Kocagöz, T; Hayran, M; Kocagöz, S
The rapid antibiotic susceptibility tests that have been developed so far cannot be used in daily work, because of their many difficulties and disadvantages. We have developed a new antibiotic susceptibility test for enteric bacteria which gives the result in 4 hours, easy to perform and inexpensive. This method depends upon the mechanism which detects the acid formed by the bacteria, by the change of the color of the pH indicator in the medium. The susceptibility of 110 different isolates of enteric bacteria (E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Shigella, Proteus, Enterobacter) to ampicillin, amikacin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, cephradine, cefazolin, erythromycin, gentamicin, and ofloxacin is examined by this new "Rapid Color Change Test" and disc diffusion method. For most organisms tested, there was a good correlation between the results of the two methods. The overall agreement is found to be 91.43%.
Casey, Christine L; Hernandez, Sonia M; Yabsley, Michael J; Smith, Katherine F; Sanchez, Susan
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a growing public health concern and has serious implications for both human and veterinary medicine. The nature of the global economy encourages the movement of humans, livestock, produce, and wildlife, as well as their potentially antibiotic-resistant bacteria, across international borders. Humans and livestock can be reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria; however, little is known about the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria harbored by wildlife and, to our knowledge, limited data has been reported for wild-caught reptiles that were specifically collected for the pet trade. In the current study, we examined the antibiotic resistance of lactose-positive Enterobacteriaceae isolates from wild-caught Tokay geckos (Gekko gecko) imported from Indonesia for use in the pet trade. In addition, we proposed that the conditions under which wild animals are captured, transported, and handled might affect the shedding or fecal prevalence of antibiotic resistance. In particular we were interested in the effects of density; to address this, we experimentally modified densities of geckos after import and documented changes in antibiotic resistance patterns. The commensal enteric bacteria from Tokay geckos (G. gecko) imported for the pet trade displayed resistance against some antibiotics including: ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefoxitin, chloramphenicol, kanamycin and tetracycline. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria after experimentally mimicking potentially stressful transportation conditions reptiles experience prior to purchase. There were, however, some interesting trends observed when comparing Tokay geckos housed individually and those housed in groups. Understanding the prevalence of antibiotic resistant commensal enteric flora from common pet reptiles is paramount because of the potential for humans exposed to these animals to acquire antibiotic
Yu, Linda Chia-Hui; Shih, Yi-An; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Yang-Ding; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Peng, Wei-Hao; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Wei, Shu-Chen; Turner, Jerrold R; Ni, Yen-Hsuan
Antibiotic usage promotes intestinal colonization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, whether resistant bacteria gain dominance in enteric microflora or disseminate to extraintestinal viscera remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate temporal diversity changes in microbiota and transepithelial routes of bacterial translocation after antibiotic-resistant enterobacterial colonization. Mice drinking water with or without antibiotics were intragastrically gavaged with ampicillin-resistant (Amp-r) nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and given normal water afterward. The composition and spatial distribution of intestinal bacteria were evaluated using 16S rDNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Bacterial endocytosis in epithelial cells was examined using gentamicin resistance assay and transmission electromicroscopy. Paracellular permeability was assessed by tight junctional immunostaining and measured by tissue conductance and luminal-to-serosal dextran fluxes. Our results showed that antibiotic treatment enabled intestinal colonization and transient dominance of orally acquired Amp-r E. coli in mice. The colonized Amp-r E. coli peaked on day 3 postinoculation and was competed out after 1 wk, as evidenced by the recovery of commensals, such as Escherichia, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus. Mucosal penetration and extraintestinal dissemination of exogenous and endogenous enterobacteria were correlated with abnormal epithelial transcytosis but uncoupled with paracellular tight junctional damage. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced enteric dysbiosis predisposes to exogenous infection and causes systemic dissemination of both antibiotic-resistant and commensal enterobacteria through transcytotic routes across epithelial layers. These results may help explain the susceptibility to sepsis in antibiotic-resistant enteric bacterial infection.
AbdelRahim, Khalid Abdalla Ali; Hassanein, Ahmed Mohamed; Abd El Azeiz, Heikal Abd El Hakim
Background: One of the major health causing problems is contamination of drinking water sources with human pathogenic bacteria. Enteric bacteria such as Shigella, Salmonella and Escherichia coli are most enteric bacteria causing serious health problems. Occurrence of such bacteria infection, which may resist antibiotics, increases the seriousness of problem. Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of some enteric bacteria (Shigella, Salmonella and E. coli) in addition to Pseudomonas. The antibiotic susceptibility of these bacteria was also tested, in addition to assessing plasmid(s) roles in supposed resistance. MRSA genes in non-staphylococci were clarified. Materials and Methods: Water samples were collected from different drinking sources (Nile, ground water) and treated tap water. Selective media were used to isolate enteric bacteria and Pseudomonas. These bacteria were identified, counted and examined for its susceptibility against 10 antibiotics. The plasmids were screened in these strains. MRSA genes were also examined using PCR. Results: Thirty-two bacterial strains were isolated from Nile and ground water and identified as S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. serovar Newport, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli strains according to standard methods. According to antibiotic susceptibility test, 81% of strains were resistant to Cefepime, whereas 93.75% were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Correlation analysis between plasmids profiles and antibiotics sensitivities showed that 50% of the total strains had plasmids. These strains showed resistance to 50% of the used antibiotics (as average value); whereas, the plasmids free strains (50%) were resistant to 48.7% of the antibiotics. No distinct correlation between plasmids and antibiotic resistance in some strains could be concluded in this study. No MRSA gene was detected among these non-staphylococci strains. No bacteria were isolated from treated tap water. Conclusions: Thirty-three bacterial strains
Yu, Linda Chia-Hui; Shih, Yi-An; Wu, Li-Ling; Lin, Yang-Ding; Kuo, Wei-Ting; Peng, Wei-Hao; Lu, Kuo-Shyan; Wei, Shu-Chen; Turner, Jerrold R.
Antibiotic usage promotes intestinal colonization of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. However, whether resistant bacteria gain dominance in enteric microflora or disseminate to extraintestinal viscera remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate temporal diversity changes in microbiota and transepithelial routes of bacterial translocation after antibiotic-resistant enterobacterial colonization. Mice drinking water with or without antibiotics were intragastrically gavaged with ampicillin-resistant (Amp-r) nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) and given normal water afterward. The composition and spatial distribution of intestinal bacteria were evaluated using 16S rDNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Bacterial endocytosis in epithelial cells was examined using gentamicin resistance assay and transmission electromicroscopy. Paracellular permeability was assessed by tight junctional immunostaining and measured by tissue conductance and luminal-to-serosal dextran fluxes. Our results showed that antibiotic treatment enabled intestinal colonization and transient dominance of orally acquired Amp-r E. coli in mice. The colonized Amp-r E. coli peaked on day 3 postinoculation and was competed out after 1 wk, as evidenced by the recovery of commensals, such as Escherichia, Bacteroides, Lachnospiraceae, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus. Mucosal penetration and extraintestinal dissemination of exogenous and endogenous enterobacteria were correlated with abnormal epithelial transcytosis but uncoupled with paracellular tight junctional damage. In conclusion, antibiotic-induced enteric dysbiosis predisposes to exogenous infection and causes systemic dissemination of both antibiotic-resistant and commensal enterobacteria through transcytotic routes across epithelial layers. These results may help explain the susceptibility to sepsis in antibiotic-resistant enteric bacterial infection. PMID:25059827
Molitor, Alexander; Bolla, Jean-Michel; Bessonov, Andrey N.; Winterhalter, Mathias; Pagès, Jean-Marie
Background Multi-drug resistant (MDR) infections have become a major concern in hospitals worldwide. This study investigates membrane translocation, which is the first step required for drug action on internal bacterial targets. β-lactams, a major antibiotic class, use porins to pass through the outer membrane barrier of Gram-negative bacteria. Clinical reports have linked the MDR phenotype to altered membrane permeability including porin modification and efflux pump expression. Methodology/Principal Findings Here influx of β-lactams through the major Enterobacter aerogenes porin Omp36 is characterized. Conductance measurements through a single Omp36 trimer reconstituted into a planar lipid bilayer allowed us to count the passage of single β-lactam molecules. Statistical analysis of each transport event yielded the kinetic parameters of antibiotic travel through Omp36 and distinguishable translocation properties of β-lactams were quantified for ertapenem and cefepime. Expression of Omp36 in an otherwise porin-null bacterial strain is shown to confer increases in the killing rate of these antibiotics and in the corresponding bacterial susceptibility. Conclusions/Significance We propose the idea of a molecular “passport” that allows rapid transport of substrates through porins. Deciphering antibiotic translocation provides new insights for the design of novel drugs that may be highly effective at passing through the porin constriction zone. Such data may hold the key for the next generation of antibiotics capable of rapid intracellular accumulation to circumvent the further development MDR infections. PMID:19434239
Wheeler, Emily; Hong, Pei-Ying; Bedon, Lenin Cruz; Mackie, Roderick I
Increased overlap between humans and wildlife populations has increased the risk for novel disease emergence. Detecting contacts with a high risk for transmission of pathogens requires the identification of dependable measures of microbial exchange. We evaluated antibiotic resistance as a molecular marker for the intensity of human-wildlife microbial connectivity in the Galápagos Islands. We isolated Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica from the feces of land iguanas (Conolophus sp.), marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), giant tortoises (Geochelone nigra), and seawater, and tested these bacteria with the use of the disk diffusion method for resistance to 10 antibiotics. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were found in reptile feces from two tourism sites (Isla Plaza Sur and La Galapaguera on Isla San Cristóbal) and from seawater close to a public use beach near Puerto Baquerizo Moreno on Isla San Cristóbal. No resistance was detected at two protected beaches on more isolated islands (El Miedo on Isla Santa Fe and Cape Douglas on Isla Fernandina) and at a coastal tourism site (La Lobería on Isla San Cristóbal). Eighteen E. coli isolates from three locations, all sites relatively proximate to a port town, were resistant to ampicillin, doxycycline, tetracycline, and trimethoprin/sulfamethoxazole. In contrast, only five S. enterica isolates showed a mild decrease in susceptibility to doxycycline and tetracycline from these same sites (i.e., an intermediate resistance phenotype), but no clinical resistance was detected in this bacterial species. These findings suggest that reptiles living in closer proximity to humans potentially have higher exposure to bacteria of human origin; however, it is not clear from this study to what extent this potential exposure translates to ongoing exchange of bacterial strains or genetic traits. Resistance patterns and bacterial exchange in this system warrant further investigation to understand better how human associations
Scolozzi, Paolo; Lombardi, Tommaso; Edney, Timothy; Jaques, Bertrand
Osteomyelitis of the mandible is a relatively rare inflammatory disease that usually stems from the odontogenic polymicrobial flora of the oral cavity. We are reporting 2 unusual cases of mandibular osteomyelitis resulting from enteric bacteria infection. In one patient, abundant clinical evidence suggested a diagnosis of a chronic factitious disease, whereas in the second patient no obvious etiology was found.
Dobbin, Greg; Hariharan, Harry; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Hariharan, Shebel; Heaney, Susan; Coles, Mada; Price, Lawrence; Anne Muckle, C
Cloacal and pharyngeal swabs from 100 tree-nesting Double-crested cormorant (DCC) chicks were examined by culture for commensal and potentially pathogenic bacteria. No Salmonella or Erysipelothrix were isolated from the cloacal swabs. Twenty-two cloacal swabs were positive for Campylobacter, of which 14 were C. jejuni, C. coli, and 1 C. lari. None belonged to common serotypes isolated from humans or animals in recent years in Canada. Tests for antimicrobial drug resistance among 187 commensal Escherichia coli isolates from the cloacal swabs indicated that < or =5% were resistant to any of the 12 antibiotics tested. This contrasts with the frequently high resistance rates among E. coli isolates from poultry. Pharyngeal swabs from DCC were negative for Pasteurella multocida. Culture of cloacal swabs from 100 ground-nesting DCC chicks resulted in the recovery of 19 Salmonella isolates, all of which were S. enterica serotype Typhimurium. None of these isolates were resistant to any of the 12 antibiotics tested. Altogether, these findings suggest that DCC from this region are not being colonized with commensal or potentially pathogenic enteric bacteria from agricultural or human sources and that enteric bacteria isolated from these birds are unlikely to contribute to a gene pool of antimicrobial drug resistance.
Longenecker, Nevin E.; Oppenheimer, Dan
A study conducted by high school advanced bacteriology students appears to confirm the hypothesis that the incremental administration of antibiotics on several species of bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermis, Bacillus sublitus, Bacillus megaterium) will allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant strains. (PEB)
Korp, Juliane; Vela Gurovic, María S
Summary Bacteria, which prey on other microorganisms, are commonly found in the environment. While some of these organisms act as solitary hunters, others band together in large consortia before they attack their prey. Anecdotal reports suggest that bacteria practicing such a wolfpack strategy utilize antibiotics as predatory weapons. Consistent with this hypothesis, genome sequencing revealed that these micropredators possess impressive capacities for natural product biosynthesis. Here, we will present the results from recent chemical investigations of this bacterial group, compare the biosynthetic potential with that of non-predatory bacteria and discuss the link between predation and secondary metabolism. PMID:27340451
To maximize production, producers regularly use antibiotics as supplements in animal feed and water to increase weight gain and prevent diseases among their livestock, which may result in nonpoint source pollution of ground or surface waters. This study examined the leaching of the enteric bacteria ...
Burgos, J. M.; Ellington, B. A.; Varela, M. F.
In addition to human and veterinary medicine, antibiotics are extensively used in agricultural settings, such as for treatment of infections, growth enhancement and prophylaxis in food animals, leading to selection of drug and multidrug resistant bacteria. In order to help circumvent the problem of bacterial antibiotic resistance, it is first necessary to understand the scope of the problem. However, is it not fully understood how widespread antibiotic resistant bacteria are in agricultural settings. The lack of such surveillance data is especially evident in dairy farm environments, such as soil. It is also unknown to what extent various physiological modulators, such as salycilate, a component of aspirin and known model modulator of multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) genes, influence bacterial multidrug resistance. We isolated and identified enteric soil bacteria from local dairy farms within Roosevelt County, NM, determined the resistance profiles to antibiotics associated with mar, such as chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, penicillin G and tetracycline. We then purified and characterized plasmid DNA and detected mar phenotypic activity. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics for the isolates ranged between 6 - >50 μg/mL for chloramphenicol, 2–8 μg/mL for nalidixic acid, 25- >300 μg/mL for penicillin G and 1- > 80 μg/mL for tetracycline. On the other hand, the many of the isolates had significantly enhanced MICs for the same antibiotics in the presence of 5 mM salycilate. Plasmid DNA extracted from 12 randomly chosen isolates ranged in size between 6 and 12.5kb and in several cases conferred resistances to chloramphenicol and penicillin G. It is concluded that enteric bacteria from dairy farm topsoil are multi-drug resistant and harbor antibiotic resistance plasmids. A role for dairy topsoil in zoonosis is suggested, thus implicating this environment as a reservoir for bacterial resistance development against clinically relevant
Gueimonde, Miguel; Sánchez, Borja; G. de los Reyes-Gavilán, Clara; Margolles, Abelardo
Probiotics are live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. The main probiotic bacteria are strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, although other representatives, such as Bacillus or Escherichia coli strains, have also been used. Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium are two common inhabitants of the human intestinal microbiota. Also, some species are used in food fermentation processes as starters, or as adjunct cultures in the food industry. With some exceptions, antibiotic resistance in these beneficial microbes does not constitute a safety concern in itself, when mutations or intrinsic resistance mechanisms are responsible for the resistance phenotype. In fact, some probiotic strains with intrinsic antibiotic resistance could be useful for restoring the gut microbiota after antibiotic treatment. However, specific antibiotic resistance determinants carried on mobile genetic elements, such as tetracycline resistance genes, are often detected in the typical probiotic genera, and constitute a reservoir of resistance for potential food or gut pathogens, thus representing a serious safety issue. PMID:23882264
Lin, Johnson; Ganesh, Atheesha
Water quality through the presence of pathogenic enteric microorganisms may affect human health. Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and coliphages are normally used as indicators of water quality. However, the presence of above-mentioned indicators do not always suggest the presence of human enteric viruses. It is important to study human enteric viruses in water. Human enteric viruses can tolerate fluctuating environmental conditions and survive in the environment for long periods of time becoming causal agents of diarrhoeal diseases. Therefore, the potential of human pathogenic viruses as significant indicators of water quality is emerging. Human Adenoviruses and other viruses have been proposed as suitable indices for the effective identification of such organisms of human origin contaminating water systems. This article reports on the recent developments in the management of water quality specifically focusing on human enteric viruses as indicators.
Argues that reduction in the use of antibiotics would enable antibiotic-sensitive bacteria to flourish. Presents an activity designed to show students how a small, seemingly unimportant difference in doubling time can, over a period of time, make an enormous difference in population size. (DDR)
Yosef, Ido; Manor, Miriam; Qimron, Udi
ABSTRACT The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is on the rise because antibiotics exert selection pressure that kills only the antibiotic-sensitive pathogens. Sanitation and cleansing of hospital surfaces and the skin of medical personnel do not counteract this selective pressure, but rather indiscriminately reduce total pathogens on treated surfaces. Here, we discuss two recently introduced genetic strategies, based on temperate bacteriophages as DNA-delivery vehicles, that aim to sensitize bacteria to antibiotics and selectively kill the antibiotic-resistant ones. Outlooks for rendering one such approach more efficient and applicable are proposed. We believe that using an end product designed according to the provided principles on hospital surfaces and in hand-sanitizers will facilitate substitution of antibiotic-resistant pathogens with sensitive ones. PMID:27144084
Solutions of Clinifeed ISO, Triosorbon, Vivonex Standard (full- and half-strength) and Vivonex HN were experimentally contaminated with two strains each of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenes, Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae at concentrations of 10(2)-10(3) organisms/ml. Samples were incubated at 4, 25 or 37 degrees C and viable counts were made at 0, 4, 8 and 24 h. No increase in numbers of any of the organisms was observed in any of the feeds during 24 h at 4 degrees C. All organisms multiplied rapidly in Clinifeed ISO and in Triosorbon at 25 and 37 degrees C. There was less rapid growth in half-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, although at 37 degrees C all strains multiplied rapidly except for the two S. aureus strains, the growth of which was inhibited in half-strength Vivonex Standard at both 25 and 37 degrees C. In full-strength Vivonex Standard at 25 degrees C, only P. aeruginosa showed any increase in numbers during 24 h, whereas P. aeruginosa, K. aerogenes and E. cloacae all multiplied at 37 degrees C. None of the test organisms multiplied in full strength Vivonex HN at any of the temperatures studied. The results of the study show that bacteria survive and may multiply even in feeds with low pH and high osmolarity, and emphasise the importance of strict hygiene during the preparation and handling of all enteral feeds.
Nisanian, M; Holladay, S D; Karpuzoglu, E; Kerr, R P; Williams, S M; Stabler, L; McArthur, J Vaun; Tuckfield, R Cary; Gogal, R M
Heavy metals have been implicated for their ability to increase antibiotic resistance in bacteria collected from polluted waters, independent of antibiotic exposure. Specific-pathogen-free Leghorn chickens were therefore given Pb acetate in the drinking water to expose the enteric bacteria to Pb and to determine if antibiotic resistance changed in these bacteria. Concentrations of Pb used were 0.0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 mM; birds given the highest 2 concentrations showed signs of moribundity and dehydration and were removed from the study. Vent culture samples were collected for bacterial cultures on d 0 before Pb exposure, d 7 and 14, and then birds were euthanized by CO2 gas for necropsy on d 14, at which time intestinal contents were also collected for bacterial cultures. Fecal swabs but not intestinal samples from Pb-exposed birds contained isolates that had significantly elevated antibiotic resistance. Some of the isolates contained bacteria that were resistant to up to 20 antibiotics. These results suggest the need for repeated studies in chickens infected with zoonotic pathogens.
Schnaitman, C A; Klena, J D
From a historical perspective, the study of both the biochemistry and the genetics of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) synthesis began with the enteric bacteria. These organisms have again come to the forefront as the blocks of genes involved in LPS synthesis have been sequenced and analyzed. A number of new and unanticipated genes were found in these clusters, indicating a complexity of the biochemical pathways which was not predicted from the older studies. One of the most dramatic areas of LPS research has been the elucidation of the lipid A biosynthetic pathway. Four of the genes in this pathway have now been identified and sequenced, and three of them are located in a complex operon which also contains genes involved in DNA and phospholipid synthesis. The rfa gene cluster, which contains many of the genes for LPS core synthesis, includes at least 17 genes. One of the remarkable findings in this cluster is a group of several genes which appear to be involved in the synthesis of alternate rough core species which are modified so that they cannot be acceptors for O-specific polysaccharides. The rfb gene clusters which encode O-antigen synthesis have been sequenced from a number of serotypes and exhibit the genetic polymorphism anticipated on the basis of the chemical complexity of the O antigens. These clusters appear to have originated by the exchange of blocks of genes among ancestral organisms. Among the large number of LPS genes which have now been sequenced from these rfa and rfb clusters, there are none which encode proteins that appear to be secreted across the cytoplasmic membrane and surprisingly few which encode integral membrane proteins or proteins with extensive hydrophobic domains. These data, together with sequence comparison and complementation experiments across strain and species lines, suggest that the LPS biosynthetic enzymes may be organized into clusters on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane which are organized around a few key membrane
Caly, Delphine L.; D'Inca, Romain; Auclair, Eric; Drider, Djamel
Since the 2006 European ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, numerous studies have been published describing alternative strategies to prevent diseases in animals. A particular focus has been on prevention of necrotic enteritis in poultry caused by Clostridium perfringens by the use of microbes or microbe-derived products. Microbes produce a plethora of molecules with antimicrobial properties and they can also have beneficial effects through interactions with their host. Here we review recent developments in novel preventive treatments against C. perfringens-induced necrotic enteritis in broiler chickens that employ yeasts, bacteria and bacteriophages or secondary metabolites and other microbial products in disease control. PMID:26648920
Alam, Sayeda Nasrin; Yammine, Halim; Moaven, Omeed; Ahmed, Rizwan; Moss, Angela K.; Biswas, Brishti; Muhammad, Nur; Biswas, Rakesh; Raychowdhury, Atri; Kaliannan, Kanakaraju; Ghosh, Sathi; Ray, Madhury; Hamarneh, Sulaiman; Barua, Soumik; Malo, Nondita S.; Bhan, Atul K.; Malo, Madhu S.; Hodin, Richard A.
Objective To determine the efficacy of oral supplementation of the gut enzyme intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) in preventing antibiotic-associated infections from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and Clostridium difficile. Summary background data The intestinal microbiota plays a pivotal role in human health and well-being. Antibiotics inherently cause dysbiosis, an imbalance in the number and composition of intestinal commensal bacteria, which leads to susceptibility to opportunistic bacterial infections. Previously, we have shown that IAP preserves the normal homeostasis of intestinal microbiota and that oral supplementation with calf IAP (cIAP) rapidly restores the normal gut flora. We hypothesized that oral IAP supplementation would protect against antibiotic-associated bacterial infections. Methods C57BL/6 mice were treated with antibiotic(s) +/− cIAP in the drinking water followed by oral gavage of S. Typhimurium or C. difficile. Mice were observed for clinical conditions and mortality. After a defined period of time mice were sacrificed and investigated for hematological, inflammatory and histological changes. Results We observed that oral supplementation with cIAP during antibiotic treatment protects mice from infections with S. Typhimurium as well as C. difficile. Animals given IAP maintained their weight, had reduced clinical severity and gut inflammation, and improved survival. Conclusion Oral IAP supplementation protected mice from antibiotic-associated bacterial infections. We postulate that oral IAP supplementation could represent a novel therapy to protect against antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD), C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD), and other enteric infections in humans. PMID:23598380
Sorokulova, Irina; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly
An increasing number of disease-causing bacteria are resistant to one or more anti-bacterial drugs utilized for therapy. Early and speedy detection of these pathogens is therefore very important. Traditional pathogen detection techniques, that include microbiological and biochemical assays are long and labor-intensive, while antibody or DNA-based methods require substantial sample preparation and purification. Biosensors based on bacteriophages have demonstrated remarkable potential to surmount these restrictions and to offer rapid, efficient and sensitive detection technique for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Hong, Pei-Ying; Al-Jassim, Nada; Ansari, Mohd Ikram; Mackie, Roderick I.
Water scarcity is a global problem, and is particularly acute in certain regions like Africa, the Middle East, as well as the western states of America. A breakdown on water usage revealed that 70% of freshwater supplies are used for agricultural irrigation. The use of reclaimed water as an alternative water source for agricultural irrigation would greatly alleviate the demand on freshwater sources. This paradigm shift is gaining momentum in several water scarce countries like Saudi Arabia. However, microbial problems associated with reclaimed water may hinder the use of reclaimed water for agricultural irrigation. Of particular concern is that the occurrence of antibiotic residues in the reclaimed water can select for antibiotic resistance genes among the microbial community. Antibiotic resistance genes can be associated with mobile genetic elements, which in turn allow a promiscuous transfer of resistance traits from one bacterium to another. Together with the pathogens that are present in the reclaimed water, antibiotic resistant bacteria can potentially exchange mobile genetic elements to create the “perfect microbial storm”. Given the significance of this issue, a deeper understanding of the occurrence of antibiotics in reclaimed water, and their potential influence on the selection of resistant microorganisms would be essential. In this review paper, we collated literature over the past two decades to determine the occurrence of antibiotics in municipal wastewater and livestock manure. We then discuss how these antibiotic resistant bacteria may impose a potential microbial risk to the environment and public health, and the knowledge gaps that would have to be addressed in future studies. Overall, the collation of the literature in wastewater treatment and agriculture serves to frame and identify potential concerns with respect to antibiotics, antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes in reclaimed water. PMID:27029309
Hiramatsu, Keiichi; Igarashi, Masayuki; Morimoto, Yuh; Baba, Tadashi; Umekita, Maya; Akamatsu, Yuzuru
By screening cultures of soil bacteria, we re-discovered an old antibiotic (nybomycin) as an antibiotic with a novel feature. Nybomycin is active against quinolone-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with mutated gyrA genes but not against those with intact gyrA genes against which quinolone antibiotics are effective. Nybomycin-resistant mutant strains were generated from a quinolone-resistant, nybomycin-susceptible, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) strain Mu 50. The mutants, occurring at an extremely low rate (<1 × 10(-11)/generation), were found to have their gyrA genes back-mutated and to have lost quinolone resistance. Here we describe nybomycin as the first member of a novel class of antibiotics designated 'reverse antibiotics'.
Kariuki, S; Hart, C A
Antibiotics have been considered to be safe and effective 'magic bullets', with no disadvantages to their widespread use. This has been proven to be a complacent attitude, with ever-increasing prevalences of resistance now evident. The present review covers aspects of the development, mechanisms and genetics of antimicrobial resistance in enteric commensals and pathogens.
Liu, Dandan; Wilson, Cailin; Hearlson, Jodie; Singleton, Jennifer; Thomas, R Brent; Crupper, Scott S
Free-ranging Red-eared Sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans) were captured from farm ponds located in the Flint Hills of Kansas and a zoo pond in Emporia, Kansas, USA, to evaluate their enteric bacterial flora and associated antibiotic resistance. Bacteria obtained from cloacal swabs were composed of six different Gram-negative genera. Although antibiotic resistance was present in turtles captured from both locations, 40 and 49% of bacteria demonstrated multiple antibiotic resistance to four of the antibiotics tested from the zoo captured and Flint Hills ponds turtles, respectively. These data illustrate environmental antibiotic resistance is widespread in the bacterial flora obtained from Red-eared Sliders in east central Kansas.
Keefe, Lois M.
Procedures are described for showing the effectiveness of antibiotics (penicillin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) against a nonpathogenic bacteria strain (Bacillus cereus). Methods are outlined for preparing nutrient agar, sterilizing tubes, pouring agar plates, preparing antibiotic discs, and transferring antibiotic discs to agar plates. (CS)
Saint-Ruf, Claude; Crussard, Steve; Franceschi, Christine; Orenga, Sylvain; Ouattara, Jasmine; Ramjeet, Mahendrasingh; Surre, Jérémy; Matic, Ivan
Rapidly treating infections with adequate antibiotics is of major importance. This requires a fast and accurate determination of the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. The most frequently used methods are slow because they are based on the measurement of growth inhibition. Faster methods, such as PCR-based detection of determinants of antibiotic resistance, do not always provide relevant information on susceptibility, particularly that which is not genetically based. Consequently, new methods, such as the detection of changes in bacterial physiology caused by antibiotics using flow cytometry and fluorescent viability markers, are being explored. In this study, we assessed whether Alexa Fluor® 633 Hydrazide (AFH), which targets carbonyl groups, can be used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Carbonylation of cellular macromolecules, which increases in antibiotic-treated cells, is a particularly appropriate to assess for this purpose because it is irreversible. We tested the susceptibility of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, to antibiotics from the three classes: β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. In addition to AFH, we used TO-PRO®-3, which enters cells with damaged membranes and binds to DNA, and DiBAC4 (3), which enters cells with depolarized membranes. We also monitored antibiotic-induced morphological alterations of bacterial cells by analyzing light scattering signals. Although all tested dyes and light scattering signals allowed for the detection of antibiotic-sensitive cells, AFH proved to be the most suitable for the fast and reliable detection of antibiotic susceptibility. PMID:27507962
Yang, Qingxiang; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Yuhui; Tian, Tiantian
Animal manure is commonly used as fertilizer for agricultural crops worldwide, even though it is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance from animal intestines to the soil environment. However, it is unclear whether and how there is any impact of manure fertilization on populations and community structure of antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (AREB) in plant tissues. To investigate the effect of manure and organic fertilizer on endophytic bacterial communities, pot experiments were performed with pakchoi grown with the following treatments: (1) non-treated; (2) chicken manure-treated and (3) organic fertilizer-treated. Manure or organic fertilizer significantly increased the abundances of total cultivable endophytic bacteria (TCEB) and AREB in pakchoi, and the effect of chicken manure was greater than that of organic fertilizer. Further, 16S rDNA sequencing and the phylogenetic analysis indicated that chicken manure or organic fertilizer application increased the populations of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in soil and multiple antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria (MAREB) in pakchoi. The identical multiple antibiotic-resistant bacterial populations detected in chicken manure, manure- or organic fertilizer-amended soil and the vegetable endophytic system were Brevundimonas diminuta, Brachybacterium sp. and Bordetella sp., suggesting that MARB from manure could enter and colonize the vegetable tissues through manure fertilization. The fact that some human pathogens with multiple antibiotic resistance were detected in harvested vegetables after growing in manure-amended soil demonstrated a potential threat to human health. PMID:27376311
Chen, Po-Wen; Tseng, Shu-Ying; Huang, Mao-Sheng
Recent studies have focused on foodborne or commensal bacteria as vehicles of antibiotic resistance. However, the antibiotic resistance of milk bacteria from healthy donors is still vague in Taiwan. For this purpose, human milk samples were obtained from randomly recruited 19 healthy women between 3 and 360 days post-partum. Antibiotic susceptibility profile of bacteria from milk samples was determined. About 20 bacterial species were isolated from milk samples including Staphylococcus (6 species), Streptococcus (4 species), Enterococcus (2 species), Lactobacillus (1 species), and bacteria belonging to other genera (7 species). Some opportunistic or potentially pathogenic bacteria including Kluyvera ascorbata, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Actinomyces bovis, and Staphylococcus aureus were also isolated. Intriguingly, Staphylococcus isolates (22 strains) were resistant to 2–8 of 8 antibiotics, while Streptococcus isolates (3 strains) were resistant to 3–7 of 9 antibiotics, and members of the genus Enterococcus (5 strains) were resistant to 3–8 of 9 antibiotics. Notably, Staphylococcus lugdunensis, S. aureus, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Enterococcus faecalis were resistant to vancomycin, which is considered as the last-resort antibiotic. Therefore, this study shows that most bacterial strains in human milk demonstrate mild to strong antibiotic resistance. Whether commensal bacteria in milk could serve as vehicles of antibiotic resistance should be further investigated.
Birck, Malene M; Nguyen, Duc Ninh; Cilieborg, Malene S; Kamal, Shamrulazhar S; Nielsen, Dennis S; Damborg, Peter; Olsen, John E; Lauridsen, Charlotte; Sangild, Per T; Thymann, Thomas
Preterm infants are susceptible to infection and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and are often treated with antibiotics. Simultaneous administration of enteral and parenteral antibiotics during the first days after preterm birth prevents formula-induced NEC lesions in pigs, but it is unknown which administration route is most effective. We hypothesized that only enteral antibiotics suppress gut bacterial colonization and NEC progression in formula-fed preterm pigs. Caesarean-delivered preterm pigs (90-92% of gestation) were fed increasing amounts of infant formula from birth to day 5 and given saline (CON) or antibiotics (ampicillin, gentamicin, and metronidazole) via the enteral (ENT) or parenteral (PAR) route (n = 16-17). NEC lesions, intestinal morphology, function, microbiology, and inflammatory mediators were evaluated. NEC lesions were completely prevented in ENT pigs, whereas there were high incidences of mild NEC lesions (59-63%) in CON and PAR pigs (P < 0.001). ENT pigs had elevated intestinal weight, villus height/crypt depth ratio, and goblet cell density and reduced gut permeability, mucosal adherence of bacteria, IL-8 levels, colonic lactic acid levels, and density of Gram-positive bacteria, relative to CON pigs (P < 0.05). Values in PAR pigs were intermediate with few affected parameters (reduced lactic acid levels and density and adherence of Gram-positive bacteria, relative to CON pigs, P < 0.05). There was no evidence of increased antimicrobial resistance following the treatments. We conclude that enteral, but not parenteral, administration of antibiotics reduces gut bacterial colonization, inflammation, and NEC lesions in newborn, formula-fed preterm pigs. Delayed colonization may support intestinal structure, function, and immunity in the immediate postnatal period of formula-fed preterm neonates.
Beach, M B; Osuna, R
The small DNA binding protein Fis is involved in several different biological processes in Escherichia coli. It has been shown to stimulate DNA inversion reactions mediated by the Hin family of recombinases, stimulate integration and excision of phage lambda genome, regulate the transcription of several different genes including those of stable RNA operons, and regulate the initiation of DNA replication at oriC. fis has also been isolated from Salmonella typhimurium, and the genomic sequence of Haemophilus influenzae reveals its presence in this bacteria. This work extends the characterization of fis to other organisms. Very similar fis operon structures were identified in the enteric bacteria Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Erwinia carotovora, and Proteus vulgaris but not in several nonenteric bacteria. We found that the deduced amino acid sequences for Fis are 100% identical in K. pneumoniae, S. marcescens, E. coli, and S. typhimurium and 96 to 98% identical when E. carotovora and P. vulgaris Fis are considered. The deduced amino acid sequence for H. influenzae Fis is about 80% identical and 90% similar to Fis in enteric bacteria. However, in spite of these similarities, the E. carotovora, P. vulgaris, and H. influenzae Fis proteins are not functionally identical. An open reading frame (ORF1) preceding fis in E. coli is also found in all these bacteria, and their deduced amino acid sequences are also very similar. The sequence preceding ORF1 in the enteric bacteria showed a very strong similarity to the E. coli fis P region from -53 to +27 and the region around -116 containing an ihf binding site. Both beta-galactosidase assays and primer extension assays showed that these regions function as promoters in vivo and are subject to growth phase-dependent regulation. However, their promoter strengths vary, as do their responses to Fis autoregulation and integration host factor stimulation.
Morones-Ramirez, Jose Ruben; Winkler, Jonathan A; Spina, Catherine S; Collins, James J
A declining pipeline of clinically useful antibiotics has made it imperative to develop more effective antimicrobial therapies, particularly against difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens. Silver has been used as an antimicrobial since antiquity, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. We show that silver disrupts multiple bacterial cellular processes, including disulfide bond formation, metabolism, and iron homeostasis. These changes lead to increased production of reactive oxygen species and increased membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria that can potentiate the activity of a broad range of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria in different metabolic states, as well as restore antibiotic susceptibility to a resistant bacterial strain. We show both in vitro and in a mouse model of urinary tract infection that the ability of silver to induce oxidative stress can be harnessed to potentiate antibiotic activity. Additionally, we demonstrate in vitro and in two different mouse models of peritonitis that silver sensitizes Gram-negative bacteria to the Gram-positive-specific antibiotic vancomycin, thereby expanding the antibacterial spectrum of this drug. Finally, we used silver and antibiotic combinations in vitro to eradicate bacterial persister cells, and show both in vitro and in a mouse biofilm infection model that silver can enhance antibacterial action against bacteria that produce biofilms. This work shows that silver can be used to enhance the action of existing antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria, thus strengthening the antibiotic arsenal for fighting bacterial infections.
Huang, Tianxun; Zheng, Yan; Yan, Ya; Yang, Lingling; Yao, Yihui; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wu, Lina; Wang, Xu; Chen, Yuqing; Xing, Jinchun; Yan, Xiaomei
The evolution and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has become a major threat to public health. Advanced tools are urgently needed to quickly diagnose antibiotic-resistant infections to initiate appropriate treatment. Here we report the development of a highly sensitive flow cytometric method to probe minority population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria via single cell detection. Monoclonal antibody against TEM-1 β-lactamase and Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated secondary antibody were used to selectively label resistant bacteria green, and nucleic acid dye SYTO 62 was used to stain all the bacteria red. A laboratory-built high sensitivity flow cytometer (HSFCM) was applied to simultaneously detect the side scatter and dual-color fluorescence signals of single bacteria. By using E. coli JM109/pUC19 and E. coli JM109 as the model systems for antibiotic-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible bacteria, respectively, as low as 0.1% of antibiotic-resistant bacteria were accurately quantified. By monitoring the dynamic population change of a bacterial culture with the administration of antibiotics, we confirmed that under the antimicrobial pressure, the original low population of antibiotic-resistant bacteria outcompeted susceptible strains and became the dominant population after 5hours of growth. Detection of antibiotic-resistant infection in clinical urine samples was achieved without cultivation, and the bacterial load of susceptible and resistant strains can be faithfully quantified. Overall, the HSFCM-based quantitative method provides a powerful tool for the fundamental studies of antibiotic resistance and holds the potential to provide rapid and precise guidance in clinical therapies.
Rhoden, D. L.; Tomfohrde, K. M.; Smith, P. B.; Balows, A.
A multitest system called the Auxotab that uses ten dehydrated reagents on a paper card has been evaluated with 417 known stock cultures of Enterobacteriaceae. In double-blind studies with the Auxotab, 87% of the strains tested were correctly identified. Results of this study indicate that there is a need for modification of the product in regard to ease of handling, time required for use, and accuracy of identification of enteric bacteria. PMID:4571660
Brown, Joseph C; Jiang, Xiuping
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in various herbal products. Twenty-nine herbal supplements (18 traditional and 11 organic products) were purchased from stores and analyzed microbiologically. Total bacterial counts were determined by pour plate and surface spreading on tryptic soy agar (TSA). Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were enumerated on TSA supplemented with ceftriaxone (64 microg/ml) or tetracycline (16 microg/ml). Total bacterial counts ranged from <5 to 2.9 x 10(5) CFU/g. Ceftriaxone- and tetracycline-resistant bacteria were detected in ground garlic samples at 1.1 x 10(2) CFU/g and 3.0 x 102 CFU/g, respectively. Traditional and organic onion powder samples contained tetracycline-resistant bacteria at 17 and 28 CFU/g and ceftriaxone-resistant bacteria at 35 and 2.0 x 10(3) CFU/g, respectively. Other products such as ginger, rosemary, mustard, and goldenseal contained low levels of resistant bacteria. Fifty-two isolates were further evaluated against nine antibiotics, and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was in the following order: ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim, ceftriaxone, and streptomycin. Resistant bacteria were identified as Bacillus spp., Erwinia spp., and Ewingella americana. Staphylococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae, and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia also were isolated. The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and pathogens in these herbal products suggests that production and use of these products may need further evaluation.
Antibiotics are powerful medicines that fight bacterial infections. Used properly, antibiotics can save lives. They either kill bacteria or ... natural defenses can usually take it from there. Antibiotics do not fight infections caused by viruses, such ...
Brock, David; Boeke, Caroline; Josowitz, Rebecca; Loya, Katherine
The study developed a simple experimental protocol for studying antibiotic resistant bacteria that will allow students to determine the proportion of such bacteria found on common fruit and vegetable crops. This protocol can open up the world of environmental science and show how human behavior can dramatically alter ecosystems.
Kernbauer, Elisabeth; Ding, Yi; Cadwell, Ken
Intestinal microbial communities have profound effects on host physiology1. Whereas the symbiotic contribution of commensal bacteria is well established, the role of eukaryotic viruses that are present in the gastrointestinal tract under homeostatic conditions is undefined2,3. Here, we demonstrate that a common enteric RNA virus can replace the beneficial function of commensal bacteria in the intestine. Murine norovirus (MNV) infection of germfree or antibiotics-treated mice restored intestinal morphology and lymphocyte function without inducing overt inflammation and disease. The presence of MNV also suppressed an expansion of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) observed in the absence of bacteria, and induced transcriptional changes in the intestine associated with immune development and type I interferon (IFN) signaling. Consistent with this observation, the IFNα receptor was essential for the ability of MNV to compensate for bacterial depletion. Importantly, MNV infection offset the deleterious effect of antibiotics-treatment in models of intestinal injury and pathogenic bacterial infection. These data indicate that eukaryotic viruses have the capacity to support intestinal homeostasis and shape mucosal immunity akin to commensal bacteria. PMID:25409145
Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P.; Coque, Teresa M.
Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent “population biologies.” Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of “clinical” antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi
Baquero, Fernando; Tedim, Ana P; Coque, Teresa M
Antibiotics have natural functions, mostly involving cell-to-cell signaling networks. The anthropogenic production of antibiotics, and its release in the microbiosphere results in a disturbance of these networks, antibiotic resistance tending to preserve its integrity. The cost of such adaptation is the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, and of all genetic and cellular vehicles in which these genes are located. Selection of the combinations of the different evolutionary units (genes, integrons, transposons, plasmids, cells, communities and microbiomes, hosts) is highly asymmetrical. Each unit of selection is a self-interested entity, exploiting the higher hierarchical unit for its own benefit, but in doing so the higher hierarchical unit might acquire critical traits for its spread because of the exploitation of the lower hierarchical unit. This interactive trade-off shapes the population biology of antibiotic resistance, a composed-complex array of the independent "population biologies." Antibiotics modify the abundance and the interactive field of each of these units. Antibiotics increase the number and evolvability of "clinical" antibiotic resistance genes, but probably also many other genes with different primary functions but with a resistance phenotype present in the environmental resistome. Antibiotics influence the abundance, modularity, and spread of integrons, transposons, and plasmids, mostly acting on structures present before the antibiotic era. Antibiotics enrich particular bacterial lineages and clones and contribute to local clonalization processes. Antibiotics amplify particular genetic exchange communities sharing antibiotic resistance genes and platforms within microbiomes. In particular human or animal hosts, the microbiomic composition might facilitate the interactions between evolutionary units involved in antibiotic resistance. The understanding of antibiotic resistance implies expanding our knowledge on multi
Carr, Jacquelyn S.; King, Stephanie
Background & aims While enteric bacteria have been shown to play a critical role in other forms of intestinal damage, their role in mediating the response to the chemotherapeutic drug Doxorubicin (Doxo) is unclear. In this study, we used a mouse model of intestinal bacterial depletion to evaluate the role enteric bacteria play in mediating Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and, more specifically, in mediating chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration following Doxo treatment. An understanding of this pathway may allow for development of intervention strategies to reduce chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage. Methods Mice were treated with (Abx) or without (NoAbx) oral antibiotics in drinking water for four weeks and then with Doxo. Jejunal tissues were collected at various time points following Doxo treatment and stained and analyzed for apoptosis, crypt damage and restitution, and macrophage and neutrophil number. In addition, RNA expression of inflammatory markers (TNFα, IL1-β, IL-10) and cytokines (CCL2, CC7, KC) was assessed by qRT-PCR. Results In NoAbx mice Doxo-induced damage was associated with rapid induction of apoptosis in jejunal crypt epithelium and an increase weight loss and crypt loss. In addition, we observed an increase in immune-modulating chemokines CCL2, CCL7 and KC and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils. In contrast, while still positive for induction of apoptosis following Doxo treatment, Abx mice showed neither the overall weight loss nor crypt loss seen in NoAbx mice nor the increased chemokine expression and leukocyte infiltration. Conclusion Enteric bacteria play a critical role in Doxo-induced small intestinal damage and are associated with an increase in immune-modulating chemokines and cells. Manipulation of enteric bacteria or the damage pathway may allow for prevention or treatment of chemotherapy-induced small intestinal damage. PMID:28257503
Young, Suzanne; Juhl, Andrew; O'Mullan, Gregory D
Heterotrophic bacteria resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin were assessed in waterways of the New York City metropolitan area using culture-dependent approaches and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of resultant isolates. Resistant microbes were detected at all 10 sampling sites in monthly research cruises on the lower Hudson River Estuary (HRE), with highest concentrations detected at nearshore sites. Higher frequency sampling was conducted in Flushing Bay, to enumerate resistant microbes under both dry and wet weather conditions. Concentrations of ampicillin- and tetracycline-resistant bacteria, in paired samples, were positively correlated with one another and increased following precipitation. Counts of the fecal indicator, Enterococcus, were positively correlated with levels of resistant bacteria, suggesting a shared sewage-associated source. Analysis of 16S rRNA from isolates identified a phylogenetically diverse group of resistant bacteria, including genera containing opportunistic pathogens. The occurrence of Enterobacteriaceae, a family of enteric bacteria, was found to be significantly higher in resistant isolates compared to total heterotrophic bacteria and increased following precipitation. This study is the first to document the widespread distribution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the HRE and to demonstrate clearly a link between the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and levels of sewage-associated bacteria in an estuary.
Lawrence, J. G.; Ochman, H.; Hartl, D. L.
To identify mechanisms that influence the evolution of bacterial transposons, DNA sequence variation was evaluated among homologs of insertion sequences IS1, IS3 and IS30 from natural strains of Escherichia coli and related enteric bacteria. The nucleotide sequences within each class of IS were highly conserved among E. coli strains, over 99.7% similar to a consensus sequence. When compared to the range of nucleotide divergence among chromosomal genes, these data indicate high turnover and rapid movement of the transposons among clonal lineages of E. coli. In addition, length polymorphism among IS appears to be far less frequent than in eukaryotic transposons, indicating that nonfunctional elements comprise a smaller fraction of bacterial transposon populations than found in eukaryotes. IS present in other species of enteric bacteria are substantially divergent from E. coli elements, indicating that IS are mobilized among bacterial species at a reduced rate. However, homologs of IS1 and IS3 from diverse species provide evidence that recombination events and horizontal transfer of IS among species have both played major roles in the evolution of these elements. IS3 elements from E. coli and Shigella show multiple, nested, intragenic recombinations with a distantly related transposon, and IS1 homologs from diverse taxa reveal a mosaic structure indicative of multiple recombination and horizontal transfer events. PMID:1317318
Zigangirova, N A; Tokarskaia, E A; Narodnitskiĭ, B S; Gintsburg, A L; Tugel'ian, V A
The wide use of antibiotics in livestock raising has contributed to the selection and accumulation of representatives of commensal microflora, as well as pathogenic bacteria, colonizing livestock and poultry. For this reason the problem of the possible transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes along the chain from bacteria, autochthonous for agricultural animals, to bacteria used for the production of foodstuffs, which are incorporated into normal microflora and may thus participate in the exchange of these genes with bacteria, enteropathogenic for humans, is a highly important task of medical microbiology. The article deals with the review of experimental data, indicative the possibility of the appearance of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria due to the transfer of antibiotic-resistance genes via alimentary chains.
Zhang, Songhe; Pang, Si; Wang, PeiFang; Wang, Chao; Han, Nini; Liu, Bin; Han, Bing; Li, Yi; Anim-Larbi, Kwaku
Stormwater runoff is generally characterized as non-point source pollution. In the present study, antibiotic concentration and antibiotic susceptibilities of cultivable heterotrophic bacteria were investigated in two small shallow urban lakes before and after strong storm event. Several antibiotics, lactose-fermenting bacteria and cultivable heterotrophic bacteria concentrations increased in surface water and/or surface sediment of two small urban lakes (Lake Xuanwu and Wulongtan) after strong storm event. In general, the frequencies of bacteria showing resistance to nine antibiotics increased after storm event. Based on the 16S rRNA genes of 50 randomly selected isolates from each water sample of two lakes, Aeromonas and Bacillus were dominant genera in samples from two lakes, while genera Proteus and Lysinibacillus were the third abundant genera in Lake Xuanwu and Wulongtu, respectively. Presences of nine antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the 100 isolates were detected and most of these isolates harbored at least two ARGs with different functions. The detection frequency of ARGs in Gram-negative isolates was higher than that in Gram-positive isolates. The most prevalent integron in 100 isolates was int(II) (n = 28), followed by int(I) (n = 17) and int(III) (n = 17). Our results indicate that strong storm events potentially contribute to the transfer of ARGs and antibiotic-resistant bacteria from land-sewer system to the urban Lakes.
Tixador, Rene; Gasset, G.; Eche, B.; Moatti, N.; Lapchine, L.; Woldringh, C.; Toorop, P.; Moatti, J. P.; Delmotte, F.; Tap, G.
In order to evaluate the effects of weightlessness and cosmic radiations on the bacteria resistance to antibiotics, the Antibio 23F experiment was undertaken onboard Discovery during the 1st International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission. The effects of various antibiotic concentrations (dihydrostreptomycin) on Escherichia coli growth and cell division behavior were studied. The antibiotic binding was investigated using a radioactive tracer (tritium). The results showed that microgravity did not affect E. coli cells in regards the growth and the cell division. The antibiotic added to the culture medium induced an inhibition of the cultures both in the flight and ground controls. However, the antibiotic was less efficient in flight. The behavior of bacteria was modified, and the exponential growth rate was increased in flight. The incorporation of radioactive antibiotics in flight was comparatively different to ground incorporation, which indicated some perturbations in antibiotic binding. The experiments performed in the 1 g centrifuge did not show any difference in the cultures developed on the static rack, and could support a radiative effect of cosmic radiation to explain the results.
Khachatourians, G G
Microbial Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practices in the agricultural industry. Intensive animal production involves giving livestock animals large quantities of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infection. These uses promote the selection of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. The resistant bacteria from agricultural environments may be transmitted to humans, in whom they cause disease that cannot be treated by conventional antibiotics. The author reviews trends in antibiotic use in animal husbandry and agriculture in general. The development of resistance is described, along with the genetic mechanisms that create resistance and facilitate its spread among bacterial species. Particular aspects of resistance in bacterial species common to both the human population and the agrifood industry are emphasized. Control measures that might reverse the current trends are highlighted. PMID:9835883
Khachatourians, G G
Microbial Resistance to antibiotics is on the rise, in part because of inappropriate use of antibiotics in human medicine but also because of practices in the agricultural industry. Intensive animal production involves giving livestock animals large quantities of antibiotics to promote growth and prevent infection. These uses promote the selection of antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations. The resistant bacteria from agricultural environments may be transmitted to humans, in whom they cause disease that cannot be treated by conventional antibiotics. The author reviews trends in antibiotic use in animal husbandry and agriculture in general. The development of resistance is described, along with the genetic mechanisms that create resistance and facilitate its spread among bacterial species. Particular aspects of resistance in bacterial species common to both the human population and the agrifood industry are emphasized. Control measures that might reverse the current trends are highlighted.
McEachran, Andrew D.; Blackwell, Brett R.; Hanson, J. Delton; Wooten, Kimberly J.; Mayer, Gregory D.; Cox, Stephen B.
Background: Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a global health threat and is often linked with overuse and misuse of clinical and veterinary chemotherapeutic agents. Modern industrial-scale animal feeding operations rely extensively on veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, to augment animal growth. Following excretion, antibiotics are transported through the environment via runoff, leaching, and land application of manure; however, airborne transport from feed yards has not been characterized. Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and ruminant-associated microbes are aerially dispersed via particulate matter (PM) derived from large-scale beef cattle feed yards. Methods: PM was collected downwind and upwind of 10 beef cattle feed yards. After extraction from PM, five veterinary antibiotics were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ARG were quantified via targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and microbial community diversity was analyzed via 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing. Results: Airborne PM derived from feed yards facilitated dispersal of several veterinary antibiotics, as well as microbial communities containing ARG. Concentrations of several antibiotics in airborne PM immediately downwind of feed yards ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 μg/g of PM. Microbial communities of PM collected downwind of feed yards were enriched with ruminant-associated taxa and were distinct when compared to upwind PM assemblages. Furthermore, genes encoding resistance to tetracycline antibiotics were significantly more abundant in PM collected downwind of feed yards as compared to upwind. Conclusions: Wind-dispersed PM from feed yards harbors antibiotics, bacteria, and ARGs. Citation: McEachran AD, Blackwell BR, Hanson JD, Wooten KJ, Mayer GD, Cox SB, Smith PN. 2015. Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic
Karst, Stephanie M.
The intestinal microbiota exerts a marked influence in the mammalian host, both during homeostasis and disease. However, until very recently, there has been relatively little focus on the potential effect of commensal microorganisms on viral infection of the intestinal tract. In this Progress article, I review the recent advances that elucidate the mechanisms by which enteric viruses use commensal bacteria to enhance viral infectivity. These mechanisms segregate into two general categories: the direct facilitation of viral infection, including bacterial stabilization of viral particles and the facilitation of viral attachment to host target cells; and the indirect skewing of the antiviral immune response in a manner that promotes viral infection. Finally, I discuss the implications of these interactions for the development of vaccines and novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:26853118
Karst, Stephanie M
The intestinal microbiota exerts a marked influence in the mammalian host, both during homeostasis and disease. However, until very recently, there has been relatively little focus on the potential effect of commensal microorganisms on viral infection of the intestinal tract. In this Progress article, I review the recent advances that elucidate the mechanisms by which enteric viruses use commensal bacteria to enhance viral infectivity. These mechanisms segregate into two general categories: the direct facilitation of viral infection, including bacterial stabilization of viral particles and the facilitation of viral attachment to host target cells; and the indirect skewing of the antiviral immune response in a manner that promotes viral infection. Finally, I discuss the implications of these interactions for the development of vaccines and novel therapeutic approaches.
Capita, Rosa; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were first described in the 1940s, but whereas new antibiotics were being discovered at a steady rate, the consequences of this phenomenon were slow to be appreciated. At present, the paucity of new antimicrobials coming into the market has led to the problem of antibiotic resistance fast escalating into a global health crisis. Although the selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (particularly overuse or misuse) has been deemed the major factor in the emergence of bacterial resistance to these antimicrobials, concerns about the role of the food industry have been growing in recent years and have been raised at both national and international levels. The selective pressure exerted by the use of antibiotics (primary production) and biocides (e.g., disinfectants, food and feed preservatives, or decontaminants) is the main driving force behind the selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance throughout the food chain. Genetically modified (GM) crops with antibiotic resistance marker genes, microorganisms added intentionally to the food chain (probiotic or technological) with potentially transferable antimicrobial resistance genes, and food processing technologies used at sub-lethal doses (e.g., alternative non-thermal treatments) are also issues for concern. This paper presents the main trends in antibiotic resistance and antibiotic development in recent decades, as well as their economic and health consequences, current knowledge concerning the generation, dissemination, and mechanisms of antibacterial resistance, progress to date on the possible routes for emergence of resistance throughout the food chain and the role of foods as a vehicle for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The main approaches to prevention and control of the development, selection, and spread of antibacterial resistance in the food industry are also addressed.
Vigil, G V; Wayman, B E; Dazey, S E; Fowler, C B; Bradley, D V
Periradicular tissues from 28 refractory endodontic cases requiring surgical intervention were submitted for histological diagnosis and microbiological culture. Bacteria isolated from these lesions were identified and then tested for their antibiotic sensitivity to a panel of common antibiotics. The periapical tissue specimens of 22 out of 28 lesions (79%) contained microorganisms. Of the 22 cases showing positive growth cultures, 15 were polymicrobial and 7 were single species isolates. Fifty-three different species were recovered: 29 anaerobes, 19 facultative anaerobes, and 5 aerobes. Microbes were observed under light microscopy in only one case. The most common organisms isolated were Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus intermedius, Wolinella recta, Fusobacterium species, and Clostridium species. Antibiotic susceptibility results showed no clear cut evidence of significant antibiotic resistance among the species tested. The results of this study seem to corroborate earlier studies regarding the microbial population of periapical lesions refractory to nonsurgical endodontics.
Kathleen, M. M.; Felecia, C.; Reagan, E. L.; Kasing, A.; Lesley, M.; Toh, S. C.
The administration of antimicrobials in aquaculture provides a selective pressure creating a reservoir of multiple resistant bacteria in the cultured fish and shrimps as well as the aquaculture environment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of antibiotic resistance in aquaculture products and aquaculture's surrounding environment in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Ninety-four identified bacterial isolates constituted of 17 genera were isolated from sediment, water, and cultured organisms (fish and shrimp) in selected aquaculture farms. These isolates were tested for their antibiotic resistance against 22 antibiotics from several groups using the disk diffusion method. The results show that the highest resistance was observed towards streptomycin (85%, n = 20), while the lowest resistance was towards gentamicin (1.1%, n = 90). The multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR) index of the isolates tested ranged between 0 and 0.63. It was suggested that isolates with MAR index > 0.2 were recovered from sources with high risk of antibiotic resistant contamination. This study revealed low level of antibiotic resistance in the aquaculture bacterial isolates except for streptomycin and ampicillin (>50% resistance, n = 94) which have been used in the aquaculture industry for several decades. Antibiotic resistant patterns should be continuously monitored to predict the emergence and widespread of MAR. Effective action is needed to keep the new resistance from further developing and spreading. PMID:27746817
Lozano, Carmen; Torres, Carmen
Antimicrobial resistance among Gram-positive bacteria, especially in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a serious threat to public health. These microorganisms have multiple resistance mechanisms to agents currently used in clinical practice. Many of these resistance mechanisms are common to all 4 of these bacterial species, but other mechanisms seem to be more specific. The prevalence and dissemination of these mechanisms varies considerably, depending on the microorganism. This review discusses the resistance mechanisms to the most clinically relevant antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the new mechanisms described for widely used antibiotics and for newer agents such as lipopeptides, lipoglycopeptides, glycylcyclines and oxazolidinones.
Miyashita, Atsushi; Hirai, Yuuki; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Kaito, Chikara
The search for new antibiotics or antifungal agents is crucial for the chemotherapies of infectious diseases. The limited resource of soil bacteria makes it difficult to discover such new drug candidate. We, therefore, focused on another bacterial resource than soil bacteria, the microbial flora of insect species. In the present study, we isolated 40 strains of bacteria and fungi from the mycangia of three species of stag beetle, Dorcus hopei binodulosus, Dorcus rectus, and Dorcus titanus pilifer. We identified those species with their ribosomal DNA sequences, and revealed that Klebsiella spp. are the most frequent symbiont in the stag beetle mycangia. We examined whether these microorganisms produce antibiotics against a Gram-negative bacterium, Escherichia coli, a Gram-positive bacterium, Staphylococcus aureus, or a fungus, Cryptococcus neoformans. Culture supernatants from 33, 29, or 18 strains showed antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, or C. neoformans, respectively. These findings suggest that bacteria present in the mycangia of stag beetles are useful resources for screening novel antibiotics.
... enteritis E coli enteritis Food poisoning Radiation enteritis Salmonella enteritis Shigella enteritis Staph aureus food poisoning Symptoms ... store food that needs to stay chilled. Images Salmonella typhi organism Yersinia enterocolitica organism Campylobacter jejuni organism ...
Dib, Julián R; Weiss, Annika; Neumann, Anna; Ordoñez, Omar; Estévez, María C; Farías, Maria E
High altitude Andean lakes are placed in Puna desert over 4400 above sea level. Completely isolated, they are exposed to extreme environmental factors like high levels of salinity, UV radiation and heavy metals and low concentrations of phosphorus. Nevertheless, they are the habitat of enormous populations of three flamingo species that migrate among these Lakes. Previous reports have determined that bacteria isolated from these environments present high levels of resistance to antibiotics. The aim of this work was to determine the diversity of antibiotic resistant bacteria in water from Andean Lakes and their connection with flamingo enteric biota. Bacteria from water and birds faeces from high altitude Lakes: Laguna (L.) Aparejos, L. Negra, L. Vilama and L. Azul (all are located between 4,200 and 4,600 m altitude) were isolated by plating in five different Antibiotics (ampicillin, 100 microg ml(-1); chloramphenicol, 170 microg ml(-1); colistin , 20 microg ml(-1); erythromycin, 50 microg ml(-1) and tetracycline 50 microg ml(-1)). 56 bacteria were isolated and identified by 16 S rDNA sequencing. Antibiotic resistance profiles of isolated bacteria were determined for 22 different antibiotics. All identified bacteria were able to growth in multiple ATBs. Colistin, ceftazidime, ampicillin/sulbactam, cefotaxime, cefepime, cefalotin, ampicillin and erythromycin were the most distributed resistances among the 56 tested bacteria. The current results demonstrated that antibiotic resistance was abundant and diverse in high altitude Lakes. Also the present article indicates some useful patents regarding the isolation of bacteria able to grow in the present of antibiotics.
Kaiser, A; Classen, H G; Eberspächer, J; Lingens, F
Seven strains of soil bacteria with the ability to metabolize herbicides, alkaloids or antibiotics were tested in rats for acute toxicity. 1. Upon oral administration of 9.0 x 10(8) to 6.6 x 10(10) cells daily during 7 d no adverse reactions were observed. 2. Exposure by air did not lead to specific pulmonary changes. 3. Intracutaneous injection of 7.5 x 10(6) to 1.4 x 10(8) cells did not lead to adverse skin reactions. 4. Intraperitoneal injections up to 10(8) cells per animal did not kill rats although bacteria entered blood. At higher concentrations some mortality occurred partly due to unspecific stress reactions. 5. Animal data and observations on 20 humans being exposed to these strains for 2 months up to 15 years support the view that the bacteria tested are essentially harmless for health.
Saúde, Amanda Caroline Marques; Cherobim, Mariana Dornelles; Amaral, André Corrêa; Dias, Simoní Campos; Franco, Octávio Luiz
The resistance of infectious bacteria to current antibiotics is a worldwide problem. Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of nanostructured molecules against pathogens as an innovative methodology for the development of novel drugs. Currently, 95% of properties limited pharmacies applicability such as low solubility, short half-life in the circulatory system, toxicity associated to controlled release and immunogenicity. Furthermore, nanobiotechnology provides a different perspective for modifying these properties and allows innovative drug development. In this context, this review aims to describe different methods, polymers, and drugs used to obtain and analyze nanostructures associated with antibiotics as an unconventional and innovative tool for bacterial control. Biotechnology provides a different perspective for modifying drug properties and allows innovative drug development. This review describes nanostructures in association with antibiotics as an unconventional and innovative tool for bacterial control.
Reznick, Yana; Banin, Ehud; Lipovsky, Anat; Lubart, Rachel; Zalevsky, Zeev
Our objective is to test the effect of pulsed (Q-switched) and continuous wave (CW) laser light at wavelength of 532nm on the viability of free-living stationary phase bacteria with and without gentamicin (an antibiotic) treatment. Free living stationary phase gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1) was immersed in Luria Broth (LB) solution and exposed to Q-switched and CW lasers with and without the addition of the antibiotic gentamicin. Cell viability was determined at different time points. Laser treatment alone did not reduce cell viability compared to untreated control and the gentamicin treatment alone only resulted in a 0.5 log reduction in the viable count for P. aeruginosa. The combined laser and gentamicin treatment, however, resulted in a synergistic effect and viability was reduced by 8 log's for P. aeruginosa PAO1.
Bragg, Robert; van der Westhuizen, Wouter; Lee, Ji-Yun; Coetsee, Elke; Boucher, Charlotte
The world is facing an ever-increasing problem with antibiotic resistant bacteria and we are rapidly heading for a post-antibiotic era. There is an urgent need to investigate alterative treatment options while there are still a few antibiotics left. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically target bacteria. Before the development of antibiotics, some efforts were made to use bacteriophages as a treatment option, but most of this research stopped soon after the discovery of antibiotics. There are two different replication options which bacteriophages employ. These are the lytic and lysogenic life cycles. Both these life cycles have potential as treatment options. There are various advantages and disadvantages to the use of bacteriophages as treatment options. The main advantage is the specificity of bacteriophages and treatments can be designed to specifically target pathogenic bacteria while not negatively affecting the normal microbiota. There are various advantages to this. However, the high level of specificity also creates potential problems, the main being the requirement of highly specific diagnostic procedures. Another potential problem with phage therapy includes the development of immunity and limitations with the registration of phage therapy options. The latter is driving research toward the expression of phage genes which break the bacterial cell wall, which could then be used as a treatment option. Various aspects of phage therapy have been investigated in studies undertaken by our research group. We have investigated specificity of phages to various avian pathogenic E. coli isolates. Furthermore, the exciting NanoSAM technology has been employed to investigate bacteriophage replication and aspects of this will be discussed.
Gorokhova, Elena; Rivetti, Claudia; Furuhagen, Sara; Edlund, Anna; Ek, Karin; Breitholtz, Magnus
In polluted environments, contaminant effects may be manifested via both direct toxicity to the host and changes in its microbiota, affecting bacteria-host interactions. In this context, particularly relevant is exposure to antibiotics released into environment. We examined effects of the antibiotic trimethoprim on microbiota of Daphnia magna and concomitant changes in the host feeding. In daphnids exposed to 0.25 mg L(-1) trimethoprim for 24 h, the microbiota was strongly affected, with (1) up to 21-fold decrease in 16S rRNA gene abundance and (2) a shift from balanced communities dominated by Curvibacter, Aquabacterium, and Limnohabitans in controls to significantly lower diversity under dominance of Pelomonas in the exposed animals. Moreover, decreased feeding and digestion was observed in the animals exposed to 0.25-2 mg L(-1) trimethoprim for 48 h and then fed 14C-labeled algae. Whereas the proportion of intact algal cells in the guts increased with increased trimethoprim concentration, ingestion and incorporation rates as well as digestion and incorporation efficiencies decreased significantly. Thus, antibiotics may impact nontarget species via changes in their microbiota leading to compromised nutrition and, ultimately, growth. These bacteria-mediated effects in nontarget organisms may not be unique for antibiotics, but also relevant for environmental pollutants of various nature.
Mudryk, Zbigniew; Perliński, Piotr; Skórczewski, Piotr
The present study examined the antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic bacteria, which were isolated from the sand of the beach located in the National Park of the southern Baltic Sea coast. The bacteria demonstrated low levels of antibiotic resistance. These microorganisms were the most resistant to cefaclor and clindamycin and the most sensitive to clarithromycin, doxycycline, gentamycin and oxytetracycline. The majority of bacteria inhabiting the sand of the studied beach were resistant to only one antibiotic out of 18 tested antibiotics in this study. The bacteria inhabiting the middle part of the beach and the dune were more antibiotic resistant than bacteria isolated from the seawater and the shoreline-seawater contact zone. Generally, there was no significant difference in antibiotic resistance between bacteria isolated from the surface and the subsurface sand layers. The bacterial antibiotic resistance level depends on the chemical structure of antibiotics.
Kim, Tae Woon; Joung, Yochan; Han, Ji-Hye; Jung, Wonwha; Kim, Seung Bum
The taxonomic diversity and antibiotic resistance among freshwater bacterial communities in the major water bodies of Korea was examined using 437 penicillin-resistant, and 110 tetracycline-resistant bacterial isolates. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, most isolates were assigned to Proteobacteria, which was then followed by Bacteroidetes. Strains of Aeromonas were found as the most abundant penicillin-resistant populations, whereas those affiliated to diverse species including enteric groups were found as the most abundant tetracycline-resistant populations. Most strains exhibited multiple antibiotic resistance, and all tested strains were resistant to penicillin and hygromycin. High levels of resistance were observed for antibiotics acting on cell wall synthesis, whereas low levels were for those acting on DNA replication or transcription in general. It is apparent from this study that penicillin resistance is widespread among environmental bacteria, although the antibiotic has been generally non-detectable in the environment. It is also likely from the taxonomic composition of the resistant communities that various sources including terrestrial animals and humans may contribute to antibiotic resistance in the freshwater environment.
Xie, Xiaofang; Zhang, Haifang; Zheng, Yi; Li, Aiqing; Wang, Min; Zhou, Huiqin; Zhu, Xueming; Schneider, Zachary; Chen, Liang; Kreiswirth, Barry N; Du, Hong
Bacterial antimicrobial resistance has been associated with the up regulation of genes encoding efflux pumps and the down regulation of genes encoding outer membrane proteins (OMPs). Gene expression in bacteria is primarily initiated by sigma factors (σ factors) such as RpoE, which plays an important role in responding to many environmental stresses. Here, we report the first observation that RpoE serves as an antibiotic resistance regulator in Salmonella enteric serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). In this study, we found that the rpoE mutant (ΔrpoE) of S. Typhi GIFU10007 has elevated resistance to several antimicrobial agents, including β-lactams, quinolones, and aminoglycosides. Genomic DNA microarray analysis was used to investigate the differential gene expression profiles between a wild type and rpoE mutant in response to ampicillin. The results showed that a total of 57 genes displayed differential expression (two-fold increase or decrease) in ΔrpoE versus the wild-type strain. The expressions of two outer membrane protein genes, ompF and ompC, were significantly down-regulated in ΔrpoE (six and seven-fold lower in comparison to wild-type strain) and RamA, a member of the efflux pump AraC/XylS family, was up-regulated about four-fold in the ΔrpoE. Our results suggest RpoE is a potential antimicrobial regulator in S. Typhi, controlling both the down regulation of the OMP genes and up-regulating the efflux system.
Hol, Felix J H; Hubert, Bert; Dekker, Cees; Keymer, Juan E
During antibiotic treatment, antibiotic concentration gradients develop. Little is know regarding the effects of antibiotic gradients on populations of nonresistant bacteria. Using a microfluidic device, we show that high-density motile Escherichia coli populations composed of nonresistant bacteria can, unexpectedly, colonize environments where a lethal concentration of the antibiotic kanamycin is present. Colonizing bacteria establish an adaptively resistant population, which remains viable for over 24 h while exposed to the antibiotic. Quantitative analysis of multiple colonization events shows that collectively swimming bacteria need to exceed a critical population density in order to successfully colonize the antibiotic landscape. After colonization, bacteria are not dormant but show both growth and swimming motility under antibiotic stress. Our results highlight the importance of motility and population density in facilitating adaptive resistance, and indicate that adaptive resistance may be a first step to the emergence of genetically encoded resistance in landscapes of antibiotic gradients.
Greenspan, Neil S.
Many bacterial pathogens are exhibiting resistance to increasing numbers of antibiotics making it much more challenging to treat the infections caused by these microbes. In many reports in the media and perhaps even in discussions among physicians and biomedical scientists, these bacteria are frequently referred to as “bugs” with the prefix “super” appended. This terminology has a high potential to elicit unjustified inferences and fails to highlight the broader evolutionary context. Understanding the full range of biological and evolutionary factors that influence the spread and outcomes of infections is critical to formulating effective individual therapies and public health interventions. Therefore, more accurate terminology should be used to refer these multidrug-resistant bacteria. PMID:28174759
Teltsch, B; Katzenelson, E
The relationship between bacterial concentrations in wastewater used for spray irrigation and in the air was examined. Aerosolized coliforms were detected when their concentration was 10(3)/ml or more in the wastewater. Relative humidity and solar irradiation appeared to affect viable bacteria in the air; a positive correlation was found between relative humidity and the number of aerosolized bacteria. The correlation between solar irradiation and bacterial level, on the other hand, was negative. During night irrigation, up to 10 times more aerosolized bacteria were detected than with day irrigation. Wind velocity did not play an important role in the survival of aerosolized bacteria. Echovirus 7 was isolated in 4 out of 12 air samples collected 40 m downwind from the sprinkler.
Sharma, Virender K; Johnson, Natalie; Cizmas, Leslie; McDonald, Thomas J; Kim, Hyunook
Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) in the aquatic environment have become an emerging contaminant issue, which has implications for human and ecological health. This review begins with an introduction to the occurrence of ARB and ARG in different environmental systems such as natural environments and drinking water resources. For example, ARG or ARB with resistance to ciprofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, trimethoprim, quinolone, vancomycin, or tetracycline (e.g., tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(G), tet(O), tet(M), tet(W), sul I, and sul II) have been detected in the environment. The development of resistance may be intrinsic, may be acquired through spontaneous mutations (de novo), or may occur due to horizontal gene transfer from donor bacteria, phages, or free DNA to recipient bacteria. An overview is also provided of the current knowledge regarding inactivation of ARB and ARG, and the mechanism of the effects of different disinfection processes in water and wastewater (chlorination, UV irradiation, Fenton reaction, ozonation, and photocatalytic oxidation). The effects of constructed wetlands and nanotechnology on ARB and ARG are also summarized.
Khan, Sadia; Beattie, Tara K; Knapp, Charles W
Chlorination is commonly used to control levels of bacteria in drinking water; however, viable bacteria may remain due to chlorine resistance. What is concerning is that surviving bacteria, due to co-selection factors, may also have increased resistance to common antibiotics. This would pose a public health risk as it could link resistant bacteria in the natural environment to human population. Here, we investigated the relationship between chlorine- and antibiotic-resistances by harvesting 148 surviving bacteria from chlorinated drinking-water systems and compared their susceptibilities against chlorine disinfectants and antibiotics. Twenty-two genera were isolated, including members of Paenibacillus, Burkholderia, Escherichia, Sphingomonas and Dermacoccus species. Weak (but significant) correlations were found between chlorine-tolerance and minimum inhibitory concentrations against the antibiotics tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and amoxicillin, but not against ciprofloxacin; this suggest that chlorine-tolerant bacteria are more likely to also be antibiotic resistant. Further, antibiotic-resistant bacteria survived longer than antibiotic-sensitive organisms when exposed to free chlorine in a contact-time assay; however, there were little differences in susceptibility when exposed to monochloramine. Irrespective of antibiotic-resistance, spore-forming bacteria had higher tolerance against disinfection compounds. The presence of chlorine-resistant bacteria surviving in drinking-water systems may carry additional risk of antibiotic resistance.
Zhou, N; Zhang, J X; Fan, M T; Wang, J; Guo, G; Wei, X Y
The aim of this study was to evaluate the susceptibility of 43 strains of lactic acid bacteria, isolated from Chinese yogurts made in different geographical areas, to 11 antibiotics (ampicillin, penicillin G, roxithromycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, lincomycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, neomycin, and gentamycin). The 43 isolates (18 Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 25 Streptococcus thermophilus) were identified at species level and were typed by random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Thirty-five genotypically different strains were detected and their antimicrobial resistance to 11 antibiotics was determined using the agar dilution method. Widespread resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, chlortetracycline, tetracyclines, lincomycin, streptomycin, neomycin, and gentamycin was found among the 35 strains tested. All of the Strep. thermophilus strains tested were susceptible to penicillin G and roxithromycin, whereas 23.5 and 64.7% of Lb. bulgaricus strains, respectively, were resistant. All of the Strep. thermophilus and Lb. bulgaricus strains were found to be resistant to kanamycin. The presence of the corresponding resistance genes in the resistant isolates was investigated through PCR, with the following genes detected: tet(M) in 1 Lb. bulgaricus and 2 Strep. thermophilus isolates, ant(6) in 2 Lb. bulgaricus and 2 Strep. thermophilus isolates, and aph(3')-IIIa in 5 Lb. bulgaricus and 2 Strep. thermophilus isolates. The main threat associated with these bacteria is that they may transfer resistance genes to pathogenic bacteria, which has been a major cause of concern to human and animal health. To our knowledge, the aph(3')-IIIa and ant(6) genes were found in Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus for the first time. Further investigations are required to analyze whether the genes identified in Lb. bulgaricus and Strep. thermophilus isolates might be horizontally transferred to other species.
Chattaway, Marie Anne; Kamara, Abdul; Rhodes, Fay; Kaffeta, Konneh; Jambai, Amara; Alemu, Wondimagegnehu; Islam, Mohammed Sirajul; Freeman, Molly M; Welfare, William; Harding, Doris; Samba, Ahmed F; Abu, Musu; Kamanda, Sylvester; Grant, Kathie; Jenkins, Claire; Nair, Satheesh; Connell, Steve; Siorvanes, Lisa; Desai, Sarika; Allen, Collette; Frost, Margaret; Hughes, Daniel; Jeffrey, Zonya; Gill, Noel; Salter, Mark
In 2012, Sierra Leone experienced its worst cholera outbreak in over 15 years affecting 12 of the country's 13 districts. With limited diagnostic capability, particularly in bacterial culture, the cholera outbreak was initially confirmed by microbiological testing of clinical specimens outside of Sierra Leone. During 2012 - 2013, in direct response to the lack of diagnostic microbiology facilities, and to assist in investigating and monitoring the cholera outbreak, diagnostic and reference services were established in Sierra Leone at the Central Public Health Reference Laboratory focusing specifically on isolating and identifying Vibrio cholerae and other enteric bacterial pathogens. Sierra Leone is now capable of confirming cholera cases by reference laboratory testing.
Glenn, William G.; Ralston, James R.; Russell, Warren J.
Standardized individual preparations of five population levels of eight enteric organisms [Escherichia coli (O4:H3), E. coli (O111:B4:H12), Salmonella enteritidis, S. paratyphi B, S. typhimurium, Shigella boydii, S. dysenteriae, and S. sonnei) were prepared. Dry weights, calculated mean cell weight, and nitrogen content of bacterial suspensions before, and of supernatant fluids after, ultrasonic disruption are tabulated. Percentages of disruption, estimated from nitrogen concentration ratios of the suspensions and supernatant fluids, are given. These data are presented as guidelines for the preparation of bacterial extracts prior to precipitin analyses. PMID:16349752
Durso, Lisa M.; Miller, Daniel N.; Wienhold, Brian J.
There is concern that antibiotic resistance can potentially be transferred from animals to humans through the food chain. The relationship between specific antibiotic resistant bacteria and the genes they carry remains to be described. Few details are known about the ecology of antibiotic resistant genes and bacteria in food production systems, or how antibiotic resistance genes in food animals compare to antibiotic resistance genes in other ecosystems. Here we report the distribution of antibiotic resistant genes in publicly available agricultural and non-agricultural metagenomic samples and identify which bacteria are likely to be carrying those genes. Antibiotic resistance, as coded for in the genes used in this study, is a process that was associated with all natural, agricultural, and human-impacted ecosystems examined, with between 0.7 to 4.4% of all classified genes in each habitat coding for resistance to antibiotic and toxic compounds (RATC). Agricultural, human, and coastal-marine metagenomes have characteristic distributions of antibiotic resistance genes, and different bacteria that carry the genes. There is a larger percentage of the total genome associated with antibiotic resistance in gastrointestinal-associated and agricultural metagenomes compared to marine and Antarctic samples. Since antibiotic resistance genes are a natural part of both human-impacted and pristine habitats, presence of these resistance genes in any specific habitat is therefore not sufficient to indicate or determine impact of anthropogenic antibiotic use. We recommend that baseline studies and control samples be taken in order to determine natural background levels of antibiotic resistant bacteria and/or antibiotic resistance genes when investigating the impacts of veterinary use of antibiotics on human health. We raise questions regarding whether the underlying biology of each type of bacteria contributes to the likelihood of transfer via the food chain. PMID:23133629
There is concern that antibiotic resistance can potentially be transferred from animals to humans through the food chain. The relationship between specific antibiotic resistant bacteria and the genes they carry remains to be described and few details are known about how antibiotic resistance genes i...
The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in environmental surface waters has gained recent attention. Wastewater- and drinking water distribution systems are known to disseminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with the biofilms that form on the inner-surfaces of the pipeline as a hotspot for pr...
Blair, Jessica M A; Richmond, Grace E; Piddock, Laura J V
Gram-negative bacteria express a plethora of efflux pumps that are capable of transporting structurally varied molecules, including antibiotics, out of the bacterial cell. This efflux lowers the intracellular antibiotic concentration, allowing bacteria to survive at higher antibiotic concentrations. Overexpression of some efflux pumps can cause clinically relevant levels of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative pathogens. This review discusses the role of efflux in resistance of clinical isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, the regulatory mechanisms that control efflux pump expression, the recent advances in our understanding of efflux pump structure and how inhibition of efflux is a promising future strategy for tackling multidrug resistance in Gram-negative pathogens.
Kenard, R P; Valentine, R S
A rapid and sensitive method is described for the detection of bacteria in water and various other natural substrates by the isolation of specific bacteriophage. By the addition of large numbers of the organism in question to the sample, the presence of virulent bacteriophage can be demonstrated in as little as 6 to 8 h. Fecal coliform, total coliform, and total coliphage counts were determined for over 150 water samples from several geographical areas over a period of 2 years. Computer analysis of the data shows a high degree of correlation between fecal coliforms and the coliphage present in the samples. With a high correlation coefficient between fecal coliform and coliphage counts, predictions of the fecal coliforms may be made by enumeration of the phage.
The antibiotic era started in the 1940s and changed the profile of infectious diseases and human demography. The burgeoning classes and numbers promised much and elimination of this major cause of human (and animal) morbidity appeared possible. Bacterial antibiotic resistance which was observed soon after antibiotic introduction has been studied extensively. Diverse mechanisms have been demonstrated and the genetic basis elucidated. The resilience of the prokaryote ecosystems to antibiotic stress has been realized. The paper presents these subjects briefly to afford an overview. The epidemiology of antibiotic resistance is dealt with and community practices in different countries are described. The role of high antibiotic usage environments is indicated. The implication of the wide use of antibiotics in animals has been pointed out. Steadily increasing antibiotic resistance and decreasing numbers of newer antibiotics appear to point to a post-antibiotic period during which treatment of infections would become increasingly difficult. This article attempts to review the global antimicrobial resistance scene and juxtaposes it to the Indian experience. The prevalence in India of antibiotic resistance among major groups of pathogens is described. The factors that determine the prevalent high antibiotic resistance rates have been highlighted. The future research activity to ensure continued utility of antibiotics in the control of infections has been indicated.
Ghosh, M. K.; Nandi, S.; Roy, P. K.
Application of antibiotics in human system to prevent bacterial diseases like Gastritis, Ulcers, Meningitis, Pneumonia and Gonorrhea are indispensable. Antibiotics saved innumerable lives and continue to be a strong support for therapeutic application against pathogenic bacteria. In human system, bacterial diseases occur when pathogenic bacteria gets into the body and begin to reproduce and crowd out healthy bacteria. In this process, immature bacteria releases enzyme which is essential for bacterial cell-wall biosynthesis. After complete formation of cell wall, immature bacteria are converted to mature or virulent bacteria which are harmful to us during bacterial infections. Use of antibiotics as drug inhibits the bacterial cell wall formation. After application of antibiotics within body, the released bacterial enzyme binds with antibiotic molecule instead of its functional site during the cell wall synthesis in a competitive inhibition approach. As a consequence, the bacterial cell-wall formation as well as maturation process of pathogenic bacteria is halted and the disease is cured with lysis of bacterial cells. With this idea, a mathematical model has been developed in the present research investigation to review the inhibition of biosynthesis of bacterial cell wall by the application of antibiotics as drug in the light of enzyme kinetics. This approach helps to estimate the expected time to extinction of the pathogenic bacteria. Our mathematical approach based on the enzyme kinetic model for finding out expected time to extinction contributes favorable results for understanding of disease dynamics. Analytical and numerical results based on simulated findings validate our mathematical model.
Farrell, John J; Hicks, Jennifer L; Wallace, Stephanie E; Seftel, Allen D
With the universal adoption of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to prostate biopsy, the current risk of post-biopsy infection (including sepsis) is <2%. Preoperative prophylactic antibiotic regimens can vary, and although fluoroquinolones have emerged as the standard of care, there is no universally agreed upon preoperative antibiotic regimen. Recently, an increase in the proportion of postoperative infections caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (as well as other Enterobacteriaceae) has led to the exploration of simple, practical, and cost-effective methods to minimize this postoperative infection risk. We performed a prospective, nonrandomized, controlled study of preoperative rectal cultures to screen for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria using ciprofloxacin-supplemented MacConkey agar culture media. To evaluate the feasibility and practicality of this test, one provider used the results of rectal swab cultures collected during the preoperative outpatient evaluation to adjust each patient’s preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis when fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric bacteria were detected, whereas two other providers continued usual preoperative care and empiric antimicrobial prophylaxis. Rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria was detected in 19/152 (12.5%) of patients. In our intention-to-treat analysis (N=268), the rate of post-biopsy sepsis was 3.6% lower in the group that was screened for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant bacteria prior to transrectal prostate biopsy. The observed risk reduction in the rectal screening group trended toward, but did not achieve, statistical significance. We suggest that preoperative screening for rectal colonization with fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric bacteria may be a useful step toward mitigating post-prostate biopsy sepsis. PMID:28280717
Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Kolmos, Hans Jørn
Use of an antibiotic may not only select for resistance against the agent itself, but may at the same time co-select for resistance against other antibiotics if resistance genes are linked on e.g. a plasmid. Resistance plasmids may also carry genes mediating resistance against metals and disinfectants. Therefore, abundant use of metals, e.g. copper and zinc for growth promotion in animals used for food, may also co-select for antibiotic resistance. The same applies to disinfectants, e.g. silver and chlorhexidine. Prudent use of antibiotics and these other agents is essential to control antibiotic resistance.
Unger, Nathan R.; Ritter, Erich; Borrego, Robert; Goodman, Jay; Osiyemi, Olayemi O.
Sharks possess a variety of pathogenic bacteria in their oral cavity that may potentially be transferred into humans during a bite. The aim of the presented study focused on the identification of the bacteria present in the mouths of live blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus, and the extent that these bacteria possess multi-drug resistance. Swabs were taken from the oral cavity of nineteen live blacktip sharks, which were subsequently released. The average fork length was 146 cm (±11), suggesting the blacktip sharks were mature adults at least 8 years old. All swabs underwent standard microbiological work-up with identification of organisms and reporting of antibiotic susceptibilities using an automated microbiology system. The oral samples revealed an average of 2.72 (±1.4) bacterial isolates per shark. Gram-negative bacteria, making up 61% of all bacterial isolates, were significantly (p<0.001) more common than gram-positive bacteria (39%). The most common organisms were Vibrio spp. (28%), various coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (16%), and Pasteurella spp. (12%). The overall resistance rate was 12% for all antibiotics tested with nearly 43% of bacteria resistant to at least one antibiotic. Multi-drug resistance was seen in 4% of bacteria. No association between shark gender or fork length with bacterial density or antibiotic resistance was observed. Antibiotics with the highest overall susceptibility rates included fluoroquinolones, 3rd generation cephalosporins and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Recommended empiric antimicrobial therapy for adult blacktip shark bites should encompass either a fluoroquinolone or combination of a 3rd generation cephalosporin plus doxycycline. PMID:25110948
Unger, Nathan R; Ritter, Erich; Borrego, Robert; Goodman, Jay; Osiyemi, Olayemi O
Sharks possess a variety of pathogenic bacteria in their oral cavity that may potentially be transferred into humans during a bite. The aim of the presented study focused on the identification of the bacteria present in the mouths of live blacktip sharks, Carcharhinus limbatus, and the extent that these bacteria possess multi-drug resistance. Swabs were taken from the oral cavity of nineteen live blacktip sharks, which were subsequently released. The average fork length was 146 cm (±11), suggesting the blacktip sharks were mature adults at least 8 years old. All swabs underwent standard microbiological work-up with identification of organisms and reporting of antibiotic susceptibilities using an automated microbiology system. The oral samples revealed an average of 2.72 (±1.4) bacterial isolates per shark. Gram-negative bacteria, making up 61% of all bacterial isolates, were significantly (p<0.001) more common than gram-positive bacteria (39%). The most common organisms were Vibrio spp. (28%), various coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp. (16%), and Pasteurella spp. (12%). The overall resistance rate was 12% for all antibiotics tested with nearly 43% of bacteria resistant to at least one antibiotic. Multi-drug resistance was seen in 4% of bacteria. No association between shark gender or fork length with bacterial density or antibiotic resistance was observed. Antibiotics with the highest overall susceptibility rates included fluoroquinolones, 3rd generation cephalosporins and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Recommended empiric antimicrobial therapy for adult blacktip shark bites should encompass either a fluoroquinolone or combination of a 3rd generation cephalosporin plus doxycycline.
Huang, Jing-Jing; Tang, Fang; Xi, Jin-Ying; Pang, Yu-Chen; Hu, Hong-Ying
Prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wastewater effluents is concerned as an emerging contaminant. To estimate inactivation and reactivation potentials of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by UV disinfection, inactivation and reactivation of penicillin-, ampicillin-, cephalexin-, chloramphenicol-and rifampicin-resistant bacteria in the secondary effluent were studied under different UV doses. The results showed that the inactivation ratios of penicillin-, ampicillin-, cephalexin-and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria were higher than 4-log, which was closed to that of total heterotrophic bacteria; however, the inactivation ratio of rifampicin-resistant bacteria was lower (3.7-log) under 20 mJ x cm(-2) UV exposure. After 22 h standing incubation, antibiotic-resistant bacteria widely reactivated. The colony forming ability of antibiotic-resistant bacteria was as high as 3-log when exposed to 20 mJ x cm(-2) UV light. Hence, conventional UV dose can not effectively control reactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in reclaimed water by UV disinfection.
Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Crowley, Suzanne L.; Hardigan, Nicole
Water samples collected from 20 stream sites in Oakland and Macomb Counties, Mich., were analyzed to learn more about the occurrence of cephalosporin-resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and the co-occurrence of antibiotics and mercury in area streams. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded the Michigan recreational water-quality standard of 300 E. coli colony forming units (CFU) per 100 milliliters of water in 19 of 35 stream-water samples collected in Oakland County. A gene commonly associated with enterococci from humans was detected in samples from Paint Creek at Rochester and Evans Ditch at Southfield, indicating that human fecal waste is a possible source of fecal contamination at these sites. E. coli resistant to the cephalosporin antibiotics (cefoxitin and/ or ceftriaxone) were found at all sites on at least one occasion. The highest percentages of E. coli isolates resistant to cefoxitin and ceftriaxone were 71 percent (Clinton River at Auburn Hills) and 19 percent (Sashabaw Creek near Drayton Plains), respectively. Cephalosporin-resistant E. coli was detected more frequently in samples from intensively urbanized or industrialized areas than in samples from less urbanized areas. VRE were not detected in any sample collected in this study. Multiple antibiotics (azithromycin, erythromycin, ofloxacin, sulfamethoxazole, and trimethoprim) were detected in water samples from the Clinton River at Auburn Hills, and tylosin (an antibiotic used in veterinary medicine and livestock production that belongs to the macrolide group, along with erythromycin) was detected in one water sample from Paint Creek at Rochester. Concentrations of total mercury were as high as 19.8 nanograms per liter (Evans Ditch at Southfield). There was no relation among percentage of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and measured concentrations of antibiotics or mercury in the water. Genetic elements capable of exchanging multiple antibiotic
Foodborne antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio cholerae can adversely affect animal and human health, but a better understanding of the factors involve...
This presentation will inform the audience of the purpose and importance of the antibiotic resistant bacteria surveillances that have been conducted to date. And an overview of why the EPA is looking into this problem in wastewater effluents.
Blaustein, Ryan A; Shelton, Daniel R; Van Kessel, Jo Ann S; Karns, Jeffrey S; Stocker, Matthew D; Pachepsky, Yakov A
The presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in environmental surface waters has gained recent attention. Wastewater and drinking water distribution systems are known to disseminate antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with the biofilms that form on the inner-surfaces of the pipeline as a hot spot for proliferation and gene exchange. Pipe-based irrigation systems that utilize surface waters may contribute to the dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a similar manner. We conducted irrigation events at a perennial stream on a weekly basis for 1 month, and the concentrations of total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, and fecal coliforms, as well as the concentrations of these bacterial groups that were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, were monitored at the intake water. Prior to each of the latter three events, residual pipe water was sampled and 6-in. sections of pipeline (coupons) were detached from the system, and biofilm from the inner-wall was removed and analyzed for total protein content and the above bacteria. Isolates of biofilm-associated bacteria were screened for resistance to a panel of seven antibiotics, representing five antibiotic classes. All of the monitored bacteria grew substantially in the residual water between irrigation events, and the biomass of the biofilm steadily increased from week to week. The percentages of biofilm-associated isolates that were resistant to antibiotics on the panel sometimes increased between events. Multiple-drug resistance was observed for all bacterial groups, most often for fecal coliforms, and the distributions of the numbers of antibiotics that the total coliforms and fecal coliforms were resistant to were subject to change from week to week. Results from this study highlight irrigation waters as a potential source for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can subsequently become incorporated into and proliferate within irrigation pipe-based biofilms.
Raaijmakers, Jos M; Mazzola, Mark
Soil- and plant-associated environments harbor numerous bacteria that produce antibiotic metabolites with specific or broad-spectrum activities against coexisting microorganisms. The function and ecological importance of antibiotics have long been assumed to yield a survival advantage to the producing bacteria in the highly competitive but resource-limited soil environments through direct suppression. Although specific antibiotics may enhance producer persistence when challenged by competitors or predators in soil habitats, at subinhibitory concentrations antibiotics exhibit a diversity of other roles in the life history of the producing bacteria. Many processes modulated by antibiotics may be inherently critical to the producing bacterium, such as the acquisition of substrates or initiation of developmental changes that will ensure survival under stressful conditions. Antibiotics may also have roles in more complex interactions, including in virulence on host plants or in shaping the outcomes of multitrophic interactions. The innate functions of antibiotics to producing bacteria in their native ecosystem are just beginning to emerge, but current knowledge already reveals a breadth of activities well beyond the historical perspective of antibiotics as weaponry in microbial conflicts.
The emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded ß-lactam antibiotics (amp...
Huang, Jing-Jing; Hu, Hong-Ying; Lu, Sun-Qin; Li, Yi; Tang, Fang; Lu, Yun; Wei, Bin
The prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is becoming a concern of public health. In order to acquire information on the emission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from WWTP effluents into natural waters, both average antibiotic tolerance and concentrations of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the effluent of a WWTP in Beijing, China were investigated. A new index of IC(50)/MIC ratio (the antibiotic concentration required to inhibit 50% of total heterotrophic bacteria compared to the highest minimum inhibitory concentration value of a group of pathogens according to a specific antibiotic, as defined by CLSI) was used to reflect the average antibiotic tolerance of total heterotrophic bacteria in the secondary effluent. The results showed that the IC(50)/MIC ratios of heterotrophic bacteria in the secondary effluent to penicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chloramphenicol and rifampicin were >2, >1, >1, and 1.08, respectively, which reflected a significantly high general level of heterotrophic bacteria found in the secondary effluent resistant to these five antibiotics. The concentrations of penicillin-, ampicillin-, cephalothin-, and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria were as high as 1.5×10(4)-1.9×10(5), 1.2×10(4)-1.5×10(5), 8.9×10(3)-1.9×10(5) and 2.6×10(4)-2.0×10(5) CFU/mL, and the average percentages in relation to total heterotrophic bacteria were 63%, 47%, 55%, and 69%, respectively. The concentrations of tetracycline- and rifampicin-resistant bacteria were 840-6.1×10(3) and 310-6.1×10(4) CFU/mL with average percentages of 2.6% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, our study found that five- and six-antibiotic-resistant bacteria were widely distributed in four types of enterobacteria from the secondary effluent. The presence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria from effluents of WWTPs into natural waters could pose a serious problem as a secondary pollutant of drinking water.
Guo, Mei-Ting; Yuan, Qing-Bin; Yang, Jian
Little is known about the microbial selectivity of UV treatment for antibiotic resistant bacteria, and the results of limited studies are conflicting. To understand the effect of UV disinfection on antibiotic resistant bacteria, both total heterotrophic bacteria and antibiotic resistant bacteria (including cephalexin-, ciprofloxacin-, erythromycin-, gentamicin-, vancomycin-, sulfadiazine-, rifampicin-, tetracycline- and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria) were examined in secondary effluent samples from a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Bacteria resistant to both erythromycin and tetracycline were chosen as the representative of multiple-antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their characteristics after UV treatment were also investigated. UV disinfection results in effective inactivation for total heterotrophic bacteria, as well as all antibiotic resistant bacteria. After UV treatment at a fluence of 5 mJ/cm(2), the log reductions of nine types of antibiotic resistant bacteria varied from 1.0 ± 0.1 to 2.4 ± 0.1. Bacteria resistant to both erythromycin and tetracycline had a similar fluence response as did total heterotrophic bacteria. The findings suggest that UV disinfection could eliminate antibiotic resistance in wastewater treatment effluents and thus ensure public health security. Our experimental results indicated that UV disinfection led to enrichment of bacteria with resistance to sulfadiazine, vancomycin, rifampicin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol, while the proportions of cephalexin-, erythromycin-, gentamicin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant bacteria in the wastewater decreased. This reveals the microbial selectivity of UV disinfection for antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Zhang, Qichun; Dick, Warren A
There is growing evidence that bacteria, in the natural environment (e.g. the soil), can exhibit naturally occurring resistance/degradation against synthetic antibiotics. Our aim was to assess whether soils, not previously exposed to synthetic antibiotics, contained bacterial strains that were not only antibiotic resistant, but could actually utilize the antibiotics for energy and nutrients. We isolated 19 bacteria from four diverse soils that had the capability of growing on penicillin and neomycin as sole carbon sources up to concentrations of 1000 mg L(-1). The 19 bacterial isolates represent a diverse set of species in the phyla Proteobacteria (84%) and Bacteroidetes (16%). Nine antibiotic resistant genes were detected in the four soils but some of these genes (i.e. tetM, ermB, and sulI) were not detected in the soil isolates indicating the presence of unculturable antibiotic resistant bacteria. Most isolates that could subsist on penicillin or neomycin as sole carbon sources were also resistant to the presence of these two antibiotics and six other antibiotics at concentrations of either 20 or 1000 mg L(-1). The potentially large and diverse pool of antibiotic resistant and degradation genes implies ecological and health impacts yet to be explored and fully understood.
Wang, Lei; Chen, Yung Pin; Miller, Kristen P; Cash, Brandon M; Jones, Shonda; Glenn, Steven; Benicewicz, Brian C; Decho, Alan W
Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a vexing global health problem and have rendered ineffective many previously-used antibiotics. Here we demonstrate that antibiotic-linkage to surface-functionalized silica nanoparticles (sNP) significantly enhances their effectiveness against Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, and even methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) strains that are resistant to most antibiotics. The commonly-used antibiotic penicillin-G (PenG) was complexed to dye-labeled sNPs (15 nm diameter) containing carboxyl groups located as either surface-functional groups, or on polymer-chains extending from surfaces. Both sNPs configurations efficiently killed bacteria, including MRSA strains. This suggests that activities of currently-ineffective antibiotics can be restored by nanoparticle-complexation and used to avert certain forms of antibiotic-resistance.
Bogomolova, N S; Bol'shakov, L V; Kuznetsova, S M; Oreshkina, T D
The isolation rates of nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria (NFGNB) are analyzed in the inpatients treated at the B. V. Petrovsky Russian Surgery Research Center in 2005-2009 and antibiotic resistance trends in nosocomial strains of NFGNB are traced in the above period. The study of the etiological structure of nosocomial infections has shown that the past 2 years (2008 and 2009) were marked by a clear tendency for the preponderance of gram-positive coccal pathogens (46.8 and 53.9%) with a considerable (1.5-2-fold) reduction in the proportion of representatives of enterobacteria (31.5 and 24.5%) and NFGB (13.4 and 11.3%), but with an increase in the proportion of fungi up to 7.1 and 8.6%, respectively. Among the NFGNBs, P. aeruginosa remains ohe of the most common pathogens for nosocomial infections although its portion in the number of all etiologically significant microorganisms was substantially reduced (from 13% in 2005 to 4.6% in 2009). It continues to remain one of the most common causative agents for infections of the urinary tract (e.g., after renal transplantation) and upper and lower respiratory tract (e.g. nosocomial pneumonia) and for those developing after surgical interventions (postoperative wound suppuration discharged along the drainages, from a T-sized tube, etc.). Among the NFGNBs, Acinetobacter spp. was the second frequently isolated pathogen, the isolation rate for which also decreased from 7.9% in 2005 to 2.6% in 2009. Polymyxin B and carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem, and doripenem) showed the highest activity against the vast majority of the test strains; however, there was an absolutely clear declining trend in the proportion of carbapenem-sensitive strains among virtually all the NFGNBs under study. According to the proportion of imipenem-, meropenem-, and doripenem-sensitive nosocomial P. aeroginosa strains (66.7, 46.6, and 44.7%, respectively), doripenem had the least activity. Acinetobacter spp. strains sensitive to these drugs showed
The mammalian gastrointestinal (GI) tract hosts a diverse collection bacteria, most of which are beneficial for host health. This bacterial community also supports a community of viruses that infect bacteria (called bacteriophages or phages). Phages transfer genes between bacteria, and phage-media...
Liu, Chengcheng; Hu, Min; Ma, Dandan; Lei, Jin'e; Xu, Jiru
The worldwide increase in bacterial antibiotic resistance has led to a search for alternative antibacterial therapies. A promising approach to killing antibiotic-resistant bacteria is photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy, which uses light in combination with a photosensitizer to induce a phototoxic reaction. We evaluated the photodynamic inactivation (PDI) efficiency of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME) on antibiotic-resistant bacteria and biofilms. HMME exhibited no significant dark toxicity and provided dose-dependent inactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and biofilms. After incubation with 100-μM HMME and irradiation with 72-J cm(-2) white light, 4.19-7.59 log10 reductions in survival were achieved in planktonic suspension. Antibiotic-resistant strains were as susceptible to PDI in biofilms as in planktonic suspensions, but the inactivation of bacterial cells in biofilms was attenuated. In addition, gram-positive bacterial strains and biofilms were more susceptible than gram-negative strains and biofilms to the PDI effect of HMME. Thus, HMME is a promising photosensitizer for the treatment of infectious diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially gram-positive bacteria.
Dolowschiak, Tamas; Wotzka, Sandra Y.; Lengefeld, Jette; Slack, Emma; Grant, Andrew J.; Ackermann, Martin; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich
In vivo, antibiotics are often much less efficient than ex vivo and relapses can occur. The reasons for poor in vivo activity are still not completely understood. We have studied the fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin in an animal model for complicated Salmonellosis. High-dose ciprofloxacin treatment efficiently reduced pathogen loads in feces and most organs. However, the cecum draining lymph node (cLN), the gut tissue, and the spleen retained surviving bacteria. In cLN, approximately 10%–20% of the bacteria remained viable. These phenotypically tolerant bacteria lodged mostly within CD103+CX3CR1−CD11c+ dendritic cells, remained genetically susceptible to ciprofloxacin, were sufficient to reinitiate infection after the end of the therapy, and displayed an extremely slow growth rate, as shown by mathematical analysis of infections with mixed inocula and segregative plasmid experiments. The slow growth was sufficient to explain recalcitrance to antibiotics treatment. Therefore, slow-growing antibiotic-tolerant bacteria lodged within dendritic cells can explain poor in vivo antibiotic activity and relapse. Administration of LPS or CpG, known elicitors of innate immune defense, reduced the loads of tolerant bacteria. Thus, manipulating innate immunity may augment the in vivo activity of antibiotics. PMID:24558351
Barlow, Robert S; Pemberton, John M; Desmarchelier, Patricia M; Gobius, Kari S
The emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic and commensal bacteria has become a serious problem worldwide. The use and overuse of antibiotics in a number of settings are contributing to the development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. The class 1 and 2 integrase genes (intI1 and intI2, respectively) were identified in mixed bacterial cultures enriched from bovine feces by growth in buffered peptone water (BPW) followed by integrase-specific PCR. Integrase-positive bacterial colonies from the enrichment cultures were then isolated by using hydrophobic grid membrane filters and integrase-specific gene probes. Bacterial clones isolated by this technique were then confirmed to carry integrons by further testing by PCR and DNA sequencing. Integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes were detected in bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Proteus spp., Morganella morganii, Shewanella spp., and urea-positive Providencia stuartii isolates from bovine fecal samples without the use of selective enrichment media containing antibiotics. Streptomycin and trimethoprim resistance were commonly associated with integrons. The advantages conferred by this methodology are that a wide variety of integron-containing bacteria may be simultaneously cultured in BPW enrichments and culture biases due to antibiotic selection can be avoided. Rapid and efficient identification, isolation, and characterization of antibiotic resistance-associated integrons are possible by this protocol. These methods will facilitate greater understanding of the factors that contribute to the presence and transfer of integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial isolates from red meat production animals.
Barlow, Robert S.; Pemberton, John M.; Desmarchelier, Patricia M.; Gobius, Kari S.
The emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic and commensal bacteria has become a serious problem worldwide. The use and overuse of antibiotics in a number of settings are contributing to the development of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms. The class 1 and 2 integrase genes (intI1 and intI2, respectively) were identified in mixed bacterial cultures enriched from bovine feces by growth in buffered peptone water (BPW) followed by integrase-specific PCR. Integrase-positive bacterial colonies from the enrichment cultures were then isolated by using hydrophobic grid membrane filters and integrase-specific gene probes. Bacterial clones isolated by this technique were then confirmed to carry integrons by further testing by PCR and DNA sequencing. Integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes were detected in bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Aeromonas spp., Proteus spp., Morganella morganii, Shewanella spp., and urea-positive Providencia stuartii isolates from bovine fecal samples without the use of selective enrichment media containing antibiotics. Streptomycin and trimethoprim resistance were commonly associated with integrons. The advantages conferred by this methodology are that a wide variety of integron-containing bacteria may be simultaneously cultured in BPW enrichments and culture biases due to antibiotic selection can be avoided. Rapid and efficient identification, isolation, and characterization of antibiotic resistance-associated integrons are possible by this protocol. These methods will facilitate greater understanding of the factors that contribute to the presence and transfer of integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes in bacterial isolates from red meat production animals. PMID:14982773
Sizemore, Elizabeth Nicole; Rivas, Kenya Maria; Valdes, Jose; Caballero, Joshua
A geriatric patient status post intraabdominal surgery presented with persistent diarrhoea and heavy intestinal methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) growth after multiple courses of antibiotic therapy. Additionally, swab cultures of the anterior nares tested positive for MRSA. In order to impede infection and prevent future complications, the patient received a 10-day course of vancomycin oral solution 250 mg every 6 h, 15-day course of Saccharomyces boulardii 250 mg orally twice daily and a 5-day course of topical mupirocin 2% twice daily intranasally. Diarrhoea ceased during therapy and repeat cultures 11 days after initiating therapy demonstrated negative MRSA growth from the stool and nares. Further repeat cultures 5 months later revealed negative MRSA growth in the stools and minimal MRSA growth in the nares. Overall, enteral vancomycin and probiotics successfully eradicated MRSA infection without intestinal recurrence. Although the results were beneficial treating MRSA diarrhoea for our patient, these agents remain highly controversial. PMID:22847566
Ahmad, S; Jensen, R A
Because bifunctional enzymes are distinctive and highly conserved products of relatively infrequent gene-fusion events, they are particularly useful markers to identify clusters of organisms at different hierarchical levels of a phylogenetic tree. Within the subdivision of gram-negative bacteria known as superfamily B, there are two distinctive types of tyrosine-pathway dehydrogenases: (1) a broad-specificity dehydrogenase (recently termed cyclohexadienyl dehydrogenase [CDH]) that can utilize either prephenate or L-arogenate as alternative substrates and (2) a bifunctional CDH that also posseses chorismate mutase activity. (T-proteins). The bifunctional T-protein, thought to be encoded by fused ancestral genes for chorismate mutase and CDH, was found to be present in enteric bacteria (Escherichia, Shigella, Salmonella, Citrobacter, Klebsiella, Erwinia, Serratia, Morganella, Cedecea, Kluyvera, Hafnia, Edwardsiella, Yersinia, and Proteus) and in Aeromonas and Alteromonas. Outside of the latter "enteric lineage," the T-protein is absent in other major superfamily-B genera, such as Pseudomonas (rRNA homology group I), Xanthomonas, Acinetobacter, and Oceanospirillum. Hence, the T-protein must have evolved after the divergence of the enteric and Oceanospirillum lineages. 3-Deoxy-D-arabino-heptulosonate 7-phosphate synthase-phe, an early-pathway isozyme sensitive to feedback inhibition by L-phenylalanine, has been found in each member of the enteric lineage examined. The absence of both the T-protein and DAHP synthase-phe elsewhere in superfamily B indicates the emergence of these character states at approximately the same evolutionary time.
Scott, K P
There is huge potential for genetic exchange to occur within the dense, diverse anaerobic microbial population inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and animals. However, the incidence of conjugative transposons (CTns) and the antibiotic resistance genes they carry has not been well studied among this population. Since any incoming bacteria, including pathogens, can access this reservoir of genes, this oversight would appear to be an important one. Recent evidence has shown that anaerobic bacteria native to the rumen or hindgut harbour both novel antibiotic resistance genes and novel conjugative transposons. These CTns, and previously characterized CTns, can be transferred to a wide range of commensal bacteria under laboratory and in vivo conditions. The main evidence that gene transfer occurs widely in vivo between GIT bacteria, and between GIT bacteria and pathogenic bacteria, is that identical resistance genes are present in diverse bacterial species from different hosts.
Godziszewska, Jolanta; Guzek, Dominika; Głąbski, Krzysztof; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka
In recent years, more and more antibiotics have become ineffective in the treatment of bacterial nfections. The acquisition of antibiotic resistance by bacteria is associated with circulation of genes in the environment. Determinants of antibiotic resistance may be transferred to pathogenic bacteria. It has been shown that conjugation is one of the key mechanisms responsible for spread of antibiotic resistance genes, which is highly efficient and allows the barrier to restrictions and modifications to be avoided. Some conjugative modules enable the transfer of plasmids even between phylogenetically distant bacterial species. Many scientific reports indicate that food is one of the main reservoirs of these genes. Antibiotic resistance genes have been identified in meat products, milk, fruits and vegetables. The reason for such a wide spread of antibiotic resistance genes is the overuse of antibiotics by breeders of plants and animals, as well as by horizontal gene transfer. It was shown, that resistance determinants located on mobile genetic elements, which are isolated from food products, can easily be transferred to another niche. The antibiotic resistance genes have been in the environment for 30 000 years. Their removal from food products is not possible, but the risks associated with the emergence of multiresistant pathogenic strains are very large. The only option is to control the emergence, selection and spread of these genes. Therefore measures are sought to prevent horizontal transfer of genes. Promising concepts involve the combination of developmental biology, evolution and ecology in the fight against the spread of antibiotic resistance.
Iwane, T; Urase, T; Yamamoto, K
Escherichia coli and coliform group bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics were investigated in the Tama River, a typical urbanized river in Tokyo, Japan, and at a wastewater treatment plant located on the river. The percentages of antibiotic resistance in the wastewater effluent were, in most cases, higher than the percentages in the river water, which were observed increasing downstream. Since the possible increase in the percentages in the river was associated with treated wastewater discharges, it was concluded that the river, which is contaminated by treated wastewater with many kinds of pollutants, is also contaminated with antibiotic resistant coliform group bacteria and E. coli. The percentages of resistant bacteria in the wastewater treatment plant were mostly observed decreasing during the treatment process. It was also demonstrated that the percentages of resistance in raw sewage are significantly higher than those in the river water and that the wastewater treatment process investigated in this study works against most of resistant bacteria in sewage.
Li, Chuanwei; Gao, Min; Zhang, Wen; Chen, Caiyu; Zhou, Faying; Hu, Zhangxu; Zeng, Chunyu
Several studies have reported an association between enteric bacteria and atherosclerosis. Bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene belong to Enterobacteriaceae have been detected in atherosclerotic plaques. How intestinal bacteria go into blood is not known. Zonulin reversibly modulate intestinal permeability (IP), the circulating zonulin levels were increased in diabetes, obesity, all of which are risk factors for atherosclerosis. It is unclear whether the circulating zonulin levels were changed in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients and modulate IP. The 16S rRNA gene of bacteria in blood sample was checked by 454 pyrosequencing. The zonulin levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. The distribution of zonulin was detected by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. Bacteria and Caco-2 cell surface micro-structure were checked by transmission electron microscopy. A high diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA gene can be detected in samples from CAD patients, most of them (99.4%) belong to Enterobacteriaceaes, eg. Rahnella. The plasma zonulin levels were significantly higher in CAD patients. Pseudomonas fluorescens exposure significantly increased zonulin expression and decreased IP in a time dependent manner. The elevated zonulin increase IP and may facilitate enteric translocation by disassembling the tight junctions, which might explain the observed high diversity of bacterial 16S rRNA genes in blood samples. PMID:27353603
Harlow, Brittany E; Lawrence, Laurie M; Flythe, Michael D
Antibiotics are important to equine medicine, but antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) can lead to poor performance and even mortality. AAD is attributed to disruption of the hindgut microbiota, which permits proliferation of pathogenic microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of common antibiotics on cellulolytic bacteria, lactobacilli, and AAD-associated pathogens in the feces of healthy horses. Fifteen horses were assigned to three treatment groups (blocked by age and sex): control (no antibiotics), trimethoprim-sulfadiazine (PO), or ceftiofur (IM). Fecal samples (n=8 per horse) were taken during dietary adaptation (3 weeks), antibiotic challenge (1 week), and withdrawal (1 week). Bacteria were enumerated by serial dilution and viable count. Cellulolytic bacteria decreased by >99% during administration of either antibiotic (P<0.0001) and were still less than controls at the end of the withdrawal period (P<0.0001). Fecal samples from horses challenged with ceftiofur had 75% fewer lactobacilli than those from control horses at the end of the antibiotic challenge period (P<0.05). Antibiotic challenged horses also shed more salmonella than control horses (P<0.05). Antibiotics had no effect on the number of Clostridium perfringens isolates. There was no detectable Clostridium difficile during adaptation or in any control horse. C. difficile increased (P<0.0001) to approximately 10(4)cfu/g when horses were challenged with antibiotics, and were still detectable 1 week after withdrawal. These results indicate that antibiotics can disrupt the normal gastrointestinal microbiota and allow proliferation of Salmonella spp. and C. difficile.
Fannin, K.F.; Hsu, P.H.; Mensinger, J.; Cahill, C.
Natural resource depletion increases the amount of waste requiring efficient and affordable disposal alternatives. Through effective management, many of these so-called wastes can be utilized as important energy and agricultural resources. One such management approach involves the utilization of emergent aquatic plant species, such as water hyacinth, to remove nutrients from the wastewater during growth. This process produces an energy-containing biomass that can then be anaerobically digested either separately or with other waste components to produce energy-containing methane and an effluent residue containing significant quantities of protein and nutrients. This residue can be utilized as an effective fertilizer, soil conditioner, or animal feed supplement provided it is rendered reasonably safe from such contaminants as enteric microorganisms. This study was conducted to identify the digester operating parameters that affect the survival of enteric bacteria and viruses during the anaerobic digestion of blends of water hyacinth and primary sewage sludge. Solids retetion time and temperature were demonstrated to be important parameters affecting the survival of poliovirus, f-2 coliphage, Streptoccus fecalis, and Escherichia coli during anaerobic digestion. The die-off rates of the coliphages were similar to those of the poliovirus at 35/sup 0/C. S. fecalis appeared to be the most stable of any of the bacteria and viruses studied. All organisms were more stable at 25 than at 35/sup 0/C. The data demonstrate that the concentration of enteric bacteria and viruses can be effectively reduced during anaerobic digestion using techniques, such as increased solids retention times and mesophilic temperatures, that are consistent with achieving high methane yields. The survival of enteric viruses during anaerobic digestion may be affected by the characteristics of the feedstock as well as by the process operating conditions.
The effect of low, residual concentrations of antibiotics in manure and other environmental matrices is not well understood. It has been hypothesized that antibiotic concentrations below clinical MIC (minimal inhibitory concentrations) are still capable of selecting for resistance. The objective of ...
Yang, Qingxiang; Ren, Siwei; Niu, Tianqi; Guo, Yuhui; Qi, Shiyue; Han, Xinkuan; Liu, Dong; Pan, Feng
Veterinary manure is an important pollution reservoir of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB). However, little is known of the distribution of ARB in plant endophytic bacteria and the number/types of ARB in chicken manure. In this study, 454-pyrosequencing was used to investigate the distribution and composition of ARBs in chicken manure and fertilized vegetables. The prevalence of ARB in the samples of the chicken manure compost recovered from farms on which amoxicillin, kanamycin, gentamicin, and cephalexin were used was 20.91-65.9% for ARBs and 8.24-20.63% simultaneously resistant to two or more antibiotics (multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria (MARB)). Antibiotic-resistant endophytic bacteria were widely detected in celery, pakchoi, and cucumber with the highest rate of resistance to cephalexin. The pyrosequencing indicated that the chicken manure dominantly harbored Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Synergistetes, and Proteobacteria and that Bacteroidetes was significantly enhanced in farms utilizing antibiotics. In the total cultivable colonies, 62.58-89.43% ARBs and 95.29% MARB were clustered in Bacteroidetes with the dominant species (Myroides ordoratimimus and Spningobacterium spp., respectively) related to human clinical opportunistic pathogens.
Clementi, Francesca; Aquilanti, Lucia
The worldwide use, and misuse, of antibiotics for about sixty years in the so-called antibiotic era, has been estimated in some one to ten million tons, a relevant part of which destined for non-therapeutic purposes such as growth promoting treatments for livestock or crop protection. As highly adaptable organisms, bacteria have reacted to this dramatic change in their environment by developing several well-known mechanisms of antibiotic resistance and are becoming increasingly resistant to conventional antibiotics. In recent years, commensal bacteria have become a cause of concern since they may act as reservoirs for the antibiotic resistance genes found in human pathogens. In particular, the food chain has been considered the main route for the introduction of animal and environment associated antibiotic resistant bacteria into the human gastrointestinal tract (GIT) where these genes may be transferred to pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria. As fundamental microbial communities in a large variety of fermented foods and feed, the anaerobe facultative, aerotolerant lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are likely to play a pivotal role in the resistance gene exchange occurring in the environment, food, feed and animal and human GIT. Therefore their antibiotic resistance features and their genetic basis have recently received increasing attention. The present article summarises the results of the latest studies on the most typical genera belonging to the low G + C branch of LAB. The evolution of the criteria established by European regulatory bodies to ensure a safe use of microorganisms in food and feed, including the assessment of their antibiotic resistance is also reviewed.
Wynne, David; Shteinman, Boris; Hochman, Ayala; Ben-Dan, Talya
Lake Kinneret, in the north of Israel, is the only freshwater body in the country. It supports many activities, including recreation, tourism, and a commercial fishing industry, but its prime function is to supply water to other parts of the country. Consequently, maintaining a high water quality of the lake is of prime importance. The major part (some 90%) of the annual runoff of water enters Lake Kinneret from the north via the Jordan River during the autumn-winter floods. During this period, the river carries sediments, toxic agricultural chemicals, and allochthonous organisms, including pathogenic bacteria, into the lake. The Jordan River-Lake Kinneret contact zone is characterized by a rapid transformation from a riverine to a lacustrine water mass within 700 m from the river mouth, with very high spatial gradients of practically all hydrodynamic, hydrophysical, hydrochemical, and microbiological parameters. Previous measurements have shown that the distribution of enteric bacteria in the river-lake contact zone is related to the attenuation of river current flows. The aim of this study was to determine whether the change in the number of enteric bacteria (fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella spp.) in the water of the River Jordan-Lake Kinneret contact zone was due to sedimentation or to dilution. The data were then utilized to build a conceptual model explaining the distribution of biological pollutants (bacteria) in the river-lake contact zone of a shallow tropical lake, using the microbial communities of the River Jordan-Lake Kinneret contact zone, as an example.
Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Wichmann, Fabienne; Broderick, Nichole A; Handelsman, Jo
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production, its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact, we cultured bacteria from soil before and at 10 time points after application of manure from cows that had not received antibiotic treatment. Soil treated with manure contained a higher abundance of β-lactam-resistant bacteria than soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. Functional metagenomics identified β-lactam-resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria in manure-amended soil was attributable to enrichment of resident soil bacteria that harbor β-lactamases. Quantitative PCR indicated that manure treatment enriched the blaCEP-04 gene, which is highly similar (96%) to a gene found previously in a Pseudomonas sp. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the abundance of Pseudomonas spp. increased in manure-amended soil. Populations of other soil bacteria that commonly harbor β-lactamases, including Janthinobacterium sp. and Psychrobacter pulmonis, also increased in response to manure treatment. These results indicate that manure amendment induced a bloom of certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil that was independent of antibiotic exposure of the cows from which the manure was derived. Our data illustrate the unintended consequences that can result from agricultural practices, and demonstrate the need for empirical analysis of the agroecosystem.
Udikovic-Kolic, Nikolina; Wichmann, Fabienne; Broderick, Nichole A.; Handelsman, Jo
The increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a global threat to public health. Agricultural use of antibiotics is believed to contribute to the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanisms by which many agricultural practices influence resistance remain obscure. Although manure from dairy farms is a common soil amendment in crop production, its impact on the soil microbiome and resistome is not known. To gain insight into this impact, we cultured bacteria from soil before and at 10 time points after application of manure from cows that had not received antibiotic treatment. Soil treated with manure contained a higher abundance of β-lactam–resistant bacteria than soil treated with inorganic fertilizer. Functional metagenomics identified β-lactam–resistance genes in treated and untreated soil, and indicated that the higher frequency of resistant bacteria in manure-amended soil was attributable to enrichment of resident soil bacteria that harbor β-lactamases. Quantitative PCR indicated that manure treatment enriched the blaCEP-04 gene, which is highly similar (96%) to a gene found previously in a Pseudomonas sp. Analysis of 16S rRNA genes indicated that the abundance of Pseudomonas spp. increased in manure-amended soil. Populations of other soil bacteria that commonly harbor β-lactamases, including Janthinobacterium sp. and Psychrobacter pulmonis, also increased in response to manure treatment. These results indicate that manure amendment induced a bloom of certain antibiotic-resistant bacteria in soil that was independent of antibiotic exposure of the cows from which the manure was derived. Our data illustrate the unintended consequences that can result from agricultural practices, and demonstrate the need for empirical analysis of the agroecosystem. PMID:25288759
Biswas, Silpak; Raoult, Didier; Rolain, Jean-Marc
Intracellular bacteria survive within eukaryotic host cells and are difficult to kill with certain antibiotics. As a result, antibiotic resistance in intracellular bacteria is becoming commonplace in healthcare institutions. Owing to the lack of methods available for transforming these bacteria, we evaluated the mechanisms of resistance using molecular methods and in silico genome analysis. The objective of this review was to understand the molecular mechanisms of antibiotic resistance through in silico comparisons of the genomes of obligate and facultative intracellular bacteria. The available data on in vitro mutants reported for intracellular bacteria were also reviewed. These genomic data were analysed to find natural mutations in known target genes involved in antibiotic resistance and to look for the presence or absence of different resistance determinants. Our analysis revealed the presence of tetracycline resistance protein (Tet) in Bartonella quintana, Francisella tularensis and Brucella ovis; moreover, most of the Francisella strains possessed the blaA gene, AmpG protein and metallo-beta-lactamase family protein. The presence or absence of folP (dihydropteroate synthase) and folA (dihydrofolate reductase) genes in the genome could explain natural resistance to co-trimoxazole. Finally, multiple genes encoding different efflux pumps were studied. This in silico approach was an effective method for understanding the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in intracellular bacteria. The whole genome sequence analysis will help to predict several important phenotypic characteristics, in particular resistance to different antibiotics. In the future, stable mutants should be obtained through transformation methods in order to demonstrate experimentally the determinants of resistance in intracellular bacteria.
Pascoe, Neil; Felkner, Marilyn; Maldonado, Maria
Notes the overuse of antibiotics and the resulting resistant bacterial strains. Describes how to control and prevent staphylococcal infections specifically, and almost all infectious diseases generally. Specific sections address: (1) what are staph infections; (2) preventing staph infections; (3) caring for wounds; and (4) controlling staph…
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the most formidable threats to human medicine today. Therefore, the research objective is to evaluate the susceptibility of Staphylococcus species isolated from beef cows to 12 antibiotics commonly used in treating human and animal infections. This research w...
Zhang, Jiuyang; Chen, Yung Pin; Miller, Kristen P; Ganewatta, Mitra S; Bam, Marpe; Yan, Yi; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Decho, Alan W; Tang, Chuanbing
Bacteria are now becoming more resistant to most conventional antibiotics. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a complex of multidrug-resistant Gram-positive bacterial strains, has proven especially problematic in both hospital and community settings by deactivating conventional β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems, through various mechanisms, resulting in increased mortality rates and hospitalization costs. Here we introduce a class of charged metallopolymers that exhibit synergistic effects against MRSA by efficiently inhibiting activity of β-lactamase and effectively lysing bacterial cells. Various conventional β-lactam antibiotics, including penicillin-G, amoxicillin, ampicillin, and cefazolin, are protected from β-lactamase hydrolysis via the formation of unique ion-pairs between their carboxylate anions and cationic cobaltocenium moieties. These discoveries could provide a new pathway for designing macromolecular scaffolds to regenerate vitality of conventional antibiotics to kill multidrug-resistant bacteria and superbugs.
Mohanta, Tandra; Goel, Sudha
The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of urbanization and seasonal changes on the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in different aqueous environments. To this end, bacteria were isolated from three different water sources: the River Hooghly in Kolkata, River Kangsabati and groundwater from Kharagpur, West Bengal over three seasons: post-monsoon, winter and summer in 2012-2013. A total of 163 Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from the River Hooghly (n = 138), River Kangsabati (n = 13) and groundwater (n = 12). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was done using 12 antibiotic discs. The percentages of multiple antibiotic-resistant (MAR) bacteria at the three sampling locations were found to be 71.01 % (98/138) for River Hooghly, 15.38 % (2/13) for River Kangsabati and 8.33 % (1/12) for groundwater. Prevalence of MAR bacteria with respect to the three seasons were the following: 73.58 % in post-monsoon, 59.26 % in winter and 53.57 % in summer. Antibiotic resistance index (ARI) was calculated for each location and each season. In general, ARI values for all the River Hooghly samples were >0.2 while those for the River Kangsabati and groundwater in Kharagpur were always <0.2 indicating greater exposure to antibiotics and subsequent resistance in bacteria from the River Hooghly compared to the other two locations. In addition, percentage of MAR and ARI values followed the trend: post-monsoon > winter > summer. This may be due to the additional terrestrial resistants that get swept along with surface runoff during the monsoons.
Al-Ahmad, Ali; Haiss, Annette; Unger, Jörg; Brunswick-Tietze, Andrea; Wiethan, Jürgen; Kümmerer, Klaus
The detection of antibiotics and resistant bacteria in sewage treatment plants (STPs) has stimulated a discussion on the origin and selection of resistant bacteria during sewage treatment. Currently, there is little data available regarding the effects of realistic mixtures of antibiotics on the bacteria present in the aeration tanks of STPs. In this study we used four laboratory-scale sewage treatment plants (LSSTPs) to study the effects of antibiotics on bacteria during sewage treatment under standardized conditions. Two plants were fed with a mixture of antibiotics at two concentration levels based on the average annual input of antibiotics into German municipal STPs. The total operational period was 84 days. A multiresistant bacterium (Acinetobacter baumannii) was added twice to two of the plants. The fate of the multiresistant bacterium was monitored. The mix of antibiotics did not affect the purification efficiency. The presence of the antibiotics did not favour the multiresistant bacterium. No difference was detected between the test plant and the controls.
Perron, Gabriel G; Whyte, Lyle; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Goordial, Jacqueline; Hanage, William P; Dantas, Gautam; Desai, Michael M
Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes.
Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Strong, P J; Chen, Hong
In this study, we determined the abundance of 8 antibiotics (3 tetracyclines, 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim), 12 antibiotic-resistant genes (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 antibiotic-resistant bacteria (tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and combined resistance), and class 1 integron integrase gene (intI1) in the effluent of residential areas, hospitals, and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) systems. The concentrations of total/individual targets (antibiotics, genes, and bacteria) varied remarkably among different samples, but the hospital samples generally had a lower abundance than the residential area samples. The WWTP demonstrated removal efficiencies of 50.8% tetracyclines, 66.8% sulfonamides, 0.5 logs to 2.5 logs tet genes, and less than 1 log of sul and intI1 genes, as well as 0.5 log to 1 log removal for target bacteria. Except for the total tetracycline concentration and the proportion of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (R (2) = 0.330, P < 0.05), there was no significant correlation between antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria (P > 0.05). In contrast, various relationships were identified between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (P < 0.05). Tet (A) and tet (B) displayed noticeable relationships with both tetracycline and combined antibiotic-resistant bacteria (P < 0.01).
Litvinov, Julia; Moen, Scott T.; Koh, Chung-Yan; Singh, Anup K.
Waterborne pathogens pose significant threat to the global population and early detection plays an important role both in making drinking water safe, as well as in diagnostics and treatment of water-borne diseases. We present an innovative centrifugal sedimentation immunoassay platform for detection of bacterial pathogens in water. Our approach is based on binding of pathogens to antibody-functionalized capture particles followed by sedimentation of the particles through a density-media in a microfluidic disk. Beads at the distal end of the disk are imaged to quantify the fluorescence and determine the bacterial concentration. Our platform is fast (20 min), can detect as few as ∼10 bacteria with minimal sample preparation, and can detect multiple pathogens simultaneously. The platform was used to detect a panel of enteric bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella, Listeria, and Campylobacter) spiked in tap and ground water samples. PMID:26858815
Zeroual, W; Manfait, M; Choisy, C
Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is an analysis method which over the spectral absorption, gives information about the molecular structures of systems. Recently, this method is widely used to the investigation of complex systems like cells and bacteria. Characteristic of FT-IR spectrum of bacteria depend closely to physiological and culture parameters. In this study, the infrared bands of intact bacteria are first tentatively attributed to the contribution of the cellular components. Secondly are compared the FT-IR spectra of Escherichia coli bacteria before and after treatment at sub-inhibitrice concentrations (< or = MIC) at penicillin A, penicillin G and nalidixic acid. The observed spectral perturbations are closely depending on the antibiotic treatment and are observed even if bacterial cell mass is far away from cell death. On the other hand, this spectral changes are related to the known mode of action of the used antibiotic.
The living components of soils, the micro- and macrobiota, play an essential role in several life support functions as they enable soils to recycle nutrients, inactive contaminants, suppress plant pathogens and serve as a suitable substrate for plant growth. Beneficial bacteria occur naturally in s...
Black, Michael T; Hodgson, John
Resistance to marketed antibiotics continues to increase. During the last 10 years some 200 bacterial genome sequences have become available, giving rise to expectations that genomics would provide a plethora of novel targets and hence a flood of new therapeutic agents. Contrary to some predictions the genomic effort has yet to yield a substantial number of novel class agents in clinical development. What are the reasons for the differences between expectations and reality? This article reviews what has been achieved in the exploitation of bacterial genomes for the discovery of novel antibacterials.
Deris, Barrett; Kim, Minsu; Zhang, Zhongge; Okano, Hiroyuki; Hermsen, Rutger; Gore, Jeff; Hwa, Terence
To predict the emergence of antibiotic resistance, quantitative relations must be established between the fitness of drug-resistant organisms and the molecular mechanisms conferring resistance. We have investigated E. coli strains expressing resistance to translation-inhibiting antibiotics. We show that resistance expression and drug inhibition are linked in a positive feedback loop arising from an innate, global effect of drug-inhibited growth on gene expression. This feedback leads generically to plateau-shaped fitness landscapes and concomitantly, for strains expressing at least moderate degrees of drug resistance, gives rise to an abrupt drop in growth rates of cultures at threshold drug concentrations. A simple quantitative model of bacterial growth based on this innate feedback accurately predicts experimental observations without ad hoc parameter fitting. We describe how drug-inhibited growth rate and the threshold drug concentration (the minimum inhibitory concentration, or MIC) depend on the few biochemical parameters that characterize the molecular details of growth inhibition and drug resistance (e.g., the drug-target dissociation constant). And finally, we discuss how these parameters can shape fitness landscapes to determine evolutionary dynamics and evolvability.
Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Li, Xu; Schwab, Arthur P; Wan, Jinzhong; Liu, Manqiang; Tian, Da; Liu, Kuan; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Xin
The combined accumulation of antibiotics, heavy metals, antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB)/antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in vegetables has become a new threat to human health. This is the first study to investigate the feasibility of calcined eggshells modified by aluminum sulfate as novel agricultural wastes to impede mixed contaminants from transferring to bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). In this work, calcined eggshell amendment mitigated mixed pollutant accumulation in bell pepper significantly, enhanced the dissipation of soil tetracycline, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, and chloramphenicol, decreased the water-soluble fractions of antibiotics, and declined the diversity of ARB/ARGs inside the vegetable. Moreover, quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis detected that ARG levels in the bell pepper fruits significantly decreased to 10(-10) copies/16S copies, indicating limited risk of ARGs transferring along the food chain. Furthermore, the restoration of soil microbial biological function suggests that calcined eggshell is an environmentally friendly amendment to control the dissemination of soil ARB/ARGs in the soil-vegetable system.
Deng, Daiyong; Zhang, Ning; Mustapha, Azlin; Xu, Dong; Wuliji, Tumen; Farley, Mary; Yang, John; Hua, Bin; Liu, Fengjing; Zheng, Guolu
This study is to tackle the challenge posed by the "naturalized" Escherichia coli population against the worldwide practice of E. coli-based water quality monitoring. In the literature, the putative glucosyltransferase gene (ycjM) of E. coli has been identified in silico to be one of the 114 genes specific to enteric E. coli. Based on the sequence of E. coli K-12 MG1655, a PCR assay (ycjPCR) targeting ycjM was developed in this study. As demonstrated by the ycjPCR assay using 367 E. coli strains isolated from animal feces, 97.2% of the isolates carried the ycjM with variations from 93.9% to 100% among nine different host sources, but none of the 17 strains of non-E. coli bacteria and only 23.0% of the environment-isolated cryptic Escherichia strains contained the ycjM. These data experimentally confirmed ycjM to be enteric specific. Our study also showed that the ycjPCR assay was superior to the commonly used tuf- or uidA-based PCR methods in differentiating enteric E. coli from ß-D-glucuronidase-positive environmental bacteria. Furthermore, study on 190 E. coli isolates from water samples, using EPA Method 1603 followed by bacterial identification with Biolog MicroStation™ and ycjPCR assay, indicated that the prevalence of ycjM in the E. coli water isolates had a significant (p < 0.05, odds ratio ) spatial variation from 69.6% to 93.8%. These data suggest that E. coli profile using EPA Method 1603 or other ß-D-glucuronidase-activity-based methods may need further analysis using the ycjM profile to accurately determinate fecal pollution in water.
Perreten, Vincent; Vorlet-Fawer, Lorianne; Slickers, Peter; Ehricht, Ralf; Kuhnert, Peter; Frey, Joachim
A disposable microarray was developed for detection of up to 90 antibiotic resistance genes in gram-positive bacteria by hybridization. Each antibiotic resistance gene is represented by two specific oligonucleotides chosen from consensus sequences of gene families, except for nine genes for which only one specific oligonucleotide could be developed. A total of 137 oligonucleotides (26 to 33 nucleotides in length with similar physicochemical parameters) were spotted onto the microarray. The microarrays (ArrayTubes) were hybridized with 36 strains carrying specific antibiotic resistance genes that allowed testing of the sensitivity and specificity of 125 oligonucleotides. Among these were well-characterized multidrug-resistant strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, and Lactococcus lactis and an avirulent strain of Bacillus anthracis harboring the broad-host-range resistance plasmid pRE25. Analysis of two multidrug-resistant field strains allowed the detection of 12 different antibiotic resistance genes in a Staphylococcus haemolyticus strain isolated from mastitis milk and 6 resistance genes in a Clostridium perfringens strain isolated from a calf. In both cases, the microarray genotyping corresponded to the phenotype of the strains. The ArrayTube platform presents the advantage of rapidly screening bacteria for the presence of antibiotic resistance genes known in gram-positive bacteria. This technology has a large potential for applications in basic research, food safety, and surveillance programs for antimicrobial resistance. PMID:15872258
Tong, Juan; Wang, Yuan-Yue; Wei Yuan, Song
Sewage sludge is one of the major sources that releasing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistant genes (ARG) into the environment since it contains large amount of ARB, but there is little information about the fate of the anaerobic ARB in the anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge. Therefore, the distribution, removal and seasonal changes of tetracycline and β-lactam antibiotics resistant bacteria in the mesophilic egg-shaped digesters of a municipal wastewater treatment plant were investigated for one year in this study. Results showed that there were higher amounts of ARB and higher resistance rate of β-lactam antibiotics than that of tetracycline antibiotics in the sewage sludge. All ARB could be significantly reduced during the mesophilic anaerobic digestion process by 1.48-1.64 log unit (P < 0.05). Notably, the ampicillin and cephalothin resistance rates were significantly increased after anaerobic digestion by 12.0% and 14.3%, respectively (P < 0.05). The distribution of ARB in the sewage sludge had seasonal change characteristics. Except for chlorotetracycline resistant bacteria, there were more ARB in the sewage sludge in cold season than in warm season (P < 0.05).
DiSpirito, Alan A.; Zahn, James A.; Graham, David W.; Kim, Hyung J.; Alterman, Michail; Larive, Cynthia
A means and method for treating bacterial infection, providing antioxidant activity, and chelating copper using a copper binding compound produced by methanotrophic bacteria is described. The compound, known as methanobactin, is the first of a new class of antibiotics having gram-positive activity. Methanobactin has been sequenced, and its structural formula determined.
Antibiotics are used in swine production for therapeutic and growth promotion purposes. Because land application is the most common method of disposing of swine lagoon effluent, there exists the potential threat of contaminating the underlying groundwater with antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) ...
Norton, Thomas D; Skeete, Faith; Dubrovskaya, Yanina; Phillips, Michael S; Bosco, Joseph D; Mehta, Sapna A
Data that can be used to guide perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis in our era of emerging antibiotic resistance are limited. We reviewed orthopedic surgeries complicated by surgical site infections (SSIs). Eighty percent of 69 arthroplasty and 80 spine fusion SSIs were infected with Gram-positive bacteria; most were staphylococcal species; and more than 25% of Staphylococcus aureus and more than 65% of coagulase-negative staphylococci were methicillin-resistant. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 30% of arthroplasty SSIs and 25% of spine fusion SSIs. Resistance to cefazolin was higher than 40%. A significant proportion of SSIs were caused by resistant organisms, and antibiotic guidelines were altered to provide more adequate surgical prophylaxis.
Hassard, Francis; Gwyther, Ceri L.; Farkas, Kata; Andrews, Anthony; Jones, Vera; Cox, Brian; Brett, Howard; Jones, Davey L.; McDonald, James E.; Malham, Shelagh K.
The long term survival of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and human pathogenic microorganisms in sediments is important from a water quality, human health and ecological perspective. Typically, both bacteria and viruses strongly associate with particulate matter present in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. This association tends to be stronger in finer textured sediments and is strongly influenced by the type and quantity of clay minerals and organic matter present. Binding to particle surfaces promotes the persistence of bacteria in the environment by offering physical and chemical protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. How bacterial and viral viability and pathogenicity is influenced by surface attachment requires further study. Typically, long-term association with surfaces including sediments induces bacteria to enter a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC) state. Inherent methodological challenges of quantifying VBNC bacteria may lead to the frequent under-reporting of their abundance in sediments. The implications of this in a quantitative risk assessment context remain unclear. Similarly, sediments can harbor significant amounts of enteric viruses, however, the factors regulating their persistence remains poorly understood. Quantification of viruses in sediment remains problematic due to our poor ability to recover intact viral particles from sediment surfaces (typically <10%), our inability to distinguish between infective and damaged (non-infective) viral particles, aggregation of viral particles, and inhibition during qPCR. This suggests that the true viral titre in sediments may be being vastly underestimated. In turn, this is limiting our ability to understand the fate and transport of viruses in sediments. Model systems (e.g., human cell culture) are also lacking for some key viruses, preventing our ability to evaluate the infectivity of viruses recovered from sediments (e.g., norovirus). The release of particle-bound bacteria and
Hassard, Francis; Gwyther, Ceri L; Farkas, Kata; Andrews, Anthony; Jones, Vera; Cox, Brian; Brett, Howard; Jones, Davey L; McDonald, James E; Malham, Shelagh K
The long term survival of fecal indicator organisms (FIOs) and human pathogenic microorganisms in sediments is important from a water quality, human health and ecological perspective. Typically, both bacteria and viruses strongly associate with particulate matter present in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. This association tends to be stronger in finer textured sediments and is strongly influenced by the type and quantity of clay minerals and organic matter present. Binding to particle surfaces promotes the persistence of bacteria in the environment by offering physical and chemical protection from biotic and abiotic stresses. How bacterial and viral viability and pathogenicity is influenced by surface attachment requires further study. Typically, long-term association with surfaces including sediments induces bacteria to enter a viable-but-non-culturable (VBNC) state. Inherent methodological challenges of quantifying VBNC bacteria may lead to the frequent under-reporting of their abundance in sediments. The implications of this in a quantitative risk assessment context remain unclear. Similarly, sediments can harbor significant amounts of enteric viruses, however, the factors regulating their persistence remains poorly understood. Quantification of viruses in sediment remains problematic due to our poor ability to recover intact viral particles from sediment surfaces (typically <10%), our inability to distinguish between infective and damaged (non-infective) viral particles, aggregation of viral particles, and inhibition during qPCR. This suggests that the true viral titre in sediments may be being vastly underestimated. In turn, this is limiting our ability to understand the fate and transport of viruses in sediments. Model systems (e.g., human cell culture) are also lacking for some key viruses, preventing our ability to evaluate the infectivity of viruses recovered from sediments (e.g., norovirus). The release of particle-bound bacteria and
Manzoor, Asma; Ul-Haq, Ikram; Baig, Shahjhan; Qazi, Javed Iqbal; Seratlic, Sanja
Background: Antibiotic resistance represents a serious global health threat to public health, so infections such as pneumonia and urinary tract infection (UTI) are becoming harder to treat. Therefore, it is necessary to develop an action plan to restrain the problem of antibiotic resistance. One approach in UTI control could be the use of lactobacilli because these indigenous inhabitants in human intestine have been found to play an important role in protecting the host from various infections. Objectives: We sought to check the efficacy of locally isolated Lactobacillus species to eradicate antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria causing UTI. Materials and Methods: Lactic acid bacteria isolated from spoiled fruits and vegetables and grown in MRS medium were screened against multi-drug-resistant Candida albicans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus fecalis. Results: Fifty-four lactic acid bacteria were isolated from spoiled fruits and vegetables, of which 11 Gram-positive and catalase-negative Lactobacillus isolates were identified by carbohydrate assimilation profiles as Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. paracasei, L. delbrueckii, L. casei, L. helveticus, L. brevis, L. salivarius, L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus, L. animalis, and L. plantarum. The latter organism had the highest abundance of all the samples, so its isolates were also verified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The isolated Lactobacilli were screened against multi-drug-resistant uropathogens, viz. C. albicans, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumoniae, E. fecalis, and E. coli. The growth inhibition zone (GIZ) was over 10 mm against all the uropathogenic test organisms, where L. fermentum and L. plantarum strains demonstrated remarkable inhibitory activities against E. coli and E. faecalis, with a GIZ up to 28 mm. The susceptibility test to 16 antibiotics showed multidrug resistance (3 to 5 antibiotics) among all the tested uropathogens. Conclusions: The obtained results
Dar, Daniel; Shamir, Maya; Mellin, J R; Koutero, Mikael; Stern-Ginossar, Noam; Cossart, Pascale; Sorek, Rotem
Riboswitches and attenuators are cis-regulatory RNA elements, most of which control bacterial gene expression via metabolite-mediated, premature transcription termination. We developed an unbiased experimental approach for genome-wide discovery of such ribo-regulators in bacteria. We also devised an experimental platform that quantitatively measures the in vivo activity of all such regulators in parallel and enables rapid screening for ribo-regulators that respond to metabolites of choice. Using this approach, we detected numerous antibiotic-responsive ribo-regulators that control antibiotic resistance genes in pathogens and in the human microbiome. Studying one such regulator in Listeria monocytogenes revealed an attenuation mechanism mediated by antibiotic-stalled ribosomes. Our results expose broad roles for conditional termination in regulating antibiotic resistance and provide a tool for discovering riboswitches and attenuators that respond to previously unknown ligands.
Perez, Federico; Salata, Robert A; Bonomo, Robert A
The challenge posed by resistance among Gram-positive bacteria, epitomized by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) and vancomycin-intermediate and -resistant S. aureus (VISA and VRSA) is being met by a new generation of antimicrobials. This review focuses on the new β-lactams with activity against MRSA (ceftobiprole and ceftaroline) and on the new glycopeptides (oritavancin, dalbavancin, and telavancin). It will also consider the role of vancomycin in an era of existing alternatives such as linezolid, daptomycin and tigecycline. Finally, compounds in early development are described, such as iclaprim, friulimicin, and retapamulin, among others. PMID:21694878
Almeida, Joana; Tomé, João P C; Neves, Maria G P M S; Tomé, Augusto C; Cavaleiro, José A S; Cunha, Ângela; Costa, Liliana; Faustino, Maria A F; Almeida, Adelaide
One environmental concern related to hospital effluents is discharge of them without preliminary treatment. Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (PDI) may represent an alternative to the traditional expensive, unsafe and not always effective disinfection methods. The main goal of this work was to assess the efficiency of PDI on clinical multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in hospital wastewaters in order to evaluate its potential use in treating hospital effluents. The efficiency of PDI was assessed using a cationic porphyrin as the photosensitizer (PS), four MDR bacteria either in phosphate buffered saline or in filtrated hospital wastewaters. The synergistic effect of PDI and antibiotics (ampicillin and chloramphenicol) was also evaluated, as well as the effect of the surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The results show the efficient inactivation of MDR bacteria in PBS (reduction of 6-8 log after 270 min of irradiation at 40 W m(-2) with 5.0 μM of PS). In wastewater, the inactivation of the four MDR bacteria was again efficient and the decrease in bacterial survival starts even sooner. A faster decrease in bacterial survival occurred when PDI was combined with the addition of antibiotics, at sub-inhibitory and inhibitory concentrations, but the SDS did not affect the PDI efficiency. It can be concluded that PDI has potential to be an effective alternative for the inactivation of MDR bacteria in hospital wastewaters and that the presence of antibiotics may enhance its effectiveness.
Akhi, Mohammad Taghi; Ghotaslou, Reza; Beheshtirouy, Samad; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad; Pirzadeh, Tahereh; Asghari, Babak; Alizadeh, Naser; Toloue Ostadgavahi, Ali; Sorayaei Somesaraei, Vida; Memar, Mohammad Yousef
Background: Surgical Site Infections (SSIs) are infections of incision or deep tissue at operation sites. These infections prolong hospitalization, delay wound healing, and increase the overall cost and morbidity. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate anaerobic and aerobic bacteria prevalence in surgical site infections and determinate antibiotic susceptibility pattern in these isolates. Materials and Methods: One hundred SSIs specimens were obtained by needle aspiration from purulent material in depth of infected site. These specimens were cultured and incubated in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. For detection of antibiotic susceptibility pattern in aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, we used disk diffusion, agar dilution, and E-test methods. Results: A total of 194 bacterial strains were isolated from 100 samples of surgical sites. Predominant aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria isolated from these specimens were the members of Enterobacteriaceae family (66, 34.03%) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (26, 13.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (24, 12.37%), Acinetobacter spp. (18, 9.28%), Enterococcus spp. (16, 8.24%), coagulase negative Staphylococcus spp. (14, 7.22%) and nonhemolytic streptococci (2, 1.03%). Bacteroides fragilis (26, 13.4%), and Clostridium perfringens (2, 1.03%) were isolated as anaerobic bacteria. The most resistant bacteria among anaerobic isolates were B. fragilis. All Gram-positive isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid while most of Enterobacteriaceae showed sensitivity to imipenem. Conclusions: Most SSIs specimens were polymicrobial and predominant anaerobic isolate was B. fragilis. Isolated aerobic and anaerobic strains showed high level of resistance to antibiotics. PMID:26421133
Meyer, Cornelia; Heurich, Marco; Huber, Ingrid; Krause, Gladys; Ullrich, Ulrike; Fetsch, Alexandra
The use of antimicrobial agents is responsible for the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Nevertheless, multiresistant bacteria have been found in animals that have never been exposed to antimicrobial agents. Wild animals that are carriers of methicillin-resistant organisms represent a hazard since they can transmit their bacteria to other animals and to humans. In the hunting season 2009/2010 nasal swabs of 98 red deer and 109 wild boars were examined for the presence of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant staphylococci. From each wild boar methicillin-susceptible staphylococci (Staphylococcus aureus in 28% and Staphylococcus spp. in 72% of the animals) were isolated. In red deer the detection rate of Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and methicillin-susceptible staphylococci was 49% and 17%, respectively. The occurrence of S. aureus was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in red deer than in wild boars. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci were not found. However, in one third of the red deer, methicillin-resistant bacteria of the genus Enterococcus spp. and Bacillus spp. were isolated. The results of the present study indicate that wildlife, especially red deer are an important reservoir for S. aureus and that the upper respiratory tract of red deer is regularly colonised with methicillin-resistant bacteria such as Bacillus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Primarily, commensal bacteria are harmless to human health, however, red deer may be a reservoir for antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Roy, Indranil; Shetty, Dinesh; Hota, Raghunandan; Baek, Kangkyun; Kim, Jeesu; Kim, Chulhong; Kappert, Sandro; Kim, Kimoon
Developing a material that can combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria, a major global health threat, is an urgent requirement. To tackle this challenge, we synthesized a multifunctional subphthalocyanine (SubPc) polymer nanosphere that has the ability to target, label, and photoinactivate antibiotic-resistant bacteria in a single treatment with more than 99 % efficiency, even with a dose as low as 4.2 J cm(-2) and a loading concentration of 10 nM. The positively charged nanosphere shell composed of covalently linked SubPc units can increase the local concentration of photosensitizers at therapeutic sites. The nanosphere shows superior performance compared to corresponding monomers presumably because of their enhanced water dispersibility, higher efficiency of singlet-oxygen generation, and phototoxicity. In addition, this material is useful in fluorescence labeling of living cells and shows promise in photoacoustic imaging of bacteria in vivo.
Pai, Hsiu-Hua; Chen, Wei-Chen; Peng, Chien-Fang
Cockroaches may harbor and disseminate microorganisms to the environment. In this study, Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica were collected from 40 households in Kaohsiung City and Kaohsiung County, Taiwan. Cockroach infestation was found in 50% of the studied households and 226 cockroaches (123 P. americana and 103 B. germanica) collected by trapping. P. americana was more often found in the kitchen (70.7%) whereas B. germanica in the storage room (51.5%) and kitchen (36.9%). There was no significant difference between the percentages of P. americana (99.9%) and B. germanica (98.0%) carrying bacteria. A total of 25 species of bacteria was isolated from P. americana and only 21 from B. germanica. Antibiotic resistance was found in Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescens, and Proteus species isolated from the cockroaches. These findings suggest a potential role of cockroaches in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria with antibiotic resistance in households.
Perez, Federico; Villegas, Maria Virginia
Purpose of Review It is widely accepted that infection control, advanced diagnostics, and novel therapeutics are crucial to mitigate the impact of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The role of global, national and regional surveillance systems as part of the response to the challenge posed by antibiotic resistance is not sufficiently highlighted. We provide an overview of contemporary surveillance programs, with emphasis on Gram-negative bacteria. Recent Findings The World Health Organization and public health agencies in Europe and the United States recently published comprehensive surveillance reports. These highlight the emergence and dissemination of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and other multidrug resistant Gram-negative bacteria. In Israel, public health action to control CRE, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) producing-Klebsiella pneumoniae, has advanced together with a better understanding of its epidemiology. Surveillance models adapted to the requirements and capacities of each country are in development. Summary Robust surveillance systems are essential to combat antibiotic resistance, and need to emphasize a “One Health” approach. Refinements in surveillance will come from advances in bioinformatics and genomics that permit the integration of global and local information about antibiotic consumption in humans and animals, molecular mechanisms of resistance, and bacterial genotyping. PMID:26098505
Hu, Yanmin; Shamaei-Tousi, Alireza; Liu, Yingjun; Coates, Anthony
In a clinical infection, multiplying and non-multiplying bacteria co-exist. Antibiotics kill multiplying bacteria, but they are very inefficient at killing non-multipliers which leads to slow or partial death of the total target population of microbes in an infected tissue. This prolongs the duration of therapy, increases the emergence of resistance and so contributes to the short life span of antibiotics after they reach the market. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria from the onset of an antibiotic development program is a new concept. This paper describes the proof of principle for this concept, which has resulted in the development of the first antibiotic using this approach. The antibiotic, called HT61, is a small quinolone-derived compound with a molecular mass of about 400 Daltons, and is active against non-multiplying bacteria, including methicillin sensitive and resistant, as well as Panton-Valentine leukocidin-carrying Staphylococcus aureus. It also kills mupirocin resistant MRSA. The mechanism of action of the drug is depolarisation of the cell membrane and destruction of the cell wall. The speed of kill is within two hours. In comparison to the conventional antibiotics, HT61 kills non-multiplying cells more effectively, 6 logs versus less than one log for major marketed antibiotics. HT61 kills methicillin sensitive and resistant S. aureus in the murine skin bacterial colonization and infection models. No resistant phenotype was produced during 50 serial cultures over a one year period. The antibiotic caused no adverse affects after application to the skin of minipigs. Targeting non-multiplying bacteria using this method should be able to yield many new classes of antibiotic. These antibiotics may be able to reduce the rate of emergence of resistance, shorten the duration of therapy, and reduce relapse rates.
Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun
Consumption of vegetables represents a route of direct human exposure to bacteria found in soil. The present study evaluated the complement of bacteria resistant to various antibiotics on vegetables often eaten raw (tomato, cucumber, pepper, carrot, radish, lettuce) and how this might vary with growth in soil fertilized inorganically or with dairy or swine manure. Vegetables were sown into field plots immediately following fertilization and harvested when of marketable quality. Vegetable and soil samples were evaluated for viable antibiotic-resistant bacteria by plate count on Chromocult medium supplemented with antibiotics at clinical breakpoint concentrations. DNA was extracted from soil and vegetables and evaluated by PCR for the presence of 46 gene targets associated with plasmid incompatibility groups, integrons, or antibiotic resistance genes. Soil receiving manure was enriched in antibiotic-resistant bacteria and various antibiotic resistance determinants. There was no coherent corresponding increase in the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria enumerated from any vegetable grown in manure-fertilized soil. Numerous antibiotic resistance determinants were detected in DNA extracted from vegetables grown in unmanured soil. A smaller number of determinants were additionally detected on vegetables grown only in manured and not in unmanured soil. Overall, consumption of raw vegetables represents a route of human exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants naturally present in soil. However, the detection of some determinants on vegetables grown only in freshly manured soil reinforces the advisability of pretreating manure through composting or other stabilization processes or mandating offset times between manuring and harvesting vegetables for human consumption. PMID:23851089
Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Topp, Edward
Consumption of vegetables represents a route of direct human exposure to bacteria found in soil. The present study evaluated the complement of bacteria resistant to various antibiotics on vegetables often eaten raw (tomato, cucumber, pepper, carrot, radish, lettuce) and how this might vary with growth in soil fertilized inorganically or with dairy or swine manure. Vegetables were sown into field plots immediately following fertilization and harvested when of marketable quality. Vegetable and soil samples were evaluated for viable antibiotic-resistant bacteria by plate count on Chromocult medium supplemented with antibiotics at clinical breakpoint concentrations. DNA was extracted from soil and vegetables and evaluated by PCR for the presence of 46 gene targets associated with plasmid incompatibility groups, integrons, or antibiotic resistance genes. Soil receiving manure was enriched in antibiotic-resistant bacteria and various antibiotic resistance determinants. There was no coherent corresponding increase in the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria enumerated from any vegetable grown in manure-fertilized soil. Numerous antibiotic resistance determinants were detected in DNA extracted from vegetables grown in unmanured soil. A smaller number of determinants were additionally detected on vegetables grown only in manured and not in unmanured soil. Overall, consumption of raw vegetables represents a route of human exposure to antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance determinants naturally present in soil. However, the detection of some determinants on vegetables grown only in freshly manured soil reinforces the advisability of pretreating manure through composting or other stabilization processes or mandating offset times between manuring and harvesting vegetables for human consumption.
Cole, Marsha R; Hobden, Jeffery A; Warner, Isiah M
The emergence of multi-drug-resistant bacteria, coupled with the lack of new antibiotics in development, is fast evolving into a global crisis. New strategies utilizing existing antibacterial agents are urgently needed. We propose one such strategy in which four outmoded β-lactam antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, cephalothin and oxacillin) and a well-known antiseptic (chlorhexidine di-acetate) were fashioned into a group of uniform materials based on organic salts (GUMBOS) as an alternative to conventional combination drug dosing strategies. The antibacterial activity of precursor ions (e.g., chlorhexidine diacetate and β-lactam antibiotics), GUMBOS and their unreacted mixtures were studied with 25 clinical isolates with varying antibiotic resistance using a micro-broth dilution method. Acute cytotoxicity and therapeutic indices were determined using fibroblasts, endothelial and cervical cell lines. Intestinal permeability was predicted using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. GUMBOS formed from ineffective β-lactam antibiotics and cytotoxic chlorhexidine diacetate exhibited unique pharmacological properties and profound antibacterial activity at lower concentrations than the unreacted mixture of precursor ions at equivalent stoichiometry. Reduced cytotoxicity to invasive cell types commonly found in superficial and chronic wounds was also observed using GUMBOS. GUMBOS show promise as an alternative combination drug strategy for treating wound infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria.
Aroonnual, Amornrat; Janvilisri, Tavan; Ounjai, Puey; Chankhamhaengdecha, Surang
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a major global health concern. Rapid and accurate diagnostic strategies to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile prior to antibiotic prescription and treatment are critical to control drug resistance. The standard diagnostic procedures for the detection of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which rely mostly on phenotypic characterization, are time consuming, insensitive and often require skilled personnel, making them unsuitable for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. Various molecular techniques have therefore been implemented to help speed up the process and increase sensitivity. Over the past decade, microfluidic technology has gained great momentum in medical diagnosis as a series of fluid handling steps in a laboratory can be simplified and miniaturized on to a small platform, allowing marked reduction of sample amount, high portability and tremendous possibility for integration with other detection technologies. These advantages render the microfluidic system a great candidate to be developed into an easy-to-use sample-to-answer POC diagnosis suitable for application in remote clinical settings. This review provides an overview of the current development of microfluidic technologies for the nucleic acid based and phenotypic-based detections of antibiotic resistance.
Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Guo, Qiong; Chen, Qian-Qian; Jiang, Xiao-Yan; Jin, Ren-Cun
Three broad-spectrum antibiotics, amoxicillin (AMX), florfenicol (FF) and sulfamethazine (SMZ), that inhibit bacteria via different target sites, were selected to evaluate the acute toxicity and long-term effects on anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) granules. The specific anammox activity (SAA) levels reduced by approximately half within the first 3 days in the presence of antibiotics but no nitrite accumulation was observed in continuous-flow experiments. However, the SAA levels and heme c content gradually recovered as the antibiotic concentrations increased. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) analysis suggested that anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria gradually developed a better survival strategy during long-term acclimatization, which reduced the antibiotic stress via increased EPS secretion that provided a protective 'cocoon.' In terms of nitrogen removal efficiency, anammox granules could resist 60 mg-AMX L(-1), 10 mg-FF L(-1) and 100 mg-SMZ L(-1). This study supported the feasibility of using anammox granules to treat antibiotic-containing wastewater.
Chater, Keith F
Many of the antibiotics used today are made by a group of bacteria called Streptomyces. Streptomycetes evolved about 450 million years ago as branched filamentous organisms adapted to the utilization of plant remains. They reproduce by sending up specialized aerial branches, which form spores. Aerial growth is parasitic on the primary colony, which is digested and reused for aerial growth. The reproductive phase is coordinated with the secretion of antibiotics, which may protect the colony against invading bacteria during aerial growth. A clue to the integration of antibiotic production and aerial growth is provided by bldA mutants, which are defective in both processes. These mutants lack the ability to translate a particularly rare codon, UUA, in the genetic code. The UUA codon (TTA in DNA) is present in several regulatory genes that control sets of antibiotic production genes, and in one, bldH that controls aerial mycelium formation. The regulatory genes for antibiotic production are all involved in self-reinforcing regulatory systems that potentially amplify the regulatory significance of small changes in the efficiency of translation of UUA codons. One of the regulatory targets of bldH is an extracellular protease inhibitor protein that is likely to delay the digestion of the primary biomass until the colony is ready for aerial growth. The use of the UUA codon to orchestrate different aspects of extracellular biology appeared very early in Streptomyces evolution. PMID:16627293
Chattaway, Marie A.; Aboderin, Aaron O.; Fashae, Kayode; Okoro, Chinyere K.; Opintan, Japheth A.; Okeke, Iruka N.
Fluoroquinolones came into widespread use in African countries in the early 2000s, after patents for the first generation of these drugs expired. By that time, quinolone antibacterial agents had been used intensively worldwide and resistant lineages of many bacterial species had evolved. We sought to understand which Gram negative enteric pandemic lineages have been reported from Africa, as well as the nature and transmission of any indigenous resistant clones. A systematic review of articles indexed in the Medline and AJOL literature databases was conducted. We report on the findings of 43 eligible studies documenting local or pandemic fluoroquinolone-resistant enteric clones in sub-Sahara African countries. Most reports are of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella and Escherichia coli lineages and there have been three reports of cholera outbreaks caused by fluoroquinolone-resistant Vibrio cholerae O1. Fluoroquinolone-resistant clones have also been reported from commensals and animal isolates but there are few data for non-Enterobacteriaceae and almost none for difficult-to-culture Campylobacter spp. Fluoroquinolone-resistant lineages identified in African countries were universally resistant to multiple other classes of antibacterial agents. Although as many as 972 non-duplicate articles refer to fluoroquinolone resistance in enteric bacteria from Africa, most do not report on subtypes and therefore information on the epidemiology of fluoroquinolone-resistant clones is available from only a handful of countries in the subcontinent. When resistance is reported, resistance mechanisms and lineage information is rarely investigated. Insufficient attention has been given to molecular and sequence-based methods necessary for identifying and tracking resistant clones in Africa and more research is needed in this area. PMID:27148238
Russotto, Vincenzo; Cortegiani, Andrea; Graziano, Giorgio; Saporito, Laura; Raineri, Santi Maurizio; Mammina, Caterina; Giarratano, Antonino
Bloodstream infections (BSIs) are among the leading infections in critically ill patients. The case-fatality rate associated with BSIs in patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) reaches 35%–50%. The emergence and diffusion of bacteria with resistance to antibiotics is a global health problem. Multidrug-resistant bacteria were detected in 50.7% of patients with BSIs in a recently published international observational study, with methicillin resistance detected in 48% of Staphylococcus aureus strains, carbapenem resistance detected in 69% of Acinetobacter spp., in 38% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and in 37% of Pseudomonas spp. Prior hospitalization and antibiotic exposure have been identified as risk factors for infections caused by resistant bacteria in different studies. Patients with BSIs caused by resistant strains showed an increased risk of mortality, which may be explained by a higher incidence of inappropriate empirical therapy in different studies. The molecular genetic characterization of resistant bacteria allows the understanding of the most common mechanisms underlying their resistance and the adoption of surveillance measures. Knowledge of epidemiology, risk factors, mechanisms of resistance, and outcomes of BSIs caused by resistant bacteria may have a major influence on global management of ICU patients. The aim of this review is to provide the clinician an update on BSIs caused by resistant bacteria in ICU patients. PMID:26300651
Borselli, Diane; Blanchet, Marine; Bolla, Jean‐Michel; Muth, Aaron; Skruber, Kristen
Abstract Dihydromotuporamine C and its derivatives were evaluated for their in vitro antimicrobial activities and antibiotic enhancement properties against Gram‐negative bacteria and clinical isolates. The mechanism of action of one of these derivatives, MOTU‐N44, was investigated against Enterobacter aerogenes by using fluorescent dyes to evaluate outer‐membrane depolarization and permeabilization. Its efficiency correlated with inhibition of dye transport, thus suggesting that these molecules inhibit drug transporters by de‐energization of the efflux pump rather than by direct interaction of the molecule with the pump. This suggests that depowering the efflux pump provides another strategy to address antibiotic resistance. PMID:28098416
Dillon, Stephanie M.; Phang, Tzu; Lee, Eric J.; Helm, Karen; Kappes, John C.; McCarter, Martin D.
Global transcriptome studies can help pinpoint key cellular pathways exploited by viruses to replicate and cause pathogenesis. Previous data showed that laboratory-adapted HIV-1 triggers significant gene expression changes in CD4+ T cell lines and mitogen-activated CD4+ T cells from peripheral blood. However, HIV-1 primarily targets mucosal compartments during acute infection in vivo. Moreover, early HIV-1 infection causes extensive depletion of CD4+ T cells in the gastrointestinal tract that herald persistent inflammation due to the translocation of enteric microbes to the systemic circulation. Here, we profiled the transcriptome of primary intestinal CD4+ T cells infected ex vivo with transmitted/founder (TF) HIV-1. Infections were performed in the presence or absence of Prevotella stercorea, a gut microbe enriched in the mucosa of HIV-1-infected individuals that enhanced both TF HIV-1 replication and CD4+ T cell death ex vivo. In the absence of bacteria, HIV-1 triggered a cellular shutdown response involving the downregulation of HIV-1 reactome genes, while perturbing genes linked to OX40, PPAR and FOXO3 signaling. However, in the presence of bacteria, HIV-1 did not perturb these gene sets or pathways. Instead, HIV-1 enhanced granzyme expression and Th17 cell function, inhibited G1/S cell cycle checkpoint genes and triggered downstream cell death pathways in microbe-exposed gut CD4+ T cells. To gain insights on these differential effects, we profiled the gene expression landscape of HIV-1-uninfected gut CD4+ T cells exposed to bacteria. Microbial exposure upregulated genes involved in cellular proliferation, MAPK activation, Th17 cell differentiation and type I interferon signaling. Our findings reveal that microbial exposure influenced how HIV-1 altered the gut CD4+ T cell transcriptome, with potential consequences for HIV-1 susceptibility, cell survival and inflammation. The HIV-1- and microbe-altered pathways unraveled here may serve as a molecular blueprint
Capkin, Erol; Terzi, Ertugrul; Altinok, Ilhan
Antibiotic resistance and presence of the resistance genes were investigated in the bacteria isolated from water, sediment, and fish in trout farms. A total of 9 bacterial species, particularly Escherichia coli, were isolated from the water and sediment samples, and 12 species were isolated from fish. The antimicrobial test indicated the highest resistance against sulfamethoxazole and ampicillin in coliform bacteria, and against sulfamethoxazole, imipenem, and aztreonam in known pathogenic bacteria isolated from fish. The most effective antibiotics were rifampicin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. The multiple antibiotic resistance index was above the critical limit for almost all of the bacteria isolated. The most common antibiotic resistance gene was ampC, followed by tetA, sul2, blaCTX-M1, and blaTEM in the coliform bacteria. At least one resistance gene was found in 70.8% of the bacteria, and 66.6% of the bacteria had 2 or more resistance genes. Approximately 36.54% of the bacteria that contain plasmids were able to transfer them to other bacteria. The plasmid-mediated transferable resistance genes were ampC, blaCTX-M1, tetA, sul2, and blaTEM. These results indicate that the aquatic environment could play an important role in the development of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of resistance genes among bacteria.
... lives. But there is a growing problem of antibiotic resistance. It happens when bacteria change and become able ... resistant to several common antibiotics. To help prevent antibiotic resistance Don't use antibiotics for viruses like colds ...
Preidis, Geoffrey A.; Versalovic, James
Studies of metagenomics and the human microbiome will tremendously expand our knowledge of the composition of microbial communities in the human body. As our understanding of microbial variation and corresponding genetic parameters is refined, this information can be applied to rational remodeling or “tailoring” of human-associated microbial communities and their associated functions. Physiologic features such as the development of innate and adaptive immunity, relative susceptibilities to infections, immune tolerance, bioavailability of nutrients, and intestinal barrier function may be modified by changing the composition and functions of the microbial communities. The specialty of gastroenterology will be affected profoundly by the ability to modify the gastrointestinal microbiota through the rational deployment of antibiotics, probiotics, and prebiotics. Antibiotics might be used to remove or suppress undesirable components of the human microbiome. Probiotics can introduce missing microbial components with known beneficial functions for the human host. Prebiotics can enhance the proliferation of beneficial microbes or probiotics, to maximize sustainable changes in the human microbiome. Combinations of these approaches might provide synergistic and effective therapies for specific disorders. The human microbiome could be manipulated by such “smart” strategies to prevent and treat acute gastroenteritis, antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, necrotizing enterocolitis, and a variety of other disorders. PMID:19462507
McArthur, J Vaun; Tuckfield, R. Cary
The spatial distribution of antibiotic resistance to streptomycin and kanamycin was examined in natural bacterial communities of two streams. The proportion of resistant bacteria was substantially higher (P < 0.05) in the midreaches of an industrially perturbed stream, but no such pattern was apparent in an undisturbed reference stream. The highest relative frequency of resistance was found at the confluence of a tributary draining a nuclear reactor and industrial complex. Antibiotic resistance increased with distance upstream from the confluence and was positively correlated (r2 = 0.54, P = 0.023) with mercury concentrations in the sediments. When the data for two years were compared, this pattern was stable for streptomycin resistance (paired t test, P < 0.05) but not for kanamycin resistance (P > 0.05). Our results imply that heavy metal pollution may contribute to increased antibiotic resistance through indirect selection. PMID:10966382
Daly, K.; Wingreen, Ned S.; Mukhopahyay, Ranjan
For most bacteria, the cell wall, consisting of a cross-linked polymer network, is the primary stress-bearing structure. Due to the high osmotic pressure difference across the cell membrane, the presence of the cell wall is essential for cell stability. Recent experiments have addressed the effect of cell-wall defects induced by antibiotics such as vancomycin, and find that in Gram-negative bacteria, antibiotics can lead to pronounced bulging of the cell membrane and eventually to lysis. Here we address the mechanics of bulging and its relationship to cell-wall defects. We estimate the critical defect size for bulging and discuss the biological implications of our results. We also discuss the relevance of our physical model to blebbing and vesiculation in eukaryotic cells.
Reznick, Yana; Banin, Ehud; Lipovsky, Anat; Lubart, Rachel; Zalevsky, Zeev
ObjectivesTo test the effect of pulsed (Q-switched) and continuous wave (CW) laser light at wavelength of 532 nm on the viability of free-living stationary phase bacteria with and without gentamicin (an antibiotic) treatment. MethodsFree living stationary phase gram negative bacteria ( Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1) was immersed in Luria Broth (LB) solution and exposed to Q-switched and CW lasers with and without the addition of the antibiotic gentamicin. Cell viability was determined at different time points. ResultsLaser treatment alone did not reduce cell viability compared to untreated control and the gentamicin treatment alone only resulted in a 0.5 log reduction in the viable count for P. aeruginosa. The combined laser and gentamicin treatment, however, resulted in a synergistic effect and viability was reduced by 8 logs for P. aeruginosa PAO1. ConclusionsCombination of laser light with gentamicin shows an improved efficacy against P. aeruginosa.
Kogermann, Karin; Putrinš, Marta; Tenson, Tanel
Considerable evidence about phenotypic heterogeneity among bacteria during infection has accumulated during recent years. This heterogeneity has to be considered if the mechanisms of infection and antibiotic action are to be understood, so we need to implement existing and find novel methods to monitor the effects of antibiotics on bacteria at the single-cell level. This review provides an overview of methods by which this aim can be achieved. Fluorescence label-based methods and Raman scattering as a label-free approach are discussed in particular detail. Other label-free methods that can provide single-cell level information, such as impedance spectroscopy and surface plasmon resonance, are briefly summarized. The advantages and disadvantages of these different methods are discussed in light of a challenging in vivo environment.
Etayash, Hashem; Khan, M. F.; Kaur, Kamaljit; Thundat, Thomas
In the fight against drug-resistant bacteria, accurate and high-throughput detection is essential. Here, a bimaterial microcantilever with an embedded microfluidic channel with internal surfaces chemically or physically functionalized with receptors selectively captures the bacteria passing through the channel. Bacterial adsorption inside the cantilever results in changes in the resonance frequency (mass) and cantilever deflection (adsorption stress). The excitation of trapped bacteria using infrared radiation (IR) causes the cantilever to deflect in proportion to the infrared absorption of the bacteria, providing a nanomechanical infrared spectrum for selective identification. We demonstrate the in situ detection and discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes at a concentration of single cell per μl. Trapped Escherichia coli in the microchannel shows a distinct nanomechanical response when exposed to antibiotics. This approach, which combines enrichment with three different modes of detection, can serve as a platform for the development of a portable, high-throughput device for use in the real-time detection of bacteria and their response to antibiotics.
Peng, Bo; Su, Yu-Bin; Li, Hui; Han, Yi; Guo, Chang; Tian, Yao-Mei; Peng, Xuan-Xian
Multidrug-resistant bacteria are an increasingly serious threat to human and animal health. However, novel drugs that can manage infections by multidrug-resistant bacteria have proved elusive. Here we show that glucose and alanine abundances are greatly suppressed in kanamycin-resistant Edwardsiella tarda by GC-MS-based metabolomics. Exogenous alanine or glucose restores susceptibility of multidrug-resistant E. tarda to killing by kanamycin, demonstrating an approach to killing multidrug-resistant bacteria. The mechanism underlying this approach is that exogenous glucose or alanine promotes the TCA cycle by substrate activation, which in turn increases production of NADH and proton motive force and stimulates uptake of antibiotic. Similar results are obtained with other Gram-negative bacteria (Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and Gram-positive bacterium (Staphylococcus aureus), and the results are also reproduced in a mouse model for urinary tract infection. This study establishes a functional metabolomics-based strategy to manage infection by antibiotic-resistant bacteria.
Alexander, Johannes; Bollmann, Anna; Seitz, Wolfram; Schwartz, Thomas
The dissemination of medically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) (blaVIM-1, vanA, ampC, ermB, and mecA) and opportunistic bacteria (Enterococcus faecium/faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus, and CNS) was determined in different anthropogenically influenced aquatic habitats in a selected region of Germany. Over a period of two years, four differently sized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with and without clinical influence, three surface waters, four rain overflow basins, and three groundwater sites were analyzed by quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR). Results were calculated in cell equivalents per 100 ng of total DNA extracted from water samples and per 100 mL sample volume, which seems to underestimate the abundance of antibiotic resistance and opportunistic bacteria. High abundances of opportunistic bacteria and ARG were quantified in clinical wastewaters and influents of the adjacent WWTP. The removal capacities of WWTP were up to 99% for some, but not all investigated bacteria. The abundances of most ARG targets were found to be increased in the bacterial population after conventional wastewater treatment. As a consequence, downstream surface water and also some groundwater compartments displayed high abundances of all four ARGs. It became obvious that the dynamics of the ARG differed from the fate of the opportunistic bacteria. This underlines the necessity of an advanced microbial characterization of anthropogenically influenced environments.
Etayash, Hashem; Khan, M. F.; Kaur, Kamaljit; Thundat, Thomas
In the fight against drug-resistant bacteria, accurate and high-throughput detection is essential. Here, a bimaterial microcantilever with an embedded microfluidic channel with internal surfaces chemically or physically functionalized with receptors selectively captures the bacteria passing through the channel. Bacterial adsorption inside the cantilever results in changes in the resonance frequency (mass) and cantilever deflection (adsorption stress). The excitation of trapped bacteria using infrared radiation (IR) causes the cantilever to deflect in proportion to the infrared absorption of the bacteria, providing a nanomechanical infrared spectrum for selective identification. We demonstrate the in situ detection and discrimination of Listeria monocytogenes at a concentration of single cell per μl. Trapped Escherichia coli in the microchannel shows a distinct nanomechanical response when exposed to antibiotics. This approach, which combines enrichment with three different modes of detection, can serve as a platform for the development of a portable, high-throughput device for use in the real-time detection of bacteria and their response to antibiotics. PMID:27698375
Ravn, Christen; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Bétrisey, Bertrand; Overgaard, Søren; Trampuz, Andrej
Background and purpose Antibiotic treatment of patients before specimen collection reduces the ability to detect organisms by culture. We investigated the suppressive effect of antibiotics on the growth of non-adherent, planktonic, and surface-related biofilm bacteria in vitro by using sonication and microcalorimetry methods. Patients and methods Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Propionibacterium acnes were formed on porous glass beads and exposed for 24 h to antibiotic concentrations from 1 to 1,024 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin, daptomycin, rifampin, flucloxacillin, or ciprofloxacin. The beads were then sonicated to dislodge biofilm, followed by culture and measurement of growth-related heat flow by microcalorimetry of the resulting sonication fluid. Results Vancomycin did not inhibit the heat flow of staphylococci and P. acnes at concentrations ≤1,024 μg/mL, whereas flucloxacillin at >128 μg/mL inhibited S. aureus. Daptomycin inhibited heat flow of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and P. acnes at lower concentrations (32–128 times MIC, p < 0.001). Rifampin showed inconsistent results in staphylococci due to random emergence of resistance, which was observed at concentrations ≤1,024 times MIC (i.e. 8 μg/mL). Ciprofloxacin inhibited heat flow of E. coli at ≥4 times MIC (i.e. ≥ 0.06 μg/mL). Interpretation Whereas time-dependent antibiotics (i.e. vancomycin and flucloxacillin) showed only weak growth suppression, concentration-dependent drugs (i.e. daptomycin and ciprofloxacin) had a strong suppressive effect on bacterial growth and reduced the ability to detect planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Exposure to rifampin rapidly caused emergence of resistance. Our findings indicate that preoperative administration of antibiotics may have heterogeneous effects on the ability to detect biofilm bacteria. PMID:27775462
Ravn, Christen; Furustrand Tafin, Ulrika; Bétrisey, Bertrand; Overgaard, Søren; Trampuz, Andrej
Background and purpose - Antibiotic treatment of patients before specimen collection reduces the ability to detect organisms by culture. We investigated the suppressive effect of antibiotics on the growth of non-adherent, planktonic, and surface-related biofilm bacteria in vitro by using sonication and microcalorimetry methods. Patients and methods - Biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Escherichia coli, and Propionibacterium acnes were formed on porous glass beads and exposed for 24 h to antibiotic concentrations from 1 to 1,024 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of vancomycin, daptomycin, rifampin, flucloxacillin, or ciprofloxacin. The beads were then sonicated to dislodge biofilm, followed by culture and measurement of growth-related heat flow by microcalorimetry of the resulting sonication fluid. Results - Vancomycin did not inhibit the heat flow of staphylococci and P. acnes at concentrations ≤1,024 μg/mL, whereas flucloxacillin at >128 μg/mL inhibited S. aureus. Daptomycin inhibited heat flow of S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and P. acnes at lower concentrations (32-128 times MIC, p < 0.001). Rifampin showed inconsistent results in staphylococci due to random emergence of resistance, which was observed at concentrations ≤1,024 times MIC (i.e. 8 μg/mL). Ciprofloxacin inhibited heat flow of E. coli at ≥4 times MIC (i.e. ≥ 0.06 μg/mL). Interpretation - Whereas time-dependent antibiotics (i.e. vancomycin and flucloxacillin) showed only weak growth suppression, concentration-dependent drugs (i.e. daptomycin and ciprofloxacin) had a strong suppressive effect on bacterial growth and reduced the ability to detect planktonic and biofilm bacteria. Exposure to rifampin rapidly caused emergence of resistance. Our findings indicate that preoperative administration of antibiotics may have heterogeneous effects on the ability to detect biofilm bacteria.
Miller, Jennifer H.; Novak, John T.; Knocke, William R.; Pruden, Amy
Understanding fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) vs. their antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) during wastewater sludge treatment is critical in order to reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance through process optimization. Here, we spiked high concentrations of tetracycline-resistant bacteria, isolated from mesophilic (Iso M1-1—a Pseudomonas sp.) and thermophilic (Iso T10—a Bacillus sp.) anaerobic digested sludge, into batch digesters and monitored their fate by plate counts and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) of their corresponding tetracycline ARGs. In batch studies, spiked ARB plate counts returned to baseline (thermophilic) or 1-log above baseline (mesophilic) while levels of the ARG present in the spiked isolate [tet(G)] remained high in mesophilic batch reactors. To compare results under semi-continuous flow conditions with natural influent variation, tet(O), tet(W), and sul1 ARGs, along with the intI1 integrase gene, were monitored over a 9-month period in the raw feed sludge and effluent sludge of lab-scale thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic digesters. sul1 and intI1 in mesophilic and thermophilic digesters correlated positively (Spearman rho = 0.457–0.829, P < 0.05) with the raw feed sludge. There was no correlation in tet(O) or tet(W) ratios in raw sludge and mesophilic digested sludge or thermophilic digested sludge (Spearman rho = 0.130–0.486, P = 0.075–0.612). However, in the thermophilic digester, the tet(O) and tet(W) ratios remained consistently low over the entire monitoring period. We conclude that the influent sludge microbial composition can influence the ARG content of a digester, apparently as a result of differential survival or death of ARBs or horizontal gene transfer of genes between raw sludge ARBs and the digester microbial community. Notably, mesophilic digestion was more susceptible to ARG intrusion than thermophilic digestion, which may be attributed to a higher rate of ARB survival and
Horká, Marie; Vykydalová, Marie; Růžička, Filip; Šalplachta, Jiří; Holá, Veronika; Dvořáčková, Milada; Kubesová, Anna; Šlais, Karel
The effect of antibiotics on the microbial cells and concentration of antibiotics in the human body is essential for the effective use of antimicrobial therapy. The capillary isoelectric focusing is a suitable technique for the separation and the detection of bacteria, and amphoteric substances from nature. However, the determination of isoelectric points of ampholytic antibiotics by conventional techniques is time consuming. For this reason, capillary isoelectric focusing seems to be appropriate as a simple and reliable way for establishing them. The separation conditions for the capillary isoelectric focusing of selected ampholytic antibiotics with known isoelectric points and pK as, ampicillin (pI 4.9), ciprofloxacin (pI 7.4), ofloxacin (pI 7.1), tetracycline (pI 5.4), tigecycline (pI 9.7), and vancomycin (pI 8.1), were found and optimized in the suitable pH ranges pH 2.0-5.3, 2.0-9.6, and 9.0-10.4. The established values of isoelectric points correspond with those found in the literature except tigecycline. Its pI was not found in the literature. As an example of a possible procedure for direct detection of both ampholytic antibiotics and bacteria, Staphylococcus epidermidis, in the presence of culture media or whole human blood, was found. The changes of the bacterial cells after their treatment with tetracycline were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Capillary isoelectric focusing allows the fast and simple determination of isoelectric points of relevant antibiotics, their quantification from the environment, as well as studying their effectiveness on microorganisms in biological samples.
Water samples were collected in 1991-93 from Withers Swash and its two tributaries (the Mainstem and KOA Branches) in Myrtle Beach, S.C., and analyzed for physical properties, organic and inorganic constituents, and fecal coliform and streptococcus bacteria. Samples were collected during wet- and dry-weather conditions to assess the water quality of the streams before and after storm runoff. Water samples were analyzed for over 200 separate physical, chemical, and biological constituents. Concentrations of 11 constituents violated State criteria for shellfish harvesting waters, and State Human Health Criteria. The 11 constituents included concentrations of dissolved oxygen, arsenic, lead, cadmium, mercury, chlordane, dieldrin, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethylene, trichloroethylene, and fecal coliform bacteria. Water samples were examined for the presence of enteric bacteria (fecal coliform and fecal streptococcus) at 46 sites throughout the Withers Swash Basin and 5 sites on the beach and in the Atlantic Ocean. Water samples were collected just upstream from all confluences in order to determine sources of bacterial contamination. Temporally and spatially high concentrations of enteric bacteria were detected throughout the Withers Swash Basin; however, these sporadic bacteria concentrations made it difficult to determine a single source of the contamination. These enteric bacteria concentrations are probably derived from a number of sources in the basin including septic tanks, garbage containers, and the feces of waterfowl and domestic animals.
Huang, Ying; Zhang, Lu; Tiu, Laura; Wang, Hua H.
The objective of the study was to improve the understanding of antibiotic resistance (AR) ecology through characterization of antibiotic-resistant commensal isolates associated with an aquaculture production system. A total of 4767 isolates non-susceptible to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (Sul/Tri), tetracycline (Tet), erythromycin (Erm), or cefotaxime (Ctx), originated from fish, feed, and environmental samples of an aquaculture farm with no known history of antibiotic applications were examined. Close to 80% of the isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance in media containing the corresponding antibiotics, and representative AR genes were detected in various isolates by PCR, with feed isolates had the highest positive rate detected. Identified AR gene carriers involved 18 bacterial genera. Selected AR genes led to acquired resistance in other bacteria by transformation. The AR traits in many isolates were stable in the absence of selective pressure. AR-rich feed and possibly environmental factors may contribute to AR in the aquaculture ecosystem. For minimum inhibitory concentration test, brain heart infusion medium was found more suitable for majority of the bacteria examined than cation-adjusted Mueller Hinton broth, with latter being the recommended medium for clinical isolates by standard protocol. The data indicated a need to update the methodology due to genetic diversity of microbiota for better understanding of the AR ecology. PMID:26441859
Li, Xian-Zhi; Plésiat, Patrick; Nikaido, Hiroshi
The global emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a growing threat to antibiotic therapy. The chromosomally encoded drug efflux mechanisms that are ubiquitous in these bacteria greatly contribute to antibiotic resistance and present a major challenge for antibiotic development. Multidrug pumps, particularly those represented by the clinically relevant AcrAB-TolC and Mex pumps of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily, not only mediate intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) but also are involved in other functions, including the bacterial stress response and pathogenicity. Additionally, efflux pumps interact synergistically with other resistance mechanisms (e.g., with the outer membrane permeability barrier) to increase resistance levels. Since the discovery of RND pumps in the early 1990s, remarkable scientific and technological advances have allowed for an in-depth understanding of the structural and biochemical basis, substrate profiles, molecular regulation, and inhibition of MDR pumps. However, the development of clinically useful efflux pump inhibitors and/or new antibiotics that can bypass pump effects continues to be a challenge. Plasmid-borne efflux pump genes (including those for RND pumps) have increasingly been identified. This article highlights the recent progress obtained for organisms of clinical significance, together with methodological considerations for the characterization of MDR pumps.
SUMMARY The global emergence of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a growing threat to antibiotic therapy. The chromosomally encoded drug efflux mechanisms that are ubiquitous in these bacteria greatly contribute to antibiotic resistance and present a major challenge for antibiotic development. Multidrug pumps, particularly those represented by the clinically relevant AcrAB-TolC and Mex pumps of the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) superfamily, not only mediate intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) but also are involved in other functions, including the bacterial stress response and pathogenicity. Additionally, efflux pumps interact synergistically with other resistance mechanisms (e.g., with the outer membrane permeability barrier) to increase resistance levels. Since the discovery of RND pumps in the early 1990s, remarkable scientific and technological advances have allowed for an in-depth understanding of the structural and biochemical basis, substrate profiles, molecular regulation, and inhibition of MDR pumps. However, the development of clinically useful efflux pump inhibitors and/or new antibiotics that can bypass pump effects continues to be a challenge. Plasmid-borne efflux pump genes (including those for RND pumps) have increasingly been identified. This article highlights the recent progress obtained for organisms of clinical significance, together with methodological considerations for the characterization of MDR pumps. PMID:25788514
Laskaris, Paris; Tolba, Sahar; Calvo-Bado, Leo; Wellington, Elizabeth M; Wellington, Liz
We present evidence for the coexistence and coevolution of antibiotic resistance and biosynthesis genes in soil bacteria. The distribution of the streptomycin (strA) and viomycin (vph) resistance genes was examined in Streptomyces isolates. strA and vph were found either within a biosynthetic gene cluster or independently. Streptomyces griseus strains possessing the streptomycin cluster formed part of a clonal complex. All S. griseus strains possessing solely strA belonged to two clades; both were closely related to the streptomycin producers. Other more distantly related S. griseus strains did not contain strA. S. griseus strains with only vph also formed two clades, but they were more distantly related to the producers and to one another. The expression of the strA gene was constitutive in a resistance-only strain whereas streptomycin producers showed peak strA expression in late log phase that correlates with the switch on of streptomycin biosynthesis. While there is evidence that antibiotics have diverse roles in nature, our data clearly support the coevolution of resistance in the presence of antibiotic biosynthetic capability within closely related soil dwelling bacteria. This reinforces the view that, for some antibiotics at least, the primary role is one of antibiosis during competition in soil for resources.
Machado, A; Bordalo, A A
The dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and the spread of antibiotic resistance genes are a major public health concern worldwide, being even proposed as emerging contaminants. The aquatic environment is a recognized reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes have been recently detected in drinking water. In this study, the water quality and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance of heterotrophic culturable bacteria were characterized seasonally in wells that serve the population of Guinea-Bissau (West Africa) as the sole source of water for drinking and other domestic proposes. The results revealed that well water was unfit for human consumption independently of the season, owing to high acidity and heavy fecal contamination. Moreover, potentially pathogenic bacteria, which showed resistance to the most prescribed antibiotics in Guinea-Bissau, were isolated from well water, posing an additional health risk. Our results suggest that well water not only fosters the transmission of potential pathogenic bacteria, but also represents an important reservoir for the proliferation of antibiotic resistant bacteria, that can aggravate the potential to cause disease in a very vulnerable population that has no other alternative but to consume such water.
Bidet, Philippe; Doit, Catherine; Bingen, Edouard
EPIDEMIOLOGY OF THE BACTERIA RESPONSIBLE: Acute otitis media (AOM) is the most common bacterial infection in childhood below the age of 5 years. Bacteria may be isolated from middle ear fluid in about two-thirds of patients. The prevalence of bacteria varies from one country to the next. The most common pathogens recovered are Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (20-50%) and less frequently Moraxella catarrhalis (10%). However, several recent reports suggest an increasing rate of isolation of M. catarrhalis approaching 20%. Concomitant isolation of two or more organisms occurs in up to 10% of cases. The role of Group A Streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus in AOM has decreased since the use of antibiotics. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE: The recent spread of penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae and amoxycillin resistant H. influenzae varies considerably from one country to an other and appears related to the use of antibiotics and socio-economic conditions. A follow up of bacterial epidemiology and antibiotic resistance is necessary in each region of the world to define accurate strategies of acute otitis antibiotherapy.
Stables, Melanie J.; Newson, Justine; Ayoub, Samir S.; Brown, Jeremy; Hyams, Catherine J.; Gilroy, Derek W.
Inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX)-derived prostaglandins (PGs) by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) mediates leukocyte killing of bacteria. However, the relative contribution of COX 1 versus COX 2 to this process as well as the mechanisms controlling it in mouse and humans are unknown. Indeed, the potential of NSAIDs to facilitate leukocyte killing of drug-resistance bacteria warrants investigation. Therefore, we carried a series of experiments in mouse and humans finding that COX 1 is the predominant isoform active in PG synthesis during infection and that its prophylactic or therapeutic inhibition primes leukocytes to kill bacteria by increasing phagocytic uptake and reactive oxygen intermediate-mediated killing in a cAMP-dependent manner. Moreover, NSAIDs enhance bacterial killing in humans, exerting an additive effect when used in combination with antibiotics. Finally, NSAIDs, through the inhibition of COX prime the innate immune system to mediate bacterial clearance of penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 19A, which is a well recognised vaccine escape serotype of particular concern given its increasing prevalence and multi-antibiotic resistance. Therefore, these data underline the importance of lipid mediators in host responses to infection and the potential of inhibitors of PG signaling pathways as adjunctive therapies, particularly in the context of antibiotic resistance. PMID:20606163
D'Costa, Priya M; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar
To investigate the effect of bacteria on diatoms at the community level, sediment samples from an intertidal tropical environment were treated with penicillin (a β-lactam antibiotic that can affect diatoms only through bacteria). Streptomycin (an aminoglycoside) and chloramphenicol, antibiotics that can potentially affect protein synthesis in diatom organelles and photosynthesis, were also used for comparison. The changes in diatom community structure and the resistant and tolerant bacterial fractions were analyzed through microscopy, culture techniques and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The reduction in bacterial abundance when treated with penicillin resulted in suppression of Amphora coffeaeformis, a dominant diatom in the study area. The bacterial community preferred the 'tolerance' strategy over 'resistance' in response to treatment with penicillin; these changes in bacterial dynamics were probably linked to concurrent changes in diatom community structure. The observations with penicillin differed from those with streptomycin that did not seem to significantly affect diatoms, and chloramphenicol, which consistently inhibited diatoms. Overall, the results of this study highlight the significance of bacteria in structuring benthic diatom communities and call for the inclusion of the 'antibiotics' approach in studies addressing diatom-bacterial interactions at the community level.
Morales-Morales, Hugo A.; Vidal, Guadalupe; Olszewski, John; Rock, Channah M.; Dasgupta, Debanjana; Oshima, Kevin H.; Smith, Geoffrey B.
The detection and identification of pathogens from water samples remain challenging due to variations in recovery rates and the cost of procedures. Ultrafiltration offers the possibility to concentrate viral, bacterial, and protozoan organisms in a single process by using size-exclusion-based filtration. In this study, two hollow-fiber ultrafilters with 50,000-molecular-weight cutoffs were evaluated to concentrate microorganisms from 2- and 10-liter water samples. When known quantities (105 to 106 CFU/liter) of two species of enteric bacteria were introduced and concentrated from 2 liters of sterile water, the addition of 0.1% Tween 80 increased Escherichia coli strain K-12 recoveries from 70 to 84% and Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis recoveries from 36 to 72%. An E. coli antibiotic-resistant strain, XL1-Blue, was recovered at a level (87%) similar to that for strain K-12 (96%) from 10 liters of sterile water. When E. coli XL1-Blue was introduced into 10 liters of nonsterile Rio Grande water with higher turbidity levels (23 to 29 nephelometric turbidity units) at two inoculum levels (9 × 105 and 2.4 × 103 per liter), the recovery efficiencies were 89 and 92%, respectively. The simultaneous addition of E. coli XL1-Blue (9 × 105 CFU/liter), Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (10 oocysts/liter), phage T1 (105 PFU/liter), and phage PP7 (105 PFU/liter) to 10 liters of Rio Grande surface water resulted in mean recoveries of 96, 54, 59, and 46%, respectively. Using a variety of surface waters from around the United States, we obtained recovery efficiencies for bacteria and viruses that were similar to those observed with the Rio Grande samples, but recovery of Cryptosporidium oocysts was decreased, averaging 32% (the site of collection of these samples had previously been identified as problematic for oocyst recovery). Results indicate that the use of ultrafiltration for simultaneous recovery of bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens from variable surface waters
Murphy, James T.; Walshe, Ray; Devocelle, Marc
The response of bacterial populations to antibiotic treatment is often a function of a diverse range of interacting factors. In order to develop strategies to minimize the spread of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria, a sound theoretical understanding of the systems of interactions taking place within a colony must be developed. The agent-based approach to modeling bacterial populations is a useful tool for relating data obtained at the molecular and cellular level with the overall population dynamics. Here we demonstrate an agent-based model, called Micro-Gen, which has been developed to simulate the growth and development of bacterial colonies in culture. The model also incorporates biochemical rules and parameters describing the kinetic interactions of bacterial cells with antibiotic molecules. Simulations were carried out to replicate the development of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) colonies growing in the presence of antibiotics. The model was explored to see how the properties of the system emerge from the interactions of the individual bacterial agents in order to achieve a better mechanistic understanding of the population dynamics taking place. Micro-Gen provides a good theoretical framework for investigating the effects of local environmental conditions and cellular properties on the response of bacterial populations to antibiotic exposure in the context of a simulated environment.
Wastewater reclamation for municipal irrigation is an increasingly attractive option for extending water supplies. However, public health concerns include the potential for development of antibiotic resistance (AR) in soil bacteria after exposure to residual pharmaceuticals in reclaimed water. Thoug...
Kaneene, John B.; Warnick, Lorin D.; Bolin, Carole A.; Erskine, Ronald J.; May, Katherine; Miller, RoseAnn
A randomized intervention study was conducted to determine if discontinuing use of calf milk replacer medicated with oxytetracycline results in increased tetracycline susceptibility in Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and Escherichia coli in dairy calves over a 12-month period. Dairy herds with enteric bacteria with known low tetracycline susceptibility were enrolled for the study. Fecal samples from preweaned calves and environmental samples were collected from eight dairy herds in Michigan and New York State. Samples were collected monthly for 3 months prior to and 12 months after four of the eight herds discontinued medicated milk replacer feeding. Salmonella and Campylobacter spp. and E. coli were isolated, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was conducted using automated broth microdilution. A total of 804 intervention and 1,026 control calf fecal samples and 122 intervention and 136 control environmental samples were collected for testing. No differences in owner-reported morbidity and mortality between treatment groups were seen. The intervention was significantly associated with increasing tetracycline susceptibility in E. coli and Salmonella. Tetracycline susceptibility increased in intervention herds for the first 3 months after switching to nonmedicated milk replacer but declined in subsequent months. Discontinuing the practice of feeding medicated milk replacers to calves increased tetracycline susceptibility in E. coli and Salmonella on dairy farms, without increasing cattle disease, but declines in effectiveness after 3 months suggest that other factors contribute to decreasing susceptibility on the farm. PMID:18417664
Chng, Kern Rei; Chan, Sock Hoai; Ng, Amanda Hui Qi; Li, Chenhao; Jusakul, Apinya; Bertrand, Denis; Wilm, Andreas; Choo, Su Pin; Tan, Damien Meng Yew; Lim, Kiat Hon; Soetinko, Roy; Ong, Choon Kiat; Duda, Dan G; Dima, Simona; Popescu, Irinel; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Feng, Zhu; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Teh, Bin Tean; Yongvanit, Puangrat; Wongkham, Sopit; Bhudhisawasdi, Vajaraphongsa; Khuntikeo, Narong; Tan, Patrick; Pairojkul, Chawalit; Ngeow, Joanne; Nagarajan, Niranjan
Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is the primary cancer of the bile duct system. The role of bile duct tissue microbiomes in CCA tumorigenesis is unestablished. To address this, sixty primary CCA tumors and matched normals, from both liver fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) associated (OVa, n=28) and non-O. viverrini associated (non-OVa, n=32) cancers, were profiled using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing. A distinct, tissue-specific microbiome dominated by the bacterial families Dietziaceae, Pseudomonadaceae and Oxalobacteraceae was observed in bile duct tissues. Systemic perturbation of the microbiome was noted in tumor and paired normal samples (vs non-cancer normals) for several bacterial families with a significant increase in Stenotrophomonas species distinguishing tumors vs paired normals. Comparison of parasite associated (OVa) vs non-associated (non-OVa) groups identified enrichment for specific enteric bacteria (Bifidobacteriaceae, Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcaceae). One of the enriched families, Bifidobacteriaceae, was found to be dominant in the O. viverrini microbiome, providing a mechanistic link to the parasite. Functional analysis and comparison of CCA microbiomes revealed higher potential for producing bile acids and ammonia in OVa tissues, linking the altered microbiota to carcinogenesis. These results define how the unique microbial communities resident in the bile duct, parasitic infections and the tissue microenvironment can influence each other, and contribute to cancer.
Background Bacteria used as indicators for pathogenic microorganisms in water are not considered adequate as enteric virus indicators. Surface water from a tropical high-altitude system located in Mexico City that receives rainwater, treated and non-treated wastewater used for irrigation, and groundwater used for drinking, was studied. Methods The presence of enterovirus, rotavirus, astrovirus, coliphage, coliform bacteria, and enterococci was determined during annual cycles in 2001 and 2002. Enteric viruses in concentrated water samples were detected by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Coliphages were detected using the double agar layer method. Bacteria analyses of the water samples were carried out by membrane filtration. Results The presence of viruses and bacteria in the water used for irrigation showed no relationship between current bacterial indicator detection and viral presence. Coliphages showed strong association with indicator bacteria and enterovirus, but weak association with other enteric viruses. Enterovirus and rotavirus showed significant seasonal differences in water used for irrigation, although this was not clear for astrovirus. Conclusion Coliphages proved to be adequate faecal pollution indicators for the irrigation water studied. Viral presence in this tropical high-altitude system showed a similar trend to data previously reported for temperate zones. PMID:19860917
Miller, Robert V; Gammon, Katharine; Day, Martin J
Antibiotic resistance in aquatic bacteria has increased steadily as a consequence of the widespread use of antibiotics, but practice and international treaty should have limited antibiotic contamination in Antarctica. We estimated antibiotic resistance in microorganisms isolated from the Antarctic marine waters and a penguin rookery, for 2 reasons: (i) as a measure of human impact and (ii) as a potential "snapshot" of the preantibiotic world. Samples were taken at 4 established sampling sites near Palmer Station, which is situated at the southern end of the Palmer Archipelago (64 degrees 10'S, 61 degrees 50'W). Sites were chosen to provide different potentials for human contamination. Forty 50 mL samples of seawater were collected and colony-forming units (CFU)/mL were determined at 6 and 20 degrees C. For this study, presumed psychrophiles (growth at 6 degrees C) were assumed to be native to Antarctic waters, whereas presumed mesophiles (growth at 20 degrees C but not at 6 degrees C) were taken to represent introduced organisms. The 20-6 degrees C CFU/mL ratio was used as a measure of the relative impact to the ecosystem of presumably introduced organisms. This ratio was highest at the site nearest to Palmer Station and decreased with distance from it, suggesting that human presence has impacted the natural microbial flora of the site. The frequency of resistance to 5 common antibiotics was determined in each group of isolates. Overall drug resistance was higher among the presumed mesophiles than the presumed psychrophiles and increased with proximity to Palmer Station, with the presumed mesophiles showing higher frequencies of single and multiple drug resistance than the psychrophile population. The frequency of multidrug resistance followed the same pattern. It appears that multidrug resistance is low among native Antarctic bacteria but is increased by human habitation.
Winterhalter, Mathias; Ceccarelli, Matteo
The development of antibiotics against Gram-negative bacteria is a challenge: any active compound must cross the outer cell envelope composed of a hydrophilic highly charged lipopolysaccharide layer followed by a tight hydrophobic layer containing water filled gates called porins to reach the hydrophilic periplasmic space and depending on the target with the further need to cross the hydrophobic inner membrane. In addition to a possible rapid enzymatic deactivation efflux pumps shuffle compounds back outside. The resulting low permeability of cell envelope requires high dose and leads therefore to toxicity problems. Despite its relevance the permeability barrier in Gram-negative bacteria is not well understood partially caused by the lack of appropriate direct assays. Here we give a brief introduction on current available techniques to quantify passive diffusion of small hydrophilic molecules into Gram-negative bacteria.
Boukadida, J; Boukadida, N; Elraii, S
Current bacteriological data are very useful when making therapeutic decisions in cases of non complicated urinary tract infection. In this article, we present the data gathered by a university hospital laboratory in mid-Tunisia as well as the results of 17,829 urinary cytobacteriological examinations conducted in a multidisciplinary hospital during the year 2000. Urine was sowed on usual agar. All bacterium cultivating at least 10(5) bacteria reported to ml and at 37 degrees C in a normal atmosphere was retained; identification and sensitivity to antibiotics of the bacterium followed the recommendations of the French Society of Microbiology. We collected 2063 non-redundant bacteria of which 82.3% came from female samples. Gram negative rods were distinctly predominant with 92% of the whole bacterium and Escherichia coli represented 67% of the whole of the germs; Staphylococcus saprophyticus with 4.8% and Streptococcus agalactiae with 1% dominated Gram positive bacteria. The susceptibility of bacteria to the principal antibiotics used for the treatment of the urinary tract infection was characterised by the low percentage of sensitivity of the Gram negative rods to amoxicillin (41.2% of sensitivity for Escherichia coli and 22% for the Proteus sp), and by cotrimoxazole which preserved an activity between 63.8% for Escherichia coli and 94.7% for Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The highest percentage of sensitivity was achieved by gentamicine (99.4% of Escherichia coli and 98.9% of Staphylococcus saprophyticus) and fluoroquinolons (97.8% of Escherichia coli and 100% of Staphylococcus saprophyticus are sensible); furadoin was active on almost all Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. Apart from natural resistance, colistin was constantly active. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus saprophyticus were the major agents of the urinary tract infection. Gentamicin and fluoroquinolons showed themselves to be constantly active antibiotics. Nitrofurans and colistin
Bengtsson-Palme, Johan; Larsson, D G Joakim
There are concerns that selection pressure from antibiotics in the environment may accelerate the evolution and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Nevertheless, there is currently no regulatory system that takes such risks into account. In part, this is due to limited knowledge of environmental concentrations that might exert selection for resistant bacteria. To experimentally determine minimal selective concentrations in complex microbial ecosystems for all antibiotics would involve considerable effort. In this work, our aim was to estimate upper boundaries for selective concentrations for all common antibiotics, based on the assumption that selective concentrations a priori need to be lower than those completely inhibiting growth. Data on Minimal Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) were obtained for 111 antibiotics from the public EUCAST database. The 1% lowest observed MICs were identified, and to compensate for limited species coverage, predicted lowest MICs adjusted for the number of tested species were extrapolated through modeling. Predicted No Effect Concentrations (PNECs) for resistance selection were then assessed using an assessment factor of 10 to account for differences between MICs and minimal selective concentrations. The resulting PNECs ranged from 8 ng/L to 64 μg/L. Furthermore, the link between taxonomic similarity between species and lowest MIC was weak. This work provides estimated upper boundaries for selective concentrations (lowest MICs) and PNECs for resistance selection for all common antibiotics. In most cases, PNECs for selection of resistance were below available PNECs for ecotoxicological effects. The generated PNECs can guide implementation of compound-specific emission limits that take into account risks for resistance promotion.
Wu, Xiaozhe; Li, Zhan; Li, Xiaolu; Tian, Yaomei; Fan, Yingzi; Yu, Chaoheng; Zhou, Bailing; Liu, Yi; Xiang, Rong; Yang, Li
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria present a great threat to public health. In this study, the synergistic effects of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and antibiotics on several multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were studied, and their synergistic effects on azithromycin (AZT)-resistance genes were analyzed to determine the relationships between antimicrobial resistance and these synergistic effects. A checkerboard method was used to evaluate the synergistic effects of AMPs (DP7 and CLS001) and several antibiotics (gentamicin, vancomycin [VAN], AZT, and amoxicillin) on clinical bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli). The AZT-resistance genes (ermA, ermB, ermC, mefA, and msrA) were identified in the resistant strains using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. For all the clinical isolates tested that were resistant to different antibiotics, DP7 had high antimicrobial activity (≤32 mg/L). When DP7 was combined with VAN or AZT, the effect was most frequently synergistic. When we studied the resistance genes of the AZT-resistant isolates, the synergistic effect of DP7–AZT occurred most frequently in highly resistant strains or strains carrying more than two AZT-resistance genes. A transmission electron microscopic analysis of the S. aureus strain synergistically affected by DP7–AZT showed no noteworthy morphological changes, suggesting that a molecular-level mechanism plays an important role in the synergistic action of DP7–AZT. AMP DP7 plus the antibiotic AZT or VAN is more effective, especially against highly antibiotic-resistant strains. PMID:28356719
Barakat, Khouloud Mohamed; Gohar, Yousri Mahmoud
Background and Objectives: Mortality is highly variable within population of cultured fish due to virulent bacteria causing fish septicemia. The use of nano-silver marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergisers could be an alternative in the treatment of sepsis fish pathogens. Materials and Methods: Different bulk chitosan solutions were prepared from the mycelia of four marine fungi (Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus flavipes, Tricoderma hamatum and Fennellia flavipes) and used as capping agents for silver nanoparticles. In vitro, the antibacterial activity of these preparations was determined against nine fish-sepsis causing bacteria, alone and in combination with nine antibiotics of choice used in aquaculture. Prepared fungal chitosans (CsF) were characterized by yield of chistosan obtained, degree of deacetylation and viscosity. Results and Conclusion: The maximum yield of chitosan (28%) was obtained from Aspergillus terreus. A. terreus chitosan (CsF), silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and chitosan-silver nanoparticles (CsF-AgNPs) showed maximum activity at the minimum inhibitory concentrations average (MICAVG) 27.2, 18.2 and 7.9 μg/ml, respectively. Combination of CsF -AgNPs with amikacin (Ak) and rifampicin (RD) reduced the MIC values by 96 and 94%, respectively, with fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) = 0.42 and 0.50 as synergistic effect. It is promising to use CsF-AgNPs as enhancing agent in combination with antibiotics for fish sepsis therapy. PMID:26885333
Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Acosta-Gutierrez, Silvia; Benkerrou, Dehbia; D'Agostino, Tommaso; Malloci, Giuliano; Samanta, Susruta; Bodrenko, Igor; Ceccarelli, Matteo
The increasing level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, together with the lack of new potential drug scaffolds in the pipeline, make the problem of infectious diseases a global challenge for modern medicine. The main reason that Gram-negative bacteria are particularly challenging is the presence of an outer cell-protecting membrane, which is not present in Gram-positive species. Such an asymmetric bilayer is a highly effective barrier for polar molecules. Several protein systems are expressed in the outer membrane to control the internal concentration of both nutrients and noxious species, in particular: (i) water-filled channels that modulate the permeation of polar molecules and ions according to concentration gradients, and (ii) efflux pumps to actively expel toxic compounds. Thus, besides expressing specific enzymes for drugs degradation, Gram-negative bacteria can also resist by modulating the influx and efflux of antibiotics, keeping the internal concentration low. However, there are no direct and robust experimental methods capable of measuring the permeability of small molecules, thus severely limiting our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that ultimately control the permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane. This is the innovation gap to be filled for Gram-negative bacteria. This review is focused on the permeation of small molecules through porins, considered the main path for the entry of polar antibiotics into Gram-negative bacteria. A fundamental understanding of how these proteins are able to filter small molecules is a prerequisite to design/optimize antibacterials with improved permeation. The level of sophistication of modern molecular modeling algorithms and the advances in new computer hardware has made the simulation of such complex processes possible at the molecular level. In this work we aim to share our experience and perspectives in the context of a multidisciplinary extended collaboration within the IMI
Scorciapino, Mariano Andrea; Acosta-Gutierrez, Silvia; Benkerrou, Dehbia; D’Agostino, Tommaso; Malloci, Giuliano; Samanta, Susruta; Bodrenko, Igor; Ceccarelli, Matteo
The increasing level of antibiotic resistance in Gram-negative bacteria, together with the lack of new potential drug scaffolds in the pipeline, make the problem of infectious diseases a global challenge for modern medicine. The main reason that Gram-negative bacteria are particularly challenging is the presence of an outer cell-protecting membrane, which is not present in Gram-positive species. Such an asymmetric bilayer is a highly effective barrier for polar molecules. Several protein systems are expressed in the outer membrane to control the internal concentration of both nutrients and noxious species, in particular: (i) water-filled channels that modulate the permeation of polar molecules and ions according to concentration gradients, and (ii) efflux pumps to actively expel toxic compounds. Thus, besides expressing specific enzymes for drugs degradation, Gram-negative bacteria can also resist by modulating the influx and efflux of antibiotics, keeping the internal concentration low. However, there are no direct and robust experimental methods capable of measuring the permeability of small molecules, thus severely limiting our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms that ultimately control the permeation of antibiotics through the outer membrane. This is the innovation gap to be filled for Gram-negative bacteria. This review is focused on the permeation of small molecules through porins, considered the main path for the entry of polar antibiotics into Gram-negative bacteria. A fundamental understanding of how these proteins are able to filter small molecules is a prerequisite to design/optimize antibacterials with improved permeation. The level of sophistication of modern molecular modeling algorithms and the advances in new computer hardware has made the simulation of such complex processes possible at the molecular level. In this work we aim to share our experience and perspectives in the context of a multidisciplinary extended collaboration within the IMI
Moskot, Marta; Kotlarska, Ewa; Jakóbkiewicz-Banecka, Joanna; Gabig-Cimińska, Magdalena; Fari, Karolina; Wegrzyn, Grzegorz; Wróbel, Borys
The resistance of 49 strains of bacteria isolated from surface Baltic Sea waters to 11 antibiotics was analyzed and the resistance of selected strains to three metal ions (Ni2+, Mn2+, Zn2+) was tested. Most isolates belonged to Gammaproteobacteria (78%), while Alphaproteobacteria (8%), Actinobacteria (10%), and Bacteroidetes (4%) were less abundant. Even though previous reports suggested relationships between resistance and the presence of plasmids or the ability to produce pigments, no compelling evidence for such relationships was obtained for the strains isolated in this work. In particular, strains resistant to multiple antibiotics did not carry plasmids more frequently than sensitive strains. A relation between resistance and the four aminoglycosides tested (gentamycin, kanamycin, neomycin, and streptomycin), but not to spectinomycin, was demonstrated. This observation is of interest given that spectinomycin is not always classified as an aminoglycoside because it lacks a traditional sugar moiety. Statistical analysis indicated relationships between resistance to some antibiotics (ampicillin and erythromycin, chloramphenicol and erythromycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline, erythromycin and tetracycline), suggesting the linkage of resistance genes for antibiotics belonging to different classes. The effects of NiSO4, ZnCl2 and MnCl2 on various media suggested that the composition of Marine Broth might result in low concentrations of Mn2+ due to chemical interactions that potentially lead to precipitation.
Courtney, Colleen; Chatterjee, Anushree
``Super-bugs'' or ``multi-drug resistant organisms'' are a serious international health problem, with devastating consequences to patient health care. The Center for Disease Control has identified antibiotic resistance as one of the world's most pressing public health problems as a significant fraction of bacterial infections contracted are drug resistant. Typically, antibiotic resistance is encoded by ``resistance-genes'' which express proteins that carryout the resistance causing functions inside the bacterium. We present a RNA based therapeutic strategy for designing antimicrobials capable of re-sensitizing resistant bacteria to antibiotics by targeting labile regions of messenger RNAs encoding for resistance-causing proteins. We perform in silico RNA secondary structure modeling to identify labile target regions in an mRNA of interest. A synthetic biology approach is then used to administer antisense nucleic acids to our model system of ampicillin resistant Escherichia coli. Our results show a prolonged lag phase and decrease in viability of drug-resistant E. colitreated with antisense molecules. The antisense strategy can be applied to alter expression of other genes in antibiotic resistance pathways or other pathways of interest.
Dahlen, G; Preus, H R
The objective of this study was to assess antibiotic susceptibility among predominant Gram-negative anaerobic bacteria isolated from periodontitis patients who 5 years prior had been subject to mechanical therapy with or without adjunctive metronidazole. One pooled sample was taken from the 5 deepest sites of each of 161 patients that completed the 5 year follow-up after therapy. The samples were analyzed by culture. A total number of 85 anaerobic strains were isolated from the predominant subgingival flora of 65/161 patient samples, identified, and tested for antibiotic susceptibility by MIC determination. E-tests against metronidazole, penicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanic acid and clindamycin were employed. The 73/85 strains were Gram-negative rods (21 Porphyromonas spp., 22 Prevotella/Bacteroides spp., 23 Fusobacterium/Filifactor spp., 3 Campylobacter spp. and 4 Tannerella forsythia). These were all isolated from the treated patients irrespective of therapy procedures (+/-metronidazole) 5 years prior. Three strains (Bifidobacterium spp., Propionibacterium propionicum, Parvimonas micra) showed MIC values for metronidazole over the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing break point of >4 μg/mL. All Porphyromonas and Tannerella strains were highly susceptible. Metronidazole resistant Gram-negative strains were not found, while a few showed resistance against beta-lactam antibiotics. In this population of 161 patients who had been subject to mechanical periodontal therapy with or without adjunct metronidazole 5 years prior, no cultivable antibiotic resistant anaerobes were found in the predominant subgingival microbiota.
Wilkinson, K G; Tee, E; Tomkins, R B; Hepworth, G; Premier, R
Food-borne illnesses have rarely been associated with the reuse of poultry litter as an organic fertilizer and soil amendment in agriculture. Yet farming practices in many countries have come under increased scrutiny because of heightened consumer awareness of food safety and environmental issues. This study was conducted to determine whether simple on-farm management practices could improve the microbiological safety of poultry litter. First, the effects of heat and moisture on the survival of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in poultry litter were investigated under laboratory conditions. Second, the persistence and regrowth of enteric bacteria were examined in poultry litter that had been aged for up to 12 wk in either a turned or static (unturned) windrow. Escherichia coli and Salmonella counts in poultry litter were reduced by >99% in 1 h at 55 or 65°C under laboratory conditions. At 35°C, both persisted longer under moist (65% wt/wt, wet basis) than dry (30% wt/wt) conditions. Poultry litter aged for 3 wk in a turned windrow, and up to 6 wk in a static windrow, supported increased E. coli densities when incubated in the laboratory at 37°C for 21 d. Peak temperatures >65°C were observed in both windrows within the first 3 wk of aging; after this point, the turned windrow was more consistently exposed to temperatures >45°C than the static windrow. By 12 wk, however, E. coli counts were very similar (3 to 3.6 log(10)) in the outside edge of both windrows. This study highlights the need for a better understanding of the interrelationship between spontaneous heating in organic waste streams, organic matter stabilization, and pathogen reduction.
Otręebska-Machaj, Ewa; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Szymańska, Ewa; Schabikowski, Jakub; Boyer, Gérard; Bolla, Jean-Michel; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Pagès, Jean-Marie; Alibert, Sandrine
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria are an increasing health problem with the shortage of new active antibiotic agents. Among effective mechanisms that contribute to the spread of MDR Gram-negative bacteria are drug efflux pumps that expel clinically important antibiotic classes out of the cell. Drug pumps are attractive targets to restore the susceptibility toward the expelled antibiotics by impairing their efflux activity. Arylhydantoin derivatives were investigated for their potentiation of activities of selected antibiotics described as efflux substrates in Enterobacter aerogenes expressing or not AcrAB pump. Several compounds increased the bacterial susceptibility toward nalidixic acid, chloramphenicol and sparfloxacin and were further pharmacomodulated to obtain a better activity against the AcrAB producing bacteria. PMID:27199950
Wang, Rui Xuan; Wang, AnLi; Wang, Jiang Yong
A total of 1,050 strains of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from farming seawater and the intestines of oyster species Crassostrea hongkongensis were tested for resistance to 10 antibiotics by the Kirby-Bauer diffusion method. The resistant rates of seawater-derived bacteria to chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin were low (less than 20%), whereas the bacteria obtained from oysters showed low resistance to chloramphenicol and enrofloxacin. Many strains showed high resistant rates (more than 40%) to furazolidone, penicillin G, and rifampin. A total of 285 strains from farming seawater and oysters were resistant to more than three antibiotics. Several strains showed resistance to more than nine antibiotics. Furthermore, the peak resistant rates of the seawater-derived strains to multiple antibiotics overlapped in April, June, September, and November, and those of oyster-derived strains overlapped during April, July, and September. The multi-resistant rate patterns of strains from farming seawater and oyster intestines were similar.
Fraqueza, Maria João
Dry-fermented sausages are meat products highly valued by many consumers. Manufacturing process involves fermentation driven by natural microbiota or intentionally added starter cultures and further drying. The most relevant fermentative microbiota is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) such as Lactobacillus, Pediococcus and Enterococcus, producing mainly lactate and contributing to product preservation. The great diversity of LAB in dry-fermented sausages is linked to manufacturing practices. Indigenous starters development is considered to be a very promising field, because it allows for high sanitary and sensorial quality of sausage production. LAB have a long history of safe use in fermented food, however, since they are present in human gastrointestinal tract, and are also intentionally added to the diet, concerns have been raised about the antimicrobial resistance in these beneficial bacteria. In fact, the food chain has been recognized as one of the key routes of antimicrobial resistance transmission from animal to human bacterial populations. The World Health Organization 2014 report on global surveillance of antimicrobial resistance reveals that this issue is no longer a future prediction, since evidences establish a link between the antimicrobial drugs use in food-producing animals and the emergence of resistance among common pathogens. This poses a risk to the treatment of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. This review describes the possible sources and transmission routes of antibiotic resistant LAB of dry-fermented sausages, presenting LAB antibiotic resistance profile and related genetic determinants. Whenever LAB are used as starters in dry-fermented sausages processing, safety concerns regarding antimicrobial resistance should be addressed since antibiotic resistant genes could be mobilized and transferred to other bacteria.
Hadjigeorgiou, Katerina; Kastanos, Evdokia; Pitris, Costas
The inappropriate use of antibiotics leads to antibiotic resistance, which is a major health care problem. The current method for determination of bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics requires overnight cultures. However most of the infections cannot wait for the results to receive treatment, so physicians administer general spectrum antibiotics. This results in ineffective treatments and aggravates the rising problem of antibiotic resistance. In this work, a rapid method for diagnosis and antibiogram for a bacterial infection was developed using Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) with silver nanoparticles. The advantages of this novel method include its rapidness and efficiency which will potentially allow doctors to prescribe the most appropriate antibiotic for an infection. SERS spectra of three species of gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, Proteus spp., and Klebsiella spp. were obtained after 0 and 4 hour exposure to the seven different antibiotics. Bacterial strains were diluted in order to reach the concentration of (2x105 cfu/ml), cells/ml which is equivalent to the minimum concentration found in urine samples from UTIs. Even though the concentration of bacteria was low, species classification was achieved with 94% accuracy using spectra obtained at 0 hours. Sensitivity or resistance to antibiotics was predicted with 81%-100% accuracy from spectra obtained after 4 hours of exposure to the different antibiotics. This technique can be applied directly to urine samples, and with the enhancement provided by SERS, this method has the potential to be developed into a rapid method for same day UTI diagnosis and antibiogram.
Eliopoulos, George M.; Stafford, Kristen A.; Boutin, Mallory; Evans, Scott R.; Harris, Anthony D.
The discovery and development of new antimicrobials is critically important, especially as multidrug-resistant bacteria continue to emerge. Little has been written about the epidemiological issues in nonrandomized trials aiming to evaluate the superiority of one antibiotic over another. In this manuscript, we outline some of the methodological difficulties in demonstrating superiority and discuss potential approaches to these problems. Many of the difficulties arise due to confounding by indication, which we define and explain. Epidemiological methods including restriction, matching, stratification, multivariable regression, propensity scores, and instrumental variables are discussed. PMID:24982037
Ait Said, L; Zahlane, K; Ghalbane, I; El Messoussi, S; Romane, A; Cavaleiro, C; Salgueiro, L
The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of the essential oil (EO) of Lavandula coronopifolia from Morocco and to evaluate its in vitro antibacterial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from clinical infections. The antimicrobial activity was assessed by a broth micro-well dilution method using multiresistant clinical isolates of 11 pathogenic bacteria: Klebsiella pneumoniae subsp. pneumoniae, Klebsiella ornithinolytica, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter aerogenes, Providencia rettgeri, Citrobacter freundii, Hafnia alvei, Salmonella spp., Acinetobacter baumannii and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The main compounds of the oil were carvacrol (48.9%), E-caryophyllene (10.8%) and caryophyllene oxide (7.7%). The oil showed activity against all tested strains with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging between 1% and 4%. For most of the strains, the MIC value was equivalent to the minimal bactericidal concentration value, indicating a clear bactericidal effect of L. coronopifolia EO.
Hurley, Katherine A; Heinrich, Victoria A; Hershfield, Jeremy R; Demons, Samandra T; Weibel, Douglas B
We performed a structure-activity relationship study of 2-((3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol (DCAP), which is an antibacterial agent that disrupts the membrane potential and permeability of bacteria. The stereochemistry of DCAP had no effect on the biological activity of DCAP. The aromaticity and electronegativity of the chlorine-substituted carbazole was required for activity, suggesting that its planar and dipolar characteristics orient DCAP in membranes. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the tail region of DCAP enhanced its antibiotic activity. Two DCAP analogues displayed promising antibacterial activity against the BSL-3 pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis. Codosing DCAP analogues with ampicillin or kanamycin increased their potency. These studies demonstrate that DCAP and its analogues may be a promising scaffold for developing chemotherapeutic agents that bind to bacterial membranes and kill strains of slow-growing or dormant bacteria that cause persistent infections.
The Enterotube II and classic manual methods were used in parallel to identify 100 members of the enteric bacteria isolated from feces culture. Among these isolated bacteria Shigella, Salmonella and E. coli were found 34%, 25%, 22% respectively. The Enterotube II and classic manual methods gave the same results for identification of Salmonella and Shigella. The Enterotube II correctly identified 98% of all gram negative enteric bacteria. Other advantages and disadvantages of these methods are discussed in our study.
Ulitzur, Nirit; Ulitzur, Shimon
Three new methods applying a novel approach for rapid and simple detection of specific bacteria, based on plaque formation as the end point of the phage lytic cycle, are described. Different procedures were designed to ensure that the resulting plaques were derived only from infected target bacteria ("infectious centers"). (i) A pair of amber mutants that cannot form plaques at concentrations lower than their reversion rate underwent complementation in the tested bacteria; the number of plaques formed was proportional to the concentration of the bacteria that were coinfected by these phage mutants. (ii) UV-irradiated phages were recovered by photoreactivation and/or SOS repair mediated by target bacteria and plated on a recA uvrA bacterial lawn in the dark to avoid recovery of noninfecting phages. (iii) Pairs of temperature-sensitive mutants were allowed to coinfect their target bacteria at the permissive temperature, followed by incubation of the plates at the restrictive temperature to avoid phage infection of the host cells. This method allowed the omission of centrifuging and washing the infected cells. Only phages that recovered by recombination or complementation were able to form plaques. The detection limit was 1 to 10 living Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157 cells after 3 to 5 h. The antibiotic susceptibility of the target bacteria could also be determined in each of these procedures by preincubating the target bacteria with antibiotic prior to phage infection. Bacteria sensitive to the antibiotic lost the ability to form infectious centers.
Aali, Rahim; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar
Background: Human exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) is a public health concern which could occur in a number of ways. Wastewaters seem to play an important role in the dissemination of bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in our environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of three groups of ARB and their resistance genes in hospital and municipal wastewaters (MWs) as possible sources. Methods: A total of 66 samples were collected from raw MWs and hospital wastewaters (HWs) and final effluents of related wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Samples were analyzed for the detection of three groups of ARB including gentamicin (GM), chloramphenicol (CHL) and ceftazidime resistant bacteria and their ARGs (aac (3)-1, cmlA1 and ctx-m-32, respectively). Results: The mean concentration of GM, CHL and ceftazidime resistant bacteria in raw wastewater samples was 1.24 × 107, 3.29 × 107 and 5.54 × 107 colony forming unit/100 ml, respectively. There is a variation in prevalence of different groups of ARB in MWs and HWs. All WWTPs decreased the concentration of ARB. However, high concentration of ARB was found in the final effluent of WWTPs. Similar to ARB, different groups of ARGs were found frequently in both MWs and HWs. All genes also detected with a relative high frequency in effluent samples of MWs WWTPs. Conclusions: Discharge of final effluent from conventional WWTPs is a potential route for dissemination of ARB and ARGs into the natural environment and poses a hazard to environmental and public health. PMID:25105001
Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian
Wastewater treatment plants are considered as hot reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance. However, the fates of antibiotic-resistant bacteria during biological treatment processes and relevant influencing factors have not been fully understood. This study evaluated the effects of the sludge loading rate on the growth and release of six kinds of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in an activated sludge system. The results indicated that higher sludge loading rates amplified the growth of all six types of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The release of most antibiotic-resistant bacteria through both the effluent and biosolids was amplified with increased sludge loading rate. Biosolids were the main pattern for all antibiotic-resistant bacteria release in an activated sludge system, which was determined primarily by their growth in the activated sludge. A higher sludge loading rate reactor tended to retain more antibiotic resistance. An activated sludge system with lower sludge loading rates was considered more conducive to the control of antibiotic resistance.
Fang, Shuxia; Wang, Dali; Zhang, Xiaoxian; Long, Xi; Qin, Mengnan; Lin, Zhifen; Liu, Ying
Antibiotics as a type of environmental contaminants are typically exposed to chemical mixtures over long periods of time, so chronic combined toxicity is the best way to perform an environmental risk assessment. In this paper, the individual and combined toxicity of sulfonamides (SAs), sulfonamide potentiators (SAPs), and doxycycline hyclate (DH) were tested on gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, B. subtilis) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, E. coli) bacteria. The individual toxicity of antibiotics on the two bacteria could be ranked in the same order: SAs < SAPs < DH. But E. coli was more sensitive than B. subtilis to the antibiotics, which was likely due to both the different abilities of antibiotics to pass through the cell membrane and the varied capacities to bind target proteins between the two bacteria. In addition, the binary mixtures of SAs-SAPs, SAs-DH, and SAs-SAs exhibited synergistic, antagonistic, and additive effects on both of the bacteria but in different magnitudes as represented by the toxicity units (TU). And we found the different TU values were result from the different effective concentrations of antibiotic mixtures based on the approach of molecular docking and quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs). Moreover, from the results of risk assessment, it should be noted that the mixture of SAs and other antibiotics may pose a potential environmental risk assessment due to their combined action with the current environmentally realistic concentrations.
Messi, Patrizia; Guerrieri, Elisa; Bondi, Moreno
Antibiotic resistance and antibacterial activity were determined on heterotrophic bacteria isolated from mineral waters. Of the 120 isolates Pseudomonas spp. (55.8%) was the predominant group followed by Acinetobacter spp. (14.17%), Flavobacterium spp. (10.83%), Achromobacter spp. (10%), Burkholderia cepacia (3.3%), Agrobacterium/radiobacter (2.5%), Moraxella spp. (1.7%), Aeromonas hydrophila (1.7%). Over 80% of the isolates were resistant to one or more antibiotics and the highest resistance was found for chloramphenicol, ampicillin, colistin and sulfamethizole (60%, 55%, 50% and 47.5%, respectively). Strains with multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) represented 55% of isolates and the most resistant organism belonged to the genus Pseudomonas. Of 40 randomly selected strains, 27 (67.5%) had antibacterial activity towards one or more indicators. This activity, found in a high percentage in the genus Pseudomonas (92%), emerged mainly against closely related microorganisms. Several producers were active also against Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus. Forty-six percent of the isolates harboured 1 to 5 plasmids with molecular weights ranging from 2.1 to 41.5 MDa.
Saha, Sunayana; Nayak, Sridhara; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Saha, Suman; Mandal, Amit K.; Chakraborty, Subhanil; Bhattacharyya, Rabindranath; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Franco, Octavio L.; Mandal, Santi M.; Basak, Amit
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 2008–2013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. Escherichia coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22%) and Pseudomonas spp. (6%). Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change. PMID:25278932
Zhang, Qiucen; Austin, Robert
Goldilocks sampled the three bear's wares for the ``just right'' combination of taste, fit and comfort. Like Goldilocks's need for the just right parameters, evolution proceeds most rapidly when there is the just right combination of a large number of mutants and rapid fixation of the mutants. We show here using a two-dimensional micro-ecology that it is possible to fix resistance to the powerful antibiotic ciprofloxacin (Cipro) in wild-type E. coli in 10 hours through a combination of extremely high population gradients, which generate rapid fixation, convolved with the just right level of antibiotic which generates a large number of mutants and the motility of the organism. Although evolution occurs in well-stirred chemostats without such Goldilocks conditions, natural environments are rarely well stirred in nature.For complex environments such as the Galapagos Islands, spatial population gradients and movement of mutants along these population gradients can be as important as genomic heterogeneity in setting the speed of evolution. The design of our micro-ecology is unique in that it provides two overlapping gradients, one an emergent and self generated bacterial population gradient due to food restriction and the other a mutagenic antibiotic gradient. Further, it exploits the motility of the bacteria moving across these gradients to drive the rate of resistance to Cipro to extraordinarily high rates. The research described was supported by Award Number U54CA143803 from the National Cancer Institute.
Saha, Sunayana; Nayak, Sridhara; Bhattacharyya, Indrani; Saha, Suman; Mandal, Amit K; Chakraborty, Subhanil; Bhattacharyya, Rabindranath; Chakraborty, Ranadhir; Franco, Octavio L; Mandal, Santi M; Basak, Amit
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common infectious diseases at the community level. In order to assess the adequacy of empirical therapy, the susceptibility of antibiotics and resistance pattern of bacteria responsible for UTI in West Bengal, India, were evaluated throughout the period of 2008-2013. The infection reports belonging to all age groups and both sexes were considered. Escherichia coli was the most abundant uropathogen with a prevalence rate of 67.1%, followed by Klebsiella spp. (22%) and Pseudomonas spp. (6%). Penicillin was least effective against UTI-causing E. coli and maximum susceptibility was recorded for the drugs belonging to fourth generation cephalosporins. Other abundant uropathogens, Klebsiella spp., were maximally resistant to broad-spectrum penicillin, followed by aminoglycosides and third generation cephalosporin. The antibiotic resistance pattern of two principal UTI pathogens, E. coli and Klebsiella spp. in West Bengal, appears in general to be similar to that found in other parts of the Globe. Higher than 50% resistance were observed for broad-spectrum penicillin. Fourth generation cephalosporin and macrolides seems to be the choice of drug in treating UTIs in Eastern India. Furthermore, improved maintenance of infection incident logs is needed in Eastern Indian hospitals in order to facilitate regular surveillance of the occurrence of antibiotic resistance patterns, since such levels continue to change.
Artini, M; Papa, R; Cellini, A; Tilotta, M; Barbato, G; Koverech, A; Selan, L
Betamethasone is an anti-inflammatory steroid drug used in cases of anaphylactic and allergic reactions, of Alzheimer and Addison diseases and in soft tissue injuries. It modulates gene expression for anti-inflammatory activity suppressing the immune system response. This latter effect might decrease the effectiveness of immune system response against microbial infections. Corticosteroids, in fact, mask some symptoms of infection and during their use superimposed infections may occur. Thus, the use of glucocorticoids in patients with sepsis remains extremely controversial. In this study we analyzed the in vitro effect of a commercial formulation of betamethasone (Bentelan) on several Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria of clinical relevance. It was found to be an inhibitor of the growth of most of the strains examined. Also the effect of betamethasone in combination with some classes of antibiotics was evaluated. Antibiotic-steroid combination therapy is, in such cases, superior to antibiotic-alone treatment to impair bacterial growths. Such effect was essentially not at all observable on Staphylococcus aureus or Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS).
On September 18, 2014, President Barack Obama issued an Executive Order titled Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. The order demands a ‘strategic, coordinated, and sustained effort’ to detect, prevent, and control antibiotic resistance. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), antibiotic-resistant infections are a rising health concern that result in at least two million illnesses and 23,000 deaths each year in the United States. The Executive Order and accompanying documents have been criticized for taking a weak stance against the use of antibiotics in agriculture; however, they include goals to promote antibiotic stewardship on farms, better surveillance of antibiotic use, and the development of alternatives to antibiotics. The criticisms are also unwarranted based on the current state of scientific evidence; nevertheless, there remain compelling reasons to limit the use of antibiotics in agriculture, and if fully implemented, the executive action is set to achieve this goal. This paper will explore why the criticisms are unwarranted, present the conflicting evidence on whether antibiotic use in farm animals poses a significant health threat to humans, offer other reasons to limit the use of antibiotics in livestock, and suggest ways that the government can maximize the efficacy of the proposed actions. PMID:27774190
On September 18, 2014, President Barack Obama issued an Executive Order titled Combating Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria. The order demands a 'strategic, coordinated, and sustained effort' to detect, prevent, and control antibiotic resistance. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), antibiotic-resistant infections are a rising health concern that result in at least two million illnesses and 23,000 deaths each year in the United States. The Executive Order and accompanying documents have been criticized for taking a weak stance against the use of antibiotics in agriculture; however, they include goals to promote antibiotic stewardship on farms, better surveillance of antibiotic use, and the development of alternatives to antibiotics. The criticisms are also unwarranted based on the current state of scientific evidence; nevertheless, there remain compelling reasons to limit the use of antibiotics in agriculture, and if fully implemented, the executive action is set to achieve this goal. This paper will explore why the criticisms are unwarranted, present the conflicting evidence on whether antibiotic use in farm animals poses a significant health threat to humans, offer other reasons to limit the use of antibiotics in livestock, and suggest ways that the government can maximize the efficacy of the proposed actions.
Olsufyeva, Eugenia N; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N
The patent claims the preparation of vancomycin analogs equally active against bacterial strains that are primarily sensitive or resistant to this antibiotic. The pseudopeptide core of new compounds carries the amidine group that replaces the carboxamide linking group in the D ring-bearing amino acid residue of the glycopeptide. An elegant method of synthesis of amidine containing glycopeptides via thioamides was developed. The key glycopeptide thioamide analogs were prepared by total multistep synthesis. These analogs can be readily converted to the antibiotic's amidine as well as to alkylamidines, amidrazones, hydroxyamidines and similar analogs. The new analogs are capable of circumventing bacterial resistance derived from the D-Ala-D-Ala to D-Ala-D-Lac alteration - the mechanism operational in the resistant strains VanA and VanB. The interaction of the carboxamide, thioamide and amidine fragments of vancomycin analogs with the targets in resistant and sensitive bacteria was investigated. The novel compounds demonstrated potent activity against VanA-resistant bacteria Enterococcus faecalis (minimal inhibitory concentration = 0.3 - 0.6 μg/ml). However data on susceptible strains and resistant clinical isolates are lacking to further document the interest of the compounds. The results provide evidence for structural modifications that can improve the therapeutic efficacy of vancomycin, in particular, for treatment of vancomycin-resistant infections.
Becerra-Castro, Cristina; Machado, Rita A; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Manaia, Célia M
Some metals are nowadays considered environmental pollutants. Although some, like Cu and Zn, are essential for microorganisms, at high concentrations they can be toxic or exert selective pressures on bacteria. This study aimed to assess the potential of Cu or Zn as selectors of specific bacterial populations thriving in wastewater. Populations of Escherichia coli recovered on metal-free and metal-supplemented culture medium were compared based on antibiotic resistance phenotype and other traits. In addition, the bacterial groups enriched after successive transfers in metal-supplemented culture medium were identified. At a concentration of 1mM, Zn produced a stronger inhibitory effect than Cu on the culturability of Enterobacteriaceae. It was suggested that Zn selected populations with increased resistance prevalence to sulfamethoxazole or ciprofloxacin. In non-selective culture media, Zn or Cu selected for mono-species populations of ubiquitous Betaproteobacteria and Flavobacteriia, such as Ralstonia pickettii or Elizabethkingia anophelis, yielding multidrug resistance profiles including resistance against carbapenems and third generation cephalosporins, confirming the potential of Cu or Zn as selectors of antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Ory, Jérôme; Bricheux, Geneviève; Togola, Anne; Bonnet, Jean Louis; Donnadieu-Bernard, Florence; Nakusi, Laurence; Forestier, Christiane; Traore, Ousmane
Discharge of antimicrobial residues and resistant bacteria in hospital effluents is supposed to have strong impacts on the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in the environment. This study aimed to characterize the effluents of the Gabriel Montpied teaching hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France, by simultaneously measuring the concentration of ciprofloxacin and of biological indicators resistant to this molecule in biofilms formed in the hospital effluent and by comparing these data to ciprofloxacin consumption and resistant bacterial isolates of the hospital. Determination of the measured environmental concentration of ciprofloxacin by spot sampling and polar organic chemical integrative (POCIS) sampling over 2 weeks, and comparison with predicted environmental concentrations produced a hazard quotient >1, indicating a potential ecotoxicological risk. A negative impact was also observed with whole hospital effluent samples using the Tetrahymena pyriformis biological model. During the same period, biofilms were formed within the hospital effluent, and analysis of ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates indicated that Gamma-Proteobacteria were numerous, predominantly Aeromonadaceae (69.56%) and Enterobacteriaceae (22.61%). Among the 115 isolates collected, plasmid-mediated fluoroquinolone-resistant genes were detected, with mostly aac(6')-lb-cr and qnrS. In addition, 60% of the isolates were resistant to up to six antibiotics, including molecules mostly used in the hospital (aminosides and third-generation cephalosporins). In parallel, 1247 bacteria isolated from hospitalized patients and resistant to at least one of the fluoroquinolones were collected. Only 5 of the 14 species identified in the effluent biofilm were also found in the clinical isolates, but PFGE typing of the Gram-negative isolates found in both compartments showed there was no clonality among the strains. Altogether, these data confirm the role of hospital loads as sources of pollution for wastewater
Hölzel, Christina S; Schwaiger, Karin; Harms, Katrin; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Kunz, Anne; Meyer, Karsten; Müller, Christa; Bauer, Johann
Within the last decades, the environmental spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a topic of concern. In this study, liquid pig manure (n=305) and sewage sludge (n=111) - used as agricultural fertilizers between 2002 and 2005 - were investigated for the presence of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Bacteria were tested for their resistance against 40 chemotherapeutics including several "reserve drugs". E. coli (n=613) from pig manure were at a significantly higher degree resistant to streptomycin, doxycycline, spectinomycin, cotrimoxazole, and chloramphenicol than E. coli (n=116) from sewage sludge. Enterococci (Ent. faecalis, n=387, and Ent. faecium, n=183) from pig manure were significantly more often resistant to high levels of doxycycline, rifampicin, erythromycin, and streptomycin than Ent. faecalis (n=44) and Ent. faecium (n=125) from sewage sludge. Significant differences in enterococcal resistance were also seen for tylosin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin high level, fosfomycin, clindamicin, enrofloxacin, moxifloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and quinupristin/dalfopristin. By contrast, aminopenicillins were more effective in enterococci from pig manure, and mean MIC-values of piperacillin+tazobactam and third generation cefalosporines were significantly lower in E. coli from pig manure than in E. coli from sewage sludge. 13.4% (E. coli) to 25.3% (Ent. faecium) of pig manure isolates were high-level multiresistant to substances from more than three different classes of antimicrobial agents. In sewage sludge, high-level-multiresistance reached from 0% (Ent. faecalis) to 16% (Ent. faecium). High rates of (multi-) resistant bacteria in pig manure emphasize the need for a prudent - cautious - use of antibiotics in farm animals.
Olonitola, Olayeni Stephen; Fahrenfeld, Nicole; Pruden, Amy
The effect of global antibiotic use practices in livestock on the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens is poorly understood. There is a paucity of data among African nations, which suffer from high rates of antibiotic resistant infections among the human population. Escherichia (29.5%), Staphylococcus (15.8%), and Proteus (15.79%) were the dominant bacterial genera isolated from chicken litter from four different farms in Zaria, Nigeria, all of which contain human pathogenic members. Escherichia isolates were uniformly susceptible to augmentin and cefuroxime, but resistant to sulfamethoxazole (54.5%), ampicillin (22.7%), ciprofloxacin (18.2%), cephalothin (13.6%) and gentamicin (13.6%). Staphylococcus isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, and sulfamethoxazole, but resistant to tetracycline (86.7%), erythromycin (80%), clindamycin (60%), and penicillin (33.3%). Many of the isolates (65.4%) were resistant to multiple antibiotics, with a multiple antibiotic resistance index (MARI) ≥ 0.2. sul1, sul2, and vanA were the most commonly detected antibiotic resistance genes among the isolates. Chicken litter associated with antibiotic use and farming practices in Nigeria could be a public health concern given that the antibiotic resistant patterns among genera containing pathogens indicate the potential for antibiotic treatment failure. However, the MARI values were generally lower than reported for Escherichia coli from intensive poultry operations in industrial nations.
Low, Adrian; Ng, Charmaine; He, Jianzhong
Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim). From the HPC study, 239 antibiotic resistant bacteria were characterized for resistance to more antibiotics. Furthermore, ARGs and antimicrobial biosynthesis genes were identified using GeoChip version 5.0 to elucidate the resistomes of surface waters in watersheds R1 and R3. The HPC study showed that water samples from R1 had significantly higher counts of bacteria resistant to erythromycin, kanamycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim than those from R3 (Analysis of Similarity (ANOSIM), R = 0.557, p < 0.01). Of the seven antibiotics tested, lincomycin and trimethoprim resistant bacteria are greater in abundances. The 239 antibiotic resistant isolates represent a subset of resistant bacterial populations, including bacteria not previously known for resistance. Majority of the isolates had resistance to ampicillin, vancomycin, lincomycin and trimethoprim. GeoChip revealed similar ARGs in both watersheds, but with significantly higher intensities for tetX and β-lactamase B genes in R1 than R3. The genes with the highest average normalized intensities in R1 and R3 were tetracycline (tet) and fosfomycin (fosA) resistance genes, respectively. The higher abundance of tetX genes in R1 is congruent with the higher abundance of tetracycline resistant HPC observed in R1 samples. Strong correlations
Mackuľak, Tomáš; Nagyová, Kristína; Faberová, Milota; Grabic, Roman; Koba, Olga; Gál, Miroslav; Birošová, Lucia
Utilization of relatively low-cost modification of Fenton reaction for the elimination of selected antibiotics and resistant coliforms in different part of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was studied. The concentration of antibiotics and occurrence of resistant gems in different stages of WWTP in the capital city of Slovakia - Bratislava was analyzed by LC-MS/MS technique. Consequently, Fenton-like reaction was applied for the elimination of chemical and biological contaminants. Comparative study with classical Fenton reaction was also done. Very high concentrations of clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin and azithromycin in influent water were found. Coliform bacteria were predominantly resistant to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. After the mechanical stage, the concentration of antibiotics in water was significantly decreased because of the sorption during this step. Biological step degraded 12 types of antibiotics. Analyses of effluent water showed very bad elimination of azithromycin (919ng/L) and clarithromycin (684ng/L). Contrary, ciprofloxacin was removed with very high efficiency (95%). The number of resistant bacteria was also significantly decreased in effluent water. In the case of Escherichia coli only ampicillin and gentamicin resistance bacteria were detected. Our results show that antibiotics as well as resistant bacteria were eliminated by the modification of classical Fenton reaction with high efficiency. The modification of the Fenton reaction can decrease the process wages, environmental impact. Moreover, the degradation process was easily controlled, monitored and tuned.
Antimicrobials are used in production agriculture to treat disease and promote animal growth, but the presence of antibiotics in the environment raises concern about widespread antibiotic resistance. This study documents the occurrence and transport of tylosin, tetracycline, enterococci resistant to...
Lu, Shengtao; Liu, Fang; Xing, Bengang; Yeow, Edwin K L
A monolayer of swarming B. subtilis on semisolid agar is shown to display enhanced resistance against antibacterial drugs due to their collective behavior and motility. The dynamics of swarming motion, visualized in real time using time-lapse microscopy, prevents the bacteria from prolonged exposure to lethal drug concentrations. The elevated drug resistance is significantly reduced when the collective motion of bacteria is judiciously disrupted using nontoxic polystyrene colloidal particles immobilized on the agar surface. The colloidal particles block and hinder the motion of the cells, and force large swarming rafts to break up into smaller packs in order to maneuver across narrow spaces between densely packed particles. In this manner, cohesive rafts rapidly lose their collectivity, speed, and group dynamics, and the cells become vulnerable to the drugs. The antibiotic resistance capability of swarming B. subtilis is experimentally observed to be negatively correlated with the number density of colloidal particles on the engineered surface. This relationship is further tested using an improved self-propelled particle model that takes into account interparticle alignment and hard-core repulsion. This work has pertinent implications on the design of optimal methods to treat drug resistant bacteria commonly found in swarming colonies.
Lu, Shengtao; Liu, Fang; Xing, Bengang; Yeow, Edwin K. L.
A monolayer of swarming B. subtilis on semisolid agar is shown to display enhanced resistance against antibacterial drugs due to their collective behavior and motility. The dynamics of swarming motion, visualized in real time using time-lapse microscopy, prevents the bacteria from prolonged exposure to lethal drug concentrations. The elevated drug resistance is significantly reduced when the collective motion of bacteria is judiciously disrupted using nontoxic polystyrene colloidal particles immobilized on the agar surface. The colloidal particles block and hinder the motion of the cells, and force large swarming rafts to break up into smaller packs in order to maneuver across narrow spaces between densely packed particles. In this manner, cohesive rafts rapidly lose their collectivity, speed, and group dynamics, and the cells become vulnerable to the drugs. The antibiotic resistance capability of swarming B. subtilis is experimentally observed to be negatively correlated with the number density of colloidal particles on the engineered surface. This relationship is further tested using an improved self-propelled particle model that takes into account interparticle alignment and hard-core repulsion. This work has pertinent implications on the design of optimal methods to treat drug resistant bacteria commonly found in swarming colonies.
Butaye, Patrick; Devriese, Luc A.; Haesebrouck, Freddy
There are not many data available on antibiotics used solely in animals and almost exclusively for growth promotion. These products include bambermycin, avilamycin, efrotomycin, and the ionophore antibiotics (monensin, salinomycin, narasin, and lasalocid). Information is also scarce for bacitracin used only marginally in human and veterinary medicine and for streptogramin antibiotics. The mechanisms of action of and resistance mechanisms against these antibiotics are described. Special emphasis is given to the prevalence of resistance among gram-positive bacteria isolated from animals and humans. Since no susceptibility breakpoints are available for most of the antibiotics discussed, an alternative approach to the interpretation of MICs is presented. Also, some pharmacokinetic data and information on the influence of these products on the intestinal flora are presented. PMID:12692092
Butaye, Patrick; Devriese, Luc A; Haesebrouck, Freddy
There are not many data available on antibiotics used solely in animals and almost exclusively for growth promotion. These products include bambermycin, avilamycin, efrotomycin, and the ionophore antibiotics (monensin, salinomycin, narasin, and lasalocid). Information is also scarce for bacitracin used only marginally in human and veterinary medicine and for streptogramin antibiotics. The mechanisms of action of and resistance mechanisms against these antibiotics are described. Special emphasis is given to the prevalence of resistance among gram-positive bacteria isolated from animals and humans. Since no susceptibility breakpoints are available for most of the antibiotics discussed, an alternative approach to the interpretation of MICs is presented. Also, some pharmacokinetic data and information on the influence of these products on the intestinal flora are presented.
Puzari, Minakshi; Chetia, Pankaj
Therapeutic failures against diseases due to resistant Gram-negative bacteria have become a major threat nowadays as confirmed by surveillance reports across the world. One of the methods of development of multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa is by means of RND efflux pumps. Inhibition of these pumps might help to combat the antibiotic resistance problem, for which the structure and regulation of the pumps have to be known. Moreover, judicious antibiotic use is needed to control the situation. This paper focuses on the issue of antibiotic resistance as well as the structure, regulation and inhibition of the efflux pumps present in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Birošová, Lucia; Mackulak, Tomáš; Bodík, Igor; Ryba, Jozef; Škubák, Jaroslav; Grabic, Roman
This work presents environmental and quality-control data from the analyses of 33 antibiotics in influent and effluent water from two waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) in the capital and the biggest city of Slovakia. Seeing that consumption of antibiotics depends on epidemiological season, samples were collected during February and August. Among assessed antibiotics ciprofloxacin and clarithromycin were detected in highest concentrations in influent water. Seasonal changes were observed only in plant A when antibiotic concentrations decreased. On the other hand an increase in some cases was observed in plant B. Insufficient degradation of some macrolides, sulfonamides and trimethoprim was detected according to their higher concentrations in effluent water. Contact of antibiotics in subinhibitory concentrations and sludge bacteria in WWTPs represent the base for the development of significant levels of microbial resistance. Simultaneously, antibiotic resistance of fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci from sewage sludge was evaluated. Majority of coliform bacteria were found to be resistant to ampicillin and gentamicin. A significant seasonal difference was determined only in case of high-level resistance. In summer samples, an increase in the strains resistant to concentrations higher than the resistance breakpoints established by EUCAST and NCCLS was observed. No antibiotic resistance in streptococci was observed. However, as a part of sewage sludge is mixed with compost and utilized in agriculture, better processing of sludge should be considered.
Hizal, Ferdi; Zhuk, Iryna; Sukhishvili, Svetlana; Busscher, Henk J; van der Mei, Henny C; Choi, Chang-Hwan
Titanium is often applied in implant surgery, but frequently implicated in infections associated with bacterial adhesion and growth on the implant surface. Here, we show that hierarchical nanostructuring of titanium and the subsequent coating of resulting topographical features with a self-defensive, antibacterial layer-by-layer (LbL) film enables a synergistic action of hierarchical nanotopography and localized, bacteria-triggered antibiotic release to dramatically enhance the antibacterial efficiency of surfaces. Although sole nanostructuring of titanium substrates did not significantly affect adhesion and growth of Staphylococcus aureus, the coating of 3D-nanopillared substrates with an ultrathin tannic acid/gentamicin (TA/G) LbL film resulted in a 10-fold reduction of the number of surface-attached bacteria. This effect is attributed to the enlarged surface area of the nanostructured coating available for localized bacteria-triggered release of antibiotics, as well as to the lower bacterial adhesion forces resulting in subsided activation of bacterial antibiotic-defense mechanisms when bacteria land on nanopillar tips. The result shows that a combination of 3D nanostructuring with a bacteria-triggered antibiotic-releasing coating presents a unique way to dramatically enhance antibacterial efficacy of biomaterial implants.
Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson Júnior; Ciesielski, Francisco Isaak Nicolas; de Sousa, Fátima Regina Nunes; Nwaokorie, Francisca; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie; Avila-Campos, Mario Júlio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeasts, pseudomonads and enteric bacteria in the oral cavity of patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of head and neck cancer. Fifty patients receiving RT were examined before, during and 30 days after RT. Saliva, mucosa, and biofilm samples were collected and microorganisms were detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The most prevalent yeasts in patients submitted to RT were Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas were the most frequently cultivated bacteria. Before RT, targeted bacteria were cultivated from 22.2% of edentulous patients and 16.6% of dentate patients; 30 days after RT, these microorganisms were recovered from 77.8% edentulous and 46.8% dentate patients. By PCR, these microorganisms were detected from all edentulous patients, 78.1% of dentate patients. The presence of Gram-negative enteric roads and fungi was particularly frequent in patients presenting mucositis level III or IV. Modifications in the oral environment due to RT treatment seem to facilitate the colonization of oral cavity by members of family Enterobacteriaceae, genera Enterococcus and Candida.
Gaetti-Jardim, Elerson; Ciesielski, Francisco Isaak Nicolas; de Sousa, Fátima Regina Nunes; Nwaokorie, Francisca; Schweitzer, Christiane Marie; Avila-Campos, Mario Júlio
The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeasts, pseudomonads and enteric bacteria in the oral cavity of patients undergoing radiotherapy (RT) for treatment of head and neck cancer. Fifty patients receiving RT were examined before, during and 30 days after RT. Saliva, mucosa, and biofilm samples were collected and microorganisms were detected by culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The most prevalent yeasts in patients submitted to RT were Candida albicans, C. tropicalis, C. krusei, C. glabrata and C. parapsilosis. Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Klebsiella, Proteus, and Pseudomonas were the most frequently cultivated bacteria. Before RT, targeted bacteria were cultivated from 22.2% of edentulous patients and 16.6% of dentate patients; 30 days after RT, these microorganisms were recovered from 77.8% edentulous and 46.8% dentate patients. By PCR, these microorganisms were detected from all edentulous patients, 78.1% of dentate patients. The presence of Gram-negative enteric roads and fungi was particularly frequent in patients presenting mucositis level III or IV. Modifications in the oral environment due to RT treatment seem to facilitate the colonization of oral cavity by members of family Enterobacteriaceae, genera Enterococcus and Candida. PMID:24031721
Stickler, D J; Thomas, B
A collection of 802 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria causing urinary tract infections was made from general practice, antenatal clinics, and local hospitals. The organisms were tested for their sensitivity to chlorhexidine, cetrimide, glutaraldehyde, phenyl mercuric nitrate, a phenolic formulation, and a proprietary antiseptic containing a mixture of picloxydine, octyl phenoxy polyethoxyethanol, and benzalkonium chloride. Escherichia coli, the major species isolated, proved to be uniformly sensitive to these agents. Approximately 10% of the total number of isolates, however, exhibited a degree of resistance to the cationic agents. These resistant organisms were members of the genera Proteus, Providencia, and Pseudomonas; they were also generally resistant to five, six, or seven antibiotics. It is proposed therefore that an antiseptic policy which involves the intensive use of cationic antiseptics might lead to the selection of a flora of notoriously drug-resistant species. PMID:6769972
Leejae, Sukanlaya; Taylor, Peter William; Voravuthikunchai, Supayang Piyawan
The antibacterial mechanisms of rhodomyrtone, a member of the acylphloroglucinols isolated from Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaves, against important hospital-acquired antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria were assessed. The results indicated that rhodomyrtone exhibited pronounced antibacterial activity against key antibiotic-resistant pathogens including epidemic meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (EMRSA), vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococcal strains. The strains EMRSA-16, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212 and VRE-3 demonstrated a significant decrease in survival ability after treatment with rhodomyrtone at 1× (0.5 µg ml(-1)), 2×, 4× and 8× MIC for 24 h. Moreover, the compound was observed in the cytoplasmic fraction of rhodomyrtone-treated S. aureus, and only a very fine band of the compound was seen following separation of the cell-wall and cell-membrane fractions of the treated cells. In addition, exposure of S. aureus to rhodomyrtone at 4×, 2× and 1× MIC for 24 h produced no significant effect on the bacterial cell membrane and cell lysis, suggesting that neither of these is the main target of rhodomyrtone action in these organisms. Stepwise isolation of the bacterial cells with increasing resistance to rhodomyrtone was not induced in either S. aureus or EMRSA-16 after 45 passages on Luria-Bertani agar supplemented with rhodomyrtone. In addition, in vitro toxicity of rhodomyrtone at 128× MIC on human erythrocytes was not observed. These results provide evidence to support therapeutic challenges of rhodomyrtone against Gram-positive pathogens.
Toomey, Niamh; Monaghan, Áine; Fanning, Séamus; Bolton, Declan
Three wild-type dairy isolates of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and one Lactococcus lactis control strain were analyzed for their ability to transfer antibiotic resistance determinants (plasmid or transposon located) to two LAB recipients using both in vitro methods and in vivo models. In vitro transfer experiments were carried out with the donors and recipients using the filter mating method. In vivo mating examined transfer in two natural environments, a rumen model and an alfalfa sprout model. All transconjugants were confirmed by Etest, PCR, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and Southern blotting. The in vitro filter mating method demonstrated high transfer frequencies between all LAB pairs, ranging from 1.8 × 10−5 to 2.2 × 10−2 transconjugants per recipient. Transconjugants were detected in the rumen model for all mating pairs tested; however, the frequencies of transfer were low and inconsistent over 48 h (ranging from 1.0 × 10−9 to 8.0 × 10−6 transconjugants per recipient). The plant model provided an environment that appeared to promote comparatively higher transfer frequencies between all LAB pairs tested over the 9-day period (transfer frequencies ranged from 4.7 × 10−4 to 3.9 × 10−1 transconjugants per recipient). In our test models, dairy cultures of LAB can act as a source of mobile genetic elements encoding antibiotic resistance that can spread to other LAB. This observation could have food safety and public health implications. PMID:19270126
Jansen, Patrick A. M.; Hermkens, Pedro H. H.; Zeeuwen, Patrick L. J. M.; Botman, Peter N. M.; Blaauw, Richard H.; Burghout, Peter; van Galen, Peter M.; Mouton, Johan W.; Rutjes, Floris P. J. T.
The emergence of resistance against current antibiotics calls for the development of new compounds to treat infectious diseases. Synthetic pantothenamides are pantothenate analogs that possess broad-spectrum antibacterial activity in vitro in minimal media. Pantothenamides were shown to be substrates of the bacterial coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthetic pathway, causing cellular CoA depletion and interference with fatty acid synthesis. In spite of their potential use and selectivity for bacterial metabolic routes, these compounds have never made it to the clinic. In the present study, we show that pantothenamides are not active as antibiotics in the presence of serum, and we found that they were hydrolyzed by ubiquitous pantetheinases of the vanin family. To address this further, we synthesized a series of pantetheinase inhibitors based on a pantothenate scaffold that inhibited serum pantetheinase activity in the nanomolar range. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that addition of these pantetheinase inhibitors prevented hydrolysis of pantothenamides by serum. We found that combinations of these novel pantetheinase inhibitors and prototypic pantothenamides like N5-Pan and N7-Pan exerted antimicrobial activity in vitro, particularly against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Streptococcus pyogenes) even in the presence of serum. These results indicate that pantothenamides, when protected against degradation by host pantetheinases, are potentially useful antimicrobial agents. PMID:23877685
Oh, Junsik; Salcedo, Dennis Espineli; Medriano, Carl Angelo; Kim, Sungpyo
This study compared three different disinfection processes (chlorination, E-beam, and ozone) and the efficacy of three oxidants (H2O2, S2O(-)8, and peroxymonosulfate (MPS)) in removing antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in a synthetic wastewater. More than 30 mg/L of chlorine was needed to remove over 90% of ARB and ARG. For the E-beam method, only 1 dose (kGy) was needed to remove ARB and ARG, and ozone could reduce ARB and ARG by more than 90% even at 3 mg/L ozone concentration. In the ozone process, CT values (concentration × time) were compared for ozone alone and combined with different catalysts based on the 2-log removal of ARB and ARG. Ozone treatment yielded a value of 31 and 33 (mg·min)/L for ARB and ARGs respectively. On the other hand, ozone with persulfate yielded 15.9 and 18.5 (mg·min)/L while ozone with monopersulfate yielded a value of 12 and 14.5 (mg·min)/L. This implies that the addition of these catalysts significantly reduces the contact time to achieve a 2-log removal, thus enhancing the process in terms of its kinetics.
: Conventional commercial broiler production involves the rearing of more than 20,000 broilers in a single confined space, atop bedding material such as pine shavings or rice hulls, for approximately 6.5 weeks. This environment is known for harboring pathogens and antibiotic resistant bacteria, but ...
Al-Bahry, Saif N; Mahmoud, Ibrahim Y; Al-Zadjali, Maheera; Elshafie, Abdulkader; Al-Harthy, Asila; Al-Alawi, Wafaa
Antibiotic resistant bacteria were studied as bio-indicators of marine polluted effluents during egg-laying in green turtles. A non-invasive procedure for sampling oviductal fluid was used to test for exposure of turtles to pollution in Ras Al-Hadd, Oman, which is one of the most important nesting beaches in the world. Each sample was obtained by inserting a 15 cm sterile swab gently into the cloacal vent as the sphincter muscle is relaxed and the cloacal lining is unfolded to the outside. Forty turtles were sampled. A hundred and thirty-two species of bacteria from 7 genera were isolated. The dominant isolate was Citrobacter. Among the isolates 60.6% were multiple resistant to 15 tested antibiotics. The dominant resistance to antibiotics was ampicillin followed by streptomycin and sulphamethoxazole. Sampling oviductal fluid for resistant bacteria to antibiotics is valuable way to assess exposure to polluted effluents during feeding and migratory in turtles. Polluted effluents using bacteria as bio-indicator may influence reproductive potential in this endangered species.
We performed a structure–activity relationship study of 2-((3-(3,6-dichloro-9H-carbazol-9-yl)-2-hydroxypropyl)amino)-2-(hydroxymethyl)propane-1,3-diol (DCAP), which is an antibacterial agent that disrupts the membrane potential and permeability of bacteria. The stereochemistry of DCAP had no effect on the biological activity of DCAP. The aromaticity and electronegativity of the chlorine-substituted carbazole was required for activity, suggesting that its planar and dipolar characteristics orient DCAP in membranes. Increasing the hydrophobicity of the tail region of DCAP enhanced its antibiotic activity. Two DCAP analogues displayed promising antibacterial activity against the BSL-3 pathogens Bacillus anthracis and Francisella tularensis. Codosing DCAP analogues with ampicillin or kanamycin increased their potency. These studies demonstrate that DCAP and its analogues may be a promising scaffold for developing chemotherapeutic agents that bind to bacterial membranes and kill strains of slow-growing or dormant bacteria that cause persistent infections. PMID:25941556
Nandi, Sobhan; Maurer, John J.; Hofacre, Charles; Summers, Anne O.
Reversing the spread of antibiotic multiresistant bacteria is hampered by ignorance of the natural history of resistance genes, the mobile elements carrying them, and the bacterial hosts harboring them. Using traditional cultivation and cultivation-independent molecular techniques, we quantified antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements called integrons in poultry house litter from commercial poultry farms. Unexpectedly, the major reservoir for Class 1 integrons in poultry litter is not their previously identified hosts, Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae such as Escherichia coli. Rather, integrons and associated resistance genes abound in several genera of Gram-positive bacteria that constitute >85% of the litter community compared with Enterobacteriaceae that comprise <2% of this ecosystem. This finding warrants reexamination of our assumptions about the persistence and spread of antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:15107498
Wood, Jackie D
A unified scenario emerges when it is considered that a major impact of stress on the intestinal tract is reflected by symptoms reminiscent of the diarrhea-predominant form of irritable bowel syndrome. Cramping abdominal pain, fecal urgency, and explosive watery diarrhea are hallmarks not only of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome, but also of infectious enteritis, radiation-induced enteritis, and food allergy. The scenario starts with stress-induced compromise of the intestinal mucosal barrier and continues with microorganisms or other sensitizing agents crossing the barrier and being intercepted by enteric mast cells. Mast cells signal the presence of the agent to the enteric nervous system (ie, the brain-in-the-gut), which uses one of the specialized programs from its library of programs to remove the "threat." This is accomplished by stimulating mucosal secretion, which flushes the threatening agent into the lumen and maintains it in suspension. The secretory response then becomes linked to powerful propulsive motility, which propels the secretions together with the offending agent rapidly in the anal direction. Cramping abdominal pain accompanies the strong propulsive contractions. Urgency is experienced when arrival of the large bolus of liquid distends the recto-sigmoid region and reflexly opens the internal anal sphincter, with continence protection now provided only by central reflexes that contract the puborectalis and external anal sphincter muscles. Sensory information arriving in the brain from receptors in the rapidly distending recto-sigmoid accounts for the conscious sensation of urgency and might exacerbate the individual's emotional stress. The symptom of explosive watery diarrhea becomes self-explanatory in this scenario.
de Barros, João M S; Scherer, Timothy; Charalampopoulos, Dimitrios; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Edwards, Alexander D
Live bacterial cells (LBCs) are administered orally as attenuated vaccines to deliver biopharmaceutical agents and as probiotics to improve gastrointestinal (GI) health. However, LBCs present unique formulation challenges and must survive GI antimicrobial defenses including gastric acid after administration. We present a simple new formulation concept, termed polymer film laminate (PFL). LBCs are ambient dried onto cast acid-resistant enteric polymer films that are then laminated together to produce a solid oral dosage form. LBC of a model live bacterial vaccine and a probiotic were dried directly onto a cast film of enteric polymer. The effectiveness at protecting dried cells in a simulated gastric fluid (SGF, pH 2.0) depended on the composition of enteric polymer film used, with a blend of ethylcellulose plus Eudragit L100 55 providing greater protection from acid than Eudragit alone. However, although PFL made from blended polymer films completely released low-molecular-weight dye into intestinal conditions (pH 7.0), they failed to release LBCs. In contrast, PFL made from Eudragit alone successfully protected dried probiotic or vaccine LBC from SGF for 2 h, and subsequently released all viable cells within 60 min of transfer into simulated intestinal fluid. Release kinetics could be controlled by modifying the lamination method.
Alexander, T W; Yanke, L J; Topp, E; Olson, M E; Read, R R; Morck, D W; McAllister, T A
Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in 300 feedlot steers receiving subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics was investigated through the collection of 3,300 fecal samples over a 314-day period. Antibiotics were selected based on the commonality of use in the industry and included chlortetracycline plus sulfamethazine (TET-SUL), chlortetracycline (TET), virginiamycin, monensin, tylosin, or no antibiotic supplementation (control). Steers were initially fed a barley silage-based diet, followed by transition to a barley grain-based diet. Despite not being administered antibiotics prior to arrival at the feedlot, the prevalences of steers shedding TET- and ampicillin (AMP)-resistant E. coli were >40 and <30%, respectively. Inclusion of TET-SUL in the diet increased the prevalence of steers shedding TET- and AMP-resistant E. coli and the percentage of TET- and AMP-resistant E. coli in the total generic E. coli population. Irrespective of treatment, the prevalence of steers shedding TET-resistant E. coli was higher in animals fed grain-based compared to silage-based diets. All steers shed TET-resistant E. coli at least once during the experiment. A total of 7,184 isolates were analyzed for MIC of antibiotics. Across antibiotic treatments, 1,009 (13.9%), 7 (0.1%), and 3,413 (47.1%) E. coli isolates were resistant to AMP, gentamicin, or TET, respectively. In addition, 131 (1.8%) and 143 (2.0%) isolates exhibited potential resistance to extended-spectrum beta-lactamases, as indicated by either ceftazidime or cefpodoxime resistance. No isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin. The findings of the present study indicated that subtherapeutic administration of tetracycline in combination with sulfamethazine increased the prevalence of tetracycline- and AMP-resistant E. coli in cattle. However, resistance to antibiotics may be related to additional environmental factors such as diet.
Ternent, Lucy; Dyson, Rosemary J; Krachler, Anne-Marie; Jabbari, Sara
Bacterial resistance to antibiotic treatment is a huge concern: introduction of any new antibiotic is shortly followed by the emergence of resistant bacterial isolates in the clinic. This issue is compounded by a severe lack of new antibiotics reaching the market. The significant rise in clinical resistance to antibiotics is especially problematic in nosocomial infections, where already vulnerable patients may fail to respond to treatment, causing even greater health concern. A recent focus has been on the development of anti-virulence drugs as a second line of defence in the treatment of antibiotic-resistant infections. This treatment, which weakens bacteria by reducing their virulence rather than killing them, should allow infections to be cleared through the body׳s natural defence mechanisms. In this way there should be little to no selective pressure exerted on the organism and, as such, a predominantly resistant population should be less likely to emerge. However, before the likelihood of resistance to these novel drugs emerging can be predicted, we must first establish whether such drugs can actually be effective. Many believe that anti-virulence drugs would not be powerful enough to clear existing infections, restricting their potential application to prophylaxis. We have developed a mathematical model that provides a theoretical framework to reveal the circumstances under which anti-virulence drugs may or may not be successful. We demonstrate that by harnessing and combining the advantages of antibiotics with those provided by anti-virulence drugs, given infection-specific parameters, it is possible to identify treatment strategies that would efficiently clear bacterial infections, while preventing the emergence of antibiotic-resistant subpopulations. Our findings strongly support the continuation of research into anti-virulence drugs and demonstrate that their applicability may reach beyond infection prevention.
Thevenon, Florian; Adatte, Thierry; Wildi, Walter; Poté, John
This study investigates faecal indicator bacteria (FIB), multiple antibiotic resistant (MAR), and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), of sediment profiles from different parts of Lake Geneva (Switzerland) over the last decades. MARs consist to expose culturable Escherichia coli (EC) and Enterococcus (ENT) to mixed five antibiotics including Ampicillin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin, Chloramphenicol and Erythromycin. Culture-independent is performed to assess the distribution of ARGs responsible for, β-lactams (blaTEM; Amoxicillin/Ampicillin), Streptomycin/Spectinomycin (aadA), Tetracycline (tet) Chloramphenicol (cmlA) and Vancomycin (van). Bacterial cultures reveal that in the sediments deposited following eutrophication of Lake Geneva in the 1970s, the percentage of MARs to five antibiotics varied from 0.12% to 4.6% and 0.016% to 11.6% of total culturable EC and ENT, respectively. In these organic-rich bacteria-contaminated sediments, the blaTEM resistant of FIB varied from 22% to 48% and 16% to 37% for EC and ENT respectively, whereas the positive PCR assays responsible for tested ARGs were observed for EC, ENT, and total DNA from all samples. The aadA resistance gene was amplified for all the sediment samples, including those not influenced by WWTP effluent water. Our results demonstrate that bacteria MARs and ARGs highly increased in the sediments contaminated with WWTP effluent following the cultural eutrophication of Lake Geneva. Hence, the human-induced changing limnological conditions highly enhanced the sediment microbial activity, and therein the spreading of antibiotic resistant bacteria and genes in this aquatic environment used to supply drinking water in a highly populated area. Furthermore, the presence of the antibiotic resistance gene aadA in all the studied samples points out a regional dissemination of this emerging contaminant in freshwater sediments since at least the late nineteenth century.
Ahmad, S; Weisburg, W G; Jensen, R A
A comprehensive phylogenetic tree for virtually the entire assemblage of enteric bacteria is presented. Character states of aromatic amino acid biosynthesis are used as criteria, and the results are compared with partial trees based upon sequencing of 16S rRNA, 5S rRNA, and tryptophan leader peptide. Three major clusters are apparent. Enterocluster 1 possesses a gene fusion (trpG-trpD) encoding anthranilate synthase: anthranilate 5-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase of tryptophan biosynthesis. This cluster includes the genera Escherichia, Shigella, Citrobacter, Salmonella, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter. The remaining two clusters lack the trpG-trpD gene fusion, but differ in the presence (enterocluster 2) or absence (enterocluster 3) of the three-step overflow pathway to L-phenylalanine. Enterocluster 2 consists of the genera Serratia and Erwinia. Enterocluster 3 includes the genera Cedecea, Kluyvera, Edwardsiella, Hafnia, Yersinia, Proteus, Providencia, and Morganella. Within these three major clusters, a tentative hierarchy of subcluster ordering is formulated on the basis of all data available. This hierarchical framework is proposed as a general working basis for continued refinement of the phylogenetic relationships of enteric bacteria.
Background The continuous spread of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria, partially due to efflux pumps drastically reduced the efficacy of the antibiotic armory, increasing the frequency of therapeutic failure. The search for new compounds to potentiate the efficacy of commonly used antibiotics is therefore important. The present study was designed to evaluate the ability of the methanol extracts of four Cameroonian dietary plants (Capsicum frutescens L. var. facilulatum, Brassica oleacera L. var. italica, Brassica oleacera L. var. butyris and Basilicum polystachyon (L.) Moench.) to improve the activity of commonly used antibiotics against MDR Gram-negative bacteria expressing active efflux pumps. Methods The qualitative phytochemical screening of the plant extracts was performed using standard methods whilst the antibacterial activity was performed by broth micro-dilution method. Results All the studied plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, triterpenes and sterols. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the studied extracts ranged from 256-1024 μg/mL. Capsicum frutescens var. facilulatum extract displayed the largest spectrum of activity (73%) against the tested bacterial strains whilst the lower MIC value (256 μg/mL) was recorded with Basilicum polystachyon against E. aerogenes ATCC 13048 and P. stuartii ATCC 29916. In the presence of PAβN, the spectrum of activity of Brassica oleacera var. italica extract against bacteria strains increased (75%). The extracts from Brassica oleacera var. butyris, Brassica oleacera var. italica, Capsicum frutescens var. facilulatum and Basilicum polystachyon showed synergistic effects (FIC ≤ 0.5) against the studied bacteria, with an average of 75.3% of the tested antibiotics. Conclusion These results provide promising information for the potential use of the tested plants alone or in combination with some commonly used antibiotics in the fight against MDR Gram-negative bacteria
Milani, C; Corrò, M; Drigo, M; Rota, A
This work examines the antimicrobial resistance of potentially pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus pseudintermedius, Streptococcus canis, Escherichia coli) found in the vaginal tract in prepartum mammary secretions and postpartum milk of bitches housed in breeding kennels (N = 20; 92 bitches). The kennels were divided into three categories: no routine antimicrobial administration around parturition (category 1); routine administration of one antibiotic around parturition (category 2); routine administration of multiple antimicrobials around parturition (category 3). Bacteriological cultures and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed on vaginal specimens, prepartum mammary secretions, and postpartum milk. Stillbirths and neonatal deaths were recorded for each whelping and analyzed as "within-litter stillbirths" and "within-litter neonatal deaths" according to kennel category, by Pearson χ(2) test and the Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test, respectively. The frequency of isolation and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria were analyzed according to kennel category by Pearson χ(2) test. Kennel category was not significantly associated with differing numbers of stillbirths or neonatal death events, nor was the frequency of isolation of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the three kennel categories significantly different. Kennel category 3 had a significantly higher frequency of isolation of multiresistant gram-positive bacterial strains. Our results show that intense administration of antibiotics to breeding bitches does not effectively reduce neonatal mortality; on the contrary, it induces multiresistance in potentially pathogenic bacteria. Breeders and veterinarians should be aware of the risk of selecting pathogenic bacteria by uncontrolled treatment in prepartum bitches.
Liu, Jinxin; Zhao, Zhe; Orfe, Lisa; Subbiah, Murugan; Call, Douglas R
We determined if antibiotics residues that are excreted from treated animals can contribute to persistence of resistant bacteria in agricultural environments. Administration of ceftiofur, a third-generation cephalosporin, resulted in a ∼ 3 log increase in ceftiofur-resistant Escherichia coli found in the faeces and pen soils by day 10 (P = 0.005). This resistant population quickly subsided in faeces, but was sustained in the pen soil (∼ 4.5 log bacteria g(-1)) throughout the trial (1 month). Florfenicol treatment resulted in a similar pattern although the loss of florfenicol-resistant E. coli was slower for faeces and remained stable at ∼ 6 log bacteria g(-1) in the soil. Calves were treated in pens where eGFP-labelled E. coli were present in the bedding (∼ 2 log g(-1)) resulting in amplification of the eGFP E. coli population ∼ 2.1 log more than eGFP E. coli populations in pens with untreated calves (day 4; P < 0.005). Excreted residues accounted for > 10-fold greater contribution to the bedding reservoir compared with shedding of resistant bacteria in faeces. Treatment with therapeutic doses of ceftiofur or florfenicol resulted in 2-3 log g(-1) more bacteria than the estimated ID50 (2.83 CFU g(-1)), consistent with a soil-borne reservoir emerging after antibiotic treatment that can contribute to the long-term persistence of antibiotic resistance in animal agriculture.
Miura, Takayuki; Suenaga, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Takeshi; Fuzawa, Miyu; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Nakagomi, Osamu; Okabe, Satoshi
Histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) have been suggested to be receptors or coreceptors for human noroviruses (HuNoVs) expressed on the intestinal epithelium. We isolated an enteric bacterium strain (SENG-6), closely related to Enterobacter cloacae, bearing HBGA-like substances from a fecal sample of a healthy individual by using a biopanning technique with anti-HBGA antibodies. The binding capacities of four genotypes of norovirus-like particles (NoVLPs) to Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 cells were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that NoVLPs bound mainly to extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of Enterobacter sp. SENG-6, where the HBGA-like substances were localized. EPS that contained HBGA-like substances extracted from Enterobacter sp. SENG-6 was shown by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to be capable of binding to NoVLPs of a GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa) and a GII.6 strain that can recognize A antigen but not to an NoVLP GI.1 mutant strain (W375A) that loses the ability to bind to A antigen. Enzymatic cleavage of terminal N-acetyl-galactosamine residues in the bacterial EPS weakened bacterial EPS binding to the GI.1 wild-type strain (8fIIa). These results indicate that A-like substances in the bacterial EPS play a key role in binding to NoVLPs. Since the specific binding of HuNoVs to HBGA-positive enteric bacteria is likely to affect the transmission and infection processes of HuNoVs in their hosts and in the environment, further studies of human enteric bacteria and their binding capacity to HuNoVs will provide a new scientific platform for understanding interactions between two types of microbes that were previously regarded as biologically unrelated. PMID:23804639
Lobova, Tatiana I; Barkhatov, Yuri V; Salamatina, Ol'ga V; Popova, Lyudmila Yu
Resistance to Ampicillin and Kanamycin displayed by heterotrophic bacteria isolated in Summer and in Spring from the littoral and the central parts of Lake Shira (a therapeutic lake in the Khakasia Republic, Russia) has been investigated. It has been found that in Summer, human and animal microflora featuring multiple antibiotic resistance (to Ampicillin and Kanamycin) predominates in all the studied stations of the littoral zone of the lake. In Spring, concentrations of bacteria featuring multiple antibiotic resistance decrease significantly and bacteria sensitive to antibiotics predominate in the lake. Emergence of multiple antibiotic resistance in bacteria of Lake Shira is caused by the input of allochthonous bacteria into the lake; this feature of heterotrophic bacteria of Lake Shira can be used to monitor the impact on the ecosystem made by health resorts.
Gutiérrez-Chávez, A J; Martínez-Ortega, E A; Valencia-Posadas, M; León-Galván, M F; de la Fuente-Salcido, N M; Bideshi, D K; Barboza-Corona, J E
Mastitis caused by microbial infections in dairy goats reduces milk yield, modifies milk composition, and potentially contributes to morbidity in herds and consumers of dairy products. Microorganisms associated with mastitis in dairy goats are commonly controlled with antibiotics, but it is known that continued use of these chemical agents promotes antibiotic resistance among bacterial populations. Recently, it has been shown that bacteriocins of Bacillus thuringiensis inhibit growth of food-borne pathogens and also bacteria associated with bovine mastitis. However, there is no report on their ability to inhibit microorganisms linked to mastitis in dairy goats. In this study, using 16S rDNA and ITS regions of rDNA, we identified nine bacterial isolates and an encapsulated yeast associated with mastitis in dairy goats. Enterococcus durans, Brevibacillus sp., and Staphylococcus epidermidis 2 were resistant to, respectively, 75, ~67, ~42, and ~42 % of the antibiotics screened. In addition, 60 % of the bacterial isolates were resistant to penicillin, ampicillin, vancomycin, and dicloxacillin. Importantly, 60 % of the isolates were inhibited by the bacteriocins, but S. epidermidis 1, Enterobacter sp., Escherichia vulneris, and Cryptococcus neoformans were not susceptible to these antimicrobial peptides. Using Brevibacillus sp. and Staphylococcus chromogenes as indicator bacteria, we show that peptides of ~10 kDa that correspond to the molecular mass of bacteriocins used in this study are responsible for the inhibitory activity. Our results demonstrate that multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria associated with subclinical mastitis in dairy goats from Guanajuato, Mexico, are susceptible to bacteriocins produced by B. thuringiensis.
Elgderi, R M; Ghenghesh, K S; Berbash, N
Using standard bacteriological procedures, 403 cockroaches (Blattella germanica) collected in Tripoli, from hospitals or the households surrounding the hospitals, were examined for bacteria that are potentially pathogenic to humans. Almost all of the cockroaches (96.1% of the 253 from hospitals and 98.7% of the 150 from households) were found to be carrying potentially pathogenic bacteria, with similar mean burdens of 3.2 x 10(5) colony-forming units (cfu) (range=0-1.4 x 10(7)) for each hospital cockroach and 1.9 x 10(5) cfu (range=0-3.1 x 10(6)) for each household cockroach (P>0.05). Overall, 27 and 25 species of potential pathogen were isolated from the hospital and household cockroaches, respectively, with Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Serratia and Streptococcus predominant. Carriage of species of Serratia was significantly more common among the hospital cockroaches than among the household cockroaches, whereas carriage of Klebsiella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter and Aeromonas was significantly more common among the household cockroaches than among the hospital. Multiple resistance, to at least six different antibiotics, was more commonly observed among the enteric bacteria isolated from the hospital cockroaches than among those recovered from the household cockroaches. Overall, >30% of the isolates of Enterobacteria recovered were each resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents, and 95% of the Pseudomonas isolates were each resistant to at least eight such agents. Cockroaches may play an important role in the spread of multiple-antibiotic-resistant, bacterial pathogens within the hospitals and surrounding communities of Tripoli and other, similar cities. The local health and environmental authorities need to be encouraged to treat B. germanica infestations seriously and to control them quickly and effectively.
Sallam, Mariam Madkour; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; El-Azizi, Mohamed
Background Gram-positive bacteria, especially methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and enterococci, have shown a remarkable ability to develop resistance to antimicrobial agents. Objective We aimed to assess possible enhancement of the antimicrobial activity of vancomycin, amoxicillin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin by human polyclonal intravenous immunoglobulin G (IVIG) against 34 multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates, including MRSA, Enterococcus faecium, and Enterococcus faecalis. Materials and methods Double combinations of the antibiotics with the IVIG were assessed by checkerboard assay, where the interaction was evaluated with respect to the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the antibiotics. The results of the checkerboard assay were verified in vitro using time-kill assay and in vivo using an invasive sepsis murine model. Results The checkerboard assay showed that IVIG enhanced the antimicrobial activity of amoxicillin and clarithromycin against isolates from the three groups of bacteria, which were resistant to the same antibiotics when tested in the absence of IVIG. The efficacy of vancomycin against 15% of the tested isolates was enhanced when it was combined with the antibodies. Antagonism was demonstrated in 47% of the E. faecalis isolates when clarithromycin was combined with the IVIG. Synergism was proved in the time-kill assay when amoxicillin was combined with the antibodies; meanwhile, antagonism was not demonstrated in all tested combinations, even in combinations that showed such response in checkerboard assay. Conclusion The suggested approach is promising and could be helpful to enhance the antimicrobial activity of not only effective antibiotics but also antibiotics that have been proven to be ineffective against MDR bacteria. To our knowledge, this combinatorial approach against MDR bacteria, such as MRSA and enterococci, has not been investigated before. PMID:27994476
Flórez, Ana Belén; Mayo, Baltasar
This work reports the composition and succession of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant bacterial communities in a model cheese, monitored by polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Bacterial 16S rRNA genes were examined using this technique to detect structural changes in the cheese microbiota over manufacturing and ripening. Total bacterial genomic DNA, used as a template, was extracted from cultivable bacteria grown without and with tetracycline or erythromycin (both at 25 μg ml(-1)) on a non-selective medium used for enumeration of total and viable cells (Plate Count agar with Milk; PCA-M), and from those grown on selective and/or differential agar media used for counting various bacterial groups; i.e., lactic acid bacteria (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe agar; MRSA), micrococci and staphylococci (Baird-Parker agar; BPA), and enterobacteria (Violet Red Bile Glucose agar; VRBGA). Large numbers of tetracycline- and erythromycin-resistant bacteria were detected in cheese samples at all stages of ripening. Counts of antibiotic-resistant bacteria varied widely depending on the microbial group and the point of sampling. In general, resistant bacteria were 0.5-1.0 Log10 units fewer in number than the corresponding susceptible bacteria. The PCR-DGGE profiles obtained with DNA isolated from the plates for total bacteria and the different bacterial groups suggested Escherichia coli, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus spp. as the microbial types resistant to both antibiotics tested. This study shows the suitability of the PCR-DGGE technique for rapidly identifying and tracking antibiotic resistant populations in cheese and, by extension, in other foods.
Kempf, Isabelle; Le Roux, Aurélie; Perrin-Guyomard, Agnès; Mourand, Gwenaëlle; Le Devendec, Laetitia; Bougeard, Stéphanie; Richez, Pascal; Le Pottier, Gilles; Eterradossi, Nicolas
Histomoniasis in turkeys can be prevented by administering paromomycin sulfate, an aminoglycoside antimicrobial agent, in feed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of in-feed paromomycin sulfate supplementation on the antimicrobial resistance of intestinal bacteria in turkeys. Twelve flocks of breeder turkeys were administered 100 ppm paromomycin sulfate from hatching to day 120; 12 flocks not supplemented with paromomycin were used as controls. Faecal samples were collected monthly from days 0 to 180. The resistance of Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium and Staphylococcus aureus to paramomycin and other antimicrobial agents was compared in paromomycin supplemented (PS) and unsupplemented (PNS) flocks. E. coli from PS birds had a significantly higher frequency of resistance to paromomycin, neomycin and kanamycin until 1 month after the end of supplementation compared to PNS birds. Resistance to amoxicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was also more frequent in PS turkeys. Resistance was mainly due to the presence of aph genes, which could be transmitted by conjugation, sometimes with streptomycin, tetracycline, amoxicillin, trimethoprim or sulfonamide resistance genes. Resistance to kanamycin and streptomycin in E. faecium was significantly different in PS and PNS breeders on days 60 and 90. Significantly higher frequencies of resistance to paromomycin, kanamycin, neomycin and tobramycin were observed in S. aureus isolates from PS birds. Paromomycin supplementation resulted in resistance to aminoglycosides in bacteria of PS turkeys. Co-selection for resistance to other antimicrobial agents was observed in E. coli isolates.
Lüddeke, Frauke; Heß, Stefanie; Gallert, Claudia; Winter, Josef; Güde, Hans; Löffler, Herbert
Elimination of bacteria by ozonation in combination with charcoal or slow sand filtration for advanced sewage treatment to improve the quality of treated sewage and to reduce the potential risk for human health of receiving surface waters was investigated in pilot scale at the sewage treatment plant Eriskirch, Baden-Wuerttemberg/Germany. To determine the elimination of sewage bacteria, inflowing and leaving wastewater of different treatment processes was analysed in a culture-based approach for its content of Escherichia coli, enterococci and staphylococci and their resistance against selected antibiotics over a period of 17 month. For enterococci, single species and their antibiotic resistances were identified. In comparison to the established flocculation filtration at Eriskirch, ozonation plus charcoal or sand filtration (pilot-scale) reduced the concentrations of total and antibiotic resistant E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci. However, antibiotic resistant E. coli and staphylococci apparently survived ozone treatment better than antibiotic sensitive strains. Neither vancomycin resistant enterococci nor methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were detected. The decreased percentage of antibiotic resistant enterococci after ozonation may be explained by a different ozone sensitivity of species: Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis, which determined the resistance-level, seemed to be more sensitive for ozone than other Enterococcus-species. Overall, ozonation followed by charcoal or sand filtration led to 0.8-1.1 log-units less total and antibiotic resistant E. coli, enterococci and staphylococci, as compared to the respective concentrations in treated sewage by only flocculation filtration. Thus, advanced wastewater treatment by ozonation plus charcoal or sand filtration after common sewage treatment is an effective tool for further elimination of microorganisms from sewage before discharge in surface waters.
Van Acker, Heleen; Gielis, Jan; Acke, Marloes; Cools, Freya; Cos, Paul; Coenye, Tom
It was recently proposed that bactericidal antibiotics, besides through specific drug-target interactions, kill bacteria by a common mechanism involving the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, this mechanism involving the production of hydroxyl radicals has become the subject of a lot of debate. Since the contribution of ROS to antibiotic mediated killing most likely depends on the conditions, differences in experimental procedures are expected to be at the basis of the conflicting results. In the present study different methods (ROS specific stainings, gene-expression analyses, electron paramagnetic resonance, genetic and phenotypic experiments, detection of protein carbonylation and DNA oxidation) to measure the production of ROS upon antibiotic treatment in Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria were compared. Different classes of antibiotics (tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, meropenem) were included, and both planktonic and biofilm cultures were studied. Our results indicate that some of the methods investigated were not sensitive enough to measure antibiotic induced production of ROS, including the spectrophotometric detection of protein carbonylation. Secondly, other methods were found to be useful only in specific conditions. For example, an increase in the expression of OxyR was measured in Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2 after treatment with ciprofloxacin or meropenem (both in biofilms and planktonic cultures) but not after treatment with tobramycin. In addition results vary with the experimental conditions and the species tested. Nevertheless our data strongly suggest that ROS contribute to antibiotic mediated killing in Bcc species and that enhancing ROS production or interfering with the protection against ROS may form a novel strategy to improve antibiotic treatment.
Van Acker, Heleen; Gielis, Jan; Acke, Marloes; Cools, Freya; Cos, Paul
It was recently proposed that bactericidal antibiotics, besides through specific drug-target interactions, kill bacteria by a common mechanism involving the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, this mechanism involving the production of hydroxyl radicals has become the subject of a lot of debate. Since the contribution of ROS to antibiotic mediated killing most likely depends on the conditions, differences in experimental procedures are expected to be at the basis of the conflicting results. In the present study different methods (ROS specific stainings, gene-expression analyses, electron paramagnetic resonance, genetic and phenotypic experiments, detection of protein carbonylation and DNA oxidation) to measure the production of ROS upon antibiotic treatment in Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) bacteria were compared. Different classes of antibiotics (tobramycin, ciprofloxacin, meropenem) were included, and both planktonic and biofilm cultures were studied. Our results indicate that some of the methods investigated were not sensitive enough to measure antibiotic induced production of ROS, including the spectrophotometric detection of protein carbonylation. Secondly, other methods were found to be useful only in specific conditions. For example, an increase in the expression of OxyR was measured in Burkholderia cenocepacia K56-2 after treatment with ciprofloxacin or meropenem (both in biofilms and planktonic cultures) but not after treatment with tobramycin. In addition results vary with the experimental conditions and the species tested. Nevertheless our data strongly suggest that ROS contribute to antibiotic mediated killing in Bcc species and that enhancing ROS production or interfering with the protection against ROS may form a novel strategy to improve antibiotic treatment. PMID:27438061
Date, Kashmira A.; Newton, Anna E.; Medalla, Felicita; Blackstock, Anna; Richardson, LaTonia; McCullough, Andre; Mintz, Eric D.; Mahon, Barbara E.
Background Enteric fever in the United States has been primarily associated with travel and with worrisome changes in global patterns of antimicrobial resistance. We present the first comprehensive report of National Typhoid and Paratyphoid Fever Surveillance System (NTPFS) data for a 5-year period (2008–2012). Methods We reviewed data on laboratory-confirmed cases reported to NTPFS, and related antimicrobial susceptibility results of Salmonella Typhi and Paratyphi A isolates sent for testing by participating public health laboratories to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Antimicrobial Resistance Monitoring System laboratory. Results During 2008–2012, 2341 enteric fever cases were reported, 80% typhoid and 20% paratyphoid A. The proportion caused by paratyphoid A increased from 16% (2008) to 22% (2012). Foreign travel within 30 days preceding illness onset was reported by 1961 (86%) patients (86% typhoid and 92% paratyphoid A). Travel to southern Asia was common (82% for typhoid, 97% for paratyphoid A). Among 1091 (58%) typhoid and 262 (56%) paratyphoid A isolates tested for antimicrobial susceptibility, the proportion resistant to nalidixic acid (NAL-R) increased from 2008 to 2012 (Typhi, 60% to 68%; Paratyphi A, 91% to 94%). Almost all NAL-R isolates were resistant or showed decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Resistance to at least ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (multidrug resistant [MDR]) was limited to Typhi isolates, primarily acquired in southern Asia (13%). Most MDR isolates were also NAL-R. Conclusions Enteric fever in the United States is primarily associated with travel to southern Asia, and increasing resistance is adding to treatment challenges. A bivalent typhoid and paratyphoid vaccine is needed. PMID:27090993
Hatha, A. A. Mohamed; Neethu, C. S.; Nikhil, S. M.; Rahiman, K. M. Mujeeb; Krishnan, K. P.; Saramma, A. V.
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and coliform bacteria from water and sediment of Kongsfjord. The study was based on the assumption that arctic fjord environments are relatively pristine and offer very little selection pressure for drug resistant mutants. In order to test the hypothesis, 200 isolates belonging to aerobic heterotrophic bacteria and 114 isolates belonging to coliforms were tested against 15 antibiotics belonging to 5 different classes such as beta lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulpha drugs and tetracyclines. Resistance to beta lactam and extended spectrum beta lactam (ESBL) antibiotics was considerably high and they found to vary significantly (p < 0.05) between heterotrophic and coliform bacteria. Though the coliforms showed significantly high level of antibiotic resistance against ESBL's extent and diversity of antibiotic resistance (as revealed by multiple antibiotic resistance index and resistance patterns), was high in the aerobic heterotrophic bacteria. Most striking observation was that isolates from fjord sediments (both heterotrophic bacteria and coliforms) in general showed relatively high prevalence of antibiotic resistance against most of the antibiotics tested, indicating to better selection pressure for drug resistance mutants in the fjord sediments.
Rizzo, L; Manaia, C; Merlin, C; Schwartz, T; Dagot, C; Ploy, M C; Michael, I; Fatta-Kassinos, D
Urban wastewater treatment plants (UWTPs) are among the main sources of antibiotics' release into the environment. The occurrence of antibiotics may promote the selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB), which shade health risks to humans and animals. In this paper the fate of ARB and ARGs in UWTPs, focusing on different processes/technologies (i.e., biological processes, advanced treatment technologies and disinfection), was critically reviewed. The mechanisms by which biological processes influence the development/selection of ARB and ARGs transfer are still poorly understood. Advanced treatment technologies and disinfection process are regarded as a major tool to control the spread of ARB into the environment. In spite of intense efforts made over the last years to bring solutions to control antibiotic resistance spread in the environment, there are still important gaps to fill in. In particular, it is important to: (i) improve risk assessment studies in order to allow accurate estimates about the maximal abundance of ARB in UWTPs effluents that would not pose risks for human and environmental health; (ii) understand the factors and mechanisms that drive antibiotic resistance maintenance and selection in wastewater habitats. The final objective is to implement wastewater treatment technologies capable of assuring the production of UWTPs effluents with an acceptable level of ARB.
Henriques, Isabel; Tacão, Marta; Leite, Laura; Fidalgo, Cátia; Araújo, Susana; Oliveira, Cláudia; Alves, Artur
The goal of this study was to investigate co-selection of antibiotic resistance in gram-negative epiphytic bacteria. Halimione portulacoides samples were collected from metal(loid)-contaminated and non-contaminated salt marshes. Bacterial isolates (n=137) affiliated with Vibrio, Pseudomonas, Shewanella, Comamonas, Aeromonas and with Enterobacteriaceae. Vibrio isolates were more frequent in control site while Pseudomonas was common in contaminated sites. Metal(loid) and antibiotic resistance phenotypes varied significantly according to site contamination, and multiresistance was more frequent in contaminated sites. However, differences among sites were not observed in terms of prevalence or diversity of acquired antibiotic resistance genes, integrons and plasmids. Gene merA, encoding mercury resistance, was only detected in isolates from contaminated sites, most of which were multiresistant to antibiotics. Results indicate that metal(loid) contamination selects for antibiotic resistance in plant surfaces. In salt marshes, antibiotic resistance may be subsequently transferred to other environmental compartments, such as estuarine water or animals, with potential human health risks.
Liu, Xiaobo; Marrakchi, Mouna; Jahne, Michael; Rogers, Shane; Andreescu, Silvana
The involvement of oxidative stress in the mechanism of antibiotics-meditated cell death is unclear and subject to debate. The kinetic profile and a quantitative relationship between the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), bacteria and antibiotic type remain elusive. Here we report direct measurements and analytical quantification of the release of superoxide radicals (O2(·-)), a major contributor to ROS, in antibiotics-treated bacterial cultures using a cytochrome c electrochemical biosensor. The specificity of electrochemical measurements was established by the addition of superoxide dismutase (SOD) which decreased the O2(·-) signal. Measurements using a general ROS-specific fluorescence dye and colony forming units (CFU) assays were performed side-by-side to determine the total ROS and establish the relationship between ROS and the degree of lethality. Exposure of Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes cultures to antibiotics increased the release of O2(·-) radicals in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that the transmembrane generation of ROS may occur as part of the antibiotic action. The study provides a quantitative methodology and fundamental knowledge to further explore the role of oxidative stress in antibiotics-meditated bacterial death and to assess physiological changes associated with the complex metabolic events related to oxidative stress and bacterial resistance.
Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Abdu, Abdulrasheed B
Fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) is a minimally-processed green leafy vegetable traditionally used for its antianaemic properties in the form of leaf juice without a heating or inactivation step before consumption. The aim of the study was to assess the presence of surface microbiota on T. occidentalis leaves and also to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms. Bacterial contaminants on 50 samples of T. occidentalis leaves were isolated and characterized using standard biochemical methods and the antimicrobial susceptibility of isolated organisms was determined using the antibiotic disc diffusion assay. The results obtained show that the leaves of T. occidentalis is contaminated with organisms which included Enterobacter agglomerans (25.9%), Proteus vulgaris (24.9%), Klebsiella spp. (2.6%), and Serratia liquefaciens (2.1%). Other bacterial isolates recovered in order of frequency included: Staphylococcus spp. (33.7%), Bacillus spp. (8.3%), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (2.6%). Of the 193 bacterial isolates from the leaves of T. occidentalis samples tested for antimicrobial resistance, all (100%) were found to be resistant to ampicillin, cloxacillin, augmentin, erythromycin, and tetracycline while 96% of the isolates were resistant to cephalothin. Resistance to trimethoprim (93%) and gentamicin (83%) was also observed. Approximately, 22% of the isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin; however, only 11 (5.8%) were resistant to ofloxacin. Thus, uncooked T. occidentalis is a potential source of highly-resistant epiphytic bacteria which could be opportunistic pathogens in consumers.
Ding, Shuang; Wu, Junwei; Zhang, Meng; Lu, Huifeng; Mahmood, Qaisar; Zheng, Ping
Acute toxicities of anaerobic ammonia oxidation (ANAMMOX) substrates and four antibiotics from pharmaceutical wastewaters on ANAMMOX process were reported. Individual and joint acute toxicity assays were performed using 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Results showed that IC50 values and their 95% confidence interval of ammonium chloride (A), sodium nitrite (B), penicillin G-Na (C), polymyxin B sulfate (D), chloramphenicol (E) and kanamycin sulfate (F) were 2708.9 (2247.9-3169.9), 1475.4 (1269.9-1680.9), 5114.4 (4946.4-5282.4), 10.2 (1.8-18.6), 409.9 (333.7-486.1) and 5254.1 (3934.4-6573.8) mgL(-1) respectively, suggesting toxicities were in the order of D>E>B>A>C>F. Joint acute toxicities of bicomponent mixtures A and B, C and D, C and F, D and F were independent; D and E, E and F were additive while C and E were synergistic. Joint acute toxicities of multicomponent mixtures were synergistic or additive. Luminescent bacteria test is an easy and robust method for forecasting the feasibility of ANAMMOX process for pharmaceutical wastewater treatment.
Gibbs, Shawn G.; Green, Christopher F.; Tarwater, Patrick M.; Mota, Linda C.; Mena, Kristina D.; Scarpino, Pasquale V.
Objective In this study we evaluated the levels of antibiotic- and multidrug-resistant bacteria in bioaerosols upwind, within, and downwind at locations 25 m, 50 m, 100 m, and 150 m from a swine confined animal feeding operation. Design We used Andersen two-stage samplers to collect bacterial samples, the replicate plate method to isolate organisms, and the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method to determine antibiotic resistance. Results The percentage of organisms resistant to at least two antibiotic classes and all four classes evaluated were, respectively, 2.1 and 3.0 times higher inside (n = 69) than upwind (n = 59) of the facility. Staphylococcus aureus was the most prevalent organism recovered. Concentrations of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus decreased with increasing distance from the facility. Using Fisher’s exact methods, the change in distribution of antibiotic resistance profiles for each antibiotic was statistically significant (oxytetracycline, p = 0.010; tetracycline, p = 0.014; ampicillin, p = 0.007; erythromycin, p = 0.035); however, this relationship was not seen with lincomycin and penicillin (p > 0.05). In addition, the levels of antibiotic-resistant S. aureus 25 m downwind were significantly greater than the levels from samples taken upwind from the facility for the same four antibiotics (p < 0.05). The percentage of resistant group A streptococci and fecal coliform increased within the facility compared with upwind values for all antibiotics evaluated, except for lincomycin. The percentage of resistant total coliform organisms increased within the facility compared with upwind values for oxytetracycline and tetracycline. Conclusions Bacterial concentrations with multiple antibiotic resistances or multidrug resistance were recovered inside and outside to (at least) 150 m downwind of this facility at higher percentages than upwind. Bacterial concentrations with multiple antibiotic resistances were found within and downwind of the facility even
Harris, Anthony D; Pineles, Lisa; Belton, Beverly; Johnson, J. Kristie; Shardell, Michelle; Loeb, Mark; Newhouse, Robin; Dembry, Louise; Braun, Barbara; Perencevich, Eli N; Hall, Kendall K.; Morgan, Daniel J
Importance Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are associated with increased patient morbidity and mortality. It is unknown whether wearing gloves and gowns for all patient contact in the intensive care unit (ICU) decreases acquisition of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Objective To assess whether wearing gloves and gowns for all patient contact in the ICU decreases acquisition of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) compared with usual care. Design, Setting, and Participants Cluster-randomized trial in 20 medical and surgical ICUs in 20 US hospitals from January 4, 2012, to October 4, 2012. Interventions In the intervention ICUs, all health care workers were required to wear gloves and gowns for all patient contact and when entering any patient room. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was acquisition of MRSA or VRE based on surveillance cultures collected on admission and discharge from the ICU. Secondary outcomes included individual VRE acquisition, MRSA acquisition, frequency of health care worker visits, hand hygiene compliance, health care–associated infections, and adverse events. Results From the 26 180 patients included, 92 241 swabs were collected for the primary outcome. Intervention ICUs had a decrease in the primary outcome of MRSA or VRE from 21.35 acquisitions per 1000 patient-days (95% CI, 17.57 to 25.94) in the baseline period to 16.91 acquisitions per 1000 patient-days (95% CI, 14.09 to 20.28) in the study period, whereas control ICUs had a decrease in MRSA or VRE from 19.02 acquisitions per 1000 patient-days (95% CI, 14.20 to 25.49) in the baseline period to 16.29 acquisitions per 1000 patient-days (95% CI, 13.48 to 19.68) in the study period, a difference in changes that was not statistically significant (difference, −1.71 acquisitions per 1000 person-days, 95% CI, −6.15 to 2.73; P = .57). For key secondary outcomes, there was no difference in VRE acquisition with the
... resistance develops, the antibiotic is not able to kill the germs causing the infection. Your infection may ... to vaginal yeast infections. This happens because antibiotics kill the normal bacteria in the vagina and this ...
de Barros, João M S; Lechner, Tabea; Charalampopoulos, Dimitrios; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V; Edwards, Alexander D
We present a novel but simple enteric coated sphere formulation containing probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus casei). Oral delivery of live bacterial cells (LBC) requires live cells to survive firstly manufacturing processes and secondly GI microbicidal defenses including gastric acid. We incorporated live L. casei directly in the granulation liquid, followed by granulation, extrusion, spheronization, drying and spray coating to produce dried live probiotic spheres. A blend of MCC, calcium-crosslinked alginate, and lactose was developed that gave improved live cell survival during manufacturing, and gave excellent protection from gastric acid plus rapid release in intestinal conditions. No significant loss of viability was observed in all steps except drying, which resulted in approximately 1 log loss of viable cells. Eudragit coating was used to protect dried live cells from acid, and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was combined with sodium alginate to achieve efficient sphere disintegration leading to rapid and complete bacterial cell release in intestinal conditions. Viability and release of L. casei was evaluated in vitro in simulated GI conditions. Uncoated spheres gave partial acid protection, but enteric coated spheres effectively protected dried probiotic LBC from acid for 2h, and subsequently released all viable cells within 1h of transfer into simulated intestinal fluid.
Reed, C. S.; Barrett, S. P.; Threlfall, E. J.; Cheasty, T.
An outbreak of infections due to multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria took place over a period of approximately 18 months in a renal unit. Strains of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were involved, and a variety of antibiotic resistances was encountered. Closely related plasmids encoding resistance to aztreonam, ceftazidime and piperacillin, possibly derived from an archetypal plasmid of 105 kb were found in the majority of isolates examined. After limiting the use of aztreonam the incidence of new patient isolates of multiple-resistant organisms was greatly reduced. This study demonstrated how molecular studies can contribute to the control of an outbreak situation in a hospital unit by providing an impetus to reduce the use of specific antibiotics. Images Fig. 2 PMID:7641839
Corona-Castañeda, Berenice; Pereda-Miranda, Rogelio
Twenty-six microbiologically inactive (MIC > 512 µg/mL) convolvulaceous resin glycosides ( 1- 26) were tested for resistance modulatory activity in vitro against Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami and two nosocomial pathogens, Salmonella typhi and Shigella flexneri. These compounds exerted a potentiation effect of the clinically useful antibiotics tetracycline, kanamycin, and chloramphenicol against the tested gram-negative bacteria by increasing antibiotic susceptibility up to 32-fold at concentrations of 25 µg/mL. Therefore, the oligosaccharides from the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) represent metabolites that reverse microbial resistance mechanisms, favoring an increase in the strength and effectiveness of current antibiotics that are not effective in the treatment of refractive infections caused by multidrug-resistant strains.
Freire-Moran, Laura; Aronsson, Bo; Manz, Chris; Gyssens, Inge C; So, Anthony D; Monnet, Dominique L; Cars, Otto
Two commercial databases (Pharmaprojects and Adis Insight R&D) were queried for antibacterial agents in clinical development. Particular attention was given to antibacterial agents for systemic administration. For each agent, reviewers were requested to indicate whether its spectrum of activity covered a set of selected multidrug-resistant bacteria, and whether it had a new mechanism of action or a new target. In addition, PubMed was searched for antibacterial agents in development that appeared in review articles. Out of 90 agents that were considered to fulfil the inclusion criteria for the analysis, 66 were new active substances. Fifteen of these could be systemically administered and were assessed as acting via a new or possibly new mechanism of action or on a new or possibly new target. Out of these, 12 agents were assessed as having documented in vitro activity against antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria and only four had documented in vitro activity against antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Of these four, two acted on new or possibly new targets and, crucially, none acted via new mechanisms of action. There is an urgent need to address the lack of effective treatments to meet the increasing public health burden caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, in particular against Gram-negative bacteria.
Bezanson, G S; MacInnis, R; Potter, G; Hughes, T
To assess whether domestically grown fresh salad vegetables constitute a possible reservoir of antibiotic resistance for Canadian consumers, aerobic bacteria capable of forming colonies at 30 degrees C on nutrient-limited media were recovered from a single sampling of Romaine lettuce, Savoy spinach and alfalfa sprouts, then examined for their susceptibility to ten antibiotics and the carriage of potentially mobile R-plasmids and integrons. Of the 140 isolates resistant to one or more antibiotic, 93.5 and 90.0% were resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin; 35.7% to chloramphenicol, 10.0% to streptomycin, 4.2% to nalidixic acid, 4.2% to kanamycin, and 2.8% to gentamicin. Gram-positive isolates accounted for less than 4% of the antibiotic resistant strains. A small portion (23.1%) of the predominant oxidase-positive, gram-negative isolates was resistant to two or more antimicrobials. Members of the Pseudomonas fluorescens/putida complex were most prevalent among the 34 resistant strains identified. Sphingobacterium spp. and Acinetobacter baumanni also were detected. Ten of 52 resistant strains carried plasmids, 3 of which were self-transmissible and bore resistance to ampicillin and kanamycin. Eighteen of 48 gave PCR evidence for integron DNA. Class 2 type integrons were the most prevalent, followed by class 1. We conclude that the foods examined here carry antibiotic resistant bacteria at the retail level. Further, our determination that resistant strains contain integron-specific DNA sequences and self-transmissible R-plasmids indicates their potential to influence the pool of antibiotic resistance in humans via lateral gene transfer subsequent to ingestion.
Lloyd, Nicole A; Janssen, Sarah E; Reinfelder, John R; Barkay, Tamar
The emergence and spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria is currently one of the most serious challenges to human health. To combat this problem, it is critical to understand the processes and pathways that result in the creation of antibiotic resistance gene pools in the environment. In this study, we examined the effects of mercury (Hg) exposure on the co-selection of Hg and antibiotic-resistant bacteria that colonize the gastrointestinal tract of the mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus), a small, estuarine fish. We examined this connection in two experimental systems: (i) a short-term laboratory exposure study where fish were fed Hg-laced food for 15 days and (ii) an examination of environmental populations from two sites with very different levels of Hg contamination. In the lab exposure study, fish muscle tissue accumulation of Hg was proportional to food Hg concentration (R (2) = 0.99; P < 0.0001). In the environmental study, fish from the contaminated site contained threefold more Hg compared to fish from the reference site (P < 0.05). Further, abundance of the Hg resistance gene mercuric reductase was more than eightfold higher (P < 0.0001) in DNA extracts of ingesta of fish from the contaminated site, suggesting adaptation to Hg. Finally, resistance to three or more antibiotics was more common in Hg-resistant as compared to Hg-sensitive bacterial colonies that were isolated from fish ingesta (P < 0.001) demonstrating co-selection of Hg and antibiotic resistances. Together, our results highlight the possibility for the creation of antibiotic resistance gene pools as a result of exposure to Hg in contaminated environments.
Scherer, Alexandre; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Vilei, Edy M; Frey, Joachim; Perreten, Vincent
Streptomycin is used in arboriculture to control fire blight. Using sheep as a model, multidrug-resistant bacteria in mammals were found to be selected after the intentional release of streptomycin into the environment. Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus spp. were isolated from the faeces and nasal cavities, respectively, of sheep grazing on a field sprayed with streptomycin at concentrations used in orchards (test group) and on a field without streptomycin (control group). Before the application of streptomycin, the percentage of streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolates in faeces was 15.8% in the control group and 14.7% in the test group. After the application of streptomycin, the overall number of streptomycin-resistant E. coli isolates was significantly higher in the test group (39.9%) than in the control group (22.3%). Streptomycin-resistant Staphylococcus isolates were only detected after the application of streptomycin. Streptomycin resistance was frequently associated with resistance to sulfamethoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline and chloramphenicol and less frequently to cefotaxime in E. coli, and to tetracycline, fusidic acid and tiamulin in Staphylococcus spp. This study shows that the application of low concentrations of streptomycin on grass, as occurs during the spraying of orchards, selects for multidrug-resistant nasal and enteric bacterial flora, including extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing E. coli. PMID:23157680
Foodborne antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria such as Campylobacter jejuni, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, and Vibrio parahemolyticus can adversely affect animal and human health, but a better understanding of the factors involved in their pathogenesis is needed. To help meet this need, this overview surveys and interprets much of our current knowledge of antibiotic (multidrug)-resistant bacteria in the food chain and the implications for microbial food safety and animal and human health. Topics covered include the origin and prevalence of resistant bacteria in the food chain (dairy, meat, poultry, seafood, and herbal products, produce, and eggs), their inactivation by different classes of compounds and plant extracts and by the use of chlorine and physicochemical methods (heat, UV light, pulsed electric fields, and high pressure), the synergistic antimicrobial effects of combinations of natural antimicrobials with medicinal antibiotics, and mechanisms of antimicrobial activities and resistant effects. Possible areas for future research are suggested. Plant-derived and other safe natural antimicrobial compounds have the potential to control the prevalence of both susceptible and resistant pathogens in various environments. The collated information and suggested research will hopefully contribute to a better understanding of approaches that could be used to minimize the presence of resistant pathogens in animal feed and human food, thus reducing adverse effects, improving microbial food safety, and helping to prevent or treat animal and human infections.
Mulamattathil, Suma George; Bezuidenhout, Carlos; Mbewe, Moses; Ateba, Collins Njie
The aim of this study was to isolate and identify environmental bacteria from various raw water sources as well as the drinking water distributions system in Mafikeng, South Africa, and to determine their antibiotic resistance profiles. Water samples from five different sites (raw and drinking water) were analysed for the presence of faecal indicator bacteria as well as Aeromonas and Pseudomonas species. Faecal and total coliforms were detected in summer in the treated water samples from the Modimola dam and in the mixed water samples, with Pseudomonas spp. being the most prevalent organism. The most prevalent multiple antibiotic resistance phenotype observed was KF-AP-C-E-OT-K-TM-A. All organisms tested were resistant to erythromycin, trimethoprim, and amoxicillin. All isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and faecal coliforms and Pseudomonas spp. to neomycin and streptomycin. Cluster analysis based on inhibition zone diameter data suggests that the isolates had similar chemical exposure histories. Isolates were identified using gyrB, toxA, ecfX, aerA, and hylH gene fragments and gyrB, ecfX, and hylH fragments were amplified. These results demonstrate that (i) the drinking water from Mafikeng contains various bacterial species and at times faecal and total coliforms. (ii) The various bacteria are resistant to various classes of antibiotics.
Rao, Sangeeta; Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Bohaychuk, Valerie; Besser, Thomas; Song, Xin-Ming; Wagner, Bruce; Hancock, Dale; Renter, David; Dargatz, David; Morley, Paul S
The purpose of this study was to determine whether antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella, and Campylobacter) and non-type-specific E. coli obtained from fecal samples of feedlot cattle was associated with antimicrobial drug (AMD) use. A secondary objective was to determine if AMR in non-type-specific E. coli could be used as a predictor of AMR in foodborne pathogens. Fecal samples were collected from pen floors in 21 Alberta feedlots during March through December 2004, and resistance prevalence was estimated by season (Spring, Fall) and cattle type (fewest days-on-feed and closest to slaughter). AMD exposures were obtained by calculating therapeutic animal daily doses for each drug before sampling from feedlot records. Generalized linear mixed models were used to investigate the relationship between each AMR and AMD use. Non-type-specific E. coli was commonly recovered from fecal samples (88.62%), and the highest prevalence of resistance was found toward tetracycline (53%), streptomycin (28%), and sulfadiazine (48%). Campylobacter jejuni was recovered from 55.3% of the fecal samples, and resistance was generally less for the drugs that were evaluated (doxycycline 38.1%, ciprofloxacin 2.6%, nalidixic acid 1.64%, erythromycin 1.2%). E. coli O157 and Salmonella were recovered much less frequently (7% and 1% prevalence, respectively). The prevalence of recovery for the bacteria studied varied between seasons and cattle types, as did patterns of AMR. Among non-type-specific E. coli, resistance to tetracycline, streptomycin, and sulfadiazine was found to be positively associated with in-feed exposure as well as injectable tetracycline, but these differences were relatively small and of questionable practical relevance. Among C. jejuni isolates, cattle type was significantly associated with doxycycline resistance. Results suggested that resistance in non-type-specific E. coli to chloramphenicol, trimethoprim
Ardiles-Villegas, Karen; González-Acuña, Daniel; Waldenström, Jonas; Olsen, Björn; Hernández, Jorge
Antibiotic use and its implications have been discussed extensively in the past decades. This situation has global consequences when antibiotic resistance becomes widespread in the intestinal bacterial flora of stationary and migratory birds. This study investigated the incidence of fecal bacteria and general antibiotic resistance, with special focus on extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) isolates, in two species of seabirds at remote Easter Island. We identified 11 species of bacteria from masked booby (Sula dactylatra) and Christmas shearwater (Puffinus nativitatis); five species of gram-negative bacilli, four species of Streptococcus (Enterococcus), and 2 species of Staphylococcus. In addition, 6 types of bacteria were determined barely to the genus level. General antibiotic susceptibility was measured in the 30 isolated Enterobacteriaceae to 11 antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine. The 10 isolates that showed a phenotypic ESBL profile were verified by clavulanic acid inhibition in double mixture discs with cefpodoxime, and two ESBL strains were found, one strain in masked booby and one strain in Christmas shearwater. The two bacteria harboring the ESBL type were identified as Serratia odorifera biotype 1, which has zoonotic importance. Despite minimal human presence in the masked booby and Christmas shearwater habitats, and the extreme geographic isolation of Easter Island, we found several multiresistant bacteria and even two isolates with ESBL phenotypes. The finding of ESBLs has animal and public health significance and is of potential concern, especially because the investigation was limited in size and indicated that antibiotic-resistant bacteria now are distributed globally.
Antibiotics are important to equine medicine, but antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) can lead to poor performance and even mortality. AAD is attributed to disruption of the hindgut microbiota, which permits proliferation of pathogenic microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects o...
Agricultural uses of antibiotics raises concerns about the development of antibiotic resistance in food animals, and the potential to transmit resistance to human clinical settings via fecal contamination of surface and ground water. Although there is broad agreement that agricultural resistance can...
Wan, Guoqing; Ruan, Lingao; Yin, Yu; Yang, Tian; Ge, Mei; Cheng, Xiaodong
Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to carbapenem antibiotics is a serious clinical challenge. As a newly developed technology, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show some excellent characteristics compared to older treatments, and are a candidate for combating A. baumannii infection. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we combined AgNPs with antibiotics to treat carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (aba1604). Our results showed that single AgNPs completely inhibited A. baumannii growth at 2.5 μg/mL. AgNP treatment also showed synergistic effects with the antibiotics polymixin B and rifampicin, and an additive effect with tigecyline. In vivo, we found that AgNPs-antibiotic combinations led to better survival ratios in A. baumannii-infected mouse peritonitis models than that by single drug treatment. Finally, we employed different antisense RNA-targeted Escherichia coli strains to elucidate the synergistic mechanism involved in bacterial responses to AgNPs and antibiotics.
Band, Victor I.; Ibegbu, Chris; Kaur, Surinder Pal; Cagle, Stephanie M.; Trible, Ronald; Jones, Crystal L.; Wang, Yun F.; Kraft, Colleen S.; Ray, Susan M.; Wrammert, Jens; Weiss, David S.
Objectives Nosocomial pathogens such as Acinetobacter baumannii are a growing public health threat, due in part to their increasing resistance to antibiotics. Since some strains are resistant to all available antibiotics, novel therapies are urgently needed. Plasmablasts are short-lived B cells found in the blood that can be collected and harnessed to produce therapeutic antibodies. We set out to determine whether plasmablasts are induced during infection with A. baumannii and other nosocomial pathogens. Methods We obtained blood samples from patients infected with antibiotic-resistant nosocomial pathogens, and analysed their plasmablast response by flow cytometry. Results We observed a strong induction of plasmablasts in patients with antibiotic-resistant A. baumannii infection. Furthermore, plasmablasts were also induced in response to other drug-resistant nosocomial pathogens. Conclusions These data suggest that plasmablasts may be broadly harnessed to develop therapeutic antibodies to combat otherwise untreatable antibiotic-resistant infections. PMID:24583361
Campos, Joana; Mourão, Joana; Pestana, Nazaré; Peixe, Luísa; Novais, Carla; Antunes, Patrícia
The increase demand for fresh vegetables is causing an expansion of the market for minimally processed vegetables along with new recognized food safety problems. To gain further insight on this topic we analyzed the microbiological quality of Portuguese ready-to-eat salads (RTS) and their role in the spread of bacteria carrying acquired antibiotic resistance genes, food products scarcely considered in surveillance studies. A total of 50 RTS (7 brands; split or mixed leaves, carrot, corn) were collected in 5 national supermarket chains in Porto region (2010). They were tested for aerobic mesophilic counts, coliforms and Escherichia coli counts as well as for the presence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. Samples were also plated in different selective media with/without antibiotics before and after enrichment. The E. coli, other coliforms and Enterococcus recovered were characterized for antibiotic resistance profiles and clonality with phenotypic and genetic approaches. A high number of RTS presented poor microbiological quality (86%--aerobic mesophilic counts, 74%--coliforms, 4%--E. coli), despite the absence of screened pathogens. In addition, a high diversity of bacteria (species and clones) and antibiotic resistance backgrounds (phenotypes and genotypes) were observed, mostly with enrichment and antibiotic selective media. E. coli was detected in 13 samples (n=78; all types and 4 brands; phylogenetic groups A, B1 and D; none STEC) with resistance to tetracycline [72%; tet(A) and/or tet(B)], streptomycin (58%; aadA and/or strA-strB), sulfamethoxazole (50%; sul1 and/or sul2), trimethoprim (50%; dfrA1 or dfrA12), ampicillin (49%; blaTEM), nalidixic acid (36%), ciprofloxacin (5%) or chloramphenicol (3%; catA). E. coli clones, including the widespread group D/ST69, were detected in different samples from the same brand or different brands pointing out to a potential cross-contamination. Other clinically relevant resistance genes were detected in 2 Raoultella
Cox, Georgina; Koteva, Kalinka; Wright, Gerard D.
Objectives An orthogonal approach taken towards novel antibacterial drug discovery involves the identification of small molecules that potentiate or enhance the activity of existing antibacterial agents. This study aimed to identify natural-product rifampicin adjuvants in the intrinsically resistant organism Escherichia coli. Methods E. coli BW25113 was screened against 1120 actinomycete fermentation extracts in the presence of subinhibitory (2 mg/L) concentrations of rifampicin. The active molecule exhibiting the greatest rifampicin potentiation was isolated using activity-guided methods and identified using mass and NMR spectroscopy. Susceptibility testing and biochemical assays were used to determine the mechanism of antibiotic potentiation. Results The anthracycline Antibiotic 301A1 was isolated from the fermentation broth of a strain of Streptomyces (WAC450); the molecule was shown to be highly synergistic with rifampicin (fractional inhibitory concentration index = 0.156) and moderately synergistic with linezolid (FIC index = 0.25) in both E. coli and Acinetobacter baumannii. Activity was associated with inhibition of efflux and the synergistic phenotype was lost when tested against E. coli harbouring mutations within the rpoB gene. Structure–activity relationship studies revealed that other anthracyclines do not synergize with rifampicin and removal of the sugar moiety of Antibiotic 301A1 abolishes activity. Conclusions Screening only a subsection of our natural product library identified a small-molecule antibiotic adjuvant capable of sensitizing Gram-negative bacteria to antibiotics to which they are ordinarily intrinsically resistant. This result demonstrates the great potential of this approach in expanding antibiotic effectiveness in the face of the growing challenge of resistance in Gram-negatives. PMID:24627312
Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Xie, Shanni; Tian, Da; Zhao, Yu; Wu, Jun; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin
Considering the potential threat of vegetables growing in antibiotic-polluted soil with high abundance of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) against human health through the food chain, it is thus urgent to develop novel control technology to ensure vegetable safety. In the present work, pot experiments were conducted in lettuce cultivation to assess the impedance effect of biochar amendment on soil sulfonamides (SAs), antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), and ARG enrichment in lettuce tissues. After 100 days of cultivation, lettuce cultivation with biochar amendment exhibited the greatest soil SA dissipation as well as the significant improvement of lettuce growth indices, with residual soil SAs mainly existing as the tightly bound fraction. Moreover, the SA contents in roots and new/old leaves were reduced by one to two orders of magnitude compared to those without biochar amendment. In addition, isolate counts for SA-resistant bacterial endophytes in old leaves and sul gene abundances in roots and old leaves also decreased significantly after biochar application. However, neither SA resistant bacteria nor sul genes were detected in new leaves. It was the first study to demonstrate that biochar amendment can be a practical strategy to protect lettuce safety growing in SA-polluted soil with rich ARB and ARGs.
Agostini, Vanessa O; Macedo, Alexandre J; Muxagata, Erik
There is a problem with keeping culture medium completely or partially free from bacteria. The use of prokaryotic metabolic inhibitors, such as antibiotics, is suggested as an alternative solution, although such substances should not harm non-target organisms. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of antibiotic treatments in inhibiting free-living and biofilm bacteria and their half-life in artificial marine environment using the copepod Acartia tonsa as bioindicador of non-harmful antibiotic combinations. Regarding to results, the application of 0.025 g L-1 penicillin G potassium + 0.08 g L-1 streptomycin sulphate + 0.04 g L-1 neomycin sulphate showed great potential for use in marine cultures and scientific experiments without lethal effects to non-target organisms. The effect of this combination starts within the first six hours of exposure and reduces up to 93 % the bacterial density, but the half-life is short, requiring replacement. No adverse changes in water quality were observed within 168 hours of exposure. As a conclusion, we can infer that this treatment was an effective procedure for zooplankton cultures and scientific experiments with the aim of measuring the role of free-living and biofilm in the marine community.
Poonia, Shubra; Singh, T. Shantikumar; Tsering, Dechen C.
Background: Contamination of water, food, and environment with antibiotic-resistant bacteria poses a serious public health issue. Objective: The objective was to study the bacterial pollution of the natural sources of water in east Sikkim and to determine the antimicrobial profile of the bacterial isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 225 samples, 75 each during winter, summer, and monsoon season were collected from the same source in every season for bacteriological analysis by membrane filtration method. Antibiotic susceptibility test was performed using standard disc diffusion method. Results: A total of 19 bacterial species of the genera Escherichia, Klebsiella, Proteus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Citrobacter, Morganella, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Flavobacterium, and Serratia were isolated and their antimicrobial sensitivity tested. Generally, most bacterial isolates except Salmonella and Shigella species were found resistant to commonly used antibiotics such as ampicillin (57.5%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxaole (39.1%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (37.4%), cefixime (34.5%), tetracycline (29.1%), ceftazidime (26.3%), ofloxacin (25.9%), amikacin (8.7%), and gentamicin (2.7%) but sensitive to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Conclusion: Natural sources of water in east Sikkim are grossly contaminated with bacteria including enteropathogens. The consumption of untreated water from these sources might pose health risk to consumers. PMID:25136156
Handzel, Z T; Argaman, M; Parke, J C; Schneerson, R; Robbins, J B
Cross-reacting Escherichia coli strains Easter and 89 and Bacillus pumilis fed to newborn rabbits and E. coli fed to adult rhesus monkeys did not exert untoward reactions. The E. coli regularly colonized the newborns' intestinal tract from 1 to 7 weeks. High doses of E. coli were necessary to colonize adult primates. Colonization occurred in fewer newborn rabbits and lasted only 1 to 3 weeks with B. pumilis. Colonized newborn rabbits and adult rhesus had an active Haemophilus influenzae type b (HITB) immune response. In the rabbit, colonization resulted in accelerated induction of immunoglobulin (Ig) M-. IgA-, and IgG-producing cells in the spleen, mesenteric lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches after HITB challenge. E. coli-fed and control newborn primates were naturally colonized with nasopharyngeal and enteric cross-reacting bacteria and both groups rapidly developed HITB antibodies in the absence of the homologous organisms. Human newborn stool cultures, taken at the time of discharge from the nursery, showed a 0.9% carriage rate for cross-reacting E. coli. These "carrier" infants acquired HITB antibodies more rapidly than their age-matched "noncarrier" controls.
Blackburn, C D; Davies, A R
Strains of Aeromonas spp., Salmonella enteritidis phage type 4, Salmonella typhimurium, verotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (VTEC) and Yersinia enterocolitica resistant to streptomycin, nalidixic acid and a combination of both antibiotics were selected. When compared with the parent strains, most of the antibiotic-resistant strains had slightly slower growth rates at their optimum incubation temperature but the difference was reduced progressively when the temperature was lowered. Some antibiotic-resistant strains had considerably slower growth rates in the presence of the relevant antibiotic and these were not used further. Several agar and impedance media with added streptomycin and nalidixic acid were assessed for the enumeration of the antibiotic-resistant strains in artificially contaminated stored foods. Differential/selective media were required to enumerate low numbers of antibiotic-resistant strains in certain foods. The following agar and impedance media were selected: Aeromonas Agar (Ryan) for Aeromonas spp., Xylose Lysine Agar and Lysine Iron Cysteine Neutral Red Medium for Salmonella, Eosin Methylene Blue Agar and Coliform Medium for VTEC, and Yersinia Selective Agar without selective agents for Yersinia enterocolitica. The agar and impedance media have been used successfully to enumerate antibiotic-resistant strains inoculated into foods and stored at different temperatures.
Zhao, Xiang; Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Ge, Weili; Wang, Jun
Antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria and resistance genes (ARGs) are generally considered emerging pollutants. To assess the impacts of tetracycline (TC) and sulfonamide (SA) antibiotics that are eliminated with fecaluria as drug prototypes, farmland soil used to research long-term fertilization with chicken manure was collected at four sites in Shandong Province. In this study, the rates of bacterial drug resistance to the same antibiotic decreased with an increase in the concentration of that antibiotic, and the resistance rates to TCs were lower than those to SAs. PCR of ARGs revealed that the ARGs detected at the highest frequency were the TC resistance genes tetW and tetO and the SA resistance genes sul1 and sul2. Real-time qPCR showed that the quantities of ARGs in farmland soil fertilized with chicken manure were significantly greater compared with the control soil. Moreover, significant correlations (R(2)=0.9525, p<0.05) between the number of sul ARGs and the total SA concentration were observed in all of the soil samples. In summary, this study showed that SAs can induce the appearance of ARGs and pollute the soil environment.
Otero, Fátima; Santiso, Rebeca; Tamayo, Maria; Fernández, José Luis; Bou, Germán; Lepe, José Antonio; McConnell, Michael J; Gosálvez, Jaime; Cisneros, José Miguel
Rapid antimicrobial susceptibility testing has the potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare-associated costs. In this study, a novel assay based on bacterial cell elongation after exposure to an antibiotic (ceftazidime) was evaluated for its ability to rapidly detect resistance in Gram-negative bacteria. The assay was used to detect resistance in a large collection of strains containing 320 clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii, 171 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 212 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the results were compared to those obtained using standard antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods. The assay identified ceftazidime-resistant strains with 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for A. baumannii, 100% sensitivity and 97.2% specificity for K. pneumoniae, and with 82.3% sensitivity and 100% specificity for P. aeruginosa. Importantly, results were obtained in 1 hour 15 minutes from exponentially growing cultures. This study demonstrates that changes in cell length are highly correlated with phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility determined using standard susceptibility testing methods. This study therefore provides proof-of-concept that changes in cell morphology can be used as the basis for rapid detection of antibiotic resistance and provides the basis for the development of novel rapid diagnostics for the detection of antibiotic resistance.
Nesme, Joseph; Simonet, Pascal
Soil is a large reservoir of microbial diversity and the majority of antimicrobial compounds used today in human and veterinary health care have been isolated from soil microorganisms. The Darwinian hypothesis of an 'arms-shields race' between antibiotic producers and resistant strains is often cited to explain antibiotic resistance gene determinants (ARGD) origins and diversity. ARGD abundance and antibiotic molecule exposure are, however, not systematically linked, and many other factors can contribute to resistance gene emergence, selection and dissemination in the environment. Soil is a heterogeneous habitat and represents a broad spectrum of different ecological niches. Soil harbours a large genetic diversity at small spatial scale, favouring exchange of genetic materials by means of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) that will contribute to ARGD dissemination between bacteria and eventually acquisition by pathogen genomes, therefore threatening antibiotic therapies. Our current knowledge on the extent of the soil resistome abundance and diversity has been greatly enhanced since the metagenomic revolution and help of high-throughput sequencing technologies. Different ecological hypotheses explaining their high prevalence in soil and questioning their transfer rate to pathogens, in respect to these recent experimental results, will be discussed in the present review.
Schmidt, Susan; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia
Antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are contaminants of the environment because of their widespread use and incomplete removal by microorganisms during wastewater treatment. The influence of a mixture of ciprofloxacin (CIP), gentamicin (GM), sulfamethoxazole (SMZ)/trimethoprim (TMP), and vancomycin (VA), up to a final concentration of 40 mg/L, on the elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrification, and survival of bacteria, as well as the elimination of the antibiotics, was assessed in a long-term study in laboratory treatment plants (LTPs). In the presence of 30 mg/L antibiotics, nitrification of artificial sewage by activated sludge ended at nitrite. Nitrate formation was almost completely inhibited. No nitrification at all was possible in the presence of 40 mg/L antibiotics. The nitrifiers were more sensitive to antibiotics than heterotrophic bacteria. COD elimination in antibiotic-stressed LTPs was not influenced by ≤20 mg/L antibiotics. Addition of 30 mg/L antibiotic mixture decreased COD removal efficiency for a period, but the LTPs recovered. Similar results were obtained with 40 mg/L antibiotic mixture. The total viable count of bacteria was not affected negatively by the antibiotics. It ranged from 2.2 × 10(6) to 8.2 × 10(6) colony-forming units per milliliter (CFU/mL) compared with the control at 1.4 × 10(6)-6.3 × 10(6) CFU/mL. Elimination of the four antibiotics during phases of 2.4-30 mg/L from the liquid was high for GM (70-90 %), much lower for VA, TMP, and CIP (0-50 %), and highly fluctuating for SMZ (0-95 %). The antibiotics were mainly adsorbed to the sludge and not biodegraded.
Alouache, Souhila; Kada, Mohamed; Messai, Yamina; Estepa, Vanesa; Torres, Carmen; Bakour, Rabah
The aim of the study was to evaluate bacterial antibiotic resistance in seawater from four beaches in Algiers. The most significant resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin and ticarcillin, whereas they were relatively low for ceftazidime, cefotaxime and imipenem. According to sampling sites, the highest resistance rates were recorded for 2 sites subjected to chemical and microbiological inputs (amoxicillin, 43% and 52%; ticarcillin, 19.6% and 47.7%), and for 2 sites relatively preserved from anthropogenic influence, resistance rates were lowest (amoxicillin, 1.5% and 16%; ticarcillin, 0.8% and 2.6%). Thirty-four bacteria resistant to imipenem (n=14) or cefotaxime (n=20) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=15), Pseudomonas fluorescens (7), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4), Burkholderia cepacia (2), Bordetella sp. (1), Pantoea sp. (1), Acinetobacter baumannii (1), Chryseomonas luteola (1), Ochrobactrum anthropi (1) and Escherichia coli (1). Screening for extended spectrum β-lactamase showed the presence of CTX-M-15 β-lactamase in the E. coli isolate, and the encoding gene was transferable in association with the IncI1 plasmid of about 50 kbp. Insertion sequence ISEcp1B was located upstream of the CTX-M-15 gene. This work showed a significant level of resistance to antibiotics, mainly among environmental saprophytic bacteria. Transmissible CTX-M-15 was detected in E. coli; this may mean that contamination of the environment by resistant bacteria may cause the spread of resistance genes.
Alouache, Souhila; Kada, Mohamed; Messai, Yamina; Estepa, Vanesa; Torres, Carmen; Bakour, Rabah
The aim of the study was to evaluate bacterial antibiotic resistance in seawater from four beaches in Algiers. The most significant resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin and ticarcillin, whereas they were relatively low for ceftazidime, cefotaxime and imipenem. According to sampling sites, the highest resistance rates were recorded for 2 sites subjected to chemical and microbiological inputs (amoxicillin, 43% and 52%; ticarcillin, 19.6% and 47.7%), and for 2 sites relatively preserved from anthropogenic influence, resistance rates were lowest (amoxicillin, 1.5% and 16%; ticarcillin, 0.8% and 2.6%). Thirty-four bacteria resistant to imipenem (n=14) or cefotaxime (n=20) were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n=15), Pseudomonas fluorescens(7), Stenotrophomonas maltophilia(4), Burkholderia cepacia(2), Bordetella sp. (1), Pantoea sp. (1), Acinetobacter baumannii(1), Chryseomonas luteola(1), Ochrobactrum anthropi(1) and Escherichia coli(1). Screening for extended spectrum β-lactamase showed the presence of CTX-M-15 β-lactamase in the E. coli isolate, and the encoding gene was transferable in association with the IncI1 plasmid of about 50 kbp. Insertion sequence ISEcp1B was located upstream of the CTX-M-15 gene. This work showed a significant level of resistance to antibiotics, mainly among environmental saprophytic bacteria. Transmissible CTX-M-15 was detected in E. coli; this may mean that contamination of the environment by resistant bacteria may cause the spread of resistance genes. PMID:22095134
Fadli, Mariam; Chevalier, Jacqueline; Saad, Asmaa; Mezrioui, Nour-Eddine; Hassani, Lahcen; Pages, Jean-Marie
Bacterial drug resistance is a worrying public health problem. Antibiotic efflux is a major non-specific resistance mechanism used by bacteria, and efflux pumps are involved in the low-level susceptibility of various important Gram-negative pathogens. Use of molecules that can block bacterial pumps is an attractive strategy, but several studies report only partial efficacy owing to limits of these molecules (stability, selectivity, bioavailability, toxicity, etc.). The objective of this study was to search for natural sources of molecules able to inhibit efflux pump systems of resistant Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The results indicate that the studied essential oils exhibit interesting activity against the tested bacteria. This activity was significantly enhanced in the presence of an efflux pump inhibitor such as phenylalanine arginyl β-naphthylamide (PAβN). The role of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure in the effect of essential oils was also reported in Salmonella LPS deep-rough mutants. In addition, essential oils of Thymus maroccanus and Thymus broussonetii, used at a low concentration (a fraction of the minimum inhibitory concentration), are able to significantly increase chloramphenicol susceptibility of several resistant isolates. These results demonstrate that these essential oils can alter efflux pump activity and may be attractive candidates to develop new drugs for chemosensitising multidrug-resistant strains to clinically used antibiotics.
Boedicker, J.; Li, L; Kline, T; Ismagilov, R
This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as stochastic confinement. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.
Boedicker, James Q; Li, Liang; Kline, Timothy R; Ismagilov, Rustem F
This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as 'stochastic confinement'. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.
Tong, Juan; Liu, Jibao; Zheng, Xiang; Zhang, Junya; Ni, Xiaotang; Chen, Meixue; Wei, Yuansong
The fate of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were investigated during the sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) with microwave-acid (MW-H), microwave (MW) and microwave-H2O2-alkaline (MW-H2O2) pretreatments. Results showed that combined MW pretreatment especially for the MW-H pretreatment could efficiently reduce the ARB concentration, and most ARG concentrations tended to attenuate during the pretreatment. The subsequent AD showed evident removal of the ARB, but most ARGs were enriched after AD. Only the concentration of tetX kept continuous declination during the whole sludge treatment. The total ARGs concentration showed significant correlation with 16S rRNA during the pretreatment and AD. Compared with unpretreated sludge, the AD of MW and MW-H2O2 pretreated sludge presented slightly better ARB and ARGs reduction efficiency.
Impact of fertilizing with raw or anaerobically digested sewage sludge on the abundance of antibiotic-resistant coliforms, antibiotic resistance genes, and pathogenic bacteria in soil and on vegetables at harvest.
Rahube, Teddie O; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward
The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice.
El Salabi, Allaaeddin; Walsh, Timothey R; Chouchani, Chedly
Infectious diseases due to Gram-negative bacteria are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Antimicrobial agents represent one major therapeutic tools implicated to treat these infections. The misuse of antimicrobial agents has resulted in the emergence of resistant strains of Gram-negatives in particular Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters; they have an effect not only on a human but on the public health when bacteria use the resistance mechanisms to spread in the hospital environment and to the community outside the hospitals by means of mobile genetic elements. Gram-negative bacteria have become increasingly resistant to antimicrobial agents. They have developed several mechanisms by which they can withstand to antimicrobials, these mechanisms include the production of Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemases, furthermore, Gram-negative bacteria are now capable of spreading such resistance between members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenters using mobile genetic elements as vehicles for such resistance mechanisms rendering antibiotics useless. Therefore, addressing the issue of mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance is considered one of most urgent priorities. This review will help to illustrate different resistance mechanisms; ESBLs, carbapenemases encoded by genes carried by mobile genetic elements, which are used by Gram-negative bacteria to escape antimicrobial effect.
Rodríguez-Rojas, Alexandro; Rodríguez-Beltrán, Jerónimo; Valverde, José Ramón; Blázquez, Jesús
The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry has long been associated with the appearance of antibiotic resistance and virulence factor determinants. Nonetheless, the number of cases of human infection involving resistant or virulent microorganisms that originate in farms is increasing. While many antibiotics have been banned as dietary supplements in some countries, other additives thought to be innocuous in terms of the development and spread of antibiotic resistance are used as growth promoters. In fact, several clay materials are routinely added to animal feed with the aim of improving growth and animal product quality. However, recent findings suggest that sepiolite, a clay additive, mediates the direct transfer of plasmids between different bacterial species. We therefore hypothesize that clays present in animal feed facilitate the horizontal transfer of resistance determinants in the digestive tract of farm animals.
Xia, Ruirui; Ren, Ye; Guo, Xianhu; Xu, Hai
The molecular architecture of class 2 integrons among gram-negative bacteria from wastewater environments was investigated in Jinan, China. Out of the 391 antibiotic-resistant bacteria found, 38 isolates harboring class 2 integrons encoding potentially transferrable genes that could confer antibiotic resistance were found. These isolates were classified into 19 REP-PCR types. These strains were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and found to be as follows: Proteus mirabilis (16), Escherichia coli (7), Providencia spp. (7), Proteus spp. (2), P. vulgaris (3), Shigella sp. (1), Citrobacter freundii (1), and Acinetobacter sp. (1). Their class 2 integron cassette arrays were amplified and then either analyzed using PCR-RFLP or sequenced. The typical array dfrA1-sat2-aadA1 was detected in 27 isolates. Six atypical arrays were observed, including three kinds of novel arrangements (linF2(∆attC1)-dfrA1(∆attC2)-aadA1-orf441 or linF2(∆attC1)-dfrA1(∆attC2)-aadA1, dfrA1-catB2-sat2-aadA1, and estX(Vr)-sat2-aadA1) and a hybrid with the 3'CS of class 1 integrons (dfrA1-sat2-aadA1-qacH), and dfrA1-sat1. Twenty-four isolates were also found to carry class 1 integrons with 10 types of gene cassette arrays. Several non-integron-associated antibiotic resistance genes were found, and their transferability was investigated. Results showed that water sources in the Jinan region harbored a diverse community of both typical and atypical class 2 integrons, raising concerns about the overuse of antibiotics and their careless disposal into the environment.
Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Kai; Hou, Song; Wan, Li; Lv, Jiapei; Zhang, Yuan; Qu, Xiaodong; Chen, Shuyi; Xu, Jian
Inactivating antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) and removing antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are very important to prevent their spread into the environment. Previous efforts have been taken to eliminate ARB and ARGs from aqueous solution and sludges, however, few satisfying results have been obtained. This study investigated whether photocatalysis by TiO2 was able to reduce the two ARGs, mecA and ampC, within the host ARB, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. The addition of H2O2 and matrix effect on the removal of ARB and ARGs were also studied. TiO2 thin films showed great effect on both ARB inactivation and ARGs removal. Approximately 4.5-5.0 and 5.5-5.8 log ARB reductions were achieved by TiO2 under 6 and 12mJ/cm(2) UV254 fluence dose, respectively. For ARGs, 5.8 log mecA reduction and 4.7 log ampC reduction were achieved under 120mJ/cm(2) UV254 fluence dose in the presence of TiO2. Increasing dosage of H2O2 enhanced the removal efficiencies of ARB and ARGs. The results also demonstrated that photocatalysis by TiO2 was capable of removing both intracellular and extracellular forms of ARGs. This study provided a potential alternative method for the removal of ARB and ARGs from aqueous solution.
Decimo, Marilù; Silvetti, Tiziana; Brasca, Milena
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a major global health problem and resistance of Pseudomonadaceae and Enterobacteriaceae is a serious concern. We investigated the prevalence of drug-resistance in a total of 80 psychrotrophic strains from bulk milk belonging to Pseudomonas genus (n. 63) and Enterobacteriaceae group (n. 17). All the strains were tested against 16 antibiotics. Pseudomonas were further investigated for their sensitivity against 12 additional antibiotics. Pseudomonas showed a high susceptibility toward fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and piperacillin and, to a lesser extent, to imipenem, ceftazidime, cefepime. Thirty-five out of 63 Pseudomonas strains were susceptible to meropenem, while among antibiotics for which recommended breakpoints are not yet available, 55% of Pseudomonas strains had no inhibition halo in presence of nitrofurantoin, highlighting a resistance toward this drug. The results obtained in this study indicate a high efficiency of fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol (94%), and kanamycin (76%) for Enterobacteriaceae while a high prevalence of resistant strains was found to ampicillin (13/17). Serratia marcescens is highly susceptible to fluoroquinolones, chloramphenicol, and kanamycin. Moreover, mupirocin seems to be the new antibiotic with the less efficacy for Enterobacteriaceae, with 41% of strains without halo, pointing out an important resistance. Further knowledge on resistance to known and new antibiotics among Pseudomonas species and Enterobacteriaceae of milk origin was acquired.
Gonzalez, Ramon; Murarka, Abhishek; Dharmadi, Yandi; Yazdani, Syed Shams
Anaerobic fermentation of glycerol in the Enterobacteriaceae family has long been considered a unique property of species that synthesize 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PDO). However, we have discovered that Escherichia coli can ferment glycerol in a 1,3-PDO-independent manner. We identified 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PDO) as a fermentation product and established the pathway that mediates its synthesis as well as its role in the metabolism of glycerol. We also showed that the trunk pathway responsible for the conversion of glycerol into glycolytic intermediates is composed of two enzymes: a type II glycerol dehydrogenase (glyDH-II) and a dihydroxyacetone kinase (DHAK), the former of previously unknown physiological role. Based on our findings, we propose a new model for glycerol fermentation in enteric bacteria in which: (i) the production of 1,2-PDO provides a means to consume reducing equivalents generated in the synthesis of cell mass, thus facilitating redox balance, and (ii) the conversion of glycerol to ethanol, through a redox-balanced pathway, fulfills energy requirements by generating ATP via substrate-level phosphorylation. The activity of the formate hydrogen-lyase and F(0)F(1)-ATPase systems were also found to facilitate the fermentative metabolism of glycerol, and along with the ethanol and 1,2-PDO pathways, were considered auxiliary or enabling. We demonstrated that glycerol fermentation in E. coli was not previously observed due to the use of medium formulations and culture conditions that impair the aforementioned pathways. These include high concentrations of potassium and phosphate, low concentrations of glycerol, alkaline pH, and closed cultivation systems that promote the accumulation of hydrogen gas.
Maisuria, Vimal B.; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab
Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE. PMID:25819960
Maisuria, Vimal B; Hosseinidoust, Zeinab; Tufenkji, Nathalie
Phenolic compounds are believed to be promising candidates as complementary therapeutics. Maple syrup, prepared by concentrating the sap from the North American maple tree, is a rich source of natural and process-derived phenolic compounds. In this work, we report the antimicrobial activity of a phenolic-rich maple syrup extract (PRMSE). PRMSE exhibited antimicrobial activity as well as strong synergistic interaction with selected antibiotics against Gram-negative clinical strains of Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among the phenolic constituents of PRMSE, catechol exhibited strong synergy with antibiotics as well as with other phenolic components of PRMSE against bacterial growth. At sublethal concentrations, PRMSE and catechol efficiently reduced biofilm formation and increased the susceptibility of bacterial biofilms to antibiotics. In an effort to elucidate the mechanism for the observed synergy with antibiotics, PRMSE was found to increase outer membrane permeability of all bacterial strains and effectively inhibit efflux pump activity. Furthermore, transcriptome analysis revealed that PRMSE significantly repressed multiple-drug resistance genes as well as genes associated with motility, adhesion, biofilm formation, and virulence. Overall, this study provides a proof of concept and starting point for investigating the molecular mechanism of the reported increase in bacterial antibiotic susceptibility in the presence of PRMSE.
Wan, Guoqing; Ruan, Lingao; Yin, Yu; Yang, Tian; Ge, Mei; Cheng, Xiaodong
Acinetobacter baumannii resistance to carbapenem antibiotics is a serious clinical challenge. As a newly developed technology, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) show some excellent characteristics compared to older treatments, and are a candidate for combating A. baumannii infection. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In this study, we combined AgNPs with antibiotics to treat carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (aba1604). Our results showed that single AgNPs completely inhibited A. baumannii growth at 2.5 μg/mL. AgNP treatment also showed synergistic effects with the antibiotics polymixin B and rifampicin, and an additive effect with tigecyline. In vivo, we found that AgNPs–antibiotic combinations led to better survival ratios in A. baumannii-infected mouse peritonitis models than that by single drug treatment. Finally, we employed different antisense RNA-targeted Escherichia coli strains to elucidate the synergistic mechanism involved in bacterial responses to AgNPs and antibiotics. PMID:27574420
Argaw-Denboba, Ayele; Abejew, Asrat Agalu; Mekonnen, Alemayehu Gashaw
Antibiotic resistance is an increasingly serious threat to human health that needs an urgent action. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of bacteria isolated from patient ear discharges suspected of otitis media. A retrospective analysis was performed using culture and antibiotic susceptibility test results of 1225 patients who visited Dessie Regional Health Research Laboratory from 2001 to 2011. Results showed a strong association (P < 0.001) between age and the risk of acquiring middle ear infection. The predominant bacterial isolates were Proteus spp. (28.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (23.7%), and Pseudomonas spp. (17.2%). Most of the isolated bacteria showed high resistance to ampicillin (88.5%), ceftriaxone (84.5%), amoxicillin (81.9%), and tetracycline (74.5%). About 72.5% of Proteus spp. and 62.2% of Pseudomonas spp. have developed resistance to one and more antibiotics used to treat them. This retrospective study also revealed the overall antibiotic resistance rate of bacterial isolates was increased nearly twofold (P = 0.001) over the last decade. Relatively, ciprofloxacin and gentamicin were the most effective antibiotics against all the isolates. In conclusion, antibiotic-resistant bacteria are alarmingly increasing in Wollo area, northeastern Ethiopia, and becoming a major public health problem in the management of patients with middle ear infection. PMID:26904125
Van Acker, Heleen; Coenye, Tom
Recently, it was proposed that there is a common mechanism behind the activity of bactericidal antibiotics, involving the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the involvement of ROS in antibiotic-mediated killing has become the subject of much debate. In the present review, we provide an overview of the data supporting the ROS hypothesis; we also present data that explain the contradictory results often obtained when studying antibiotic-induced ROS production. For this latter aspect we will focus on the importance of taking the experimental setup into consideration and on the importance of some technical aspects of the assays typically used. Finally, we discuss the link between ROS production and toxin-antitoxin modules, and present an overview of implications for treatment.
Tahrani, Leyla; Soufi, Leila; Mehri, Ines; Najjari, Afef; Hassan, Abdenaceur; Van Loco, Joris; Reyns, Tim; Cherif, Ameur; Ben Mansour, Hedi
Contamination of surface waters in underdeveloped countries is a great concern. Treated and untreated wastewaters have been discharged into rivers and streams, leading to possible waterborne infection outbreaks which may represent a significant dissemination mechanism of antibiotic resistance genes among pathogenic bacterial populations. The present study aims to determine the multi-drug resistance patterns among isolated and identified bacterial strains in a pharmaceutical wastewater effluent in north Tunisia. Fourteen isolates were obtained and seven of them were identified. These isolates belong to different genera namely, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Exiguobacterium, Delftia and Morganella. Susceptibility patterns of these isolates were studied toward commonly used antibiotics in Tunisia. All the identified isolates were found to have 100% susceptibility against colistin sulfate and 100% resistance against amoxicillin. Among the 11 antibiotics tested, six patterns of multi-drug resistance were obtained. The potential of the examined wastewater effluent in spreading multi-drug resistance and the associated public health implications are discussed.
In France, many hospitals have reported high prevalence of multiply resistant strains, mostly in intensive care units. However, resistance has spred to other medical or surgical wards, and to rehabilitation or long term care facilities as well. Both antibiotic misure and cross-colonization via tronsient carriage on bouds of caregivers account for these epidemics. In turn, high prevalence of resistance leads to increased antibiotic prescriting which results in extra costs and further emergence of new resistance mechanisms. In addition, such high prevalence might well contribute to increased morbidity and extra-incidence of nosocomial infections. Control of resistant strains requires proper use of antibiotics and prevention of cross-colonization, which relies on identification of reservoirs and effective implementation of isolation precautions.
Amani, Jafar; Barjini, Kamal A; Moghaddam, Mehrdad M; Asadi, Asadollah
During the last decades, increase of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic bacteria has been considered as a global concern. Therefore, it is important to find new antimicrobial agents and/or therapeutic strategies. In previous studies we investigated antibacterial activity of the CM11 peptide against multiple drug resistant clinical isolates of six bacteria species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella typhimurium. In this study, in order to reduce treatment costs and the cytotoxic effect of CM11 peptide, was analyzed its synergic interaction with selected antibiotics. In this reason, specific antibiotics for each bacterium were selected considering the guidelines of the "Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute". Based on the results , using a checkerboard procedure through the broth microdilution method, MICs of antibiotic agents alone and in combination with the peptide were determined. In most cases, synergistic effects between CM11 peptide and selected antibiotics against six bacteria species were observed as partial synergy. However, for S. aureus and P. aeruginosaa synergic interaction between peptide and selective antibiotics was observed with penicillin and ceftazidime, respectively. For K. pneumoniae, synergic effect was observed when CM11 peptide was used in combination with norfloxacin and also the combination of peptide with norfloxacin showed synergic effect against A. baumannii. Combination between the CM11 peptide and ciprofloxacin showed synergic effect on E. coli while only partial synergy was observed for S. typhimurium in combination with cefotaxime and ceftazidime. These results suggest that when selected antibiotic used in combination with the CM11 peptide, the dose of some antibiotics, especially the dose independent antibiotics, may be reduced for eliminating drug resistant bacteria.
Darwin’s concept of survival of the fittest is as critical when applied to bacteria as it is to animals. Bacteria live in a highly competitive environment that is similar to the macrobiological world with its selective pressures. Neo-Darwinism views genes as selfish and as the ultimate unit of nat...
Sultana, Fouzia; Kamrunnahar; Afroz, Hafsa; Jahan, Afroz; Fakruddin, Md.; Datta, Suvamoy
Objective To investigate the bacterial load and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial isolates obtained from (ready to cook) frozen food samples of animal origin in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Methods A total of 20 samples of frozen ready to cook food of animal origin were purchased from different separate grocery stores in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Bacteria were isolated and identified based on the basis of biochemical properties. Results A total of 57 isolates has been isolated from 20 samples, of them 35.08% were Gram positive and 64.92% were Gram negative organisms. Highest percentages of isolated organisms were Staphylococcocus spp. (24.56%), Alcaligene spp. (17.54%), Klebshiella spp. (12.28%) and the lowest percentages of organisms were Enterococcus spp., Actinobacillus spp. and Proteus spp. Antibiogram results clearly showed that levofloxacin and imipenem were the most effective drug against the isolates. The less effective antibiotics were chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid and resistance was highest against ciprofloxacin. The most contaminated food was chicken nuggets. Conclusions This type of frozen food contaminated with multi-antibiotic resistant microorganisms can be potential vehicles for transmitting food-borne diseases. PMID:25183094
Duan, Manli; Li, Haichao; Gu, Jie; Tuo, Xiaxia; Sun, Wei; Qian, Xun; Wang, Xiaojuan
Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soil can affect human health via the food chain. Biochar is a soil amendment but its impacts on ARGs and the microbial communities associated with soil and vegetables are unclear. Therefore, we established three lettuce pot culture experiments, i.e., O300: 300 mg/kg oxytetracycline (OTC), BO300: 300 mg/kg OTC + 2% biochar, and a control without OTC or biochar. We found that under BO300, the relative abundances of ARGs were reduced by 51.8%, 43.4%, and 44.1% in lettuce leaves, roots, and soil, respectively, compared with O300. intI1 was highly abundant in soil and lettuce, and it co-occurred with some ARGs (tetW, ermF, and sul1). Redundancy analysis and network analysis indicated that the bacterial community succession was the main mechanism that affected the variations in ARGs and intI1. The reduction of Firmicutes due to the biochar treatment of soil and lettuce was the main factor responsible for the removal of tetracycline resistance genes in leaves. Biochar application led to the disappearance of human pathogenic bacteria (HPB), which was significantly correlated with the abundances of ermF and ermX. In summary, biochar is an effective farmland amendment for reducing the abundances of antibiotics, ARGs, and HPB in order to ensure the safety of vegetables and protect human health.
Chaisatit, Chaiyaporn; Tribuddharat, Chanwit; Pulsrikarn, Chaiwat; Dejsirilert, Surang
We assessed contamination by antibiotic-resistant bacteria in chicken meat obtained from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. The prevalence of Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli was 18.7% (14/75) and 53% (106/200), respectively. Most probable number (MPN) analysis showed that 56.7% of the samples (34/60) were in violation of the limit of allowable coliform bacteria in chicken meat, for which the maximum is 46,000 MPN/g. Multidrug-resistant phenotypes of both S. enterica and E. coli were found. The presence of class 1 integrons was demonstrated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot-blot hybridization. PCR showed that class 1 integrons were present in 42.9% (6/14) and 37.7% (40/106) of S. enterica and E. coli isolates, respectively. Resistance genes identified in this study were aadA2, aadA4, aadA22, and aadA23 (for aminoglycoside resistance); dfrA5 (for trimethoprim resistance), and lnuF (for lincosamide resistance). Four S. enterica isolates underwent multilocus sequence typing and the results were sequence type (ST) 50, ST 96, ST 1543, and ST 1549, which matched well with strains from many countries and reflected an international spread. Our study revealed that class 1 integrons have spread into community sources and might play an important role in horizontal antibiotic resistance gene transfer.
Hocquet, D; Muller, A; Bertrand, X
Hospitals are hotspots for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) and play a major role in both their emergence and spread. Large numbers of these ARB will be ejected from hospitals via wastewater systems. In this review, we present quantitative and qualitative data of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospital wastewaters compared to community wastewaters. We also discuss the fate of these ARB in wastewater treatment plants and in the downstream environment. Published studies have shown that hospital effluents contain ARB, the burden of these bacteria being dependent on their local prevalence. The large amounts of antimicrobials rejected in wastewater exert a continuous selective pressure. Only a few countries recommend the primary treatment of hospital effluents before their discharge into the main wastewater flow for treatment in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Despite the lack of conclusive data, some studies suggest that treatment could favour the ARB, notably ESBL-producing E. coli. Moreover, treatment plants are described as hotspots for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes between bacterial species. Consequently, large amounts of ARB are released in the environment, but it is unclear whether this release contributes to the global epidemiology of these pathogens. It is reasonable, nevertheless, to postulate that it plays a role in the worldwide progression of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance should now be seen as an 'environmental pollutant', and new wastewater treatment processes must be assessed for their capability in eliminating ARB, especially from hospital effluents.
Human infection with bacteria exhibiting mono or multiple antimicrobial resistance (MAR) has been a growing problem in the US, and studies have implicated livestock as a source of MAR bacteria primarily through foodborne transmission routes. However, waterborne transmission of...
Arredondo-García, José Luis; Soriano-Becerril, Diana; Solórzano-Santos, Fortino; Arbo-Sosa, Antonio; Coria-Jiménez, Rafael; Arzate-Barbosa, Patricia
Abstract Background Growing antibiotic resistance demands the constant reassessment of antimicrobial efficacy, particularly in countries with wide antibiotic abuse, where higher resistance prevalence is often found. Knowledge of resistance trends is particularly important when prescribing antibiotics empirically, as is usually the case for urinary tract infections (UTIs). Currently, in Mexico City, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole (trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole), and ciprofloxacin are used as “first-line” antibiotic treatment for UTI. Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the resistance of bacterial isolates to antibiotics, with a focus on first-line antibiotics, in Mexican pediatric patients and sexually active or pregnant female outpatients. Methods In this multicenter susceptibility analysis, bacterial isolates from urine samples collected from pediatric patients and sexually-active or pregnant female outpatients presenting with acute, uncomplicated UTIs in Mexico City from January 2006 through June 2006, were included in the study. Samples were tested for susceptibility to 10 antibiotics by the disk-diffusion method. Results Four-hundred and seventeen bacterial isolates were derived from sexually active or pregnant female outpatients (324 Escherichia coli) and pediatric patients (93 Klebsiella pneumoniae). We found a high prevalence of resistance towards the drugs used as “first-line” when treating UTIs: ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and ciprofloxacin (79%, 60%, and 24% resistance, respectively). Ninety-eight percent of K pneumoniae isolates were resistant to ampicillin, whereas 66% of the E coli isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. Resistance towards third-generation cephalosporins was also high (6%–8% of E coli and 10%–28% of K pneumoniae). This was possibly caused by chromosomal β-lactamases, as 30% of all isolates were also resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanate. In contrast, 98% of the E coli isolates and 84% of the K pneumoniae strains (96
Hare, Kim M.; Singleton, Rosalyn J.; Grimwood, Keith; Valery, Patricia C.; Cheng, Allen C.; Morris, Peter S.; Leach, Amanda J.; Smith-Vaughan, Heidi C.; Chatfield, Mark; Redding, Greg; Reasonover, Alisa L.; McCallum, Gabrielle B.; Chikoyak, Lori; McDonald, Malcolm I.; Brown, Ngiare; Torzillo, Paul J.; Chang, Anne B.
Background Indigenous children in Australia and Alaska have very high rates of chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD)/bronchiectasis. Antibiotics, including frequent or long-term azithromycin in Australia and short-term beta-lactam therapy in both countries, are often prescribed to treat these patients. In the Bronchiectasis Observational Study we examined over several years the nasopharyngeal carriage and antibiotic resistance of respiratory bacteria in these two PCV7-vaccinated populations. Methods Indigenous children aged 0.5–8.9 years with CSLD/bronchiectasis from remote Australia (n = 79) and Alaska (n = 41) were enrolled in a prospective cohort study during 2004–8. At scheduled study visits until 2010 antibiotic use in the preceding 2-weeks was recorded and nasopharyngeal swabs collected for culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Analysis of respiratory bacterial carriage and antibiotic resistance was by baseline and final swabs, and total swabs by year. Results Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage changed little over time. In contrast, carriage of Haemophilus influenzae declined and Staphylococcus aureus increased (from 0% in 2005–6 to 23% in 2010 in Alaskan children); these changes were associated with increasing age. Moraxella catarrhalis carriage declined significantly in Australian, but not Alaskan, children (from 64% in 2004–6 to 11% in 2010). While beta-lactam antibiotic use was similar in the two cohorts, Australian children received more azithromycin. Macrolide resistance was significantly higher in Australian compared to Alaskan children, while H. influenzae beta-lactam resistance was higher in Alaskan children. Azithromycin use coincided significantly with reduced carriage of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis, but increased carriage of S. aureus and macrolide-resistant strains of S. pneumoniae and S. aureus (proportion of carriers and all swabs), in a ‘cumulative dose-response’ relationship. Conclusions
Onyshchenko, O M; Kiprianova, O A; Lysenko, T H; Smirnov, V V
Antagonistic properties of 41 strains of Alteromonas-like bacteria isolated from the Black Sea water and molluscs have been studied. Being grown on the rich medium "B" for marine bacteria, 21% of strains have shown high antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic fungi; 6% of strains inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis, Proteus vulgaris and Candida albicans. Spectrum of antagonistic activity was essentially changed on synthetic "BM" medium with acetate, glutamate, alpha-alanine as a single source of carbon and was directed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Culture liquids and acetone extracts of microbial biomass of 34% of the studied strains have shown activity against bacteria, fungi and cyanobacteria. Strains producing the wide spectrum of antimicrobial substances (Alteromonas macleodii, Pseudoalteromonas citrea, P. haloplanktis, P. aurantia, Pseudoalteromonas sp.), fungicidal and algocidal substances have been found. Both extra- and intracellular metabolities of marine bacteria (including the pigments) were active.
Gonçalves, Flávia A; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Bezerra, José N S; Macrae, Andrew; Sousa, Oscarina Viana de; Fonteles-Filho, Antonio A; Vieira, Regine H S F
Guava leaf tea of Psidium guajava Linnaeus is commonly used as a medicine against gastroenteritis and child diarrhea by those who cannot afford or do not have access to antibiotics. This study screened the antimicrobial effect of essential oils and methanol, hexane, ethyl acetate extracts from guava leaves. The extracts were tested against diarrhea-causing bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli. Strains that were screened included isolates from seabob shrimp, Xiphopenaeus kroyeri (Heller) and laboratory-type strains. Of the bacteria tested, Staphylococcus aureus strains were most inhibited by the extracts. The methanol extract showed greatest bacterial inhibition. No statistically significant differences were observed between the tested extract concentrations and their effect. The essential oil extract showed inhibitory activity against S. aureus and Salmonella spp. The strains isolated from the shrimp showed some resistance to commercially available antibiotics. These data support the use of guava leaf-made medicines in diarrhea cases where access to commercial antibiotics is restricted. In conclusion, guava leaf extracts and essential oil are very active against S. aureus, thus making up important potential sources of new antimicrobial compounds.
Feng, Q; Huang, Y; Chen, M; Li, G; Chen, Y
In this study, the antimicrobial activities based on the synergistic effects of traditional antibiotics (imipenem, cefepime, levofloxacin hydrochloride and vancomycin) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs; PL-5, PL-31, PL-32, PL-18, PL-29 and PL-26), alone or in combination, against three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus epidermidis) and three Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae) were investigated. In addition, the antimicrobial activity that was based on the synergistic effects of levofloxacin hydrochloride and PL-5 against Staphylococcus aureus in vivo was explored in a mouse infection model. Traditional antibiotics and AMPs showed significant synergistic effects on the antibacterial activities against the different Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vitro. A strong synergistic effect in the PL-5 and levofloxacin hydrochloride combination against Staphylococcus aureus was observed in the mouse infection model in vivo. The mechanism of synergistic action was due to the different targets of AMPs and traditional antibiotics. The combination of AMPs and traditional antibiotics can dramatically enhance antimicrobial activity and may help prevent or delay the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Thus, this combination therapy could be a promising approach to treat bacterial infections, particularly mixed infections and multi-antibiotic-resistant infections, in the clinics.
Designation of pathogenic resistant bacteria in the Sparusaurata sea collected in Tunisia coastlines: Correlation with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of antibiotics.
Zouiten, Amina; Mehri, Ines; Beltifa, Asma; Ghorbel, Asma; Sire, Olivier; Van Loco, Joris; Abdenaceur, Hassen; Reyns, Tim; Ben Mansour, Hedi
Vibrio is characterized by a large number of species and some of them are human pathogens causing gastro intestinal and wound infections through the ingestion or manipulation of contaminated fishes including Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus. In this study, we reported the phenotypic and molecular characterization of Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio alginolyticus strains isolated from wild and farm sea bream (Sparus aurata L.) along the Tunisian coast from December 2015 to April 2016. Therefore, the antibiograms indicate a difference between farmed and wild fish. Resistance against amoxicillin antibiotic appears for the bacteria isolated from wild fish, while those from aquaculture farming presented sensitivity to amoxicillin and resistance to antibiotics colistin and fusidic acid. The chloramphenicol antibiotic exhibited a high sensitivity in all isolated bacteria. In fact, traces of amoxicillin in the organs of the fish from Hergla farm were detected by UPLC-MS/MS analysis during December 2016 to April 2016. In addition, antibiotics were detected in January 2014 with high concentration of norfloxacin 2262 ng/g in fish from Hergla coast. The results obtained in this work indicated that the use and presence of antibiotics in water impacts on the occurrence of resistant bacteria and the detection of antibiotic in fish.
McNeece, Grainne; Naughton, Violetta; Woodward, Martin J; Dooley, James S G; Naughton, Patrick J
The use of antibiotics in birds and animals intended for human consumption within the European Union (EU) and elsewhere has been subject to regulation prohibiting the use of antimicrobials as growth promoters and the use of last resort antibiotics in an attempt to reduce the spread of multi-resistant Gram negative bacteria. Given the inexorable spread of antibiotic resistance there is an increasing need for improved monitoring of our food. Using selective media, Gram negative bacteria were isolated from retail chicken of UK-Intensively reared (n=27), Irish-Intensively reared (n=19) and UK-Free range (n=30) origin and subjected to an oligonucleotide based array system for the detection of 47 clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two integrase genes. High incidences of β-lactamase genes were noted in all sample types, acc (67%), cmy (80%), fox (55%) and tem (40%) while chloramphenicol resistant determinants were detected in bacteria from the UK poultry portions and were absent in bacteria from the Irish samples. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to qualitatively analyse the Gram negative population in the samples and showed the expected diversity based on band stabbing and DNA sequencing. The array system proved to be a quick method for the detection of antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) burden within a mixed Gram negative bacterial population.
Hsu, Li-Yang; Tan, Thean-Yen; Tam, Vincent H; Kwa, Andrea; Fisher, Dale Andrew; Koh, Tse-Hsien
A surveillance study was performed in four Singapore public hospitals from 2006 to 2008 to determine the correlation between antibiotic prescription and Gram-negative bacterial antimicrobial resistance. Targeted organisms included ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, as well as imipenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp. Antibiotic prescription data were collated in the WHO anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC)/defined daily dose (DDD) format, while antibiotic resistance was expressed as incidence density adjusted for total inpatient-days every quarter. Individual trends were determined by linear regression, while possible associations between antibiotic prescription and resistance were evaluated via cross-correlation analysis. Results over 3 years indicated significantly rising incidence densities of ceftriaxone- and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli and imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (blood isolates only). Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae rates declined. The prescription rates of piperacillin-tazobactam, ertapenem, meropenem, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin increased significantly, while imipenem and moxifloxacin prescription decreased. Cross-correlation analysis demonstrated possible associations between prescription of fluoroquinolones and ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli (R(2) = 0.46), fluoroquinolones and ceftriaxone-resistant E. coli (R(2) = 0.47), and carbapenems and imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. (R(2) = 0.48), all at zero time lag. Changes in meropenem prescription were associated with a similar trend in imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter blood isolates after a 3-month time lag. No correlation was found between cephalosporin use and resistance. In conclusion, our data demonstrated correlation between prescription of and Gram-negative bacterial resistance to several, but not all, key antimicrobial agents in Singapore hospitals. In areas where Gram-negative bacterial
Antibiotic-resistant and heavy metal-resistant phenotypic frequency was measured in Chesapeake Bay bacterial strains obtained from Bay sites differing significantly in water quality. The phenotypes were estimated from dose-response curves using direct plating, replica plating, and minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Resistant and sensitive organisms could be distinguished by concentrations of twenty micrograms per milliliter for various antibiotics (ampicillin, chloramphenicol, nalidixic acid, penicillin, streptomycin, and tetracycline), and of 0.05 millimolar for the heavy metals tested (cadmium, mercury, nickel, and lead). Individual resistance phenotypes of 1816 isolates were determined with the replica technique, with 85% resistant to at least one antibiotic and a surprising 2% resistant to all six drugs tested. Occurrence of resistant organisms did not correlate with water quality, sampling location, season, sample type, or physical parameters of the site. Ninety-two percent of organisms examined were resistant to at least one metal studied, with 43% resistant to all metals, but resistance did not correlate with any station or sample parameters. Metal and drug resistant phenotypes did correlate positively with one another, but these two traits were not appreciably linked on plasmid DNA.
Huang, Jing Jing; Xi, Jing Ying; Hu, Hong Ying; Tang, Fang; Pang, Yu Chen
Inactivation and microbial regrowth of penicillin-, ampicillin-, cefalexin-, tetracycline-, chloramphenicol-, and rifampicin-resistant bacteria were studied to explore risks associated with selection and regrowth of antibiotic-resistant bacteria after PAA disinfection. The results showed that after exposure to 20 mg/L PAA for 10 min, inactivation of ampicillin-resistant bacteria reached 2.3-log, which was significantly higher than that of total heterotrophic bacteria with a decrease of 2.0-log. In contrast, inactivation of tetracycline- resistant bacteria was significantly less efficient, reaching only 1.1-log. Chloramphenicol-and tetracycline-resistant bacteria, as well as total heterotrophic bacteria regrew more than 10 fold compared to those in the untreated wastewater sample with 22 h stilling culture after exposure to 2 or 5 mg/L PAA as for 10 min. Selection and potential regrowth of tetracycline-and chloramphenicol-resistant bacteria are potential risks when utilizing PAA disinfection, which may induce the spread of specific antibiotic-resistant bacteria in reclaimed water.
Kumar, Praveen; Kumar, Ruchika
Enteric fever is an important public-health problem in India. The clinical presentation of typhoid fever is very variable, ranging from fever with little other morbidities to marked toxemia and associated multisystem complications. Fever is present in majority of patients (>90 %) irrespective of their age group. Mortality is higher in younger children. Blood culture remains gold standard for diagnosis. Widal test has low sensitivity and specificity but may be used in second week to support the diagnosis. Emerging resistance to several antibiotics should be kept in mind when selecting antibiotics or revising the treatment. The key preventive strategies are safe water, safe food, personal hygiene, and appropriate sanitation. Vaccination is an additional effective tool for prevention.
Impact of Fertilizing with Raw or Anaerobically Digested Sewage Sludge on the Abundance of Antibiotic-Resistant Coliforms, Antibiotic Resistance Genes, and Pathogenic Bacteria in Soil and on Vegetables at Harvest
Rahube, Teddie O.; Marti, Romain; Scott, Andrew; Tien, Yuan-Ching; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Zhang, Yun; Duenk, Peter; Lapen, David R.
The consumption of crops fertilized with human waste represents a potential route of exposure to antibiotic-resistant fecal bacteria. The present study evaluated the abundance of bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes by using both culture-dependent and molecular methods. Various vegetables (lettuce, carrots, radish, and tomatoes) were sown into field plots fertilized inorganically or with class B biosolids or untreated municipal sewage sludge and harvested when of marketable quality. Analysis of viable pathogenic bacteria or antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria by plate counts did not reveal significant treatment effects of fertilization with class B biosolids or untreated sewage sludge on the vegetables. Numerous targeted genes associated with antibiotic resistance and mobile genetic elements were detected by PCR in soil and on vegetables at harvest from plots that received no organic amendment. However, in the season of application, vegetables harvested from plots treated with either material carried gene targets not detected in the absence of amendment. Several gene targets evaluated by using quantitative PCR (qPCR) were considerably more abundant on vegetables harvested from sewage sludge-treated plots than on vegetables from control plots in the season of application, whereas vegetables harvested the following year revealed no treatment effect. Overall, the results of the present study suggest that producing vegetable crops in ground fertilized with human waste without appropriate delay or pretreatment will result in an additional burden of antibiotic resistance genes on harvested crops. Managing human exposure to antibiotic resistance genes carried in human waste must be undertaken through judicious agricultural practice. PMID:25172864
Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson; Nakano, Viviane; Wahasugui, Thais C; Cabral, Fátima C; Gamba, Rosa; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric bacteria and yeasts in biofilm of 80 HIV-positive patients with plaque-associated gingivitis or necrotizing periodontitis. Patients were subjected to extra, intra oral and radiographic examinations. The oral hygiene, bleeding on probing, gingival conditions, and attachment loss were evaluated. Clinical specimens were collected from gingival crevices or periodontal pockets, transferred to VMGA III, diluted and transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose agar with 100 μg/ml of chloramphenicol, peptone water, EVA broth, EMB agar, SS agar, Bile esculin agar and Brilliant green agar. Isolation of yeasts was carried out at room temperature, for 3-7 days; and for the isolation of enteric microorganisms plates were incubated at 37°C, for 24-48 h. The yeasts identification was performed according to the carbon and nitrogen assimilation, fermentation of carbohydrates and germ tube formation. Bacteria were identified according to their colonial and cellular morphologies and biochemical tests. Yeasts were identified as Candida albicans and its occurrence was more common in patients with CD4+ below 200/mm(3) and was affected by the extension of periodontal involvement (P = 0.0345). Enteric bacteria recovered from clinical specimens were identified as Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterococcus sp. Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were detected in 32.5% of clinical samples from patients with necrotizing periodontitis. In conclusion, non-oral pathogenic bacteria and C. albicans were more prevalent in periodontal sites of HIV-positive patients with necrotizing periodontitis and chronic gingivitis.
Gaetti-Jardim Júnior, Elerson; Nakano, Viviane; Wahasugui, Thais C.; Cabral, Fátima C.; Gamba, Rosa; Avila-Campos, Mario Julio
The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of enteric bacteria and yeasts in biofilm of 80 HIV-positive patients with plaque-associated gingivitis or necrotizing periodontitis. Patients were subjected to extra, intra oral and radiographic examinations. The oral hygiene, bleeding on probing, gingival conditions, and attachment loss were evaluated. Clinical specimens were collected from gingival crevices or periodontal pockets, transferred to VMGA III, diluted and transferred to Sabouraud Dextrose agar with 100 μg/ml of chloramphenicol, peptone water, EVA broth, EMB agar, SS agar, Bile esculin agar and Brilliant green agar. Isolation of yeasts was carried out at room temperature, for 3-7 days; and for the isolation of enteric microorganisms plates were incubated at 37°C, for 24-48 h. The yeasts identification was performed according to the carbon and nitrogen assimilation, fermentation of carbohydrates and germ tube formation. Bacteria were identified according to their colonial and cellular morphologies and biochemical tests. Yeasts were identified as Candida albicans and its occurrence was more common in patients with CD4+ below 200/mm3 and was affected by the extension of periodontal involvement (P = 0.0345). Enteric bacteria recovered from clinical specimens were identified as Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia liquefaciens, Klebsiella oxytoca and Enterococcus sp. Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci were detected in 32.5% of clinical samples from patients with necrotizing periodontitis. In conclusion, non-oral pathogenic bacteria and C. albicans were more prevalent in periodontal sites of HIV-positive patients with necrotizing periodontitis and chronic gingivitis. PMID:24031212
Zarkan, Ashraf; Macklyne, Heather-Rose; Truman, Andrew W.; Hesketh, Andrew R.; Hong, Hee-Jeon
Vancomycin is a front-line antibiotic used for the treatment of nosocomial infections, particularly those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Despite its clinical importance the global effects of vancomycin exposure on bacterial physiology are poorly understood. In a previous transcriptomic analysis we identified a number of Zur regulon genes which were highly but transiently up-regulated by vancomycin in Streptomyces coelicolor. Here, we show that vancomycin also induces similar zinc homeostasis systems in a range of other bacteria and demonstrate that vancomycin binds to Zn(II) in vitro. This implies that vancomycin treatment sequesters zinc from bacterial cells thereby triggering a Zur-dependent zinc starvation response. The Kd value of the binding between vancomycin and Zn(II) was calculated using a novel fluorometric assay, and NMR was used to identify the binding site. These findings highlight a new biologically relevant aspect of the chemical property of vancomycin as a zinc chelator. PMID:26797186
Singh, Nina; Sit, Matthew T.; Chung, Deanna M.; Lopez, Ana A.; Weerackoon, Ranil; Yeh, Pamela J.
Media plays an important role in informing the general public about scientific ideas. We examine whether the word “evolve,” sometimes considered controversial by the general public, is frequently used in the popular press. Specifically, we ask how often articles discussing antibiotic resistance use the word “evolve” (or its lexemes) as opposed to alternative terms such as “emerge” or “develop.” We chose the topic of antibiotic resistance because it is a medically important issue; bacterial evolution is a central player in human morbidity and mortality. We focused on the most widely-distributed newspapers written in English in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, India, and Australia. We examined all articles that focused primarily on the evolution of antibiotic resistance, were published in 2014 or earlier, and were accessible in online archives, for a total of 1639 articles. The total years examined per newspaper ranged from 5 to 37 years with a median of 27 years, and the overall range was 1978–2014. We quantified how many articles included the term “evolve” and analyzed how this varied with newspaper, country, and time. We found that an overall rate of 18% of articles used the term “evolve” but with significant variation among countries. Newspapers in the United Kingdom had the highest rate (24%), more than double of those in India (9%), the country with the lowest rate. These frequencies were lower than those found in scientific papers from both evolutionary journals and biomedical journals. There were no statistically significant changes in frequency and no trends when “evolve” usage was compared against variables such as newspaper circulation, liberal/conservative bias, time, and state evolution acceptance in U.S. newspapers. This study highlights the globally low usage of the word “evolve” in the popular press. We suggest this low usage may affect public understanding and acceptance of evolutionary concepts. PMID
Sytnik, I A; Puzakova, E V
The combined effect of monomycin, kanamycin, neomycin and nitrofurans, such as furacillin, furagin, nitrofurantoin and furazolidone with bovine bile was studied on 36 strains of Proteus mirabilis and 14 strains of Proteus vulgaris. It was found that sub-bacteriostatic doses of the bile significantly increased the antiproteus activity of the aminoglycoside antibiotics and nitrofurans. The combinations of the bile with monomycin and kanamycin and the bile with furazolidone and nitrofurantoin proved to be most effective. Clinical trials of the drugs in treatment of inflammatory diseases of the biliferous system of the Proteus etiology are recommended.
Qian, Chao-Dong; Teng, Yi; Zhao, Wen-Peng; Li, Ou; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Huang, Zhao-Hui; Gao, Hai-Chun
Hospital-acquired infections caused by drug-resistant bacteria are a significant challenge to patient safety. Numerous clinical isolates resistant to almost all commercially available antibiotics have emerged. Thus, novel antimicrobial agents, specifically those for multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria, are urgently needed. In the current study, we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and preliminary biological characterization of a new cationic lipopeptide antibiotic, battacin or octapeptin B5, produced from a Paenibacillus tianmuensis soil isolate. Battacin kills bacteria in vitro and has potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria, including multidrug-resistant and extremely drug-resistant clinical isolates. Hospital strains of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are the pathogens most sensitive to battacin, with MICs of 2 to 4 μg/ml. The ability of battacin to disrupt the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is comparable to that of polymyxin B, the last-line therapy for infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, the capacity of battacin to permeate bacterial plasma membranes is less extensive than that of polymyxin B. The bactericidal kinetics of battacin correlate with the depolarization of the cell membrane, suggesting that battacin kills bacteria by disrupting the cytoplasmic membrane. Other studies indicate that battacin is less acutely toxic than polymyxin B and has potent in vivo biological activity against E. coli. Based on the findings of the current study, battacin may be considered a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of infections caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. PMID:22183171
Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R; Antaki, Elizabeth; Applegate, Olin; Bergamaschi, Brian; Bond, Ronald F; Chase, Jennifer; Ransom, Katherine M; Samuels, William; Watanabe, Naoko; Harter, Thomas
Surveys of microbiological groundwater quality were conducted in a region with intensive animal agriculture in California, USA. The survey included monitoring and domestic wells in eight concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) and 200 small (domestic and community supply district) supply wells across the region. was not detected in groundwater, whereas O157:H7 and were each detected in 2 of 190 CAFO monitoring well samples. Nonpathogenic generic and spp. were detected in 24.2% (46/190) and 97.4% (185/190) groundwater samples from CAFO monitoring wells and in 4.2% (1/24) and 87.5% (21/24) of CAFO domestic wells, respectively. Concentrations of both generic and spp. were significantly associated with well depth, season, and the type of adjacent land use in the CAFO. No pathogenic bacteria were detected in groundwater from 200 small supply wells in the extended survey. However, 4.5 to 10.3% groundwater samples were positive for generic and . Concentrations of generic were not significantly associated with any factors, but concentrations of were significantly associated with proximity to CAFOs, seasons, and concentrations of potassium in water. Among a subset of and isolates from both surveys, the majority of (63.6%) and (86.1%) isolates exhibited resistance to multiple (≥3) antibiotics. Findings confirm significant microbial and antibiotic resistance loading to CAFO groundwater. Results also demonstrate significant attenuative capacity of the unconfined alluvial aquifer system with respect to microbial transport.
Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Bandehpour, M; Mozafari, M; Hashemi, A; Ghanbarian, H; Sameni, M; Salimi, M; Gholami, M; Samadikuchaksaraei, A
Human amniotic membranes (HAMs) have attracted the attention of burn surgeons for decades due to favorable properties such as their antibacterial activity and promising support of cell proliferation. On the other hand, as a major implication in the health of burn patients, the prevalence of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics is increasing due to overuse of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HAMs (both fresh and acellular) are an effective antibacterial agent against antibiotic-resistant bacteria isolated from burn patients. Therefore, a HAM was decellularized and tested for its antibacterial activity. Decellularization of the tissue was confirmed by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. In addition, the cyto-biocompatibility of the acellular HAM was proven by the cell viability test (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide, MTT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The resistant bacteria were isolated from burns, identified, and tested for their susceptibility to antibiotics using both the antibiogram and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Among the isolated bacteria, three blaIMP gene-positive Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains were chosen for their high resistance to the tested antibiotics. The antibacterial activity of the HAM was also tested for Klebsiella pneumoniae (American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 700603) as a resistant ATCC bacterium; Staphylococcus aureus (mecA positive); and three standard strains of ATCC bacteria including Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27833), and S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Antibacterial assay revealed that only the latter three bacteria were susceptible to the HAM. All the data obtained from this study suggest that an alternative strategy is required to complement HAM grafting in order to fully protect burns from nosocomial infections.
González-Torralba, Ana; García-Esteban, Coral; Alós, Juan-Ignacio
Infectious gastroenteritis remains a public health problem. The most severe cases are of bacterial origin. In Spain, Campylobacter and Salmonella are the most prevalent bacterial genus, while Yersinia and Shigella are much less frequent. Most cases are usually self-limiting and antibiotic therapy is not generally indicated, unless patients have risk factors for severe infection and shigellosis. Ciprofloxacin, third generation cephalosporins, azithromycin, ampicillin, cotrimoxazole and doxycycline are the most recommended drugs. The susceptibility pattern of the different bacteria determines the choice of the most appropriate treatment. The aim of this review is to analyse the current situation, developments, and evolution of resistance and multidrug resistance in these 4 enteric pathogens.
Dang, Hongyue; Song, Linsheng; Chen, Mingna; Chang, Yaqing
A basic understanding of abundance and diversity of antibiotic-resistant microbes and their genetic determinants is necessary for finding a way to prevent and control the spread of antibiotic resistance. For this purpose, chloramphenicol and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria were screened from a mariculture farm in northern China. Both sea cucumber and sea urchin rearing ponds were populated with abundant antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially marine vibrios. Sixty-five percent chloramphenicol-resistant isolates from sea cucumber harbored a cat gene, either cat IV or cat II, whereas 35% sea urchin isolates harbored a cat gene, actually cat II. The predominant resistance determinant cat IV gene mainly occurred in isolates related to Vibrio tasmaniensis or Pseudoalteromonas atlantica, and the cat II gene mainly occurred in Vibrio splendidus-like isolates. All the cat-positive isolates also harbored one or two of the tet genes, tet(D), tet(B), or tet(A). As no chloramphenicol-related antibiotic was ever used, coselection of the cat genes by other antibiotics, especially oxytetracycline, might be the cause of the high incidence of cat genes in the mariculture farm studied.
Harwood, Valerie J.; Whitlock, John; Withington, Victoria
The antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from domestic wastewater and animal feces were determined using a battery of antibiotics (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline, erythromycin, streptomycin, and vancomycin) at four concentrations each. The sources of animal feces included wild birds, cattle, chickens, dogs, pigs, and raccoons. Antibiotic resistance patterns of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms from known sources were grouped into two separate databases, and discriminant analysis of these patterns was used to establish the relationship between the antibiotic resistance patterns and the bacterial source. The fecal streptococcus and fecal coliform databases classified isolates from known sources with similar accuracies. The average rate of correct classification for the fecal streptococcus database was 62.3%, and that for the fecal coliform database was 63.9%. The sources of fecal streptococci and fecal coliforms isolated from surface waters were identified by discriminant analysis of their antibiotic resistance patterns. Both databases identified the source of indicator bacteria isolated from surface waters directly impacted by septic tank discharges as human. At sample sites selected for relatively low anthropogenic impact, the dominant sources of indicator bacteria were identified as various animals. The antibiotic resistance analysis technique promises to be a useful tool in assessing sources of fecal contamination in subtropical waters, such as those in Florida. PMID:10966379
The objective of this study was to compare, over a year, fecal occurrences of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) in fed-cattle between two production systems: "raised without antibiotics" (RWA) and “conventional” (CONV). Feces were recovered from colons at a commercial beef processing plant obta...
Zapor, Michael J; Erwin, Daniel; Erowele, Goldina; Wortmann, Glenn
Since the invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan, the epidemiologic traits of clinical isolates at Walter Reed Army Medical Center have shifted toward drug-resistant strains of microorganisms, particularly among the gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, antibiotic prescribing patterns during this period have changed remarkably and mirror the emergence of these organisms at our institution.
Dias, Carla; Aires, Alfredo; Bennett, Richard N; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J
The emergence of new diseases and the resurgence of several infections that were controlled in the past, associated with recent increase of bacterial resistance have created the necessity for more studies towards to the development of new antimicrobials and new treatment strategies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro synergy between different classes of important glucosinolates hydrolysis products-isothiocyanates with antibiotics (gentamycin and vancomycin), against important pathogenic bacteria: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Listeria monocytogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. A disc diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial activity. The antimicrobial activity of phytochemicals and combinations between gentamycin, vancomycin and phytochemicals were quantitatively assessed by measuring the inhibitory halos. The results showed a selective antimicrobial effect of isothiocyanates, and this effect was strictly related with their chemical structure. In general the benzylisothiocyanate was the most effective compound against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were the bacteria most affected either by the phytochemicals alone or by the combination phytochemical-antibiotic. The bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the less affected pathogen. The most important synergism detected occurred between the commercial antibiotics with benzylisothiocyanate and 2-phenylethylisothiocyanate. In conclusion, some isothiocyanates are effective inhibitors of in vitro bacterial growth, and they can act synergistically with antibiotics.
Hall, Clayton W; Mah, Thien-Fah
Biofilms are surface-attached groups of microbial cells encased in an extracellular matrix that are significantly less susceptible to antimicrobial agents than non-adherent, planktonic cells. Biofilm-based infections are, as a result, extremely difficult to cure. A wide range of molecular mechanisms contribute to the high degree of recalcitrance that is characteristic of biofilm communities. These mechanisms include, among others, interaction of antimicrobials with biofilm matrix components, reduced growth rates and the various actions of specific genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance and tolerance. Alone, each of these mechanisms only partially accounts for the increased antimicrobial recalcitrance observed in biofilms. Acting in concert, however, these defences help to ensure the survival of biofilm cells in the face of even the most aggressive antimicrobial treatment regimens. This review summarises both historical and recent scientific data in support of the known biofilm resistance and tolerance mechanisms. Additionally, suggestions for future work in the field are provided.
Andersson, Jourdan A.; Fitts, Eric C.; Kirtley, Michelle L.; Ponnusamy, Duraisamy; Peniche, Alex G.; Dann, Sara M.; Motin, Vladimir L.; Chauhan, Sadhana; Rosenzweig, Jason A.; Sha, Jian
Antibiotic resistance in medically relevant bacterial pathogens, coupled with a paucity of novel antimicrobial discoveries, represents a pressing global crisis. Traditional drug discovery is an inefficient and costly process; however, systematic screening of Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapeutics for other indications in humans offers a rapid alternative approach. In this study, we screened a library of 780 FDA-approved drugs to identify molecules that rendered RAW 264.7 murine macrophages resistant to cytotoxicity induced by the highly virulent Yersinia pestis CO92 strain. Of these compounds, we identified 94 not classified as antibiotics as being effective at preventing Y. pestis-induced cytotoxicity. A total of 17 prioritized drugs, based on efficacy in in vitro screens, were chosen for further evaluation in a murine model of pneumonic plague to delineate if in vitro efficacy could be translated in vivo. Three drugs, doxapram (DXP), amoxapine (AXPN), and trifluoperazine (TFP), increased animal survivability despite not exhibiting any direct bacteriostatic or bactericidal effect on Y. pestis and having no modulating effect on crucial Y. pestis virulence factors. These findings suggested that DXP, AXPN, and TFP may modulate host cell pathways necessary for disease pathogenesis. Finally, to further assess the broad applicability of drugs identified from in vitro screens, the therapeutic potential of TFP, the most efficacious drug in vivo, was evaluated in murine models of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and Clostridium difficile infections. In both models, TFP treatment resulted in increased survivability of infected animals. Taken together, these results demonstrate the broad applicability and potential use of nonantibiotic FDA-approved drugs to combat respiratory and gastrointestinal bacterial pathogens. PMID:27067323
The purpose of this report is to present data collected between 1991 and 1993 that characterizes the water quality of the Withers Swash Basin in Myrtle Beach, S.C. Data collected for this investigation reflect base- and high-flow water-quality sampling and intensive bacteria sampling. Specifically, the report includes discussions of the following data: (1) streamflow, (2) rainfall amounts, (3) values of physical properties, (4) inorganic constituent concentrations, and (5) organic compound concentrations. The report also extensively discusses results of a large-scale sampling effort for documentation of enteric bacteria counts in the Withers Swash Basin and the near-shore Atlantic Ocean. A discussion of the best management practices that reduce nonpoint-source pollution in the basin also is included.
Baek, Eunhye; Lee, Dokyung; Jang, Seok; An, Hyangmi; Kim, Mijin; Kim, Kyungjae; Lee, Kangoh; Ha, Namjoo
One hundred ninety-three frozen food samples collected in Korea various public bazaars from October 2006 to September 2007. Staphylococci were detected in 21.8% of frozen food samples. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from 17 (8.8%) samples. Other staphylococci isolates were identified as S. warneri (7.8%), S. epidermidis (2.1%), S. xylosus (1.6%), S. eguorum (1%), and S. vitulinus (0.5%). Additionally, the antimicrobial susceptibility of 42 staphylococcal isolates to ten different antimicrobial agents was determined. The staphylococcal isolates demonstrated antimicrobial resistance to mupirocin (31%) oxacillin (14.3%), gentamicin (9.5%), teicoplanin (7.1%) and ciprofloxacin (7.1%). Most of the staphylococcal isolates showed high-level resistance to mupirocin (MIC(90), >128 microg/mL). Fortunately, most of the isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. The total bacteria and Escherichia coli count were tested to investigate the microbiological quality of frozen foods. From 193 frozen food samples, 43 (22.3%), 34 (17.6%) and 19 (9.8%) samples were shown to be of unacceptable quality due to total bacteria, coliform and E. coli counts, respectively.
Choi, Na-Young; Kang, Sun-Young; Kim, Kang-Ju
In this study, we used ethanol extract of A. princeps and investigated its antibacterial effects against MRSA. Ethanol extract of A. princeps significantly inhibited MRSA growth and organic acid production during glucose metabolism at concentrations greater than 1 mg/mL (P < 0.05). MRSA biofilm formation was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and safranin staining. A. princeps extract was found to inhibit MRSA biofilm formation at concentrations higher than 2 mg/mL significantly (P < 0.05). Bactericidal effects of the A. princeps were observed using confocal laser microscopy, which showed that A. princeps was bactericidal in a dose-dependent manner. Using real-time PCR, expression of mecA, an antibiotic-resistance gene of MRSA, was observed, along with that of sea, agrA, and sarA. A. princeps significantly inhibited mecA, sea, agrA, and sarA, mRNA expression at the concentrations greater than 1 mg/mL (P < 0.05). The phytochemical analysis of A. princeps showed a relatively high content of organic acids and glycosides. The results of this study suggest that the ethanol extract of A. princeps may inhibit proliferation, acid production, biofilm formation, and virulence gene expressions of MRSA, which may be related to organic acids and glycosides, the major components in the extract. PMID:26247012
Wannigama, D Leshan; Dwivedi, Rishabh; Zahraei-Ramazani, Alireza
Background Cockroaches are among the medically important pests found within the human habitations that cause serious public health problems. They may harbor a number of pathogenic bacteria on the external surface with antibiotic resistance. Hence, they are regarded as major microbial vectors. This study investigates the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria species isolated from Periplaneta americana and Blattella germanica in Varanasi, India. Methods: Totally, 203 adult cockroaches were collected form 44 households and 52 food-handling establishments by trapping. Bacteriological examination of external surfaces of Pe. americana and Bl. germanica were carried out using standard method and antibiotics susceptibility profiles of the isolates were determined using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion methods. Results: Among the places, we found that 54% had cockroache infestation in households and 77% in food- handling establishments. There was no significant different between the overall bacteria load of the external surface in Pe. americana (64.04%) and Bl. germanica (35.96%). However the predominant bacteria on cockroaches were Klebsiella pneumonia, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, Kl. pneumoniae and Ps. aeruginosa were the most prevalent, drug-resistant strains were isolated from the cockroaches with 100% resistance to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and ampicillin. For individual strains of bacteria, Escherichia coli was found to have multi-resistance to four antibiotic tested, Citrobacter freundii four, Enterobacter aerogenes and Proteus mirabilis to three. Conclusion: Cockroaches are uniformly distributed in domestic environment, which can be a possible vector for transmission of drug-resistant bacteria and food-borne diseases. PMID:25629061
Battison, Andrea L; Després, Béatrice M; Greenwood, Spencer J
An intermoult male American lobster, Homarus americanus, with severe intestinal lesions was encountered while collecting samples of aerobic intestinal bacteria from lobsters held in an artificial sea-water recirculation aquarium system. Grossly, the intestine was firm, thickened, and white. Histologic examination revealed a severe, diffuse, ulcerative enteritis which spared the chitin-lined colon, somewhat similar to hemocytic enteritis of shrimp. The bacterial isolates from this lobster were compared to 11 other lobsters lacking gross intestinal lesions. Two organisms, one identified as Vibrio sp. and another most similar to an uncultured proteobacterium (98.9%), clustering with Rhanella and Serratia species using 16S rDNA PCR, were isolated from the intestines of the 11, grossly normal, lobsters and the affected lobster. An additional two intestinal isolates were cultured only from the lobster with ulcerative enteritis. One, a Flavobacterium, similar to Lutibacter litoralis (99.3%), possibly represented a previously described commensal of the distal intestine. The second, a Vibrio sp., was unique to the affected animal. While the etiology of the ulcerative enteritis remains undetermined, this report represents the first description of gross and histologic findings in H. americanus of a condition which has morphologic similarities to hemocytic enteritis of shrimp. An additional observation was a decrease in the number of intestinal isolates recovered from the 11 apparently healthy lobsters compared to that previously reported for recently harvested lobster. More comprehensive studies of the relationship between the health of lobsters, gut microbial flora and the husbandry and environment maintained within holding units are warranted.
Wong, Kelvin; Onan, Brandon M; Xagoraraki, Irene
The most common class B biosolids in the United States are generated by mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD), and MAD biosolids have been used for land application. However, the pathogen levels in MAD biosolids are still unclear, especially with respect to enteric viruses. In this study, we determined the occurrence and the quantitative levels of enteric viruses and indicators in 12 MAD biosolid samples and of Salmonella enterica in 6 MAD biosolid samples. Three dewatered biosolid samples were also included in this study for purposes of comparison. Human adenoviruses (HAdV) had the highest gene levels and were detected more frequently than other enteric viruses. The gene levels of noroviruses (NV) reported were comparable to those of enteroviruses (EV) and human polyomaviruses (HPyV). The occurrence percentages of HAdV, HAdV species F, EV, NV GI, NV GII, and HPyV in MAD samples were 83, 83, 42, 50, 75, and 58%, respectively. No hepatitis A virus was detected. Infectious HAdV was detected more frequently than infectious EV, and all infectious HAdV were detected when samples were propagated in A549 cells. Based on most-probable-number (MPN) analysis, A549 cells were more susceptible to biosolid-associated viruses than BGM cells. All indicator levels in MAD biosolids were approximately 10(4) MPN or PFU per gram (dry), and the dewatered biosolids had significantly higher indicator levels than the MAD biosolids. Only two MAD samples tested positive for Salmonella enterica, where the concentration was below 1.0 MPN/4 g. This study provides a broad comparison of the prevalence of different enteric viruses in MAD biosolids and reports the first detection of noroviruses in class B biosolids. The observed high quantitative and infectivity levels of adenoviruses in MAD biosolids indicate that adenovirus is a good indicator for the evaluation of sludge treatment efficiency.
Fongaro, Gislaine; García-González, María C; Hernández, Marta; Kunz, Airton; Barardi, Célia R M; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David
Enteric pathogens from biofertilizer can accumulate in the soil, subsequently contaminating water and crops. We evaluated the survival, percolation and leaching of model enteric pathogens in clay and sandy soils after biofertilization with swine digestate: PhiX-174, mengovirus (vMC0), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used as biomarkers. The survival of vMC0 and PhiX-174 in clay soil was significantly lower than in sandy soil (iT90 values of 10.520 ± 0.600 vs. 21.270 ± 1.100 and 12.040 ± 0.010 vs. 43.470 ± 1.300, respectively) and PhiX-174 showed faster percolation and leaching in sandy soil than clay soil (iT90 values of 0.46 and 2.43, respectively). S. enterica Typhimurium was percolated and inactivated more slowly than E. coli O157:H7 (iT90 values of 9.340 ± 0.200 vs. 6.620 ± 0.500 and 11.900 ± 0.900 vs. 10.750 ± 0.900 in clay and sandy soils, respectively), such that E. coli O157:H7 was transferred more quickly to the deeper layers of both soils evaluated (percolation). Our findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may serve as a useful microbial biomarker of depth contamination and leaching in clay and sandy soil and that bacteriophage could be used as an indicator of enteric pathogen persistence. Our study contributes to development of predictive models for enteric pathogen behavior in soils, and for potential water and food contamination associated with biofertilization, useful for risk management and mitigation in swine digestate recycling.
Fongaro, Gislaine; García-González, María C.; Hernández, Marta; Kunz, Airton; Barardi, Célia R. M.; Rodríguez-Lázaro, David
Enteric pathogens from biofertilizer can accumulate in the soil, subsequently contaminating water and crops. We evaluated the survival, percolation and leaching of model enteric pathogens in clay and sandy soils after biofertilization with swine digestate: PhiX-174, mengovirus (vMC0), Salmonella enterica Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 were used as biomarkers. The survival of vMC0 and PhiX-174 in clay soil was significantly lower than in sandy soil (iT90 values of 10.520 ± 0.600 vs. 21.270 ± 1.100 and 12.040 ± 0.010 vs. 43.470 ± 1.300, respectively) and PhiX-174 showed faster percolation and leaching in sandy soil than clay soil (iT90 values of 0.46 and 2.43, respectively). S. enterica Typhimurium was percolated and inactivated more slowly than E. coli O157:H7 (iT90 values of 9.340 ± 0.200 vs. 6.620 ± 0.500 and 11.900 ± 0.900 vs. 10.750 ± 0.900 in clay and sandy soils, respectively), such that E. coli O157:H7 was transferred more quickly to the deeper layers of both soils evaluated (percolation). Our findings suggest that E. coli O157:H7 may serve as a useful microbial biomarker of depth contamination and leaching in clay and sandy soil and that bacteriophage could be used as an indicator of enteric pathogen persistence. Our study contributes to development of predictive models for enteric pathogen behavior in soils, and for potential water and food contamination associated with biofertilization, useful for risk management and mitigation in swine digestate recycling. PMID:28197137
Nemsadze, T D; Mshvenieradze, D D; Apridonidze, K G
In order to examine sensitivity and resistance of isolated aerobic bacteria from periodontitis materials towards antibiotics and bacteriophages, there has been studied exudations taken from 737 patients' periodontic pockets or the tissue taken from curettage. According to the rate of identified microorganisms, they have been arranged as follows: S. epidermidis 39,34+/-1,56%; S. pyogenes 18,84+/-1,25%; M. catarrhalis 17,09+/-1,2%; S. aureus 10,71+/-0,99%; E.coli-5,66+/-0,74%; Diphtheroids in 1,13+/-0,33%; S. Mucilaginosus 1,02+/-0,32%, proteus vulgaris - 0,72+/-0,27%; H. parainfluenzae - 0,72+/-0,27%; S. intermedium 0,61+/-0,24%; P. aeruginosa - 0,61+/-0,24%; H. influenzae - 0,51+/-0,22%, S. saprophiticus - 0,51+/-0,22%; S. viridans - 0,51+/-0,22%; S. pneumoniae - 0,41+/-0,2%; K. pneumoniae - 0,41+/-0,22%; S. haemoliticus - 0,41+/-0,2%; B. adolescentics - 0,3+/-0,17%; L. acidophilus -0,3+/-0,17%; S. salivarius-0,1+/-0,1%. It has been stated that percentage of polyresistant strains is growing. While having aerobic infections of periodontitis, kefzol, cephazolin, cephamezin, zinaceph, klaphoran, cephdazidim (cephalosporins I, II, II generation); tetracycline, doxycycline, (tetracyclines); 5-noks, cyprophloxacyne (chinolons I, II generation); ryphamphcyne (rymphamicynes); but standby medicines may be also considered: penicillin G, procaine penicillin (penicillines); streptomycin, kanamicin, gentamicin (aminoglycosides); lincomycin, clindamycin, (lincosamides); eritromycin, macropen (macrolides); chloramphenicol. Since the resistance of microbial strains was not developed towards bacteriophages during the treatment it is considerable to apply simultaneously the bacteriophages and standby antibiotics.
Boonyasiri, Adhiratha; Tangkoskul, Teerawit; Seenama, Chrakrapong; Saiyarin, Jatuporn; Tiengrim, Surapee; Thamlikitkul, Visanu
Objectives: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, especially extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, in samples from healthy adults, foods, food animals, and the environment in selected areas of Thailand. Methods: Samples were collected from stool specimens from adult food factory and food animal farm workers, fresh and cooked foods sold at markets, rectal swabs of healthy pigs and chickens, fresh pork meat from slaughterhouses, water samples from canals as well as fish and shrimp farm ponds, and stagnant water sources on pig farms. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion or agar dilution methods. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production was assayed using a double disk diffusion method. Results: Among 544 healthy adult food factory workers, 75.5% were positive for ESBL producing E. coli, while 77.3% of E. coli isolated from 30 healthy animal farm workers were positive. Amongst healthy food animals, ESBL producing status among E. coli isolates were more commonly detected in pigs (76.7%) than broilers (40%). Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli seemed to be more prevalent in fresh meat samples than in fresh vegetables, in fresh foods than in cooked foods, and in water samples collected from the animal farms than those from canals and fish and shrimp ponds. Conclusions: Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase producing E. coli isolates are prevalent amongst healthy individuals, foods along the food production chain from farms to consumers, and in the environment in selected areas in Thailand. PMID:25146935
Yadav, Devbrat; Kumar, Arvind; Kumar, Pramod; Mishra, Diwaker
Aim: Black grape peel possesses a substantial amount of polyphenolic antimicrobial compounds that can be used for controlling the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The purpose of this study was to assess antibacterial and antifungal activity of black grape peel extracts against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria and toxin producing molds, respectively. Materials and Methods: Peel of grape was subjected to polyphenolic extraction using different solvents viz., water, ethanol, acetone, and methanol. Antibiotic-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli were screened for the antibacterial activity of different grape extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed using agar well diffusion method. Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus versicolor were screened for the antifungal activity. Antifungal activity was determined by counting nongerminated spores in the presence of peel extracts. Results: As compared to other solvent extracts, methanol extracts possessed high antibacterial and antifungal activity. S. typhimurium and E. coli showed complete resistance against antibacterial action at screened concentrations of grape peel extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition was found in case of S. aureus, i.e., 22 mm followed by E. faecalis and E. aerogenes, i.e., 18 and 21 mm, respectively, at 1080 mg tannic acid equivalent (TAE)/ml. The maximum and minimum percent of growth inhibition was shown by P. expansum and A. niger as 73% and 15% at 1080 TAE/ml concentration of grape peel extract, respectively. Conclusions: Except S. typhimurium and E. coli, growth of all bacterial and mold species were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by all the solvent extracts. PMID:26729960
Concerns have been raised that antimicrobial use in food animal production considerably increases antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Due to their longevity, pasture beef cows are likely to be exposed to different antimicrobials that may create favorable conditions for antimicrobial resistant bact...
Meek, Richard William; Vyas, Hrushi; Piddock, Laura Jane Violet
The global crisis of antibiotic resistance has reached a point where, if action is not taken, human medicine will enter a postantibiotic world and simple injuries could once again be life threatening. New antibiotics are needed urgently, but better use of existing agents is just as important. More appropriate use of antibiotics in medicine is vital, but the extensive use of antibiotics outside medical settings is often overlooked. Antibiotics are commonly used in animal husbandry, bee-keeping, fish farming and other forms of aquaculture, ethanol production, horticulture, antifouling paints, food preservation, and domestically. This provides multiple opportunities for the selection and spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Given the current crisis, it is vital that the nonmedical use of antibiotics is critically examined and that any nonessential use halted. PMID:26444324
Chandra, Ram; Sankhwar, Monica
Pulp paper mill pollutants are the major source of aquatic contamination having metals, lignin and chlorophenols. Study was conducted to see the effect of these contaminants on antibiotic resistance pattern of isolated bacteria. Pulp paper effluents were evaluated for its physico-chemical properties i.e, BOD 72143 +/- 164.81 to 22.32 +/- 2.48, COD 213136 +/- 583.59 to 60.40 +/- 6.34, total phenol 386 +/- 71.24 to 0.43 +/- 0.0, lignin 26312 +/- 258.59 to 73.67 +/- 31.81and microbial quality i.e. K. pneumonae, S. typhi, S. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, E. coli, Ent. faecalis, A. hydrophila, B. subtilis, S. aureus, Y enterolitica and V vulrificus. Antibiotic sensitivity (10-30 microg), heavy metal resistance (100-1000 microg ml(-1)), lignin (1000-10,000 ppm) and pentachlorophenol (100-1000 ppm) tolerance of bacterial strains were assessed by seven classes of antibiotics. Eleven bacterial isolates were found multidrug resistant towards antibiotics, heavy metal, lignin and PCP. Out of 11 isolates, 90.9% were found resistant against eleven antibiotics which acquired 100% resistant in presence of heavy metal, lignin and chlorophenols. Results also revealed that concentration of lignin (50-350 ppm) and PCP (5-30 ppm) induced maximum growth (273-8050 cfu ml(-1)) of pathogenic bacteria in river water.
Elshahawi, Sherif I; Trindade-Silva, Amaro E; Hanora, Amro; Han, Andrew W; Flores, Malem S; Vizzoni, Vinicius; Schrago, Carlos G; Soares, Carlos A; Concepcion, Gisela P; Distel, Dan L; Schmidt, Eric W; Haygood, Margo G
Shipworms are marine wood-boring bivalve mollusks (family Teredinidae) that harbor a community of closely related Gammaproteobacteria as intracellular endosymbionts in their gills. These symbionts have been proposed to assist the shipworm host in cellulose digestion and have been shown to play a role in nitrogen fixation. The genome of one strain of Teredinibacter turnerae, the first shipworm symbiont to be cultivated, was sequenced, revealing potential as a rich source of polyketides and nonribosomal peptides. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of two macrodioloide polyketides belonging to the tartrolon class. Both compounds were found to possess antibacterial properties, and the major compound was found to inhibit other shipworm symbiont strains and various pathogenic bacteria. The gene cluster responsible for the synthesis of these compounds was identified and characterized, and the ketosynthase domains were analyzed phylogenetically. Reverse-transcription PCR in addition to liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry revealed the transcription of these genes and the presence of the compounds in the shipworm, suggesting that the gene cluster is expressed in vivo and that the compounds may fulfill a specific function for the shipworm host. This study reports tartrolon polyketides from a shipworm symbiont and unveils the biosynthetic gene cluster of a member of this class of compounds, which might reveal the mechanism by which these bioactive metabolites are biosynthesized.
Alados, J C; Martínez-Brocal, A; Miranda, C; Rojo, M D; García, V; Domínguez, M C; de la Rosa, M
The antimicrobial susceptibility of 235 anaerobic bacterial strains to ornidazole, metronidazole, chloramphenicol, clindamycin, penicillin, cefoxitin and imipenem has been studied using agar-dilution technique. Ornidazole and metronidazole were active against 88.6% and 86% of gram-positive cocci. Overall, 99.1% of Bacteroides group fragilis, and 91.3% of non-fragilis Bacteroides were also sensitive to both drugs. We did not find any Clostridium perfringens resistant strain. Cefoxitin and penicillin showed good activity against all Clostridium perfringens strains, and also against 97.7% and 92.5% of gram-positive cocci. We found one single imipenem resistant strain among gram-positive bacteria. Bacteroides fragilis also showed sensitivity to penicillin (41.5%), cefoxitin (85.7%) and imipenem (97.1%). Clindamycin was active against Clostridium perfringens (90.9%), gram-positive cocci (86.7%) and imipenem (68.6%). Chloramphenicol showed good activity against Clostridium perfringens (100%), gram-positive cocci (95.5%) and Bacteroides spp. (99.4%). Our results showed an overall good activity of all the seven drugs tested against anaerobic gram-positive microorganisms. Of notice, we found a good activity of chloramphenicol, imipenem, metronidazole and ornidazole against Bacteroides spp.
Ye, Mao; Sun, Mingming; Chen, Xu; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Liu, Kuan; Tian, Da; Liu, Manqiang; Wu, Jun; Schwab, Arthur P; Jiang, Xin
High abundance of human pathogen and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in landfill leachate has become an emerging threat against human health. Therefore, sulfate- and calcination-modified eggshells as green agricultural bioresource were applied to test the feasibility of removing pathogenic bacteria and ARGs from leachate. The highest removal of Escherichia coli (E. coil) and gentamycin resistant gene (gmrA) from artificial contaminated landfill leachate was achieved by the application of eggshell with combined treatment of sulfate and calcination. The 16S and gmrA gene copies of E. coil declined significantly from 1.78E8±8.7E6 and 4.12E8±5.9E6 copies mL(-1) to 1.32E7±2.6E6 and 2.69E7±7.2E6 copies mL(-1), respectively, within 24h dynamic adsorption equilibrium process (p<0.05). Moreover, according to the Langmuir kinetic model, the greatest adsorption amount (1.56×10(9) CFU E. coil per gram of modified eggshells) could be obtained at neutral pH of 7.5. The optimal adsorption eggshells were then screened to the further application in three typical landfill leachates in Nanjing, eastern China. Significant decrease in species and abundance of pathogenic bacteria and ARGs (tet, sul, erm, qnr, and ampC) indicated its great efficiency to purify landfill leachates. This study demonstrated that sulfate-calcined eggshells can be an environmentally-friendly and highly efficient bioadsorbent to the management of reducing dissemination risk of pathogen and ARGs in landfill leachate.
Background The objectives of this study were to investigate whether there were differences between Norwegian Red cows in conventional and organic farming with respect to reproductive performance, udder health, and antibiotic resistance in udder pathogens. Methods Twenty-five conventional and 24 organic herds from south-east and middle Norway participated in the study. Herds were matched such that geographical location, herd size, and barn types were similar across the cohorts. All organic herds were certified as organic between 1997 and 2003. All herds were members of the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System. The herds were visited once during the study. The relationship between the outcomes and explanatory variables were assessed using mixed linear models. Results There were less > 2nd parity cows in conventional farming. The conventional cows had higher milk yields and received more concentrates than organic cows. Although after adjustment for milk yield and parity, somatic cell count was lower in organic cows than conventional cows. There was a higher proportion of quarters that were dried off at the herd visit in organic herds. No differences in the interval to first AI, interval to last AI or calving interval was revealed between organic and conventional cows. There was no difference between conventional and organic cows in quarter samples positive for mastitis bacteria from the herd visit. Milk yield and parity were associated with the likelihood of at least one quarter positive for mastitis bacteria. There was few S. aureus isolates resistance to penicillin in both management systems. Penicillin resistance against Coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from subclinically infected quarters was 48.5% in conventional herds and 46.5% in organic herds. Conclusion There were no large differences between reproductive performance and udder health between conventional and organic farming for Norwegian Red cows. PMID:20141638
Oketcho, Rebecca; Nyaruhucha, Cornelio N M; Taybalip, Saifuddin; Karimuribo, Esron D
While nutritional, microbiological and immunological factors have been implicated in childhood diarrhoea in many countries, there is limited aetiological information in Morogoro Region of Tanzania. A case-control study was conducted to establish whether diarrhoea in 6-60 months old children admitted at a Regional Hospital in Morogoro, was attributable to enteric bacteria and/or parasites and the contribution of under-nutrition, as measured by weight-for-age below -2 SD. From January to September 2011, children admitted at the Hospital with (cases) and without diarrhoea (controls), were obtained by convenience sampling. Children's stool, weights, ages and information on socioeconomic, feeding, water and sanitation factors were obtained. Stool samples were analysed for Escherichia coli O157, Shigella dysentriae, Campylobacter jejuni, Salmonella species and enteric parasites. Logistic regression was used to identify their association with diarrhoea occurrence; and survival analysis used to assess associated risk, using associated-hazard ratios (HR). Commonest bacteria isolated were Salmonella, more from controls, 45 (29.6%), than cases, 25 (16.6%); S. dysentriae and C. jejuni were only isolated from cases, while E coli O157 was not found. Enteric parasites were least prevalent; 4 (2.6%) for cases and 2 (1.3%) for controls. Although under-weight children had 38% increased risk of having diarrhoea than normal ones, this was not significant (HR = 0.98, p=0.928). Other factors found to significantly. (p<0.05) influence diarrhoea occurrence included age when breastfeeding stopped, food(s) given, feeding utensils and the child's toilet. In conclusion, childhood diarrhoea occurrence should warrant microbiological testing, for timely, appropriate treatment and prevention of transmission to others. Prevention and control measures for diarrhoea in children in Morogoro should include adequate breastfeeding, proper disposal of children's faeces and feeding children using cups
Liu, Ting-Ting; Lin, You-Hsuan; Hung, Chia-Sui; Liu, Tian-Jiun; Chen, Yu; Huang, Yung-Ching; Tsai, Tsung-Heng; Wang, Huai-Hsien; Wang, Da-Wei; Wang, Juen-Kai; Wang, Yuh-Lin; Lin, Chi-Hung
Rapid and accurate diagnosis for pathogens and their antibiotic susceptibility is critical for controlling bacterial infections. Conventional methods for determining bacterium's sensitivity to antibiotic depend mostly on measuring the change of microbial proliferation in response to the drug. Such “biological assay” inevitably takes time, ranging from days for fast-growing bacteria to weeks for slow-growers. Here, a novel tool has been developed to detect the “chemical features” of bacterial cell wall that enables rapid identification of drug resistant bacteria within hours. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique based on our newly developed SERS-active substrate was applied to assess the fine structures of the bacterial cell wall. The SERS profiles recorded by such a platform are sensitive and stable, that could readily reflect different bacterial cell walls found in Gram-positive, Gram-negative, or mycobacteria groups. Moreover, characteristic changes in SERS profile were noticed in the drug-sensitive bacteria at the early period (i.e., ∼1 hr) of antibiotic exposure, which could be used to differentiate them from the drug-resistant ones. The SERS-based diagnosis could be applied to a single bacterium. The high-speed SERS detection represents a novel approach for microbial diagnostics. The single-bacterium detection capability of SERS makes possible analyses directly on clinical specimen instead of pure cultured bacteria. PMID:19421405
Yamina, Benmalek; Tahar, Benayad; Marie Laure, Fardeau
The uncontrolled discharges of wastes containing a large quantity of heavy metal create huge economical and healthcare burdens particularly for people living near that area. However, the bioremediation of metal pollutants from wastewater using metal-resistant bacteria is a very important aspect of environmental biotechnology. In this study, 13 heavy metal resistant bacteria were isolated from the wastewater of wadi El Harrach in the east of Algiers and characterized. These include zinc-, lead-, chromium- and cadmium-resistant bacteria. The metal-resistant isolates characterized include both Gram-negative (77%) and Gram-positive (23%) bacteria. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of wastewater isolates against the four heavy metals was determined in solid media and ranged from 100 to 1,500 μg/ml. All the isolates showed co-resistance to other heavy metals and antibiotic resistance of which 15% were resistant to one antibiotic and 85% were multi- and bi-antibiotics resistant. The zinc-resistant species Micrococcus luteus was the much more heavy metal resistant. The results of toxicity tests on Vibrio fischeri showed that the DI(50) (5 min) as low as 0.1 carried away luminescence inhibition greater than 50%.
Rios, D; Wood, M B; Li, J; Chassaing, B; Gewirtz, A T; Williams, I R
Secretory IgA (SIgA) directed against gut resident bacteria enables the mammalian mucosal immune system to establish homeostasis with the commensal gut microbiota after weaning. Germinal centers (GCs) in Peyer's patches (PPs) are the principal inductive sites where naive B cells specific for bacterial antigens encounter their cognate antigens and receive T-cell help driving their differentiation into IgA-producing plasma cells. We investigated the role of antigen sampling by intestinal M cells in initiating the SIgA response to gut bacteria by developing mice in which receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent M-cell differentiation was abrogated by conditional deletion of Tnfrsf11a in the intestinal epithelium. Mice without intestinal M cells had profound delays in PP GC maturation and emergence of lamina propria IgA plasma cells, resulting in diminished levels of fecal SIgA that persisted into adulthood. We conclude that M-cell-mediated sampling of commensal bacteria is a required initial step for the efficient induction of intestinal SIgA. PMID:26601902
Kvasnikov, E I; Aĭzenman, B E; Solomko, E F; Kiprianova, E A; Boĭko, O I
The ability to assimilate n-alkanes form hexane to decane was studied among 495 collection strains and 27 freshly isolated strains belonging to the genus Pseudomonas. All freshly isolated strains and over one third of collection cultures of Ps. aurantiaca grow on mineral media with n-alkanes of low molecular weight, but do not assimilate heavy paraffins. The strains of Ps. aeruginosa, Ps. fluorescens and Ps. putida, isolated from oilbearing soils, and individual collection cultures, belonging to the two latter species, can assimilate both n-alkanes of low molecular weight (C6--C10) and heavy paraffins. Contrary to Ps. aurantiaca, other species of the Pseudomonas genus lose the ability to assimilate n-alkanes of low molecular weight after cultivation on rich organic media. An increase in the concentration of the mixture of low molecular weight paraffins (to 20 per cent by volume) has no toxic effect on the Pseudomonas bacteria whose biomass has a high content of protein and all necessary amino acids. The strains of Ps. aurantiaca produce a highly active antibiotic preparation consisting of floroglucine derivatives on the defined medium with n-alkanes of low molecular weight. The ratio between components of the preparation obtained on the media with n-alkanes and on the optimal organic media is different.
The application of animal waste from large-scale production facilities to cropland is a common means of manure disposal and nutrient recycling. In addition to the high nutrient load, antibiotic residues and antibiotic-resistant bacteria enter into the environment through this process. As yet, it i...
Cheng, Dan; Yu, Mengqun; Fu, Fei; Han, Weiye; Li, Gan; Xie, Jianping; Song, Yang; Swihart, Mark T; Song, Erqun
Food poisoning and infectious diseases caused by pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus (SA) are serious public health concerns. A method of specific, sensitive, and rapid detection of such bacteria is essential and important. This study presents a strategy that combines aptamer and antibiotic-based dual recognition units with magnetic enrichment and fluorescent detection to achieve specific and sensitive quantification of SA in authentic specimens and in the presence of much higher concentrations of other bacteria. Aptamer-coated magnetic beads (Apt-MB) were employed for specific capture of SA. Vancomycin-stabilized fluorescent gold nanoclusters (AuNCs@Van) were prepared by a simple one-step process and used for sensitive quantification of SA in the range of 32-10(8) cfu/mL with the detection limit of 16 cfu/mL via a fluorescence intensity measurement. And using this strategy, about 70 cfu/mL of SA in complex samples (containing 3 × 10(8) cfu/mL of other different contaminated bacteria) could be successfully detected. In comparison to prior studies, the developed strategy here not only simplifies the preparation procedure of the fluorescent probes (AuNCs@Van) to a great extent but also could sensitively quantify SA in the presence of much higher concentrations of other bacteria directly with good accuracy. Moreover, the aptamer and antibiotic used in this strategy are much less expensive and widely available compared to common-used antibodies, making it cost-effective. This general aptamer- and antibiotic-based dual recognition strategy, combined with magnetic enrichment and fluorescent detection of trace bacteria, shows great potential application in monitoring bacterial food contamination and infectious diseases.
Mondragón, Verónica Alejandra; Llamas-Pérez, Dámaris F; González-Guzmán, Gladis E; Márquez-González, Antonio R; Padilla-Noriega, Roberto; Durán-Avelar, Ma de Jesús; Franco, Bernardo
Heavy metal and antibiotic resistance have been shown to have a strong correlation in nature, and their inter-relation is an important subject of study. We report an analysis of surface waters of the Mololoa River in the municipality of Tepic, state of Nayarit, Mexico. This river has two distinctive sources of contamination: sewage waters and trash confinements. Our findings demonstrate a correlation between the river flow pattern and resistance to heavy metals or to heavy metals and antibiotics in isolated bacteria of the genus Enterococcus, specifically Enterococcus faecalis. The Mololoa River provides a model to study the relationship between water flow and generation of biodiversity, and more importantly, it constitutes a model for studying genetic diversity of bacteria affecting human health.
Vinay, Manon; Franche, Nathalie; Grégori, Gérald; Fantino, Jean-Raphaël; Pouillot, Flavie; Ansaldi, Mireille
Water safety is a major concern for public health and for natural environment preservation. We propose to use bacteriophages to develop biosensor tools able to detect human and animal pathogens present in water. For this purpose, we take advantage of the highly discriminating properties of the bacteriophages, which specifically infect their bacterial hosts. The challenge is to use a fluorescent reporter protein that will be synthesized, and thus detected, only once the specific recognition step between a genetically modified temperate bacteriophage and its bacterial host has occurred. To ensure the accuracy and the execution speed of our system, we developed a test that does not require bacterial growth, since a simple 1-hour infection step is required. To ensure a high sensitivity of our tool and in order to detect up to a single bacterium, fluorescence is measured using a portable flow cytometer, also allowing on-site detection. In this study, we have constructed and characterized several "phagosensor" prototypes using the HK620 bacteriophage and its host Escherichia coli TD2158 and we successfully adapted this method to Salmonella detection. We show that the method is fast, robust and sensitive, allowing the detection of as few as 10 bacteria per ml with no concentration nor enrichment step. Moreover, the test is functional in sea water and allows the detection of alive bacteria. Further development will aim to develop phagosensors adapted on demand to the detection of any human or animal pathogen that may be present in water. PMID:26186207
Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Yang, Jian
Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are important hotspots for the spread of antibiotic resistance. However, the release and impact factors of both antibiotic resistant bacteria and the relevant genes over long periods in WWTPs have rarely been investigated. In this study, the fate of bacteria and genes resistant to six commonly used antibiotics was assessed over a whole year. In WWTP effluent and biosolids, a high prevalence of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to vancomycin, cephalexin, sulfadiazine and erythromycin were detected, each with a proportion of over 30%. The corresponding genes (vanA, ampC, sulI and ereA) were all detected in proportions of (2.2 ± 0.8) × 10(-10), (6.2 ± 3.2) × 10(-9), (1.2 ± 0.8) × 10(-7) and (7.6 ± 4.8) × 10(-8), respectively, in the effluent. The sampling season imposed considerable influence on the release of all ARB. High release loads of most ARB were detected in the spring, while low release loads were generally found in the winter. In comparison, the ARG loads changed only slightly over various seasons. No statistical relevance was found between all ARB abundances and their corresponding genes over the long-term investigation period. This inconsistent behavior indicates that bacteria and genes should both be considered when exploring resistance characteristics in wastewater. A redundancy analysis was adopted to assess the impact of wastewater quality and operational conditions on antibiotic resistance. The results indicated that most ARB and ARG proportions were positively related to the COD and turbidity of the raw sewage, while negatively related to those of the effluent. DO and temperature exhibited strong negative relevance to most ARB prevalence.
Ou, Danyun; Chen, Bin; Bai, Renao; Song, Puqing; Lin, Heshan
Surface water samples from downstream and estuarine areas of Jiulong River were collected in August 2011 and May 2012 for detecting sulfonamide antibiotic residues and isolating sulfamethazine-resistant bacteria. Sulfamethazine was detected in all samples in May 2012 at an average concentration of 78.3 ng L(-1), which was the highest among the nine sulfonamide antibiotics determined. Sulfamethazine-resistant bacteria (SRB) were screened using antibiotic-containing agar plates. The SRB average abundance in the samples was 3.69 × 10(4) and 2.17 × 10(3) CFUs mL(-1) in August 2011 and May 2012, respectively, and was positively correlated to sulfamethazine concentration in May 2012. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing of all the 121 SRB isolates revealed high diversity. Furthermore, the SRB isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, with 48.7% showing resistance to at least three antibiotics. The abundance and persistence of highly diverse SRB and their multidrug resistance are likely to demonstrate the transferable pressure from coastal environments on public health.
Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Rastogi, Lori
The nanoparticles used in this study were prepared from AgNO3 using NaBH4 in the presence of capping agents such as citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The formed nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of yellow colour and an absorption maximum between 399 and 404 nm. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and polydisperse. For citrate, SDS, and PVP capped nanoparticles, the average particle sizes were 38.3 ± 13.5, 19.3 ± 6.0, and 16.0 ± 4.8 nm, respectively. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles in FCC structure is confirmed from the SAED and XRD patterns. Also, the combined antibacterial activity of these differently capped nanoparticles with selected antibiotics (streptomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) was evaluated on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, employing disc diffusion assay. The activity of the tested antibiotics was enhanced in combination with all the stabilized nanoparticles, against both the Gram classes of bacteria. The combined effects of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics were more prominent with PVP capped nanoparticles as compared to citrate and SDS capped ones. The results of this study demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics. PMID:23970844
Kora, Aruna Jyothi; Rastogi, Lori
The nanoparticles used in this study were prepared from AgNO3 using NaBH4 in the presence of capping agents such as citrate, sodium dodecyl sulfate, and polyvinylpyrrolidone. The formed nanoparticles were characterized with UV-Vis, TEM, and XRD. The generation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed from the appearance of yellow colour and an absorption maximum between 399 and 404 nm. The produced nanoparticles were found to be spherical in shape and polydisperse. For citrate, SDS, and PVP capped nanoparticles, the average particle sizes were 38.3 ± 13.5, 19.3 ± 6.0, and 16.0 ± 4.8 nm, respectively. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles in FCC structure is confirmed from the SAED and XRD patterns. Also, the combined antibacterial activity of these differently capped nanoparticles with selected antibiotics (streptomycin, ampicillin, and tetracycline) was evaluated on model Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, employing disc diffusion assay. The activity of the tested antibiotics was enhanced in combination with all the stabilized nanoparticles, against both the Gram classes of bacteria. The combined effects of silver nanoparticles and antibiotics were more prominent with PVP capped nanoparticles as compared to citrate and SDS capped ones. The results of this study demonstrate potential therapeutic applications of silver nanoparticles in combination with antibiotics.
Manuzak, Jennifer; Dillon, Stephanie; Wilson, Cara
Human peripheral blood contains antigen-presenting cells (APC), including dendritic cells (DC) and monocytes, that may encounter microbes that have translocated from the intestine to the periphery in disease states like HIV-1 infection and inflammatory bowel disease. We investigated the response of DC and monocytes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) to a panel of representative commensal enteric bacteria, including Escherichia coli, Enterococcus sp., and Bacteroides fragilis. All three bacteria induced significant upregulation of the maturation and activation markers CD40 and CD83 on myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC). However, only mDC produced cytokines, including interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12p40/70, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in response to bacterial stimulation. Cytokine profiles in whole PBMC differed depending on the stimulating bacterial species: B. fragilis induced production of IL-23, IL-12p70, and IL-10, whereas E. coli and Enterococcus induced an IL-10-predominant response. mDC and monocyte depletion experiments indicated that these cell types differentially produced IL-10 and IL-23 in response to E. coli and B. fragilis. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron did not induce levels of IL-23 similar to those of B. fragilis, suggesting that B. fragilis may have unique proinflammatory properties among Bacteroides species. The addition of recombinant human IL-10 to PBMC cultures stimulated with commensal bacteria abrogated the IL-23 response, whereas blocking IL-10 significantly enhanced IL-23 production, suggesting that IL-10 controls the levels of IL-23 produced. These results indicate that blood mDC and monocytes respond differentially to innate stimulation with whole commensal bacteria and that IL-10 may play a role in controlling the proinflammatory response to translocated microbes.
Mbehang Nguema, Pierre Philippe; Okubo, Torahiko; Tsuchida, Sayaka; Fujita, Shiho; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Tamura, Yutaka; Ushida, Kazunari
Prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in wildlife can reveal the actual level of anthropological burden on the wildlife. In this study, we isolated two multiple drug-resistant strains, GG6-2 and GG6-1-1, from 27 fresh feces of wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. Isolates were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans and Providencia sp., respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of the following 12 drugs-ampicillin (ABPC), cefazolin (CEZ), cefotaxime (CTX), streptomycin (SM), gentamicin (GM), kanamycin (KM), tetracycline (TC), nalidixic acid (NA), ciprofloxacin (CPFX), colistin (CL), chloramphenicol (CP) and trimethoprim (TMP)-were determined. Isolate GG6-2 was resistant to all antimicrobials tested and highly resistant to CTX, SM, TC, NA and TMP. Isolate GG6-1-1 was resistant to ABPC, CEZ, TC, CL, CP and TMP.
Lee, Chang-Ro; Lee, Jung Hun; Park, Kwang Seung; Jeong, Byeong Chul; Lee, Sang Hee
The increase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) poses a worldwide and serious health threat. Although new antibiotics, such as daptomycin and linezolid, have been developed for the treatment of infections of Gram-positive pathogens, the emergence of daptomycin-resistant and linezolid-resistant strains during therapy has now increased clinical treatment failures. In the past few years, studies using quantitative proteomic methods have provided a considerable progress in understanding antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In this review, to understand the resistance mechanisms to four clinically important antibiotics (methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin) used in the treatment of Gram-positive pathogens, we summarize recent advances in studies on resistance mechanisms using quantitative proteomic methods, and also examine proteins playing an important role in the bacterial mechanisms of resistance to the four antibiotics. Proteomic researches can identify proteins whose expression levels are changed in the resistance mechanism to only one antibiotic, such as LiaH in daptomycin resistance and PrsA in vancomycin resistance, and many proteins simultaneously involved in resistance mechanisms to various antibiotics. Most of resistance-related proteins, which are simultaneously associated with resistance mechanisms to several antibiotics, play important roles in regulating bacterial envelope biogenesis, or compensating for the fitness cost of antibiotic resistance. Therefore, proteomic data confirm that antibiotic resistance requires the fitness cost and the bacterial envelope is an important factor in antibiotic resistance. PMID:26322035
McDougall, S; Neilands, J B
Large plasmids were detected in two aerobactin-producing enteric bacterial species (Aerobacter aerogenes 62-I, Salmonella arizona SA1, and S. arizona SL5301) and designated pSMN1, pSMN2, and pSMN3, respectively. Other Salmonella spp., namely, S. arizona SL5302, S. arizona SLS, Salmonella austin, and Salmonella memphis, formed aerobactin but contained no detectable large plasmids. S. arizona SL5283 made no aerobactin. A probe consisting of the aerobactin biosynthetic genes cloned on plasmid pABN5 hybridized to a HindIII digest of pSMN1 but not to digests of pSMN2 or pSMN3. A larger probe, the insert of pABN1 containing the complete aerobactin operon, hybridized to four fragments in HindIII digests of the parent plasmid, pColV-K30. A 2.0-kilobase PvuII fragment responsible for this multiple-hybridization pattern was cloned into vector pUC9 to form pSMN30. The latter was mapped and shown to correspond to either IS1 or to a closely related insertion sequence. Images PMID:6330037
Afolayan, Anthony Jide
A pragmatic approach to the treatment of infectious diseases with multicausal agents and prevention of the development of resistant isolates is the combination of herbal remedies with the first-line antimicrobial agents to which most of them have become resistant. This study evaluated the interactions between the ethanolic bark extract of Ziziphus mucronata with known antimicrobial agents in vitro. In this study, the results showed that varied zones of inhibitions (ZME—chloramphenicol (17–42 mm), ZME—amoxicillin (17–35 mm), ZME—tetracycline (17–36 mm), ZME—ciprofloxacin (20–41 mm), ZME—nalidixic acid (17–34 mm), and ZME—kanamycin (17–38 mm)) were produced by the antibacterial combinations. At the highest combined concentrations, 12 isolates (ZME—ciprofloxacin) > 10 isolates (ZME—chloramphenicol) = (ZME—kanamycin) > 6 isolates (ZME—amoxicillin) = (ZME—nalidixic acid) and 5 isolates (ZME—tetracycline) were inhibited with zones of inhibition greater than 20 ± 1.0 mm. Although the agar diffusion assay suggested that the interactions between the ethanolic extract of Z. mucronata and the antibiotics were both synergistic and additive in nature, the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICI) showed that the interactions were synergistic (54.17%), additive (27.78%), indifferent (16.67%), and antagonistic (1.39%). While the fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) for synergism ranged between 0.00391 and 0.5, that of additivity ranged between 0.516 and 1.0, indifferences ranged between 1.062 and 3.0 and antagonistic interaction was 5.0. The synergistic effects implied that the antibacterial combinations would be more effective and useful in the treatment of multicausal and multidrug-resistant bacteria than a single monotherapy of either antibacterial agent. PMID:23737727
Oates, Stori C; Miller, Melissa A; Byrne, Barbara A; Chouicha, Nadira; Hardin, Dane; Jessup, David; Dominik, Clare; Roug, Annette; Schriewer, Alexander; Jang, Spencer S; Miller, Woutrina A
Marine mammals are at risk for infection by fecal-associated zoonotic pathogens when they swim and feed in polluted nearshore marine waters. Because of their tendency to consume 25-30% of their body weight per day in coastal filter-feeding invertebrates, southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) can act as sentinels of marine ecosystem health in California. Feces from domestic and wildlife species were tested to determine prevalence, potential virulence, and diversity of selected opportunistic enteric bacterial pathogens in the Monterey Bay region. We hypothesized that if sea otters are sentinels of coastal health, and fecal pollution flows from land to sea, then sea otters and terrestrial animals might share the same enteric bacterial species and strains. Twenty-eight percent of fecal samples tested during 2007-2010 were positive for one or more potential pathogens. Campylobacter spp. were isolated most frequently, with an overall prevalence of 11%, followed by Vibrio cholerae (9%), Salmonella spp. (6%), V. parahaemolyticus (5%), and V. alginolyticus (3%). Sea otters were found positive for all target bacteria, exhibiting similar prevalences for Campylobacter and Salmonella spp. but greater prevalences for Vibrio spp. when compared to terrestrial animals. Fifteen Salmonella serotypes were detected, 11 of which were isolated from opossums. This is the first report of sea otter infection by S. enterica Heidelberg, a serotype also associated with human clinical disease. Similar strains of S. enterica Typhimurium were identified in otters, opossums, and gulls, suggesting the possibility of land-sea transfer of enteric bacterial pathogens from terrestrial sources to sea otters.
Ortega-Gómez, E; Esteban García, B; Ballesteros Martín, M M; Fernández Ibáñez, P; Sánchez Pérez, J A
This study analyses the use of the solar photo-Fenton treatment in compound parabolic collector photo-reactors at neutral pH for the inactivation of wild enteric Escherichia coli and total coliform present in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (SEWWTP). Control experiments were carried out to find out the individual effects of mechanical stress, pH, reactants concentration, and UVA radiation as well as the combined effects of UVA-Fe and UVA-H2O2. The synergistic germicidal effect of solar-UVA with 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 led to complete disinfection (up to the detection limit) of total coliforms within 120 min. The disinfection process was accelerated by photo-Fenton, achieving total inactivation in 60 min reducing natural bicarbonate concentration found in the SEWWTP from 250 to 100 mg L(-1) did not give rise to a significant enhancement in bacterial inactivation. Additionally, the effect of hydrogen peroxide and iron dosage was evaluated. The best conditions were 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 20 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+). Due to the variability of the SEWWTP during autumn and winter seasons, the inactivation kinetic constant varied between 0.07 ± 0.04 and 0.17 ± 0.04 min(-1). Moreover, the water treated by solar photo-Fenton fulfilled the microbiological quality requirement for wastewater reuse in irrigation as per the WHO guidelines and in particular for Spanish legislation.
Cook, Michael T; Tzortzis, George; Charalampopoulos, Dimitris; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V
This study investigates the production of alginate microcapsules, which have been coated with the polysaccharide chitosan, and evaluates some of their properties with the intention of improving the gastrointestinal viability of a probiotic ( Bifidobacterium breve ) by encapsulation in this system. The microcapsules were dried by a variety of methods, and the most suitable was chosen. The work described in this Article is the first report detailing the effects of drying on the properties of these microcapsules and the viability of the bacteria within relative to wet microcapsules. The pH range over which chitosan and alginate form polyelectrolyte complexes was explored by spectrophotometry, and this extended into swelling studies on the microcapsules over a range of pHs associated with the gastrointestinal tract. It was shown that chitosan stabilizes the alginate microcapsules at pHs above 3, extending the stability of the capsules under these conditions. The effect of chitosan exposure time on the coating thickness was investigated for the first time by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and its penetration into the alginate matrix was shown to be particularly slow. Coating with chitosan was found to increase the survival of B. breve in simulated gastric fluid as well as prolong its release upon exposure to intestinal pH.
Arshad, Najma; Zitterl-Eglseer, Karin; Hasnain, Shahida; Hess, Michael
In the present study the antimicrobial potential of various extracts from 12 medicinal plants has been investigated in vitro on multiple antibiotic resistant pathogens and some selected protozoa isolated from poultry. The initial examination was performed on E. coli (n = 10) using disc and agar well diffusion assays. Only two plants, Peganum harmala (seeds) and Eucalyptus globulus (leaves) showed positive responses. The active extracts were also investigated against an additional 19 bacteria and the clonal cultures of three protozoa (Histomonas meleagridis, Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Blastocystis sp.). Only Peganum harmala was found to inhibit the growth of all bacteria and protozoa at 0.38-1.55 mg/mL and 0.63-1.65 mg/mL, respectively. To investigate the potential role of alkaloids in crude extracts of Peganum harmala, four known beta-carbolin alkaloids were quantified and their antimicrobial activity was compared using a microdilution assay. Harmaline was found to be in the highest concentration followed by harmine and harmalol, whereas harmane could not be detected. The activity of the pure alkaloids was in the order harmane > harmaline > harmalol > or = harmine for all bacteria, while for protozoa, it was different depending on the microorganism. It is concluded that Peganum harmala or its alkaloids could probably be used for the control of antibiotic resistant isolates of bacteria as well as protozoa.
Remnants of an ancient pathway to L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine in enteric bacteria: Evolutionary implications and biotechnological impact. [Escherichia coli; Salmonella typhimurium; Neurospora crassa
Bonner, C.A.; Fischer, R.S.; Ahmad, S.; Jensen, R.A. )
The pathway construction for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids in Escherichia coli is atypical of the phylogenetic subdivision of gram-negative bacteria to which it belongs. Related organisms possess second pathways to phenylalanine and tyrosine which depend upon the expression of a monofunctional chorismate mutase (CM-F) and cyclohexadienyl dehydratase (CDT). Some enteric bacteria, unlike E. coli, possess either CM-F or CDT. These essentially cryptic remnants of an ancestral pathway can be a latent source of biochemical potential under certain conditions. As one example of advantageous biochemical potential, the presence of CM-F in Salmonella typhimurium increases the capacity for prephenate accumulation in a tyrA auxotroph. We report the finding that a significant fraction of the latter prephenate is transaminated to L-arogenate. The tyrA19 mutant is now the organism of choice for isolation of L-arogenate, uncomplicated by the presence of other cyclohexadienyl products coaccumulated by a Neurospora crassa mutant that had previously served as the prime biological source of L-arogenate. Prephenate aminotransferase activity was not conferred by a discrete enzyme, but rather was found to be synonymous with the combined activities of aspartate aminotransferase (aspC), aromatic aminotransferase (tyrB), and branched-chain aminotransferase (ilvE).
Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur in plasma, interstitial fluid, and gastrointestinal tract of calves after subcutaneous injection, and bactericidal impacts on representative enteric bacteria.
Foster, D M; Jacob, M E; Warren, C D; Papich, M G
This study's objectives were to determine intestinal antimicrobial concentrations in calves administered enrofloxacin or ceftiofur sodium subcutaneously, and their impact on representative enteric bacteria. Ultrafiltration devices were implanted in the ileum and colon of 12 steers, which received either enrofloxacin or ceftiofur sodium. Samples were collected over 48 h after drug administration for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis. Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella enterica (5 × 10(5) CFU/mL of each) were exposed in vitro to peak and tail (48 h postadministration) concentrations of both drugs at each location for 24 h to determine inhibition of growth and change in MIC. Enrofloxacin had tissue penetration factors of 1.6 and 2.5 in the ileum and colon, while ciprofloxacin, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was less able to cross into the intestine (tissue penetration factors of 0.7 and 1.7). Ceftiofur was rapidly eliminated leading to tissue penetration factors of 0.39 and 0.25. All concentrations of enrofloxacin were bactericidal for S. enterica and significantly reduced E. faecalis. Peak ceftiofur concentration was bactericidal for S. enterica, and tail concentrations significantly reduced growth. E. faecalis experienced growth at all ceftiofur concentrations. The MICs for both organisms exposed to peak and tail concentrations of antimicrobials were unchanged at the end of the study. Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur achieved intestinal concentrations capable of reducing intestinal bacteria, yet the short exposure of ceftiofur in the intestine may select for resistant organisms.
Fogarty, Lisa R.; Duris, Joseph W.; Aichele, Stephen S.
A preliminary study was done in Oakland County, Michigan, to determine the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria (fecal coliform bacteria and enterococci), antibiotic resistance patterns of these two groups, and the presence of potentially pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). For selected sites, specific members of these groups [E. coli, Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis)] were isolated and tested for levels of resistance to specific antibiotics used to treat human infections by pathogens in these groups and for their potential to transfer these resistances. In addition, water samples from all sites were tested for indicators of potentially pathogenic E. coli by three assays: a growth-based assay for sorbitol-negative E. coli, an immunological assay for E. coli O157, and a molecular assay for three virulence and two serotype genes. Samples were also collected from two non-urbanized sites outside of Oakland County. Results from the urbanized Oakland County area were compared to those from these two non-urbanized sites. Fecal indicator bacteria concentrations exceeded State of Michigan recreational water-quality standards and (or) recommended U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) standards in samples from all but two Oakland County sites. Multiple-antibiotic-resistant fecal coliform bacteria were found at all sites, including two reference sites from outside the county. Two sites (Stony Creek and Paint Creek) yielded fecal coliform isolates resistant to all tested antibiotics. Patterns indicative of extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)- producing fecal coliform bacteria were found at eight sites in Oakland County and E. coli resistant to clinically significant antibiotics were recovered from the River Rouge, Clinton River, and Paint Creek. Vancomycin-resistant presumptive enterococci were found at six sites in Oakland County and were not found at the reference sites. Evidence of acquired antibiotic resistances was
Dib, Julián; Motok, Jessica; Zenoff, Verónica Fernández; Ordoñez, Omar; Farías, María Eugenia
High-altitude Andean wetlands are pristine environments with extreme conditions such as high UV radiation, high heavy metal content (mainly arsenic), high salinity, and oligotrophy. In this paper, the UV-B resistance and tolerance to arsenic of phylogenetically characterized bacteria (Actinobacteria [six isolates], Firmicutes [four isolates], and gamma-Proteobacteria [three isolates]) isolated from Laguna Vilama (4400-m altitude) and Laguna Azul (4560 m) were determined. In addition, given that multiple antibiotic resistances were also determined, a relationship between antibiotic resistances as a consequence of mutagenic ability or in relation to metal resistance is proposed. High UV-B resistances were found, since after 30 min (0.7 KJ m(-2)) and 60 min (1.4 KJ m(-2)) of irradiation, most of the studied bacteria did not show a decreased survival; what is more, many of them had an improved survival with the increased doses. Augmentations in mutagenesis rates were observed after UV-B irradiation in only 4 of the 13 tested isolates. Arsenite tolerance was also established in 8 of the 13 tested strains: Staphylococcus saprophyticus A3 and Micrococcus sp. A7, which were able to grow in media containing up to 10 mM As(III). Finally, predominance of antibiotic resistances (azithromycin, erythromycin, clarithromycin, roxithromycin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, gentamycin, kanamycin, tetracycline, and ampicillin) was found, in all the isolated strains from both wetlands, with unexpectedly high minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs; >2 mg mL(-1)) for macrolides. These results demonstrate that in extreme environments like high-altitude wetlands there is a correlation of multiresistances to UV-B radiation and arsenic, and that antibiotic resistances are also widespread in these pristine environments, where antibiotic selective pressure is supposed to be absent.
Strauss, Christian; Endimiani, Andrea; Perreten, Vincent
A rapid and simple DNA labeling system has been developed for disposable microarrays and has been validated for the detection of 117 antibiotic resistance genes abundant in Gram-positive bacteria. The DNA was fragmented and amplified using phi-29 polymerase and random primers with linkers. Labeling and further amplification were then performed by classic PCR amplification using biotinylated primers specific for the linkers. The microarray developed by Perreten et al. (Perreten, V., Vorlet-Fawer, L., Slickers, P., Ehricht, R., Kuhnert, P., Frey, J., 2005. Microarray-based detection of 90 antibiotic resistance genes of gram-positive bacteria. J.Clin.Microbiol. 43, 2291-2302.) was improved by additional oligonucleotides. A total of 244 oligonucleotides (26 to 37 nucleotide length and with similar melting temperatures) were spotted on the microarray, including genes conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotic classes like β-lactams, macrolides, aminoglycosides, glycopeptides and tetracyclines. Each antibiotic resistance gene is represented by at least 2 oligonucleotides designed from consensus sequences of gene families. The specificity of the oligonucleotides and the quality of the amplification and labeling were verified by analysis of a collection of 65 strains belonging to 24 species. Association between genotype and phenotype was verified for 6 antibiotics using 77 Staphylococcus strains belonging to different species and revealed 95% test specificity and a 93% predictive value of a positive test. The DNA labeling and amplification is independent of the species and of the target genes and could be used for different types of microarrays. This system has also the advantage to detect several genes within one bacterium at once, like in Staphylococcus aureus strain BM3318, in which up to 15 genes were detected. This new microarray-based detection system offers a large potential for applications in clinical diagnostic, basic research, food safety and
Wacher-Rodarte, Maria Del Carmen; Trejo-Muñúzuri, Tanya Paulina; Montiel-Aguirre, Jesús Fernando; Drago-Serrano, Maria Elisa; Gutiérrez-Lucas, Raúl L; Castañeda-Sánchez, Jorge Ismael; Sainz-Espuñes, Teresita
Pozol is a handcrafted nonalcoholic Mayan beverage produced by the spontaneous fermentation of maize dough by lactic acid bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are carriers of chromosomal encoded multidrug-resistant efflux pumps genes that can be transferred to pathogens and/or confer resistance to compounds released during the fermentation process causing food spoiling. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibiotic sensibility and the transcriptional expression of ABC-type efflux pumps in LAB isolated from pozol that contributes to multidrug resistance. Analysis of LAB and Staphylococcus (S.) aureus ATCC 29213 and ATCC 6538 control strains to antibiotic susceptibility, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) to ethidium bromide were based in "standard methods" whereas the ethidium bromide efflux assay was done by fluorometric assay. Transcriptional expression of efflux pumps was analyzed by RT-PCR. LAB showed antibiotic multiresistance profiles, moreover, Lactococcus (L.) lactis and Lactobacillus (L.) plantarum displayed higher ethidium bromide efflux phenotype than S. aureus control strains. Ethidium bromide resistance and ethidium bromide efflux phenotypes were unrelated with the overexpression of lmrD in L. lactics, or the underexpression of lmrA in L. plantarum and norA in S. aureus. These findings suggest that, moreover, the analyzed efflux pumps genes, other unknown redundant mechanisms may underlie the antibiotic resistance and the ethidium bromide efflux phenotype in L. lactis and L. plantarum. Phenotypic and molecular drug multiresistance assessment in LAB may improve a better selection of the fermentation starter cultures used in pozol, and to control the antibiotic resistance widespread and food spoiling for health safety.
Maragkoudakis, Petros A; Chingwaru, Walter; Gradisnik, Lidija; Tsakalidou, Effie; Cencic, Avrelija
This study aimed to examine the potential antiviral activity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) using animal and human intestinal and macrophage cell line models of non tumor origin. To this end, LAB strains selected on the basis of previous in vitro trials were co-incubated with cell line monolayers, which were subsequently challenged with rotavirus (RV) and transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV). In order to elucidate the possible mechanism responsible for the antiviral activity, the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) release as well as the attachment ability of LAB on the cell lines was investigated. Various strains were found to exhibit moderate to complete monolayer protection against viral RV or TGEV disruption. Highest protection effects were recorded with the known probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus casei Shirota against both RV and TGEV, while notable antiviral activity was also attributed to Enterococcus faecium PCK38, Lactobacillus fermentum ACA-DC179, Lactobacillus pentosus PCA227 and Lactobacillus plantarum PCA236 and PCS22, depending on the cell line and virus combination used. A variable increase (of up to 50%) on the release of NO(-) and H(2)O(2) (ROS) was obtained when LAB strains were co-incubated with the cell lines, but the results were found to be LAB strain and cell line specific, apart from a small number of strains which were able to induce strong ROS release in more than one cell line. In contrast, the ability of the examined LAB strains to attach to the cell line monolayers was LAB strain but not cell line specific. Highest attachment ability was observed with L. plantarum ACA-DC 146, L. paracasei subsp. tolerans ACA-DC 4037 and E. faecium PCD71. Clear indications on the nature of the antiviral effect were evident only in the case of the L. casei Shirota against TGEV and with L. plantarum PCA236 against both RV and TGEV. In the rest of the cases, each interaction was LAB-cell line-virus specific, barring general
Rhodes, Katherine A; Schweizer, Herbert P
The genus Burkholderia comprises metabolically diverse and adaptable Gram-negative bacteria, which thrive in often adversarial environments. A few members of the genus are prominent opportunistic pathogens. These include Burkholderia mallei and Burkholderia pseudomallei of the B. pseudomallei complex, which cause glanders and melioidosis, respectively. Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia multivorans, and Burkholderia vietnamiensis belong to the Burkholderia cepacia complex and affect mostly cystic fibrosis patients. Infections caused by these bacteria are difficult to treat because of significant antibiotic resistance. The first line of defense against antimicrobials in Burkholderia species is the outer membrane penetration barrier. Most Burkholderia contain a modified lipopolysaccharide that causes intrinsic polymyxin resistance. Contributing to reduced drug penetration are restrictive porin proteins. Efflux pumps of the resistance nodulation cell division family are major players in Burkholderia multidrug resistance. Third and fourth generation β-lactam antibiotics are seminal for treatment of Burkholderia infections, but therapeutic efficacy is compromised by expression of several β-lactamases and ceftazidime target mutations. Altered DNA gyrase and dihydrofolate reductase targets cause fluoroquinolone and trimethoprim resistance, respectively. Although antibiotic resistance hampers therapy of Burkholderia infections, the characterization of resistance mechanisms lags behind other non-enteric Gram-negative pathogens, especially ESKAPE bacteria such as Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Moreno, M A; Domínguez, L; Teshager, T; Herrero, I A; Porrero, M C
Antimicrobial resistance is a problem in modern public health and antimicrobial use and especially misuse, the most important selecting force for bacterial antibiotic resistance. As this resistance must be monitored we have designed the Spanish network 'Red de Vigilancia de Resistencias Antibióticas en Bacterias de Origen Veterinario'. This network covers the three critical points of veterinary responsibility, bacteria from sick animals, bacteria from healthy animals and bacteria from food animals. Key bacteria, antimicrobials and animal species have been defined for each of these groups along with laboratory methods for testing antimicrobial susceptibility and for data analysis and reporting. Surveillance of sick animals was first implemented using Escherichia coli as the sentinel bacterium. Surveillance of E. coli and Enterococcus faecium from healthy pigs was implemented in 1998. In July 1999, data collection on Salmonella spp. was initiated in poultry slaughterhouses. Additionally, the prevalence of vancomycin resistant E. faecium was also monitored. This network has specific topics of interest related to methods of determining resistance, analysis and reporting of data, methods of use for veterinary practitioners and collaboration with public health authorities.
Sepehr, Shayesteh; Rahmani-Badi, Azadeh; Babaie-Naiej, Hamta; Soudi, Mohammad Reza
Biofilm formation by food-related bacteria and food-related pathogenesis are significant problems in the food industry. Even though much disinfection and mechanical procedure exist for removal of biofilms, they may fail to eliminate pre-established biofilms. cis-2 decenoic acid (CDA), an unsaturated fatty acid messenger produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, is reportedly capable of inducing the dispersion of established biofilms by multiple types of microorganisms. However, whether CDA has potential to boost the actions of certain antimicrobials is unknown. Here, the activity of CDA as an inducer of pre-established biofilms dispersal, formed by four main food pathogens; Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella enterica and E. coli, was measured using both semi-batch and continuous cultures bioassays. To assess the ability of CDA combined biocides treatments to remove pre-established biofilms formed on stainless steel discs, CFU counts were performed for both treated and untreated cultures. Eradication of the biofilms by CDA combined antibiotics was evaluated using crystal violet staining. The effect of CDA combined treatments (antibiotics and disinfectants) on biofilm surface area and bacteria viability was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy, digital image analysis and LIVE/DEAD staining. MICs were also determined to assess the probable inhibitory effects of CDA combined treatments on the growth of tested microorganisms' planktonic cells. Treatment of pre-established biofilms with only 310 nM CDA resulted in at least two-fold increase in the number of planktonic cells in all cultures. While antibiotics or disinfectants alone exerted a trivial effect on CFU counts and percentage of surface area covered by the biofilms, combinational treatments with both 310 nM CDA and antibiotics or disinfectants led to approximate 80% reduction in biofilm biomass. These data suggests that combined treatments with CDA would pave the way toward developing new strategies
Rodrigues, Wellington Francisco; Miguel, Camila Botelho; Nogueira, Ana Paula Oliveira; Ueira-Vieira, Carlos; Paulino, Tony De Paiva; Soares, Siomar De Castro; De Resende, Elisabete Aparecida Mantovani Rodrigues; Lazo-Chica, Javier Emilio; Araújo, Marcelo Costa; Oliveira, Carlo José
Empirical and prolonged antimicrobial treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli is associated with the emergence of bacterial resistance, and not all countries have strict policies against the indiscriminate use of drugs in order to prevent resistance. This cross-sectional and retrospective study (2010–2015) aimed to evaluate the sensitivity and resistance of patient-derived E. coli to different drugs broadly used to treat urinary infections in Brazil: ampicillin + sulbactam, cephalothin, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, and nitrofurantoin. We obtained 1654 E. coli samples from ambulatory patients with disease symptoms of the urinary tract from a Brazilian public hospital. While all antibiotics were effective in killing E. coli to a large degree, nitrofurantoin was the most effective, with fewer samples exhibiting antibiotic resistance. We assessed the costs of generic and brand name versions of each antibiotic. Nitrofurantoin, the most effective antibiotic, was the cheapest, followed by the fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin), ampicillin + sulbactam and, lastly, cephalothin. Finally, assessment of antibiotic resistance to fluoroquinolones over the study period and extrapolation of the data led to the conclusion that these antibiotics could no longer be effective against E. coli-based urinary infections in approximately 20 years if their indiscriminate use in empirical treatment continues. PMID:27649224
The study was undertaken with a view to unravel the source of bacterial colony growth observed in a section of micropropagated triploid watermelon cultures that were supposedly cleansed of the associated endophytic bacteria through antibiotic treatment, and thereafter maintained under stringent sterility checks to prevent lateral intrusion of contaminants. Five different bacteria were retrieved from colony growth-displaying watermelon cultures that were previously treated with gentamycin and five isolates from cefazolin-treated stocks with the organisms showing tolerance to the respective antibiotic. These watermelon cultures were in degeneration phase (over 6 months after the previous sub-culturing), while the actively maintained counterpart stocks appeared healthy with no colony growth on different bacteriological media during tissue-screenings. The latter cultures, however, revealed abundant motile, tetrazolium-stained bacterial cells in microscopy, suggesting tissue colonization by non-culturable endophytes. PCR screening on healthy cultures endorsed tissue colonization by different bacterial phylogenic groups. A few organisms could be activated to cultivation from healthy watermelon stocks through host tissue extract supplementation, which also enhanced the growth of all the organisms. The study indicated that a fraction of antibiotic-tolerant bacteria survived intra-tissue in non-culturable form during the preceding cleansing activity, multiplied to substantial numbers thereafter, and turned cultivable in degenerating cultures contributed by tissue breakdown products. This study brings out the existence of a deep endophyte association in tissue cultures which is not easily dissociable. It also signifies the utility of in vitro system for investigations into plant-endophyte association and to bring normally non-culturable novel organisms to cultivation facilitating their future exploitation.
Schwaiger, K; Schmied, E-M V; Bauer, J
By investigating the prevalence and resistance characteristics of Gram-negative bacteria from organic and conventional kept laying hens against 31 (Campylobacter: 29) different antibiotics using the microdilution method, we determined to what extent different keeping systems influence bacterial resistance patterns. For this purpose, samples from 10 organic and 10 conventional flocks in Bavaria (Germany) were investigated four times between January 2004 and April 2005. Altogether, 799 cloacal swabs and 800 eggs (contents and shells) were examined. The bacterial investigation performed with standardized cultural methods showed prevalence for all bacteria groups in about the same order of magnitude in the two different keeping systems: Salmonella spp. 3.5% (organic ([org])) versus 1.8% (conventional ([con])); Campylobacter spp. 34.8%(org) versus 29.0%(con) and E. coli 64.4%(org) versus 69.0%(con). Coliforms (Citrobacter, Enterobacter, Pantoea) were only isolated in single cases. In eggs, generally less bacteria were detected, predominantly Escherichia; Salmonella and Campylobacter were only scarcely isolated. Salmonella enterica ssp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (n=10) were resistant to up to nine, S. of the serogroup B (n=4) up to six antibiotics. All tested Salmonella (n=23) proved to be resistant to spectinomycin. Escherichia coli (n=257(org) and 276(con)) from organic layers showed significant lower resistance rates and higher rates of susceptible isolates to nine agents, namely amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ampicillin, cefaclor, cefoxitin, cefuroxime, doxycycline, mezlocillin, neomycin and piperacillin. In contrast, only two antibiotics turned out to be more effective in conventional isolates (gentamicin and tobramycin). In the case of Campylobacter jejuni (n=118(org) and 99(con)), statistically significantly better rates were observed for isolates from organic flocks concerning imipenem and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, whereas fosfomycin was more potent in
Farias, Pedro; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Branco, Rita; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Susana; Hansen, Lars; Sorensen, Soren; Morais, Paula V
Microorganisms are responsible for multiple antibiotic resistances that have been associated with resistance/tolerance to heavy metals, with consequences to public health. Many genes conferring these resistances are located on mobile genetic elements, easily exchanged among phylogenetically distant bacteria. The objective of the present work was to isolate arsenic-, antimonite-, and antibiotic-resistant strains and to determine the existence of plasmids harboring antibiotic/arsenic/antimonite resistance traits in phenotypically resistant strains, in a nonanthropogenically impacted environment. The hydrothermal Lucky Strike field in the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic, between 11°N and 38°N), at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, protected under the OSPAR Convention, was sampled as a metal-rich pristine environment. A total of 35 strains from 8 different species were isolated in the presence of arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite. ACR3 and arsB genes were amplified from the sediment's total DNA, and 4 isolates also carried ACR3 genes. Phenotypic multiple resistances were found in all strains, and 7 strains had recoverable plasmids. Purified plasmids were sequenced by Illumina and assembled by EDENA V3, and contig annotation was performed using the "Rapid Annotation using the Subsystems Technology" server. Determinants of resistance to copper, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, and chromium as well as to the antibiotics β-lactams and fluoroquinolones were found in the 3 sequenced plasmids. Genes coding for heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance in the same mobile element were found, suggesting the possibility of horizontal gene transfer and distribution of theses resistances in the bacterial population.
Background Drug resistant organisms pose an increasing threat to the successful treatment of common infections. Understanding colonization patterns of these bacteria is important for effective antibiotic treatment and infection control guidelines. Methods A prospective observational study was performed to determine the prevalence of colonization with extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) among patients admitted via the emergency department to a public tertiary hospital in Singapore. Anterior nares, groin, axillary and rectal swabs were collected at admission and cultured using standard bacteriological techniques. Clinical data including healthcare contact within the past 12 months and recent antibiotic use was collected and analyzed using a logistic regression model. Results 1006 patients were screened. 124 (12.4%) were colonized by ESBL-E, 18 (1.8%) by MRSA while no VRE was detected. Antibiotic use within the past month was the only significant predictor for ESBL-E colonization in the regression model, with an adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of 2.58 (1.04 to 6.42). In participants recently prescribed antibiotics and hospitalized in the previous 3 months, 29.4% were colonized by ESBL-E. This represented 20.2% of the total ESBL-E burden, and ESBL-E was also detected in 6.3% of participants with no healthcare contact. Hospitalization and outpatient hospital visits predicted MRSA colonization in the univariate analysis. Neither was statistically significant in the logistic regression model, with AORs for MRSA colonization following hospitalization in the past 3 and 12 months of 3.81 [95% CI 0.84-17.28] and 3.48 [0.64-18.92] respectively. Conclusion A high prevalence of colonization with ESBL-E was evident among patients at admission, even in the absence of recent antibiotic use or contact with healthcare. PMID:24889720
Farias, Pedro; Espírito Santo, Christophe; Branco, Rita; Francisco, Romeu; Santos, Susana; Hansen, Lars; Sorensen, Soren
Microorganisms are responsible for multiple antibiotic resistances that have been associated with resistance/tolerance to heavy metals, with consequences to public health. Many genes conferring these resistances are located on mobile genetic elements, easily exchanged among phylogenetically distant bacteria. The objective of the present work was to isolate arsenic-, antimonite-, and antibiotic-resistant strains and to determine the existence of plasmids harboring antibiotic/arsenic/antimonite resistance traits in phenotypically resistant strains, in a nonanthropogenically impacted environment. The hydrothermal Lucky Strike field in the Azores archipelago (North Atlantic, between 11°N and 38°N), at the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, protected under the OSPAR Convention, was sampled as a metal-rich pristine environment. A total of 35 strains from 8 different species were isolated in the presence of arsenate, arsenite, and antimonite. ACR3 and arsB genes were amplified from the sediment's total DNA, and 4 isolates also carried ACR3 genes. Phenotypic multiple resistances were found in all strains, and 7 strains had recoverable plasmids. Purified plasmids were sequenced by Illumina and assembled by EDENA V3, and contig annotation was performed using the “Rapid Annotation using the Subsystems Technology” server. Determinants of resistance to copper, zinc, cadmium, cobalt, and chromium as well as to the antibiotics β-lactams and fluoroquinolones were found in the 3 sequenced plasmids. Genes coding for heavy metal resistance and antibiotic resistance in the same mobile element were found, suggesting the possibility of horizontal gene transfer and distribution of theses resistances in the bacterial population. PMID:25636836
Maaoui, Houcem; Jijie, Roxana; Pan, Guo-Hui; Drider, Djamel; Caly, Delphine; Bouckaert, Julie; Dumitrascu, Nicoleta; Chtourou, Radouane; Szunerits, Sabine; Boukherroub, Rabah
A 980nm laser-driven antimicrobial photothermal therapy using poly(vinylpyrrolidone) -coated Prussian Blue nanoparticles (PVP/PB NPs) is demonstrated. This approach allows an efficient eradication of a virulent strain of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) associated with urinary tract infection as well as for the ablation of antibiotic resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli. Interestingly the 980nm irradiation exhibits minimal effect on mammalian cells up to a PVP/PB NPs concentration of 50μgmL(-1), while at this concentration bacteria are completely eradicated. This feature is certainly very promising for the selective targeting of bacteria over mammalian cells.
Spaak, Johanna; Cars, Otto; Tängdén, Thomas; Lagerbäck, Pernilla
Background Appropriate antibiotic therapy is critical in the management of severe sepsis and septic shock to reduce mortality, morbidity and health costs. New methods for rapid antibiotic susceptibility testing are needed because of increasing resistance rates to standard treatment. Aims The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a novel microfluidic method and the potential to directly apply this method on positive blood cultures. Methods Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, tigecycline and/or vancomycin for Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were determined using a linear antibiotic concentration gradient in a microfluidic assay. Bacterial growth along the antibiotic gradient was monitored using automated time-lapse photomicrography and growth inhibition was quantified by measuring greyscale intensity changes in the images. In addition to pure culture MICs, vancomycin MICs were determined for S. aureus from spiked and clinical blood cultures following a short centrifugation step. The MICs were compared with those obtained with the Etest and for S. aureus and vancomycin also with macrodilution. Results The MICs obtained with the microfluidic assay showed good agreement internally as well as with the Etest and macrodilution assays, although some minor differences were noted between the methods. The time to possible readout was within the range of 2 to 5 h. Conclusions The examined microfluidic assay has the potential to provide rapid and accurate MICs using samples from positive clinical blood cultures and will now be tested using other bacterial species and antibiotics. PMID:27974860
Looft, Torey; Allen, Heather K; Cantarel, Brandi L; Levine, Uri Y; Bayles, Darrell O; Alt, David P; Henrissat, Bernard; Stanton, Thaddeus B
Disturbance of the beneficial gut microbial community is a potential collateral effect of antibiotics, which have many uses in animal agriculture (disease treatment or prevention and feed efficiency improvement). Understanding antibiotic effects on bacterial communities at different intestinal locations is essential to realize the full benefits and consequences of in-feed antibiotics. In this study, we defined the lumenal and mucosal bacterial communities from the small intestine (ileum) and large intestine (cecum and colon) plus feces, and characterized the effects of in-feed antibiotics (chlortetracycline, sulfamethazine and penicillin (ASP250)) on these communities. 16S rRNA gene sequence and metagenomic analyses of bacterial membership and functions revealed dramatic differences between small and large intestinal locations, including enrichment of Firmicutes and phage-encoding genes in the ileum. The large intestinal microbiota encoded numerous genes to degrade plant cell wall components, and these genes were lacking in the ileum. The mucosa-associated ileal microbiota harbored greater bacterial diversity than the lumen but similar membership to the mucosa of the large intestine, suggesting that most gut microbes can associate with the mucosa and might serve as an inoculum for the lumen. The collateral effects on the microbiota of antibiotic-fed animals caused divergence from that of control animals, with notable changes being increases in Escherichia coli populations in the ileum, Lachnobacterium spp. in all gut locations, and resistance genes to antibiotics not administered. Characterizing the differential metabolic capacities and response to perturbation at distinct intestinal locations will inform strategies to improve gut health and food safety.
Aydin, Sevcan; Ince, Bahar; Ince, Orhan
This study evaluated the long-term effects of erythromycin-tetracycline-sulfamethoxazole (ETS) and sulfamethoxazole-tetracycline (ST) antibiotic combinations on the microbial community and examined the ways in which these antimicrobials impact the performance of anaerobic reactors. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine the effect that different antibiotic combinations had on the total and active Bacteria, Archae and Methanogenic Archae. Three primer sets that targeted metabolic genes encoding formylterahydrofolate synthetase, methyl-coenzyme M reductase and acetyl-coA synthetase were also used to determine the inhibition level on the mRNA expression of the homoacetogens, methanogens and specifically acetoclastic methanogens, respectively. These microorganisms play a vital role in the anaerobic degradation of organic waste and targeting these gene expressions offers operators or someone at a treatment plant the potential to control and the improve the anaerobic system. The results of the investigation revealed that acetogens have a competitive advantage over Archaea in the presence of ETS and ST combinations. Although the efficiency with which methane production takes place and the quantification of microbial populations in both the ETS and ST reactors decreased as antibiotic concentrations increased, the ETS batch reactor performed better than the ST batch reactor. According to the expression of genes results, the syntrophic interaction of acetogens and methanogens is critical to the performance of the ETS and ST reactors. Failure to maintain the stability of these microorganisms resulted in a decrease in the performance and stability of the anaerobic reactors.
Tien, Yuan-Ching; Li, Bing; Zhang, Tong; Scott, Andrew; Murray, Roger; Sabourin, Lyne; Marti, Romain; Topp, Edward
Manuring ground used for crop production is an important agricultural practice. Should antibiotic-resistant enteric bacteria carried in the manure be transferred to crops that are consumed raw, their consumption by humans or animals will represent a route of exposure to antibiotic resistance genes. Treatment of manures prior to land application is a potential management option to reduce the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes entrained with manure application. In this study, dairy manure that was untreated, anaerobically digested, mechanically dewatered or composted was applied to field plots that were then cropped to lettuce, carrots and radishes. The impact of treatment on manure composition, persistence of antibiotic resistance gene targets in soil following application, and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes and bacteria on vegetables at harvest was determined. Composted manure had the lowest abundance of antibiotic resistance gene targets compared to the other manures. There was no significant difference in the persistence characteristics of antibiotic resistance genes following land application of the various manures. Compared to unmanured soil, antibiotic resistance genes were detected more frequently in soil receiving raw or digested manure, whereas they were not in soil receiving composted manure. The present study suggests that vegetables grown in ground receiving raw or digested manure are at risk of contamination with manure-borne antibiotic resistant bacteria, whereas vegetables grown in ground receiving composted manure are less so.
Gupta, Radhey S
The prokaryotic organisms can be divided into two main groups depending upon whether their cell envelopes contain one membrane (monoderms) or two membranes (diderms). It is important to understand how these and other variations that are observed in the cell envelopes of prokaryotic organisms have originated. In 2009, James Lake proposed that cells with two membranes (primarily Gram-negative bacteria) originated from an ancient endosymbiotic event involving an Actinobacteria and a Clostridia (Lake 2009). However, this Perspective argues that this proposal is based on a number of incorrect assumptions and the data presented in support of this model are also of questionable nature. Thus, there is no reliable evidence to support the endosymbiotic origin of double membrane bacteria. In contrast, many observations suggest that antibiotic selection pressure was an important selective force in prokaryotic evolution and that it likely played a central role in the evolution of diderm (Gram-negative) bacteria. Some bacterial phyla, such as Deinococcus-Thermus, which lack lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and yet contain some characteristics of the diderm bacteria, are postulated as evolutionary intermediates (simple diderms) in the transition between the monoderm bacterial taxa and the bacterial groups that have the archetypal LPS-containing outer cell membrane found in Gram-negative bacteria. It is possible to distinguish the two stages in the evolution of diderm-LPS cells (viz. monoderm bacteria → simple diderms lacking LPS → LPS containing archetypal diderm bacteria) by means of conserved inserts in the Hsp70 and Hsp60 proteins. The insert in the Hsp60 protein also distinguishes the traditional Gram-negative diderm bacterial phyla from atypical taxa of diderm bacteria (viz. Negativicutes, Fusobacteria, Synergistetes and Elusimicrobia). The Gram-negative bacterial phyla with an LPS-diderm cell envelope, as defined by the presence of the Hsp60 insert, are indicated to form a
Lawson, Michael; Lawson, Amy L.
Seeks to give teachers useful information on the extent of the problem of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, mechanisms bacteria use to resist antibiotics, the causes of the emergence of antibiotic-resistant organisms, and practices that can prevent or reverse this trend. Contains 19 references. (DDR)
Background The microorganisms intended for use as probiotics in aquaculture should exert antimicrobial activity and be regarded as safe not only for the aquatic hosts but also for their surrounding environments and humans. The objective of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial/bacteriocin activity against fish pathogens, the antibiotic susceptibility, and the prevalence of virulence factors and detrimental enzymatic activities in 99 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) (59 enterococci and 40 non-enterococci) isolated from aquatic animals regarded as human food. Results These LAB displayed a broad antimicrobial/bacteriocin activity against the main Gram-positive and Gram-negative fish pathogens. However, particular safety concerns based on antibiotic resistance and virulence factors were identified in the genus Enterococcus (86%) (Enterococcus faecalis, 100%; E. faecium, 79%). Antibiotic resistance was also found in the genera Weissella (60%), Pediococcus (44%), Lactobacillus (33%), but not in leuconostocs and lactococci. Antibiotic resistance genes were found in 7.5% of the non-enterococci, including the genera Pediococcus (12.5%) and Weissella (6.7%). One strain of both Pediococcus pentosaceus and Weissella cibaria carried the erythromycin resistance gene mef(A/E), and another two P. pentosaceus strains harboured lnu(A) conferring resistance to lincosamides. Gelatinase activity was found in E. faecalis and E. faecium (71 and 11%, respectively), while a low number of E. faecalis (5%) and none E. faecium exerted hemolytic activity. None enterococci and non-enterococci showed bile deconjugation and mucin degradation abilities, or other detrimental enzymatic activities. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first description of mef(A/E) in the genera Pediococcus and Weissella, and lnu(A) in the genus Pediococcus. The in vitro subtractive screening presented in this work constitutes a valuable strategy for the large-scale preliminary selection of putatively safe LAB
Lewis, James D; Chen, Eric Z; Baldassano, Robert N; Otley, Anthony R; Griffiths, Anne M; Lee, Dale; Bittinger, Kyle; Bailey, Aubrey; Friedman, Elliot S; Hoffmann, Christian; Albenberg, Lindsey; Sinha, Rohini; Compher, Charlene; Gilroy, Erin; Nessel, Lisa; Grant, Amy; Chehoud, Christel; Li, Hongzhe; Wu, Gary D; Bushman, Frederic D
Abnormal composition of intestinal bacteria--"dysbiosis"-is characteristic of Crohn's disease. Disease treatments include dietary changes and immunosuppressive anti-TNFα antibodies as well as ancillary antibiotic therapy, but their effects on microbiota composition are undetermined. Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we analyzed fecal samples from a prospective cohort of pediatric Crohn's disease patients starting therapy with enteral nutrition or anti-TNFα antibodies and reveal the full complement and dynamics of bacteria, fungi, archaea, and viruses during treatment. Bacterial community membership was associated independently with intestinal inflammation, antibiotic use, and therapy. Antibiotic exposure was associated with increased dysbiosis, whereas dysbiosis decreased with reduced intestinal inflammation. Fungal proportions increased with disease and antibiotic use. Dietary therapy had independent and rapid effects on microbiota composition distinct from other stressor-induced changes and effectively reduced inflammation. These findings reveal that dysbiosis results from independent effects of inflammation, diet, and antibiotics and shed light on Crohn disease treatments.
Feng, Yan; Chen, Wenwen; Jia, Yuexiao; Tian, Yue; Zhao, Yuyun; Long, Fei; Rui, Yukui; Jiang, Xingyu
We demonstrate that N-heterocyclic molecule-capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Optimized antibacterial activity can be achieved by using different initial molar ratios (1 : 1 and 10 : 1) of N-heterocyclic prodrugs and the precursor of Au NPs (HAuCl4). This work opens up new avenues for antibiotics based on Au NPs.We demonstrate that N-heterocyclic molecule-capped gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity. Optimized antibacterial activity can be achieved by using different initial molar ratios (1 : 1 and 10 : 1) of N-heterocyclic prodrugs and the precursor of Au NPs (HAuCl4). This work opens up new avenues for antibiotics based on Au NPs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03317b
Karami, Solmaz; Maleki, Afshin; Karimi, Ebrahim; Poormazaheri, Helen; Zandi, Shiva; Davari, Behrooz; Salimi, Yahya Zand; Gharibi, Fardin; Kalantar, Enayatollah
Recently, there has been increasing interest to clean up the soils contaminated with herbicide. Our aim was to determine the bioremediation of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) from wheat fields which have a long history of herbicide in Sanandaj. Based on our literature survey, this study is the first report to isolate and identify antimicrobial resistant bacteria from polluted wheat field soils in Sanandaj which has the capacity to degrade 2,4-D. From 150 2,4-D-exposed soil samples, five different bacteria were isolated and identified based on biochemical tests and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA). Pseudomonas has been the most frequently isolated genus. By sequencing the 16S rRNA gene of the isolated bacteria, the strains were detected and identified as a member of the genus Pseudomonas sp, Entrobacter sp, Bacillus sp, Seratia sp, and Staphylococcus sp. The sequence of Sanandaj 1 isolate displayed 87% similarity with the 16S rRNA gene of a Pseudomonas sp (HE995788). Similarly, all the isolates were compared to standard strains based on 16S rRNA. Small amounts of 2,4-D could be transmitted to a depth of 10-20 cm; however, in the depth of 20-40 cm, we could not detect the 2,4-D. The isolates were resistant to various antibiotics particularly, penicillin, ampicillin, and amoxicillin.
Pabst, Breana; Pitts, Betsey; Lauchnor, Ellen
An experimental model that mimicked the structure and characteristics of in vivo biofilm infections, such as those occurring in the lung or in dermal wounds where no biomaterial surface is present, was developed. In these infections, microbial biofilm forms as cell aggregates interspersed in a layer of mucus or host matrix material. This structure was modeled by filling glass capillary tubes with an agarose gel that had been seeded with Staphylococcus aureus bacteria and then incubating the gel biofilm in medium for up to 30 h. Confocal microscopy showed that the bacteria formed in discrete pockets distributed throughout the gel matrix. These aggregates enlarged over time and also developed a size gradient, with the clusters being larger near the nutrient- and oxygen-supplied interface and smaller at greater depths. Bacteria entrapped in gels for 24 h grew slowly (specific growth rate, 0.06 h−1) and were much less susceptible to oxacillin, minocycline, or ciprofloxacin than planktonic cells. Microelectrode measurements showed that the oxygen concentration decreased with depth into the gel biofilm, falling to values less than 3% of air saturation at depths of 500 μm. An anaerobiosis-responsive green fluorescent protein reporter gene for lactate dehydrogenase was induced in the region of the gel where the measured oxygen concentrations were low, confirming biologically relevant hypoxia. These results show that the gel biofilm model captures key features of biofilm infection in mucus or compromised tissue: formation of dense, distinct aggregates, reduced specific growth rates, local hypoxia, and antibiotic tolerance. PMID:27503656
Zothanpuia; Passari, Ajit K.; Gupta, Vijai K.
Antimicrobial resistance poses a serious challenge to global public health. In this study, fifty bacterial strains were isolated from the sediments of a freshwater lake and were screened for antibiotic resistance. Out of fifty isolates, thirty-three isolates showed resistance against at least two of the selected antibiotics. Analysis of 16S rDNA sequencing revealed that the isolates belonged to ten different genera, namely Staphylococcus(n = 8), Bacillus(n = 7), Lysinibacillus(n = 4), Achromobacter(n=3), bacterium(n = 3), Methylobacterium(n = 2), Bosea(n = 2), Aneurinibacillus(n = 2), Azospirillum(n = 1), Novosphingobium(n = 1). Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) and BOX-PCR markers were used to study the genetic relatedness among the antibiotic resistant isolates. Further, the isolates were screened for their antimicrobial activity against bacterial pathogens viz., Staphylococcus aureus(MTCC-96), Pseudomonas aeruginosa(MTCC-2453) and Escherichia coli(MTCC-739), and pathogenic fungi viz., Fusarium proliferatum (MTCC-286), Fusarium oxysporum (CABI-293942) and Fusarium oxy. ciceri (MTCC-2791). In addition, biosynthetic genes (polyketide synthase II (PKS-II) and non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS)) were detected in six and seven isolates, respectively. This is the first report for the multifunctional analysis of the bacterial isolates from a wetland with biosynthetic potential, which could serve as potential source of useful biologically active metabolites. PMID:27330861
Chen, Wei-Xu; Ren, Li-Hua; Shi, Rui-Hua
Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a leading form of inflammatory bowel disease that involves chronic relapsing or progressive inflammation. As a significant proportion of UC patients treated with conventional therapies do not achieve remission, there is a pressing need for the development of more effective therapies. The human gut contains a large, diverse, and dynamic population of microorganisms, collectively referred to as the enteric microbiota. There is a symbiotic relationship between the human host and the enteric microbiota, which provides nutrition, protection against pathogenic organisms, and promotes immune homeostasis. An imbalance of the normal enteric microbiota composition (termed dysbiosis) underlies the pathogenesis of UC. A reduction of enteric microbiota diversity has been observed in UC patients, mainly affecting the butyrate-producing bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, which can repress pro-inflammatory cytokines. Many studies have shown that enteric microbiota plays an important role in anti-inflammatory and immunoregulatory activities, which can benefit UC patients. Therefore, manipulation of the dysbiosis is an attractive approach for UC therapy. Various therapies targeting a restoration of the enteric microbiota have shown efficacy in treating patients with active and chronic forms of UC. Such therapies include fecal microbiota transplantation, probiotics, prebiotics, antibiotics, helminth therapy, and dietary polyphenols, all of which can alter the abundance and composition of the enteric microbiota. Although there have been many large, randomized controlled clinical trials assessing these treatments, the effectiveness and safety of these bacteria-driven therapies need further evaluation. This review focuses on the important role that the enteric microbiota plays in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and discusses new therapeutic strategies targeting the enteric microbiota for UC.
... complete dose, and they will not work to kill all your disease causing bacteria. Taking partial doses ... dose of the appropriate antibiotic is needed to kill all the harmful bacteria. How safe are antibiotics? ...
... Twitter STD on Facebook Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) Antibiotic-Resistant Gonorrhea Basic Information Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Surveillance Trends and Treatment Challenges Laboratory Issues Antibiotic resistance (AR) is the ability of bacteria to ...
Han, Il; Lee, Tae Kwon; Han, Jungmin; Doan, Tuan Van; Kim, Seong Bo; Park, Joonhong
High-throughput 16S rRNA gene-targeted pyrosequencing was used with commonly used risk assessment techniques to evaluate the potential microbial risk in soil after inoculating genetically modified (GM) Corynebacterium glutamicum. To verify the risk, reference experiments were conducted in parallel using well-defined and frequently used GM Escherichia coli and wild-type strains. The viable cell count showed that the number of GM bacteria in the soil was reduced to below the detection limit within 10 days, while the molecular indicator for GM plasmids was detected throughout the experiment by using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions. Subsequent pyrosequencing showed an insignificant influence of the GM bacteria and/or their GM plasmids on the structure of the soil bacterial community this was similar to non-GM wild-type strains. However, pyrosequencing combined with kanamycin-resistant bacteria selection uncovered a potential risk of GM bacteria on the soil bacterial community and pathogens. The results of the improved methodology showed that the microbial risk attributable to GM C. glutamicum was relatively lower than that attributable to the reference GM E. coli.
Al-Bahry, S N; Al-Zadjali, M A; Mahmoud, I Y; Elshafie, A E
During the egg-laying process, oviductal fluid was collected using a non-invasive procedure from the cloacal vent of the green turtles. Forty-two independent isolates of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from 11 genera were obtained from 20 turtles during nesting. The dominant isolate was Citrobacter (52.4%), followed by Pseudomonas, Proteus, Enterobacter, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Shigella, Edwardsiella, Morganella, Providencia and Arcomobacter. Most of the isolates were resistant to ampicillin. Ampicillin-resistant isolates showed variations in their resistance for the following classes of β-lactamases: extended-spectrum β-lactamases (EBSLs), AmpC type β-lactamases C (AmpC), and screen-positive β-lactamase. None of the isolates produced metallo β-lactamase. Some ampicillin-resistant genes were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) only. Inhibitor based test (IBT) categorized some isolates as AmpC β-lactamase producers. β-Lactamase genes were detected from a few strains. The sequencing of those genes revealed the presence of cephamycinase (CMY) and AmpC β-lactamases. The oviductal fluid was used in this study as a source of bacterial antibiotic-resistant determinants for biomonitoring marine turtles exposed to contaminated effluents. This data can be of value in understanding the decline of this endangered species as a result of exposure to marine pollution which is threatening their survival.
A regimen of oral non-absorbable prophylactic antibiotics (kanamycin-vancomycin-nystatin) was given to nine severely neutropaenic leukaemic patients on cytotoxic therapy (11 courses), in conjunction with isolation procedures. An appreciable decrease in faecal organisms, especially anaerobes, was apparent after 48 h of commencing the course, and most bacteria had disappeared from the stool after five days. There were three episodes of septicaemia, all with enteric organisms, whilst on these antibiotics; one proved fatal. The emergence of resistance to aminoglycosides in faecal flora, notably Klebsiella, in 6/11 courses constituted a major problem in the use of such prophylaxis. PMID:7052229
Blair, Jessica M A; Webber, Mark A; Baylay, Alison J; Ogbolu, David O; Piddock, Laura J V
Antibiotic-resistant bacteria that are difficult or impossible to treat are becoming increasingly common and are causing a global health crisis. Antibiotic resistance is encoded by several genes, many of which can transfer between bacteria. New resistance mechanisms are constantly being described, and new genes and vectors of transmission are identified on a regular basis. This article reviews recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms by which bacteria are either intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to antibiotics, including the prevention of access to drug targets, changes in the structure and protection of antibiotic targets and the direct modification or inactivation of antibiotics.
Andrabi, S M H; Khan, L A; Shahab, M
This study was designed to investigate the occurrence of bacterial species in water buffalo semen at the time of collection/processing and to assess the efficacy of some selected antibiotics (GTLS; gentamycin, tylosin and linco-spectin or SP; streptomycin and penicillin) in cryodiluent on bacterial control and quality including in vivo fertility of buffalo spermatozoa. For this purpose, four experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, a total of 11 bacterial species were isolated from buffalo ejaculates. In experiment 2, total aerobic bacterial counts at post dilution and thawing were lower (P < 0.05) in GTLS than in SP or control. The majority of the bacterial isolates from ejaculates were more susceptible to GTLS than SP. In experiment 3, sperm acrosome integrity was higher (P < 0.05) in GTLS and SP compared to control. In experiment 4, the in vivo fertility results for GTLS were higher (P < 0.05) than that for SP. In conclusion, a number of bacterial species were isolated from the bubaline semen, which requires an efficient control before its use in artificial insemination program. The GTLS combination of antibiotics may be incorporated into a freezing extender/protocol without compromising the post-thaw quality and in vivo fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa.
Samuels, Richard Ian; Mattoso, Thalles Cardoso; Moreira, Denise D O
Leaf-cutting ants are well known for their highly complex social organization, which provides them with a strong defense against parasites invading their colonies. Besides this attribute, these insects have morphological, physiological and structural characteristics further reinforcing the defense of their colonies. With the discovery of symbiotic bacteria present on the integument of leaf-cutting ants, a new line of defense was proposed and considered to be specific for the control of a specialized fungal parasite of the ants' fungus gardens (Escovopsis). However, recent studies have questioned the specificity of the integumental bacteria, as they were also found to inhibit a range of fungi, including entomopathogens. The microbiota associated with the leaf-cutting ant gardens has also been proposed as another level of chemical defense, protecting the garden from parasite invasion. Here we review the chemical defense weaponry deployed by leaf-cutting ants against parasites of their fungus gardens and of the ants themselves.
Strategy for rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of gram-negative bacteria directly recovered from positive blood cultures using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper and the BD Phoenix system.
Wimmer, Jana L; Long, S Wesley; Cernoch, Patricia; Land, Geoffrey A; Davis, James R; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J
Decreasing the time to species identification and antibiotic susceptibility determination of strains recovered from patients with bacteremia significantly decreases morbidity and mortality. Herein, we validated a method to identify Gram-negative bacteria directly from positive blood culture medium using the Bruker MALDI Biotyper and to rapidly perform susceptibility testing using the BD Phoenix.
Aween, Mohamed Mustafa; Hassan, Zaiton; Muhialdin, Belal J; Eljamel, Yossra A; Al-Mabrok, Asma Saleh W; Lani, Mohd Nizam
A total of 32 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from 13 honey samples commercially marketed in Malaysia, 6 strains identified as Lactobacillus acidophilus by API CHL50. The isolates had antibacterial activities against multiple antibiotic resistant's Staphylococcus aureus (25 to 32 mm), Staphylococcus epidermis (14 to 22 mm) and Bacillus subtilis (12 to 19 mm) in the agar overlay method after 24 h incubation at 30 °C. The crude supernatant was heat stable at 90 °C and 121 °C for 1 h. Treatment with proteinase K and RNase II maintained the antimicrobial activity of all the supernatants except sample H006-A and H010-G. All the supernatants showed antimicrobial activities against target bacteria at pH 3 and pH 5 but not at pH 6 within 72 h incubation at 30 °C. S. aureus was not inhibited by sample H006-A isolated from Libyan honey and sample H008-D isolated from Malaysian honey at pH 5, compared to supernatants from other L. acidophilus isolates. The presence of different strains of L. acidophilus in honey obtained from different sources may contribute to the differences in the antimicrobial properties of honey.
Masciopinto, Costantino; Visino, Fabrizio; Luprano, Maria Laura; Levantesi, Caterina; Tandoi, Valter
The spreading of microbial contamination into the environment, represents a very relevant problem, which leads to an increasing health concern. For this reason, it is important to identify and characterize the extent of natural depuration in water environmental particularly for reducing the presence of faecal contamination indicator bacteria, pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). In this study, the presence of the above reported microbial parameters was analyzed in a surface water channel and in a coastal aquifer in southern Italy (Ostuni) southern Italy, both affected by Ostuni municipal treatment plant effluents and by local run-off. Several samples were collected from surface water, flowing in channels, and from wells in our study area. In particular, the water samples were analyzed to detect 7 fecal contamination indicators (E. coli, total coliforms, Clostridium p. spores, somatic coliphages, Enterococci and heterotrophic bacteria), Salmonella spp and the presence of ARGs. The water samples were also tested for chemical constituents. Finally a mathematical model has been developed in order to simulate pathogen migration pathways in the fractured groundwater and corresponding possible mitigation of pathogens in pumping wells.
Introduction: Since the early 1990’s there has been increasing awareness and concern regarding the development of antimicrobial resistance among bacteria of public health significance. Reports targeting zoonotic bacteria, and in particular Salmonella species, suggest that resistance is trending upw...
Impact of urban contamination of the La Paz River basin on thermotolerant coliform density and occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistant enteric pathogens in river water, irrigated soil and fresh vegetables.
Poma, Violeta; Mamani, Nataniel; Iñiguez, Volga
La Paz River in Andean highlands is heavily polluted with urban run-off and further contaminates agricultural lowlands and downstream waters at the Amazon watershed. Agricultural produce at this region is the main source of vegetables for the major Andean cities of La Paz and El Alto. We conducted a 1 year study, to evaluate microbial quality parameters and occurrence of multiple enteropathogenic bacteria (Enterohemorrhagic E. coli-EHEC, Enteroinvasive E. coli or Shigella-EIEC/Shigella, Enteroaggregative E. coli-EAEC, Enteropathogenic E. coli-EPEC Enterotoxigenic E. coli-ETEC and Salmonella) and its resistance to 11 antibiotics. Four sampling locations were selected: a fresh mountain water reservoir (un-impacted, site 1) and downstream sites receiving wastewater discharges (impacted, sites 2-4). River water (sites 1-4, N = 48), and soil and vegetable samples (site 3, N = 24) were collected during dry (April-September) and rainy seasons (October-March). Throughout the study, thermotolerant coliform density values at impacted sites greatly exceeded the guidelines for recreational and agricultural water uses. Seasonal differences were found for thermotolerant coliform density during dry season in water samples nearby a populated and hospital compound area. In contrast to the un-impacted site, where none of the tested enteropathogens were found, 100 % of surface water, 83 % of soil and 67 % of vegetable samples at impacted sites, were contaminated with at least one enteropathogen, being ETEC and Salmonella the most frequently found. ETEC isolates displayed different patterns of toxin genes among sites. The occurrence of enteropathogens was associated with the thermotolerant coliform density. At impacted sites, multiple enteropathogens were frequently found during rainy season. Among isolated enteropathogens, 50 % were resistant to at least two antibiotics, with resistance to ampicillin, nalidixic acid, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline commonly
Kiliç, Gülden Başyiğit; Karahan, Aynur Gül
The research of novel probiotic strains is important in order to satisfy the increasing request of the market and to obtain functional products in which the probiotic cultures are more active and have better probiotic characteristics than those already on the market. In this study, the probiotic potential of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus strains isolated from human feces was investigated. One hundred seven strains of lactic acid bacteria were isolated from the fecal samples of 19 adult volunteers with stomach problems and the fecal samples of 12 healthy adult volunteers. The strains were identified by 16S rRNA analysis and examined for resistance to gastric acidity (pH 3.5) and bile salts (0.3% bile salt). The antibiotic susceptibility of the strains was also determined. The counts of lactic acid bacteria in the fecal samples ranged from 1.7 x 10(7) to 3.1 x 10(10) CFU/g. The species present in those samples were found to be Lactobacillusplantarum, L. fermentum, Enterococcus faecium and E. durans. Results indicated that L. plantarum (AA1-2, AA17-73, AC18-88, AK4-11, and AK7-28), L. fermentum (AB5-18, BB16-75, and AK4-180), E. faecium (AB20-98 and BK11-50) and E. durans (AK4-14 and BK9-40) showed good pH and bile tolerance. These strains are potentially good candidates for use as health-promoting bacteria.
Aust, V; Knappstein, K; Kunz, H-J; Kaspar, H; Wallmann, J; Kaske, M
Non-saleable milk (waste milk, WM) is contaminated with an undefined spectrum of potentially harmful pathogens and antimicrobial residues. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of feeding bulk milk (BM) or WM - both pasteurized or not - on calf performance, health and the antibiotic resistance of specific faecal bacteria. A total of 114 calves from a large-scale dairy were housed outdoors in individual hutches and were randomly assigned to one of four feeding groups. The calves were fed either WM, pasteurized WM (pWM), BM or pasteurized BM (pBM) from day 3 to 56 of life. Milk samples taken from the pasteurizer and calves' nipple buckets were investigated at regular intervals for total plate count and counts of thermoduric bacteria, coliforms and mastitis pathogens. Faecal samples were taken on days 2, 14, 28 and 56 of life from randomly selected calves of the WM, pWM and BM groups (each N = 8-9) and processed to obtain from each sample preferably two isolates of Escherichia (E.) coli and Enterococcus spp. respectively. Isolates were tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility to 25 antimicrobial agents by broth microdilution. Daily weight gain, milk and calf starter intake and health parameters did not differ significantly between the calves of the four feeding groups. The proportion of resistant E. coli isolates was significantly higher in calves fed WM and in calves fed pWM (most pronounced for cephalosporins) than in calves receiving BM. No differences in resistance were found for Enterococus spp. Thus, the concerns for selecting resistant faecal bacteria by feeding WM seem to be justified. Nonetheless, pasteurized WM of cows not treated with antimicrobials represents an acceptable feed for young calves.
The benefits, equipment used, commercially available sources, and the indications and techniques for administration of enteral nutrients are reviewed. In many malabsorption states, enteral feeding is preferable and parenteral nutrients are seldom indicated. Transitional enteral nutrient support usually is indicated after parenteral nutrient therapy. Enteral tube-feeding formulas should be matched to the patient's needs; formulas using blenderized natural foods or intact isolated nutrients are appropriate for patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts. Patients should be monitored for glucosuria and hyperglycemia, bloating, nausea, dehydration, and renal, hepatic and hematologic status. Formula dilution, and a reduced flow rate or use of continuous-drip feeding, will reduce the incidence of osmotic diarrhea. The effectiveness, low cost and low potential for serious complications make enteral feeding preferable to parenteral nutrient therapy for many patients.
The spread of resistant bacteria, leading to untreatable infections, is a major public health threat but the pace of antibiotic discovery to combat these pathogens has slowed down. Most antibiotics were originally isolated by screening soil-derived actinomycetes during the golden era of antibiotic