately produced arrays, namely, a microlens array, a neuromorphic photodetector array, and a flexible printed circuit board that are stacked, cut, and curved to produce a mechanically flexible imager. Following this method, we have prototyped and characterized an artificial compound eye bearing a hemispherical field of view with embedded and programmable low-power signal processing, high temporal resolution, and local adaptation to illumination. The prototyped artificial compound eye possesses several characteristics similar to the eye of the fruit fly Drosophila and other arthropod species. This design method opens up additional vistas for a broad range of applications in which wide field motion detection is at a premium, such as collision-free navigation of terrestrial and aerospace vehicles, and for the experimental testing of insect vision theories.

  11. Anti-tumor efficacy of BEZ235 is complemented by its anti-angiogenic effects via downregulation of PI3K-mTOR-HIF1alpha signaling in HER2-defined breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Nandini; Sun, Yuliang; Carlson, Jennifer H; Wu, Hui; Lin, Xiaoqian; Leyland-Jones, Brian; De, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the PI3K-mTOR pathway via HER2: HER3-mediated signaling in HER2+ breast cancers pose one of the major threats towards the success of trastuzumab. First, trastuzumab cannot perturb survival/proliferative signals following HER2: HER3 heterodimerization in HER2+ tumor cells. Second, trastuzumab treatment has been reported to cause drug-mediated resistance in over 50% of HER2+ breast cancers. We have reported that treatment with an anti-angiogenic drug imparted a significant anti-tumor advantage when combined with trastuzumab plus pertuzumab in the trastuzumab-resistant model of HER2+ breast cancers (PMID: 23959459). The very fact as revealed by our study that an inclusion of anti-angiogenic drug conferred a significant anti-tumor advantage when combined with dual anti-HER2 therapy clearly indicated a critical and indispensable role of angiogenesis in these tumors. Hence, we hypothesized that BEZ235 a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor will have an effect on the tumor as well as the angiogenic stromal compartments. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of BEZ235 was determined in HER2+ trastuzumab-sensitive, trastuzumab-resistant and HER2 amplified/PIK3CA mutated cell lines. BEZ235 alone and in combination with trastuzumab was tested on the tumor as well as stromal compartments. AKT-mTOR signal was suppressed following BEZ235 treatment in a concentration and time-dependent manner. AnnexinV, cl-CASPASE3, SURVIVIN and p-FOXO1 indicated that BEZ235-induced cell death occurred predominantly via an apoptotic pathway. Heregulin-induced HIF1α synthesis was also significantly decreased. Oncoprint data (cBioPortal) representing PAM50 Her2 enriched tumors (TCGA, Nature 2012) and Her2-positive breast tumors (TCGA, cell 2015) showed 91.4% genetic alterations and 79.2% genetic alterations in a set of four genes comprised of PIK3CA, ERBB2, VEGFA and HIF1alpha. The co-occurrence of HIF1alpha with VEGFA in PAM50 Her2 enriched tumors (TCGA, Nature 2012) and the co-occurrence of HIF1alpha

  12. Method for purifying bidentate organophosphorus compounds

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1977-01-01

    Bidentate organophosphorus compounds useful for extracting actinide elements from acidic nuclear waste solutions are purified of undesirable acidic impurities by contacting the compounds with ethylene glycol which preferentially extracts the impurities found in technical grade bidentate compounds.

  13. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  14. Anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and apoptosis-inducing activity of DLBS1442, a bioactive fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa, in a RL95-2 cell line as a molecular model of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Tandrasasmita, Olivia M; Sutanto, Adeline M; Arifin, Poppy F; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    DLBS1442 is a bioactive fraction extracted from the fruit of the native Indonesian plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl (Thymelaceae). This bioactive fraction is a potential treatment for dysmenorrhea and endometriosis. The present study investigated the pharmacological action of DLBS1442 in endometrial cells. The effect of various doses of DLBS1442 (0-200 μg/mL) over 24 hours was studied using the human endometrial RL95-2 cell line to observe its effect on angiogenesis, cell migration, estrogen and progesterone receptor levels, the eicosanoid pathway, cell viability, and apoptosis. The impact of DLBS1442 on nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and the eicosanoid pathway was also studied through its marker gene expression using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. DLBS1442 showed an ability to inhibit angiogenesis and cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. At a dose of 100 μg/mL, DLBS1442 increased the cell population in sub-G1 phase from 7% to 34%. DLBS1442 also significantly downregulated the estrogen receptor level and upregulated the progesterone receptor level. Further, it inhibited the eicosanoid signaling pathway by reducing the NFκB transcription level and subsequent reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase. A dose-dependent decrease in viability and increased apoptosis in RL95-2 cells were also evident after exposure to DLBS1442, where the IC50 was obtained at around 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, DLBS1442 is a potential agent for alleviating symptoms of endometriosis via its antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic activity. PMID:25678821

  15. Anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and apoptosis-inducing activity of DLBS1442, a bioactive fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa, in a RL95-2 cell line as a molecular model of endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Tandrasasmita, Olivia M; Sutanto, Adeline M; Arifin, Poppy F; Tjandrawinata, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    DLBS1442 is a bioactive fraction extracted from the fruit of the native Indonesian plant, Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl (Thymelaceae). This bioactive fraction is a potential treatment for dysmenorrhea and endometriosis. The present study investigated the pharmacological action of DLBS1442 in endometrial cells. The effect of various doses of DLBS1442 (0–200 μg/mL) over 24 hours was studied using the human endometrial RL95-2 cell line to observe its effect on angiogenesis, cell migration, estrogen and progesterone receptor levels, the eicosanoid pathway, cell viability, and apoptosis. The impact of DLBS1442 on nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) and the eicosanoid pathway was also studied through its marker gene expression using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method. DLBS1442 showed an ability to inhibit angiogenesis and cell migration in a dose-dependent manner. At a dose of 100 μg/mL, DLBS1442 increased the cell population in sub-G1 phase from 7% to 34%. DLBS1442 also significantly downregulated the estrogen receptor level and upregulated the progesterone receptor level. Further, it inhibited the eicosanoid signaling pathway by reducing the NFκB transcription level and subsequent reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase. A dose-dependent decrease in viability and increased apoptosis in RL95-2 cells were also evident after exposure to DLBS1442, where the IC50 was obtained at around 100 μg/mL. In conclusion, DLBS1442 is a potential agent for alleviating symptoms of endometriosis via its antiangiogenic, anti-inflammatory, and proapoptotic activity. PMID:25678821

  16. Extraterrestrial Organic Compounds in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Botta, Oliver; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Meyer, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Many organic compounds or their precursors found in meteorites originated in the interstellar or circumstellar medium and were later incorporated into planetesimals during the formation of the solar system. There they either survived intact or underwent further processing to synthesize secondary products on the meteorite parent body. The most distinct feature of CI and CM carbonaceous chondrites, two types of stony meteorites, is their high carbon content (up to 3% of weight), either in the form of carbonates or of organic compounds. The bulk of the organic carbon consists of an insoluble macromolecular material with a complex structure. Also present is a soluble organic fraction, which has been analyzed by several separation and analytical procedures. Low detection limits can be achieved by derivatization of the organic molecules with reagents that allow for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. The CM meteorite Murchison has been found to contain more than 70 extraterrestrial amino acids and several other classes of compounds including carboxylic acids, hydroxy carboxylic acids, sulphonic and phosphonic acids, aliphatic, aromatic and polar hydrocarbons, fullerenes, heterocycles as well as carbonyl compounds, alcohols, amines and amides. The organic matter was found to be enriched in deuterium, and distinct organic compounds show isotopic enrichments of carbon and nitrogen relative to terrestrial matter.

  17. Blue Photoluminescence From Silacyclobutene Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pernisz, Udo

    1999-04-01

    Organosilicon compounds in which the Si atom is bound to an aromatic moiety such as a phenyl group, exhibit strong blue photoluminescence when excited with UV light (for example at a wavelength of 337 nm). This phenomenon was investigated quantitatively at room temperature and at the temperature of liquid nitrogen (78 K) by measuring the emission and excitation spectra of the total luminescence, and of the phosphorescence, for a silacyclobutene compound in which two phenyl groups are joined across the C=C double bond of the ring. The effect of a series of organic substituents on the Si atom was investigated as well as the time dependence of the phosphorescence intensity decay for this class of materials. A tentative model of the energy levels in this compound is proposed. The observation of visible blue emission -- in contrast to photoluminescence in the UV from the aromatic groups -- is explained by the Si-C bond lowering the energy of the molecular orbitals, an effect that is currently under study for a range of Si-containing compounds. Synthesis of the silacyclobutene compounds was performed at the laboratory of Prof. N. Auner, now at J.W. Goethe Universität, Frankfurt, Germany. His contributions, and those of his collaborators, to the work reported here are gratefully acknowledged.

  18. PDMS compound adsorption in context.

    PubMed

    Li, Nianzhen; Schwartz, Michael; Ionescu-Zanetti, Cristian

    2009-02-01

    Soft lithography of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), an elastomeric polymer, has enabled rapid and inexpensive fabrication of microfluidic devices for various biotechnology applications. However, concerns remain about adsorption of compounds on PDMS surfaces because of its porosity and hydrophobicity. Here, the adsorption of 2 small fluorescent dyes of different hydrophobicity (calcein and 5- (and 6-)carboxytetramethylrhodamine (TMR)) on PDMS surface has been systematically characterized, and PDMS adsorption has been compared with 2 traditional substrates: glass and polystyrene. To characterize adsorption in a regimen that is more relevant to microfluidic applications, the adsorption and desorption of the 2 compounds in PDMS microfluidic channels under flow conditions were also studied. Results showed that there was minimal adsorption of the hydrophilic compound calcein on PDMS, whereas the more hydrophobic TMR adsorbed on PDMS up to 4 times of that on glass or polystyrene. Under flow conditions, the desorption profiles and times needed to drop desorbed compound concentrations to negligible levels (desorption time constant, 10-42 s) were characterized. In the worst case scenario, after a 4-min exposure to TMR, 4 min of continuous wash resulted in compound concentrations in the microchannels to drop to values below 2 x 10(- 5) of the initial concentration.

  19. Associative asymmetry of compound words.

    PubMed

    Caplan, Jeremy B; Boulton, Kathy L; Gagné, Christina L

    2014-07-01

    Early verbal-memory researchers assumed participants represent memory of a pair of unrelated items with 2 independent, separately modifiable, directional associations. However, memory for pairs of unrelated words (A-B) exhibits associative symmetry: a near-perfect correlation between accuracy on forward (A →?) and backward (?← B) cued recall. This was viewed as arguing against the independent-associations hypothesis and in favor of the hypothesis that associations are remembered as holistic units. Here we test the Holistic Representation hypothesis further by examining cued recall of compound words. If we suppose preexisting words are more unitized than novel associations, the Holistic Representation hypothesis predicts compound words (e.g., ROSE BUD) will have a higher forward-backward correlation than novel compounds (e.g., BRIEF TAX). We report the opposite finding: Compound words, as well as noncompound words, exhibited less associative symmetry than novel compounds. This challenges the Holistic Representation account of associative symmetry. Moreover, preexperimental associates (positional family size) influenced associative symmetry-but asymmetrically: Increasing family size of the last constituent increasing decoupled forward and backward recall, but family size of the 1st constituent had no such effect. In short, highly practiced, meaningful associations exhibit associative asymmetry, suggesting associative symmetry is not diagnostic of holistic representations but, rather, is a characteristic of ad hoc associations. With additional learning, symmetric associations may be replaced by directional, independently modifiable associations as verbal associations become embedded within a rich knowledge structure.

  20. [Triterpene compounds from Cirsium setosum].

    PubMed

    Li, Lingling; Sun, Zheng; Shang, Xiaoya; Li, Jinjie; Wang, Rong; Zhu, Jie

    2012-04-01

    To investigate chemical constituents contained in cytotoxic petroleum ether extractive fractions from ethanol extracts of Cirsium setosum. The constituents were separated and purified by a combination of various chromatographic methods including silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, and preparative HPLC. Structures of the isolates were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR and MS methods. The compound structures were also determined by reference to literature. Twelve compounds were separated from the petroleum ether fraction of ethanolic extract and elucidated as lupenyl acetate (1), lupeol (2), lupenone (3), beta-amyrin (4), psi-taraxasterol (5), psi-taraxasteryl acetate (6), taraxasteryl acetate (7), marsformoxide B (8), alpha-amyrenone (9), beta-amyrenone (10), taraxasterone (11) and psi-taraxasterone (12). Of them, compounds 3, 5, 7-12 were separated from this genus for the first time.

  1. Gallium-containing anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Chitambar, Christopher R

    2012-06-01

    There is an ever pressing need to develop new drugs for the treatment of cancer. Gallium nitrate, a group IIIa metal salt, inhibits the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and has shown activity against non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and bladder cancer in clinical trials. Gallium can function as an iron mimetic and perturb iron-dependent proliferation and other iron-related processes in tumor cells. Gallium nitrate lacks crossresistance with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs and is not myelosuppressive; it can be used when other drugs have failed or when the blood count is low. Given the therapeutic potential of gallium, newer generations of gallium compounds are now in various phases of preclinical and clinical development. These compounds hold the promise of greater anti-tumor activity against a broader spectrum of cancers. The development of gallium compounds for cancer treatment and their mechanisms of action will be discussed.

  2. Anaerobic Degradation of Phenolic Compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schink, B.; Philipp, B.; Müller, J.

    Mononuclear aromatic compounds are degraded anaerobically through three main pathways, the benzoyl-CoA pathway, the resorcinol pathway, and the phloroglucinol pathway. Various modification reactions channel a broad variety of mononuclear aromatics including aromatic hydrocarbons into either one of these three pathways. Recently, a further pathway was discovered with hydroxyhydroquinone as central intermediate through which especially nitrate-reducing bacteria degrade phenolic compounds and some hydroxylated benzoates. Comparison of the various strategies taken for the degradation of aromatics in the absence of oxygen demonstrates that the biochemistry of breakdown of these compounds is determined largely by the overall reaction energetics and, more precisely, by the redox potentials of the electron acceptor systems used. Nitrate reducers differ in their strategies significantly from those used by sulfate-reducing or fermenting bacteria.

  3. Hydrophobic Compounds Reshape Membrane Domains

    PubMed Central

    Barnoud, Jonathan; Rossi, Giulia; Marrink, Siewert J.; Monticelli, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Cell membranes have a complex lateral organization featuring domains with distinct composition, also known as rafts, which play an essential role in cellular processes such as signal transduction and protein trafficking. In vivo, perturbations of membrane domains (e.g., by drugs or lipophilic compounds) have major effects on the activity of raft-associated proteins and on signaling pathways, but they are difficult to characterize because of the small size of the domains, typically below optical resolution. Model membranes, instead, can show macroscopic phase separation between liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains, and they are often used to investigate the driving forces of membrane lateral organization. Studies in model membranes have shown that some lipophilic compounds perturb membrane domains, but it is not clear which chemical and physical properties determine domain perturbation. The mechanisms of domain stabilization and destabilization are also unknown. Here we describe the effect of six simple hydrophobic compounds on the lateral organization of phase-separated model membranes consisting of saturated and unsaturated phospholipids and cholesterol. Using molecular simulations, we identify two groups of molecules with distinct behavior: aliphatic compounds promote lipid mixing by distributing at the interface between liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered domains; aromatic compounds, instead, stabilize phase separation by partitioning into liquid-disordered domains and excluding cholesterol from the disordered domains. We predict that relatively small concentrations of hydrophobic species can have a broad impact on domain stability in model systems, which suggests possible mechanisms of action for hydrophobic compounds in vivo. PMID:25299598

  4. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

    1991-01-01

    In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

  5. Biodegradation of halogenated organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, G R; Chapalamadugu, S

    1991-03-01

    In this review we discuss the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons by microorganisms, emphasizing the physiological, biochemical, and genetic basis of the biodegradation of aliphatic, aromatic, and polycyclic compounds. Many environmentally important xenobiotics are halogenated, especially chlorinated. These compounds are manufactured and used as pesticides, plasticizers, paint and printing-ink components, adhesives, flame retardants, hydraulic and heat transfer fluids, refrigerants, solvents, additives for cutting oils, and textile auxiliaries. The hazardous chemicals enter the environment through production, commercial application, and waste. As a result of bioaccumulation in the food chain and groundwater contamination, they pose public health problems because many of them are toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic. Although synthetic chemicals are usually recalcitrant to biodegradation, microorganisms have evolved an extensive range of enzymes, pathways, and control mechanisms that are responsible for catabolism of a wide variety of such compounds. Thus, such biological degradation can be exploited to alleviate environmental pollution problems. The pathways by which a given compound is degraded are determined by the physical, chemical, and microbiological aspects of a particular environment. By understanding the genetic basis of catabolism of xenobiotics, it is possible to improve the efficacy of naturally occurring microorganisms or construct new microorganisms capable of degrading pollutants in soil and aquatic environments more efficiently. Recently a number of genes whose enzyme products have a broader substrate specificity for the degradation of aromatic compounds have been cloned and attempts have been made to construct gene cassettes or synthetic operons comprising these degradative genes. Such gene cassettes or operons can be transferred into suitable microbial hosts for extending and custom designing the pathways for rapid degradation of recalcitrant

  6. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications. PMID:27276233

  7. Organophosphorus Compounds in Organic Electronics.

    PubMed

    Shameem, Muhammad Anwar; Orthaber, Andreas

    2016-07-25

    This Minireview describes recent advances of organophosphorus compounds as opto-electronic materials in the field of organic electronics. The progress of (hetero-) phospholes, unsaturated phosphanes, and trivalent and pentavalent phosphanes since 2010 is covered. The described applications of organophosphorus materials range from single molecule sensors, field effect transistors, organic light emitting diodes, to polymeric materials for organic photovoltaic applications.

  8. Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 08 / 002F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF Cerium Oxide and Cerium Compounds ( CAS No . 1306 - 38 - 3 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2009 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER Th

  9. Cryogenic container compound suspension strap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorreiter, J. W. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A support strap for use in a cryogenic storage vessel for supporting the inner shell from the outer shell with a minimum heat leak is presented. The compound suspension strap is made from a unidirectional fiberglass epoxy composite material with an ultimate tensile strength and fatigue strength which are approximately doubled when the material is cooled to a cryogenic temperature.

  10. Students' Categorizations of Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domin, Daniel S.; Al-Masum, Mohammad; Mensah, John

    2008-01-01

    Categorization is a fundamental psychological ability necessary for problem solving and many other higher-level cognitive tasks. In organic chemistry, students must establish groupings of different chemical compounds in order not only to solve problems, but also to understand course content. Classic models of categorization emphasize similarity as…

  11. Infrared Spectroscopy of Deuterated Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCarthy, Patrick

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment (based on the potassium bromide pressed-pellet method) involving the infrared spectroscopy of deuterated compounds. Deuteration refers to deuterium-hydrogen exchange at active hydrogen sites in the molecule. (JN)

  12. Instability of viscoelastic compound jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Han-Yu; Yang, Li-Jun; Fu, Qing-Fei

    2016-04-01

    This paper investigates the axisymmetric instability of a viscoelastic compound jet, for which the constitutive relation is described by the Oldroyd B model. It is found that a viscoelastic compound jet is more unstable than a Newtonian compound jet, regardless of whether the viscoelastic compound jet is inner-Newtonian-outer-viscoelastic, inner-viscoelastic-outer-Newtonian, or fully viscoelastic. It is also found that an increase in the stress relaxation time of the inner or outer fluid renders the jet more unstable, while an increase in the time constant ratio makes the jet less unstable. An analysis of the energy budget of the destabilization process is performed, in which a formulation using the relative rate of change of energy is adopted. The formulation is observed to provide a quantitative analysis of the contribution of each physical factor (e.g., release of surface energy and viscous dissipation) to the temporal growth rate. The energy analysis reveals the mechanisms of various trends in the temporal growth rate, including not only how the growth rate changes with the parameters, but also how the growth rate changes with the wavenumber. The phenomenon of the dispersion relation presenting two local maxima, which occurred in previous research, is explained by the present energy analysis.

  13. Compound Cuing in Free Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cuing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity…

  14. Halogenated Compounds from Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Cabrita, Maria Teresa; Vale, Carlos; Rauter, Amélia Pilar

    2010-01-01

    Marine algae produce a cocktail of halogenated metabolites with potential commercial value. Structures exhibited by these compounds go from acyclic entities with a linear chain to complex polycyclic molecules. Their medical and pharmaceutical application has been investigated for a few decades, however other properties, such as antifouling, are not to be discarded. Many compounds were discovered in the last years, although the need for new drugs keeps this field open as many algal species are poorly screened. The ecological role of marine algal halogenated metabolites has somehow been overlooked. This new research field will provide valuable and novel insight into the marine ecosystem dynamics as well as a new approach to comprehending biodiversity. Furthermore, understanding interactions between halogenated compound production by algae and the environment, including anthropogenic or global climate changes, is a challenging target for the coming years. Research of halogenated metabolites has been more focused on macroalgae than on phytoplankton. However, phytoplankton could be a very promising material since it is the base of the marine food chain with quick adaptation to environmental changes, which undoubtedly has consequences on secondary metabolism. This paper reviews recent progress on this field and presents trends on the role of marine algae as producers of halogenated compounds. PMID:20948909

  15. Compounding errors in 2 dogs receiving anticonvulsants

    PubMed Central

    McConkey, Sandra E.; Walker, Susan; Adams, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Two cases that involve drug compounding errors are described. One dog exhibited increased seizure activity due to a compounded, flavored phenobarbital solution that deteriorated before the expiration date provided by the compounder. The other dog developed clinical signs of hyperkalemia and bromine toxicity following a 5-fold compounding error in the concentration of potassium bromide (KBr). PMID:23024385

  16. Large Constituent Families Help Children Parse Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krott, Andrea; Nicoladis, Elena

    2005-01-01

    The family size of the constituents of compound words, or the number of compounds sharing the constituents, has been shown to affect adults' access to compound words in the mental lexicon. The present study was designed to see if family size would affect children's segmentation of compounds. Twenty-five English-speaking children between 3;7 and…

  17. The nature of compounds: a psychocentric perspective.

    PubMed

    Libben, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Although compound words often seem to be words that themselves contain words, this paper argues that this is not the case for the vast majority of lexicalized compounds. Rather, it is claimed that as a result of acts of lexical processing, the constituents of compound words develop into new lexical representations. These representations are bound to specific morphological roles and positions (e.g., head, modifier) within a compound word. The development of these positionally bound compound constituents creates a rich network of lexical knowledge that facilitates compound processing and also creates some of the well-documented patterns in the psycholinguistic and neurolinguistic study of compounding. PMID:24580553

  18. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  19. [Molecular characteristics of leiomyoma uteri based on selected compounds of the extracellular matrix].

    PubMed

    Auguściak-Duma, Aleksandra; Sieroń, Aleksander L

    2008-01-14

    Leiomyoma is a monoclonal benign tumor. It is often located in the muscle layer of the uterus in women of reproductive age. Its growth is accelerated by pregnancy and hormonal therapy. Its growth also depends on the concentration of sex hormones. Growth factors and cytokines may also participate in the formation of leiomyomas. The modulation of mitotic activity and abnormal extracellular matrix production are key elements of tumor growth. Elements of the TGFbeta superfamily are crucial factors in the proliferation of neoplasmic cells. TGF-beta1 and -beta3 stimulate the synthesis of various components of the extracellular matrix, but they also down-regulate the synthesis of proteinases which degrade the matrix, often leading to excessive overdeposition of connective tissue. Collagen types 1 and 3 are the main structural components of the extracellular matrix. The biosynthesis of collagens requires, among others, the action of procollagen C-endopeptidase, a protein of the BMP-1/mTLD subfamily. BMP-1/mTLD-like proteinases remove the carboxyl propeptides of procollagens 1, 2, and 3. Removal of the C-propeptides decreases the solubility of procollagens about 1000-fold to a concentration critical for their spontaneous self-assembly to collagen fibrils. Different substrates of BMP-1/mTLD are prolysyl oxidase, gamma2 chain of prolaminin, procollagen type VII, miostatin, dentin matrix protein 1, and perlekan. Due to the activation of various substrates by BMP-1/mTLDs, they are important regulators of the production of the extracellular matrix and its quality as well as of antiangiogenic responses by producing a factor from the basal membrane compound called perlekan. The BMP-1/mTLDs influence the formation of dorsal ventral patterning in embryos by releasing BMP-2/4 from the inhibitory protein chordin. Another aspect is induction of the development of muscle and neural tissue by activation of GDF8 and GDF11 as well as the regulation of growth and cell proliferation by

  20. Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P. M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark

    2015-02-26

    This study examines the field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds which has a history dating back to the 1960s. This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC₆ and YbC₆ in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how this relates to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic statesmore » and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.« less