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Sample records for antibody expressing pea

  1. Transient protein expression in three Pisum sativum (green pea) varieties.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian J; Fujiki, Masaaki; Mett, Valentina; Kaczmarczyk, Jon; Shamloul, Moneim; Musiychuk, Konstantin; Underkoffler, Susan; Yusibov, Vidadi; Mett, Vadim

    2009-02-01

    The expression of proteins in plants both transiently and via permanently transformed lines has been demonstrated by a number of groups. Transient plant expression systems, due to high expression levels and speed of production, show greater promise for the manufacturing of biopharmaceuticals when compared to permanent transformants. Expression vectors based on a tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) are the most commonly utilized and the primary plant used, Nicotiana benthamiana, has demonstrated the ability to express a wide range of proteins at levels amenable to purification. N. benthamiana has two limitations for its use; one is its relatively slow growth, and the other is its low biomass. To address these limitations we screened a number of legumes for transient protein expression. Using the alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) and the cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) vectors, delivered via Agrobacterium, we were able to identify three Pisum sativum varieties that demonstrated protein expression transiently. Expression levels of 420 +/- 26.24 mg GFP/kgFW in the green pea variety speckled pea were achieved. We were also able to express three therapeutic proteins indicating promise for this system in the production of biopharmaceuticals.

  2. Enhancing Neoplasm Expression in Field Pea (Pisum sativum) via Intercropping and Its Significance to Pea Weevil (Bruchus pisorum) Management

    PubMed Central

    Teshome, Abel; Bryngelsson, Tomas; Mendesil, Esayas; Marttila, Salla; Geleta, Mulatu

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasm formation, a non-meristematic tissue growth on young field pea (Pisum sativum L.) pods is triggered in the absence of UV light and/or in response to oviposition by pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum L.). This trait is expressed in some genotypes [neoplastic (Np) genotypes] of P. sativum and has the capacity to obstruct pea weevil larval entry into developing seeds. In the present study, 26% of the tested accessions depicted the trait when grown under greenhouse conditions. However, UV light inhibits full expression of this trait and subsequently it is inconspicuous at the field level. In order to investigate UV light impact on the expression of neoplasm, particular Np genotypes were subjected to UV lamp light exposure in the greenhouse and sunlight at the field level. Under these different growing conditions, the highest mean percentage of Np pods was in the control chamber in the greenhouse (36%) whereas in single and double UV lamp chambers, the percentage dropped to 10 and 15%, respectively. Furthermore, when the same Np genotypes were grown in the field, the percentage of Np pods dropped significantly (7%). In order to enhance Np expression at the field level, intercropping of Np genotypes with sorghum was investigated. As result, the percentage of Np pods was threefold in intercropped Np genotypes as compared to those without intercropping. Therefore, intercropping Np genotypes with other crops such as sorghum and maize can facilitate neoplasm formation, which in turn can minimize the success rate of pea weevil larvae entry into developing seeds. Greenhouse artificial infestation experiments showed that pea weevil damage in Np genotypes is lower in comparison to wild type genotypes. Therefore, promoting Np formation under field conditions via intercropping can serve as part of an integrated pea weevil management strategy especially for small scale farming systems. PMID:27242855

  3. Pea3 expression is regulated by FGF signaling in developing retina

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Kathryn Leigh; McGuire, Chris; Reh, Thomas A.

    2008-01-01

    FGF signaling has been implicated as an important regulator of retinal development. As a first step in characterizing potential downstream targets of FGF signaling in the retina, we have analyzed expression of Pea3, a member of the Pea3 class of Ets-domain transcription factors, in the developing eye. We find that Pea3 is expressed in the developing retina, and its transcription is regulated by FGF receptor activation. In addition, FGF signaling activates Cath5, a gene necessary for retinal ganglion cell differentiation. These results suggest that FGF signaling via MAPK up-regulates transcription factors that in turn control retinal ganglion cell differentiation. PMID:16273524

  4. Expression of recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with "human-like" post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications.

  5. Expression of Recombinant Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Frenzel, André; Hust, Michael; Schirrmann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant antibodies are highly specific detection probes in research, diagnostics, and have emerged over the last two decades as the fastest growing class of therapeutic proteins. Antibody generation has been dramatically accelerated by in vitro selection systems, particularly phage display. An increasing variety of recombinant production systems have been developed, ranging from Gram-negative and positive bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi, insect cell lines, mammalian cells to transgenic plants and animals. Currently, almost all therapeutic antibodies are still produced in mammalian cell lines in order to reduce the risk of immunogenicity due to altered, non-human glycosylation patterns. However, recent developments of glycosylation-engineered yeast, insect cell lines, and transgenic plants are promising to obtain antibodies with “human-like” post-translational modifications. Furthermore, smaller antibody fragments including bispecific antibodies without any glycosylation are successfully produced in bacteria and have advanced to clinical testing. The first therapeutic antibody products from a non-mammalian source can be expected in coming next years. In this review, we focus on current antibody production systems including their usability for different applications. PMID:23908655

  6. Pea aphid infestation induces changes in flavonoids, antioxidative defence, soluble sugars and sugar transporter expression in leaves of pea seedlings.

    PubMed

    Morkunas, Iwona; Woźniak, Agnieszka; Formela, Magda; Mai, Van Chung; Marczak, Łukasz; Narożna, Dorota; Borowiak-Sobkowiak, Beata; Kühn, Christina; Grimm, Bernhard

    2016-07-01

    The perception of aphid infestation induces highly coordinated and sequential defensive reactions in plants at the cellular and molecular levels. The aim of the study was to explore kinetics of induced antioxidative defence responses in leaf cells of Pisum sativum L.cv. Cysterski upon infestation of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum at varying population sizes, including accumulation of flavonoids, changes of carbon metabolism, and expression of nuclear genes involved in sugar transport. Within the first 96 h, after A. pisum infestation, flavonoid accumulation and increased peroxidase activity were observed in leaves. The level of pisatin increased after 48 h of infestation and reached a maximum at 96 h. At this time point, a higher concentration of flavonols was observed in the infested tissue than in the control. Additionally, strong post-infestation accumulation of chalcone synthase (CHS) and isoflavone synthase (IFS) transcription products was also found. The levels of sucrose and fructose in 24-h leaves infested by 10, 20, and 30 aphids were significantly lower than in the control. Moreover, in leaves infested by 30 aphids, the reduced sucrose level observed up to 48 h was accompanied by a considerable increase in the expression level of the PsSUT1 gene encoding the sucrose transporter. In conclusion, A. pisum infestation on pea leads to stimulation of metabolic pathways associated with defence.

  7. Expression studies of catalytic antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, H.D.; Patten, P.A.; Yang, P.L.

    1995-12-05

    We have examined the positive influence of human constant regions on the folding and bacterial expression of active soluble mouse immunoglobulin variable domains derived form a number of catalytic antibodies. Expression yields of eight hybridoma-and myeloma-derived chimeric Fab fragments are compared in both shake flasks and high-density fermentation. In addition the usefulness of this system for the generation of in vivo expression libraries is examined by constructing and expressing combinations of heavy and light chain variable regions that were not selected as a pair during an immune response. A mutagenesis study of one of the recombinant catalytic Fab fragments reveals that single amino acid substitutions can have dramatic effects on the expression yield. This system should be generally applicable to the production of Fab fragments of catalytic and other hybridoma-derived antibodies for crystallographic and structure-function studies. 41 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Expression dynamics of the pea rbcS multigene family and organ distribution of the transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Fluhr, Robert; Moses, Phyllis; Morelli, Giorgio; Coruzzi, Gloria; Chua, Nam-Hai

    1986-01-01

    We have determined the nucleotide sequence of two members (rbcS-3A and -3C) of the pea nuclear gene family encoding the small subunit (rbcS) of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase. Both rbcS-3A and -3C are interrupted by two introns located at the same positions as those of the other three pea rbcS genes. Compared with the other pea rbcS genes the rbcS-3C gene has the most divergent 5'- and 3'-flanking sequences while the rbcS-3A gene has a larger and highly divergent intron 1. All five pea rbcS genes are conserved in their coding regions but show considerable sequence differences in their 3'-untranslated portion. The 3' sequence divergence of the rbcS genes has allowed us to use S1 nuclease mapping procedures to compare their expression levels in different organs and during light induction. All the rbcS genes are differentially expressed in various organs of the pea plants; moreover, specific rbcS transcripts are under-represented in seeds and petals. In leaves there is a 10-fold difference between the highest and lowest specific rbcS transcript levels. By quantitating the distribution of rbcS transcripts during light, phytochrome and blue light induction of immature (etiolated), and mature (green), pea leaves, we show that the genes are differentially activated during leaf development. ImagesFig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8. PMID:16453702

  9. Raised expression of the antiapoptotic protein ped/pea-15 increases susceptibility to chemically induced skin tumor development.

    PubMed

    Formisano, Pietro; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Libertini, Silvana; Santopietro, Stefania; Troncone, Giancarlo; Raciti, Gregory Alexander; Oriente, Francesco; Portella, Giuseppe; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco

    2005-10-27

    ped/pea-15 is a cytosolic protein performing a broad antiapoptotic function. We show that, upon DMBA/TPA-induced skin carcinogenesis, transgenic mice overexpressing ped/pea-15 (Tg(ped/pea-15)) display early development of papillomas and a four-fold increase in papilloma number compared to the nontransgenic littermates (P<0.001). The malignant conversion frequency was 24% for the Tg(ped/pea-15) mice and only 5% in controls (P<0.01). The isolated application of TPA, but not that of DMBA, was sufficient to reversibly upregulate ped/pea-15 in both untransformed skin and cultured keratinocytes. ped/pea-15 protein levels were also increased in DMBA/TPA-induced papillomas of both Tg(ped/pea-15) and control mice. Isolated TPA applications induced Caspase-3 activation and apoptosis in nontransformed mouse epidermal tissues. The induction of both Caspase-3 and apoptosis by TPA were four-fold inhibited in the skin of the Tg(ped/pea-15) compared to the nontransgenic mice, accompanied by a similarly sized reduction in TPA-induced JNK and p38 stimulation and by constitutive induction of cytoplasmic ERK activity in the transgenics. ped/pea-15 expression was stably increased in cell lines from DMBA/TPA-induced skin papillomas and carcinomas, paralleled by protection from TPA apoptosis. In the A5 spindle carcinoma cell line, antisense inhibition of ped/pea-15 expression simultaneously rescued sensitivity to TPA-induced Caspase-3 function and apoptosis. The antisense also reduced A5 cell ability to grow in semisolid media by 65% (P<0.001) and increased by three-fold tumor latency time (P<0.01). Thus, the expression levels of ped/pea-15 control Caspase-3 function and epidermal cell apoptosis in vivo and determine susceptibility to skin tumor development.

  10. Differential gene expression according to race and host plant in the pea aphid.

    PubMed

    Eyres, Isobel; Jaquiéry, Julie; Sugio, Akiko; Duvaux, Ludovic; Gharbi, Karim; Zhou, Jing-Jiang; Legeai, Fabrice; Nelson, Michaela; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Smadja, Carole M; Butlin, Roger; Ferrari, Julia

    2016-09-01

    Host-race formation in phytophagous insects is thought to provide the opportunity for local adaptation and subsequent ecological speciation. Studying gene expression differences amongst host races may help to identify phenotypes under (or resulting from) divergent selection and their genetic, molecular and physiological bases. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) comprises host races specializing on numerous plants in the Fabaceae and provides a unique system for examining the early stages of diversification along a gradient of genetic and associated adaptive divergence. In this study, we examine transcriptome-wide gene expression both in response to environment and across pea aphid races selected to cover the range of genetic divergence reported in this species complex. We identify changes in expression in response to host plant, indicating the importance of gene expression in aphid-plant interactions. Races can be distinguished on the basis of gene expression, and higher numbers of differentially expressed genes are apparent between more divergent races; these expression differences between host races may result from genetic drift and reproductive isolation and possibly divergent selection. Expression differences related to plant adaptation include a subset of chemosensory and salivary genes. Genes showing expression changes in response to host plant do not make up a large portion of between-race expression differences, providing confirmation of previous studies' findings that genes involved in expression differences between diverging populations or species are not necessarily those showing initial plasticity in the face of environmental change.

  11. Protein kinase B/Akt binds and phosphorylates PED/PEA-15, stabilizing its antiapoptotic action.

    PubMed

    Trencia, Alessandra; Perfetti, Anna; Cassese, Angela; Vigliotta, Giovanni; Miele, Claudia; Oriente, Francesco; Santopietro, Stefania; Giacco, Ferdinando; Condorelli, Gerolama; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2003-07-01

    The antiapoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 features an Akt phosphorylation motif upstream from Ser(116). In vitro, recombinant PED/PEA-15 was phosphorylated by Akt with a stoichiometry close to 1. Based on Western blotting with specific phospho-Ser(116) PED/PEA-15 antibodies, Akt phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 occurred mainly at Ser(116). In addition, a mutant of PED/PEA-15 featuring the substitution of Ser(116)-->Gly (PED(S116-->G)) showed 10-fold-decreased phosphorylation by Akt. In intact 293 cells, Akt also induced phosphorylation of PED/PEA-15 at Ser(116). Based on pull-down and coprecipitation assays, PED/PEA-15 specifically bound Akt, independently of Akt activity. Serum activation of Akt as well as BAD phosphorylation by Akt showed no difference in 293 cells transfected with PED/PEA-15 and in untransfected cells (which express no endogenous PED/PEA-15). However, the antiapoptotic action of PED/PEA-15 was almost twofold reduced in PED(S116-->G) compared to that in PED/PEA-15(WT) cells. PED/PEA-15 stability closely paralleled Akt activation by serum in 293 cells. In these cells, the nonphosphorylatable PED(S116-->G) mutant exhibited a degradation rate threefold greater than that observed with wild-type PED/PEA-15. In the U373MG glioma cells, blocking Akt also reduced PED/PEA-15 levels and induced sensitivity to tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand apoptosis. Thus, phosphorylation by Akt regulates the antiapoptotic function of PED/PEA-15 at least in part by controlling the stability of PED/PEA-15. In part, Akt survival signaling may be mediated by PED/PEA-15.

  12. PED/PEA-15 regulates glucose-induced insulin secretion by restraining potassium channel expression in pancreatic beta-cells.

    PubMed

    Miele, Claudia; Raciti, Gregory Alexander; Cassese, Angela; Romano, Chiara; Giacco, Ferdinando; Oriente, Francesco; Paturzo, Flora; Andreozzi, Francesco; Zabatta, Assunta; Troncone, Giancarlo; Bosch, Fatima; Pujol, Anna; Chneiweiss, Hervé; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2007-03-01

    The phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (ped/pea-15) gene is overexpressed in human diabetes and causes this abnormality in mice. Transgenic mice with beta-cell-specific overexpression of ped/pea-15 (beta-tg) exhibited decreased glucose tolerance but were not insulin resistant. However, they showed impaired insulin response to hyperglycemia. Islets from the beta-tg also exhibited little response to glucose. mRNAs encoding the Sur1 and Kir6.2 potassium channel subunits and their upstream regulator Foxa2 were specifically reduced in these islets. Overexpression of PED/PEA-15 inhibited the induction of the atypical protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta by glucose in mouse islets and in beta-cells of the MIN-6 and INS-1 lines. Rescue of PKC-zeta activity elicited recovery of the expression of the Sur1, Kir6.2, and Foxa2 genes and of glucose-induced insulin secretion in PED/PEA-15-overexpressing beta-cells. Islets from ped/pea-15-null mice exhibited a twofold increased activation of PKC-zeta by glucose; increased abundance of the Sur1, Kir6.2, and Foxa2 mRNAs; and enhanced glucose effect on insulin secretion. In conclusion, PED/PEA-15 is an endogenous regulator of glucose-induced insulin secretion, which restrains potassium channel expression in pancreatic beta-cells. Overexpression of PED/PEA-15 dysregulates beta-cell function and is sufficient to impair glucose tolerance in mice.

  13. Gibberellin 3-oxidase gene expression patterns influence gibberellin biosynthesis, growth, and development in pea.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, Dennis M; Wickramarathna, Aruna D; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Kurepin, Leonid V; Jin, Alena L; Good, Allen G; Pharis, Richard P

    2013-10-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are key modulators of plant growth and development. PsGA3ox1 (LE) encodes a GA 3β-hydroxylase that catalyzes the conversion of GA20 to biologically active GA1. To further clarify the role of GA3ox expression during pea (Pisum sativum) plant growth and development, we generated transgenic pea lines (in a lele background) with cauliflower mosaic virus-35S-driven expression of PsGA3ox1 (LE). PsGA3ox1 transgene expression led to higher GA1 concentrations in a tissue-specific and development-specific manner, altering GA biosynthesis and catabolism gene expression and plant phenotype. PsGA3ox1 transgenic plants had longer internodes, tendrils, and fruits, larger stipules, and displayed delayed flowering, increased apical meristem life, and altered vascular development relative to the null controls. Transgenic PsGA3ox1 overexpression lines were then compared with lines where endogenous PsGA3ox1 (LE) was introduced, by a series of backcrosses, into the same genetic background (BC LEle). Most notably, the BC LEle plants had substantially longer internodes containing much greater GA1 levels than the transgenic PsGA3ox1 plants. Induction of expression of the GA deactivation gene PsGA2ox1 appears to make an important contribution to limiting the increase of internode GA1 to modest levels for the transgenic lines. In contrast, PsGA3ox1 (LE) expression driven by its endogenous promoter was coordinated within the internode tissue to avoid feed-forward regulation of PsGA2ox1, resulting in much greater GA1 accumulation. These studies further our fundamental understanding of the regulation of GA biosynthesis and catabolism at the tissue and organ level and demonstrate that the timing/localization of GA3ox expression within an organ affects both GA homeostasis and GA1 levels, and thereby growth.

  14. Enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic rice plants expressing a pea manganese superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang-Zheng; Wang, Qing-Bin; Kwon, Suk-Yoon; Kwak, Sang-Soo; Su, Wei-Ai

    2005-04-01

    We investigated the role that manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), an important antioxidant enzyme, may play in the drought tolerance of rice. MnSOD from pea (Pisum sativum) under the control of an oxidative stress-inducible SWPA2 promoter was introduced into chloroplasts of rice (Oryza sativa) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation to develop drought-tolerant rice plants. Functional expression of the pea MnSOD in transgenic rice plants (T1) was revealed under drought stress induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. After PEG treatment the transgenic leaf slices showed reduced electrolyte leakage compared to wild type (WT) leaf slices, whether they were exposed to methyl viologen (MV) or not, suggesting that transgenic plants were more resistant to MV- or PEG-induced oxidative stress. Transgenic plants also exhibited less injury, measured by net photosynthetic rate, when treated with PEG. Our data suggest that SOD is a critical component of the ROS scavenging system in plant chloroplasts and that the expression of MnSOD can improve drought tolerance in rice.

  15. Expression of ribosomal genes in pea cotyledons at the initial stages of germination

    SciTech Connect

    Gumilevskaya, N.A.; Chumikhina, L.V.; Akhmatova, A.T.; Kretovich, V.L.

    1986-01-20

    The time of appearance of newly synthesized rRNAs and ribosomal proteins (r-proteins) in the ribosomes of pea cotyledons (Pisum sativum L.) during germination was investigated. The ribosomal fraction was isolated and analyzed according to the method of germination of the embryo in the presence of labeled precursors or after pulse labeling of the embryos at different stages of germination. For the identification of newly synthesized rRNAs in the ribosomes we estimated the relative stability of labeled RNAs to the action of RNase, the sedimentation rate, the ability to be methylated in vivo in the presence of (/sup 14/C)CH/sub 3/-methionine, and the localization in the subunits of dissociated ribosomes. The presence of newly synthesized r-proteins in the ribosomes was judged on the basis of the electrophoretic similarity in SDS-disc electrophoresis of labeled polypeptides of purified ribosome preparations and of genuine r-proteins, as well as according to the localization of labeled proteins in the subunits of the dissociated ribosomes. It was shown that the expression of the ribosomal genes in highly specialized cells of pea cotyledons that have completed their growth occurs at very early stages of germination.

  16. Role of plant expression systems in antibody production for passive immunization.

    PubMed

    Virdi, Vikram; Depicker, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunization is a method to achieve immediate protection against infectious agents by administering pathogen-specific antibodies. It has proven to be lifesaving for many acute infections, and it is now also used for cancer treatment. Passive immunization therapies, however, are extremely expensive because they require large amounts of specific antibodies that are produced predominantly in mammalian expression systems. The cost for manufacturing plant-made antibodies is estimated to be comparatively low since plant production systems require relatively less capital investments. In addition, they are not prone to mammalian pathogens, which also eases downstream processing along with making it a safe expression system. Moreover, some of the recent developments in transient expression have enabled rapid, cGMP (current Good Manufacturing Practices) compliant manufacturing of antibodies. Whether lower production costs will be reflected in a lower market price for purified antibodies will be known when more plant-produced antibodies come to the market. Promisingly, the current molecular techniques in the field of in planta expression have enabled high-level production of a variety of antibodies in different plant organs, like roots/tubers/fruits, leaves and seeds, of a variety of plants, like potato, tobacco, maize, rice, tomato and pea, providing a very wide range of possible plant-based passive immunization therapies. For instance, the production of antibodies in edible tissues would allow for a unique, convenient, needle-less, oral passive immunization at the gastric mucosal surface. The technological advances, together with the innate capacity of plant tissues to assemble complex antibodies, will enable carving a niche in the antibody market. This non-exhaustive review aims to shed light on the role of plants as a flexible expression system for passive immunotherapy, which we envisage to progress alongside the conventional production platforms to manufacture

  17. Evaluation of expression stability of candidate references genes among green and yellow pea cultivars (Pisum sativum L.) subjected to abiotic and biotic stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry pea (Pisum sativum) is grown as human and animal feed throughout the world. Large yield losses in pea due to biotic and abiotic stresses compel an improved understanding of mechanisms of stress tolerance and genetic determinants conditioning these tolerances. The availability of stably expressed...

  18. Vector-Mediated In Vivo Antibody Expression.

    PubMed

    Schnepp, Bruce C; Johnson, Philip R

    2014-08-01

    This article focuses on a novel vaccine strategy known as vector-mediated antibody gene transfer, with a particular focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This strategy provides a solution to the problem of current vaccines that fail to generate neutralizing antibodies to prevent HIV-1 infection and AIDS. Antibody gene transfer allows for predetermination of antibody affinity and specificity prior to "immunization" and avoids the need for an active humoral immune response against the HIV envelope protein. This approach uses recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV) vectors, which have been shown to transduce muscle with high efficiency and direct the long-term expression of a variety of transgenes, to deliver the gene encoding a broadly neutralizing antibody into the muscle. Following rAAV vector gene delivery, the broadly neutralizing antibodies are endogenously synthesized in myofibers and passively distributed to the circulatory system. This is an improvement over classical passive immunization strategies that administer antibody proteins to the host to provide protection from infection. Vector-mediated gene transfer studies in mice and monkeys with anti-HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-neutralizing antibodies demonstrated long-lasting neutralizing activity in serum with complete protection against intravenous challenge with virulent HIV and SIV. These results indicate that existing potent anti-HIV antibodies can be rapidly moved into the clinic. However, this methodology need not be confined to HIV. The general strategy of vector-mediated antibody gene transfer can be applied to other difficult vaccine targets such as hepatitis C virus, malaria, respiratory syncytial virus, and tuberculosis.

  19. Light-regulated differential expression of pea chloroplast and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases.

    PubMed

    Lee, S-W; Hahn, T-R

    2003-02-01

    The light-regulated differential expression of pea chloroplast and cytosolic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatases (FBPase) was investigated using enzyme activity assay, immunoblot, and Northern blot analyses. The enzyme activities of both chloroplast and cytosolic FBPases gradually increased under continuous white light illumination, although the increase in chloroplast FBPase was more drastic. Northern and immunoblot analyses also indicated that light stimulated the expression of both enzymes. Enzyme activity and the transcript levels of both enzymes gradually decreased under the dark treatment, although protein levels were unchanged for up to 24 h following the initiation of culture in the dark, indicating that reversible modifications of the enzymes may occur during the transition from light to dark (or the reverse). Light pulse experiments using blue (420 nm) and red/far-red (660/730 nm) light were carried out to analyze the photoreceptors related to the light-mediated expression of both enzymes. Expression of the chloroplast enzyme was very sensitive to red or far-red light pulses-it was induced by red light, but suppressed by far-red light pulses, as determined by enzyme activity, immunoblot, and Northern blot analyses, suggesting that red light signaling is involved in the control of chloroplast FBPase expression. However, cytosolic FBPase was virtually insensitive to blue or red/far-red light pulses in terms of enzyme activity, as determined by protein and transcript levels, indicating that cytosolic enzyme expression is not directly regulated by light signals. Instead, the expression of the cytosolic enzyme may be closely related to photosynthetic energy conversion accompanied by continuous white light irradiation.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation enhances insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by reducing ped/pea-15 gene expression in skeletal muscle cells: evidence for involvement of activator protein-1.

    PubMed

    Ungaro, Paola; Mirra, Paola; Oriente, Francesco; Nigro, Cecilia; Ciccarelli, Marco; Vastolo, Viviana; Longo, Michele; Perruolo, Giuseppe; Spinelli, Rosa; Formisano, Pietro; Miele, Claudia; Beguinot, Francesco

    2012-12-14

    The gene network responsible for inflammation-induced insulin resistance remains enigmatic. In this study, we show that, in L6 cells, rosiglitazone- as well as pioglitazone-dependent activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) represses transcription of the ped/pea-15 gene, whose increased activity impairs glucose tolerance in mice and humans. Rosiglitazone enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake in L6 cells expressing the endogenous ped/pea-15 gene but not in cells expressing ped/pea-15 under the control of an exogenous promoter. The ability of PPARγ to affect ped/pea-15 expression was also lost in cells and in C57BL/6J transgenic mice expressing ped/pea-15 under the control of an exogenous promoter, suggesting that ped/pea-15 repression may contribute to rosiglitazone action on glucose disposal. Indeed, high fat diet mice showed insulin resistance and increased ped/pea-15 levels, although these effects were reduced by rosiglitazone treatment. Both supershift and ChIP assays revealed the presence of the AP-1 component c-JUN at the PED/PEA-15 promoter upon 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate stimulation of the cells. In these experiments, rosiglitazone treatment reduced c-JUN presence at the PED/PEA-15 promoter. This effect was not associated with a decrease in c-JUN expression. In addition, c-jun silencing in L6 cells lowered ped/pea-15 expression and caused nonresponsiveness to rosiglitazone, although c-jun overexpression enhanced the binding to the ped/pea-15 promoter and blocked the rosiglitazone effect. These results indicate that PPARγ regulates ped/pea-15 transcription by inhibiting c-JUN binding at the ped/pea-15 promoter. Thus, ped/pea-15 is downstream of a major PPARγ-regulated inflammatory network. Repression of ped/pea-15 transcription might contribute to the PPARγ regulation of muscle sensitivity to insulin.

  1. Does pea lectin expressed transgenically in oilseed rape (Brassica napus) influence honey bee (Apis mellifera) larvae?

    PubMed

    Lehrman, Anna

    2007-01-01

    The European honey bee (Apis mellifera) is important both for pollination and for honey production. Pollen is the major protein source for bees, which exposes them directly to changes in pollen quality e.g. through genetic engineering. In order to create a worst case scenario regarding pea lectin (PSL) expressed transgenically in oilseed rape anthers and pollen, the maximum amount of dried pollen that could be mixed in an artificial diet without negatively affecting larval performance (1.5% w/w) was fed to bee larvae. Pollen from two transgenic plant lines expressing PSL up to 1.2% of total soluble protein and pollen from one non-transgenic line was added to the same diet and used as a pollen control. When these three pollen diets and the control diet (without added pollen) were compared, no negative effect from the pollen of the transgenic plants could be detected on larval mortality, weight, or development time. An increased weight and a reduced developmental time were recorded for larvae on all diets containing pollen when compared to the diet without pollen.

  2. Magnesium chelatase subunit D from pea: characterization of the cDNA, heterologous expression of an enzymatically active protein and immunoassay of the native protein.

    PubMed

    Luo, M; Weinstein, J D; Walker, C J

    1999-12-01

    Mg-chelatase catalyzes the insertion of Mg into protoporphyrin and lies at the branchpoint of heme and (bacterio)chlorophyll synthesis. In prokaryotes, three genes--BchI, D and H--encode subunits for Mg-chelatase. In higher plants, homologous cDNAs for the I, D and H subunits have been characterized. Since the N-terminal half of the D subunit is homologous to the I subunit, the C-terminal portion of the pea D was used for antigen production. The antibody recognized the chloroplast D subunit and was used to demonstrate that this subunit associated with the membranes in the presence of MgCl2. The antibody immunoprecipitated the native protein and inhibited Mg-chelatase activity. Expression in Escherichia coli with a construct for the full-length protein (minus the putative transit peptide) resulted in induction of 24.5 kDa (major) and 89 kDa (minor) proteins which could only be solubilized in 6 M urea. However, when host cells were co-transformed with expression vectors for the full-length D subunit and for the 70 kDa HSP chaperonin protein, a substantial portion of the 89 kDa protein was expressed in a soluble form which was active in a Mg-chelatase reconstitution assay.

  3. Gravistimulation changes expression of genes encoding putative carrier proteins of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, T.; Hitotsubashi, R.; Miyamoto, K.; Tanimoto, E.; Ueda, J.

    STS-95 space experiment has showed that auxin polar transport in etiolated epicotyls of pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings is controlled by gravistimulation. In Arabidopsis thaliana auxin polar transport has considered to be regulated by efflux and influx carrier proteins in plasma membranes, AtPIN1 and AtAUX1, respectively. In order to know how gravistimuli control auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls at molecular levels, strenuous efforts have been made, resulting in successful isolation of full-length cDNAs of a putative auxin efflux and influx carriers, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (accession no. AY222857, Chawla and DeMason, 2003) and AtPINs, and also among PsAUX1, AtAUX1 and their related genes. Phylogenetic analyses based on the deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 relating to lateral transport of auxin, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1 relating to auxin polar transport. In the present study, we examined the effects of gravistimuli on the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 in etiolated pea seedlings by northern blot analysis. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in hook region of 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat increased as compared with that of the seedlings grown under 1 g conditions. On the other hand, that of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the 1st internode region under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-D clinostat also increased, while that of PsPIN2 was affected little. These results suggest that expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 regulating polar/lateral transport of auxin is substantially under the control of gravity. A possible role of PsPINs and PsAUX1 of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will also be discussed.

  4. Environment Exploration and Colonization Behavior of the Pea Aphid Associated with the Expression of the foraging Gene

    PubMed Central

    Tarès, Sophie; Arthaud, Laury; Amichot, Marcel; Robichon, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Aphids respond to specific environmental cues by producing alternative morphs, a phenomenon called polyphenism, but also by modulating their individual behavior even within the same morph. This complex plasticity allows a rapid adaptation of individuals to fluctuating environmental conditions, but the underlying genetic and molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. The foraging gene is known to be associated with behavior in various species and has been shown to mediate the behavioral shift induced by environmental changes in some insects. In this study, we investigated the function of this gene in the clonal forms of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum by identifying and cloning cDNA variants, as well as analyzing their expression levels in developmental morphs and behavioral variants. Our results indicate that the expression of foraging changes at key steps of the aphid development. This gene is also highly expressed in sedentary wingless adult morphs reared under crowded conditions, probably just before they start walking and foraging. The cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG) enzyme activity measured in the behavioral variants correlates with the level of foraging expression. Altogether, our results suggest that foraging could act to promote the shift from a sedentary to an exploratory behavior, being thus involved in the behavioral plasticity of the pea aphid. PMID:23734236

  5. Induction of a Pea Cell-Wall Invertase Gene by Wounding and Its Localized Expression in Phloem.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L.; Cohn, N. S.; Mitchell, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    A full-length cell-wall invertase cDNA obtained from pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings was cloned previously. The gene exhibits tissue-specific expression, and both its transcript and enzyme activities are abundant only in root tissues. Mechanical wounding dramatically induced the accumulation of the cell-wall invertase mRNA in detached or intact leaves, stems, and roots. In both detached and intact tissues mRNA started to accumulate 3 h after wounding and in detached tissues (except root tissues) was much stronger and lasted longer compared with that in intact pea plants. The induction of cell-wall invertase by wounding was not systemic, since no significant increase of transcript was found in the unwounded tissues remote from the site of wounding. Accumulation of this cell-wall invertase was induced by abscisic or jasmonic acid, and in situ hybridization studies show that this invertase mRNA is differentially localized in wounded plant tissue, being most abundant in the phloem. mRNA accumulation was limited mainly to the wounded area; no significant increase was detected in the unwounded portions of the wounded stem segments. The results suggest that, as part of the wounding response, this cell-wall invertase may provide energy through hexose availability to companion cells in the phloem. PMID:12226435

  6. Expression and Biological Activity of the Cystine Knot Bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b)

    PubMed Central

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick “cut/paste” of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed. PMID:24349099

  7. Expression and biological activity of the cystine knot bioinsecticide PA1b (Pea Albumin 1 Subunit b).

    PubMed

    Eyraud, Vanessa; Karaki, Lamis; Rahioui, Isabelle; Sivignon, Catherine; Da Silva, Pedro; Rahbé, Yvan; Royer, Corinne; Gressent, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    The PA1b (Pea Albumin 1, subunit b) peptide is an entomotoxin extract from Legume seeds with lethal activity on several insect pests, such as mosquitoes, some aphids and cereal weevils. This 37 amino-acid cysteine-rich peptide has been, until now, obtained by biochemical purification or chemical synthesis. In this paper, we present our results for the transient production of the peptide in Nicotiana benthamiana by agro-infiltration, with a yield of about 35 µg/g of fresh leaves and maximum production 8 days after infiltration. PA1b is part of the PA1 gene which, after post-translational modifications, encodes two peptides (PA1b and PA1a). We show that transforming tobacco with the PA1b cDNA alone does not result in production of the toxin and, in fact, the entire cDNA is necessary, raising the question of the role of PA1a. We constructed a PA1-cassette, allowing for the quick "cut/paste" of different PA1b mutants within a conserved PA1 cDNA. This cassette enabled us to produce the six isoforms of PA1b which exist in pea seeds. Biological tests revealed that all the isoforms display similar activity, with the exception of one which is inactive. The lack of activity in this isoform led us to conclude that the amphiphilic nature of the peptide is necessary for activity. The possible applications of this expression system for other cysteine-rich biomolecules are discussed.

  8. Developmental and seed aging mediated regulation of antioxidative genes and differential expression of proteins during pre- and post-germinative phases in pea.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhen; Liu, Lingwei; Gao, Feng; Rampitsch, Christof; Reinecke, Dennis M; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Ayele, Belay T

    2012-10-15

    Enzymatic antioxidant system plays an important role in maintaining seed vigor and regulating plant growth and development. It involves a number of enzymes that scavenge excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced during seed aging and also modulate the level of these compounds during plant developmental processes. This study investigated the transcriptional regulation of enzymatic antioxidative capacity in pea during the pre- and post-germinative phases and in response to seed aging by analyzing the spatio-temporal expression of five antioxidative genes: PsAPX, PsSOD, PsGRcyt, PsGRcm and PsCAT. Transcripts of all these genes were found in mature dry seeds, embryo axes and cotyledons of germinating seeds, and cotyledons, roots and shoots of young seedlings. However, PsAPX and PsSOD were predominant and exhibited developmental regulation, suggesting that these genes play important roles in controlling the intracellular homeostasis of ROS for promoting cell elongation, and thereby embryo axis expansion and early seedling growth in pea. Accelerated aging of pea seeds led to reduction in seed viability and seedling growth, and this effect was correlated with substantial decrease in the transcriptional activation of the prominent antioxidative genes. Furthermore, our proteomic analysis indicated the association of seed aging with changes in the abundance of specific proteins, revealing additional mechanisms underlying seed aging in pea.

  9. [Features of Expression of the PsSst] and PsIgn1 Genes in Nodules of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Symbiotic Mutants].

    PubMed

    Zhukova, V A; Rychagova, T S; Fedorina, Ya V; Pinaeva, A G; Andronova, E E; Borisova, A Yu; Tikhonovich, I A

    2016-04-01

    The sequences of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes of pea (Pisum sativum L.) homologous to the symbiotic LjSST1 and LjIGN1 genes of Lotusjaponicus (Regel.) K. Larsen are determined. The expression level of PsSst1 and PsIgn1 genes is determined by real-time PCR in nodules of several symbiotic mutants and original lines of pea. Lines with increased (Sprint-2Fix⁻ (Pssym31)) and decreased (P61 (Pssym25)) expression level of both genes are revealed along with the lines characterized by changes in the expression level of only one of these genes. The revealed features of the PsSst1 and PsIgn1 expression allow us to expand the phenotypic characterization of pea symbiotic mutants. In addition, PsSst1 and PsIgn1 cDNA is sequenced in selected mutant lines, characterized by a decreased expression level of these genes in nodules, but no mutations are found.

  10. Expression and assembly of a fully active antibody in algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayfield, Stephen P.; Franklin, Scott E.; Lerner, Richard A.

    2003-01-01

    Although combinatorial antibody libraries have solved the problem of access to large immunological repertoires, efficient production of these complex molecules remains a problem. Here we demonstrate the efficient expression of a unique large single-chain (lsc) antibody in the chloroplast of the unicellular, green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We achieved high levels of protein accumulation by synthesizing the lsc gene in chloroplast codon bias and by driving expression of the chimeric gene using either of two C. reinhardtii chloroplast promoters and 5' and 3' RNA elements. This lsc antibody, directed against glycoprotein D of the herpes simplex virus, is produced in a soluble form by the alga and assembles into higher order complexes in vivo. Aside from dimerization by disulfide bond formation, the antibody undergoes no detectable posttranslational modification. We further demonstrate that accumulation of the antibody can be modulated by the specific growth regime used to culture the alga, and by the choice of 5' and 3' elements used to drive expression of the antibody gene. These results demonstrate the utility of alga as an expression platform for recombinant proteins, and describe a new type of single chain antibody containing the entire heavy chain protein, including the Fc domain.

  11. Mouse x pig chimeric antibodies expressed in Baculovirus retain the same properties of their parent antibodies.

    PubMed

    Jar, Ana M; Osorio, Fernando A; López, Osvaldo J

    2009-01-01

    The development of hybridoma and recombinant DNA technologies has made it possible to use antibodies against cancer, autoimmune disorders, and infectious diseases in humans. These advances in therapy, as well as immunoprophylaxis, could also make it possible to use these technologies in agricultural species of economic importance such as pigs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an arterivirus causing very important economic losses to the industry. Passive transfer of antibodies obtained by biotechnology could be used in the future to complement or replace vaccination against this and other pig pathogens. To this end, we constructed and studied the properties of chimeric mouse x pig anti-PRRSV antibodies. We cloned the constant regions of gamma-1 and gamma-2 heavy chains and the lambda light chain of pig antibodies in frame with the variable regions of heavy and light chains of mouse monoclonal antibody ISU25C1, which has neutralizing activity against PRRSV. The coding regions for chimeric IgG1 and IgG2 were expressed in a baculovirus expression system. Both chimeric antibodies recognized PRRSV in ELISA as well as in a Western-blot format and, more importantly, were able to neutralize PRRSV in the same fashion as the parent mouse monoclonal antibody ISU25C1. In addition, we show that both pig IgG1 and IgG2 antibodies could bind complement component C1q, with IgG2 being more efficient than IgG1 in binding C1q. Expressing chimeric pig antibodies with protective capabilities offers a new alternative strategy for infectious disease control in domestic pigs.

  12. Leaf proteome analysis of transgenic plants expressing antiviral antibodies.

    PubMed

    Di Carli, Mariasole; Villani, Maria Elena; Renzone, Giovanni; Nardi, Luca; Pasquo, Alessandra; Franconi, Rosella; Scaloni, Andrea; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Desiderio, Angiola

    2009-02-01

    The expression of exogenous antibodies in plant is an effective strategy to confer protection against viral infection or to produce molecules with pharmaceutical interest. However, the acceptance of the transgenic technology to obtain self-protecting plants depends on the assessment of their substantial equivalence compared to non-modified crops with an established history of safe use. In fact, the possibility exists that the introduction of transgenes in plants may alter expression of endogenous genes and/or normal production of metabolites. In this study, we investigated whether the expression in plant of recombinant antibodies directed against viral proteins may influence the host leaf proteome. Two transgenic plant models, generated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, were analyzed for this purpose, namely, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. MicroTom and Nicotiana benthamiana, expressing recombinant antibodies against cucumber mosaic virus and tomato spotted wilt virus, respectively. To obtain a significant representation of plant proteomes, optimized extraction procedures have been devised for each plant species. The proteome repertoire of antibody-expressing and control plants was compared by 2-DE associated to DIGE technology. Among the 2000 spots detected within the gels, about 10 resulted differentially expressed in each transgenic model and were identified by MALDI-TOF PMF and muLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS procedures. Protein variations were restricted to a limited number of defined differences with an average ratio below 2.4. Most of the differentially expressed proteins were related to photosynthesis or defense function. The overall results suggest that the expression of recombinant antibodies in both systems does not significantly alter the leaf proteomic profile, contributing to assess the biosafety of resistant plants expressing antiviral antibodies.

  13. Virus-induced gene silencing of PEAM4 affects floral morphology by altering the expression pattern of PsSOC1a and PsPVP in pea.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe-Hao; Jia, Fei-Fei; Hu, Jiang-Qin; Pang, Ji-Liang; Xu, Lei; Wang, Li-Lin

    2014-01-15

    pea-MADS4 (PEAM4) regulates floral morphology in Pisum sativum L., however, its molecular mechanisms still remain unclear. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is a recently developed reverse genetic approach that facilities an easier and more rapid study of gene functions. In this study, the PEAM4 gene was effectively silenced by VIGS using a pea early browning virus (PEBV) in wild type pea JI992. The infected plants showed abnormal phenotypes, as the floral organs, especially the sepals and petals changed in both size and shape, which made the corolla less closed. The petals changed in morphology and internal symmetry with, the stamens reduced and carpel dehisced. Larger sepals and longer tendrils with small cauline leaves appeared, with some sepals turning into bracts, and secondary inflorescences with fused floral organs were formed, indicating a flower-to-inflorescence change. The infected plants also displayed a delayed and prolonged flowering time. The PEAM4-VIGS plants with altered floral morphology were similar to the pim (proliferating inflorescence meristem) mutant and also mimicked the phenotypes of ap1 mutants in Arabidopsis. The expression pattern of the homologous genes PsSOC1a and PsSVP, which were involved in flowering time and florescence morphological control downstream of PEAM4, were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR and mRNA in situ hybridization. PsSOC1a and PsSVP were ectopically expressed and enhanced in the floral meristems from PEAM4-silenced plants. Our data suggests that PEAM4 may have a similar molecular mechanism as AtAP1, which inhibits the expression of PsSOC1a and PsSVP in the floral meristem from the early stages of flower development. As such, in this way PEAM4 plays a crucial role in maintaining floral organ identity and flower development in pea.

  14. Expression of human antibodies in eukaryotic micro-algae.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Stephen P; Franklin, Scott E

    2005-03-07

    Protein based therapeutics have enjoyed great success over the past decade. Unfortunately, with this clinical success comes a heavy price tag, owing to the inherently high costs of capitalization and production using mammalian cell fermentation. To address this problem, we have begun developing a system for the expression of recombinant proteins in the unicellular eukaryotic green algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, leading to the production of human IgA single chain antibodies. The expression of human monoclonal antibodies in C. reinhardtii offers an attractive alternative to traditional mammalian based expression systems for several reasons, including an ability to rapidly obtain stable plastid and nuclear transformants, coupled with inherently low costs of capitalization and production.

  15. Isolation of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 from etiolated pea epicotyls and their expression on a three-dimensional clinostat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    We isolated novel cDNAs containing the complete open reading frames of a putative auxin influx carrier, PsAUX1, and a putative auxin efflux carrier, PsPIN2, from etiolated pea epicotyls. High levels of homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 (Accession No. AY222857) and AtPINs. Phylogenetic analyses based on deduced amino acid sequences revealed that PsPIN2 belonged to a subclade including AtPIN3, AtPIN4 and AtPIN7, while PsPIN1 belonged to the same clade as AtPIN1. The results were similar for PsAUX1 and AtAUX1, where PsAUX1 belongs to the same subclade as AtAUX1 and CS-AUX1. Expression of PsPIN1, PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 in pea epicotyl segments was promoted upon incubation of the segments with auxin (indole-3-acetic acid). In 3.5-d-old etiolated pea seedlings, relatively high expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 was observed in the hook region, growing epicotyls and root tips as compared with those in mature regions of epicotyls and roots. Expression of PsPIN2 in roots was less than that in shoots. Simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat remarkably increased gene expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 in the hook and the internodes of pea epicotyls, but the increase in PsPIN2 was less. In contrast, polar auxin transport of pea epicotyls was substantially suppressed under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3D clinostat, similar to data from a space experiment on STS-95. These results suggest that PsPINs and PsAUX1 are auxin-inducible genes, and that the expression of PsPINs and PsAUX1 genes is sensitive to gravistimulation.

  16. Expression of recombinant antibody (single chain antibody fragment) in transgenic plant Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi.

    PubMed

    Dobhal, S; Chaudhary, V K; Singh, A; Pandey, D; Kumar, A; Agrawal, S

    2013-12-01

    Plants offer an alternative inexpensive and convenient technology for large scale production of recombinant proteins especially recombinant antibodies (plantibodies). In this paper, we describe the expression of a model single chain antibody fragment (B6scFv) in transgenic tobacco. Four different gene constructs of B6scFv with different target signals for expression in different compartments of a tobacco plant cell with and without endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal were used. Agrobacterium mediated plant transformation of B6scFv gene was performed with tobacco leaf explants and the gene in regenerated plants was detected using histochemical GUS assay and PCR. The expression of B6scFv gene was detected by western blotting and the recombinant protein was purified from putative transgenic tobacco plants using metal affinity chromatography. The expression level of recombinant protein was determined by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The highest accumulation of protein was found up to 3.28 % of the total soluble protein (TSP) in plants expressing B6scFv 1003 targeted to the ER, and subsequently expression of 2.9 % of TSP in plants expressing B6scFv 1004 (with target to apoplast with ER retention signal). In contrast, lower expression of 0.78 and 0.58 % of TSP was found in plants expressing antibody fragment in cytosol and apoplast, without ER retention signal. The described method/system could be used in the future for diverse applications including expression of other recombinant molecules in plants for immunomodulation, obtaining pathogen resistance against plant pathogens, altering metabolic pathways and also for the expression of different antibodies of therapeutic and diagnostic uses.

  17. How-To-Do-It: Demonstrating the Anatomical Expression of Two Genes in the Garden Pea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawk, James A.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a rapid staining technique for investigating the anatomical expression of two recessive genes. The demonstration is intended to stimulate students who are interested in the practical applications of genetics. (Author/SA)

  18. PEA-CLARITY: 3D molecular imaging of whole plant organs

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, William M.; Martin, Antony P.; Flynn, Jamie R.; Reed, Stephanie L.; White, Rosemary G.; Furbank, Robert T.; Grof, Christopher P. L.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the adaptation of the CLARITY technique to plant tissues with addition of enzymatic degradation to improve optical clearing and facilitate antibody probe penetration. Plant-Enzyme-Assisted (PEA)-CLARITY, has allowed deep optical visualisation of stains, expressed fluorescent proteins and IgG-antibodies in Tobacco and Arabidopsis leaves. Enzyme treatment enabled penetration of antibodies into whole tissues without the need for any sectioning of the material, thus facilitating protein localisation of intact tissue in 3D whilst retaining cellular structure. PMID:26328508

  19. Cytokinins and Expression of SWEET, SUT, CWINV and AAP Genes Increase as Pea Seeds Germinate

    PubMed Central

    Jameson, Paula E.; Dhandapani, Pragatheswari; Novak, Ondrej; Song, Jiancheng

    2016-01-01

    Transporter genes and cytokinins are key targets for crop improvement. These genes are active during the development of the seed and its establishment as a strong sink. However, during germination, the seed transitions to being a source for the developing root and shoot. To determine if the sucrose transporter (SUT), amino acid permease (AAP), Sugar Will Eventually be Exported Transporter (SWEET), cell wall invertase (CWINV), cytokinin biosynthesis (IPT), activation (LOG) and degradation (CKX) gene family members are involved in both the sink and source activities of seeds, we used RT-qPCR to determine the expression of multiple gene family members, and LC-MS/MS to ascertain endogenous cytokinin levels in germinating Pisum sativum L. We show that genes that are actively expressed when the seed is a strong sink during its development, are also expressed when the seed is in the reverse role of being an active source during germination and early seedling growth. Cytokinins were detected in the imbibing seeds and were actively biosynthesised during germination. We conclude that, when the above gene family members are targeted for seed yield improvement, a downstream effect on subsequent seed germination or seedling vigour must be taken into consideration. PMID:27916945

  20. Bean alpha-amylase inhibitors in transgenic peas inhibit development of pea weevil larvae.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Majer, Maria José; Hardie, Darryl C; Turner, Neil C; Higgins, Thomas J V

    2007-08-01

    This glasshouse study used an improved larval measurement procedure to evaluate the impact of transgenic pea, Pisum sativum L., seeds expressing a-amylase inhibitor (AI)-1 or -2 proteins on pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum L. Seeds of transgenic 'Laura' and 'Greenfeast' peas expressing alpha-(AI)-1 reduced pea weevil survival by 93-98%. Larval mortality occurred at an early instar. Conversely, in nontransgenic cultivars, approximately 98-99% of the pea weevils emerged as adults. By measuring the head capsule size, we determined that larvae died at the first to early third instar in alpha-(AI)-1 transgenic peas, indicating that this inhibitor is highly effective in controlling this insect. By contrast, transgenic Laura and 'Dundale' expressing alpha-(AI)-2 did not affect pea weevil survival, but they did delay larval development. After 77 d of development, the head capsule size indicated that the larvae were still at the third instar stage in transgenic alpha-(AI)-2 peas, whereas adult bruchids had developed in the nontransgenic peas.

  1. Full-length de novo assembly of RNA-seq data in pea (Pisum sativum L.) provides a gene expression atlas and gives insights into root nodulation in this species.

    PubMed

    Alves-Carvalho, Susete; Aubert, Grégoire; Carrère, Sébastien; Cruaud, Corinne; Brochot, Anne-Lise; Jacquin, Françoise; Klein, Anthony; Martin, Chantal; Boucherot, Karen; Kreplak, Jonathan; da Silva, Corinne; Moreau, Sandra; Gamas, Pascal; Wincker, Patrick; Gouzy, Jérôme; Burstin, Judith

    2015-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies allow an almost exhaustive survey of the transcriptome, even in species with no available genome sequence. To produce a Unigene set representing most of the expressed genes of pea, 20 cDNA libraries produced from various plant tissues harvested at various developmental stages from plants grown under contrasting nitrogen conditions were sequenced. Around one billion reads and 100 Gb of sequence were de novo assembled. Following several steps of redundancy reduction, 46 099 contigs with N50 length of 1667 nt were identified. These constitute the 'Caméor' Unigene set. The high depth of sequencing allowed identification of rare transcripts and detected expression for approximately 80% of contigs in each library. The Unigene set is now available online (http://bios.dijon.inra.fr/FATAL/cgi/pscam.cgi), allowing (i) searches for pea orthologs of candidate genes based on gene sequences from other species, or based on annotation, (ii) determination of transcript expression patterns using various metrics, (iii) identification of uncharacterized genes with interesting patterns of expression, and (iv) comparison of gene ontology pathways between tissues. This resource has allowed identification of the pea orthologs of major nodulation genes characterized in recent years in model species, as a major step towards deciphering unresolved pea nodulation phenotypes. In addition to a remarkable conservation of the early transcriptome nodulation apparatus between pea and Medicago truncatula, some specific features were highlighted. The resource provides a reference for the pea exome, and will facilitate transcriptome and proteome approaches as well as SNP discovery in pea.

  2. Gene expression analysis of parthenogenetic embryonic development of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, suggests that aphid parthenogenesis evolved from meiotic oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Dayalan G; Abdelhady, Ahmed; Stern, David L

    2014-01-01

    Aphids exhibit a form of phenotypic plasticity, called polyphenism, in which genetically identical females reproduce sexually during one part of the life cycle and asexually (via parthenogenesis) during the remainder of the life cycle. The molecular basis for aphid parthenogenesis is unknown. Cytological observations of aphid parthenogenesis suggest that asexual oogenesis evolved either through a modification of meiosis or from a mitotic process. As a test of these alternatives, we assessed the expression levels and expression patterns of canonical meiotic recombination and germline genes in the sexual and asexual ovaries of the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. We observed expression of all meiosis genes in similar patterns in asexual and sexual ovaries, with the exception that some genes encoding Argonaute-family members were not expressed in sexual ovaries. In addition, we observed that asexual aphid tissues accumulated unspliced transcripts of Spo11, whereas sexual aphid tissues accumulated primarily spliced transcripts. In situ hybridization revealed Spo11 transcript in sexual germ cells and undetectable levels of Spo11 transcript in asexual germ cells. We also found that an obligately asexual strain of pea aphid produced little spliced Spo11 transcript. Together, these results suggest that parthenogenetic oogenesis evolved from a meiosis-like, and not a mitosis-like, process and that the aphid reproductive polyphenism may involve a modification of Spo11 gene activity.

  3. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR in the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera, Aphidiae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin), elongation factor 1 α (EF1A), TATA-box-binding protein (TATA), ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12), β-tubulin (Tubulin), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase), succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model. PMID:25423476

  4. Tissue-specific expressed antibody variable gene repertoires.

    PubMed

    Briney, Bryan S; Willis, Jordan R; Finn, Jessica A; McKinney, Brett A; Crowe, James E

    2014-01-01

    Recent developments in genetic technologies allow deep analysis of the sequence diversity of immune repertoires, but little work has been reported on the architecture of immune repertoires in mucosal tissues. Antibodies are the key to prevention of infections at the mucosal surface, but it is currently unclear whether the B cell repertoire at mucosal surfaces reflects the dominant antibodies found in the systemic compartment or whether mucosal tissues harbor unique repertoires. We examined the expressed antibody variable gene repertoires from 10 different human tissues using RNA samples derived from a large number of individuals. The results revealed that mucosal tissues such as stomach, intestine and lung possess unique antibody gene repertoires that differed substantially from those found in lymphoid tissues or peripheral blood. Mutation frequency analysis of mucosal tissue repertoires revealed that they were highly mutated, with little evidence for the presence of naïve B cells, in contrast to blood. Mucosal tissue repertoires possessed longer heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 loops than lymphoid tissue repertoires. We also noted a large increase in frequency of both insertions and deletions in the small intestine antibody repertoire. These data suggest that mucosal immune repertoires are distinct in many ways from the systemic compartment.

  5. Expression of recombinant vaccines and antibodies in plants.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kisung

    2014-06-01

    Plants are able to perform post-translational maturations of therapeutic proteins required for their functional biological activity and suitable in vivo pharmacokinetics. Plants can be a low-cost, large-scale production platform of recombinant biopharmaceutical proteins such as vaccines and antibodies. Plants, however, lack mechanisms of processing authentic human N-glycosylation, which imposes a major limitation in their use as an expression system for therapeutic glycoproducts. Efforts have been made to circumvent plant-specific N-glycosylation, as well as to supplement the plant's endogenous system with human glycosyltransferases for non-immunogenic and humanized N-glycan production. Herein we review studies on the potential of plants to serve as production systems for therapeutic and prophylactic biopharmaceuticals. We have especially focused on recombinant vaccines and antibodies and new expression strategies to overcome the existing problems associated with their production in plants.

  6. Differential gene expression in C4 plants. Research proposal, February 1, 1982-January 31, 1983. [Pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cashmore, A. R.

    1981-11-01

    The topic of this research proposal is slightly different from that originally outlined. Specifically, instead of characterizing the genes encoding the small subunit of RuBP carboxylase and the chlorophyll a/b binding polypeptide from corn, these genes from pea are being characterized. The above polypeptides represent the major products of cytoplasmic protein synthesis in green leaves. CDNA clones encoding the above polypeptides were isolated and characterized. Both of these cDNA clones have now been sequenced, providing the amino acid sequences for the carboxylase small subunit and, for the first time, for the chlorophyll a/b binding polypeptide. Pea nuclear DNA was cloned into the lambda phage Charon 4, and cloned nuclear DNA sequences encoding the above polypeptides were isolated. Future work will be concerned with the structural and functional characterization of these nuclear genes.

  7. Downregulation of transferrin receptor surface expression by intracellular antibody

    SciTech Connect

    Peng Jilin; Wu Sha; Zhao Xiaoping; Wang Min; Li Wenhan; Shen Xin; Liu Jing; Lei Ping; Zhu Huifen; Shen Guanxin . E-mail: guanxin_shen@yahoo.com.cn

    2007-03-23

    To deplete cellular iron uptake, and consequently inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells, we attempt to block surface expression of transferrin receptor (TfR) by intracellular antibody technology. We constructed two expression plasmids (scFv-HAK and scFv-HA) coding for intracellular single-chain antibody against TfR with or without endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention signal, respectively. Then they were transfected tumor cells MCF-7 by liposome. Applying RT-PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence microscopy and immunoelectron microscope experiments, we insure that scFv-HAK intrabody was successfully expressed and retained in ER contrasted to the secreted expression of scFv-HA. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that the TfR surface expression was markedly decreased approximately 83.4 {+-} 2.5% in scFv-HAK transfected cells, while there was not significantly decrease in scFv-HA transfected cells. Further cell growth and apoptosis characteristics were evaluated by cell cycle analysis, nuclei staining and MTT assay. Results indicated that expression of scFv-HAK can dramatically induce cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis of tumor cells, and consequently significantly suppress proliferation of tumor cells compared with other control groups. For First time this study demonstrates the potential usage of anti-TfR scFv-intrabody as a growth inhibitor of TfR overexpressing tumors.

  8. EASE vectors for rapid stable expression of recombinant antibodies.

    PubMed

    Aldrich, Teri L; Viaje, Aurora; Morris, Arvia E

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments have become an increasingly important source of therapeutic molecules in the biotechnology industry. Drug development strategies rely on screening large numbers of candidate molecules in search of an optimized drug candidate. This strategy requires efficient production of ten to a few hundred milligrams of candidate molecules for screening in bioassays and animal models. Typically, this amount of recombinant protein expression involves large numbers of transient transfections or cloning of a recombinant cell line. Both of these approaches are time-consuming and labor-intensive. In this report, we describe the application of an EASE vector system that is capable of generating stable pools of transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells. These pooled populations of cells produce high quantities of antibody candidates without labor-intensive cloning in a 3-5 week time frame. When an optimal drug candidate has been selected, pools generated with EASE-containing vectors can also be used in subsequent cloning steps to make cell lines with improved expression levels. We demonstrate that EASE increases expression in nonamplified pools in addition to increasing amplification and viability of clonal cell lines generated with the EASE-containing vectors compared with pools and cell lines generated without EASE.

  9. Accumulation of lead in the roots of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) plants triggers systemic variation in gene expression in the shoots.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Judicaëlle; Varrault, Gilles; Zuily-Fodil, Yasmine; Repellin, Anne

    2009-11-01

    The impact of lead nitrate (Pb(NO(3))(2); 0.5mM) on steady-state accumulation of messengers corresponding to stress responsive genes was studied in two local lines of 11-d grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) plants exposed for 96 h in a hydroponic system. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction technique was used with grass pea-specific primers designed from newly isolated partial cDNA. Increases in accumulation of glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase transcripts suggested that roots enhanced detoxification mechanisms involving glutathione. In the leaves where no lead was translocated, the pollutant indirectly triggered increases in expression of several genes. This process probably resulted from systemic signals originating from the roots where lead accumulated in large amounts, approximately 150 mg Pbg(-1) dry weight. A preventive and/or adaptive role for the signal is assumed, since it concerned genes implicated in reactive oxygen species scavenging (ascorbate peroxidase), protein protection (heat shock protein 70) and proteolysis (cysteine and aspartic proteases).

  10. Expression and secretion of aequorin as a chimeric antibody by means of a mammalian expression vector.

    PubMed Central

    Casadei, J; Powell, M J; Kenten, J H

    1990-01-01

    A fusion protein has been expressed from the relevant genes in mammalian cells consisting of the photoprotein aequorin and an anti-4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenacetyl antibody gene. This chimeric antibody has allowed the development of a sensitive luminescent immunoassay. Initially the cDNA of the photoprotein aequorin from Aequorea victoria was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene was expressed as apoaequorin and, by using luciferin isolated from Renilla reniformis, its activity was found essentially identical to native aequorin. The aequorin gene was subcloned into a mammalian expression vector to produce a fusion protein directing secretion of apoaequorin; the aequorin gene was fused to the 3' terminus of an immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene that directed expression of an anti-4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenacetyl antibody. The gene fusion contained the variable region, the constant region domain 1, and part of domain 2 for the IgG2b mouse immunoglobulin, followed by the aequorin gene. Transfection of the chimeric gene into a cell line expressing the complementary lambda 1 light chain, J558L, allowed recovery of a chimeric antibody with binding specificity for the 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenacetyl group and the related 4-hydroxy-3-iodo-5-nitrophenacetyl hapten. The Ca2(+)-dependent bioluminescent activity of aequorin was also recovered. Images PMID:2315301

  11. Designing a HER2/neu promoter to drive α1,3galactosyltransferase expression for targeted anti-αGal antibody-mediated tumor cell killing

    PubMed Central

    Lanteri, Marion; Ollier, Laurence; Giordanengo, Valérie; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2005-01-01

    Introduction Our goal was to specifically render tumor cells susceptible to natural cytolytic anti-αGal antibodies by using a murine α1,3galactosyltransferase (mαGalT) transgene driven by a designed form of HER2/neu promoter (pNeu), the transcription of which is frequently observed to be above basal in breast tumors. Indeed, the αGalT activity that promotes Galα1,3Galβ1,4GlcNAc-R (αGal) epitope expression has been mutationally disrupted during the course of evolution, starting from Old World primates, and this has led to the counter-production of large amounts of cytotoxic anti-αGal antibodies in recent primates, including man. Method Expression of the endogenous c-erbB-2 gene was investigated in various cell lines by northern blotting. A mαGalT cDNA was constructed into pcDNA3 vector downstream of the original CMV promoter (pCMV/mαGalT) and various forms of pNeu were prepared by PCR amplification and inserted in the pCMV/mαGalT construct upstream of the mαGalT cDNA, in the place of the CMV promoter. These constructs were transferred into HEK-293 control and breast tumor cell lines. Stably transfected cells were analyzed by northern blotting for their expression of αGalT and c-erbB-2, and by flow cytometry for their binding with fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated Griffonia simplicifolia/isolectin B4. Results We show that expression of the mαGalT was up- or down-modulated according to the level of endogenous pNeu activity and the particular form of constructed pNeu. Among several constructs, two particular forms of the promoter, pNeu250 containing the CCAAT box and the PEA3 motif adjacent to the TATAA box, and pNeu664, which has three additional PEA3 motifs upstream of the CCAAT box, were found to promote differential αGalT expression. Conclusion Our results strengthen current concepts about the crucial role played by the proximal PEA3 motif of pNeu, and may represent a novel therapeutic approach for the development of targeted transgene expression

  12. Expression of the Minor Isoform Pea Ferredoxin in Tobacco Alters Photosynthetic Electron Partitioning and Enhances Cyclic Electron Flow1[W

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Nicolás E.; Ceccoli, Romina D.; Vía, María V. Dalla; Voss, Ingo; Segretin, María E.; Bravo-Almonacid, Fernando F.; Melzer, Michael; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Scheibe, Renate; Hanke, Guy T.

    2013-01-01

    Ferredoxins (Fds) are ferrosulfoproteins that function as low-potential electron carriers in plants. The Fd family is composed of several isoforms that share high sequence homology but differ in functional characteristics. In leaves, at least two isoforms conduct linear and cyclic photosynthetic electron transport around photosystem I, and mounting evidence suggests the existence of at least partial division of duties between these isoforms. To evaluate the contribution of different kinds of Fds to the control of electron fluxes along the photosynthetic electron transport chain, we overexpressed a minor pea (Pisum sativum) Fd isoform (PsFd1) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. The transplastomic OeFd1 plants exhibited variegated leaves and retarded growth and developmental rates. Photosynthetic studies of these plants indicated a reduction in carbon dioxide assimilation rates, photosystem II photochemistry, and linear electron flow. However, the plants showed an increase in nonphotochemical quenching, better control of excitation pressure at photosystem II, and no evidence of photoinhibition, implying a better dynamic regulation to remove excess energy from the photosynthetic electron transport chain. Finally, analysis of P700 redox status during illumination confirmed that the minor pea Fd isoform promotes enhanced cyclic flow around photosystem I. The two novel features of this work are: (1) that Fd levels achieved in transplastomic plants promote an alternative electron partitioning even under greenhouse light growth conditions, a situation that is exacerbated at higher light intensity measurements; and (2) that an alternative, minor Fd isoform has been overexpressed in plants, giving new evidence of labor division among Fd isoforms. PMID:23370717

  13. Gibberellin (GA3) enhances cell wall invertase activity and mRNA levels in elongating dwarf pea (Pisum sativum) shoots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L. L.; Mitchell, J. P.; Cohn, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    The invertase (EC 3.2.1.26) purified from cell walls of dwarf pea stems to homogeneity has a molecular mass of 64 kilodaltons (kD). Poly(A)+RNA was isolated from shoots of dwarf pea plants, and a cDNA library was constructed using lambda gt11 as an expression vector. The expression cDNA library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against pea cell wall invertase. One invertase cDNA clone was characterized as a full-length cDNA with 1,863 base pairs. Compared with other known invertases, one homologous region in the amino acid sequence was found. The conserved motif, Asn-Asp-Pro-Asn-Gly, is located near the N-terminal end of invertase. Northern blot analysis showed that the amount of invertase mRNA (1.86 kb) was rapidly induced to a maximal level 4 h after GA3 treatment, then gradually decreased to the control level. The mRNA level at 4 h in GA3-treated peas was fivefold higher than that of the control group. The maximal increase in activity of pea cell wall invertase elicited by GA3 occcured at 8 h after GA3 treatment. This invertase isoform was shown immunocytochemically to be localized in the cell walls, where a 10-fold higher accumulation occurred in GA3-treated tissue compared with control tissue. This study indicates that the expression of the pea shoot cell-wall invertase gene could be regulated by GA3 at transcriptional and/or translational levels.

  14. Expression of PIN and AUX1 genes encoding putative carrier proteins for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls [correction of epicotyles] under simulated microgravity conditions on a three-dimensional clinostat.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Tomoki; Hitotsubashi, Reiko; Miyamoto, Kensuke; Tanimoto, Eiichi; Ueda, Junichi

    2003-10-01

    Etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings grown under simulated microgravity conditions on a 3-dimensional clinostat showed automorphosis-like growth and development similar to that observed in true microgravity conditions in space. Application of inhibitors of auxin polar transport phenocopied automorphosis-like growth on 1 g conditions, suggesting that automorophosis is closely related to auxin polar transport. Strenuous efforts to know the relationships between automorphosis and auxin polar transport in pea seedlings at molecular bases resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 encoding putative auxin efflux and influx carrier protein, respectively. Significantly high levels in homology were found on nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences among PsPIN2, PsPIN1 and AtPINs, and between PsAUX1 and AtAUX1. Expression of PsPIN1 and PsAUX1 genes in etiolated pea seedlings grown on the clinostat were substantially affected, but that of PsPIN2 was not. Roles of these genes in auxin polar transport and automorphosis of etiolated pea seedlings are also described.

  15. Antibody

    MedlinePlus

    An antibody is a protein produced by the body's immune system when it detects harmful substances, called antigens. Examples ... microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites, and viruses) and chemicals. Antibodies may be produced when the immune system mistakenly ...

  16. Expression of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Neutralizing Antibody Fragments Using Human Vaginal Lactobacillus

    PubMed Central

    Marcobal, Angela; Liu, Xiaowen; Zhang, Wenlei; Dimitrov, Antony S.; Jia, Letong; Lee, Peter P.; Fouts, Timothy R.; Parks, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Eradication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by vaccination with epitopes that produce broadly neutralizing antibodies is the ultimate goal for HIV prevention. However, generating appropriate immune responses has proven difficult. Expression of broadly neutralizing antibodies by vaginal colonizing lactobacilli provides an approach to passively target these antibodies to the mucosa. We tested the feasibility of expressing single-chain and single-domain antibodies (dAbs) in Lactobacillus to be used as a topical microbicide/live biotherapeutic. Lactobacilli provide an excellent platform to express anti-HIV proteins. Broadly neutralizing antibodies have been identified against epitopes on the HIV-1 envelope and have been made into active antibody fragments. We tested single-chain variable fragment m9 and dAb-m36 and its derivative m36.4 as prototype antibodies. We cloned and expressed the antibody fragments m9, m36, and m36.4 in Lactobacillus jensenii-1153 and tested the expression levels and functionality. We made a recombinant L. jensenii 1153-1128 that expresses dAb-m36.4. All antibody fragments m9, m36, and m36.4 were expressed by lactobacilli. However, we noted the smaller m36/m36.4 were expressed to higher levels, ≥3 μg/ml. All L. jensenii-expressed antibody fragments bound to gp120/CD4 complex; Lactobacillus-produced m36.4 inhibited HIV-1BaL in a neutralization assay. Using a TZM-bl assay, we characterized the breadth of neutralization of the m36.4. Delivery of dAbs by Lactobacillus could provide passive transfer of these antibodies to the mucosa and longevity at the site of HIV-1 transmission. PMID:26950606

  17. Design, expression and characterization of a single chain anti-CD20 antibody; a germline humanized antibody derived from Rituximab.

    PubMed

    Ahmadzadeh, Vahideh; Farajnia, Safar; Hosseinpour Feizi, Mohammad Ali; Khavarinejad, Ramazan Ali

    2014-10-01

    CD20 is a B cell lineage specific surface antigen involved in various B cell malignancies. So far, several murine and chimeric antibodies have been produced against this antigen among which Rituximab is a commercially approved antibody widely used in treatment of cancers associated with CD20 overexpression. The current study reports the production and characterization of a humanized single chain version of Rituximab through CDR grafting method. For either heavy or light chain variable domains, a human antibody with the highest sequence homology to Rituximab was selected from human germline sequences and used as framework donors. Vernier zone residues in framework regions were replaced with those of Rituximab to retain the antigen binding affinity of parental antibody. The reactivity of humanized single chain antibody with CD20 was examined by ELISA and dot blot assays. The ability of antibody to suppress the growth of CD20 overexpressing Raji cells was tested by MTT assay. Analysis of reactivity with CD20 antigen revealed that the humanized single chain antibody reacted to the target antigen with high affinity. Proliferation inhibition assay showed that humanized scFv could suppress the proliferation of Raji cells efficiently in a dose-dependent manner. This successful production of a humanized scFv with the ability to inhibit growth of CD20-expressing cancer cell may provide a promising alternative strategy for CD20 targeted therapy.

  18. Expression of antibodies using single open reading frame (sORF) vector design

    PubMed Central

    Gion, Wendy R.; Davis-Taber, Rachel A.; Regier, Dean A.; Fung, Emma; Medina, Limary; Santora, Ling C.; Bose, Sahana; Ivanov, Alexander V.; Perilli-Palmer, Barbara A.; Chumsae, Chris M.; Matuck, Joseph G.; Kunes, Yune Z.; Carson, Gerald R.

    2013-01-01

    Efficient production of large quantities of therapeutic antibodies is becoming a major goal of the pharmaceutical industry. We developed a proprietary expression system using a polyprotein precursor-based approach to antibody expression in mammalian cells. In this approach, the coding regions for heavy and light chains are included within a single open reading frame (sORF) separated by an in-frame intein gene. A single mRNA and subsequent polypeptide are produced upon transient and stable transfection into HEK293 and CHO cells, respectively. Heavy and light chains are separated by the autocatalytic action of the intein and antibody processing proceeds to produce active, secreted antibody. Here, we report advances in sORF technology toward establishment of a viable manufacturing platform for therapeutic antibodies in CHO cells. Increasing expression levels and improving antibody processing by intein and signal peptide selection are discussed. PMID:23774760

  19. Antibodies against HLA-DP recognize broadly expressed epitopes.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Daimon P; Kafetzi, Maria L; Wood, Isabelle; Macaskill, Peter C; Milford, Edgar L; Guleria, Indira

    2016-12-01

    HLA matching and avoidance of pre-transplant donor-specific antibodies are important in selection of donors for solid organ transplant. Solid phase testing with single antigen beads allows resolution of antibody reactivity to the level of the allele. Single antigen bead testing results at a large transplant center were reviewed to identify selective reactivity patterns of anti-HLA antibodies. Many HLA-DP antibodies were identified in the context of other HLA antibodies, but some sera had antibodies against only HLA-DP. B cell flow crossmatch testing was positive for 2 out of 9 sera with HLA-DP antibodies. Many patterns of reactivity corresponded to epitopes in hypervariable regions C and F of DPB1, but some matched epitopes in other regions or DPA1. Through analysis of single antigen bead testing from a large number of patients, we report that anti-HLA-DP antibodies predominantly recognize broadly cross-reactive epitopes. The United Network for Organ Sharing has mandated HLA-DP typing on all deceased kidney donors, and HLA-DP epitopes should be considered as the major antigens for avoidance of pre-transplant donor-specific antibodies.

  20. Ascochyta blight of peas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Identification, taxonomy & nomenclature, epidemiology, symptoms, host ranges, and management are described for three fungal pathogens which collectively and individually cause Ascochyta blight of field pea (Pisum sativum): Ascochyta pisi, Ascochyta pinodes, and Ascochyta pinodella. The first two are...

  1. Peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Grant, Jan; Cooper, Pauline

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we describe a robust method for transformation of peas that has been successfully used in our laboratory since 1992. Using immature pea seed collected from field- or greenhouse-grown plants, we have produced transgenic lines for over 30 genotypes including named pea cultivars and advanced breeding lines. This method uses immature cotyledons as the explant, and the transformation efficiency is in the range 0.2 to 13.5% of cotyledons producing at least one independently transformed line. Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains AGL1 and KYRT1 are the most successful in our procedure, and kanamycin, phosphinothricin, and hygromycin are reliable selectable markers. Potentially useful genes have been introduced for pest and disease resistance, altering quality traits, and investigating metabolic pathways and are being studied in transgenic pea lines.

  2. Effect of CO{sub 2} concentration on carbonic anhydrase and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase expression in pea

    SciTech Connect

    Majeau, N.; Coleman, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of external CO{sub 2} concentration on the expression of carbonic anhydrase (CA) and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) was examined in pea (Pisum sativum cv Little Marvel) leaves. Enzyme activities and their transcript levels were reduced in plants grown at 1000 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2} compared with plants grown in ambient air. Growth at 160 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2} also appeared to reduce steady-state transcript levels for the rbcS, the gene encoding the small subunit of Rubisco, and for ca, the gene encoding CA; however, rbcS transcripts were reduced to a greater extent at this concentration. Rubisco activity was slightly lower in plants grown at 160 {mu}L/L CO{sub 2}, and CA activity was significantly higher than that observed in air-grown plants. Transfer of plants from 1000 {mu}L/L to air levels of CO{sub 2} resulted in a rapid increase in both ca and rbcS transcript abundance in fully expanded leaves, followed by an increase in enzyme activity. Plants transferred from air to high-CO{sub 2} concentrations appeared to modulate transcript abundance and enzyme activity less quickly. Foliar carbohydrate levels were also examined in plants grown continuously at high and ambient CO{sub 2}, and following changes in growth conditions that rapidly altered ca and rbcS transcript abundance and enzyme activities. 39 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Regulation of the microRNA 200b (miRNA-200b) by transcriptional regulators PEA3 and ELK-1 protein affects expression of Pin1 protein to control anoikis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xusen; Zhang, Bailin; Gao, Jidong; Wang, Xiang; Liu, Zhihua

    2013-11-08

    MicroRNA (miRNA) 200s regulate E-cadherin by directly targeting ZEB1/ZEB2, which are transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin. Decreased expression of E-cadherin results in cancer cells losing interaction with the extracellular matrix and detaching from the primary tumor. Normally, cells will undergo anoikis after losing interaction with the extracellular matrix. Cancer cells must, therefore, possess the ability to resist anoikis during the process of metastasis. Here we show that miRNA-200b regulates anoikis by directly targeting the 3' UTR of Pin1 mRNA and regulating Pin1 expression at the translational level. We found that down-regulation of miRNA-200b promotes cancer cells survival during metastasis, and the homeless state of these cells resulted in decreased expression of miRNA-200b in the MCF-7 cell line. We also found that expression of miRNA-200b is down-regulated in human breast cancer during lymph node metastasis, which has a significant negative correlation with Pin1 expression. Two members of the ETS (E-26) family (PEA3 and ELK-1) regulate the expression of miRNA-200b. PEA3 promotes the expression of miRNA-200b, and ELK-1 is a transcriptional repressor of miRNA-200b. In addition, miRNA-200b regulates the activity of PEA3 and ELK-1 via the Pin1-pERK pathway and forms self-regulated feedback loops. This study characterizes the role of miRNA-200b in the regulation of anoikis and demonstrates the regulation of its own expression in the process of metastasis.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies to antigens in the peribacteroid membrane from Rhizobium-induced root nodules of pea cross-react with plasma membranes and Golgi bodies

    PubMed Central

    Brewin, N. J.; Robertson, J. G.; Wood, E. A.; Wells, B.; Larkins, A. P.; Galfre, G.; Butcher, G. W.

    1985-01-01

    Three rat hybridoma lines that produced monoclonal antibodies reacting with the peribacteroid membrane from Pisum sativum were isolated, and these all appeared to recognise the same antigenic structure. Using one of these monoclonal antibodies, AFRC MAC 64, electron microscopy of immunogold-stained thin sections of nodule tissue revealed that the antigen, present in the peribacteroid membrane, was also found in the plant plasma membranes and in the Golgi bodies, but not in the endoplasmic reticulum. When peribacteroid membrane proteins were separated by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transferred to nitrocellulose by electro-blotting, it was found that MAC 64 bound to a series of protease-sensitive bands that migrated in the mol. wt. range 50-85 K. The epitope was sensitive to periodate oxidation and its structure may therefore involve the carbohydrate component of a membrane glycoprotein. We suggest that this structure originates in the Golgi apparatus and is subsequently transferred to the peribacteriod membranes and plasma membranes. The monoclonal antibody also reacted with peribacteroid membranes from nodules of Vicia and lupin, and with plasma membranes and Golgi membranes from uninfected plant cells, including root tip cells from onion (Allium cepa), indicating that the antigen is highly conserved in the plasma membranes of plant cells. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:15926221

  5. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody against CREPT, a novel protein highly expressed in tumors.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fangli; Wang, Ruoke; Zhang, Yanquan; Liu, Chunxiao; Wang, Yinyin; Hu, Jim; Zhang, Linqi; Chang, Zhijie

    2014-12-01

    CREPT (cell-cycle related and expression-elevated protein in tumor), a novel gene also called RPRD1B and C20ORF77, was recently identified to promote tumorigenesis through up-regulation of the expression of genes related to cell cycle. The previous study demonstrated that CREPT is highly expressed in a variety of tumors and enhances the expression of Cyclin D1 by promoting the formation of a chromatin loop. To study the correlation of CREPT expression with clinical factors in different tumors, we generated a monoclonal antibody (3E10) using purified recombinant human GST-CREPT protein as an antigen. In this study, we characterized the specificity of the monoclonal antibody and cloned the gene encoding the antibody for preparation of industrial production. Our results showed that the monoclonal antibody 3E10 was sensitive and specific to recognize human endogenous CREPT protein. We have mapped the epitope of the antibody and cloned the variable region sequence of the gene encoding the antibody. We confirmed that the cloned gene produced an equivalent antibody as that produced by the original hybridoma. This study provided a basis for large-scale production of the CREPT antibody, which will be useful for the study of the role of CREPT in different tumors.

  6. Characterization of a Monoclonal Antibody Against CREPT, a Novel Protein Highly Expressed in Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Fangli; Wang, Ruoke; Zhang, Yanquan; Liu, Chunxiao; Wang, Yinyin; Hu, Jim; Zhang, Linqi

    2014-01-01

    CREPT (cell-cycle related and expression-elevated protein in tumor), a novel gene also called RPRD1B and C20ORF77, was recently identified to promote tumorigenesis through up-regulation of the expression of genes related to cell cycle. The previous study demonstrated that CREPT is highly expressed in a variety of tumors and enhances the expression of Cyclin D1 by promoting the formation of a chromatin loop. To study the correlation of CREPT expression with clinical factors in different tumors, we generated a monoclonal antibody (3E10) using purified recombinant human GST-CREPT protein as an antigen. In this study, we characterized the specificity of the monoclonal antibody and cloned the gene encoding the antibody for preparation of industrial production. Our results showed that the monoclonal antibody 3E10 was sensitive and specific to recognize human endogenous CREPT protein. We have mapped the epitope of the antibody and cloned the variable region sequence of the gene encoding the antibody. We confirmed that the cloned gene produced an equivalent antibody as that produced by the original hybridoma. This study provided a basis for large-scale production of the CREPT antibody, which will be useful for the study of the role of CREPT in different tumors. PMID:25545209

  7. Expression of a functional single-chain antibody via Corynebacterium pseudodiphtheriticum.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, R K; Hurwitz, I; Matthews, S; Hoy, E; Kurapati, S; Crawford, C; Sundaram, P; Durvasula, R V

    2008-07-01

    Antibody-based therapeutics are effective against conditions ranging from acute infections to malignancy. They may prove crucial in combating bioterrorism and responding to drug-resistant and emerging pathogens. At present the cost of producing therapeutic monoclonal antibodies is between $1,000 to $6,000 per gram. The need to administer antibodies parenterally at frequent intervals further drives the cost of this treatment. Here we present an antibody delivery system, termed paratransgenesis, with the potential to overcome these limitations. The paratransgenic approach involves genetically transforming a commensal or symbiont bacterium to express foreign molecules that target pathogens. We describe transformation of Corynebacterium pseudodiptheriticum, a commensal bacterium found in the human respiratory tract, to express a murine single-chain antibody binding progesterone. The antibody was functional and bound specifically to progesterone in a concentration-dependent manner. This marker antibody system is the precursor to development of expression systems producing recombinant humanized single-chain antibodies. Studies are in progress evaluating fitness, transgene stablility, and pathogenecity of the genetically engineered C. pseudodiptheriticum. We anticipate developing a repertoire of expressed molecules targeting infectious agents and surface epitopes of pulmonary mass lesions. If expression systems for anti-pathogen molecules in C. pseudodiptheriticum and other respiratory commensal bacteria can be optimized, these bacteria have the potential for a range of therapeutic and prophylactic applications.

  8. Vitamin D3 signalling in the brain enhances the function of phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes – 15 kD (PEA-15)

    PubMed Central

    Obradovic, Darja; Zanca, Ciro; Vogl, Annette; Trümbach, Dietrich; Deussing, Jan; Condorelli, Gerolama; Rein, Theo

    2009-01-01

    In spite of growing evidence linking vitamin D3 levels to mental health disorders, little is known about its direct targets in the brain. This study set out to investigate targets of vitamin D3 in a human brain stem cell line. We employed arrays with antibodies directed against more than 600 structural and signalling proteins, including phospho-variants. Over 180 proteins responded to vitamin D3, such as cyclin-dependent protein-serine kinase 1/2, epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase, protein kinase A, protein-serine kinase Bγ and protein-serine kinase Cα. PEA-15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes-15 kD, also known as PED), known to be involved in various anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects, was strongly up-regulated. In silico promoter analysis revealed conserved binding sites for vitamin D3 receptor, suggesting a strong vitamin D3 dependency of the PEA-15 promoter. PEA-15 up-regulation by vitamin D3 could be confirmed by Western blot in two different cell lines. Analysis of mRNA and protein phosphorylation status of PEA-15 suggests that increased PEA-15 promoter activity and increased protein stabilization contribute to the overall rise of PEA-15 protein. In a functional test of this novel pathway, we demonstrated that vitamin D3 was able to rescue cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis through regulation of the PEA-15 expression and function. Summarized, our study presents novel targets of vitamin D3 relevant for apoptosis and cell proliferation, and thus strongly supports a function of vitamin D3 in the brain that impacts on processes highly relevant for major neurological disorders. PMID:19382910

  9. Pea amyloplast DNA is qualitatively similar to pea chloroplast DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaynor, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    Amyloplast DNA (apDNA), when subjected to digestion with restriction endonucleases, yields patterns nearly identical to that of DNA from mature pea chloroplasts (ctDNA). Southern transfers of apDNA and ctDNA, probed with the large subunit (LS) gene of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco), shows hybridization to the expected restriction fragments for both apDNA and ctDNA. However, Northern transfers of total RNA from chloroplasts and amyloplasts, probed again with the LS gene of Rubisco, shows that no detectable LS meggage is found in amyloplasts although LS expression in mature chloroplasts is high. Likewise, two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of etiolated gravisensitive pea tissue shows that both large and small subunits of Rubisco are conspicuously absent; however, in greening tissue these two constitute the major soluble proteins. These findings suggest that although the informational content of these two organelle types is equivalent, gene expression is quite different and is presumably under nuclear control.

  10. Pea lectin receptor-like kinase promotes high salinity stress tolerance in bacteria and expresses in response to stress in planta.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Amita; Dang, Hung Quang; Vaid, Neha; Tuteja, Narendra

    2010-01-01

    The plant lectin receptor-like kinases (LecRLKs) are involved in various signaling pathways but their role in salinity stress tolerance has not heretofore been well described. Salinity stress negatively affects plant growth/productivity and threatens food security worldwide. Based on functional gene-mining assay, we have isolated 34 salinity tolerant genes out of one million Escherichia coli (SOLR) transformants containing pea cDNAs grown in 0.8 M NaCl. Sequence analysis of one of these revealed homology to LecRLK, which possesses N-myristilation and N-glycosylation sites thus corroborating the protein to be a glycoconjugate. The homology based computational modeling of the kinase domain suggested high degree of conservation with the protein already known to be stress responsive in plants. The NaCl tolerance provided by PsLecRLK to the above bacteria was further confirmed in E. coli (DH5alpha). In planta studies showed that the expression of PsLecRLK cDNA was significantly upregulated in response to NaCl as compared to K(+) and Li(+) ions, suggesting the Na(+) ion specific response. Transcript of the PsLecRLK gene accumulates mainly in roots and shoots. The purified 47 kDa recombinant PsLecRLK-KD (kinase domain) protein has been shown to phosphorylate general substrates like MBP and casein. This study not only suggests the conservation of the cellular response to high salinity stress across prokaryotes and plant kingdom but also provides impetus to develop novel concepts for better understanding of mechanism of stress tolerance in bacteria and plants. It also opens up new avenues for studying practical aspects of plant salinity tolerance for enhanced agricultural productivity.

  11. A tool kit for rapid cloning and expression of recombinant antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Dodev, Tihomir S.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Gilbert, Amy E.; Josephs, Debra H.; Bowen, Holly; James, Louisa K.; Bax, Heather J.; Beavil, Rebecca; Pang, Marie O.; Gould, Hannah J.; Karagiannis, Sophia N.; Beavil, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last four decades, molecular cloning has evolved tremendously. Efficient products allowing assembly of multiple DNA fragments have become available. However, cost-effective tools for engineering antibodies of different specificities, isotypes and species are still needed for many research and clinical applications in academia. Here, we report a method for one-step assembly of antibody heavy- and light-chain DNAs into a single mammalian expression vector, starting from DNAs encoding the desired variable and constant regions, which allows antibodies of different isotypes and specificity to be rapidly generated. As a proof of principle we have cloned, expressed and characterized functional recombinant tumor-associated antigen-specific chimeric IgE/κ and IgG1/κ, as well as recombinant grass pollen allergen Phl p 7 specific fully human IgE/λ and IgG4/λ antibodies. This method utilizing the antibody expression vectors, available at Addgene, has many applications, including the potential to support simultaneous processing of antibody panels, to facilitate mechanistic studies of antigen-antibody interactions and to conduct early evaluations of antibody functions. PMID:25073855

  12. Expression of crossreactive idiotypes by human antibodies specific for the capsular polysaccharide of Hemophilus influenzae B.

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, A H

    1988-01-01

    Human antibodies specific, for polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (PRP), the capsular polysaccharide of Hemophilus influenzae b, were studied using idiotypic analysis. Antisera were prepared against purified F(ab')2 anti-PRP from two unrelated adults, H.H. and P.T. After repeated absorption with IgG myeloma proteins and with PRP-absorbed normal human Ig and donor Ig, anti-idiotypic (anti-Id) sera were obtained that specifically reacted with anti-PRP antibodies. Anti-IdHH and anti-IdPT reciprocally crossreacted with H.H. and P.T. anti-PRP antibodies and F(ab')2 fragments, and also reacted with the serum anti-PRP antibodies from three additional adults unrelated to P.T. and H.H. Both anti-Id sera partially inhibited anti-PRP paratopes but not anti-tetanus toxoid paratopes. PRP did not inhibit anti-Id recognition of shared or crossreactive idiotypic (CRI) determinants. Naturally occurring and PRP immunization-induced anti-PRP antibodies expressed CRI. While CRI titer increased after immunization, the increase was usually less than the rise in total anti-PRP antibody. Quantitative differences in CRI expression were also apparent between natural and immunization-induced H.H. and P.T. anti-PRP antibodies as shown by their differential inhibitability by anti-Id. Our data demonstrate that anti-PRP antibodies from five unrelated adults express CRI determinants that are probably distant from the PRP combining site. Naturally occurring and immunization-induced anti-PRP antibodies share CRI and therefore appear to be clonally related, although immunization apparently induces the expression CRI-negative antibodies as well. These results, taken with previous studies showing restricted and identical anti-PRP isoelectric focusing spectrotypes in unrelated adults, suggest that some PRP-specific V domains are structurally conserved and probably germ-line encoded. PMID:3257499

  13. Nicotinamide attenuates the decrease of astrocytic phosphoprotein PEA-15 in focal cerebral ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Koh, Phil-Ok

    2012-03-01

    Nicotinamide exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemic injury. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) is prominently expressed in astrocytes that exert broad anti-apoptotic functions. This study investigated whether nicotinamide modulates PEA-15 and levels of two phosphorylated PEA-15 (Serine 104 and 116) in an animal model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced injury. Adult male rats were treated with vehicle or nicotinamide (500 mg/kg) 2 hr after the onset of MCAO and cerebral cortices were collected at 24 hr after MCAO. In a proteomic approach, MCAO induced decreases of PEA-15 levels, while nicotinamide treatment attenuated the injury-induced decrease in PEA-15. The results of Western blot analysis suggest that nicotinamide prevented injury-induced reduction in phospho-PEA-15 (Serine 104) and phospho-PEA-15 (Serine 116) levels. The phosphorylation of PEA-15 exerts anti-apoptotic functions, and reduction of PEA-15 phosphorylation leads to apoptotic cell death. These results suggest that nicotinamide exerts a neuroprotective effect by attenuating the injury-induced decreases of PEA-15 and phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) proteins.

  14. [Expression and purification of GST-CML28 fusion protein and preparation of its polyclonal antibody].

    PubMed

    Mao, Xia; Zhang, Bing; Bai, Xue-Ling; Liu, Long-Long; Zhang, Dong-Hua

    2012-12-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the expression of GST-CML28 in Escherichia Coli and to prepare its antibody. The constructed recombinant expression vectors CML28-pGEX-3X were transformed into Escherichia Coli BL21 under IPTG induction. The protein was abstracted from the transformers, and purified by a GSTrap FF column. The rabbits were immunized by the purified fusion protein to produce serum with anti-CML28 antibody. The serum was purified by chromatographic column stuffed with glutathione Sephamse 4B to get the antibody. The specific antibody against CML28 was further identified by ELISA, Western blot, immunohistochemistry and quantum dot luminescence. The results indicated that GST-CML28 fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and its specific polyclonal antibody was obtained. It is concluded that the anti-CML28 polyclonal antibodies with high titer and specificity are successfully prepared. These antibodies provide an useful experimental tool to profoundly research the physiological significance and biological function of the CML28 gene.

  15. Hyperglycemia aggravates decreases of PEA-15 and its two phosphorylated forms in cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    SUNG, Jin-Hee; KOH, Phil-Ok

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a metabolic health disorder and an important risk factor for stroke. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) is a multifunctional protein modulating cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis and glucose metabolism. This study investigated whether diabetes modulates the expression of PEA-15 and two phosphorylated forms (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administrated with streptozotocin (40 mg/kg) and were underwent right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) 4 weeks after streptozotocin injection. Brain tissues were collected 24 hr after MCAO and stained using triphenyltetrazolium chloride. Western blot analysis was performed to elucidate the expression of PEA-15 and two phosphorylated forms (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in right cerebral cortex. Infarct volume during MCAO injury was severely increased in diabetic animals compared to non-diabetic animals. We identified the decrease in PEA-15 in animals that underwent MCAO using proteomic approach. PEA-15 expression during MCAO was strongly decreased in diabetic animals compared to non-diabetic animals. Western blots analysis confirmed that diabetes exacerbated the decrease in PEA-15 expression after MCAO. Moreover, decrease in expression of phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) was greater in diabetic than in non-diabetic animals. These results suggested that a diabetic condition may aggravate brain damage through decreasing expression of PEA-15 and phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in ischemic brain injury. PMID:28216548

  16. Pea (Pisum sativum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea belongs to the Leguminosae plant family, the third largest flowering plant family with 800 genera and over 18,000 species. Tribe Fabeae is considered one of the youngest groups in the legumes and Bayesian molecular clock and ancestral range analysis suggest a crown age of 23 – 16 Mya, in the mi...

  17. Linkage Maps in Pea

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, THN.; Turner, L.; Hellens, R. P.; Lee, D.; Harker, C. L.; Enard, C.; Domoney, C.; Davies, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    We have analyzed segregation patterns of markers among the late generation progeny of several crosses of pea. From the patterns of association of these markers we have deduced linkage orders. Salient features of these linkages are discussed, as is the relationship between the data presented here and previously published genetic and cytogenetic data. PMID:1551583

  18. Light regulation of the abundance of mRNA encoding a nucleolin-like protein localized in the nucleoli of pea nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Tong, C G; Reichler, S; Blumenthal, S; Balk, J; Hsieh, H L; Roux, S J

    1997-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a nucleolar protein was selected from a pea (Pisum sativum) plumule library, cloned, and sequenced. The translated sequence of the cDNA has significant percent identity to Xenopus laevis nucleolin (31%), the alfalfa (Medicago sativa) nucleolin homolog (66%), and the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) nucleolin homolog (NSR1) (28%). It also has sequence patterns in its primary structure that are characteristic of all nucleolins, including an N-terminal acidic motif, RNA recognition motifs, and a C-terminal Gly- and Arg-rich domain. By immunoblot analysis, the polyclonal antibodies used to select the cDNA bind selectively to a 90-kD protein in purified pea nuclei and nucleoli and to an 88-kD protein in extracts of Escherichia coli expressing the cDNA. In immunolocalization assays of pea plumule cells, the antibodies stained primarily a region surrounding the fibrillar center of nucleoli, where animal nucleolins are typically found. Southern analysis indicated that the pea nucleolin-like protein is encoded by a single gene, and northern analysis showed that the labeled cDNA binds to a single band of RNA, approximately the same size and the cDNA. After irradiation of etiolated pea seedlings by red light, the mRNA level in plumules decreased during the 1st hour and then increased to a peak of six times the 0-h level at 12 h. Far-red light reversed this effect of red light, and the mRNA accumulation from red/far-red light irradiation was equal to that found in the dark control. This indicates that phytochrome may regulate the expression of this gene. PMID:9193096

  19. Immunodiagnosis of Citrus leprosis virus C using a polyclonal antibody to an expressed putative coat protein.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Nandlal; Roy, Avijit; Guillermo, Leon M; Picton, D D; Wei, G; Nakhla, M K; Levy, L; Brlansky, R H

    2013-11-01

    Citrus leprosis virus C (CiLV-C), a causal agent for citrus leprosis disease, is present in South and Central America and is a threat for introduction into the U.S. citrus industry. A specific, inexpensive and reliable antibody based detection system is needed for the rapid identification of CiLV-C. The CiLV-C is very labile and has not been purified in sufficient amount for antibody production. The p29 gene of CiLV-C genome that codes for the putative coat protein (PCP) was codon optimized for expression in Escherichia coli and synthesized in vitro. The optimized gene was sub-cloned into the bacterial expression vector pDEST17 and transferred into E. coli BL21AI competent cells. The expression of PCP containing N-terminal His-tag was optimized by induction with l-arabinose. Induced cells were disrupted by sonication and expressed PCP was purified by affinity chromatography using Ni-NTA agarose. The purified expressed PCP was then used as an immunogen for injections into rabbits to produce polyclonal antibody (PAb). The PAb specific to the expressed PCP was identified using Western blotting. The antibody was successfully used to detect CiLV-C in the symptomatic CiLV-C infected tissues using double antibody sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent (DAS-ELISA), indirect ELISA and dot-blot immunoassay (DBIA) formats.

  20. Bisphosphorylated PEA-15 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel by impairing the microtubule-destabilizing effect of SCLIP.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xuemei; Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Ahmed, Ahmed A; Kazansky, Anna; Diao, Lixia; Baggerly, Keith A; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N; Ueno, Naoto T

    2013-06-01

    Paclitaxel is a standard chemotherapeutic agent for ovarian cancer. PEA-15 (phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes-15 kDa) regulates cell proliferation, autophagy, apoptosis, and glucose metabolism and also mediates AKT-dependent chemoresistance in breast cancer. The functions of PEA-15 are tightly regulated by its phosphorylation status at Ser104 and Ser116. However, the effect of PEA-15 phosphorylation status on chemosensitivity of cancer cells remains unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that PEA-15 phosphorylated at both Ser104 and Ser116 (pPEA-15) sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel. We first found that knockdown of PEA-15 in PEA-15-high expressing HEY and OVTOKO ovarian cancer cells resulted in paclitaxel resistance, whereas re-expression of PEA-15 in these cells led to paclitaxel sensitization. We next found that SKOV3.ip1-DD cells (expressing phosphomimetic PEA-15) were more sensitive to paclitaxel than SKOV3.ip1-AA cells (expressing nonphosphorylatable PEA-15). Compared with SKOV3.ip1-vector and SKOV3.ip1-AA cells, SKOV3.ip1-DD cells displayed reduced cell viability, inhibited anchorage-independent growth, and augmented apoptosis when treated with paclitaxel. Furthermore, HEY and OVTOKO cells displayed enhanced paclitaxel sensitivity when transiently overexpressing phosphomimetic PEA-15 and reduced paclitaxel sensitivity when transiently overexpressing nonphosphorylatable PEA-15. These results indicate that pPEA-15 sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to paclitaxel. cDNA microarray analysis suggested that SCLIP (SCG10-like protein), a microtubule-destabilizing protein, is involved in pPEA-15-mediated chemosensitization. We found that reduced expression and possibly posttranslational modification of SCLIP following paclitaxel treatment impaired the microtubule-destabilizing effect of SCLIP, thereby promoting induction of mitotic arrest and apoptosis by paclitaxel. Our findings highlight the importance of pPEA-15 as a promising target for improving

  1. Attraction of pea moth Cydia nigricana to pea flower volatiles.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Knudsen, Geir K

    2014-04-01

    The pea moth Cydia nigricana causes major crop losses in pea (Pisum sativum) production. We investigated attraction of C. nigricana females to synthetic pea flower volatiles in a wind tunnel and in the field. We performed electroantennogram analysis on 27 previously identified pea plant volatiles, which confirmed antennal responses to nine of the compounds identified in pea flowers. A dose-dependent response was found to eight of the compounds. Various blends of the nine pea flower volatiles eliciting antennal responses were subsequently studied in a wind tunnel. A four-compound blend comprising hexan-1-ol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, (Z)-β-ocimene and (E)-β-ocimene was equally attractive to mated C. nigricana females as the full pea flower mimic blend. We conducted wind-tunnel tests on different blends of these four pea flower compounds mixed with a headspace sample of non-flowering pea plants. By considering the effects of such green leaf background odour, we were able to identify (Z)- and (E)-β-ocimene as fundamental for host location by the pea moths, and hexan-1-ol and (E)-2-hexen-1-ol as being of secondary importance in that context. In the field, the two isomers of β-ocimene resulted in trap catches similar to those obtained with the full pea flower mimic and the four-compound blend, which clearly demonstrated the prime significance of the β-ocimenes as attractants of C. nigricana. The high level of the trap catches of female C. nigricana noted in this first field experiment gives a first indication of the potential use of such artificial kairomones in pea moth control.

  2. Femtosecond spectroscopy probes the folding quality of antibody fragments expressed as GFP fusions in the cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Didier, P.; Weiss, E.; Sibler, A.-P.; Philibert, P.; Martineau, P.; Bigot, J.-Y.; Guidoni, L.

    2008-02-22

    Time-resolved femtosecond spectroscopy can improve the application of green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) as protein-folding reporters. The study of ultrafast excited-state dynamics (ESD) of GFP fused to single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody fragments, allowed us to define and measure an empirical parameter that only depends on the folding quality (FQ) of the fusion. This method has been applied to the analysis of genetic fusions expressed in the bacterial cytoplasm and allowed us to distinguish folded and thus functional antibody fragments (high FQ) with respect to misfolded antibody fragments. Moreover, these findings were strongly correlated to the behavior of the same scFvs expressed in animal cells. This method is based on the sensitivity of the ESD to the modifications in the tertiary structure of the GFP induced by the aggregation state of the fusion partner. This approach may be applicable to the study of the FQ of polypeptides over-expressed under reducing conditions.

  3. AAV-directed persistent expression of a gene encoding anti-nicotine antibody for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Hicks, Martin J; Rosenberg, Jonathan B; De, Bishnu P; Pagovich, Odelya E; Young, Colin N; Qiu, Jian-ping; Kaminsky, Stephen M; Hackett, Neil R; Worgall, Stefan; Janda, Kim D; Davisson, Robin L; Crystal, Ronald G

    2012-06-27

    Current strategies to help tobacco smokers quit have limited success as a result of the addictive properties of the nicotine in cigarette smoke. We hypothesized that a single administration of an adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer vector expressing high levels of an anti-nicotine antibody would persistently prevent nicotine from reaching its receptors in the brain. To test this hypothesis, we constructed an AAVrh.10 vector that expressed a full-length, high-affinity, anti-nicotine antibody derived from the Fab fragment of the anti-nicotine monoclonal antibody NIC9D9 (AAVantiNic). In mice treated with this vector, blood concentrations of the anti-nicotine antibody were dose-dependent, and the antibody showed high specificity and affinity for nicotine. The antibody shielded the brain from systemically administered nicotine, reducing brain nicotine concentrations to 15% of those in naïve mice. The amount of nicotine sequestered in the serum of vector-treated mice was more than seven times greater than that in untreated mice, with 83% of serum nicotine bound to immunoglobulin G. Treatment with the AAVantiNic vector blocked nicotine-mediated alterations in arterial blood pressure, heart rate, and locomotor activity. In summary, a single administration of a gene transfer vector expressing a high-affinity anti-nicotine monoclonal antibody elicited persistent (18 weeks), high titers of an anti-nicotine antibody that obviated the physiologic effects of nicotine. If this degree of efficacy translates to humans, AAVantiNic could be an effective preventative therapy for nicotine addiction.

  4. Cloning, expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of the asialoglycoprotein receptor of Marmota himalayan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Huang, Huang; Zhang, Zhenghua; Wang, Baoju; Tian, Yongjun; Lu, Mengji; Yang, Dongliang

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study is to express the carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) of the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR) H1 and H2 subunits of Marmota himalayan in vitro, and develop polyclonal antibodies against the recombinant proteins. RT-PCR was used to amplify ASGPR CRDH1 and CRDH2 from the liver tissue of Marmota himalayan. The products of amplification were subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pRSET-B, and expressed in E.coli BL21(DE3)plysS. The recombinant proteins were purified using Ni-NTA spin column. The purified proteins were inoculated into BALB/c mice to develop polyclonal antibodies. The sensitivity and specificity of antibodies were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining (IHC). The polyclonal antibodies showed high sensitivity and specificity against both denaturated and native ASGPR proteins. We successfully amplified and expressed the ASGPR CRDs of Marmota himalayan. The nucleic sequences of ASGPR CRDH1 and CRDH2 of Marmota himalayan have been submitted to Genbank and the sequence ID are DQ 845465 and DQ845466, respectively. The proteins and antibodies prepared can be used for targeting gene therapy in a new animal model-Marmota Himalayan-for the research of infectious diseases of hepatitis viruses and liver cancer treatment.

  5. Estradiol attenuates down-regulation of PEA-15 and its two phosphorylated forms in ischemic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol exerts a neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral ischemic injury through the inhibition of apoptotic signals. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) is mainly expressed in brain that perform anti-apoptotic functions. This study investigated whether estradiol modulates the expression of PEA-15 and two phosphorylated forms of PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced injury and glutamate exposure-induced neuronal cell death. Adult female rats were ovariectomized to remove endogenous estradiol and treated with vehicle or estradiol prior to MCAO. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by MCAO and cerebral cortices were collected 24 h after MCAO. Western blot analysis indicated that estradiol prevents the MCAO-induced decrease in PEA-15, phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104), phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 116). Glutamate exposure induced a reduction in PEA-15, phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104), phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 116) in cultured neurons, whereas estradiol treatment attenuated the glutamate toxicity-induced decrease in the expression of these proteins. It has been known that phosphorylation of PEA-15 is an important step in carrying out its anti-apoptotic function. Thus, these findings suggest that the regulation of PEA-15 phosphorylation by estradiol contributes to the neuroprotective function of estradiol in ischemic brain injury. PMID:25806082

  6. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody and Expression Analysis of GR in Tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yuanhong; Zhu, Benzhong; Luo, Yunbo; Chen, Xiangning; Zhang, Hongxing

    The fruit ripening of Green-ripe (Gr) mutant tomato was inhibited dramatically. To determine the expression patterns of Gr in tomato, we first produced the polyclonal antibody of Gr protein. RT-PCR was used to amplify the Gr gene from green ripe tomato fruit. And the PCR product was subcloned into prokaryotic protein expression vectors pET-30a to generate recombinant plasmid. The Gr protein was induced by IPTG in BL21 (DE3) and purified by Ni-NTA agarose column. The anti-Gr serum was produced by immunizing rabbits, and the titer of the anti-Gr serum was above 5000 by ELISA analysis. Purified by the DEAE-52 ion-column, the high purification level of anti-Gr polyclonal antibody was obtained. Furthermore, RT-CPR was used in the RNA level to demonstrate that the expression of Gr gene was specialized in some cultures of tomato. For example, the expressions of Gr were higher in seed, flower and green ripe fruit than others, and the expression level were reduced by exogenous ethylene treatment in the flower and green ripe fruit. Moreover, Polyclonal antibody of Gr was used to investigate the expression pattern of Gr in protein level by the Western blotting. Our results show that the expression level of Gr in protein level was complied with the expressions in RNA. So, we suggested that the regulation of Gr was transcriptional.

  7. A positive role for PEA3 in HER2-mediated breast tumour progression

    PubMed Central

    Myers, E; Hill, A D K; Kelly, G; McDermott, E W; O'Higgins, N J; Young, L S

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of HER2 is associated with an adverse prognosis in breast cancer. Despite this, the mechanism of its transcriptional regulation remains poorly understood. PEA3, a MAP kinase (MAPK)-activated member of the Ets transcription factor family has been implicated in the transcriptional regulation of HER2. The direction of its modulation remains controversial. We assessed relative levels of PEA3 expression and DNA binding in primary breast cultures derived from patient tumours (n=18) in the presence of an activated MAPK pathway using Western blotting and shift analysis. Expression of PEA3 in breast tumours from patients of known HER2 status (n=107) was examined by immunohistochemistry. In primary breast cancer cell cultures, growth factors induced interaction between PEA3 and its DNA response element. Upregulation of PEA3 expression in the presence of growth factors associated with HER2 positivity and axillary lymph node metastasis (P=0.034 and 0.049, respectively). PEA3 expression in breast cancer tissue associated with reduced disease-free survival (P<0.001), Grade III tumours (P<0.0001) and axillary lymph node metastasis (P=0.026). Co-expression of PEA3 and HER2 significantly associated with rate of recurrence compared to patients who expressed HER2 alone (P=0.0039). These data support a positive role for PEA3 in HER2-mediated oncogenesis in breast cancer. PMID:17060941

  8. Spontaneous reversal of acquired autoimmune dysfibrinogenemia probably due to an antiidiotypic antibody directed to an interspecies cross-reactive idiotype expressed on antifibrinogen antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Arguelles, A

    1988-01-01

    A young man with a long history of abnormal bleeding was seen in January 1985. Coagulation tests showed dysfibrinogenemia and an antifibrinogen autoantibody was demonstrable in his serum. This antibody, when purified, was capable of inhibiting the polymerization of normal fibrin monomers, apparently through binding to the alpha fibrinogen chain. 6 mo later the patient was asymptomatic, coagulation tests were normal, and the antifibrinogen autoantibody was barely detectable. At this time, affinity-purified autologous and rabbit antifibrinogen antibodies were capable of absorbing an IgG kappa antibody from the patient's serum, which reacted indistinctly with both autologous and xenogeneic antifibrinogen antibodies in enzyme immunoassays. It has been concluded that the patient's dysfibrinogenemia was the result of an antifibrinogen autoantibody, and that later on an anti-idiotype antibody, which binds an interspecies cross-reactive idiotype expressed on anti-human fibrinogen antibodies, inhibited the production of the antifibrinogen autoantibody which led to the remission of the disorder. Images PMID:3262127

  9. [Cloning and expression of VLRB of Lampetra japonica and generation of the corresponding monoclonal antibodies].

    PubMed

    Wu, Fen-Fang; Ma, Ning; Chen, Li-Yong; Su, Peng; Li, Qing-Wei

    2012-04-01

    The agnathans (lampreys and hagfishes) are representatives of the jawless vertebrates. The receptor molecules of adaptive immune system in lampreys are different from the antigen receptors in mammal vertebrates. The unique receptor molecules of lampreys are known as variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR). There are three types of VLRs in lampreys, VLRA, VLRB, and VLRC. Multimeric antigen-specific VLRB antibodies are secreted by VLRB+ lymphocytes and constitute the major components of the humoral arm of the lamprey adaptive immune system. Oligomeric VLRB antibodies are composed of four or five disulfide-linked dimeric subunits, which are similar to IgM antibodies in structure and function. In this study, the conservative c-terminal of Lampetra japonica VLRB was cloned and expressed in BL21 E. coli. The recombinant VLRB protein was purified by Ni2+ affinity chromatography column. After Balb/c mice immunity, cell fusion, the positive clones were screened by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Finally, the hybridoma cells that produced specific anti-VLRB monoclonal antibodies were obtained. In order to get a large number of antibodies against VLRB, the hybridoma cells were injected into the abdominal cavity of Balb/c mice and the antibodies were purified by protein G sepharose. The results of ELISA indicated that the valence of anti-VLRB antibodies was 1:40000. Western blotting assay showed that the antibodies were able to detect both recombinant VLRB and secreted VLRB in lamprey sera. Flow cytometry analysis also revealed the existence of VLRB on the surface of lymphocytes. In summary, the anti-VLRB monoclonal antibodies provided a major tool for studying lamprey adaptive immune system.

  10. Integrative Expression System for Delivery of Antibody Fragments by Lactobacilli▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Martín, M. Cruz; Pant, Neha; Ladero, Victor; Günaydın, Gökçe; Andersen, Kasper Krogh; Álvarez, Beatriz; Martínez, Noelia; Alvarez, Miguel A.; Hammarström, Lennart; Marcotte, Harold

    2011-01-01

    A series of expression cassettes which mediate secretion or surface display of antibody fragments was stably integrated in the chromosome of Lactobacillus paracasei. L. paracasei producing surface-anchored variable domain of llama heavy chain (VHH) (ARP1) directed against rotavirus showed efficient binding to rotavirus and protection in the mouse model of rotavirus infection. PMID:21257814

  11. The level of HER2 expression is a predictor of antibody-HER2 trafficking behavior in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ram, Sripad; Kim, Dongyoung; Ober, Raimund J; Ward, E Sally

    2014-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase HER2 is known to play a central role in mitogenic signaling, motivating the development of targeted, HER2-specific therapies. However, despite the longstanding use of antibodies to target HER2, controversies remain concerning antibody/HER2 trafficking behavior in cancer cells. Understanding this behavior has direct relevance to the mechanism of action and effective design of such antibodies. In the current study, we analyzed the intracellular dynamics of trastuzumab, a marketed HER2-targeting antibody, in a panel of breast and prostate cancer cell lines that have a wide range of HER2 expression levels. Our results reveal distinct post-endocytic trafficking behavior of antibody-HER2 complexes in cells with different HER2 expression levels. In particular, HER2-overexpressing cells exhibit efficient HER2 recycling and limited reductions in HER2 levels upon antibody treatment, and consequently display a high level of antibody persistence on their plasma membrane. By contrast, in cells with low HER2 expression, trastuzumab treatment results in rapid antibody clearance from the plasma membrane combined with substantial decreases in HER2 levels and undetectable levels of recycling. A cell line with intermediate levels of HER2 expression exhibits both antibody recycling and clearance from the cell surface. Significantly, these analyses demonstrate that HER2 expression levels, rather than cell origin (breast or prostate), is a determinant of subcellular trafficking properties. Such studies have relevance to optimizing the design of antibodies to target HER2.

  12. Pituitary expression of CTLA-4 mediates hypophysitis secondary to administration of CTLA-4 blocking antibody.

    PubMed

    Iwama, Shintaro; De Remigis, Alessandra; Callahan, Margaret K; Slovin, Susan F; Wolchok, Jedd D; Caturegli, Patrizio

    2014-04-02

    Hypophysitis is a chronic inflammation of the pituitary gland of unknown (primary forms) or recognizable (secondary forms) etiology, such as the use of ipilimumab in cancer immunotherapy. Ipilimumab, which blocks the T cell inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4), induces hypophysitis in about 4% of patients through unknown mechanisms. We first established a model of secondary hypophysitis by repeated injections of a CTLA-4 blocking antibody into SJL/J or C57BL/6J mice, and showed that they developed lymphocytic infiltration of the pituitary gland and circulating pituitary antibodies. We next assessed the prevalence of pituitary antibodies in a cohort of 20 patients with advanced melanoma or prostate cancer, 7 with a clinical diagnosis of hypophysitis, before and after ipilimumab administration. Pituitary antibodies, negative at baseline, developed in the 7 patients with hypophysitis but not in the 13 without it; these antibodies predominantly recognized thyrotropin-, follicle-stimulating hormone-, and corticotropin-secreting cells. We then hypothesized that the injected CTLA-4 antibody could cause pituitary toxicity if bound to CTLA-4 antigen expressed "ectopically" on pituitary endocrine cells. Pituitary glands indeed expressed CTLA-4 at both RNA and protein levels, particularly in a subset of prolactin- and thyrotropin-secreting cells. Notably, these cells became the site of complement activation, featuring deposition of C3d and C4d components and an inflammatory cascade akin to that seen in type II hypersensitivity. In summary, the study offers a mechanism to explain the pituitary toxicity observed in patients receiving ipilimumab, and highlights the utility of measuring pituitary antibodies in this form of secondary hypophysitis.

  13. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., frozen peas shall contain not less than 80 percent by weight of peas of the size declared or of smaller sizes. The sample unit may not contain more than 20 percent by weight of peas of the next two larger sizes, of which not more than one quarter by weight of such peas may be of the larger of these two...

  14. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  15. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  16. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  17. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  18. 29 CFR 780.139 - Pea vining.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pea vining. 780.139 Section 780.139 Labor Regulations... âsuch Farming Operationâ-of the Farmer § 780.139 Pea vining. Vining employees of a pea vinery located on a farm, who vine only the peas grown on that particular farm, are engaged in agriculture. If...

  19. Induction of type I interferon secretion through recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing measles virus hemagglutinin stimulates antibody secretion in the presence of maternal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dhohyung; Martinez-Sobrido, Luis; Choi, Changsun; Petroff, Natasha; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Niewiesk, Stefan; Carsillo, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Measles virus (MV) vaccine effectively protects seronegative individuals against infection. However, inhibition of vaccine-induced seroconversion by maternal antibodies after vaccination remains a problem, as it leaves infants susceptible to MV infection. In cotton rats, passive transfer of MV-specific IgG mimics maternal antibodies and inhibits vaccine-induced seroconversion. Here, we report that immunization in the presence of passively transferred IgG inhibits the secretion of neutralizing antibodies but not the generation of MV-specific B cells. This finding suggested that MV-specific B cells require an additional stimulus to mature into antibody-secreting plasma cells. In order to provide such a stimulus, we generated a recombinant Newcastle disease virus (NDV) expressing the MV hemagglutinin (NDV-H). In contrast to MV, NDV-H induced high levels of type I interferon in plasmacytoid dendritic cells and in lung tissue. In cotton rats immunized with NDV-H, neutralizing antibodies were also generated in the presence of passively transferred antibodies. In the latter case, however, the level and kinetics of antibody generation were reduced. In vitro, alpha interferon stimulated the activation of MV-specific B cells from MV-immune spleen cells. NDV infection (which induces alpha interferon) had the same effect, and stimulation could be abrogated by antibodies neutralizing alpha interferon, but not interleukin 6 (IL-6). In vivo, coapplication of UV-inactivated MV with NDV led to increased MV-specific antibody production in the presence and absence of passively transferred antibodies. These data indicate that MV-specific B cells are being generated after immunization in the presence of maternal antibodies and that the provision of alpha interferon as an additional signal leads to antibody secretion.

  20. Reconstruction and expression of chimeric anti-HBx antibody in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Zhou, G; Liu, K D; Tang, Z Y; Chen, Y H; Wu, X F; Schroeder, C H

    1997-01-01

    The variable regions of murine monoclonal anti-HBx immunoglobulin and the constant region of human antibody were cloned by reverse transcript-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The heavy-chain and light-chain variable regions were connected and coexpressed with human constant region C-r3 and C-k3 in the reconstructed vector of E. coli. The products showed high specificity and binding ability with HBx. Which is closely associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. This makes it possible to humanize the mouse monoclonal antibodies and express the fusion protein in E.coli for potential radioimmunotherapy in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

  1. Production of Polyclonal Antibody against Grapevine fanleaf virus Movement Protein Expressed in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Koolivand, Davoud; Bashir, Nemat Sokhandan; Behjatnia, Seyed Aliakbar; Joozani, Raziallah Jafari

    2016-01-01

    The genomic region of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) encoding the movement protein (MP) was cloned into pET21a and transformed into Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) to express the protein. Induction was made with a wide range of isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM) each for duration of 4, 6, or 16 h. However, the highest expression level was achieved with 1 mM IPTG for 4 h. Identity of the expressed protein was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) followed by Western blotting. The expressed 41 kDa protein was purified under denaturing condition by affinity chromatography, reconfirmed by Western blotting and plate-trapped antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PTA-ELISA) before being used as a recombinant antigen to raise polyclonal antibodies in rabbits. Purified anti-GFLV MP immunoglobulines (IgGs) and conjugated IgGs detected the expressed MP and GFLV virions in infected grapevines when used in PTA-ELISA, double antibody sandwich-ELISA, and Western blotting. This is the first report on the production of anti-GFLV MP polyclonal antibodies and application for the virus detection. PMID:27721695

  2. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PEA)-15: A potential therapeutic target in multiple disease states

    PubMed Central

    Greig, Fiona H.; Nixon, Graeme F.

    2014-01-01

    Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes-15 (PEA-15) is a cytoplasmic protein that sits at an important junction in intracellular signalling and can regulate diverse cellular processes, such as proliferation and apoptosis, dependent upon stimulation. Regulation of these processes occurs by virtue of the unique interaction of PEA-15 with other signalling proteins. PEA-15 acts as a cytoplasmic tether for the mitogen-activated protein kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) preventing nuclear localisation. In order to release ERK1/2, PEA-15 requires to be phosphorylated via several potential pathways. PEA-15 (and its phosphorylation state) therefore regulates many ERK1/2-dependent processes, including proliferation, via regulating ERK1/2 nuclear translocation. In addition, PEA-15 contains a death effector domain (DED) which allows interaction with other DED-containing proteins. PEA-15 can bind the DED-containing apoptotic adaptor molecule, Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD) which is also dependent on the phosphorylation status of PEA-15. PEA-15 binding of FADD can inhibit apoptosis as bound FADD cannot participate in the assembly of apoptotic signalling complexes. Through these protein–protein interactions, PEA-15-regulated cellular effects have now been investigated in a number of disease-related studies. Changes in PEA-15 expression and regulation have been observed in diabetes mellitus, cancer, neurological disorders and the cardiovascular system. These changes have been suggested to contribute to the pathology related to each of these disease states. As such, new therapeutic targets based around PEA-15 and its associated interactions are now being uncovered and could provide novel avenues for treatment strategies in multiple diseases. PMID:24657708

  3. Conformational antibody binding to a native, cell-free expressed GPCR in block copolymer membranes.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, Hans-Peter M; Lin JieRong, Esther M; Banerjee, Sourabh; Décaillot, Fabien M; Nallani, Madhavan

    2014-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) play a key role in physiological processes and are attractive drug targets. Their biophysical characterization is, however, highly challenging because of their innate instability outside a stabilizing membrane and the difficulty of finding a suitable expression system. We here show the cell-free expression of a GPCR, CXCR4, and its direct embedding in diblock copolymer membranes. The polymer-stabilized CXCR4 is readily immobilized onto biosensor chips for label-free binding analysis. Kinetic characterization using a conformationally sensitive antibody shows the receptor to exist in the correctly folded conformation, showing binding behaviour that is commensurate with heterologously expressed CXCR4.

  4. 78 FR 63160 - United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration United States Standards for Feed Peas, Split Peas, and Lentils AGENCY: Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, USDA ACTION: Notice..., and Stockyards Administration (GIPSA) is reviewing the United States Standards for Feed Peas,...

  5. VH gene expression is restricted in anti-IgG antibodies from MRL autoimmune mice

    PubMed Central

    1986-01-01

    Antibodies directed against IgG and DNA are found in the sera of autoimmune MRL/Mp lpr/lpr mice. Little is known of the molecular mechanisms underlying expression of such autoantibodies. We have investigated the binding diversity and pattern of VH gene expression in a panel of murine anti-IgG antibodies. We constructed eight hybridoma clones secreting IgM antibodies that bound to mouse IgG by using spleen cells from MRL/Mp lpr/lpr mice varying in age from 4 to 15 wk; one clone was derived from a 32-wk-old MRL +/+ mouse. The monoclonal IgM products exhibited varying binding specificities for intact mouse IgG, fragments of mouse IgG [Fc, Fab, (Fab')2], and heterologous IgG. Two of these antibodies crossreacted with B and/or Z DNA. Probes from seven of eight identified mouse VH gene families (7183, S107, Q52, J558, J606, 36-60, and 3609) were hybridized under high-stringency conditions with cytoplasmic RNA blots from each clone. Six clones hybridized only with the probe from the five-member 36-60 family. The remaining three clones crosshybridized with the 36-60 probe and the probe from the 60 member J558 family, perhaps reflecting somatic mutation from the original germline VH gene resulting in recognition by a probe from another family, in addition to the probe from the original germline family. Our results indicate that spontaneous MRL lpr/lpr anti-IgG antibodies are encoded predominantly by the 36-60 VH gene family and imply a nonrandom selection of this VH gene family in the production of these antibodies. PMID:3093628

  6. ALK Gene Copy Number Gain and Immunohistochemical Expression Status Using Three Antibodies in Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Sewha

    2017-01-01

    Anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK) gene aberrations-such as mutations, amplifications, and copy number gains-represent a major genetic predisposition to neuroblastoma (NB). This study aimed to evaluate the correlation between ALK gene copy number status, ALK protein expression, and clinicopathological parameters. We retrospectively retrieved 30 cases of poorly differentiated NB and constructed tissue microarrays (TMAs). ALK copy number changes were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays, and ALK immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing was performed using three different antibodies (ALK1, D5F3, and 5A4 clones). ALK amplification and copy number gain were observed in 10% (3/30) and 53.3% (16/30) of the cohort, respectively. There were positive correlations between ALK copy number and IHC-positive rate in ALK1 and 5A4 antibodies ( P < 0.001 and P = 0.019, respectively). ALK1, D5F3, and 5A4 antibodies equally showed 100% sensitivity in detecting ALK amplification. However, the sensitivity for detecting copy number gain differed among the three antibodies, with 75% sensitivity in D5F3 and 0% sensitivity in ALK1. ALK-amplified NBs were correlated with synchronous MYCN amplification and chromosome 1p deletion. ALK IHC positivity was frequently observed in INSS stage IV and high-risk group patients. In conclusion, this study identified that an increase in the ALK copy number is a frequent genetic alteration in poorly differentiated NB. ALK-amplified NBs showed consistent ALK IHC positivity with all kinds of antibodies. In contrast, the detection performance of ALK copy number gain was antibody dependent, with the D5F3 antibody showing the best sensitivity.

  7. Immunotherapy for cancer: construction, expression and functional characterization of chimeric antibodies.

    PubMed

    Motmans, K; Thirion, S; Heyligen, H; Janssens, J; Raus, J; Vandevyver, C

    1996-12-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) are a potential key component for the treatment of cancer, because of their specificity and multiple effector functions. Hybridoma technology and progress in genetic engineering made it possible to customize antibody molecules, rendering them more suitable for selective application. A widely used technique is the construction of mouse-human hybrid molecules by recombinant DNA techniques. These so-called chimeric antibodies contain the murine variable (V) regions fused to the human constant (C) regions. In this report, a general approach is described for the production of chimeric antibodies. The gene segments encoding the murine variable heavy and light chain are isolated by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into expression vectors containing the human gamma 1 heavy chain gene and the human K light chain gene, respectively. Subsequently, these constructs are transfected into a non-Ig-producing murine hybridoma, eg SP2/0 cells. The in vitro study of the functional characteristics and biological properties of the thus obtained chimeric antibodies are discussed.

  8. Effect of antibodies on the expression of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein gene.

    PubMed

    Jesuíno, B S; Casimiro, C; do Rosário, V E; Silveira, H

    2006-01-01

    Antibodies are known to play an important role in the control of malaria infection. However, they can modulate parasite development enhancing infection. The effect of anti-Plasmodium antibodies on the expression of circumsporozoite protein gene (csp) was investigated. Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 in vitro cultures were submitted to: i) anti- circumsporozoite protein monoclonal antibody (anti-CSP-mAb) [1microg/ml, 0.1microg/ml, 0.01microg/ml and 0.001microg/ml] and ii) purified IgG Fab fragment from a pool of malaria patients [1mg/ml and 1microg/ml]; and compared to control cultures. After 24h the number of ring infected erythrocytes was determined in order to calculate invasion efficacy. At 48h culture supernatant was collected, and the amount of circumsporozoite protein determined by ELISA, parasitaemia was calculated and cells were processed for RNA preparation. Expression of csp gene was quantified using Real time RT-PCR. There was an increase in parasite growth when treated with lower anti-CSP-mAb concentration, which was associated with lower csp expression, while 1mug/ml anti-CSP-mAb treatment presented a growth inhibitory effect accompanied by high csp expression.

  9. Effect of antibodies on the expression of Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein gene

    PubMed Central

    Jesuíno, B S; Casimiro, C; do Rosário, V E; Silveira, H

    2006-01-01

    Antibodies are known to play an important role in the control of malaria infection. However, they can modulate parasite development enhancing infection. The effect of anti-Plasmodium antibodies on the expression of circumsporozoite protein gene (csp) was investigated. Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 in vitro cultures were submitted to: i) anti- circumsporozoite protein monoclonal antibody (anti-CSP-mAb) [1μg/ml, 0.1μg/ml, 0.01μg/ml and 0.001μg/ml] and ii) purified IgG Fab fragment from a pool of malaria patients [1mg/ml and 1μg/ml]; and compared to control cultures. After 24h the number of ring infected erythrocytes was determined in order to calculate invasion efficacy. At 48h culture supernatant was collected, and the amount of circumsporozoite protein determined by ELISA, parasitaemia was calculated and cells were processed for RNA preparation. Expression of csp gene was quantified using Real time RT-PCR. There was an increase in parasite growth when treated with lower anti-CSP-mAb concentration, which was associated with lower csp expression, while 1μg/ml anti-CSP-mAb treatment presented a growth inhibitory effect accompanied by high csp expression. PMID:16421624

  10. Plasmapheresis eliminates the negative impact of AAV antibodies on microdystrophin gene expression following vascular delivery.

    PubMed

    Chicoine, L G; Montgomery, C L; Bremer, W G; Shontz, K M; Griffin, D A; Heller, K N; Lewis, S; Malik, V; Grose, W E; Shilling, C J; Campbell, K J; Preston, T J; Coley, B D; Martin, P T; Walker, C M; Clark, K R; Sahenk, Z; Mendell, J R; Rodino-Klapac, L R

    2014-02-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a monogenic disease potentially treatable by gene replacement. Use of recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) will ultimately require a vascular approach to broadly transduce muscle cells. We tested the impact of preexisting AAV antibodies on microdystrophin expression following vascular delivery to nonhuman primates. Rhesus macaques were treated by isolated limb perfusion using a fluoroscopically guided catheter. In addition to serostatus stratification, the animals were placed into one of the three immune suppression groups: no immune suppression, prednisone, and triple immune suppression (prednisone, tacrolimus, and mycophenolate mofetil). The animals were analyzed for transgene expression at 3 or 6 months. Microdystrophin expression was visualized in AAV, rhesus serotype 74 sero-negative animals (mean: 48.0 ± 20.8%) that was attenuated in sero-positive animals (19.6 ± 18.7%). Immunosuppression did not affect transgene expression. Importantly, removal of AAV binding antibodies by plasmapheresis in AAV sero-positive animals resulted in high-level transduction (60.8 ± 18.0%), which is comparable with that of AAV sero-negative animals (53.7 ± 7.6%), whereas non-pheresed sero-positive animals demonstrated significantly lower transduction levels (10.1 ± 6.0%). These data support the hypothesis that removal of AAV binding antibodies by plasmapheresis permits successful and sustained gene transfer in the presence of preexisting immunity (natural infection) to AAV.

  11. Antibodies to probe endogenous G protein-coupled receptor heteromer expression, regulation, and function

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Ivone; Gupta, Achla; Bushlin, Ittai; Devi, Lakshmi A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade an increasing number of studies have focused on the ability of G protein-coupled receptors to form heteromers and explored how receptor heteromerization modulates the binding, signaling and trafficking properties of individual receptors. Most of these studies were carried out in heterologous cells expressing epitope tagged receptors. Very little information is available about the in vivo physiological role of G protein-coupled receptor heteromers due to a lack of tools to detect their presence in endogenous tissue. Recent advances such as the generation of mouse models expressing fluorescently labeled receptors, of TAT based peptides that can disrupt a given heteromer pair, or of heteromer-selective antibodies that recognize the heteromer in endogenous tissue have begun to elucidate the physiological and pathological roles of receptor heteromers. In this review we have focused on heteromer-selective antibodies and describe how a subtractive immunization strategy can be successfully used to generate antibodies that selectively recognize a desired heteromer pair. We also describe the uses of these antibodies to detect the presence of heteromers, to study their properties in endogenous tissues, and to monitor changes in heteromer levels under pathological conditions. Together, these findings suggest that G protein-coupled receptor heteromers represent unique targets for the development of drugs with reduced side-effects. PMID:25520661

  12. Efficient expression of full-length antibodies in the cytoplasm of engineered bacteria.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Michael-Paul; Ke, Na; Lobstein, Julie; Peterson, Cristen; Szkodny, Alana; Mansell, Thomas J; Tuckey, Corinna; Riggs, Paul D; Colussi, Paul A; Noren, Christopher J; Taron, Christopher H; DeLisa, Matthew P; Berkmen, Mehmet

    2015-08-27

    Current methods for producing immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in engineered cells often require refolding steps or secretion across one or more biological membranes. Here, we describe a robust expression platform for biosynthesis of full-length IgG antibodies in the Escherichia coli cytoplasm. Synthetic heavy and light chains, both lacking canonical export signals, are expressed in specially engineered E. coli strains that permit formation of stable disulfide bonds within the cytoplasm. IgGs with clinically relevant antigen- and effector-binding activities are readily produced in the E. coli cytoplasm by grafting antigen-specific variable heavy and light domains into a cytoplasmically stable framework and remodelling the fragment crystallizable domain with amino-acid substitutions that promote binding to Fcγ receptors. The resulting cytoplasmic IgGs—named 'cyclonals'—effectively bypass the potentially rate-limiting steps of membrane translocation and glycosylation.

  13. Epitope expression in nine commercial kits for the determination of anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies.

    PubMed

    Whitham, K; Patel, D; Ward, A M

    1999-01-01

    Anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, from patients with autoimmune disease, bind predominantly to two neighbouring, non-identical, conformational domains referred to as domains A and B. In recent years a number of ELISA assays have been developed for the detection of anti-TPO antibodies, however, considerable variation between the different commercial assay kits has been documented in inter-laboratory surveys (UK NEQAS). This investigation assessed the differences between nine commercial ELISA assays currently available in the UK. The anti-TPO kits varied in terms of their imprecision and accuracy and in the density of coated antigen. Recombinant antigen containing kits demonstrated partial destruction of the B epitope, possibly due to the close proximity of both epitope regions in the recombinant molecule. None of the kits expressed only one epitope although there were differences in the degrees of expression of each epitope. Clinicians should be aware of the variability of the numbers generated, when interpreting test results.

  14. A Bivalent, Chimeric Rabies Virus Expressing Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Envelope Induces Multifunctional Antibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    Dunkel, Amber; Shen, Shixue; LaBranche, Celia C.; Montefiori, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We previously showed that a matrix (M) gene-deleted rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccine (RABV-ΔM) is highly immunogenic and induces potent B cell responses in the context of RABV infection. We speculated that RABV-ΔM expressing HIV proteins would also induce potent B cell responses against HIV antigens. As a prerequisite to future studies in nonhuman primates, we completed immunogenicity studies in mice to confirm the ability of RABV-ΔM to induce polyfunctional B cell responses in the context of HIV. To that end, the envelope protein from the mac239 strain of SIV (SIVmac239Env) was cloned into RABV-ΔM, resulting in RABV-ΔM-Env. Infectious virus was recovered following standard methods and propagated on baby hamster kidney cells stably expressing RABV M [>107 focus forming units (ffu)/ml]. Western blot analysis of cell lysates or of purified virions confirmed Env expression on the surface of infected cells and within virus particles, respectively. Positive neutralization activity against a neutralization-sensitive SIV strain and to a lesser extent against a neutralization-resistant SIV strain was detected in mice after a single intramuscular inoculation with RABV-ΔM-Env. The quality, but not quantity, of the antibody response was enhanced via boosting with recombinant gp130 or RABV-ΔM-Env as measured by an increase in antibody avidity and a skewing toward a Th1-type antibody response. We also show that an intradermal inoculation induces higher antibodies than an intramuscular or intranasal inoculation. An intradermal inoculation of RABV-ΔM-Env followed by a boost inoculation with recombinant gp130 produced anti-SIV antibodies with neutralizing and nonneutralizing antibody (nNAb) effector functions. Together, RABV-ΔM-Env induces B cells to secrete antibodies against SIV with the potential to clear both “free” and cell-associated virus. Strategies capable of eliciting both NAbs as well as nNAbs might help to improve the efficacy of HIV-1 vaccines

  15. Pea Xyloglucan and Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takahisa; Marsden, Margery P. F.; Delmer, Deborah P.

    1987-01-01

    Since xyloglucan is believed to bind to cellulose microfibrils in the primary cell walls of higher plants and, when isolated from the walls, can also bind to cellulose in vitro, the binding mechanism of xyloglucan to cellulose was further investigated using radioiodinated pea xyloglucan. A time course for the binding showed that the radioiodinated xyloglucan continued to be bound for at least 4 hours at 40°C. Binding was inhibited above pH 6. Binding capacity was shown to vary for celluloses of different origin and was directly related to the relative surface area of the microfibrils. The binding of xyloglucan to cellulose was very specific and was not affected by the presence of a 10-fold excess of (1→2)-β-glucan, (1→3)-β-glucan, (1→6)-β-glucan, (1→3, 1→4)-β-glucan, arabinogalactan, or pectin. When xyloglucan (0.1%) was added to a cellulose-forming culture of Acetobacter xylinum, cellulose ribbon structure was partially disrupted indicating an association of xyloglucan with cellulose at the time of synthesis. Such a result suggests that the small size of primary wall microfibrils in higher plants may well be due to the binding of xyloglucan to cellulose during synthesis which prevents fasciation of small fibrils into larger bundles. Fluorescent xyloglucan was used to stain pea cell wall ghosts prepared to contain only the native xyloglucan:cellulose network or only cellulose. Ghosts containing only cellulose showed strong fluorescence when prepared before or after elongation; as predicted, the presence of native xyloglucan in the ghosts repressed binding of added fluorescent xyloglucan. Such ghosts, prepared after elongation when the ratio of native xyloglucan:cellulose is substantially reduced, still showed only faint fluorescence, indicating that microfibrils continue to be coated with xyloglucan throughout the growth period. Images Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665254

  16. PeaT1-induced systemic acquired resistance in tobacco follows salicylic acid-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yang, Xiufen; Qiu, Dewen; Guo, Lihua; Zeng, Hongmei; Mao, Jianjun; Gao, Qiufeng

    2011-04-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible defense mechanism which plays a central role in protecting plants from pathogen attack. A new elicitor, PeaT1 from Alternaria tenuissima, was expressed in Escherichia coil and characterized with systemic acquired resistance to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). PeaT1-treated plants exhibited enhanced systemic resistance with a significant reduction in number and size of TMV lesions on wild tobacco leaves as compared with control. The quantitative analysis of TMV CP gene expression with real-time quantitative PCR showed there was reduction in TMV virus concentration after PeaT1 treatment. Similarly, peroxidase (POD) activity and lignin increased significantly after PeaT1 treatment. The real-time quantitative PCR revealed that PeaT1 also induced the systemic accumulation of pathogenesis-related gene, PR-1a and PR-1b which are the markers of systemic acquired resistance (SAR), NPR1 gene for salicylic acid (SA) signal transduction pathway and PAL gene for SA synthesis. The accumulation of SA and the failure in development of similar level of resistance as in wild type tobacco plants in PeaT1 treated nahG transgenic tobacco plants indicated that PeaT1-induced resistance depended on SA accumulation. The present work suggested that the molecular mechanism of PeaT1 inducing disease resistance in tobacco was likely through the systemic acquired resistance pathway mediated by salicylic acid and the NPR1 gene.

  17. Construction and expression of single-chain Fv antibody against human bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Yu, L Z; Xiao, S; Huang, H L; Gu, Z; Gu, F L; Guo, Y L

    1996-01-01

    We designed two sets of oligonucleotide primers to amplify the immunoglobulin heavy- and light-chain variable-region genes from genomic DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The genomic DNA was extracted from hybridoma BDI-1 cells, which secreted a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against human bladder carcinoma. The primers contained special restriction sites that allowed the variable-region genes to be easily cloned for sequencing and expression. The recombinants were sequenced by Sanger's method. It was proved that the full lengths of the VH and VK genes were 366 and 324 bp, respectively. Compared with other published sequences, the VH gene was a member of mouse heavy-chain VH subgroup II and originated from the rearrangement of VH, Dsp2.2 and JH4. The VK gene was VK subgroup IV and from VK and JK4. The VH and VK genes was inserted expression vector pWAI80. By inducement, the ScFv antibodies were expressed and secreted from Escherichia coli. Binding activities against the bladder carcinoma cells were detected. We suggest that ScFv antibody recognized the antigen specifically.

  18. A humanized antibody for imaging immune checkpoint ligand PD-L1 expression in tumors.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Samit; Lesniak, Wojciech G; Gabrielson, Matthew; Lisok, Ala; Wharram, Bryan; Sysa-Shah, Polina; Azad, Babak Behnam; Pomper, Martin G; Nimmagadda, Sridhar

    2016-03-01

    Antibodies targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint lead to tumor regression and improved survival in several cancers. PD-L1 expression in tumors may be predictive of response to checkpoint blockade therapy. Because tissue samples might not always be available to guide therapy, we developed and evaluated a humanized antibody for non-invasive imaging of PD-L1 expression in tumors. Radiolabeled [111In]PD-L1-mAb and near-infrared dye conjugated NIR-PD-L1-mAb imaging agents were developed using the mouse and human cross-reactive PD-L1 antibody MPDL3280A. We tested specificity of [111In]PD-L1-mAb and NIR-PD-L1-mAb in cell lines and in tumors with varying levels of PD-L1 expression. We performed SPECT/CT imaging, biodistribution and blocking studies in NSG mice bearing tumors with constitutive PD-L1 expression (CHO-PDL1) and in controls (CHO). Results were confirmed in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) (MDAMB231 and SUM149) and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) (H2444 and H1155) xenografts with varying levels of PD-L1 expression. There was specific binding of [111In]PD-L1-mAb and NIR-PD-L1-mAb to tumor cells in vitro, correlating with PD-L1 expression levels. In mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic tumors, there was specific and persistent high accumulation of signal intensity in PD-L1 positive tumors (CHO-PDL1, MDAMB231, H2444) but not in controls. These results demonstrate that [111In]PD-L1-mAb and NIR-PD-L1-mAb can detect graded levels of PD-L1 expression in human tumor xenografts in vivo. As a humanized antibody, these findings suggest clinical translation of radiolabeled versions of MPDL3280A for imaging. Specificity of NIR-PD-L1-mAb indicates the potential for optical imaging of PD-L1 expression in tumors in relevant pre-clinical as well as clinical settings.

  19. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. II. A hybridoma secreting antibody against an antigen expressed by human B and null lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Thomas, M E; Zola, H

    1980-06-01

    A hybridoma (FMC4) has been derived which secretes antibody showing selective reaction with human B lymphocytes, monocytes and some null lymphocytes. Few, if any, T lymphocytes in normal blood are stained, although stimulation of lymphocytes with PHA leads to an increase in the proportion of cells reacting with the hybridoma antibody. The antibody reacts with B and null lymphoblastoid cell lines but not with T cell lines. B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells but not T-CLLs are stained and null-type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells but not T-type ALL also react. Normal blood myeloid cells do not react with FMC4 supernatant whilst some myeloid leukaemias do. The expression of the antigen reacting with FMC4 supernatant suggests that FMC4 may secrete an antibody against the human equivalent of the Ia antigen.

  20. Human lymphocyte markers defined by antibodies derived from somatic cell hybrids. II. A hybridoma secreting antibody against an antigen expressed by human B and null lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Beckman, I G; Bradley, J; Brooks, D A; Kupa, A; McNamara, P J; Thomas, M E; Zola, H

    1980-01-01

    A hybridoma (FMC4) has been derived which secretes antibody showing selective reaction with human B lymphocytes, monocytes and some null lymphocytes. Few, if any, T lymphocytes in normal blood are stained, although stimulation of lymphocytes with PHA leads to an increase in the proportion of cells reacting with the hybridoma antibody. The antibody reacts with B and null lymphoblastoid cell lines but not with T cell lines. B chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells but not T-CLLs are stained and null-type acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells but not T-type ALL also react. Normal blood myeloid cells do not react with FMC4 supernatant whilst some myeloid leukaemias do. The expression of the antigen reacting with FMC4 supernatant suggests that FMC4 may secrete an antibody against the human equivalent of the Ia antigen. PMID:6968260

  1. Global selection of Plasmodium falciparum virulence antigen expression by host antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Abdirahman I.; Warimwe, George M.; Muthui, Michelle K.; Kivisi, Cheryl A.; Kiragu, Esther W.; Fegan, Gregory W.; Bull, Peter C.

    2016-01-01

    Parasite proteins called PfEMP1 that are inserted on the surface of infected erythrocytes, play a key role in the severe pathology associated with infection by the Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasite. These proteins mediate binding of infected cells to the endothelial lining of blood vessels as a strategy to avoid clearance by the spleen and are major targets of naturally acquired immunity. PfEMP1 is encoded by a large multi-gene family called var. Mutually-exclusive transcriptional switching between var genes allows parasites to escape host antibodies. This study examined in detail the patterns of expression of var in a well-characterized sample of parasites from Kenyan Children. Instead of observing clear inverse relationships between the expression of broad sub-classes of PfEMP1, we found that expression of different PfEMP1 groups vary relatively independently. Parasite adaptation to host antibodies also appears to involve a general reduction in detectable var gene expression. We suggest that parasites switch both between different PfEMP1 variants and between high and low expression states. Such a strategy could provide a means of avoiding immunological detection and promoting survival under high levels of host immunity. PMID:26804201

  2. EXPRESSION OF CYP4F2 IN HUMAN LIVER AND KIDNEY: ASSESSMENT USING TARGETED PEPTIDE ANTIBODIES

    PubMed Central

    Hirani, Vandana; Yarovoy, Anton; Kozeska, Anita; Magnusson, Ronald P.; Lasker, Jerome M.

    2008-01-01

    P450 enzymes comprising the human CYP4F gene subfamily are catalysts of eicosanoid (e.g., 20-HETE and leukotriene B4) formation and degradation, although the role that individual CYP4F proteins play in these metabolic processes is not well defined. Thus, we developed antibodies to assess the tissue-specific expression and function of CYP4F2, one of four CYP4F P450s found in human liver and kidney. Peptide antibodies elicited in rabbits to CYP4F2 amino acid residues 61–74 (WGHQGMVNPTEEG) and 65–77 (GMVNPTEEGMRVL) recognized on immunoblots only CYP4F2 and not CYP4F3b, CYP4F11 or CYP4F12. Immunoquantitation with anti-CYP4F2 peptide IgG showed highly-variable CYP4F2 expression in liver (16.4 ± 18.6 pmol/mg microsomal protein; n = 29) and kidney cortex (3.9 ± 3.8 pmol/mg; n = 10), with two subjects lacking the hepatic or renal enzyme entirely. CYP4F2 content in liver microsomes was significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.63; p < 0.05) with leukotriene B4 and arachidonate ω-hydroxylase activities, which are both CYP4F2-catalyzed. Our study provides the first example of a peptide antibody that recognizes a single CYP4F P450 expressed in human liver and kidney, namely CYP4F2. Immunoquantitation and correlation analyses performed with this antibody suggest that CYP4F2 functions as a predominant LTB4 and arachidonate ω-hydroxylase in human liver. PMID:18662666

  3. Site-specific proteolytic degradation of IgG monoclonal antibodies expressed in tobacco plants.

    PubMed

    Hehle, Verena K; Lombardi, Raffaele; van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Paul, Mathew J; Di Micco, Patrizio; Morea, Veronica; Benvenuto, Eugenio; Donini, Marcello; Ma, Julian K-C

    2015-02-01

    Plants are promising hosts for the production of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). However, proteolytic degradation of antibodies produced both in stable transgenic plants and using transient expression systems is still a major issue for efficient high-yield recombinant protein accumulation. In this work, we have performed a detailed study of the degradation profiles of two human IgG1 mAbs produced in plants: an anti-HIV mAb 2G12 and a tumour-targeting mAb H10. Even though they use different light chains (κ and λ, respectively), the fragmentation pattern of both antibodies was similar. The majority of Ig fragments result from proteolytic degradation, but there are only a limited number of plant proteolytic cleavage events in the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains. All of the cleavage sites identified were in the proximity of interdomain regions and occurred at each interdomain site, with the exception of the VL /CL interface in mAb H10 λ light chain. Cleavage site sequences were analysed, and residue patterns characteristic of proteolytic enzymes substrates were identified. The results of this work help to define common degradation events in plant-produced mAbs and raise the possibility of predicting antibody degradation patterns 'a priori' and designing novel stabilization strategies by site-specific mutagenesis.

  4. Non-viral adeno-associated virus-based platform for stable expression of antibody combination therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Wilmes, Gwendolyn M; Carey, Kimberly L; Hicks, Stuart W; Russell, Hugh H; Stevenson, Jesse A; Kocjan, Paulina; Lutz, Stephen R; Quesenberry, Rachel S; Shulga-Morskoy, Sergey V; Lewis, Megan E; Clark, Ethan; Medik, Violetta; Cooper, Anthony B; Reczek, Elizabeth E

    2014-01-01

    Antibody combination therapeutics (ACTs) are polyvalent biopharmaceuticals that are uniquely suited for the control of complex diseases, including antibiotic resistant infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancers. However, ACTs also represent a distinct manufacturing challenge because the independent manufacture and subsequent mixing of monoclonal antibodies quickly becomes cost prohibitive as more complex mixtures are envisioned. We have developed a virus-free recombinant protein expression platform based on adeno-associated viral (AAV) elements that is capable of rapid and consistent production of complex antibody mixtures in a single batch format. Using both multiplexed immunoassays and cation exchange (CIEX) chromatography, cell culture supernatants generated using our system were assessed for stability of expression and ratios of the component antibodies over time. Cultures expressing combinations of three to ten antibodies maintained consistent expression levels and stable ratios of component antibodies for at least 60 days. Cultures showed remarkable reproducibility following cell banking, and AAV-based cultures showed higher stability and productivity than non-AAV based cultures. Therefore, this non-viral AAV-based expression platform represents a predictable, reproducible, quick and cost effective method to manufacture or quickly produce for preclinical testing recombinant antibody combination therapies and other recombinant protein mixtures. PMID:24758837

  5. Persistent expression of biologically active anti-HER2 antibody by AAVrh.10-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, G; Qiu, J; Wang, R; Krause, A; Boyer, J L; Hackett, N R; Crystal, R G

    2010-08-01

    Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against an extracellular region of the human epidermal growth-factor receptor type 2 (HER2) protein. We hypothesized that a single adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated genetic delivery of an anti-HER2 antibody should be effective in mediating long-term production of anti-HER2 and in suppressing the growth of human tumors in a xenograft model in nude mice. The adeno-associated virus gene transfer vector AAVrh.10alphaHER2 was constructed based on a non-human primate AAV serotype rh.10 to express the complementary DNAs for the heavy and light chains of mAb 4D5, the murine precursor to trastuzumab. The data show that genetically transferred anti-HER2 selectively bound human HER2 protein and suppressed the proliferation of HER2(+) tumor cell lines. A single administration of AAVrh.10alphaHER2 provided long-term therapeutic levels of anti-HER2 antibody expression without inducing an anti-idiotype response, suppressed the growth of HER2(+) tumors and increased the survival of tumor bearing mice. In the context that trastuzumab therapy requires frequent and repeated administration, this strategy might be developed as an alternate platform for delivery of anti-HER2 therapy.

  6. Production of cocktail of polyclonal antibodies using bacterial expressed recombinant protein for multiple virus detection.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Reetika; Mandal, Bikash; Paul, Prabir Kumar; Chigurupati, Phaneendra; Jain, Rakesh Kumar

    2014-02-01

    Cocktail of polyclonal antibodies (PAb) were produced that will help in multiple virus detection and overcome the limitation of individual virus purification, protein expression and purification as well as immunization in multiple rabbits. A dual fusion construct was developed using conserved coat protein (CP) sequences of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) and Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) in an expression vector, pET-28a(+). The fusion protein (∼40kDa) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Likewise, a triple fusion construct was developed by fusing conserved CP sequences of CMV and PRSV with conserved nucleocapsid protein (N) sequence of Groundnut bud necrosis virus (GBNV) and expressed as a fusion protein (∼50kDa) in pET-28a(+). PAb made separately to each of these three viruses recognized the double and triple fusion proteins in Western blot indicating retention of desired epitopes for binding with target antibodies. The fusion proteins (∼40kDa and ∼50kDa) were used to produce cocktail of PAb by immunizing rabbits, which simultaneously detected natural infection of CMV and PRSV or CMV, PRSV and GBNV in Cucurbitaceous, Solanaceous and other hosts in DAC-ELISA. This is the first report on production of a cocktail of PAb to recombinant fusion protein of two or three distinct viruses.

  7. Molecular characterization of antibodies bearing Id-460. II. Molecular basis for Id-460 expression

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    Id-460+ immunoglobulins can be induced in vivo by immunization with dinitrophenyl (DNP) or P. pneumotropica and form two nonoverlapping groups of antibodies with respect to antigen binding specificity. In this study, using Id-460+ antibodies of differing antigen binding specificities, we compared on the molecular genetic level the five gene segment combinations (VH, DH, JH, VL, and JL) that encode the variable regions of these idiotype-positive immunoglobulins. The Id-460 determinant appears to be a conformational or combinatorial determinant encoded by VH460 and VK1 crosshybridizing genes. DH, JH, and JK gene segments appear to have no measurable effect upon expression of Id-460. Finally, antigen binding specificity does not appear to simply localize to any particular gene segment but may in part be the result of somatic mutation and/or VDJH junctional sequences, whose length correlates roughly with antigen binding specificity. PMID:3932578

  8. Expression, purification of IL-38 in Escherichia coli and production of polyclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhonglan; Chen, Zhenyu; Huang, Nongyu; Teng, Xiu; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Zhen; Wei, Xiaoqiong; Qin, Ke; Liu, Xiao; Wu, Xueping; Tang, Huan; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Cui, Kaijun; Li, Jiong

    2015-03-01

    Members of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family play important roles in inflammation and host defense against pathogens. Here, we describe a novel member of the IL-1 family, interleukin-38 (IL-38, IL-1F10, or IL-1HY2), which was discovered in 2001. Although the functional role of IL-38 remains unclear, recent reports show that IL-38 binds to the IL-36 receptor (IL-36R) which is also targeted by the IL-36 receptor antagonist (IL-36Ra). Consequently, these two molecules have similar effects on immune cells. Here, we describe the expression of soluble and active recombinant IL-38 in Escherichia coli (E. coli). The IL-38 gene sequence was optimized for expression in E. coli and then cloned into a pEHISTEV expression vector, which has an N-terminal 6-His affinity tag under control of the T7 lac strong promoter. Optimization of culture conditions allowed induction of the recombinant fusion protein with 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thio galactoside (IPTG) at 37°C for 4h. The recombinant fusion protein was purified using an Ni affinity column and was further digested with TEV protease; the cleaved protein was purified by molecular-exclusion chromatography. Next, we measured IL-38 binding ability using functional ELISA. The purified proteins were used to immunize a New Zealand white rabbit four times to enable the production of polyclonal antibodies. The specificity of the prepared polyclonal antibodies was determined using Western blot, and the results showed they have high specificity against IL-38. Here, we describe the development of an effective and reliable method to express and purify IL-38 and anti-IL-38 antibodies. This will enable the function and structure of IL-38 to be determined.

  9. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned peas. 155.170 Section 155.170 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.170 Canned peas. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds...

  10. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen peas. 158.170 Section 158.170 Food and... CONSUMPTION FROZEN VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Frozen Vegetables § 158.170 Frozen peas. (a) Identity—(1) Product definition. Frozen peas is the food in “package” form as that term...

  11. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned peas. 155.170 Section 155.170 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.170 Canned peas. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds...

  12. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned peas. 155.170 Section 155.170 Food and... CONSUMPTION CANNED VEGETABLES Requirements for Specific Standardized Canned Vegetables § 155.170 Canned peas. (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds...

  13. Intracellular Reprogramming of Expression, Glycosylation, and Function of a Plant-Derived Antiviral Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jin; Kim, Young-Kwan; So, Yang-Kang; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Oh, Seung-Han; Han, Yeon-Soo; Ko, Kinarm; Choo, Young-Kug; Park, Sung-Joo; Brodzik, Robert; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Hwang, Kyung-A; Koprowski, Hilary; Lee, Yong Seong; Ko, Kisung

    2013-01-01

    Plant genetic engineering, which has led to the production of plant-derived monoclonal antibodies (mAbPs), provides a safe and economically effective alternative to conventional antibody expression methods. In this study, the expression levels and biological properties of the anti-rabies virus mAbP SO57 with or without an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-retention peptide signal (Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu; KDEL) in transgenic tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum) were analyzed. The expression levels of mAbP SO57 with KDEL (mAbPK) were significantly higher than those of mAbP SO57 without KDEL (mAbP) regardless of the transcription level. The Fc domains of both purified mAbP and mAbPK and hybridoma-derived mAb (mAbH) had similar levels of binding activity to the FcγRI receptor (CD64). The mAbPK had glycan profiles of both oligomannose (OM) type (91.7%) and Golgi type (8.3%), whereas the mAbP had mainly Golgi type glycans (96.8%) similar to those seen with mAbH. Confocal analysis showed that the mAbPK was co-localized to ER-tracker signal and cellular areas surrounding the nucleus indicating accumulation of the mAbP with KDEL in the ER. Both mAbP and mAbPK disappeared with similar trends to mAbH in BALB/c mice. In addition, mAbPK was as effective as mAbH at neutralizing the activity of the rabies virus CVS-11. These results suggest that the ER localization of the recombinant mAbP by KDEL reprograms OM glycosylation and enhances the production of the functional antivirus therapeutic antibody in the plant. PMID:23967055

  14. A Comparative Antibody Analysis of Pannexin1 Expression in Four Rat Brain Regions Reveals Varying Subcellular Localizations

    PubMed Central

    Cone, Angela C.; Ambrosi, Cinzia; Scemes, Eliana; Martone, Maryann E.; Sosinsky, Gina E.

    2012-01-01

    Pannexin1 (Panx1) channels release cytosolic ATP in response to signaling pathways. Panx1 is highly expressed in the central nervous system. We used four antibodies with different Panx1 anti-peptide epitopes to analyze four regions of rat brain. These antibodies labeled the same bands in Western blots and had highly similar patterns of immunofluorescence in tissue culture cells expressing Panx1, but Western blots of brain lysates from Panx1 knockout and control mice showed different banding patterns. Localizations of Panx1 in brain slices were generated using automated wide field mosaic confocal microscopy for imaging large regions of interest while retaining maximum resolution for examining cell populations and compartments. We compared Panx1 expression over the cerebellum, hippocampus with adjacent cortex, thalamus, and olfactory bulb. While Panx1 localizes to the same neuronal cell types, subcellular localizations differ. Two antibodies with epitopes against the intracellular loop and one against the carboxy terminus preferentially labeled cell bodies, while an antibody raised against an N-terminal peptide highlighted neuronal processes more than cell bodies. These labeling patterns may be a reflection of different cellular and subcellular localizations of full-length and/or modified Panx1 channels where each antibody is highlighting unique or differentially accessible Panx1 populations. However, we cannot rule out that one or more of these antibodies have specificity issues. All data associated with experiments from these four antibodies are presented in a manner that allows them to be compared and our claims thoroughly evaluated, rather than eliminating results that were questionable. Each antibody is given a unique identifier through the NIF Antibody Registry that can be used to track usage of individual antibodies across papers and all image and metadata are made available in the public repository, the Cell Centered Database, for on-line viewing, and

  15. Immune deficiency enhances expression of recombinant human antibody in mice after nonviral in vivo gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Kitaguchi, Kohji; Toda, Mikako; Takekoshi, Masataka; Maeda, Fumiko; Muramatsu, Tatsuo; Murai, Atsushi

    2005-10-01

    A cDNA encoding human antibody against hepatitis B virus was expressed in normal and severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mice to clarify whether or not host immune status affects circulating levels of the recombinant human antibody (RhAb) after nonviral in vivo gene transfer. For transferring genes, either electroporation (EP) or hydrodynamics-based transfection (HD) was employed. The former was applied to the leg muscle to express the gene, while the latter primarily targeted foreign gene expression in the liver. The expressed RhAb was secreted into the blood circulation, and its existence was assayed by ELISA. Prior to the investigation of host immune status, suitable forms of plasmid expression vectors and types of electrodes were determined in normal mice. Results showed that the vector encoding both the light and heavy chains driven by the CMV promoter had the highest plasma RhAb concentrations, and a pair of pincette-type electrodes conferred the best performance. In both EP and HD, the SCID state showed an increased and prolonged RhAb production in the blood circulation due probably to suppressed recognition of RhAb as a foreign protein to the host animal. The difference in gene transfer methods demonstrated a characteristic pattern: an early and sharp rise followed by a relatively rapid decrease in HD, in contrast to a gradual rise followed by a plateau level maintained in EP. As a result, with the same amount of gene transferred, the plasma RhAb concentrations for the first 7 or 8 weeks were higher in HD than EP, while the reverse was true for the latter period. Multiple gene transfer contributed to maintaining and prolonging high RhAb concentrations in plasma by both methods with similar characteristic patterns accompanying the respective gene transfer method. These results suggest the importance of host immunological potency for maintaining plasma RhAb concentrations if these gene transfer technologies are used for clinical and therapeutic purposes.

  16. A single-domain antibody-linked Fab bispecific antibody Her2-S-Fab has potent cytotoxicity against Her2-expressing tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Aifen; Xing, Jieyu; Li, Li; Zhou, Changhua; Dong, Bin; He, Ping; Li, Qing; Wang, Zhong

    2016-12-01

    Her2, which is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer, is one of the most studied tumor-associated antigens for cancer therapy. Anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, trastuzumab, has achieved significant clinical benefits in metastatic breast cancer. In this study, we describe a novel bispecific antibody Her2-S-Fab targeting Her2 by linking a single domain anti-CD16 VHH to the trastuzumab Fab. The Her2-S-Fab antibody can be efficiently expressed and purified from Escherichia coli, and drive potent cancer cell killing in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. In xenograft model, the Her2-S-Fab suppresses tumor growth in the presence of human immune cells. Our results suggest that the bispecific Her2-S-Fab may provide a valid alternative to Her2 positive cancer therapy.

  17. Obtaining anti-type 1 melatonin receptor antibodies by immunization with melatonin receptor-expressing cells.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Nelia; Wijkhuisen, Anne; Savatier, Alexandra; Moulharat, Natacha; Ferry, Gilles; Léonetti, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Antibodies (Abs) specific to cell-surface receptors are attractive tools for studying the physiological role of such receptors or for controlling their activity. We sought to obtain such antibodies against the type 1 receptor for melatonin (MT1). For this, we injected mice with CHO cells transfected with a plasmid encoding human MT1 (CHO-MT1-h), in the presence or absence of an adjuvant mixture containing Alum and CpG1018. As we previously observed that the immune response to a protein antigen is increased when it is coupled to a fusion protein, called ZZTat101, we also investigated if the association of ZZTat101 with CHO-MT1-h cells provides an immunogenic advantage. We measured similar levels of anti-CHO and anti-MT1-h Ab responses in animals injected with either CHO-MT1-h cells or ZZTat101/CHO-MT1-h cells, with or without adjuvant, indicating that neither the adjuvant mixture nor ZZTat101 increased the anti-cell immune response. Then, we investigated whether the antisera also recognized murine MT1 (MT1-m). Using cloned CHO cells transfected with a plasmid encoding MT1-m, we found that antisera raised against CHO-MT1-h cells also bound the mouse receptor. Altogether our studies indicate that immunizing approaches based on MT1-h-expressing CHO cells allow the production of polyclonal antibodies against MT1 receptors of different origins. This paves the way to preparation of MT1-specific monoclonal antibodies.

  18. Structure of idiotopes associated with antiphenylarsonate antibodies expressing an intrastrain crossreactive idiotype

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We have explored the structural basis of idiotopes associated with the major idiotype (CRIA) of A/J anti-p-azobenzenearsonate antibodies, with emphasis on the regions of contact with anti-idiotypic antibody. The analysis was facilitated by a recent description of the three- demensional structure of the Fab portion of a CRIA-related antibody molecule. Direct binding measurements failed to reveal idiotopes associated exclusively with the L chain. However, the L chain participated in the formation of approximately 80% of the idiotopes recognized by polyclonal anti-Id. This indicates that multiple complementarity-determining regions (CDRs) participate in the formation of idiotopes. The affinity of anti-Id for CDRs on L chains must be appreciable but insufficient to permit direct binding (i.e., less than approximately 10(4) M-1). Approximately 20-35% of polyclonal anti-Id reacted with high affinity with H chains recombined with non-CRIA- related L chains. This interaction was found to involve the D region as well as one or both CDRs in the VH segment, again indicating the contribution of multiple CDRs. It is suggested that a typical idiotope may be similar in size to that of protein epitopes whose three- dimensional structures are known; such epitopes comprise a substantial fraction of the surface area occupied by the CDRs of an antibody. The expression of an idiotope recognized by the mAb AD8, which interacts with the VH segment, was found to be unaffected by major changes in the neighboring D and VL regions. This observation is relevant to efforts to predict three-dimensional structure from the amino acid sequence of CRIA+ molecules. PMID:2507724

  19. Analysis of HPV-1 E4 gene expression using epitope-defined antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Doorbar, J; Evans, H S; Coneron, I; Crawford, L V; Gallimore, P H

    1988-01-01

    Six monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been raised against the E4 proteins of HPV-1. Five of these were found to recognize denaturation-resistant epitopes as determined by Western blotting--and their binding sites were identified by determining their reactivity against a panel of bacterial E4--beta-galactosidase fusion proteins which contained progressive deletions at the C-terminal end of the E4 region. The five mAbs were found to bind to four distinct sites. By using these epitope-defined mAbs, along with anti-peptide antibodies raised against putative N- and C-terminal E4 sequences, we have determined the relationships between the eight distinct polypeptides (mol. wt 10/11 kd, 16/17 kd, 21/23 kd and 32/34 kd) previously shown to be expressed from the E4 gene of HPV-1 in productively infected papillomas. The 17 kd E4 polypeptide appears to be the product of a spliced mRNA encoding five amino acids from open reading frame (ORF) E1 joined onto 120 from the E4 ORF. The 16 kd and 10/11 kd proteins, which may be derived from this, lack sequences (approximately 15 and 70 amino acids respectively) encoded by the 5' end of the E4 gene. The 32/34 kd proteins were detected by all antibodies which reacted with the 16/17 kd polypeptides, suggesting that they represent dimers of the latter species. The 21/23 kd polypeptides, however, do not appear to be simple dimers of the 10/11 kd protein as previously predicted, and reacted with antibodies whose epitopes mapped in the N-terminal half of the E4 protein.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:2456213

  20. Identification of a new pea gene, PsNlec1, encoding a lectin-like glycoprotein isolated from the symbiosomes of root nodules.

    PubMed Central

    Kardailsky, I V; Sherrier, D J; Brewin, N J

    1996-01-01

    A 27-kD glycoprotein antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody MAC266 was purified from isolated symbiosomes derived from pea (Pisum sativum) root nodules containing Rhizobium. The N-terminal amino acid sequence was obtained, and the corresponding cDNA clone was isolated by a polymerase chain reaction-based strategy. The clone contained a single open reading frame, and the gene was termed PsNlec1. Phylogenetic analysis of 31 legume sequences showed that the PsNlec1 protein is related to the legume lectin family but belongs to a subgroup that is very different from pea seed lectin. Expression of the PsNlec1 transcript was much stronger in nodules than in other parts of the plant. It was found in both infected and uninfected cells in the central tissue of the nodule and in the stele of the root near the attachment point of the nodule. When uninfected pea seedlings were grown on medium containing nitrate, weak transcription of PsNlec1 was observed in the root system. The identification of PsNlec1 inside the symbiosome is consistent with the observation that legume lectins are generally vacuolar proteins that may serve as transient storage components. PMID:8685275

  1. Expression of POTE protein in human testis detected by novel monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Ise, Tomoko; Das, Sudipto; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Lee, Yoomi; Onda, Masanori; Anver, Miriam R; Bera, Tapan K; Pastan, Ira

    2008-01-25

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 highly homologous paralogs preferentially expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta. We produced 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three representative POTE paralogs: POTE-21, POTE-2gammaC, and POTE-22. One reacted with all three paralogs, six MAbs reacted with POTE-2gammaC and POTE-22, and three MAbs were specific to POTE-21. Epitopes of all 10 MAbs were located in the cysteine-rich repeats (CRRs) motifs located at the N-terminus of each POTE paralog. Testing the reactivity of each MAb with 12 different CRRs revealed slight differences among the antigenic determinants, which accounts for differences in cross-reactivity. Using MAbs HP8 and PG5 we were able to detect a POTE-actin fusion protein in human testis by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the POTE protein is expressed in primary spermatocytes, implying a role in spermatogenesis.

  2. Expression of POTE protein in human testis detected by novel monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Ise, Tomoko; Das, Sudipto; Nagata, Satoshi; Maeda, Hiroshi; Lee, Yoomi; Onda, Masanori; Anver, Miriam R.; Pastan, Ira

    2008-01-25

    The POTE gene family is composed of 13 highly homologous paralogs preferentially expressed in prostate, ovary, testis, and placenta. We produced 10 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against three representative POTE paralogs: POTE-21, POTE-2{gamma}C, and POTE-22. One reacted with all three paralogs, six MAbs reacted with POTE-2{gamma}C and POTE-22, and three MAbs were specific to POTE-21. Epitopes of all 10 MAbs were located in the cysteine-rich repeats (CRRs) motifs located at the N-terminus of each POTE paralog. Testing the reactivity of each MAb with 12 different CRRs revealed slight differences among the antigenic determinants, which accounts for differences in cross-reactivity. Using MAbs HP8 and PG5 we were able to detect a POTE-actin fusion protein in human testis by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting. By immunohistochemistry we demonstrated that the POTE protein is expressed in primary spermatocytes, implying a role in spermatogenesis.

  3. PVY-resistant transgenic potato plants expressing an anti-NIa protein scFv antibody.

    PubMed

    Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia; Jaoua, Leïla; Rouis, Souad; Saïdi, Mohamed Najib; Bouaziz, Donia; Ellouz, Radhouane

    2006-06-01

    A synthetic gene encoding a single chain Fv fragment of an antibody directed against the nuclear inclusion a (NIa) protein of potato virus Y (PVY) was used to transform two commercial potato cultivars (Claustar and BF15). The NIa protease forms the nuclear inclusion body A and acts as the major protease in the cleavage of the viral polyprotein into functional proteins. Immunoblot analysis showed that most of the resulting transgenic plants accumulate high levels of the transgenic protein. Furthermore, a majority of the selected transgenic lines showed an efficient and complete protection against the challenge virus after mechanical inoculation with PVYO strain. Two transgenic lines showed an incomplete resistance with delayed appearance of symptoms accompanied by low virus titers, whereas one line developed symptoms during the first days after inoculation but recovered rapidly, leading to a low virus accumulation rate. These results confirm that expression of scFv antibody is able to inhibit a crucial step in the virus multiplication, such as polyprotein cleavage is a powerful strategy for engineered virus resistance. It can lead to a complete resistance that was not obtained previously by expression of scFv directed against the viral coat protein.

  4. Pediatric measles vaccine expressing a dengue tetravalent antigen elicits neutralizing antibodies against all four dengue viruses.

    PubMed

    Brandler, Samantha; Ruffie, Claude; Najburg, Valérie; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Bedouelle, Hughes; Desprès, Philippe; Tangy, Frédéric

    2010-09-24

    Dengue disease is an increasing global health problem that threatens one-third of the world's population. To control this emerging arbovirus, an efficient preventive vaccine is still needed. Because four serotypes of dengue virus (DV) coexist and antibody-dependent enhanced infection may occur, most strategies developed so far rely on the administration of tetravalent formulations of four live attenuated or chimeric viruses. Here, we evaluated a new strategy based on the expression of a single minimal tetravalent DV antigen by a single replicating viral vector derived from pediatric live-attenuated measles vaccine (MV). We generated a recombinant MV vector expressing a DV construct composed of the four envelope domain III (EDIII) from the four DV serotypes fused with the ectodomain of the membrane protein (ectoM). After two injections in mice susceptible to MV infection, the recombinant vector induced neutralizing antibodies against the four serotypes of dengue virus. When immunized mice were further inoculated with live DV from each serotype, a strong memory neutralizing response was raised against all four serotypes. A combined measles-dengue vaccine might be attractive to immunize infants against both diseases where they co-exist.

  5. Modular protein expression by RNA trans-splicing enables flexible expression of antibody formats in mammalian cells from a dual-host phage display vector.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yonglei; Tesar, Devin; Hötzel, Isidro

    2015-10-01

    A recently described dual-host phage display vector that allows expression of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in mammalian cells bypasses the need for subcloning of phage display clone inserts to mammalian vectors for IgG expression in large antibody discovery and optimization campaigns. However, antibody discovery and optimization campaigns usually need different antibody formats for screening, requiring reformatting of the clones in the dual-host phage display vector to an alternative vector. We developed a modular protein expression system mediated by RNA trans-splicing to enable the expression of different antibody formats from the same phage display vector. The heavy-chain region encoded by the phage display vector is directly and precisely fused to different downstream heavy-chain sequences encoded by complementing plasmids simply by joining exons in different pre-mRNAs by trans-splicing. The modular expression system can be used to efficiently express structurally correct IgG and Fab fragments or other antibody formats from the same phage display clone in mammalian cells without clone reformatting.

  6. Monoclonal antibodies to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 reveal differential expression patterns in cancer and low antigen expression in normal tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Bujak, Emil; Pretto, Francesca; Ritz, Danilo; Gualandi, Laura; Wulhfard, Sarah; Neri, Dario

    2014-09-10

    There is a considerable interest for the discovery and characterization of tumor-associated antigens, which may facilitate antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies. Thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2 are homologous secreted proteins, which have previously been reported to be overexpressed during remodeling typical for wound healing and tumor progression and to possibly play a functional role in cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. To our knowledge, a complete immunohistochemical characterization of thrombospondins levels in normal rodent tissues has not been reported so far. Using antibody phage technology, we have generated and characterized monoclonal antibodies specific to murine thrombospondin-1 and thrombospondin-2, two antigens which share 62% aminoacid identity. An immunofluorescence analysis revealed that both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues, except for a weak staining of heart tissue by antibodies specific to thrombospondin-1. The analysis also showed that thrombospondin-1 was strongly expressed in 5/7 human tumors xenografted in nude mice, while it was only barely detectable in 3/8 murine tumors grafted in immunocompetent mice. By contrast, a high-affinity antibody to thrombospondin-2 revealed a much lower level of expression of this antigen in cancer specimens. Our analysis resolves ambiguities related to conflicting reports on thrombosponding expression in health and disease. Based on our findings, thrombospondin-1 (and not thrombospondin-2) may be considered as a target for antibody-based pharmacodelivery strategies, in consideration of its low expression in normal tissues and its upregulation in cancer. - Highlights: • High affinity monoclonal antibodies to murine and human TSP1 and 2 were raised. • Both antigens are virtually undetectable in normal mouse tissues. • Strong positivity of human tumor xenografts for TSP1 was detected. • Study revealed much lower level of TSP2 expression in cancer specimens

  7. Enhanced expression and purification of camelid single domain VHH antibodies from classical inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Maristella; Scotti, Claudia

    2017-02-15

    Single domain antibodies (sdAbs) are small antigen-binding domains derived from naturally occurring, heavy chain-only immunoglobulins isolated from camelid and sharks. They maintain the same binding capability of full-length IgGs but with improved thermal stability and permeability, which justifies their scientific, medical and industrial interest. Several described recombinant forms of sdAbs have been produced in different hosts and with different strategies. Here we present an optimized method for a time-saving, high yield production and extraction of a poly-histidine-tagged sdAb from Escherichia coli classical inclusion bodies. Protein expression and extraction were attempted using 4 different methods (e.g. autoinducing or IPTG-induced soluble expression, non-classical and classical inclusion bodies). The best method resulted to be expression in classical inclusion bodies and urea-mediated protein extraction which yielded 60-70 mg/l bacterial culture. The method we here describe can be of general interest for an enhanced and efficient heterologous expression of sdAbs for research and industrial purposes.

  8. Genetically modified α-amylase inhibitor peas are not specifically allergenic in mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rui-Yun; Reiner, Daniela; Dekan, Gerhard; Moore, Andrew E; Higgins, T J V; Epstein, Michelle M

    2013-01-01

    Weevils can devastate food legumes in developing countries, but genetically modified peas (Pisum sativum), chickpeas and cowpeas expressing the gene for alpha-amylase inhibitor-1 (αAI) from the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) are completely protected from weevil destruction. αAI is seed-specific, accumulated at high levels and undergoes post-translational modification as it traverses the seed endomembrane system. This modification was thought to be responsible for the reported allergenicity in mice of the transgenic pea but not the bean. Here, we observed that transgenic αAI peas, chickpeas and cowpeas as well as non-transgenic beans were all allergenic in BALB/c mice. Even consuming non-transgenic peas lacking αAI led to an anti-αAI response due to a cross-reactive response to pea lectin. Our data demonstrate that αAI transgenic peas are not more allergenic than beans or non-transgenic peas in mice. This study illustrates the importance of repeat experiments in independent laboratories and the potential for unexpected cross-reactive allergic responses upon consumption of plant products in mice.

  9. Antithyroglobulin antibody

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Hypothyroidism - thyroglobulin antibody; Thyroiditis - thyroglobulin antibody; Graves disease - thyroglobulin antibody; Underactive thyroid - thyroglobulin antibody

  10. FX knockout CHO hosts can express desired ratios of fucosylated or afucosylated antibodies with high titers and comparable product quality.

    PubMed

    Louie, Salina; Haley, Benjamin; Marshall, Brett; Heidersbach, Amy; Yim, Mandy; Brozynski, Martina; Tang, Danming; Lam, Cynthia; Petryniak, Bronislawa; Shaw, David; Shim, Jeongsup; Miller, Aaron; Lowe, John B; Snedecor, Brad; Misaghi, Shahram

    2017-03-01

    During antibody dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) the target cells are killed by monocytes and natural killer cells. ADCC is enhanced when the antibody heavy chain's core N-linked glycan lacks the fucose molecule(s). Several strategies have been utilized to generate fully afucosylated antibodies. A commonly used and efficient approach has been knocking out the FUT8 gene of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) host cells, which results in expression of antibody molecules with fully afucosylated glycans. However, a major drawback of the FUT8-KO host is the requirement for undertaking two separate cell line development (CLD) efforts in order to obtain both primarily fucosylated and fully afucosylated antibody species for comparative studies in vitro and in vivo. Even more challenging is obtaining primarily fucosylated and FUT8-KO clones with similar enough product quality attributes to ensure that any observed ADCC advantage(s) can be strictly attributed to afucosylation. Here, we report generation and use of a FX knockout (FXKO) CHO host cell line that is capable of expressing antibody molecules with either primarily fucosylated or fully afucosylated glycan profiles with otherwise similar product quality attributes, depending on addition of fucose to the cell culture media. Hence, the FXKO host not only obviates the requirement for undertaking two separate CLD efforts, but it also averts the need for screening many colonies to identify clones with comparable product qualities. Finally, FXKO clones can express antibodies with the desired ratio of primarily fucosylated to afucosylated glycans when fucose is titrated into the production media, to allow achieving intended levels of FcγRIII-binding and ADCC for an antibody. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 632-644. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Cleavage efficient 2A peptides for high level monoclonal antibody expression in CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Chng, Jake; Wang, Tianhua; Nian, Rui; Lau, Ally; Hoi, Kong Meng; Ho, Steven C L; Gagnon, Peter; Bi, Xuezhi; Yang, Yuansheng

    2015-01-01

    Linking the heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) genes required for monoclonal antibodies (mAb) production on a single cassette using 2A peptides allows control of LC and HC ratio and reduces non-expressing cells. Four 2A peptides derived from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (F2A), equine rhinitis A virus (E2A), porcine teschovirus-1 (P2A) and Thosea asigna virus (T2A), respectively, were compared for expression of 3 biosimilar IgG1 mAbs in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines. HC and LC were linked by different 2A peptides both in the absence and presence of GSG linkers. Insertion of a furin recognition site upstream of 2A allowed removal of 2A residues that would otherwise be attached to the HC. Different 2A peptides exhibited different cleavage efficiencies that correlated to the mAb expression level. The relative cleavage efficiency of each 2A peptide remains similar for expression of different IgG1 mAbs in different CHO cells. While complete cleavage was not observed for any of the 2A peptides, GSG linkers did enhance the cleavage efficiency and thus the mAb expression level. T2A with the GSG linker (GT2A) exhibited the highest cleavage efficiency and mAb expression level. Stably amplified CHO DG44 pools generated using GT2A had titers 357, 416 and 600 mg/L for the 3 mAbs in shake flask batch cultures. Incomplete cleavage likely resulted in incorrectly processed mAb species and aggregates, which were removed with a chromatin-directed clarification method and protein A purification. The vector and methods presented provide an easy process beneficial for both mAb development and manufacturing.

  12. Highly efficient production of VHH antibody fragments in Brevibacillus choshinensis expression system.

    PubMed

    Mizukami, Makoto; Tokunaga, Hiroko; Onishi, Hiromasa; Ueno, Yohei; Hanagata, Hiroshi; Miyazaki, Nobuo; Kiyose, Norihiko; Ito, Yuji; Ishibashi, Matsujiro; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Miyauchi, Akira; Tokunaga, Masao

    2015-01-01

    Anti-IZUMO1PFF VHH (variable domain of camelid heavy chain antibody) clones, N6 and N15, from immunized alpaca (Lama pacos) phage library were efficiently expressed and their VHH products were secreted into the culture medium of Brevibacillus choshinensis HPD31-SP3, e.g., at a level of 26-95mg in 100ml conventional flask culture. With a 3-L scale fed-batch culture for 65h, the N15 VHH protein with C-terminal His-tag was produced at ∼3g/l culture medium. The N6 and N15 proteins were easily purified to apparent homogeneity by cation exchange and Ni-affinity chromatographies. Both proteins showed specific antigen-binding activity by ELISA and high antigen binding affinity, KD=6.0-8.6nM, by surface plasmon resonance analysis. Size exclusion chromatography-multi-angle laser light scattering analysis revealed that N6 and N15 proteins purified were exclusively monomeric form in phosphate buffered saline. CD spectrum showed beta-sheet rich structure, consistent with a typical antibody structure and also suggested aromatic-aromatic interactions, as indicated by a positive peak at 232nm. Thermal melting analysis of the N15 protein with C-terminal His-tag demonstrated a clear thermal transition with a Tm at 67°C. The heat-denatured sample recovered antigen binding activity upon cooling, indicating a reversible denaturation.

  13. Expression of basal cell marker revealed by RAM11 antibody during epithelial regeneration in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Lis, Grzegorz J; Jasek, Ewa; Litwin, Jan A; Gajda, Mariusz; Zarzecka, Joanna; Cichocki, Tadeusz

    2010-01-01

    RAM11 is a mouse monoclonal anti-rabbit macrophage antibody recognizing connective tissue and vascular macrophages. Our previous report showed that RAM11 reacted with basal cells of stratified squamous epithelia of rabbit skin, oral mucosa and esophagus. The aim of the present study was to follow the appearance of RAM11 immunoreactivity in basal cells of regenerating oral epithelium in rabbits. No RAM11 immunostaining was observed in the regenerating epithelium examined on days 1 and 3 of wound healing. A weak immunofluorescence first appeared on day 7 in single basal cells and 32% of RAM11- positive basal cells were observed on day 14. These findings indicate that expression of the antigen recognized by RAM11 antibody is a transient event in the differentiation of oral keratinocytes which not always occurs during epithelial repair, although it is a constant feature of epithelial turnover in mature epithelium. Therefore this antigen can be regarded as basal cell marker only in mature stratified squamous epithelia.

  14. Characterization of mechanical properties of transgenic tobacco roots expressing a recombinant monoclonal antibody against tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Sally; Liu, Wei; Ma, Julian K-C; Thomas, Colin R; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2008-07-01

    In this article, we describe a new approach that allows the determination of the magnitude of force required to break single plant roots. Roots were taken from transgenic tobacco plants, expressing a secreted monoclonal antibody. They were divided into four key developmental stages. A novel micromanipulation technique was used to pull to breakage, single tobacco roots in buffer in order to determine their breaking force. A characteristic uniform step-wise increase in the force up to a peak force for breakage was observed. The mean breaking force and mean work done were 101mN and 97microJ per root respectively. However, there was a significant increase in breaking force from the youngest white roots to the oldest, dark red-brown roots. We speculate that this was due to increasing lignin deposition with root stage of development (shown by phloroglucinol staining). No significant differences between fresh root mass, original root length, or mean root diameter for any of the root categories were found, displaying their uniformity, which would be beneficial for bioprocessing. In addition, no significant difference in antibody yield from the different root categories was found. These data show that it is possible to characterise the force requirements for root breakage and should assist in the optimisation of recombinant protein extraction from these roots.

  15. Use of expression mutants and monoclonal antibodies to map the erythrocyte Ca2+ pump.

    PubMed

    Adamo, H P; Caride, A J; Penniston, J T

    1992-07-15

    Deletion and truncation mutants of the human erythrocyte Ca2+ pump (hPMCA4b) were expressed in COS-1 cells. The reactivity patterns of these mutants with seven monoclonal antibodies were examined. Of the seven, six (JA9, JA3, 1G4, 4A4, 3E10 and 5F10) react from the cytoplasmic side. JA9 and JA3 reacted near the NH2 terminus and the COOH terminus of the molecule, respectively. 5F10 and 3E10 recognized portions of the large hydrophilic region in the middle of the protein. The epitopes of 1G4 and 4A4 were discontinuous and included residues from the long hydrophilic domain and residues between the proposed transmembrane domains M2 and M3. Antibody 1B10, which reacts from the extracellular side, recognized the COOH-terminal half of the molecule. These results show that the NH2 terminus, the COOH terminus, the region between M2 and M3, and the large hydrophilic region are all on the cytoplasmic side. This means that there are an even number of membrane crossings in both the NH2-terminal and the COOH-terminal halves. Between residues 75 and 300 there must be at least two membrane crossings, and there are at least two membrane crossings in the COOH-terminal half of the molecule.

  16. Expression of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies mediated by recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongjiao; Fu, Lu; Jiang, Xiaoyu; Guan, Shanshan; Kuai, Ziyu; Kong, Wei; Shi, Yuhua; Shan, Yaming

    2016-12-01

    Despite unremitting efforts since the discovery of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), an effective vaccine has not been generated. Viral vector-mediated transfer for expression of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (BnAbs) is an attractive strategy. In this study, a recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 (rAAV8) vector was used to encode full-length antibodies against HIV-1 in 293T cells and Balb/c mice after gene transfer. The 10E8 or NIH45-46 BnAb was expressed from a single open reading frame by linking the heavy and light chains with a furin cleavage and a 2A self-processing peptide (F2A). The results showed that the BnAbs could be expressed in the 293T cell culture medium. A single intramuscular injection of rAAV8 led to long-term expression of BnAbs in Balb/c mice. The expressed antibodies in the supernatant of 293T cells and in Balb/c mice showed neutralization effects against HIV-1 pseudoviruses. Combined immunization of rAAV8 expressing 10E8 and rAAV8 expressing NIH45-46 in Balb/c mice could increase these neutralization effects on strains of HIV-1 sensitive to 10E8 or NIH45-46 antibody compared with a single injection of rAAV8 expressing either antibody alone. Therefore, the combined immunization may be a potential vaccine approach against HIV-1.

  17. Yellow pea fiber improves glycemia and reduces Clostridium leptum in diet-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Amanda J; Eller, Lindsay K; Reimer, Raylene A

    2014-08-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated the impact of functional fibers on gut microbiota and metabolic health, but some less well-studied fibers and/or fractions of foods known to be high in fiber still warrant examination. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of yellow pea-derived fractions varying in fiber and protein content on metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in diet-induced obese rats. We hypothesized that the yellow pea fiber (PF) fraction would improve glycemia and alter gut microbiota. Rats were randomized to 1 of 5 isoenergetic dietary treatments for 6 weeks: (1) control; (2) oligofructose (OFS); (3) yellow PF; (4) yellow pea flour (PFL); or (5) yellow pea starch (PS). Glycemia, plasma gut hormones, body composition, hepatic triglyceride content, gut microbiota, and messenger RNA expression of genes related to hepatic fat metabolism were examined. Pea flour attenuated weight gain compared with control, PF, and PS (P < .05). Pea flour, PS, and OFS had significantly lower final percent body fat compared with control. Oligofructose but not the pea fraction diets reduced food intake compared with control (P < .05). Pea fiber resulted in lower fasting glucose and glucose area under the curve compared with control. Changes in gut microbiota were fraction specific and included a decrease in Firmicutes (percent) for OFS, PF, and PFL compared with control (P < .05). The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio was reduced with OFS, PF, and PFL when compared with PS (P < .05). Taken together, this work suggests that yellow pea-derived fractions are able to distinctly modulate metabolic parameters and gut microbiota in obese rats.

  18. [Targeted Delivery of Quantum Dots to HER2-Expressing Tumor Using Recombinant Antibodies].

    PubMed

    Balalaeva, I V; Zdobnova, T A; Sokolova, E A; Deyev, S M

    2015-01-01

    Targeted delivery of semiconductor quantum dots (Q Ds) to tumors overexpressing HER2 cancer marker has been. demonstrated on immunocompromised mice bearing human breast cancer xenografts. To obtain targeted QDs complexes we applied the approach based on the use of protein adaptor system, RNAase barnase and its inhibitor barstar. Specific binding to target cancer marker was achieved through bivalent fusion protein containing two fragments of4D5scFv recombinant antibody and a fragment of barnase. QDs were conjugated to barstar, and final assembly of targeted complexes was obtained through non-covalent specific interaction of barstar, attached to QD, and barnase, that is part of the recombinant targeting protein. The efficient delivery of QDs to HER2-expressing tumor demonstrates the possibilities and prospects of the approach for targeted delivery of nanoparticles to cancer cells in vivo as the way to improve the efficiency of diagnosis and promote development of therapies based on the use of nanoparticles.

  19. Reduction of malaria transmission by transgenic mosquitoes expressing an antisporozoite antibody in their salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Sumitani, M; Kasashima, K; Yamamoto, D S; Yagi, K; Yuda, M; Matsuoka, H; Yoshida, S

    2013-02-01

    We have previously developed a robust salivary gland-specific expression system in transgenic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. To establish transgenic mosquito lines refractory to Plasmodium falciparum using this system, we generated a transgenic mosquito harbouring the gene encoding an anti-P. falciparum circumsporozoite protein (PfCSP) single-chain antibody (scFv) fused to DsRed in a secretory form (mDsRed-2A10 scFv). Fluorescence microscopy showed that the mDsRed-2A10 scFv was localized in the secretory cavities and ducts of the salivary glands in a secreted form. To evaluate P. falciparum transmission-blocking in a rodent malaria model, a transgenic Plasmodium berghei line expressing PfCSP in place of PbCSP (PfCSP/Pb) was constructed. The PfCSP/Pb parasites were able to bind to the mDsRed-2A10 scFv in the salivary glands of the transgenic mosquitoes. Importantly, the infectivity of the transgenic mosquitoes to mice was strongly impaired, indicating that the parasites had been inactivated. These results suggest that salivary gland-specific expression of antisporozoite molecules could be a promising strategy for blocking malaria transmission to humans.

  20. Many commercially available antibodies for detection of CHOP expression as a marker of endoplasmic reticulum stress fail specificity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Haataja, Leena; Gurlo, Tatyana; Huang, Chang-Jiang; Butler, Peter C

    2008-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to beta cell death in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). ER stress is characterized by increased level of ER stress markers such as C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). Activation of CHOP leads to its translocation into the nucleus, where it induces cell death. We previously reported nuclear CHOP in pancreatic sections from T2DM, but not T1DM, and in human islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) transgenic rodent pancreatic sections. These studies underscore the importance of studying nuclear CHOP. We have observed inconsistency in the detection of CHOP antibodies reported in the literature and also in our own experiments. To investigate the specificity of CHOP antibodies, we first induced ER stress by tunicamycin in rat insulinoma (INS) cells and prepared nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. Then we examined CHOP expression by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry using seven commercially available CHOP antibodies in INS cells and human IAPP (h-IAPP) transgenic rodent pancreatic tissue. These studies show that three commercially available CHOP antibodies out of seven tested were non-specific. In conclusion, we give recommendations for CHOP antibody selection and methods to verify CHOP antibody specificity. Also, we propose that the authors report the catalog and lot numbers of the CHOP antibodies used.

  1. Evidence against the involvement of ionically bound cell wall proteins in pea epicotyl growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melan, M. A.; Cosgrove, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Ionically bound cell wall proteins were extracted from 7 day old etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Alaska) epicotyls with 3 molar LiCl. Polyclonal antiserum was raised in rabbits against the cell wall proteins. Growth assays showed that treatment of growing region segments (5-7 millimeters) of peas with either dialyzed serum, serum globulin fraction, affinity purified immunoglobulin, or papain-cleaved antibody fragments had no effect on growth. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed antibody binding to cell walls and penetration of the antibodies into the tissues. Western blot analysis, immunoassay results, and affinity chromatography utilizing Sepharose-bound antibodies confirmed recognition of the protein preparation by the antibodies. Experiments employing in vitro extension as a screening measure indicated no effect upon extension by antibodies, by 50 millimolar LiCl perfusion of the apoplast or by 3 molar LiCl extraction. Addition of cell wall protein to protease pretreated segments did not restore extension nor did addition of cell wall protein to untreated segments increase extension. It is concluded that, although evidence suggests that protein is responsible for the process of extension, the class(es) of proteins which are extracted from pea cell walls with 3 molar LiCl are probably not involved in this process.

  2. [Molecular cloning, prokaryotic expression and double-antibody sandwich ELISA development of 17β-hsd10 in mouse].

    PubMed

    Liu, Chuanzhi; Niu, Yingying; Chen, Yuan'an; Wu, Cheng; Yu, Yuanhua

    2014-11-01

    We expressed 17-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase10 (17β-hsd10) recombinant protein, prepared anti-17β- hsd10 polyclonal antibodies and established sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for detection of 17β-hsd10. RT-PCR was used to get the gene of 17β-hsd10 of mouse liver, and a prokaryotic protein expression system pET 15b-17β-hsd10/Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) which induced with isopropyl-1-thio-β-galactopyranoside (IPTG) for recombinant protein expression was constructed subsequently. The target protein purified using His-Binding-resin column was used to immunize BALB/c mice and rabbits, serum total IgGs from immunized animals were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation method. We established a Double-antibody Sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay about 17β-hsd10 using the two antibodies we prepared. We got the concentration of 1.5 mg/mL of 17β-hsd10 protein with molecular weight of 29.5 kDa, and polyclonal antibodies from mouse and rabbit with the tite 1.25 x 10(4) and 2.5 x 10(4) respectively. The concentration of 0.1 g/mL of 17β-hsd10 can be detected by the Double-antibody Sandwich ELISA we established, and the assay was sensitive and specific. It can be widely used in clinical and experimental study.

  3. DNA vaccine expressing the mimotope of GD2 ganglioside induces protective GD2 cross-reactive antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Bolesta, Elizabeth; Kowalczyk, Aleksandra; Wierzbicki, Andrzej; Rotkiewicz, Piotr; Bambach, Barbara; Tsao, Chun-Yen; Horwacik, Irena; Kolinski, Andrzej; Rokita, Hanna; Brecher, Martin; Wang, Xinhui; Ferrone, Soldano; Kozbor, Danuta

    2005-04-15

    The GD2 ganglioside expressed on neuroectodermally derived tumors, including neuroblastoma and melanoma, is weakly immunogenic in tumor-bearing patients and induces predominantly immunoglobulin (Ig)-M antibody responses in the immunized host. Here, we investigated whether interconversion of GD2 into a peptide mimetic form would induce GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses in mice. Screening of the X(15) phage display peptide library with the anti-GD2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) 14G2a led to isolation of mimetic peptide 47, which inhibited the binding of 14G2a antibody to GD2-positive tumor cells. The peptide was also recognized by GD2-specific serum antibodies from a patient with neuroblastoma, suggesting that it bears an internal image of GD2 ganglioside expressed on the tumor cells. The molecular basis for antigenicity of the GD2 mimetic peptide, established by molecular modeling and mutagenesis studies, led to the generation of a 47-LDA mutant with an increased mimicry to GD2. Immunization of mice with peptide 47-LDA-encoded plasmid DNA elicited GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses, which were increased on subsequent boost with GD2 ganglioside. The vaccine-induced antibodies recognized GD2-positive tumor cells, mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity, and exhibited protection against s.c. human GD2-positive melanoma growth in the severe combined immunodeficient mouse xenograft model. The results from our studies provide insights into approaches for boosting GD2 cross-reactive IgG antibody responses by minigene vaccination with a protective epitope of GD2 ganglioside.

  4. Omi/HtrA2 promotes cell death by binding and degrading the anti-apoptotic protein ped/pea-15.

    PubMed

    Trencia, Alessandra; Fiory, Francesca; Maitan, Maria Alessandra; Vito, Pasquale; Barbagallo, Alessia Paola Maria; Perfetti, Anna; Miele, Claudia; Ungaro, Paola; Oriente, Francesco; Cilenti, Lucia; Zervos, Antonis S; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2004-11-05

    ped/pea-15 is a ubiquitously expressed 15-kDa protein featuring a broad anti-apoptotic function. In a yeast two-hybrid screen, the pro-apoptotic Omi/HtrA2 mitochondrial serine protease was identified as a specific interactor of the ped/pea-15 death effector domain. Omi/HtrA2 also bound recombinant ped/pea-15 in vitro and co-precipitated with ped/pea-15 in 293 and HeLa cell extracts. In these cells, the binding of Omi/HtrA2 to ped/pea-15 was induced by UVC exposure and followed the mitochondrial release of Omi/HtrA2 into the cytoplasm. Upon UVC exposure, cellular ped/pea-15 protein expression levels decreased. This effect was prevented by the ucf-101 specific inhibitor of the Omi/HtrA2 proteolytic activity, in a dose-dependent fashion. In vitro incubation of ped/pea-15 with Omi/HtrA2 resulted in ped/pea-15 degradation. In intact cells, the inhibitory action of ped/pea-15 on UVC-induced apoptosis progressively declined at increasing Omi/HtrA2 expression. This further effect of Omi/HtrA2 was also inhibited by ucf-101. In addition, ped/pea-15 expression blocked Omi/HtrA2 co-precipitation with the caspase inhibitor protein XIAP and caspase 3 activation. Thus, in part, apoptosis following Omi/HtrA2 mitochondrial release is mediated by reduction in ped/pea-15 cellular levels. The ability of Omi/HtrA2 to relieve XIAP inhibition on caspases is modulated by the relative levels of Omi/HtrA2 and ped/pea-15.

  5. The role of the ETS gene PEA3 in the development of motor and sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ladle, David R; Frank, Eric

    2002-12-01

    The ETS family of transcription factors includes two members, ER81 and PEA3, which are expressed in groups of sensory and motor neurons supplying individual muscles. To investigate a possible role of these genes in determining sensory and/or motor neuron phenotype, we studied mice in which each of these genes was deleted. In contrast to the deletion of ER81, which blocks the formation of projections from muscle sensory neurons to motor neurons in the spinal cord, deletion of PEA3 causes no obvious effects on sensory neurons or on their synaptic connections with motor neurons. PEA3 does play a major role in the formation of some brachial motoneurons however. Motoneurons innervating the cutaneous maximus muscle, which are normally PEA3(+), fail to develop normally so that postnatally the muscle is innervated by few motoneurons and is severely atrophic. Other studies suggest that these motoneurons initially appear during development but fail to contact their normal muscle targets.

  6. Strigolactones promote nodulation in pea.

    PubMed

    Foo, Eloise; Davies, Noel W

    2011-11-01

    Strigolactones are recently defined plant hormones with roles in mycorrhizal symbiosis and shoot and root architecture. Their potential role in controlling nodulation, the related symbiosis between legumes and Rhizobium bacteria, was explored using the strigolactone-deficient rms1 mutant in pea (Pisum sativum L.). This work indicates that endogenous strigolactones are positive regulators of nodulation in pea, required for optimal nodule number but not for nodule formation per se. rms1 mutant root exudates and root tissue are almost completely deficient in strigolactones, and rms1 mutant plants have approximately 40% fewer nodules than wild-type plants. Treatment with the synthetic strigolactone GR24 elevated nodule number in wild-type pea plants and also elevated nodule number in rms1 mutant plants to a level similar to that seen in untreated wild-type plants. Grafting studies revealed that nodule number and strigolactone levels in root tissue of rms1 roots were unaffected by grafting to wild-type scions indicating that strigolactones in the root, but not shoot-derived factors, regulate nodule number and provide the first direct evidence that the shoot does not make a major contribution to root strigolactone levels.

  7. Targeting vaccinia virus-expressed secretory beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin to the cell surface induces antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, J; Singh, O; Chakrabarti, S; Talwar, G P

    1995-01-01

    We carried out experiments designed to study the effect of a protein's localization on its immunogenicity. A novel cell-surface protein was generated from a small, glycosylated secretory protein. The DNA sequence encoding the entire precursor of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta (beta hCG) subunit was fused in the correct reading frame to the DNA sequence encoding the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. This chimeric gene was introduced into the vaccinia virus genome to generate a recombinant virus. The recombinant virus, when used to infect animal cells, expressed a 135-amino-acid beta hCG subunit anchored in cellular membranes by the 48 carboxy-terminal amino acids of vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein. The immunogenicity of this recombinant virus with respect to its ability to generate anti-hCG antibodies was compared with that of a second recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG. All animals immunized with the vaccinia virus expressing beta hCG on the cell surface elicited high titers of anti-hCG antibodies. Even after a single immunization with the recombinant vaccinia virus, the anti-hCG antibody titers persisted for a long period of time (more than 6 months). None of the animals immunized with vaccinia virus expressing the native secretory form of beta hCG showed any hCG-specific antibody response. PMID:7591154

  8. In vitro inhibition of ETEC K88 adhesion by pea hulls and of LT enterotoxin binding by faba bean hulls.

    PubMed

    Becker, P M; van der Meulen, J; Jansman, A J M; van Wikselaar, P G

    2012-12-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) expressing K88 (F4) adhesins are associated with post-weaning diarrhoea in piglets. Different grain fractions from pea (Pisum sativum) and faba bean (Vicia faba) were tested in vitro for their capacity to counteract aetiological factors, which contribute to the development of diarrhoea. In detail, adhesion of E. coli O149:K91:K88ac (ETEC K88ac) to grain legume products, intended to impair the colonization of the host, was studied as well as interference with receptor binding of the pathogen's heat-labile enterotoxin LT, intended to reduce toxin-inflicted gut cell damage. When comparing different pea and faba bean products tested for their binding capacity of ETEC K88ac, especially pea hulls, but also whole pea meal, starch-enriched and protein-enriched pea meal, and digestion-resistant pea hull and meal fractions showed a higher binding of ETEC K88ac than faba bean products. In contrast to the ETEC K88ac adhesion results, bean hulls proved more effective than pea hulls in preventing GM1 receptor binding of LT. Previous small intestinal segment perfusion experiments we performed with ETEC K88ac-challenged piglets indicated that both pea and bean hulls have the potential for successful application in diarrhoea prophylaxis and treatment, which is in agreement with and refined by our detection of their different modes of functioning.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies reveal multiple forms of expression of human microsomal epoxide hydrolase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Hongying; Takagi, Akira; Kayano, Hidekazu; Koyama, Isamu; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Akatsuka, Toshitaka

    2012-04-01

    In a previous study, we developed five kinds of monoclonal antibodies against different portions of human mEH: three, anti-N-terminal; one, anti-C-terminal; one, anti-conformational epitope. Using them, we stained the intact and the permeabilized human cells of various kinds and performed flow cytometric analysis. Primary hepatocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) showed remarkable differences. On the surface, hepatocytes exhibited 4 out of 5 epitopes whereas PBMC did not show any of the epitopes. mEH was detected inside both cell types, but the most prominent expression was observed for the conformational epitope in the hepatocytes and the two N-terminal epitopes in PBMC. These differences were also observed between hepatocyte-derived cell lines and mononuclear cell-derived cell lines. In addition, among each group, there were several differences which may be related to the cultivation, the degree of differentiation, or the original cell subsets. We also noted that two glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked expression of the conformational epitope on the surface which seemed to correlate with the brain tumor-associated antigen reported elsewhere. Several cell lines also underwent selective permeabilization before flow cytometric analysis, and we noticed that the topological orientation of mEH on the ER membrane in those cells was in accordance with the previous report. However, the orientation on the cell surface was inconsistent with the report and had a great variation between the cells. These findings show the multiple mode of expression of mEH which may be possibly related to the multiple roles that mEH plays in different cells. -- Highlights: ► We examine expression of five mEH epitopes in human cells. ► Remarkable differences exist between hepatocytes and PBMC. ► mEH expression in cell lines differs depending on several factors. ► Some glioblastoma cell lines reveal marked surface expression of mEH. ► Topology of mEH on the cell

  10. Plant-based strategies aimed at expressing HIV antigens and neutralizing antibodies at high levels. Nef as a case study.

    PubMed

    Marusic, Carla; Vitale, Alessandro; Pedrazzini, Emanuela; Donini, Marcello; Frigerio, Lorenzo; Bock, Ralph; Dix, Philip J; McCabe, Matthew S; Bellucci, Michele; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2009-08-01

    The first evidence that plants represent a valid, safe and cost-effective alternative to traditional expression systems for large-scale production of antigens and antibodies was described more than 10 years ago. Since then, considerable improvements have been made to increase the yield of plant-produced proteins. These include the use of signal sequences to target proteins to different cellular compartments, plastid transformation to achieve high transgene dosage, codon usage optimization to boost gene expression, and protein fusions to improve recombinant protein stability and accumulation. Thus, several HIV/SIV antigens and neutralizing anti-HIV antibodies have recently been successfully expressed in plants by stable nuclear or plastid transformation, and by transient expression systems based on plant virus vectors or Agrobacterium-mediated infection. The current article gives an overview of plant expressed HIV antigens and antibodies and provides an account of the use of different strategies aimed at increasing the expression of the accessory multifunctional HIV-1 Nef protein in transgenic plants.

  11. Preparation of Polyclonal Antibody Specific for BRD7 and Detection of Its Expression Pattern in the Human Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huaying; Li, Xiaoling; Niu, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Liming; Zhou, Ming; Huang, He; He, Jiajin; Zhang, Wenling; Xiao, Lan; Tang, Yunlian; Wang, Li; Li, Guiyuan

    2008-01-01

    BRD7 is a novel bromodomain gene. It plays critical role in cell growth, cell cycle progression, and signal-dependent gene expression. Overexpression of the BRD7 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells is effective to inhibit cell growth and cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. However, little is known about its bio-functions because of the unavailability of a specific BRD7 antibody. In this study, for the first time, we generated a highly specific BRD7 antibody. It is able to specifically recognize recombinant GST-BRD7N protein with a molecular mass of 65 kDa and recognize BRD7-Myc and endogenously expressed BRD7 protein with an approximate molecular mass of 75 kDa, which corresponds well with the calculated molecular mass of the BRD7 protein. More importantly, with these antisera, we analyzed BRD7 distribution in the human fetus by Western blot and immunohistochemistry assays. Obvious nuclear expression of BRD7 protein presents in human cerebellum, pancreas, intestines, liver, and kidney. Cardiomyocyte shows high cytoplasm expression of the BRD7 protein. Weak nuclear expression of the BRD7 protein is found in human cerebrum, lung, and stomach. These data may help to further study the cellular role of the BRD7 gene. In particular, the prepared BRD7 antibody will be helpful for studying the bio-functions of endogenously expressed BRD7 protein. (J Histochem Cytochem 56:531–538, 2008) PMID:18071067

  12. Immunological and biochemical evidence for nuclear localization of annexin in peas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1998-01-01

    Immunofluorescent localization of annexins using an anti-pea annexin polyclonal antibody (anti-p35) in pea (Pisum sativum) leaf and stem epidermal peels showed staining of the nuclei and the cell periphery. Nuclear staining was also seen in cell teases prepared from pea plumules. The amount of nuclear stain was reduced both by fixation time and by dehydration and organic solvent treatment. Observation with confocal microscopy demonstrated that the anti-p35 stain was diffusely distributed throughout the nuclear structure. Immunoblots of purified nuclei, nuclear envelope matrix, nucleolar, and chromatin fractions showed a cross-reactive protein band of 35 kDa. These data are the first to show annexins localized in plant cell nuclei where they may play a role in nuclear function.

  13. Rapid High-Level Production of Functional HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies in Transient Plant Expression Systems

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Yvonne; Sack, Markus; Montefiori, David; Forthal, Donald; Mao, Lingjun; -Abanto, Segundo Hernandez; Urban, Lori; Landucci, Gary; Fischer, Rainer; Jiang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Passive immunotherapy using anti-HIV broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) has shown promise as an HIV treatment, reducing mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of simian/human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) in non-human primates and decreasing viral rebound in patients who ceased receiving anti-viral drugs. In addition, a cocktail of potent mAbs may be useful as mucosal microbicides and provide an effective therapy for post-exposure prophylaxis. However, even highly neutralizing HIV mAbs used today may lose their effectiveness if resistance occurs, requiring the rapid production of new or engineered mAbs on an ongoing basis in order to counteract the viral resistance or the spread of a certain HIV-1 clade in a particular region or patient. Plant-based expression systems are fast, inexpensive and scalable and are becoming increasingly popular for the production of proteins and monoclonal antibodies. In the present study, Agrobacterium-mediated transient transfection of plants, utilizing two species of Nicotiana, have been tested to rapidly produce high levels of an HIV 89.6PΔ140env and several well-studied anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (b12, 2G12, 2F5, 4E10, m43, VRC01) or a single chain antibody construct (m9), for evaluation in cell-based viral inhibition assays. The protein-A purified plant-derived antibodies were intact, efficiently bound HIV envelope, and were equivalent to, or in one case better than, their counterparts produced in mammalian CHO or HEK-293 cells in both neutralization and antibody dependent viral inhibition assays. These data indicate that transient plant-based transient expression systems are very adaptable and could rapidly generate high levels of newly identified functional recombinant HIV neutralizing antibodies when required. In addition, they warrant detailed cost-benefit analysis of prolonged incubation in plants to further increase mAb production. PMID:23533588

  14. The major nucleoside triphosphatase in pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei and in rat liver nuclei share common epitopes also present in nuclear lamins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tong, C. G.; Dauwalder, M.; Clawson, G. A.; Hatem, C. L.; Roux, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    The major nucleoside triphosphatase (NTPase) activities in mammalian and pea (Pisum sativum L.) nuclei are associated with enzymes that are very similar both biochemically and immunochemically. The major NTPase from rat liver nuclei appears to be a 46-kD enzyme that represents the N-terminal portion of lamins A and C, two lamina proteins that apparently arise from the same gene by alternate splicing. Monoclonal antibody (MAb) G2, raised to human lamin C, both immunoprecipitates the major (47 kD) NTPase in pea nuclei and recognizes it in western blot analyses. A polyclonal antibody preparation raised to the 47-kD pea NTPase (pc480) reacts with the same lamin bands that are recognized by MAb G2 in mammalian nuclei. The pc480 antibodies also bind to the same lamin-like bands in pea nuclear envelope-matrix preparations that are recognized by G2 and three other MAbs known to bind to mammalian lamins. In immunofluorescence assays, pc480 and anti-lamin antibodies stain both cytoplasmic and nuclear antigens in plant cells, with slightly enhanced staining along the periphery of the nuclei. These results indicate that the pea and rat liver NTPases are structurally similar and that, in pea nuclei as in rat liver nuclei, the major NTPase is probably derived from a lamin precursor by proteolysis.

  15. Redistribution of annexin in gravistimulated pea plumules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Rafati, D. S.; Bolton, R. J.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    We used immunocytochemistry to investigate the effects of gravistimulation on annexin localization in etiolated pea plumule shoots. In longitudinal sections, an asymmetric annexin immunostaining pattern was observed in a defined group of cells located just basipetal to apical meristems at the main shoot apex and at all of the axillary buds, an area classically referred to as the leaf gap. The pattern was observed using both protein-A-purified anti-annexin and affinity-purified anti-annexin antibodies for the immunostaining. A subset of the cells with the annexin staining also showed an unusually high level of periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining in their cell walls. Prior to gravistimulation, the highest concentration of annexin was oriented toward the direction of gravity along the apical end of these immunostained cells. In contrast, both at 15 and 30 min after gravistimulation, the annexin immunostain became more evenly distributed all around the cell and more distinctly cell peripheral. The asymmetry along the lower wall of these cells was no longer evident. In accord with current models of annexin action, we interpret the results to indicate that annexin-mediated secretion in the leaf gap area is preferentially toward the apical meristem prior to gravistimulation, and that gravistimulation results in a redirection of this secretion. These data are to our knowledge the first to show a correlation between the vector of gravity and the distribution of annexins in the cells of flowering plants. c 2000 Editions scientifiques et medicales Elsevier SAS.

  16. Yield potential of pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yield potential of twelve vegetable pigeon pea (Cajanus cajun) cultivars was evaluated at two locations in eastern Kenya during 2012 and 2013 cropping years. Pigeon pea pod numbers, seeds per pod, seed mass, grain yield and shelling percentage were quantified in three replicated plots, arranged in a...

  17. Growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in the dry regions of eastern Kenya, due to its drought tolerance and high protein content; however, farmer’s yield is limiting. Ojwang et al. (HortTech Vol 26 (1), 2016) evaluated twelve pigeon pea cultivars for flowering, plant height, branches, pod length and yield...

  18. Idiotype connectance in the immune system. I. Expression of a cross- reactive idiotype on induced anti-p-azophenylarsonate antibodies and on endogenous antibodies not specific for arsonate

    PubMed Central

    1983-01-01

    A new cross-reactive idiotope family (CRIAD8) is described that contains subpopulations of antibodies binding to different epitopes. One subpopulation occurs naturally in normal sera from strain A mice, is found mainly on IgG2 and IgG3 subclasses, does not bind p- azobenzenearsonate (ABA)+, does not express CRI5Ci, and can be selectively stimulated by low doses of antiidiotype antibody (AD8). The second subpopulation is not found in normal serum, binds ABA, is found on all IgG subclasses, expresses CRI5Ci, and is selectively stimulated by ABA-conjugated proteins. Since CRIAD8 was found on both subpopulations of antibody, and since each subpopulation could be selectively expanded, it was possible to study the effect that expansion of the ABA- CRIAD8+ set had on subsequent responses elicited by ABA-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) in the ABA+ CRIAD8+ set. In these experiments, prior immunization with AD8 restricted the subsequent response of the ABA+ CRIAD8+ set to ABA-KLH. Furthermore, only those doses of AD8 that stimulated the ABA-CRIAD8+ set reduced the responsiveness of the ABA+ CRIAD8+ set to ABA-KLH, suggesting that the two phenomena are causally related. These findings argue that CRIAD8 correlates well with a regulatory idiotope and that immune responses by lymphocyte clones that have different antigen-binding specificities can affect one another as a result of their sharing such an idiotope. These results strongly favor a network organization of the immune system. PMID:6403653

  19. Discrete forms of amylose are synthesized by isoforms of GBSSI in pea.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Anne; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Suurs, Luc C J M; Visser, Richard G F; Zeeman, Sam; Smith, Alison; Martin, Cathie

    2002-08-01

    Amyloses with distinct molecular masses are found in the starch of pea embryos compared with the starch of pea leaves. In pea embryos, a granule-bound starch synthase protein (GBSSIa) is required for the synthesis of a significant portion of the amylose. However, this protein seems to be insignificant in the synthesis of amylose in pea leaves. cDNA clones encoding a second isoform of GBSSI, GBSSIb, have been isolated from pea leaves. Comparison of GBSSIa and GBSSIb activities shows them to have distinct properties. These differences have been confirmed by the expression of GBSSIa and GBSSIb in the amylose-free mutant of potato. GBSSIa and GBSSIb make distinct forms of amylose that differ in their molecular mass. These differences in product specificity, coupled with differences in the tissues in which GBSSIa and GBSSIb are most active, explain the distinct forms of amylose found in different tissues of pea. The shorter form of amylose formed by GBSSIa confers less susceptibility to the retrogradation of starch pastes than the amylose formed by GBSSIb. The product specificity of GBSSIa could provide beneficial attributes to starches for food and nonfood uses.

  20. Recombinant proteinase 3 produced in different expression systems: recognition by anti-PR3 antibodies.

    PubMed

    van der Geld, Y M; Oost-Kort, W; Limburg, P C; Specks, U; Kallenberg, C G

    2000-10-20

    all anti-PR3 mAbs. In conclusion, rPR3 expressed in insect cells, HMC-1 and 293 cells is recognized by anti-PR3 antibodies, whereas conformational epitopes recognized by anti-PR3 mAbs and PR3-ANCA are not well preserved on rPR3 expressed in E. coli or P. pastoris.

  1. Expressing anti-HIV VRC01 antibody using the murine IgG1 secretion signal in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Aw, Rochelle; McKay, Paul F; Shattock, Robin J; Polizzi, Karen M

    2017-12-01

    The use of the recombinant expression platform Pichia pastoris to produce pharmaceutically important proteins has been investigated over the past 30 years. Compared to mammalian cultures, expression in P. pastoris is cheaper and faster, potentially leading to decreased costs and process development times. Product yields depend on a number of factors including the secretion signal chosen for expression, which can influence the host cell response to recombinant protein production. VRC01, a broadly neutralising anti-HIV antibody, was expressed in P. pastoris, using the methanol inducible AOX1 promoter for both the heavy and light chains. Titre reached up to 3.05 μg mL(-1) in small scale expression. VRC01 was expressed using both the α-mating factor signal peptide from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the murine IgG1 signal peptide. Surprisingly, using the murine IgG1 signal peptide resulted in higher yield of antibody capable of binding gp140 antigen. Furthermore, we evaluated levels of secretory stress compared to the untransformed wild-type strain and show a reduced level of secretory stress in the murine IgG1 signal peptide strains versus those containing the α-MF signal peptide. As bottlenecks in the secretory pathway are often the limiting factor in protein secretion, reduced levels of secretory stress and the higher yield of functional antibody suggest the murine IgG1 signal peptide may lead to better protein folding and secretion. This work indicates the possibilities for utilising the murine IgG1 signal peptide for a range of antibodies, resulting in high yields and reduced cellular stress.

  2. Nodulation, Nitrogen Fixation, and Hydrogen Oxidation by Pigeon Pea Bradyrhizobium spp. in Symbiotic Association with Pigeon Pea, Cowpea, and Soybean †

    PubMed Central

    Nautiyal, C. S.; Hegde, S. V.; van Berkum, P.

    1988-01-01

    The pigeon pea strains of Bradyrhizobium CC-1, CC-8, UASGR(S), and F4 were evaluated for nodulation, effectiveness for N2 fixation, and H2 oxidation with homologous and nonhomologous host plants. Strain CC-1 nodulated Macroptilium atropurpureum, Vigna unguiculata, Glycine max, and G. soja but did not nodulate Pisum sativum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Trigonella foenum-graecum, and Trifolium repens. Strain F4 nodulated G. max cv. Peking and PI 434937 (Malayan), but the symbioses formed were poor. Similarly, G. max cv. Peking, cv. Bragg, PI 434937, PR 13-28-2-8-7, and HM-1 were nodulated by strain CC-1, and symbioses were also poor. G. max cv. Williams and cv. Clark were not nodulated. H2 uptake activity was expressed with pigeon pea and cowpea, but not with soybean. G. max cv. Bragg grown in Bangalore, India, in local soil not previously exposed to Bradyrhizobium japonicum formed nodules with indigenous Bradyrhizobium spp. Six randomly chosen isolates, each originating from a different nodule, formed effective symbioses with pigeon pea host ICPL-407, nodulated PR 13-28-2-8-7 soybean forming moderately effective symbioses, and did not nodulate Williams soybean. These results indicate the six isolates to be pigeon pea strains although they originated from soybean nodules. Host-determined nodulation of soybean by pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. may depend upon the ancestral backgrounds of the cultivars. The poor symbioses formed by the pigeon pea strains with soybean indicate that this crop should be inoculated with B. japonicum for its cultivation in soils containing only pigeon pea Bradyrhizobium spp. PMID:16347542

  3. Candida albicans HWP1 gene expression and host antibody responses in colonization and disease.

    PubMed

    Naglik, Julian R; Fostira, Florentia; Ruprai, Jasmeet; Staab, Janet F; Challacombe, Stephen J; Sundstrom, Paula

    2006-10-01

    In vivo expression of the developmentally regulated Candida albicans hyphal wall protein 1 (HWP1) gene was analysed in human subjects who were culture positive for C. albicans and had oral symptoms (n=40) or were asymptomatic (n=29), or had vaginal symptoms (n=40) or were asymptomatic (n=29). HWP1 mRNA was present regardless of symptoms, implicating hyphal and possibly pseudohyphal forms in mucosal carriage as well as disease. As expected, in control subjects without oral symptoms (n=10) and without vaginal symptoms (n=10) who were culture negative in oral and vaginal samples, HWP1 mRNA was not detected. However, exposure to Hwp1 in healthy culture-negative controls, as well as in oral candidiasis and asymptomatic mucosal infections, was shown by the existence of local salivary and systemic adaptive antibody responses to Hwp1. The results are consistent with a role for Hwp1 in gastrointestinal colonization as well as in mucosal symptomatic and asymptomatic infections. Overall, Hwp1 and hyphal growth forms appear to be important factors in benign and invasive interactions of C. albicans with human hosts.

  4. Reduced thymic expression of ErbB receptors without auto-antibodies against synaptic ErbB in myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Vrolix, Kathleen; Niks, Erik H; Le Panse, Rozen; van Ostaijen-Ten Dam, Monique M; Muris, Anne-Hilde; Jol-van der Zijde, Cornelia M; van Tol, Maarten J D; Losen, Mario; Molenaar, Peter C; van Zoelen, Everardus J J; Berrih-Aknin, Sonia; De Baets, Marc H; Verschuuren, Jan J G M; Martínez-Martínez, Pilar

    2011-03-01

    In myasthenia gravis (MG), the neuromuscular transmission is impaired mainly by auto-antibodies against the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) or MuSK. In about 5% of the MG patients, however, the auto-antigen is still unknown. We investigated whether these idiopathic MG patients (iMG) have auto-antibodies against ErbB proteins, which influence the AChR density at the NMJ. Our results show reduced mRNA expression levels of ErbB4 in thymus tissue of iMG patients compared to AChR-MG and non-MG patients, but we could not detect anti-ErbB antibodies in sera of iMG patients. Therefore, our results do not support a role for ErbB receptors as auto-antigens in iMG patients.

  5. Spatiotemporal Expression Patterns and Antibody Reactivity of Taeniidae Endophilin B1

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Chun-Seob; Bae, Young-An; Kim, Seon-Hee; Kim, Jeong-Geun; Yu, Jae-Ran; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Eom, Keeseon S.; Wang, Hu; Kang, Insug; Yang, Yichao

    2016-01-01

    Larval Taeniidae, such as metacestodes of Taenia solium, Echinococcus granulosus, and Echinococcus multilocularis, produce chronic and fatal helminthic diseases. Proper identification of these zoonotic cestodiases is often challenging and is hampered in some clinical settings. Endophilin B1 plays critical roles in the maintenance of membrane contours and endocytosis. We isolated proteins homologous to endophilin B1 from T. solium, Taenia saginata, and Taenia asiatica. The three Taeniidae endophilin B1 proteins shared 92.9 to 96.6% sequence identity. They harbored a Bin1/amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain and residues for a dimeric interface but lacked a SRC homology 3 (SH3) domain. Endophilin B1 showed a unique immunological profile and was abundantly expressed in the tegumental syncytium of Taeniidae metacestodes and adults. Bacterially expressed recombinant T. solium endophilin B1 (rTsMEndoB1) demonstrated a sensitivity of 79.7% (345/433 cases) for serodiagnosis of larval Taeniidae infections. The protein showed strong immune recognition patterns against sera from patients with chronic neurocysticercosis, cystic echinococcosis, or advanced-stage alveolar echinococcosis. Adult Taeniidae infections exhibited moderate degrees of positive antibody responses (65.7% [23/35 samples]). rTsMEndoB1 showed some cross-reactivity with sera from patients infected with Diphyllobothriidae (23.6% [25/106 samples]) but not with sera from patients with other parasitic diseases or normal controls. The specificity was 91.7% (256/301 samples). The positive and negative predictive values were 93.6% and 73.4%, respectively. Our results demonstrate that Taeniidae endophilin B1 may be involved in the control of membrane dynamics, thus contributing to shaping and maintaining the tegumental curvature. rTsMEndoB1 may be useful for large-scale screening, as well as for individual diagnosis and follow-up surveillance of Taeniidae infections. PMID:27487955

  6. Polymorphic expression of a human superficial bladder tumor antigen defined by mouse monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Fradet, Y; Islam, N; Boucher, L; Parent-Vaugeois, C; Tardif, M

    1987-01-01

    Three mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), which define a highly restricted antigen, were obtained by simultaneous immunizations with superficial papillary bladder tumor cells and mouse polyclonal serum against normal urothelium. The antigen was detected by the avidin/biotin/peroxidase method in 30/44 superficial bladder tumors (68%) but in only 4/27 infiltrating urothelial cancers (with much less intensity). No normal adult or fetal tissues tested expressed the antigen, including normal urothelium from 40 individuals, 13 of whom had a bladder tumor positive for the antigen. Only 1 of 45 nonbladder tumors showed some reactivity with one of the three mAbs. Serological tests on a large panel of human cancer cell lines and normal cultured cells were negative. The antigen is highly stable and well preserved on paraffin-embedded tissues. Electrophoretic transfer blot experiments with fresh tumor extracts showed that all three mAbs react with a determinant on a component of 300,000 Mr (pI 9.5) and 62,000 Mr (pI 6.5). The antigen shows polymorphic expression at the cellular level on tissue sections and also at a molecular level on immunoblots where the two bands are differentially detected on extracts of a series of tumors but are not visualized on normal urothelium extracts. The characteristics of this antigenic system suggest that it may provide some insights about the biology of bladder cancer. Specific detection of the antigen on 70% of superficial bladder tumors with normal cytology may be useful for their diagnosis and follow-up. Images PMID:3313389

  7. Expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (V(HH)s) by Aspergillus awamori.

    PubMed

    Joosten, Vivi; Gouka, Robin J; van den Hondel, Cees A M J J; Verrips, C Theo; Lokman, B Christien

    2005-01-01

    We report the expression and production of llama variable heavy-chain antibody fragments (V(HH)s) by Aspergillus awamori. Fragments encoding V(HH)s were cloned in a suitable Aspergillus expression vector and transformants secreting V(HH) fragments were analysed for integrated gene copy-numbers, mRNA levels and protein production. Functional V(HH)s were detected in the culture medium, indicating the feasibility of producing this type of protein in a fungal expression system. Secreted V(HH)s were subjected to (extracellular) degradation, which could be partially prevented by the addition of BSA to the culture medium.

  8. Effect of the combinations between pea proteins and soluble fibres on cholesterolaemia and cholesterol metabolism in rats.

    PubMed

    Parolini, Cinzia; Manzini, Stefano; Busnelli, Marco; Rigamonti, Elena; Marchesi, Marta; Diani, Erika; Sirtori, Cesare R; Chiesa, Giulia

    2013-10-01

    Many functional foods and dietary supplements have been reported to be beneficial for the management of dyslipidaemia, one of the major risk factors for CVD. Soluble fibres and legume proteins are known to be a safe and practical approach for cholesterol reduction. The present study aimed at investigating the hypocholesterolaemic effect of the combinations of these bioactive vegetable ingredients and their possible effects on the expression of genes regulating cholesterol homeostasis. A total of six groups of twelve rats each were fed, for 28 d, Nath's hypercholesterolaemic diets, differing in protein and fibre sources, being, respectively, casein and cellulose (control), pea proteins and cellulose (pea), casein and oat fibres (oat), casein and apple pectin (pectin), pea proteins and oat fibres (pea+oat) and pea proteins and apple pectin (pea+pectin). Administration of each vegetable-containing diet was associated with lower total cholesterol concentrations compared with the control. The combinations (pea+oat and pea+pectin) were more efficacious than fibres alone in modulating cholesterolaemia ( - 53 and - 54%, respectively, at 28 d; P< 0·005). In rats fed the diets containing oat fibres or apple pectin, alone or in combination with pea proteins, a lower hepatic cholesterol content (P< 0·005) and higher hepatic mRNA concentrations of CYP7A1 and NTCP were found when compared with the control rats (P< 0·05). In summary, the dietary combinations of pea proteins and oat fibres or apple pectin are extremely effective in lowering plasma cholesterol concentrations in rats and affect cellular cholesterol homeostasis by up-regulating genes involved in hepatic cholesterol turnover.

  9. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  10. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  11. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  12. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  13. 21 CFR 155.172 - Canned dry peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Canned dry peas. 155.172 Section 155.172 Food and... peas. (a) Identity. Canned dry peas conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients, prescribed for canned peas by §...

  14. Prokaryotic expression and polyclonal antibody preparation of a novel Rab-like protein mRabL5.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Guo, Shi-Ying; Pan, Fei-Yan; Geng, Hui-Xia; Gong, Yi; Lou, Dan; Shu, Yong-Qian; Li, Chao-Jun

    2007-05-01

    Rab GTPases, which belong to the Ras superfamily, represent a group of small molecular weight GTP binding proteins that are involved in various steps along the exocytic and endocytic pathways. We first identified mRabL5 (GenBank Accession No. NP_080349), a novel Mus musculus Rab-like protein, present as a Golgi-associated protein. Here we presented the results of the cloning, prokaryotic expression, purification, and polyclonal antibody production of the novel Rab-like protein. In order to obtain a specific antibody against mRabL5, we prepared two GST fusion proteins, full-length mRabL5 GST fusion protein and mRabL5 C terminus GST fusion protein, to immunize rabbits. Western blot analysis showed that both antibodies prepared against full length of mRabL5 and its C terminus, respectively, can recognize mRabL5 protein. Immunofluorescence of mRabL5 in NIH3T3 cells using the two antibodies showed its perinuclear clustering distribution pattern. The polyclonal antibodies preparation against mRabL5 provided a good tool for us to study the functional involvement of mRabL5.

  15. Pea-derived vaccines demonstrate high immunogenicity and protection in rabbits against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus.

    PubMed

    Mikschofsky, Heike; Schirrmeier, Horst; Keil, Günther M; Lange, Bodo; Polowick, Patricia L; Keller, Wilf; Broer, Inge

    2009-08-01

    Vaccines against rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) are commercially produced in experimentally infected rabbits. A genetically engineered and manufactured version of the major structural protein of RHDV (VP60) is considered to be an alternative approach for vaccine production. Plants have the potential to become an excellent recombinant production system, but the low expression level and insufficient immunogenic potency of plant-derived VP60 still hamper its practical use. In this study, we analysed the expression of a novel multimeric VP60-based antigen in four different plant species, including Nicotiana tabacum L., Solanum tuberosum L., Brassica napus L. and Pisum sativum L. Significant differences were detected in the expression patterns of the novel fusion antigen cholera toxin B subunit (CTB)::VP60 (ctbvp60(SEKDEL)) at the mRNA and protein levels. Pentameric CTB::VP60 molecules were only detected in N. tabacum and P. sativum, and displayed equal levels of CTB, at approximately 0.01% of total soluble protein (TSP), and traces of detectable VP60. However, strong enhancement of the CTB protein content via self-fertilization was only observed in P. sativum, where it reached up to 0.7% of TSP. In rabbits, a strong decrease in the protective vaccine dose required from 48-400 microg potato-derived VP60 [Castanon, S., Marin, M.S., Martin-Alonso, J.M., Boga, J.A., Casais, R., Humara, J.M., Ordas, R.J. and Parra, F. (1999) Immunization with potato plants expressing VP60 protein protects against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus. J. Virol. 73, 4452-4455; Castanon, S., Martin-Alonso, J.M., Marin, M.S., Boga, J.A., Alonso, P., Parra, F. and Ordas, R.J. (2002) The effect of the promoter on expression of VP60 gene from rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus in potato plants. Plant Sci. 162, 87-95] to 0.56-0.28 microg antigenic VP60 (measured with VP60 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) of crude CTB::VP60 pea extracts was demonstrated. Rabbits immunized with pea-derived CTB

  16. Engineering production of functional scFv antibody in E. coli by co-expressing the molecule chaperone Skp

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongzhi; Xiang, Shuangshuang; Feng, Youjun; Srinivas, Swaminath; Zhang, Yonghui; Lin, Mingshen; Wang, Shihua

    2013-01-01

    Single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is a class of engineered antibodies generated by the fusion of the heavy (VH) and light chains (VL) of immunoglobulins through a short polypeptide linker. ScFv play a critical role in therapy and diagnosis of human diseases, and may in fact also be developed into a potential diagnostic and/or therapeutic agent. However, the fact that current scFv antibodies have poor stability, low solubility, and affinity, seriously limits their diagnostic and clinical implication. Here we have developed four different expression vectors, and evaluated their abilities to express a soluble scFv protein. The solubility and binding activity of the purified proteins were determined using both SDS-PAGE and ELISA. Amongst the four purified proteins, the Skp co-expressed scFv showed the highest solubility, and the binding activity to antigen TLH was 3-4 fold higher than the other three purified scFv. In fact, this scFv is specific for TLH and does not cross-react with other TLH-associated proteins and could be used to detect TLH directly in real samples. These results suggest that the pACYC-Duet-skp co-expression vector might be a useful tool for the production of soluble and functional scFv antibody. PMID:24224158

  17. Method of rapid production of hybridomas expressing monoclonal antibodies on the cell surface

    DOEpatents

    Meagher, Richard B.; Laterza, Vince

    2006-12-12

    The present invention relates to genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells. The invention also relates to utilizing genetically altered hybridomas, myelomas and B cells in methods of making monoclonal antibodies. The present invention also provides populations of hybridomas and B cells that can be utilized to make a monoclonal antibody of interest.

  18. CHO expression of a novel human recombinant IgG1 anti-RhD antibody isolated by phage display.

    PubMed

    Miescher, S; Zahn-Zabal, M; De Jesus, M; Moudry, R; Fisch, I; Vogel, M; Kobr, M; Imboden, M A; Kragten, E; Bichler, J; Mermod, N; Stadler, B M; Amstutz, H; Wurm, F

    2000-10-01

    Replacement of the hyperimmune anti-Rhesus (Rh) D immunoglobulin, currently used to prevent haemolytic disease of the newborn, by fully recombinant human anti-RhD antibodies would solve the current logistic problems associated with supply and demand. The combination of phage display repertoire cloning with precise selection procedures enables isolation of specific genes that can then be inserted into mammalian expression systems allowing production of large quantities of recombinant human proteins. With the aim of selecting high-affinity anti-RhD antibodies, two human Fab libraries were constructed from a hyperimmune donor. Use of a new phage panning procedure involving bromelin-treated red blood cells enabled the isolation of two high-affinity Fab-expressing phage clones. LD-6-3 and LD-6-33, specific for RhD. These showed a novel reaction pattern by recognizing the D variants D(III), D(IVa), D(IVb), D(Va), D(VI) types I and II. D(VII), Rh33 and DFR. Full-length immunoglobulin molecules were constructed by cloning the variable regions into expression vectors containing genomic DNA encoding the immunoglobulin constant regions. We describe the first, stable, suspension growth-adapted Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing a high affinity recombinant human IgG1 anti-RhD antibody adapted to pilot-scale production. Evaluation of the Fc region of this recombinant antibody by either chemiluminescence or antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) assays demonstrated macrophage activation and lysis of red blood cells by human lymphocytes. A consistent source of recombinant human anti-RhD immunoglobulin produced by CHO cells is expected to meet the stringent safety and regulatory requirements for prophylactic application.

  19. Recombinant Pvs48/45 Antigen Expressed in E. coli Generates Antibodies that Block Malaria Transmission in Anopheles albimanus Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Vallejo, Andrés F.; Rubiano, Kelly; Solarte, Yezid; Marin, Catherin; Castellanos, Angélica; Céspedes, Nora; Herrera, Sócrates

    2015-01-01

    Transmission of malaria parasites from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes can be inhibited by specific antibodies elicited during malaria infection, which target surface Plasmodium gametocyte/gamete proteins. Some of these proteins may have potential for vaccine development. Pvs48/45 is a P. vivax gametocyte surface antigen orthologous to Pfs48/45, which may play a role during parasite fertilization and thus has potential for transmission blocking (TB) activity. Here we describe the expression of a recombinant Pvs48/45 protein expressed in Escherichia coli as a ∼60kDa construct which we tested for antigenicity using human sera and for its immunogenicity and transmission blocking activity of specific anti-mouse and anti-monkey Pvs48/45 antibodies. The protein reacted with sera of individuals from malaria-endemic areas and in addition induced specific IgG antibody responses in BALB/c mice and Aotus l. griseimembra monkeys. Sera from both immunized animal species recognized native P. vivax protein in Western blot (WB) and immunofluorescence assays. Moreover, sera from immunized mice and monkeys produced significant inhibition of parasite transmission to An. Albimanus mosquitoes as shown by membrane feeding assays. Results indicate the presence of reactive epitopes in the Pvs48/45 recombinant product that induce antibodies with TB activity. Further testing of this protein is ongoing to determine its vaccine potential. PMID:25775466

  20. Recombinant Pvs48/45 antigen expressed in E. coli generates antibodies that block malaria transmission in Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Vallejo, Andrés F; Rubiano, Kelly; Solarte, Yezid; Marin, Catherin; Castellanos, Angélica; Céspedes, Nora; Herrera, Sócrates

    2015-01-01

    Transmission of malaria parasites from humans to Anopheles mosquitoes can be inhibited by specific antibodies elicited during malaria infection, which target surface Plasmodium gametocyte/gamete proteins. Some of these proteins may have potential for vaccine development. Pvs48/45 is a P. vivax gametocyte surface antigen orthologous to Pfs48/45, which may play a role during parasite fertilization and thus has potential for transmission blocking (TB) activity. Here we describe the expression of a recombinant Pvs48/45 protein expressed in Escherichia coli as a ∼60kDa construct which we tested for antigenicity using human sera and for its immunogenicity and transmission blocking activity of specific anti-mouse and anti-monkey Pvs48/45 antibodies. The protein reacted with sera of individuals from malaria-endemic areas and in addition induced specific IgG antibody responses in BALB/c mice and Aotus l. griseimembra monkeys. Sera from both immunized animal species recognized native P. vivax protein in Western blot (WB) and immunofluorescence assays. Moreover, sera from immunized mice and monkeys produced significant inhibition of parasite transmission to An. Albimanus mosquitoes as shown by membrane feeding assays. Results indicate the presence of reactive epitopes in the Pvs48/45 recombinant product that induce antibodies with TB activity. Further testing of this protein is ongoing to determine its vaccine potential.

  1. Production of bispecific antibodies in “knobs-into-holes” using a cell-free expression system

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yiren; Lee, John; Tran, Cuong; Heibeck, Tyler H; Wang, Willie D; Yang, Junhao; Stafford, Ryan L; Steiner, Alexander R; Sato, Aaron K; Hallam, Trevor J; Yin, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Bispecific antibodies have emerged in recent years as a promising field of research for therapies in oncology, inflammable diseases, and infectious diseases. Their capability of dual target recognition allows for novel therapeutic hypothesis to be tested, where traditional mono-specific antibodies would lack the needed mode of target engagement. Among extremely diverse architectures of bispecific antibodies, knobs-into-holes (KIHs) technology, which involves engineering CH3 domains to create either a “knob” or a “hole” in each heavy chain to promote heterodimerization, has been widely applied. Here, we describe the use of a cell-free expression system (Xpress CF) to produce KIH bispecific antibodies in multiple scaffolds, including 2-armed heterodimeric scFv-KIH and one-armed asymmetric BiTE-KIH with tandem scFv. Efficient KIH production can be achieved by manipulating the plasmid ratio between knob and hole, and further improved by addition of prefabricated knob or hole. These studies demonstrate the versatility of Xpress CF in KIH production and provide valuable insights into KIH construct design for better assembly and expression titer. PMID:25427258

  2. The Cloning and Expression of Human Monoclonal Antibodies: Implications for Allergen Immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    James, Louisa K

    2016-02-01

    Allergic responses are dependent on the highly specific effector functions of IgE antibodies. Conversely, antibodies that block the activity of IgE can mediate tolerance to allergen. Technologies that harness the unparalleled specificity of antibody responses have revolutionized the way that we diagnose and treat human disease. This area of research continues to advance at a rapid pace and has had a significant impact on our understanding of allergic disease. This review will present an overview of humoral responses and provide an up-to-date summary of technologies used in the generation of human monoclonal antibodies. The impact that monoclonal antibodies have on allergic disease will be discussed, with a particular focus on allergen immunotherapy, which remains the only form of treatment that can modulate the underlying immune mechanisms and induce long-term clinical tolerance.

  3. Expression, purification, and characterization of anti-plumbagin single-chain variable fragment antibody in Sf9 insect cell.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Seiichi; Taura, Futoshi; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Putalun, Waraporn; Kinjo, Junei; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2010-12-01

    Plumbagin (PL; 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1, 4-naphthoquinone) is an important secondary metabolite, mainly produced in the Plumbago zeylanica L. (Plumbaginaceae). A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody, fusion of the variable regions of the heavy chain and light chain of immunoglobulin against PL (PL-scFv) was expressed by Bac-to-Bac Baculovirus Expression System using Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells and characterized to investigate potential use of PL-scFv as a tool for plant immunomodulation. Functional PL-scFv expressed in the Sf9 insect cells were purified using cation exchange chromatography followed by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC). The yields of the purified PL-scFv in the culture supernatant and Sf9 insect cells were 2.0 mg and 5.2 mg per 1 liter of Sf9 culture medium, respectively. Recombinant purified PL-scFv was then characterized by the indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The cross-reactivity and sensitivity of PL-scFv expressed in Sf9 insect cells were compared with PL-scFv expressed in Escherichia coli and its parental anti-plumbagin monoclonal antibody (MAb 3A3) secreted from hybridoma cells. Intriguingly, the specificity of the PL-scFv expressed in Sf9 insect cells was found to be different from that expressed in E. coli and parental MAb 3A3, although the detectable level (0.2-25 μg/mL) was the same in ELISA using each antibody. Even more interestingly, the characteristics of PL-scFv, which have wide cross-reactivity against 1,4-napththoquinone, suggest its potential use as a tool for plant immunomodulation not only for breeding Plumbaginacea family containing PL but also for breeding other medicinal plants containing bioactive naphthoquinones.

  4. Antibody formation and mannose-6-phosphate receptor expression impact the efficacy of muscle-specific transgene expression in murine Pompe disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Baodong; Li, Songtao; Bird, Andrew; Yi, Haiqing; Kemper, Alex; Koeberl, Dwight D.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Lysosomal storage disorders such as Pompe disease can be more effectively treated, if immune tolerance to enzyme or gene replacement therapy can be achieved. Alternatively, immune responses against acid α-glucosidase (GAA) might be evaded in Pompe disease through muscle-specific expression of GAA with adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. METHODS An AAV vector containing the MHCK7 regulatory cassette to drive muscle-specific GAA expression was administered to GAA knockout (KO) mice, immune tolerant GAA-KO mice, and mannose-6-phosphate deficient GAA-KO mice. GAA activity and glycogen content were analyzed in striated muscle to determine biochemical efficacy. RESULTS The biochemical efficacy from GAA expression was slightly reduced in GAA-KO mice, as demonstrated by higher residual glycogen content in skeletal muscles. Next immune tolerance to GAA was induced in GAA-KO mice by co-administration of a second AAV vector encoding liver-specific GAA along with the AAV vector encoding muscle-specific GAA. Antibody formation was prevented by liver-specific GAA, and the biochemical efficacy of GAA expression was improved in absence of antibodies as evidenced by significantly reduced glycogen content in the diaphragm. Efficacy was reduced in old GAA-KO mice despite the absence of antibodies. The greatest impact upon gene therapy was observed in GAA-KO mice lacking the mannose-6-phosphate receptor in muscle. The clearance of stored glycogen was markedly impaired despite high GAA expression in receptor-deficient Pompe disease mice. CONCLUSIONS Overall, antibody formation had a subtle effect upon efficacy, while the absence of mannose-6-phosphate receptors markedly impaired muscle-targeted gene therapy in murine Pompe disease. PMID:20967919

  5. Protective Effects of Ultramicronized Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) in Myocardial Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury in VIVO.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cordaro, Marika; Crupi, Rosalia; Siracusa, Rosalba; Campolo, Michela; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Fusco, Roberta; Pugliatti, Pietro; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2016-08-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death, occurs after prolonged ischemia of the coronary arteries. Restore blood flow is the first intervention help against heart attack. However, reperfusion of the arteries leads to ischemia/reperfusion injury (I/R). The fatty acid amide palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is an endogenous compound widely present in living organisms, with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study evaluated the effect of ultramicronized palmitoylethanolamide (PEA-um) treatment on the inflammatory process associated with myocardial I/R. Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery for 30 min followed by 2 h of reperfusion. PEA-um, was administered (10 mg/kg) 15 min after ischemia and 1 h after reperfusion. In this study, we demonstrated that PEA-um treatment reduces myocardial tissue injury, neutrophil infiltration, adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, P-selectin) expression, proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β) production, nitrotyrosine and PAR formation, nuclear factor kB expression, and apoptosis (Fas-L, Bcl-2) activation. In addition to study whether the protective effect of PEA-um on myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury is also related to the activation of PPAR-α, in a separate set of experiments it has been performed myocardial I/R in PPARα mice. Genetic ablation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-α in PPAR-αKO mice exacerbated Myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury when compared with PPAR-αWT mice. PEA-um induced cardioprotection in PPAR-α wild-type mice, but the same effect cannot be observed in PPAR-αKO mice. Our results have clearly shown a modulation of the inflammatory process, associated with myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury, following administration of PEA-um.

  6. Analysis of the human tissue-specific expression by genome-wide integration of transcriptomics and antibody-based proteomics.

    PubMed

    Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M; Oksvold, Per; Kampf, Caroline; Djureinovic, Dijana; Odeberg, Jacob; Habuka, Masato; Tahmasebpoor, Simin; Danielsson, Angelika; Edlund, Karolina; Asplund, Anna; Sjöstedt, Evelina; Lundberg, Emma; Szigyarto, Cristina Al-Khalili; Skogs, Marie; Takanen, Jenny Ottosson; Berling, Holger; Tegel, Hanna; Mulder, Jan; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M; Lindskog, Cecilia; Danielsson, Frida; Mardinoglu, Adil; Sivertsson, Asa; von Feilitzen, Kalle; Forsberg, Mattias; Zwahlen, Martin; Olsson, IngMarie; Navani, Sanjay; Huss, Mikael; Nielsen, Jens; Ponten, Fredrik; Uhlén, Mathias

    2014-02-01

    Global classification of the human proteins with regards to spatial expression patterns across organs and tissues is important for studies of human biology and disease. Here, we used a quantitative transcriptomics analysis (RNA-Seq) to classify the tissue-specific expression of genes across a representative set of all major human organs and tissues and combined this analysis with antibody-based profiling of the same tissues. To present the data, we launch a new version of the Human Protein Atlas that integrates RNA and protein expression data corresponding to ∼80% of the human protein-coding genes with access to the primary data for both the RNA and the protein analysis on an individual gene level. We present a classification of all human protein-coding genes with regards to tissue-specificity and spatial expression pattern. The integrative human expression map can be used as a starting point to explore the molecular constituents of the human body.

  7. Understanding the role of H(2)O(2) during pea seed germination: a combined proteomic and hormone profiling approach.

    PubMed

    Barba-Espín, Gregorio; Diaz-Vivancos, Pedro; Job, Dominique; Belghazi, Maya; Job, Claudette; Hernández, José Antonio

    2011-11-01

    In a previous publication, we showed that the treatment of pea seeds in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) increased germination performance as well as seedling growth. To gain insight into the mechanisms responsible for this behaviour, we have analysed the effect of treating mature pea seeds in the presence of 20 mm H(2)O(2) on several oxidative features such as protein carbonylation, endogenous H(2)O(2) and lipid peroxidation levels. We report that H(2)O(2) treatment of the pea seeds increased their endogenous H(2)O(2) content and caused carbonylation of storage proteins and of several metabolic enzymes. Under the same conditions, we also monitored the expression of two MAPK genes known to be activated by H(2)O(2) in adult pea plants. The expression of one of them, PsMAPK2, largely increased upon pea seed imbibition in H(2)O(2) , whereas no change could be observed in expression of the other, PsMAPK3. The levels of several phytohormones such as 1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and zeatin appeared to correlate with the measured oxidative indicators and with the expression of PsMAPK2. Globally, our results suggest a key role of H(2)O(2) in the coordination of pea seed germination, acting as a priming factor that involves specific changes at the proteome, transcriptome and hormonal levels.

  8. Design, expression and evaluation of a novel humanized single chain antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR).

    PubMed

    Akbari, Bahman; Farajnia, Safar; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Mahdieh, Nejat; Rahmati, Mohammad; Khosroshahi, Shiva Ahdi; Rahbarnia, Leila

    2016-11-01

    Various strategies have been attempted for targeting of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), as an essential biomarker in a variety of cancers. Several anti-EGFR antibodies including cetuximab are used in clinics for treatment of EGFR-overexpressing colorectal and head and neck cancers but the efficiency of these antibodies is threatened by their large size and chimeric nature. Humanized single chains antibodies (huscFv) are smaller generation of antibodies with lower immunogenicity may overcome these limitations. This article reports production and evaluation of a novel humanized anti-EGFR scFv. The CDRs of cetuximab heavy and light chains were grafted onto human antibody frameworks as framework donors. To maintain the antigen binding affinity of murine antibody, the murine vernier zone residues were retained in framework regions of huscFv. Additionally, two point mutations in CDR-L1 and CDR-L3 and three point mutations in CDR-H2 and CDR-H3 loops of the humanized scFv (huscFv) were introduced to increase affinity of the huscFv to EGFR. Analysis of results demonstrated that the humanness degree of resultant huscFv was increased as 19%. HuscFv was expressed in BL21 (DE3) and affinity purified via Ni-NTA column. The reactivity of huscFv with EGFR was evaluated by ELISA and dot blot techniques. Analysis by ELISA and dot blot showed that the huscFv was able to recognize and react with EGFR. Toxicity analysis by MTT assay indicated an inhibitory effect on growth of EGFR-overexpressing A431 cells. In conclusion, the huscFv produced in this study revealed decreased immunogenicity while retained growth inhibitory effect on EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells.

  9. Expression of a single-chain variable-fragment antibody against a Fusarium virguliforme toxin peptide enhances tolerance to sudden death syndrome in transgenic soybean plants.

    PubMed

    Brar, Hargeet K; Bhattacharyya, Madan K

    2012-06-01

    Plants do not produce antibodies. However, plants can correctly assemble functional antibody molecules encoded by mammalian antibody genes. Many plant diseases are caused by pathogen toxins. One such disease is the soybean sudden death syndrome (SDS). SDS is a serious disease caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium virguliforme. The pathogen, however, has never been isolated from diseased foliar tissues. Thus, one or more toxins produced by the pathogen have been considered to cause foliar SDS. One of these possible toxins, FvTox1, was recently identified. We investigated whether expression of anti-FvTox1 single-chain variable-fragment (scFv) antibody in transgenic soybean can confer resistance to foliar SDS. We have created two scFv antibody genes, Anti-FvTox1-1 and Anti-FvTox1-2, encoding anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies from RNAs of a hybridoma cell line that expresses mouse monoclonal anti-FvTox1 7E8 antibody. Both anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies interacted with an antigenic site of FvTox1 that binds to mouse monoclonal anti-FvTox1 7E8 antibody. Binding of FvTox1 by the anti-FvTox1 scFv antibodies, expressed in either Escherichia coli or transgenic soybean roots, was initially verified on nitrocellulose membranes. Expression of anti-FvTox1-1 in stable transgenic soybean plants resulted in enhanced foliar SDS resistance compared with that in nontransgenic control plants. Our results suggest that i) FvTox1 is an important pathogenicity factor for foliar SDS development and ii) expression of scFv antibodies against pathogen toxins could be a suitable biotechnology approach for protecting crop plants from toxin-induced diseases.

  10. Intragastric immunization with recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing flagellar antigen confers antibody-independent protective immunity against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis.

    PubMed

    Kajikawa, Akinobu; Satoh, Eiichi; Leer, Rob J; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Igimi, Shizunobu

    2007-05-04

    A recombinant Lactobacillus casei expressing a flagellar antigen from Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis was constructed and evaluated as a mucosal vaccine. Intragastric immunization of the recombinant strain conferred protective immunity against Salmonella infection in mice. This immunization did not result in antigen-specific antibody in either feces or sera but induced the release of IFN-gamma on restimulation of primed lymphocytes ex vivo. The results suggested that the protective efficacy provided by flagellin-expressing L. casei is mainly attributable to cell-mediated immune responses. In addition, an adjuvant-type effect of the antigen delivery system with L. casei was also observed.

  11. Transient and stable CHO expression, purification and characterization of novel hetero-dimeric bispecific IgG antibodies.

    PubMed

    Rajendra, Yashas; Peery, Robert B; Hougland, Maria D; Barnard, Gavin C; Wu, Xiufeng; Fitchett, Jonathan R; Bacica, Michael; Demarest, Stephen J

    2016-12-15

    IgG bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) represent one of the preferred formats for bispecific antibody therapeutics due to their native-like IgG properties and their monovalent binding to each target. Most reported studies utilized transient expression in HEK293 cells to produce BsAbs. However, the expression of biotherapeutic molecules using stable CHO cell lines is commonly used for biopharmaceutical manufacturing. Unfortunately, limited information is available in the scientific literature on the expression of BsAbs in CHO cell lines. In this study we describe an alternative approach to express the multiple components of IgG BsAbs using a single plasmid vector (quad vector). This single plasmid vector contains both heavy chain genes and both light chain genes required for the expression and assembly of the IgG BsAb, along with a selectable marker. We expressed, purified, and characterized four different IgG BsAbs or "hetero-mAbs" using transient CHO expression and stable CHO minipools. Transient CHO titers ranged from 90 to 160 mg/L. Stable CHO titers ranged from 0.4 to 2.3 g/L. Following a simple Protein A purification step, the percentage of correctly paired BsAbs ranged from 74% to 98% as determined by mass spectrometry. We also found that information generated from transient CHO expression was similar to information generated using stable CHO minipools. In conclusion, the quad vector approach represents a simple, but effective, alternative approach for the generation of IgG BsAbs in both transient CHO and stable CHO expression systems. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2016.

  12. Neuroantibodies: molecular cloning of a monoclonal antibody against substance P for expression in the central nervous system.

    PubMed Central

    Piccioli, P; Ruberti, F; Biocca, S; Di Luzio, A; Werge, T M; Bradbury, A; Cattaneo, A

    1991-01-01

    We present a strategy to study functional and/or developmental processes occurring in the nervous system, as well as in other systems, of mice. This strategy is based on the local expression of specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) by cells of the nervous system. As an application of this strategy, we report the cloning of the anti-substance P rat mAb NC1/34HL. Functional substance P-binding antibodies were reconstituted from the cloned variable domains by using vectors for expression in myeloma cells. With these and other vectors a general system for the cloning and expression of mAbs under a series of promoters (of the rat VGF8a gene, the neurofilament light-chain gene, and the methallothionein gene) has been created. The activity of these plasmids was confirmed by expressing the recombinant NC1/34HL mAb in GH3 pituitary cells, PC12 pheochromocytoma cells, and COS cells. DNA from the described constructs can be used to target the expression of the NC1/34HL mAb to the central nervous system of transgenic mice. This procedure will allow us to perturb substance P activity in a controlled way in order to dissect its multiple roles. Images PMID:1712102

  13. Immunization with recombinantly expressed glycan antigens from Schistosoma mansoni induces glycan-specific antibodies against the parasite

    PubMed Central

    Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Luyai, Anthony E; Song, Xuezheng; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Mandalasi, Msano; Mickum, Megan; Smith, David F; Nyame, A Kwame; Cummings, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis caused by infection with parasitic helminths of Schistosoma spp. is a major global health problem due to inadequate treatment and lack of a vaccine. The immune response to schistosomes includes glycan antigens, which could be valuable diagnostic markers and vaccine targets. However, no precedent exists for how to design vaccines targeting eukaryotic glycoconjugates. The di- and tri-saccharide motifs LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1,4GlcNAc; LDN) and fucosylated LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1,4(Fucα1-3)GlcNAc; LDNF) are the basis for several important schistosome glycan antigens. They occur in monomeric form or as repeating units (poly-LDNF) and as part of a variety of different glycoconjugates. Because chemical synthesis and conjugation of such antigens is exceedingly difficult, we sought to develop a recombinant expression system for parasite glycans. We hypothesized that presentation of parasite glycans on the cell surface would induce glycan-specific antibodies. We generated Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) Lec8 cell lines expressing poly-LDN (L8-GT) and poly-LDNF (L8-GTFT) abundantly on their membrane glycoproteins. Sera from Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice were highly cross-reactive with the cells and with cell-surface N-glycans. Immunizing mice with L8-GT and L8-GTFT cells induced glycan-specific antibodies. The L8-GTFT cells induced a sustained booster response, with antibodies that bound to S. mansoni lysates and recapitulated the exquisite specificity of the anti-parasite response for particular presentations of LDNF antigen. In summary, this recombinant expression system promotes successful generation of antibodies to the glycans of S. mansoni, and it can be adapted to study the role of glycan antigens and anti-glycan immune responses in many other infections and pathologies. PMID:24727440

  14. Functional conservation of PISTILLATA activity in a pea homolog lacking the PI motif.

    PubMed

    Berbel, Ana; Navarro, Cristina; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Cañas, Luis Antonio; Beltrán, José-Pío; Madueño, Francisco

    2005-09-01

    Current understanding of floral development is mainly based on what we know from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and Antirrhinum majus. However, we can learn more by comparing developmental mechanisms that may explain morphological differences between species. A good example comes from the analysis of genes controlling flower development in pea (Pisum sativum), a plant with more complex leaves and inflorescences than Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, and a different floral ontogeny. The analysis of UNIFOLIATA (UNI) and STAMINA PISTILLOIDA (STP), the pea orthologs of LEAFY and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS, has revealed a common link in the regulation of flower and leaf development not apparent in Arabidopsis. While the Arabidopsis genes mainly behave as key regulators of flower development, where they control the expression of B-function genes, UNI and STP also contribute to the development of the pea compound leaf. Here, we describe the characterization of P. sativum PISTILLATA (PsPI), a pea MADS-box gene homologous to B-function genes like PI and GLOBOSA (GLO), from Arabidopsis and Antirrhinum, respectively. PsPI encodes for an atypical PI-type polypeptide that lacks the highly conserved C-terminal PI motif. Nevertheless, constitutive expression of PsPI in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and Arabidopsis shows that it can specifically replace the function of PI, being able to complement the strong pi-1 mutant. Accordingly, PsPI expression in pea flowers, which is dependent on STP, is identical to PI and GLO. Interestingly, PsPI is also transiently expressed in young leaves, suggesting a role of PsPI in pea leaf development, a possibility that fits with the established role of UNI and STP in the control of this process.

  15. The anti-inflammatory effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Impellizzeri, Daniela; Ahmad, Akbar; Bruschetta, Giuseppe; Di Paola, Rosanna; Crupi, Rosalia; Paterniti, Irene; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), an endogenous fatty acid amide belonging to the family of the N-acylethanolamines (NAEs), in rats subjected to endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). EIU was induced in male rats by a single footpad injection of 200μg lipopolysaccharide (LPS). PEA was administered intraperitoneally at 1h before and 7h after injection of LPS. Another group of animals was treated with vehicle. Dexamethasone (DEX) was administered as a positive control. Rats were sacrificed 16h after injection and the eyes tissues were collected for histology, immunohistochemical and western blot analyses. The histological evaluation of the iris-ciliary body showed an increase of neutrophilic infiltration and nuclear modification of vessel of endothelial cells. PEA treatment decreased the inflammatory cell infiltration and improved histological damage of eye tissues. In addition, PEA treatment reduced pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) levels, protein extravasion and lipid peroxidation. Immunohistochemical analysis for intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and nitrotyrosine showed a positive staining from LPS-injected rats. The degree of staining for ICAM-1 and nitrotyrosine was significantly reduced in eye sections from LPS-injected rats treated with PEA. In addition, an increase of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor (NF-κB) was also evaluated in inflammed ocular tissues by western blot. PEA strongly inhibited iNOS expression and nuclear NF-κB translocation. Thus, in this study we demonstrated that PEA reduces the degree of ocular inflammation in a rat model of EIU.

  16. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Expression of Methamphetamine Antibody Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Hyperactivity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wu, Kuo-Jen; Wu, Kuang-Lun; Wu, Kun-Lieh; Tsai, Ho-Min; Chen, Mao-Liang; Chen, Yi-Wei; Hsieh, Wei; Lin, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yun

    2017-04-07

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is one of the most frequently abused drugs worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that antibodies with high affinity for Meth reduce its pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for virus-based passive immunization against Meth effects. We generated a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-8 vector (AAV-MethAb) carrying the gene for a Meth-specific monoclonal antibody (MethAb). Infection of 293 cells with AAV-MethAb resulted in the expression and secretion of antibodies which bind to Meth. The viral vector was then examined in adult ICR mice. Systemic administration of AAV-MethAb resulted in long-term expression of MethAb in the serum for up to 29 weeks. Serum collected from the animals receiving AAV-MethAb retained a high specificity for (+)-Meth. Animals were challenged with Meth five weeks after viral injection. Meth levels in the brain and serum were reduced while Meth-induced locomotor activity was significantly attenuated. In conclusion, AAV-MethAb administration effectively depletes Meth from brain and serum while reducing the behavioral response to Meth, and thus is a potential therapeutic approach for Meth abuse.

  17. Recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus-Mediated Expression of Methamphetamine Antibody Attenuates Methamphetamine-Induced Hyperactivity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yun-Hsiang; Wu, Kuo-Jen; Wu, Kuang-Lun; Wu, Kun-Lieh; Tsai, Ho-Min; Chen, Mao-Liang; Chen, Yi-Wei; Hsieh, Wei; Lin, Chun-Ming; Wang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Methamphetamine (Meth) is one of the most frequently abused drugs worldwide. Recent studies have indicated that antibodies with high affinity for Meth reduce its pharmacological effects. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for virus-based passive immunization against Meth effects. We generated a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype-8 vector (AAV-MethAb) carrying the gene for a Meth-specific monoclonal antibody (MethAb). Infection of 293 cells with AAV-MethAb resulted in the expression and secretion of antibodies which bind to Meth. The viral vector was then examined in adult ICR mice. Systemic administration of AAV-MethAb resulted in long-term expression of MethAb in the serum for up to 29 weeks. Serum collected from the animals receiving AAV-MethAb retained a high specificity for (+)-Meth. Animals were challenged with Meth five weeks after viral injection. Meth levels in the brain and serum were reduced while Meth-induced locomotor activity was significantly attenuated. In conclusion, AAV-MethAb administration effectively depletes Meth from brain and serum while reducing the behavioral response to Meth, and thus is a potential therapeutic approach for Meth abuse. PMID:28387350

  18. DIFFERENTIATION AND FUNCTIONAL EXPRESSION OF POTENTIAL ANTIBODY-PRODUCING CELLS IN THE PRESENCE OF CHLORAMPHENICOL

    PubMed Central

    Schoenberg, Melvin D.; Moore, Richard D.; Weisberger, Austin S.

    1967-01-01

    Rabbits were immunized with diphtheria toxoid combined with complete Freund's adjuvant. Half of the animals were started on intramuscular injections of chloramphenicol 24 hr before the injection of the antigens. There was a general depression of protein synthesis in the immune system in the presence of chloramphenicol, but a greater effect on the synthesis of antibody than on the synthesis of proteins necessary for reproduction and maturation. In contrast to the finding of antibody in cells of the spleen and in the circulation of the control animals, those animals receiving chloramphenicol did not have measurable circulating antibody, and their spleens contained only a few cells with intracytoplasmic antibody late in the course of the experiment. Cytologically there was maturation of potential antibody-producing cells in the red pulp and nonfollicular white pulp of the spleen while the animals were receiving chloramphenicol. These cells developed more slowly, and were fewer and smaller than those of the control animals. They had numerous small, electron-opaque particles in their cytoplasm early in development. Ribosomes were synthesized, though fewer in number. The endoplasmic reticulum formed more slowly. PMID:10976231

  19. The present state of the art in expression, production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, Christopher L

    2016-02-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAb's) have become one the most powerful therapeutic and diagnostic tools in modern medicine. Some estimates target the worldwide market of MAb's on the order of $125 billion in the next four years. Recent advances in molecular biology, immunology, and development of robust production platforms will drive the development of more MAb's suitable to treat an ever increasing number of disease states. This circumstance combined with the fact that many of the original antibody therapies from the 1980 s and 1990 s will soon be coming off patent will attract a great deal of investment in the development of larger industrial facilities to increase monoclonal antibody to meet increasing demand. In this review, the present state of the science that underlies the development of new antibodies therapies in Chinese hamster ovary cells combined with a description of the present challenges facing the industry in terms of the limitations of output and compliance with current good manufacturing practices and FDA regulations. Also addressed are future challenges to overcome production bottlenecks, description of critical quality control attributes particular to antibodies, and detailed treatment of scale-up considerations.

  20. An integrated approach to identify normal tissue expression of targets for antibody-drug conjugates: case study of TENB2

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, C Andrew; Mundo, Eduardo E; Firestein, Ron; Zhang, Crystal; Mao, Weiguang; Gill, Herman; Young, Cynthia; Ljumanovic, Nina; Stainton, Shannon; Ulufatu, Sheila; Fourie, Aimee; Kozak, Katherine R; Fuji, Reina; Polakis, Paul; Khawli, Leslie A; Lin, Kedan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The success of antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) depends on the therapeutic window rendered by the differential expression between normal and pathological tissues. The ability to identify and visualize target expression in normal tissues could reveal causes for target-mediated clearance observed in pharmacokinetic characterization. TENB2 is a prostate cancer target associated with the progression of poorly differentiated and androgen-independent tumour types, and ADCs specific for TENB2 are candidate therapeutics. The objective of this study was to locate antigen expression of TENB2 in normal tissues, thereby elucidating the underlying causes of target-mediated clearance. Experimental Approach A series of pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and mass balance studies were conducted in mice using a radiolabelled anti-TENB2 ADC. These data were complemented by non-invasive single photon emission computed tomography – X-ray computed tomography imaging and immunohistochemistry. Key Results The intestines were identified as a saturable and specific antigen sink that contributes, at least in part, to the rapid target-mediated clearance of the anti-TENB2 antibody and its drug conjugate in rodents. As a proof of concept, we also demonstrated the selective disposition of the ADC in a tumoural environment in vivo using the LuCaP 77 transplant mouse model. High tumour uptake was observed despite the presence of the antigen sink, and antigen specificity was confirmed by antigen blockade. Conclusions and Implications Our findings provide the anatomical location and biological interpretation of target-mediated clearance of anti-TENB2 antibodies and corresponding drug conjugates. Further investigations may be beneficial in addressing the relative contributions to ADC disposition from antigen expression in both normal and pathological tissues. PMID:22889168

  1. A stable cytosolic expression of VH antibody fragment directed against PVY NIa protein in transgenic potato plant confers partial protection against the virus.

    PubMed

    Bouaziz, Donia; Ayadi, Malika; Bidani, Amira; Rouis, Souad; Nouri-Ellouz, Oumèma; Jellouli, Raïda; Drira, Noureddine; Gargouri-Bouzid, Radhia

    2009-04-01

    The expression of recombinant antibodies in transgenic plants has been proved to be an efficient approach for large-scale production. However, the stability of these molecules and their accumulation level depend on their molecular properties and cellular targeting. The expression of single-domain antibody fragment (VH) can be advantageous since it offers small length, high expression, solubility and stability. It can therefore be preferred to other antibody derivatives avoiding the expression difficulties related to immunoglobulin domain folding via the formation of disulfide bridge. This report describes the production of transgenic potato plants expressing a VH antibody directed against the NIa protease of potato virus Y. The antibody was driven by the constitutive CaMV 35S RNA promoter. The expression cassette was transferred into potato plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation. All transgenic lines showed detectable levels of VH protein confirming the efficient translation and stability of this protein. The cellular localisation of the VH antibody was investigated. Transgenic and control plants were transferred in the greenhouse and mechanically inoculated by PVY(o) suspension. Some of the transgenic lines showed delayed symptoms at the first period post inoculation and then displayed a recovery phenomenon while the virions were still detected in the leaves.

  2. Peas in a Pod: Environment and Ionization in Green Pea Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Heather; Jaskot, Anne; Drew, Patrick; Pare, Dylan; Griffin, Jon; Petersen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Green Peas are extreme, highly ionized, starburst galaxies with strong [OIII] 5007 emission. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we present statistics on the environment of Green Peas and investigate its effects on their ionized gas properties. Although most dwarf starburst galaxies are in low-density environments, we identify a sample of Green Peas in dense environments. Emission line observations with the WIYN 0.9-meter telescope at Kitt Peak reveal that one cluster Green Pea is more highly ionized in the direction of the cluster center. Ram pressure stripping likely generates this ionization gradient. We explore the role of the environment in enhancing star formation rates and ionization, and we compare the nebular properties of Green Peas in high-density environments to those in low-density environments.

  3. Pea DNA Topoisomerase I Is Phosphorylated and Stimulated by Casein Kinase 2 and Protein Kinase C

    PubMed Central

    Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Malireddy Kodandarami; Mudgil, Yashwanti; Yadav, Badam Singh; Chandok, Meena Rani; Sopory, Sudhir Kumar

    2003-01-01

    DNA topoisomerase I catalyzes the relaxation of superhelical DNA tension and is vital for DNA metabolism; therefore, it is essential for growth and development of plants. Here, we have studied the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of topoisomerase I from pea (Pisum sativum). The purified enzyme did not show autophosphorylation but was phosphorylated in an Mg2+-dependent manner by endogenous protein kinases present in pea nuclear extracts. This phosphorylation was abolished with calf intestinal alkaline phosphatase and lambda phosphatase. It was also phosphorylated by exogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2), protein kinase C (PKC; from animal sources), and an endogenous pea protein, which was purified using a novel phorbol myristate acetate affinity chromatography method. All of these phosphorylations were inhibited by heparin (inhibitor of CK2) and calphostin (inhibitor of PKC), suggesting that pea topoisomerase I is a bona fide substrate for these kinases. Spermine and spermidine had no effect on the CK2-mediated phosphorylation, suggesting that it is polyamine independent. Phospho-amino acid analysis showed that only serine residues were phosphorylated, which was further confirmed using antiphosphoserine antibody. The topoisomerase I activity increased after phosphorylation with exogenous CK2 and PKC. This study shows that these kinases may contribute to the physiological regulation of DNA topoisomerase I activity and overall DNA metabolism in plants. PMID:12913165

  4. Transfected Cell Microarrays for the Expression of Membrane-Displayed Single-Chain Antibodies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Appli- cations of single-chain variable fragment antibodies in therapeutics and diagnostics. Biotechnology Adv 27, 502–520. 6. Denzin , L. K...4-20. J Biol Chem 266, 14095–14103. Transfected Cell Microarrays 137 7. Denzin , L. K., Gulliver, G. A., Voss, E. W., Jr. (1993) Mutational analysis of

  5. Antibodies Expressed by Intratumoral B Cells as the Basis for a Diagnostic Test for Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    CD38 APC-Cy5.5, immunoglobulin M (IgM) FITC, and IgD PE (BD Biosciences, Mountain View, CA; Beckman Coulter, and Invitrogen). During the sort, we...the blot for 2 h at room temperature, washed the membrane, and detected bound antibody with goat anti-human IgGγ chain-HRP conjugate. This was

  6. Distinct expression profiles of Notch-1 protein in human solid tumors: Implications for development of targeted therapeutic monoclonal antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Burns, Janine A; Cheney, Carol A; Zhang, Ningyan; Vitelli, Salvatore; Wang, Fubao; Bett, Andrew; Chastain, Michael; Audoly, Laurent P; Zhang, Zhi-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Biological therapies, such as monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that target tumor-associated antigens have been considered an effective therapeutic approach in oncology. In considering Notch-1 receptor as a potential target, we performed immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays to determine 1) whether the receptor is overexpressed in tumor cells as compared to their corresponding normal tissues and 2) the clinical significance of its expression levels in human breast, colorectal, lung and prostate cancers. We found that the expression of Notch-1 protein was overexpressed in primary colorectal adenocarcinoma and nonsmall cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), but not in primary ductal breast carcinoma or prostate adenocarcinoma. Further analysis revealed that higher levels of Notch-1 protein expression were significantly associated with poorer differentiation of breast and prostate tumors. Strikingly, for NSCLC, the expression levels of Notch-1 protein were found to be inversely correlated with tumor differentiation and progression. For colorectal tumors, however, no correlation of Notch-1 protein expression was found with any tumor clinicopathological parameters, in spite of its overexpression in tumor cells. Our data demonstrated the complexity of Notch-1 protein expression in human solid tumors and further supported the notion that the roles of Notch-1 expression in tumorigenesis are highly context-dependent. The findings could provide the basis for development of distinct therapeutic strategies of Notch-1 mAbs for its applications in the treatment of suitable types of human cancers. PMID:20631820

  7. Administration of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) protects the neurovascular unit and reduces secondary injury after traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Akbar; Crupi, Rosalia; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Campolo, Michela; Marino, Angela; Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2012-11-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of preventable death and morbidity in young adults. This complex condition is characterized by significant blood brain barrier leakage that stems from cerebral ischemia, inflammation, and redox imbalances in the traumatic penumbra of the injured brain. Recovery of function after TBI is partly through neuronal plasticity. In order to test whether treatments that enhance plasticity might improve functional recovery, a controlled cortical impact (CCI) in adult mice, as a model of TBI, in which a controlled cortical impactor produced full thickness lesions of the forelimb region of the sensorimotor cortex, was performed. Once trauma has occurred, combating these exacerbations is the keystone of an effective TBI therapy. The endogenous fatty acid palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) is one of the members of N-acyl-ethanolamines family that maintain not only redox balance but also inhibit the mechanisms of secondary injury. Therefore, we tested whether PEA shows efficacy in a mice model of experimental TBI. PEA treatment is able to reduced edema and brain infractions as evidenced by decreased 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining across brain sections. PEA-mediated improvements in tissues histology shown by reduction of lesion size and improvement in apoptosis level further support the efficacy of PEA therapy. The PEA treatment blocked infiltration of astrocytes and restored CCI-mediated reduced expression of PAR, nitrotyrosine, iNOS, chymase, tryptase, CD11b and GFAP. PEA inhibited the TBI-mediated decrease in the expression of pJNK and NF-κB. PEA-treated injured animals improved neurobehavioral functions as evaluated by behavioral tests.

  8. One-step expression and purification of single-chain variable antibody fragment using an improved hexahistidine tag phagemid vector.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qi; Chan, Yin-Wah; Lee, Susanna Sau-Tuen; Cheung, Wing-Tai

    2009-12-01

    Millions of candidate clones are commonly obtained following rounds of phage-displayed antibody library panning, and expression of those selected single-chain variable fragment (scFv) is required for secondary functional screening to identify positive clones. Large scale functional screening is often hampered by the time-consuming and labor-intensive subcloning of those candidate scFv clones into a bacterial expression vector carrying an affinity tag for scFv purification and detection. To overcome the limitations and to develop a multiplex approach, an improved hexahistidine tag phagemid vector was constructed for one-step scFv expression and purification. By using hexahistidine as an affinity tag, soluble scFvs can be rapidly and cost-effectively captured from Escherichia coli periplasmic extracts. For proof-of-concept, feasibility of the improved phagemid vector was examined against two scFvs, L17E4d targeting a cell surface antigen and L18Hh5 recognizing a monoclonal antibody (mAb). Using 1 ml of Ni-NTA agarose, 0.2-0.5 mg of soluble scFv was obtained from 1 L of bacteria culture, and the purified scFvs bound specifically to their target antigens with high affinity. Moreover, using two randomly selected hapten-specific scFv phage clones, it was demonstrated that the display of scFvs on phage surface was not affected by the hexahistidine affinity tag. These results suggest the improved phagemid vector allows the shuttle of phage-displayed antibody library panning and functional scFv production. Importantly, the improved phagemid vector can be easily adapted for multiplex screening.

  9. The Pea Gene LH Encodes ent-Kaurene Oxidase1

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Sandra E.; Smith, Jennifer J.; Helliwell, Chris A.; Poole, Andrew T.; Reid, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) homolog, PsKO1, of the Arabidopsis GA3 gene was isolated. It codes for a cytochrome P450 from the CYP701A subfamily and has ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity, catalyzing the three step oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid in the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathway when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). PsKO1 is encoded by the LH gene because in three independent mutant alleles, lh-1, lh-2, and lh-3, PsKO1 has altered sequence, and the lh-1 allele, when expressed in yeast, failed to metabolize ent-kaurene. The lh mutants of pea are GA deficient and have reduced internode elongation and root growth. One mutant (lh-2) also causes a large increase in seed abortion. PsKO1 (LH) is expressed in all tissues examined, including stems, roots, and seeds, and appears to be a single-copy gene. Differences in sensitivity to the GA synthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, between the mutants appear to result from the distinct nature of the genetic lesions. These differences may also explain the tissue-specific differences between the mutants. PMID:14988475

  10. The pea gene LH encodes ent-kaurene oxidase.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Sandra E; Smith, Jennifer J; Helliwell, Chris A; Poole, Andrew T; Reid, James B

    2004-03-01

    The pea (Pisum sativum) homolog, PsKO1, of the Arabidopsis GA3 gene was isolated. It codes for a cytochrome P450 from the CYP701A subfamily and has ent-kaurene oxidase (KO) activity, catalyzing the three step oxidation of ent-kaurene to ent-kaurenoic acid in the gibberellin (GA) biosynthetic pathway when expressed in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). PsKO1 is encoded by the LH gene because in three independent mutant alleles, lh-1, lh-2, and lh-3, PsKO1 has altered sequence, and the lh-1 allele, when expressed in yeast, failed to metabolize ent-kaurene. The lh mutants of pea are GA deficient and have reduced internode elongation and root growth. One mutant (lh-2) also causes a large increase in seed abortion. PsKO1 (LH) is expressed in all tissues examined, including stems, roots, and seeds, and appears to be a single-copy gene. Differences in sensitivity to the GA synthesis inhibitor, paclobutrazol, between the mutants appear to result from the distinct nature of the genetic lesions. These differences may also explain the tissue-specific differences between the mutants.

  11. Enhancement of antibody fragment secretion into the Escherichia coli periplasm by co-expression with the peptidyl prolyl isomerase, FkpA, in the cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Levy, Raphael; Ahluwalia, Kiran; Bohmann, David J; Giang, Hoa M; Schwimmer, Lauren J; Issafras, Hassan; Reddy, Nithin B; Chan, Chung; Horwitz, Arnold H; Takeuchi, Toshihiko

    2013-08-30

    Improper protein folding or aggregation can frequently be responsible for low expression and poor functional activity of antibody fragments secreted into the Escherichia coli periplasm. Expression issues also can affect selection of antibody candidates from phage libraries, since antibody fragments displayed on phage also are secreted into the E. coli periplasm. To improve secretion of properly folded antibody fragments into the periplasm, we have developed a novel approach that involves co-expressing the antibody fragments with the peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase, FkpA, lacking its signal sequence (cytFkpA) which consequently is expressed in the E. coli cytosol. Cytoplasmic expression of cytFkpA improved secretion of functional Fab fragments into the periplasm, exceeding even the benefits from co-expressing Fab fragments with native, FkpA localized in the periplasm. In addition, panning and subsequent screening of large Fab and scFv naïve phage libraries in the presence of cytFkpA significantly increased the number of unique clones selected, as well as their functional expression levels and diversity.

  12. CHO-S antibody titers >1 gram/liter using flow electroporation-mediated transient gene expression followed by rapid migration to high-yield stable cell lines.

    PubMed

    Steger, Krista; Brady, James; Wang, Weili; Duskin, Meg; Donato, Karen; Peshwa, Madhusudan

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, researchers have turned to transient gene expression (TGE) as an alternative to CHO stable cell line generation for early-stage antibody development. Despite advances in transfection methods and culture optimization, the majority of CHO-based TGE systems produce insufficient antibody titers for extensive use within biotherapeutic development pipelines. Flow electroporation using the MaxCyte STX Scalable Transfection System is a highly efficient, scalable means of CHO-based TGE for gram-level production of antibodies without the need for specialized expression vectors or genetically engineered CHO cell lines. CHO cell flow electroporation is easily scaled from milligram to multigram quantities without protocol reoptimization while maintaining transfection performance and antibody productivity. In this article, data are presented that demonstrate the reproducibility, scalability, and antibody production capabilities of CHO-based TGE using the MaxCyte STX. Data show optimization of posttransfection parameters such as cell density, media composition, and feed strategy that result in secreted antibody titers >1 g/L and production of multiple grams of antibody within 2 weeks of a single CHO-S cell transfection. In addition, data are presented to demonstrate the application of scalable electroporation for the rapid generation of high-yield stable CHO cell lines to bridge the gap between early- and late-stage antibody development activities.

  13. Expression of an anti-botulinum toxin A neutralizing single-chain Fv recombinant antibody in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Almquist, Kurt C; McLean, Michael D; Niu, Yongqing; Byrne, Greg; Olea-Popelka, Fernando C; Murrant, Coral; Barclay, Jack; Hall, J Christopher

    2006-03-15

    Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are the most poisonous substances known and are thus classified as high-risk threats for use as bioterror agents. To examine the potential of transgenic plants as bioreactors for the production of BoNT antidotes, we transformed tobacco with an optimized, synthetic gene encoding a botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) neutralizing single-chain Fv (scFv) recombinant antibody fragment. In vitro mouse muscle twitch assays demonstrated the functional utility of this scFv extracted from tobacco for neutralizing the paralytic effects of BoNT/A at neuromuscular junctions. Based on the efficiency of the scFv capture process and the dose required to antidote a human being, 1-2 ha of this tobacco could yield up to 4 kg of scFv, which would be enough to contribute to the manufacture of 1,000,000 therapeutic doses of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) cocktail capable of neutralizing the effects of BoNT poisoning. Transgenic plants could provide an inexpensive production platform for expression of multiple mAbs toward the creation of polyclonal therapies (i.e. pooled mAbs) as the next improvement in recombinant antibody therapy.

  14. PED/PEA-15 interacts with the 67 kD laminin receptor and regulates cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Formisano, Pietro; Ragno, Pia; Pesapane, Ada; Alfano, Daniela; Alberobello, Anna Teresa; Rea, Vincenza Elena Anna; Giusto, Raffaella; Rossi, Francesca W; Beguinot, Francesco; Rossi, Guido; Montuori, Nunzia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes-15 kD (PED/PEA-15) is an anti-apoptotic protein whose expression is increased in several human cancers. In addition to apoptosis, PED/PEA-15 is involved in the regulation of other major cellular functions, including cell adhesion, migration, proliferation and glucose metabolism. To further understand the functions of this protein, we performed a yeast two-hybrid screening using PED/PEA-15 as a bait and identified the 67 kD high-affinity laminin receptor (67LR) as an interacting partner. 67 kD laminin receptor is a non-integrin cell-surface receptor for the extracellular matrix (ECM), derived from the dimerization of a 37 kD cytosolic precursor (37LRP). The 67LR is highly expressed in human cancers and widely recognized as a molecular marker of metastatic aggressiveness. The molecular interaction of PED/PEA-15 with 67LR was confirmed by pull-down experiments with recombinant His-tagged 37LRP on lysates of PED/PEA-15 transfected HEK-293 cells. Further, overexpressed or endogenous PED/PEA-15 was co-immunoprecipitated with 67LR in PED/PEA-15-transfected HEK-293 cells and in U-373 glioblastoma cells, respectively. PED/PEA-15 overexpression significantly increased 67LR-mediated HEK-293 cell adhesion and migration to laminin that, in turn, determined PED/PEA-15 phosphorylation both in Ser-104 and Ser-116, thus enabling cell proliferation and resistance to apoptosis. PED/PEA-15 ability to induce cell responses to ECM-derived signals through interaction with 67LR may be of crucial importance for tumour cell survival in a poor microenvironment, thus favouring the metastatic spread and colonization. PMID:21895963

  15. 1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  16. NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTHWEST OBLIQUE AERIAL VIEW OF FORT DELAWARE AND PEA PATCH ISLAND. REMAINS OF SEA WALL VISIBLE IN FOREGROUND AND RIGHT OF IMAGE - Fort Delaware, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  17. Immunofluorescence detection of pea protein in meat products.

    PubMed

    Petrášová, Michaela; Pospiech, Matej; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Javůrková, Zdeňka

    2016-08-01

    In this study we developed an immunofluorescence method to detect pea protein in meat products. Pea protein has a high nutritional value but in sensitive individuals it may be responsible for causing allergic reactions. We produced model meat products with various additions of pea protein and flour; the detection limit (LOD) of the method for pea flour was 0.5% addition, and for pea protein it was 0.001% addition. The repeatabilities and reproducibilities for samples both positive and negative for pea protein were all 100%. In a blind test with model products and commercial samples, there was no statistically significant difference (p > 0.05) between the declared concentrations of pea protein and flour and the immunofluorescence method results. Sensitivity was 1.06 and specificity was 1.00. These results show that the immunofluorescence method is suitable for the detection of pea protein in meat products.

  18. A Novel PET Imaging Using 64Cu-Labeled Monoclonal Antibody against Mesothelin Commonly Expressed on Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Kazuko; Sasaki, Takanori; Takenaka, Fumiaki; Yakushiji, Hiromasa; Fujii, Yoshihiro; Kishi, Yoshiro; Kita, Shoichi; Shen, Lianhua; Kumon, Hiromi; Matsuura, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Mesothelin (MSLN) is a 40-kDa cell differentiation-associated glycoprotein appearing with carcinogenesis and is highly expressed in many human cancers, including the majority of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, ovarian cancers, and mesotheliomas, while its expression in normal tissue is limited to mesothelial cells lining the pleura, pericardium, and peritoneum. Clone 11-25 is a murine hybridoma secreting monoclonal antibody (mAb) against human MSLN. In this study, we applied the 11-25 mAb to in vivo imaging to detect MSLN-expressing tumors. In in vitro and ex vivo immunochemical studies, we demonstrated specificity of 11-25 mAb to membranous MSLN expressed on several pancreatic cancer cells. We showed the accumulation of Alexa Fluor 750-labeled 11-25 mAb in MSLN-expressing tumor xenografts in athymic nude mice. Then, 11-25 mAb was labeled with 64Cu via a chelating agent DOTA and was used in both in vitro cell binding assay and in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the tumor-bearing mice. We confirmed that 64Cu-labeled 11-25 mAb highly accumulated in MSLN-expressing tumors as compared to MSLN-negative ones. The 64Cu-labeled 11-25 mAb is potentially useful as a PET probe capable of being used for wide range of tumors, rather than 18F-FDG that occasionally provides nonspecific accumulation into the inflammatory lesions. PMID:25883990

  19. Enforced BCL2 expression in B-lymphoid cells prolongs antibody responses and elicits autoimmune disease.

    PubMed Central

    Strasser, A; Whittingham, S; Vaux, D L; Bath, M L; Adams, J M; Cory, S; Harris, A W

    1991-01-01

    The biological functions of the BCL2 gene were investigated in transgenic mice harboring human BCL2 cDNA under the control of an immunoglobulin heavy chain enhancer (E mu). Mice of a representative transgenic strain, E mu-bcl-2-22, had a great excess of B lymphocytes, immunoglobulin-secreting cells, and serum immunoglobulins, attributable to increased longevity of B-lineage cells. Pre-B and plasma cells as well as B cells exhibited prolonged survival in culture. Immunized animals produced an amplified and protracted antibody response. Within the first year of life, most mice spontaneously produced antibodies to nuclear antigens, and 60% developed kidney disease, diagnosed as immune complex glomerulonephritis. Thus E mu-bcl-2-22 mice constitute a transgenic model for a systemic autoimmune disease resembling the human disorder systemic lupus erythematosus. Images PMID:1924327

  20. Differential expression of anti-glycan antibodies in schistosome-infected humans, rhesus monkeys and mice

    PubMed Central

    Luyai, Anthony E; Heimburg-Molinaro, Jamie; Prasanphanich, Nina Salinger; Mickum, Megan L; Lasanajak, Yi; Song, Xuezheng; Nyame, A Kwame; Wilkins, Patricia; Rivera-Marrero, Carlos A; Smith, David F; Van Die, Irma; Secor, W Evan; Cummings, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a debilitating parasitic disease of humans, endemic in tropical areas, for which no vaccine is available. Evidence points to glycan antigens as being important in immune responses to infection. Here we describe our studies on the comparative humoral immune responses to defined schistosome-type glycan epitopes in Schistosoma mansoni-infected humans, rhesus monkeys and mice. Rhesus anti-glycan responses over the course of infection were screened on a defined glycan microarray comprising semi-synthetic glycopeptides terminating with schistosome-associated or control mammalian-type glycan epitopes, as well as a defined glycan microarray of mammalian-type glycans representing over 400 glycan structures. Infected rhesus monkeys generated a high immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose epitope of N-glycans, which peaked at 8–11 weeks post infection, coinciding with maximal ability to kill schistosomula in vitro. By contrast, infected humans generated low antibody levels to this epitope. At 18 months following praziquantel therapy to eliminate the parasite, antibody levels were negligible. Mice chronically infected with S. mansoni generated high levels of anti-fucosylated LacdiNAc (GalNAcβ1, 4(Fucα1, 3)GlcNAc) IgM antibodies, but lacked a robust response to the core xylose/core α3 fucose N-glycan antigens compared with other species studied, and their sera demonstrated an intermediate level of schistosomula killing in vitro. These differential responses to parasite glycan antigens may be related to the ability of rhesus monkeys to self-cure in contrast to the chronic infection seen in humans and mice. Our results validate defined glycan microarrays as a useful technology to evaluate diagnostic and vaccine antigens for schistosomiasis and perhaps other infections. PMID:24727442

  1. Antibodies Expressed by Intratumoral B Cells as the Basis for a Diagnostic Test for Lung Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    we washed the ITLs in PBS and stained them with Aqua vital dye (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA ) and the following anti-human antibodies: CD3 phycoerythrin...IgM) FITC, and IgD PE (BD Biosciences, Mountain View, CA ; Beckman Coulter, and Invitrogen). During the sort, we used forward- versus side-scatter... CA ) and analyzed the data with FlowJo (Tree Star, Ashland, OR). Deep Sequencing Results Sorting of B cells from ITLs In order to use deep

  2. c-Kit expression in desmoid fibromatosis. Comparative immunohistochemical evaluation of two commercial antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lucas, David R; al-Abbadi, Mousa; Tabaczka, Pamela; Hamre, Merlin R; Weaver, Donald W; Mott, Michael J

    2003-03-01

    To determine the frequency of c-Kit staining in desmoids and optimize an assay for clinical use, we stained 19 desmoids from various sites at various dilutions with 2 commonly used rabbit polyclonal, anti-c-Kit antibodies (A4502, DAKO, Carpinteria, CA; C-19, Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Santa Cruz, CA), with and without heat-induced epitope retrieval (HIER) in citrate buffer. Approdpriate external and internal control samples were evaluated for each test condition. At dilutions of 1:50 both antibodies stained substantial numbers of desmoids: with/without HIER, A4502, 89%/63%; C-19, 37%/74%. The staining was cytoplasmic without cell membrane accentuation. However, background stromal staining and nonspecific staining of endothelium and smooth and striated muscle were problematic with both antibodies at 1:50. At higher dilutions, C-19 stained no desmoid; however, diminished staining of external and internal control samples made it unreliable. A4502 similarly stained many fewer desmoids at higher dilutions. However, it retained strong staining of both external and internal control samples and showed much less nonspecific staining. Best results were achieved at 1:250 without HIER; only weak focal staining was present in 1 desmoid. With a simple immunohistochemical method optimized for clinical use, desmoid can be regarded as a c-Kit-negative tumor.

  3. Expression Cloning and Production of Human Heavy-Chain-Only Antibodies from Murine Transgenic Plasma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Drabek, Dubravka; Janssens, Rick; de Boer, Ernie; Rademaker, Rik; Kloess, Johannes; Skehel, John; Grosveld, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Several technologies have been developed to isolate human antibodies against different target antigens as a source of potential therapeutics, including hybridoma technology, phage and yeast display systems. For conventional antibodies, this involves either random pairing of VH and variable light (VL) domains in combinatorial display libraries or isolation of cognate pairs of VH and VL domains from human B cells or from transgenic mice carrying human immunoglobulin loci followed by single-cell sorting, single-cell RT-PCR, and bulk cloning of isolated natural VH–VL pairs. Heavy-chain-only antibodies (HCAbs) that naturally occur in camelids require only heavy immunoglobulin chain cloning. Here, we present an automatable novel, high-throughput technology for rapid direct cloning and production of fully human HCAbs from sorted population of transgenic mouse plasma cells carrying a human HCAb locus. Utility of the technique is demonstrated by isolation of diverse sets of sequence unique, soluble, high-affinity influenza A strain X-31 hemagglutinin-specific HCAbs. PMID:28066429

  4. Production of different glycosylation variants of the tumour-targeting mAb H10 in Nicotiana benthamiana: influence on expression yield and antibody degradation.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Raffaele; Donini, Marcello; Villani, Maria Elena; Brunetti, Patrizia; Fujiyama, Kazuhito; Kajiura, Hiroyuki; Paul, Matthew; Ma, Julian K-C; Benvenuto, Eugenio

    2012-10-01

    We previously described the expression of a tumour-targeting antibody (mAb H10) in Nicotiana benthamiana by vacuum-agro-infiltration and the remarkable yields of highly pure protein achieved. The objective of the present work was to investigate different strategies for transient overexpression of the mAb H10 in which glycan configuration was modulated and assess how these strategies affect the accumulation yield and stability of the antibody. To this aim, three procedures have been assayed: (1) Site-directed mutagenesis to abolish the glycosylation site; (2) endoplasmic reticulum retention (C-terminal SEKDEL fusion) to ensure predominantly high-mannose type glycans; and (3) expression in a N. benthamiana RNAi down-regulated line in which β1,2-xylosyltransferase and α1,3-fucosyltransferase gene expression is silenced. The three antibody variants (H10-Mut) (H10-SEKDEL) (H10(XylT/FucT)) were transiently expressed, purified and characterised for their glycosylation profile, expression/purification yield and antibody degradation pattern. Glycosylation analysis of H10(XylT/FucT) demonstrated the absence of plant complex-type sugars, while H10-SEKDEL, although substantially retained in the ER, revealed the presence of β1,2-xylose and α1,3-fucose residues, indicating a partial escape from the ER retrieval system. Antibody accumulation and purification yields were not enhanced by ER retention. All H10 antibody glyco-forms revealed greater degradation compared to the original, resulting mostly in the formation of Fab fragments. In the case of aglycosylated H10-Mut, more than 95% of the heavy chain was cleaved, confirming the pivotal role of the sugar moiety in protein stability. Identification of possible 'fragile' sites in the H10 antibody hinge region could be of general interest for the development of new strategies to reduce antibody degradation and increase the yield of intact IgGs in plants.

  5. Functional expression of a single-chain antibody to ErbB-2 in plants and cell-free systems

    PubMed Central

    Galeffi, Patrizia; Lombardi, Alessio; Pietraforte, Immacolata; Novelli, Flavia; Di Donato, Monica; Sperandei, Maria; Tornambé, Andrea; Fraioli, Rocco; Martayan, Aline; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Benevolo, Maria; Mottolese, Marcella; Ylera, Francisco; Cantale, Cristina; Giacomini, Patrizio

    2006-01-01

    Background Aberrant signaling by ErbB-2 (HER 2, Neu), a member of the human Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) receptor family, is associated with an aggressive clinical behaviour of carcinomas, particularly breast tumors. Antibodies targeting the ErbB-2 pathway are a preferred therapeutic option for patients with advanced breast cancer, but a worldwide deficit in the manufacturing capacities of mammalian cell bioreactors is foreseen. Methods Herein, we describe a multi-platform approach for the production of recombinant Single chain Fragments of antibody variable regions (ScFvs) to ErbB-2 that involves their functional expression in (a) bacteria, (b) transient as well as stable transgenic tobacco plants, and (c) a newly developed cell-free transcription-translation system. Results An ScFv (ScFv800E6) was selected by cloning immunoglobulin sequences from murine hybridomas, and was expressed and fully functional in all the expression platforms, thereby representing the first ScFv to ErbB-2 produced in hosts other than bacteria and yeast. ScFv800E6 was optimized with respect to redox synthesis conditions. Different tags were introduced flanking the ScFv800E6 backbone, with and without spacer arms, including a novel Strep II tag that outperforms conventional streptavidin-based detection systems. ScFv800E6 was resistant to standard chemical radiolabeling procedures (i.e. Chloramine T), displayed a binding ability extremely similar to that of the parental monovalent Fab' fragment, as well as a flow cytometry performance and an equilibrium binding affinity (Ka approximately 2 × 108 M-1) only slightly lower than those of the parental bivalent antibody, suggesting that its binding site is conserved as compared to that of the parental antibody molecule. ScFv800E6 was found to be compatible with routine reagents for immunohistochemical staining. Conclusion ScFv800E6 is a useful reagent for in vitro biochemical and immunodiagnostic applications in oncology, and a candidate for

  6. Pea weevil damage and chemical characteristics of pea cultivars determining their resistance to Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, I

    2016-04-01

    Bruchus pisorum (L.) is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea in Europe. Development of resistant cultivars is very important to environmental protection and would solve this problem to a great extent. Therefore, the resistance of five spring pea cultivars was studied to B. pisorum: Glyans, Modus; Kamerton and Svit and Pleven 4 based on the weevil damage and chemical composition of seeds. The seeds were classified as three types: healthy seeds (type one), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (type two) and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes (type three). From visibly damaged pea seeds by pea weevil B. pisorum was isolated the parasitoid Triaspis thoracica Curtis (Hymenoptera, Braconidae). Modus, followed by Glyans was outlined as resistant cultivars against the pea weevil. They had the lowest total damaged seed degree, loss in weight of damaged seeds (type two and type three) and values of susceptibility coefficients. A strong negative relationship (r = -0.838) between the weight of type one seeds and the proportion of type three seeds was found. Cultivars with lower protein and phosphorus (P) content had a lower level of damage. The crude protein, crude fiber and P content in damaged seeds significantly or no significantly were increased as compared with the healthy seeds due to weevil damage. The P content had the highest significant influence on pea weevil infestation. Use of chemical markers for resistance to the creation of new pea cultivars can be effective method for defense and control against B. pisorum.

  7. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop insurance provisions. The Green Pea Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years are as...

  8. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... business enterprise regularly engaged in the processing of contract seed peas, that possesses all licenses... example, if damaged smooth green and yellow pea acreage is replanted to lentils, the price election and... share in 100 acres of spring-planted smooth green dry edible peas in the unit, with a 70...

  9. 7 CFR 457.137 - Green pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Green pea crop insurance provisions. 457.137 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.137 Green pea crop insurance provisions. The Green Pea Crop Insurance Provisions for the 1998 and succeeding crop years are as...

  10. 7 CFR 457.140 - Dry pea crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... business enterprise regularly engaged in the processing of contract seed peas, that possesses all licenses... example, if damaged smooth green and yellow pea acreage is replanted to lentils, the price election and... share in 100 acres of spring-planted smooth green dry edible peas in the unit, with a 70...

  11. Potential alternative hosts for a powdery mildew on pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of pea (Pisum sativum) is an important disease in the field and in the greenhouse. The most widely documented powdery mildew on pea is Erysiphe pisi, but E. trifolii and E. baeumleri have also been reported. From greenhouse-grown peas, we obtained powdery mildew samples with rDNA ITS ...

  12. 78 FR 68410 - United States Standards for Whole Dry Peas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... peas.'' These changes are being proposed at the request of the Dry Pea industry and will help facilitate the marketing of the class, Smooth Yellow Dry Peas and help ensure the purity of classes for Whole... Section 203(c) of the Agricultural Marketing Act of 1946, as amended (AMA) (7 U.S.C. 1622(c)), directs...

  13. Pea Disease Diagnostic Series- Rhizoctonia seed, seedling and root rot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea disease diagnostic cards that growers can carry with them into the field that are water resistant and durable which can be used to identify the signs and symptoms of major pea pathogens were developed. Color photographs of major fungal, bacterial, and viral pathogens on peas and a brief descript...

  14. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna *

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-01-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  15. Developing antibodies from cholinesterase derived from prokaryotic expression and testing their feasibility for detecting immunogen content in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-cui; Yuan, Bing-qiang; Li, Shao-nan

    2016-02-01

    To yield cholinesterase (ChE) from prokaryotic expression, the ChE gene that belongs to Daphnia magna was amplified by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using forward primer 5'-CCCYGGNGCSAT GATGTG-3' and reverse primer 5'-GYAAGTTRGCCCAATATCT-3'. To express the gene, one sequence of the amplified DNA, which was able to encode a putative protein containing two conserved carboxylesterase domains, was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector PET-29a(+). The recombinant vector was transformed into Escherichia coil BL21 (DE3). Protein expression was induced by isopropy-D-thiogalactoside. The expressed ChE was used as an immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. The obtained antibodies were tested for their specificity towards crude enzymes from species such as Alona milleri, Macrobrachium nipponense, Bombyx mori, Chironomus kiiensis, Apis mellifera, Eisenia foetida, Brachydanio rerio, and Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that the antibodies had specificity suitable for detecting ChE in Daphnia magna. A type of indirect and non-competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (IN-ELISA) was used to test the immunoreactive content of ChE (ChE-IR) in Daphina magna. The detection limit of the IN-ELISA was found to be 14.5 ng/ml at an antiserum dilution of 1:22 000. Results from tests on Daphnia magna exposed to sublethal concentrations of triazophos indicated a maximal induction of 57.2% in terms of ChE-IR on the second day after the animals were exposed to a concentration of 2.10 μg/L triazophos. Testing on animals acclimatized to a temperature of 16 °C indicated that ChE-IR was induced by 16.9% compared with the ChE-IR content detected at 21 °C, and the rate of induction was 25.6% at 10 °C. The IN-ELISA was also used to test the stability of ChE-IR in collected samples. Repeated freezing and thawing had no influence on the outcome of the test. All these results suggest that the polyclonal antibodies developed against the recombinant ChE are as

  16. A lytic monoclonal antibody to Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes which recognizes an epitope expressed in tissues affected in Chagas' disease.

    PubMed Central

    Zwirner, N W; Malchiodi, E L; Chiaramonte, M G; Fossati, C A

    1994-01-01

    It has been suggested that molecular mimicry between the antigens of Trypanosoma cruzi and the host could have a role in the onset of the chronic stage of Chagas' disease. In this article, we report on a monoclonal antibody (MAb), CAK20.12 (immunoglobulin G2b), which reacts with a polypeptidic epitope of a 150-kDa antigen expressed on the surface of several strains of T. cruzi. This MAb also causes lysis of bloodstream trypomastigotes. Serum samples from 30 of 30 patients with chronic and 11 of 13 patients with acute Chagas' disease present specific antibodies to this antigen. MAb CAK20.12 reacts, by indirect immunofluorescence, with human and syngeneic murine striated muscle tissue, with the smooth muscle layer of cardiac arteries, with the lamina muscularis mucosae and the external striated muscle layer of the esophagus, and with the smooth muscle cells of the colon from normal syngeneic mice. Reactivity with the small intestine was very weak, and no reactivity with ventricle or atrium tissue was detected. Adsorption with an antigenic fraction from normal murine striated muscle or from T. cruzi epimastigotes confirmed that MAb CAK20.12 recognizes a common epitope present in parasites and host tissues. MAb CAK20.12, lytic for the infective form of T. cruzi, recognizes an epitope expressed in striated and smooth muscle cells of the host tissues affected in the chronic stage of Chagas' disease. Images PMID:7514576

  17. A neutralization test for specific detection of Nipah virus antibodies using pseudotyped vesicular stomatitis virus expressing green fluorescent protein.

    PubMed

    Kaku, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Akira; Marsh, Glenn A; McEachern, Jennifer A; Okutani, Akiko; Hotta, Kozue; Bazartseren, Boldbaatar; Fukushi, Shuetsu; Broder, Christopher C; Yamada, Akio; Inoue, Satoshi; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2009-09-01

    Nipah virus (NiV) is a new zoonotic paramyxovirus that emerged in 1998 and is now classified in the genus Henipavirus along with the closely related Hendra virus (HeV). NiV is highly pathogenic in several vertebrate species including humans, and the lack of available vaccines or specific treatment restricts it to biosafety level 4 (BSL4) containment. A serum neutralization test was developed for measuring NiV neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 conditions using a recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and bearing the F and G proteins of NiV (VSV-NiV-GFP). The neutralization titers were obtained by counting GFP-expressing cells or by measuring fluorescence. The performance of this new assay was compared against the conventional test using live NiV with panels of sera from several mammalian species, including sera from NiV outbreaks, experimental infections, as well as HeV-specific sera. The results obtained with the VSV-NiV-GFP based test correlated with those obtained using live NiV. Using a 50% reduction in VSV-NiV-GFP infected cells as the cut-off for neutralization, this new assay demonstrated its potential as an effective tool for detecting NiV neutralizing antibodies under BSL2 containment with greater speed, sensitivity and safety as compared to the conventional NiV serum neutralization test.

  18. Improvement of pea biomass and seed productivity by simultaneous increase of phloem and embryo loading with amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lizhi; Garneau, Matthew G; Majumdar, Rajtilak; Grant, Jan; Tegeder, Mechthild

    2015-01-01

    The development of sink organs such as fruits and seeds strongly depends on the amount of nitrogen that is moved within the phloem from photosynthetic-active source leaves to the reproductive sinks. In many plant species nitrogen is transported as amino acids. In pea (Pisum sativum L.), source to sink partitioning of amino acids requires at least two active transport events mediated by plasma membrane-localized proteins, and these are: (i) amino acid phloem loading; and (ii) import of amino acids into the seed cotyledons via epidermal transfer cells. As each of these transport steps might potentially be limiting to efficient nitrogen delivery to the pea embryo, we manipulated both simultaneously. Additional copies of the pea amino acid permease PsAAP1 were introduced into the pea genome and expression of the transporter was targeted to the sieve element-companion cell complexes of the leaf phloem and to the epidermis of the seed cotyledons. The transgenic pea plants showed increased phloem loading and embryo loading of amino acids resulting in improved long distance transport of nitrogen, sink development and seed protein accumulation. Analyses of root and leaf tissues further revealed that genetic manipulation positively affected root nitrogen uptake, as well as primary source and sink metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that amino acid phloem loading exerts regulatory control over pea biomass production and seed yield, and that import of amino acids into the cotyledons limits seed protein levels.

  19. Stamina pistilloida, the Pea ortholog of Fim and UFO, is required for normal development of flowers, inflorescences, and leaves.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S; Hofer, J; Murfet, I

    2001-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of two severe alleles at the Stamina pistilloida (Stp) locus reveals that Stp is involved in a wide range of developmental processes in the garden pea. The most severe allele, stp-4, results in flowers consisting almost entirely of sepals and carpels. Production of ectopic secondary flowers in stp-4 plants suggests that Stp is involved in specifying floral meristem identity in pea. The stp mutations also reduce the complexity of the compound pea leaf, and primary inflorescences often terminate prematurely in an aberrant sepaloid flower. In addition, stp mutants were shorter than their wild-type siblings due to a reduction in cell number in their internodes. Fewer cells were also found in the epidermis of the leaf rachis of stp mutants. Examination of the effects of stp-4 in double mutant combinations with af, tl, det, and veg2-2-mutations known to influence leaf, inflorescence, and flower development in pea-suggests that Stp function is independent of these genes. A synergistic interaction between weak mutant alleles at Stp and Uni indicated that these two genes act together, possibly to regulate primordial growth. Molecular analysis revealed that Stp is the pea homolog of the Antirrhinum gene Fimbriata (Fim) and of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Differences between Fim/UFO and Stp mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggest that expansion of Stp activity into the leaf was an important step during evolution of the compound leaf in the garden pea.

  20. Oral delivery of Acid Alpha Glucosidase epitopes expressed in plant chloroplasts suppresses antibody formation in treatment of Pompe mice

    PubMed Central

    Su, Jin; Sherman, Alexandra; Doerfler, Phillip A.; Byrne, Barry J.; Herzog, Roland W.; Daniell, Henry

    2015-01-01

    Summary Deficiency of acid alpha glucosidase (GAA) causes Pompe disease in which the patients systemically accumulate lysosomal glycogen in muscles and nervous systems, often resulting in infant mortality. Although enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is effective in treating patients with Pompe disease, formation of antibodies against rhGAA complicates treatment. In this report, we investigated induction of tolerance by oral administration of GAA expressed in chloroplasts. Because full-length GAA could not be expressed, N-terminal 410-amino acids of GAA (as determined by T-cell epitope mapping) were fused with the transmucosal carrier CTB. Tobacco transplastomic lines expressing CTB-GAA were generated through site-specific integration of transgenes into the chloroplast genome. Homoplasmic lines were confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Despite low-level expression of CTB-GAA in chloroplasts, yellow or albino phenotype of transplastomic lines was observed due to binding of GAA to a chloroplast protein that has homology to mannose-6 phosphate receptor. Oral administration of the plant-made CTB-GAA fusion protein even at 330-fold lower dose (1.5 μg) significantly suppressed immunoglobulin formation against GAA in Pompe mice injected with 500 μg rhGAA per dose, with several-fold lower titre of GAA-specific IgG1 and IgG2a. Lyophilization increased CTB-GAA concentration by 30-fold (up to 190 μg per g of freeze-dried leaf material), facilitating long-term storage at room temperature and higher dosage in future investigations. This study provides the first evidence that oral delivery of plant cells is effective in reducing antibody responses in ERT for lysosomal storage disorders facilitating further advances in clinical investigations using plant cell culture system or in vitro propagation. PMID:26053072

  1. Anti-Nuclear Antibody Production and Autoimmunity in Transgenic Mice that Over-Express the Transcription Factor Bright

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, Malini; Nixon, Jamee C.; Maier, Shannon; Workman, Jennifer; Farris, A. Darise; Webb, Carol F.

    2009-01-01

    The B cell-restricted transcription factor, Bright, up-regulates immunoglobulin heavy chain transcription three- to seven-fold in activated B cells in vitro. Bright function is dependent upon both active Bruton’s tyrosine kinase and its substrate, the transcription factor, TFII-I. In mouse and human B lymphocytes, Bright transcription is down regulated in mature B cells, and its expression is tightly regulated during B cell differentiation. To determine how Bright expression affects B cell development, transgenic mice were generated that express Bright constitutively in all B lineage cells. These mice exhibited increases in total B220+ B lymphocyte lineage cells in the bone marrow, but the relative percentages of the individual subpopulations were not altered. Splenic immature transitional B cells were significantly expanded both in total cell numbers and as increased percentages of cells relative to other B cell subpopulations. Serum immunoglobulin levels, particularly IgG isotypes, were increased slightly in the Bright transgenic mice compared to littermate controls. However, immunization studies suggest that responses to all foreign antigens were not increased globally. Moreover, four week-old Bright transgenic mice produced anti-nuclear antibodies. Older animals developed antibody deposits in the kidney glomeruli, but did not succumb to further autoimmune sequelae. These data indicate that enhanced Bright expression results in failure to maintain B cell tolerance and suggest a previously unappreciated role for Bright regulation in immature B cells. Bright is the first B cell-restricted transcription factor demonstrated to induce autoimmunity. Therefore, the Bright transgenics provide a novel model system for future analyses of B cell autoreactivity. PMID:17312145

  2. Pregnancy-specific glycoprotein expression in normal gastrointestinal tract and in tumors detected with novel monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Houston, Aileen; Williams, John M; Rovis, Tihana Lenac; Shanley, Daniel K; O'Riordan, Ronan T; Kiely, Patrick A; Ball, Melanie; Barry, Orla P; Kelly, Jacquie; Fanning, Aine; MacSharry, John; Mandelboim, Ofer; Singer, Bernhard B; Jonjic, Stipan; Moore, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-specific glycoproteins (PSGs) are immunoglobulin superfamily members related to the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family and are encoded by 10 genes in the human. They are secreted at high levels by placental syncytiotrophoblast into maternal blood during pregnancy, and are implicated in immunoregulation, thromboregulation, and angiogenesis. To determine whether PSGs are expressed in tumors, we characterized 16 novel monoclonal antibodies to human PSG1 and used 2 that do not cross-react with CEACAMs to study PSG expression in tumors and in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract using tissue arrays and immunohistochemistry. Staining was frequently observed in primary squamous cell carcinomas and colonic adenocarcinomas and was correlated with the degree of tumor differentiation, being largely absent from metastatic samples. Staining was also observed in normal oesophageal and colonic epithelium. PSG expression in the human and mouse GI tract was confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR. However, mRNA expression was several orders of magnitude lower in the GI tract compared to placenta. Our results identify a non-placental site of PSG expression in the gut and associated tumors, with implications for determining whether PSGs have a role in tumor progression, and utility as tumor biomarkers.

  3. A single point in protein trafficking by Plasmodium falciparum determines the expression of major antigens on the surface of infected erythrocytes targeted by human antibodies.

    PubMed

    Chan, Jo-Anne; Howell, Katherine B; Langer, Christine; Maier, Alexander G; Hasang, Wina; Rogerson, Stephen J; Petter, Michaela; Chesson, Joanne; Stanisic, Danielle I; Duffy, Michael F; Cooke, Brian M; Siba, Peter M; Mueller, Ivo; Bull, Peter C; Marsh, Kevin; Fowkes, Freya J I; Beeson, James G

    2016-11-01

    Antibodies to blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum play a pivotal role in human immunity to malaria. During parasite development, multiple proteins are trafficked from the intracellular parasite to the surface of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IEs). However, the relative importance of different proteins as targets of acquired antibodies, and key pathways involved in trafficking major antigens remain to be clearly defined. We quantified antibodies to surface antigens among children, adults, and pregnant women from different malaria-exposed regions. We quantified the importance of antigens as antibody targets using genetically engineered P. falciparum with modified surface antigen expression. Genetic deletion of the trafficking protein skeleton-binding protein-1 (SBP1), which is involved in trafficking the surface antigen PfEMP1, led to a dramatic reduction in antibody recognition of IEs and the ability of human antibodies to promote opsonic phagocytosis of IEs, a key mechanism of parasite clearance. The great majority of antibody epitopes on the IE surface were SBP1-dependent. This was demonstrated using parasite isolates with different genetic or phenotypic backgrounds, and among antibodies from children, adults, and pregnant women in different populations. Comparisons of antibody reactivity to parasite isolates with SBP1 deletion or inhibited PfEMP1 expression suggest that PfEMP1 is the dominant target of acquired human antibodies, and that other P. falciparum IE surface proteins are minor targets. These results establish SBP1 as part of a critical pathway for the trafficking of major surface antigens targeted by human immunity, and have key implications for vaccine development, and quantifying immunity in populations.

  4. DNA vaccines expressing soluble CD4-envelope proteins fused to C3d elicit cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1

    SciTech Connect

    Bower, Joseph F.; Green, Thomas D.; Ross, Ted M. . E-mail: tmr15@pitt.edu

    2004-10-25

    DNA vaccines expressing the envelope (Env) of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) have been relatively ineffective at generating high-titer, long-lasting, neutralizing antibodies in a variety of animal models. In this study, DNA vaccines were constructed to express a fusion protein of the soluble human CD4 (sCD4) and the gp120 subunit of the HIV-1 envelope. To enhance the immunogenicity of the expressed fusion protein, three copies of the murine C3d (mC3d{sub 3}) were added to the carboxyl terminus of the complex. Monoclonal antibodies that recognize CD4-induced epitopes on gp120 efficiently bound to sCD4-gp120 or sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3}. In addition, both sCD4-gp120 and sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} bound to cells expressing appropriate coreceptors in the absence of cell surface hCD4. Mice (BALB/c) vaccinated with DNA vaccines expressing either gp120-mC3d{sub 3} or sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} elicited antibodies that neutralized homologous virus infection. However, the use of sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3}-DNA elicited the highest titers of neutralizing antibodies that persisted after depletion of anti-hCD4 antibodies. Interestingly, only mice vaccinated with DNA expressing sCD4-gp120-mC3d{sub 3} had antibodies that elicited cross-protective neutralizing antibodies. The fusion of sCD4 to the HIV-1 envelope exposes neutralizing epitopes that elicit broad protective immunity when the fusion complex is coupled with the molecular adjuvant, C3d.

  5. Remediation of cadmium toxicity in field peas (Pisum sativum L.) through exogenous silicon.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Farhadur; Ghosal, Anubrata; Alam, Mohammad Firoz; Kabir, Ahmad Humayan

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an important phytotoxic element causing health hazards. This work investigates whether and how silicon (Si) influences the alleviation of Cd toxicity in field peas at biochemical and molecular level. The addition of Si in Cd-stressed plants noticeably increased growth and development as well as total protein and membrane stability of Cd-stressed plants, suggesting that Si does have critical roles in Cd detoxification in peas. Furthermore, Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants showed simultaneous significant increase and decrease of Cd and Fe in roots and shoots, respectively, compared with Cd-stressed plants. At molecular level, GSH1 (phytochelatin precursor) and MTA (metallothionein) transcripts predominantly expressed in roots and strongly induced due to Si supplementation in Cd-stressed plants compared with Cd-free conditions, suggesting that these chelating agents may bind to Cd leading to vacuolar sequestration in roots. Furthermore, pea Fe transporter (RIT1) showed downregulation in shoots when plants were treated with Si along with Cd compared with Cd-treated conditions. It is consistent with the physiological observations and supports the conclusion that alleviation of Cd toxicity in pea plants might be associated with Cd sequestration in roots and reduced Cd translocation in shoots through the regulation of Fe transport. Furthermore, increased CAT, POD, SOD and GR activity along with elevated S-metabolites (cysteine, methionine, glutathione) implies the active involvement of ROS scavenging and plays, at least in part, to the Si-mediated alleviation of Cd toxicity in pea. The study provides first mechanistic evidence on the beneficial effect of Si on Cd toxicity in pea plants.

  6. Negative regulation of HLA-DR expression on endothelial cells by anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation and mTOR inhibition.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Kenta; Miwa, Yuko; Uchida, Kazuharu; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2017-02-01

    Donor-specific antibody (DSA), particularly against HLA class II, is a major cause of chronic antibody-mediated rejection (CAMR) after transplantation, although ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation has recently demonstrated favorable graft outcomes. The condition of no injury even in the presence of anti-donor antibody has been referred to as "accommodation", which would be one of the key factors for successful long-term graft survival. The purpose of this study was to analyze the beneficial effect of anti-blood group A/B antibody ligation on endothelial cells against HLA-DR antibody-mediated, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). Blood group A/B-expressing endothelial cells EA.hy926 or Human Umbilical Vein Endothelia Cells (HUVEC) were incubated with IFNγ in the presence or absence of anti-blood group A/B antibody or mTOR inhibitor (mTOR-i) for 48h. The effects on signaling pathway, HLA expression, complement regulatory factors, and CDC were investigated. Expression of HLA-DR on EA.hy926 or HUVEC were successfully elicited by IFNγ treatment, although little or no expression was observed in quiescent cells. Pre-incubation with anti-blood group A/B antibody had resistance to HLA-DR antibody-mediated CDC against IFNγ-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. This finding was ascribed to decreased expression of HLA-DR by post-translational regulation and increased expression of CD55/59, which was related to ERK and mTOR pathway inhibition. mTOR-i also inhibited HLA-DR expression by itself. Furthermore, the combination of mTOR-I and anti-blood group A/B ligation had an additive effect in preventing HLA-DR antibody-mediated CDC. Anti-blood group A/B antibody might play a preventive role in CAMR. Inhibition of the ERK and mTOR pathways may contribute to the development of a novel treatment in the maintenance period after transplantation.

  7. Genetic variation in pea seed globulin composition.

    PubMed

    Tzitzikas, Emmanouil N; Vincken, Jean-Paul; de Groot, Jolan; Gruppen, Harry; Visser, Richard G F

    2006-01-25

    A quantitative characterization of seeds from 59 pea (Pisum sativum L.) lines and relative taxa with various external characteristics and wide geographical origin was performed to explore the genetic variation of pea concerning its starch and protein contents and globulin composition. Pea lines, which produce round, wrinkled, flat, and round-dimpled seeds, have starch as the major reserve, with an average content of 46%. Protein content varied from 13.7 to 30.7% of the seed dry matter, with an overall average of 22.3%. Densitometric quantification of the individual globulins (legumin, vicilin, convicilin, and globulin-related proteins) based on SDS-PAGE gels showed no lines lacking any particular globulin. Among the lines tested, variation was shown in both their total globulins content and their globulin composition. The total globulin content ranged from 49.2 to 81.8% of the total pea protein extract (TPPE). Legumin content varied between 5.9 and 24.5% of the TPPE. Vicilin was the most abundant protein of pea, and its content varied between 26.3 and 52.0% of the TPPE. Both processed and nonprocessed vicilins occurred. The processed vicilin was the predominant one, with values between 17.8 and 40.8%, whereas the nonprocessed ones constituted between 3.1 and 13.5% of the TPPE. Convicilin was the least abundant globulin, and its content ranged from 3.9 to 8.3%. Finally, the globulin-related proteins were present in amounts ranging from 2.8 to 17.3%. They were less abundant in comparison with legumin and vicilin, but they showed the largest relative variation of the four globulin classes. Correlations between the different external characteristics and globulin composition were determined. Comparison with soybean showed that pea lines show more variety in the abundance of globulin proteins, enabling a wider range of food application.

  8. Two monoclonal antibodies raised against different epitopes of chloroplast fructose-1. 6-bisphosphatase (FBPase)

    SciTech Connect

    Hermoso, R.; Fonolla, J.; Lopez-Gorge, J. ); Ruiz-Cabello, F.; Garrido, F. )

    1990-05-01

    Two monoclonal antibodies (GR-BP5 and GR-BP8) were obtained by fusion of spleen cells of mice immunized against pea photosynthetic FBPase with cells of myeloma NSI. Both mAbs showed by double immunodiffusion a {chi} light chain, and the GR-BP8 secreted an IgM. By Western-blotting and immunoprecipitation of the in vivo labelled pea FBPase, GR-BP5 and GR-BP8 showed specificity for the chloroplast enzyme. Competition binding of the {sup 125}I-labelled mAbs against pea FBPase showed specific binding sites to different epitopes of the enzyme molecule. Cross reaction assays between both monoclonal antibodies and pea and spinach chloroplast FBPases showed a 90-100% homology in the corresponding epitopes of both enzymes. Preliminary assays showed a moderate inhibition of FBPase by GR-BP5 monoclonal antibody, but a weak enhancement by the GR-BP8 monoclonal one.

  9. Immunodetection of Triticum mosaic virus by DAS- and DAC-ELISA using antibodies produced against coat protein expressed in Escherichia coli: potential for high-throughput diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Tatineni, Satyanarayana; Sarath, Gautam; Seifers, Dallas; French, Roy

    2013-04-01

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), an economically important virus infecting wheat in the Great Plains region of the USA, is the type species of the Poacevirus genus in the family Potyviridae. Sensitive and high-throughput serology-based detection methods are crucial for the management of TriMV and germplasm screening in wheat breeding programs. In this study, TriMV coat protein (CP) was expressed in Escherichia coli, and polyclonal antibodies were generated against purified soluble native form recombinant CP (rCP) in rabbits. Specificity and sensitivity of resulting antibodies were tested in Western immuno-blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). In direct antigen coating (DAC)-ELISA, antibodies reacted specifically, beyond 1:20,000 dilution with TriMV in crude sap, but not with healthy extracts, and antiserum at a 1:10,000 dilution detected TriMV in crude sap up to 1:4860 dilution. Notably, rabbit anti-TriMV IgG and anti-TriMV IgG-alkaline phosphatase conjugate reacted positively with native virions in crude sap in a double antibody sandwich-ELISA, suggesting that these antibodies can be used as coating antibodies which is crucial for any 'sandwich' type of assays. Finally, the recombinant antibodies reacted positively in ELISA with representative TriMV isolates collected from fields, suggesting that antibodies generated against rCP can be used for sensitive, large-scale, and broad-spectrum detection of TriMV.

  10. [Construction of a recombinant baculovirus transfer vector with two promoters expressing the anti-human CD28 chimeric antibody by using TP-PCR method].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Chen, Yong-Jing; Qiu, Yu-Hua; Zheng, Feng-Feng; Zhu, Jiang

    2005-09-01

    CD28, a cell surface glycoprotein, predominantly expressed on T cells, belongs to the Ig superfamily and provides critical co-stimulatory signals. The data which have published indicate that the monoclonal antibody against CD28 can decrease curative effects when it was applied in vivo for a long time. In order to avoid the human-anti-mouse action, anti-CD28 mAb must be humanized before it can be used in clinical study. Chimeric antibody, consisting of variable regions of mouse antibody and the constant regions of human IgG1, is often chosen by designers in generating humanized antibody. In this study, to prepare the anti-human CD28 chimeric antibody, the genes coding variable regions of anti-CD28 mAb and the constant regions of human IgG1 were cloned by PCR method. Then, the target genes were assembled by TP-PCR, a novel method developed for fusing genes without designing endonuclease sites at the both end of the target genes, and inserted into the baculovirus transfer vector pAcUW3 respectively. Thus, the recombinant baculovirus transfer vector with two strong promoters, ph and p10 was successfully constructed, which can express two different foreign genes at the same time. The recombinant vector was identified by the methods of restriction digesting, electrophoresis, PCR amplification and further verified by DNA sequence analysis. This work will contribute to expressing the chimeric CD28 antibody in insect cells.

  11. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development.

    PubMed

    Sussmilch, Frances C; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L

    2015-04-01

    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species.

  12. Pea VEGETATIVE2 Is an FD Homolog That Is Essential for Flowering and Compound Inflorescence Development

    PubMed Central

    Sussmilch, Frances C.; Berbel, Ana; Hecht, Valérie; Vander Schoor, Jacqueline K.; Ferrándiz, Cristina; Madueño, Francisco; Weller, James L.

    2015-01-01

    As knowledge of the gene networks regulating inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana improves, the current challenge is to characterize this system in different groups of crop species with different inflorescence architecture. Pea (Pisum sativum) has served as a model for development of the compound raceme, characteristic of many legume species, and in this study, we characterize the pea VEGETATIVE2 (VEG2) locus, showing that it is critical for regulation of flowering and inflorescence development and identifying it as a homolog of the bZIP transcription factor FD. Through detailed phenotypic characterizations of veg2 mutants, expression analyses, and the use of protein-protein interaction assays, we find that VEG2 has important roles during each stage of development of the pea compound inflorescence. Our results suggest that VEG2 acts in conjunction with multiple FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) proteins to regulate expression of downstream target genes, including TERMINAL FLOWER1, LEAFY, and MADS box homologs, and to facilitate cross-regulation within the FT gene family. These findings further extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying compound inflorescence development in pea and may have wider implications for future manipulation of inflorescence architecture in related legume crop species. PMID:25804541

  13. ADCT-301, a Pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) Dimer-Containing Antibody-Drug Conjugate (ADC) Targeting CD25-Expressing Hematological Malignancies.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Michael J; Zammarchi, Francesca; Tyrer, Peter C; Akarca, Ayse U; Janghra, Narinder; Britten, Charles E; Havenith, Carin E G; Levy, Jean-Noel; Tiberghien, Arnaud; Masterson, Luke A; Barry, Conor; D'Hooge, Francois; Marafioti, Teresa; Parren, Paul W H I; Williams, David G; Howard, Philip W; van Berkel, Patrick H; Hartley, John A

    2016-11-01

    Despite the many advances in the treatment of hematologic malignancies over the past decade, outcomes in refractory lymphomas remain poor. One potential strategy in this patient population is the specific targeting of IL2R-α (CD25), which is overexpressed on many lymphoma and leukemic cells, using antibody-drug conjugates (ADC). ADCT-301 is an ADC composed of human IgG1 HuMax-TAC against CD25, stochastically conjugated through a dipeptide cleavable linker to a pyrrolobenzodiazepine (PBD) dimer warhead with a drug-antibody ratio (DAR) of 2.3. ADCT-301 binds human CD25 with picomolar affinity. ADCT-301 has highly potent and selective cytotoxicity against a panel of CD25-expressing human lymphoma cell lines. Once internalized, the released warhead binds in the DNA minor groove and exerts its potent cytotoxic action via the formation of DNA interstrand cross-links. A strong correlation between loss of viability and DNA cross-link formation is demonstrated. DNA damage persists, resulting in phosphorylation of histone H2AX, cell-cycle arrest in G2-M, and apoptosis. Bystander killing of CD25-negative cells by ADCT-301 is also observed. In vivo, a single dose of ADCT-301 results in dose-dependent and targeted antitumor activity against both subcutaneous and disseminated CD25-positive lymphoma models. In xenografts of Karpas 299, which expressed both CD25 and CD30, marked superiority over brentuximab vedotin (Adcetris) is observed. Dose-dependent increases in DNA cross-linking, γ-H2AX, and PBD payload staining were observed in tumors in vivo indicating a role as relevant pharmacodynamic assays. Together, these data support the clinical testing of this novel ADC in patients with CD25-expressing tumors. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(11); 2709-21. ©2016 AACR.

  14. Rapid high-yield expression of full-size IgG antibodies in plants coinfected with noncompeting viral vectors.

    PubMed

    Giritch, Anatoli; Marillonnet, Sylvestre; Engler, Carola; van Eldik, Gerben; Botterman, Johan; Klimyuk, Victor; Gleba, Yuri

    2006-10-03

    Plant viral vectors allow expression of heterologous proteins at high yields, but so far, they have been unable to express heterooligomeric proteins efficiently. We describe here a rapid and indefinitely scalable process for high-level expression of functional full-size mAbs of the IgG class in plants. The process relies on synchronous coinfection and coreplication of two viral vectors, each expressing a separate antibody chain. The two vectors are derived from two different plant viruses that were found to be noncompeting. Unlike vectors derived from the same virus, noncompeting vectors effectively coexpress the heavy and light chains in the same cell throughout the plant body, resulting in yields of up to 0.5 g of assembled mAbs per kg of fresh-leaf biomass. This technology allows production of gram quantities of mAbs for research purposes in just several days, and the same protocol can be used on an industrial scale in situations requiring rapid response, such as pandemic or terrorism events.

  15. Review of the health benefits of peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Dahl, Wendy J; Foster, Lauren M; Tyler, Robert T

    2012-08-01

    Pulses, including peas, have long been important components of the human diet due to their content of starch, protein and other nutrients. More recently, the health benefits other than nutrition associated with pulse consumption have attracted much interest. The focus of the present review paper is the demonstrated and potential health benefits associated with the consumption of peas, Pisum sativum L., specifically green and yellow cotyledon dry peas, also known as smooth peas or field peas. These health benefits derive mainly from the concentration and properties of starch, protein, fibre, vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals in peas. Fibre from the seed coat and the cell walls of the cotyledon contributes to gastrointestinal function and health, and reduces the digestibility of starch in peas. The intermediate amylose content of pea starch also contributes to its lower glycaemic index and reduced starch digestibility. Pea protein, when hydrolysed, may yield peptides with bioactivities, including angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor activity and antioxidant activity. The vitamin and mineral contents of peas may play important roles in the prevention of deficiency-related diseases, specifically those related to deficiencies of Se or folate. Peas contain a variety of phytochemicals once thought of only as antinutritive factors. These include polyphenolics, in coloured seed coat types in particular, which may have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic activity, saponins which may exhibit hypocholesterolaemic and anticarcinogenic activity, and galactose oligosaccharides which may exert beneficial prebiotic effects in the large intestine.

  16. Uptake of 111In-labeled fully human monoclonal antibody TSP-A18 reflects transferrin receptor expression in normal organs and tissues of mice.

    PubMed

    Sugyo, Aya; Tsuji, Atsushi B; Sudo, Hitomi; Nomura, Fumiko; Satoh, Hirokazu; Koizumi, Mitsuru; Kurosawa, Gene; Kurosawa, Yoshikazu; Saga, Tsuneo

    2017-03-01

    Transferrin receptor (TfR) is an attractive molecule for targeted therapy of cancer. Various TfR-targeted therapeutic agents such as anti-TfR antibodies conjugated with anticancer agents have been developed. An antibody that recognizes both human and murine TfR is needed to predict the toxicity of antibody-based agents before clinical trials, there is no such antibody to date. In this study, a new fully human monoclonal antibody TSP-A18 that recognizes both human and murine TfR was developed and the correlation analysis of the radiolabeled antibody uptake and TfR expression in two murine strains was conducted. TSP-A18 was selected using extracellular portions of human and murine TfR from a human antibody library. The cross-reactivity of TSP-A18 with human and murine cells was confirmed by flow cytometry. Cell binding and competitive inhibition assays with [111In]TSP-A18 showed that TSP-A18 bound highly to TfR-expressing MIAPaCa-2 cells with high affinity. Biodistribution studies of [111In]TSP-A18 and [67Ga]citrate (a transferrin-mediated imaging probe) were conducted in C57BL/6J and BALB/c-nu/nu mice. [111In]TSP-A18 was accumulated highly in the spleen and bone containing marrow component of both strains, whereas high [67Ga]citrate uptake was only observed in bone containing marrow component and not in the spleen. Western blotting indicated the spleen showed the strongest TfR expression compared with other organs in both strains. There was significant correlation between [111In]TSP-A18 uptake and TfR protein expression in both strains, whereas there was significant correlation of [67Ga]citrate uptake with TfR expression only in C57BL/6J. These findings suggest that the difference in TfR expression between murine strains should be carefully considered when testing for the toxicity of anti-TfR antibody in mice and the uptake of anti-TfR antibody could reflect tissue TfR expression more accurately compared with that of transferrin-mediated imaging probe such as [67Ga]citrate.

  17. Experimental and in silico modelling analyses of the gene expression pathway for recombinant antibody and by-product production in NS0 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Mead, Emma J; Chiverton, Lesley M; Spurgeon, Sarah K; Martin, Elaine B; Montague, Gary A; Smales, C Mark; von der Haar, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are commercially important, high value biotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. These complex molecules consist of two heavy chain and two light chain polypeptides covalently linked by disulphide bonds. They are usually expressed as recombinant proteins from cultured mammalian cells, which are capable of correctly modifying, folding and assembling the polypeptide chains into the native quaternary structure. Such recombinant cell lines often vary in the amounts of product produced and in the heterogeneity of the secreted products. The biological mechanisms of this variation are not fully defined. Here we have utilised experimental and modelling strategies to characterise and define the biology underpinning product heterogeneity in cell lines exhibiting varying antibody expression levels, and then experimentally validated these models. In undertaking these studies we applied and validated biochemical (rate-constant based) and engineering (nonlinear) models of antibody expression to experimental data from four NS0 cell lines with different IgG4 secretion rates. The models predict that export of the full antibody and its fragments are intrinsically linked, and cannot therefore be manipulated individually at the level of the secretory machinery. Instead, the models highlight strategies for the manipulation at the precursor species level to increase recombinant protein yields in both high and low producing cell lines. The models also highlight cell line specific limitations in the antibody expression pathway.

  18. Experimental and In Silico Modelling Analyses of the Gene Expression Pathway for Recombinant Antibody and By-Product Production in NS0 Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Mead, Emma J.; Chiverton, Lesley M.; Spurgeon, Sarah K.; Martin, Elaine B.; Montague, Gary A.; Smales, C. Mark; von der Haar, Tobias

    2012-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are commercially important, high value biotherapeutic drugs used in the treatment of a variety of diseases. These complex molecules consist of two heavy chain and two light chain polypeptides covalently linked by disulphide bonds. They are usually expressed as recombinant proteins from cultured mammalian cells, which are capable of correctly modifying, folding and assembling the polypeptide chains into the native quaternary structure. Such recombinant cell lines often vary in the amounts of product produced and in the heterogeneity of the secreted products. The biological mechanisms of this variation are not fully defined. Here we have utilised experimental and modelling strategies to characterise and define the biology underpinning product heterogeneity in cell lines exhibiting varying antibody expression levels, and then experimentally validated these models. In undertaking these studies we applied and validated biochemical (rate-constant based) and engineering (nonlinear) models of antibody expression to experimental data from four NS0 cell lines with different IgG4 secretion rates. The models predict that export of the full antibody and its fragments are intrinsically linked, and cannot therefore be manipulated individually at the level of the secretory machinery. Instead, the models highlight strategies for the manipulation at the precursor species level to increase recombinant protein yields in both high and low producing cell lines. The models also highlight cell line specific limitations in the antibody expression pathway. PMID:23071804

  19. Characterization of two distinct antigens expressed on either resting or activated human B cells as defined by monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Kokai, Y; Ishii, Y; Kikuchi, K

    1986-01-01

    Two antigen systems (L29 & L30) expressed on two distinct human B cell subpopulations were identified by using BL1-4D6 and TB3-7D5 monoclonal antibodies, respectively. L29 was expressed on approximately one-third of B cells in human lymphoid tissues. These B cells associated with L29 were large activated B cells located in the germinal centres of lymphoid follicles. L30, on the other hand, existed on approximately two-thirds of B cells mainly located in the mantle zone of lymphoid follicles, most of which also expressed IgM and IgD on their cell membrane. In addition, L30 was shared on mature granulocytes. With the use of polyclonal activators such as pokeweek mitogen (PWM) and protein A-bearing staphylococci (SAC), L29 antigen was inducible on PWM- or SAC-stimulated B cells in correspondence with the emergence of Tac and T10 antigens of these B cells. In contrast, L30 antigen on the B cells stimulated by the polyclonal activators was decreased in its expression and was finally lost from these B cells. Although none of L29 and L30 was expressed on normal, non-activated human thymus and peripheral T cells, L29 but not L30 was expressed on concanavalin A-activated T cells. Immunochemical studies showed that L30 consist of a single polypeptide with mol. wt of 40,000. L29 antigen is presently under study. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3527505

  20. A comparative indirect ELISA for the detection of henipavirus antibodies based on a recombinant nucleocapsid protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Ming; Yu, Meng; Morrissy, Chris; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Meehan, Greer; Sun, Ying-Xue; Wang, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lin-Fa; Wang, Zhi-Liang

    2006-09-01

    The indirect ELISA is a simple and useful method for detection of pathogen-specific antibodies in animal sera. However, non-specific or background binding is often a problem, especially when recombinant proteins from Escherichia coli are used. In this study, a comparative indirect ELISA in which the total reactivity and the background binding were determined simultaneously on the same ELISA plate was reported. The background was determined by incubation of the test sera with excess free antigen to block specific binding. The sample was considered positive only when its total reactivity reading was higher than a pre-determined cut-off value and the ratio of the total reactivity to the background reading was more than 2.0. Using this approach, an antibody assay for henipaviruses using a recombinant Nipah virus nucleocapsid protein expressed in E. coli was developed. A total of 919 negative serum samples were tested in this assay and the specificity was 95.8%. In addition, eight positive experimental serum samples all tested positive. The use of recombinant protein as the ELISA antigen, instead of inactivated virus antigens, will be of significant advantage for countries where there is no facility of Biosafety level 4 to handle this group of zoonotic viruses.

  1. Development of a Novel Antibody-Drug Conjugate for the Potential Treatment of Ovarian, Lung, and Renal Cell Carcinoma Expressing TIM-1.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lawrence J; Vitale, Laura; O'Neill, Thomas; Dolnick, Ree Y; Wallace, Paul K; Minderman, Hans; Gergel, Lauren E; Forsberg, Eric M; Boyer, James M; Storey, James R; Pilsmaker, Catherine D; Hammond, Russell A; Widger, Jenifer; Sundarapandiyan, Karuna; Crocker, Andrea; Marsh, Henry C; Keler, Tibor

    2016-12-01

    T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 1 (TIM-1) is a type I transmembrane protein that was originally described as kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) due to its elevated expression in kidney and urine after renal injury. TIM-1 expression is also upregulated in several human cancers, most notably in renal and ovarian carcinomas, but has very restricted expression in healthy tissues, thus representing a promising target for antibody-mediated therapy. To this end, we have developed a fully human monoclonal IgG1 antibody specific for the extracellular domain of TIM-1. This antibody was shown to bind purified recombinant chimeric TIM-1-Fc protein and TIM-1 expressed on a variety of transformed cell lines, including Caki-1 (human renal clear cell carcinoma), IGROV-1 (human ovarian adenocarcinoma), and A549 (human lung carcinoma). Internalization studies using confocal microscopy revealed the antibody was rapidly internalized by cells in vitro, and internalization was confirmed by quantitative imaging flow cytometry. An antibody-drug conjugate (ADC) was produced with the anti-TIM-1 antibody covalently linked to the potent cytotoxin, monomethyl auristatin E (MMAE), and designated CDX-014. The ADC was shown to exhibit in vitro cytostatic or cytotoxic activity against a variety of TIM-1-expressing cell lines, but not on TIM-1-negative cell lines. Using the Caki-1, IGROV-1, and A549 xenograft mouse models, CDX-014 showed significant antitumor activity in a clinically relevant dose range. Safety evaluation in nonhuman primates has demonstrated a good profile and led to the initiation of clinical studies of CDX-014 in renal cell carcinoma and potentially other TIM-1-expressing tumors. Mol Cancer Ther; 15(12); 2946-54. ©2016 AACR.

  2. Expression of Human Skin-Specific Genes Defined by Transcriptomics and Antibody-Based Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Edqvist, Per-Henrik D.; Fagerberg, Linn; Hallström, Björn M.; Danielsson, Angelika; Edlund, Karolina; Uhlén, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    To increase our understanding of skin, it is important to define the molecular constituents of the cell types and epidermal layers that signify normal skin. We have combined a genome-wide transcriptomics analysis, using deep sequencing of mRNA from skin biopsies, with immunohistochemistry-based protein profiling to characterize the landscape of gene and protein expression in normal human skin. The transcriptomics and protein expression data of skin were compared to 26 (RNA) and 44 (protein) other normal tissue types. All 20,050 putative protein-coding genes were classified into categories based on patterns of expression. We found that 417 genes showed elevated expression in skin, with 106 genes expressed at least five-fold higher than that in other tissues. The 106 genes categorized as skin enriched encoded for well-known proteins involved in epidermal differentiation and proteins with unknown functions and expression patterns in skin, including the C1orf68 protein, which showed the highest relative enrichment in skin. In conclusion, we have applied a genome-wide analysis to identify the human skin-specific proteome and map the precise localization of the corresponding proteins in different compartments of the skin, to facilitate further functional studies to explore the molecular repertoire of normal skin and to identify biomarkers related to various skin diseases. PMID:25411189

  3. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and designations shall apply: Size designation Round hole sieve size through which peas will pass..., specified in paragraph (b)(3)(i) (a) or (b) of this section, diluted to 9.5 liters with water). (iii) Drying... securely and immerse in water bath with continuous flow at room temperature. Avoid agitation of bag...

  4. CEI-PEA Alert, Fall 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Chancellor Joel I. Klein Announces New Accountability System for NYC Schools; (2) Students Achieve Record-High Scores!; (3) Use Data to Help Your Child Improve Performance; (4)…

  5. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... than 15 percent by count of the peas may sink in a solution containing 16 percent salt by weight... determination. (i) Extracting solutions: (a) One hundred parts of ethanol denatured with five parts of methanol volume to volume (formula 3A denatured alcohol), or (b) A mixture of 95 parts of formula 3A...

  6. Actin and Myosin in Pea Tendrils 1

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Ze; Yen, Lung-Fei

    1989-01-01

    We demonstrate here the presence of actin and myosin in pea (Pisum sativum L.) tendrils. The molecular weight of tendril actin is 43,000, the same as rabbit skeletal muscle actin. The native molecular weight of tendril myosin is about 440,000. Tendril myosin is composed of two heavy chains of molecular weight approximately 165,000 and four (two pairs) light chains of 17,000 and 15,000. At high ionic strength, the ATPase activity of pea tendril myosin is activated by K+-EDTA and Ca2+ and is inhibited by Mg2+. At low ionic strength, the Mg2+-ATPase activity of pea tendril myosin is activated by rabbit skeletal muscle F-actin. Superprecipitation occurred after incubation at room temperature when ATP was added to the crude actomyosin extract. It is suggested that the interaction of actin and myosin may play a role in the coiling movement of pea tendril. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:16666586

  7. Iron bioavailability in low phytate pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds have high nutritional value but also contain potential anti-nutritional factors, such as phytate and polyphenols. Phytate can store up to 80% of the phosphorus in seeds. In the seed and during digestion it can complex minerals such as iron and zinc and make them un...

  8. CEI-PEA Alert, Summer 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Educational Innovation - Public Education Association, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The "CEI-PEA Alert" is an advocacy newsletter that deals with topics of interest to all concerned with the New York City public schools. This issue includes: (1) Practical Skills & High Academic Standards: Career Technical Education; (2) Parents: Help Your Children Gain "Soft Skills" for the Workforce; (3) Culinary Arts…

  9. 21 CFR 158.170 - Frozen peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... defined in § 1.20 of this chapter, prepared from the succulent seed of the pea plant of the species Pisum... flavors. (ii) Condiments such as spices and mint leaves. (iii) Dry nutritive carbohydrate sweeteners. (iv... condiment such as spices and mint leaves that characterizes the product, e.g., “Spice added”. Where...

  10. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds of... drained weight of the finished food. (b) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice. (c) Mint leaves. (d... following shall be included as part of the name or in close proximity to the name of the food: (a)...

  11. 21 CFR 155.170 - Canned peas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... (a) Identity—(1) Definition. Canned peas is the food prepared from fresh or frozen succulent seeds of... drained weight of the finished food. (b) Lemon juice or concentrated lemon juice. (c) Mint leaves. (d... following shall be included as part of the name or in close proximity to the name of the food: (a)...

  12. Fine specificity and idiotypic expression of monoclonal antibodies directed against poly(Tyr,Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys) and its ordered analogue (Tyr-Tyr-Glu-Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys).

    PubMed Central

    Parhami-Seren, B; Eshhar, Z; Mozes, E

    1983-01-01

    In order to study the repertoire of poly(Tyr,Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys) [(T,G)-A--L] specific antibodies, monoclonal antibodies were prepared by fusing myeloma cells with spleen cells from C3H.SW mice immunized with (T,G)-A--L and boosted with (Tyr-Tyr-Glu-Glu)-poly(DLAla)--poly(Lys)](T-T-G-G)-A--L]. Eleven clones which secreted homogeneous antibodies were obtained. In general, two families of monoclonal antibodies were detected: those which bind exclusively (T-T-G-G)-A--L and those which bind both (T-T-G-G)-A--L and (T,G)-A--L. Analysis for idiotypic expression revealed that only two antibodies (clones no. 103 and 160), which were found to be similar in their fine specificity, cross-reacted with antibodies against the major idiotypes of (T,G)A--L specific antibodies. Guinea-pig antibodies against clone no. 160 reacted with the polyclonal (T,G)-A--L specific antibodies, whereas antibodies against 103 monoclonal antibodies did not react with C3H.SW anti-(T,G)-A--L antibodies, but did cross-react with four other monoclonal antibodies. It appears that the idiotypic determinants expressed on polyclonal (T,G)-A--L specific antibodies are heterogeneous, and consist of at least two serologically different idiotypes detected by clones no. 103 and 160. PMID:6840812

  13. Among B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, MALT lymphomas express a unique antibody repertoire with frequent rheumatoid factor reactivity.

    PubMed

    Bende, Richard J; Aarts, Wilhelmina M; Riedl, Robert G; de Jong, Daphne; Pals, Steven T; van Noesel, Carel J M

    2005-04-18

    We analyzed the structure of antigen receptors of a comprehensive panel of mature B non-Hodgkin's lymphomas (B-NHLs) by comparing, at the amino acid level, their immunoglobulin (Ig)V(H)-CDR3s with CDR3 sequences present in GenBank. Follicular lymphomas, diffuse large B cell lymphomas, Burkitt's lymphomas, and myelomas expressed a CDR3 repertoire comparable to that of normal B cells. Mantle cell lymphomas and B cell chronic lymphocytic leukemias (B-CLLs) expressed clearly restricted albeit different CDR3 repertoires. Lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissues (MALTs) were unique as 8 out of 45 (18%) of gastric- and 13 out of 32 (41%) of salivary gland-MALT lymphomas expressed B cell antigen receptors with strong CDR3 homology to rheumatoid factors (RFs). Of note, the RF-CDR3 homology without exception included N-region-encoded residues in the hypermutated IgV(H) genes, indicating that they were stringently selected for reactivity with auto-IgG. By in vitro binding studies with 10 MALT lymphoma-derived antibodies, we showed that seven of these cases, of which four with RF-CDR3 homology, indeed possessed strong RF reactivity. Of one MALT lymphoma, functional proof for selection of subclones with high RF affinity was obtained. Interestingly, RF-CDR3 homology and t(11;18) appeared to be mutually exclusive features and RF-CDR3 homology was not encountered in any of the 19 pulmonary MALT lymphomas studied.

  14. Replication Competent Molecular Clones of HIV-1 Expressing Renilla Luciferase Facilitate the Analysis of Antibody Inhibition in PBMC

    PubMed Central

    Edmonds, Tara G.; Ding, Haitao; Yuan, Xing; Wei, Qing; Smith, Kendra S.; Conway, Joan A.; Wieczorek, Lindsay; Brown, Bruce; Polonis, Victoria; West, John T.; Montefiori, David C.; Kappes, John C.; Ochsenbauer, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Effective vaccine development for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will require assays that ascertain the capacity of vaccine immunogens to elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to diverse HIV-1 strains. To facilitate NAb assessment in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-based assays, we developed an assay-adaptable platform based on a Renilla luciferase (LucR) expressing HIV-1 proviral backbone. LucR was inserted into pNL4-3 DNA, preserving all viral open reading frames. The proviral genome was engineered to facilitate expression of diverse HIV-1 env sequences, allowing analysis in an isogenic background. The resulting Env-IMC-LucR viruses are infectious, and LucR is stably expressed over multiple replications in PBMC. HIV-1 neutralization, targeting TZM-bl cells, was highly correlative comparing virus (LucR) and cell (firefly luciferase) readouts. In PBMC, NAb activity can be analyzed either within a single or multiple cycles of replication. These results represent advancement toward a standardizable PBMC-based neutralization assay for assessing HIV-1 vaccine immunogen efficacy. PMID:20863545

  15. Production of non-fucosylated antibodies by co-expression of heterologous GDP-6-deoxy-D-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase.

    PubMed

    von Horsten, Hans Henning; Ogorek, Christiane; Blanchard, Véronique; Demmler, Christian; Giese, Christoph; Winkler, Karsten; Kaup, Matthias; Berger, Markus; Jordan, Ingo; Sandig, Volker

    2010-12-01

    All IgG-type antibodies are N-glycosylated in their Fc part at Asn-297. Typically, a fucose residue is attached to the first N-acetylglucosamine of these complex-type N-glycans. Antibodies lacking core fucosylation show a significantly enhanced antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and an increased efficacy of anti-tumor activity. In cases where the clinical efficacy of an antibody is to some extent mediated by its ADCC effector function, afucosylated N-glycans could help to reduce dose requirement and save manufacturing costs. Using Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells as a model, we demonstrate here that heterologous expression of the prokaryotic enzyme GDP-6-deoxy-d-lyxo-4-hexulose reductase within the cytosol can efficiently deflect the fucose de novo pathway. Antibody-producing CHO cells that were modified in this way secrete antibodies lacking core fucose as demonstrated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and HPAEC-PAD monosaccharide analysis. Engineering of the fucose de novo pathway has led to the construction of IgGs with a strongly enhanced ADCC effector function. The method described here should have broad practical applicability for the development of next-generation therapeutic antibodies.

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  20. 7 CFR 319.56-45 - Shelled garden peas from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Shelled garden peas from Kenya. 319.56-45 Section 319... Shelled garden peas from Kenya. Garden peas (Pisum sativum) may be imported into the continental United... provisions of this subpart: (a) The peas must be shelled from the pod. (b) The peas must be washed...

  1. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing a dimeric single-chain variable fragment (scfv) antibody against Salmonella enterica serotype Paratyphi B.

    PubMed

    Makvandi-Nejad, Shokouh; McLean, Michael D; Hirama, Tomoko; Almquist, Kurt C; Mackenzie, C Roger; Hall, J Christopher

    2005-10-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants were produced that express an anti-Salmonella enterica single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody that binds to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of S. enterica Paratyphi B. The coding sequence of this scFv was optimized for expression in tobacco, synthesized and subsequently placed behind three different promoters: an enhanced tobacco constitutive ubiquitous promoter (EntCUP4), and single- and double-enhancer versions of the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus 35S promoter (CaMV 35S). These chimeric genes were introduced into Nicotiana tabacum cv. 81V9 by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and 50 primary transgenic (T(0)) plants per construct were produced. Among these plants, 23 were selected for the ability to express active scFv as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using S. enterica LPS as antigen. Expanded bed adsorption-immobilized metal affinity chromatography (EBA-IMAC) was used to purify 41.7 mug of scFv/g from leaf tissue. Gel filtration and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analyses demonstrated that the purified scFv was active as a dimer or higher-order multimer. In order to identify T(1) plants suitable for development of homozygous lines with heritable scFv expression, kanamycin-resistance segregation analyses were performed to determine the number of T-DNA loci in each T(0) plant, and quantitative ELISA and immunoblot analyses were used to compare expression of active and total anti-Salmonella scFv, respectively, in the T(1) generation. As S. enterica causes millions of enteric fevers and hundreds of thousands of deaths worldwide each year, large-scale production and purification of this scFv will have potential for uses in diagnosis and detection, as a therapeutic agent, and in applications such as water system purification.

  2. Prevention of scrapie pathogenesis by transgenic expression of anti-prion protein antibodies.

    PubMed

    Heppner, F L; Musahl, C; Arrighi, I; Klein, M A; Rülicke, T; Oesch, B; Zinkernagel, R M; Kalinke, U; Aguzzi, A

    2001-10-05

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and bovine spongiform encephalopathy are initiated by extracerebral exposure to prions. Although prion transmission from extracerebral sites to the brain represents a potential target for prophylaxis, attempts at vaccination have been limited by the poor immunogenicity of prion proteins. To circumvent this, we expressed an anti-prion protein (anti-PrP) mu chain in Prnp(o/o) mice. Transgenic mice developed sustained anti-PrP titers, which were not suppressed by introduction of Prnp+ alleles. Transgene expression prevented pathogenesis of prions introduced by intraperitoneal injection in the spleen and brain. Expression of endogenous PrP (PrP(C)) in the spleen and brain was unaffected, suggesting that immunity was responsible for protection. This indicates the feasibility of immunological inhibition of prion disease in vivo.

  3. PEA-15 facilitates EGFR dephosphorylation via ERK sequestration at increased ER-PM contacts in TNBC cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Miyoung; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Yang, Eun Gyeong; Jeon, Hyesung; Song, Hyun Kyu

    2015-04-13

    Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes of 15 kDa (PEA-15) is known to sequester extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the cytoplasm, inhibiting tumorigenesis of human breast cancer cells. Here, we describe how PEA-15 expression affects the dephosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) through endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) contacts in MDA-MB-468, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. The increased intracellular calcium concentration resulting from increased cytoplasmic phosphorylated ERK facilitates movement of ER-anchored calcium sensors to the PM. The driving force of trans-localization of calcium-dependent proteins enhances the contact between the activated EGFR and ER-localized phosphatase, PTP1B. Consequently, our findings suggest a mechanism underneath the facilitation of EGFR dephosphorylation by cytoplasmic PEA-15 expression inside TNBC cells, which may be one of the dynamic mechanisms for down-regulation of activated EGFR in cancer cells.

  4. Role of Pea Enation Mosaic Virus Coat Protein in the Host Plant and Aphid Vector

    PubMed Central

    Doumayrou, Juliette; Sheber, Melissa; Bonning, Bryony C.; Miller, W. Allen

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in plant virus–vector interactions is essential for the development of effective control measures for aphid-vectored epidemic plant diseases. The coat proteins (CP) are the main component of the viral capsids, and they are implicated in practically every stage of the viral infection cycle. Pea enation mosaic virus 1 (PEMV1, Enamovirus, Luteoviridae) and Pea enation mosaic virus 2 (PEMV2, Umbravirus, Tombusviridae) are two RNA viruses in an obligate symbiosis causing the pea enation mosaic disease. Sixteen mutant viruses were generated with mutations in different domains of the CP to evaluate the role of specific amino acids in viral replication, virion assembly, long-distance movement in Pisum sativum, and aphid transmission. Twelve mutant viruses were unable to assemble but were able to replicate in inoculated leaves, move long-distance, and express the CP in newly infected leaves. Four mutant viruses produced virions, but three were not transmissible by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Three-dimensional modeling of the PEMV CP, combined with biological assays for virion assembly and aphid transmission, allowed for a model of the assembly of PEMV coat protein subunits. PMID:27869713

  5. Tendril-less Regulates Tendril Formation in Pea Leaves[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Hofer, Julie; Turner, Lynda; Moreau, Carol; Ambrose, Mike; Isaac, Peter; Butcher, Susan; Weller, James; Dupin, Adeline; Dalmais, Marion; Le Signor, Christine; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid; Ellis, Noel

    2009-01-01

    Tendrils are contact-sensitive, filamentous organs that permit climbing plants to tether to their taller neighbors. Tendrilled legume species are grown as field crops, where the tendrils contribute to the physical support of the crop prior to harvest. The homeotic tendril-less (tl) mutation in garden pea (Pisum sativum), identified almost a century ago, transforms tendrils into leaflets. In this study, we used a systematic marker screen of fast neutron–generated tl deletion mutants to identify Tl as a Class I homeodomain leucine zipper (HDZIP) transcription factor. We confirmed the tendril-less phenotype as loss of function by targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) in garden pea and by analysis of the tendril-less phenotype of the t mutant in sweet pea (Lathyrus odoratus). The conversion of tendrils into leaflets in both mutants demonstrates that the pea tendril is a modified leaflet, inhibited from completing laminar development by Tl. We provide evidence to show that lamina inhibition requires Unifoliata/LEAFY-mediated Tl expression in organs emerging in the distal region of the leaf primordium. Phylogenetic analyses show that Tl is an unusual Class I HDZIP protein and that tendrils evolved either once or twice in Papilionoid legumes. We suggest that tendrils arose in the Fabeae clade of Papilionoid legumes through acquisition of the Tl gene. PMID:19208900

  6. The physiology of sterol nutrition in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    Bouvaine, Sophie; T Behmer, Spencer; Lin, George G; Faure, Marie-Line; Grebenok, Robert J; Douglas, Angela E

    2012-11-01

    The phloem sap of fava bean (Vicia faba) plants utilized by the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains three sterols, cholesterol, stigmasterol and sitosterol, in a 2:2:1 ratio. To investigate the nutritional value of these sterols, pea aphids were reared on chemically-defined diets containing each sterol at 0.1, 1 and 10μgml(-1) with a sterol-free diet as control. Larval growth rate and aphid lifespan did not vary significantly across the diets, indicating that sterol reserves can buffer some performance indices against a shortfall in dietary sterol over at least one generation. However, lifetime reproductive output was depressed in aphids on diets containing stigmasterol or no sterol, relative to diets supplemented with cholesterol or sitosterol. The cholesterol density of embryos in teneral adults was significantly higher than in the total body; and the number and biomass of embryos in aphids on diets with stigmasterol and no sterols were reduced relative to diets with cholesterol or sitosterol, indicating that the reproductive output of the pea aphid can be limited by the amount and composition of dietary sterol. In a complementary RNA-seq analysis of pea aphids reared on plants and diets with different sterol contents, 7.6% of the 17,417 detected gene transcripts were differentially expressed. Transcript abundance of genes with annotated function in sterol utilization did not vary significantly among treatments, suggesting that the metabolic response to dietary sterol may be mediated primarily at the level of enzyme function or metabolite concentration.

  7. Profile and Functional Properties of Seed Proteins from Six Pea (Pisum sativum) Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Barac, Miroljub; Cabrilo, Slavica; Pesic, Mirjana; Stanojevic, Sladjana; Zilic, Sladjana; Macej, Ognjen; Ristic, Nikola

    2010-01-01

    Extractability, extractable protein compositions, technological-functional properties of pea (Pisum sativum) proteins from six genotypes grown in Serbia were investigated. Also, the relationship between these characteristics was presented. Investigated genotypes showed significant differences in storage protein content, composition and extractability. The ratio of vicilin:legumin concentrations, as well as the ratio of vicilin + convicilin: Legumin concentrations were positively correlated with extractability. Our data suggest that the higher level of vicilin and/or a lower level of legumin have a positive influence on protein extractability. The emulsion activity index (EAI) was strongly and positively correlated with the solubility, while no significant correlation was found between emulsion stability (ESI) and solubility, nor between foaming properties and solubility. No association was evident between ESI and EAI. A moderate positive correlation between emulsion stability and foam capacity was observed. Proteins from the investigated genotypes expressed significantly different emulsifying properties and foam capacity at different pH values, whereas low foam stability was detected. It appears that genotype has considerable influence on content, composition and technological-functional properties of pea bean proteins. This fact can be very useful for food scientists in efforts to improve the quality of peas and pea protein products. PMID:21614186

  8. Recombinant NDV expressing cytokines or fliC confers a quick immune response against NDV challenge and resistance to maternal antibody.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tianyuan; Liu, Yunye; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Shenglong; Xu, Pengfei; Yin, Jiechao; Ren, Guiping; Liu, Jingli; Li, Deshan

    2016-11-30

    Currently, there are two major bottleneck problems which seriously affect prevention of the Newcastle disease (ND): interference of maternal antibody on NDV vaccination and slow production of neutralization antibody. To overcome these problems, in present study, four rNDV vaccine strains expressing bio-adjuvants chIL2, chIL15, chGM-CSF or fliC gene were constructed and rescued using reverse genetics approach. The HI antibody titers of SPF birds immunized with rNDV reached to 5.5log2, 4.7log2, 6.5log2 and 5.8log2, respectively at the 8th day post immunization, while the antibody titers of the parental virus and control were 3.3log2 and 1log2, respectively. The immunized chickens were challenged by 10(4)ELD50 dose of the virulent NDV BJ strains at the 7th day post immunization. The protection rate of the four rNDVs bio-adjuvant groups was 100%, while the protection rate of the parental group was 80%. We also examined the anti-maternal antibody activity of these adjuvant vaccines by detection HI titer after vaccination of chickens with high (8.4log2) or low (5log2) maternal antibody levels. In chicken flock with higher maternal antibody, parental strain could not resist the influence of the maternal antibody and induce any notable change of HI antibody kinetics. However, both rClon30-chGM-CSF and rClon30-flic were able to resist the influence of the maternal antibody and maintained the HI antibody above the protection level during the 14day's experiment. In chicken flock with lower maternal antibody, the parental rclone30 strain could not induce HI titer to the protection level until the 14th day, but both rClon30-GM-CSF and clone30-fliC raised the HI antibody to above the protection level at the 7th day post vaccination.

  9. Microfluidic continuum sorting of sub-populations of tumor cells via surface antibody expression levels.

    PubMed

    Jack, Rhonda; Hussain, Khadijah; Rodrigues, Danika; Zeinali, Mina; Azizi, Ebrahim; Wicha, Max; Simeone, Diane M; Nagrath, Sunitha

    2017-03-29

    The extent of inter- and intra-tumor cell heterogeneity observed in patient tumors appears to be directly associated with patient prognosis. Moreover, studies indicate that targeting distinct subpopulations of tumor cells may be more relevant to successfully managing cancer metastasis. The ability to distinguish and characterize unique tumor cell subpopulations within a given sample is thus exigent. Existing platforms separate cells binarily, based on some threshold level of phenotypic characteristics without consideration of the continuum levels of biomarker expression and the associated implications. Herein we describe how specific tumor cell groups have been immunomagnetically enriched according to a continuum of EpCAM surface marker expression levels. Even among a relatively homogenous group of cells such as the PANC-1 cell line, cells could be separated according to their EpCAM levels into low, moderate and high expression. To physiologically assess each subpopulation, a wound healing assay was performed which revealed distinct invasive potentials among each subset. Furthermore, the clinical relevance of the approach was demonstrated by isolating pancreatic cancer CTCs from the same patient sample based on their EpCAM levels. We demonstrate a robust method of isolating CTCs according to their varying protein levels, which enables extensive studies on tumor cell heterogeneity. Interestingly, 5 of 6 samples had CTCs that could be recovered at all three levels of EpCAM expression though the majority of CTCs were recovered as low expression events. Preliminary studies that compare tumor cell subpopulations in this continuum manner can potentially increase our understanding of the dynamic nature of cell heterogeneity and how it relates to patient outcomes. Ultimately further investigation may yield therapeutic targets against virulent cell subpopulations.

  10. Plant waxy bloom on peas affects infection of pea aphids by Pandora neoaphidis.

    PubMed

    Duetting, Patrick S; Ding, Hongjian; Neufeld, Jeffrey; Eigenbrode, Sanford D

    2003-11-01

    This study examined the effects of the surface wax bloom of pea plants, Pisum sativum, on infection of pea aphids, Acyrthosiphon pisum, by the fungal pathogen Pandora neoaphidis. In prior field surveys, a higher proportion of P. neoaphidis-killed pea aphids (cadavers) had been observed on a pea line with reduced wax bloom, as compared with a sister line with normal surface wax bloom. Laboratory bioassays were conducted in order to examine the mechanisms. After plants of each line infested with aphids were exposed to similar densities of conidia, the rate of accumulation of cadavers on the reduced wax line was significantly greater than on the normal wax bloom line; at the end of the experiment (13d), the proportion of aphid cadavers on the reduced wax line was approximately four times that on the normal wax bloom line. When plants were exposed to conidia first and then infested with aphids, the rate of accumulation of cadavers was slightly but significantly greater on the reduced wax line, and infection at the end of the experiment (16d) did not differ between the lines. When aphids were exposed first and then released onto the plants, no differences in the proportion of aphid cadavers were observed between the pea lines. Greater infection of pea aphid on reduced wax peas appears to depend upon plants being exposed to inoculum while aphids are settled in typical feeding positions on the plant. Additional experiments demonstrated increased adhesion and germination by P. neoaphidis conidia to leaf surfaces of the reduced wax line as compared with normal wax line, and this could help explain the higher infection rate by P. neoaphidis on the reduced wax line. In bioassays using surface waxes extracted from the two lines, there was no effect of wax source on germination of P. neoaphidis conidia.

  11. PED/PEA-15 induces autophagy and mediates TGF-beta1 effect on muscle cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Iovino, S; Oriente, F; Botta, G; Cabaro, S; Iovane, V; Paciello, O; Viggiano, D; Perruolo, G; Formisano, P; Beguinot, F

    2012-07-01

    TGF-beta1 has been shown to induce autophagy in certain cells but whether and how this action is exerted in muscle and whether this activity relates to TGF-beta1 control of muscle cell differentiation remains unknown. Here, we show that expression of the autophagy-promoting protein phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PED/PEA-15) progressively declines during L6 and C2C12 skeletal muscle cell differentiation. PED/PEA-15 underwent rapid induction upon TGF-beta1 exposure of L6 and C2C12 myoblasts, accompanied by impaired differentiation into mature myotubes. TGF-beta1 also induced autophagy in the L6 and C2C12 cells through a PP2A/FoxO1-mediated mechanism. Both the TGF-beta1 effect on differentiation and that on autophagy were blocked by specific PED/PEA-15 ShRNAs. Myoblasts stably overexpressing PED/PEA-15 did not differentiate and showed markedly enhanced autophagy. In these same cells, the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine rescued TGF-beta1 effect on both autophagy and myogenesis, indicating that PED/PEA-15 mediates TGF-beta1 effects in muscle. Muscles from transgenic mice overexpressing PED/PEA-15 featured a significant number of atrophic fibers, accompanied by increased light chain 3 (LC3)II to LC3I ratio and reduced PP2A/FoxO1 phosphorylation. Interestingly, these mice showed significantly impaired locomotor activity compared with their non-transgenic littermates. TGF-beta1 causes transcriptional upregulation of the autophagy-promoting gene PED/PEA-15, which in turn is capable to induce atrophic responses in skeletal muscle in vivo.

  12. Determination of Carbohydrate Structure Recognized by Prostate-specific F77 Monoclonal Antibody through Expression Analysis of Glycosyltransferase Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Nonaka, Motohiro; Fukuda, Michiko N.; Gao, Chao; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Hongtao; Greene, Mark I.; Peehl, Donna M.; Feizi, Ten; Fukuda, Minoru

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the determination of the carbohydrate epitope of monoclonal antibody F77 previously raised against human prostate cancer PC-3 cells (Zhang, G., Zhang, H., Wang, Q., Lal, P., Carroll, A. M., de la Llera-Moya, M., Xu, X., and Greene, M. I. (2010) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 107, 732–737). We performed a series of co-transfections using mammalian expression vectors encoding specific glycosyltransferases. We thereby identified branching enzymes and FUT1 (required for Fucα1→2Gal linkage) as being essential for F77 antigen formation. When immortalized normal prostate 267B1 cells were transfected with FUT1 alone, cells showed weak expression of F77 antigen. By contrast, cells co-transfected with FUT1 plus either GCNT1, GCNT2, or GCNT3 (an enzyme required to form GlcNAcβ1→6Gal/GalNAc) showed robust F77 antigen expression, suggesting that F77 specifically binds to Fucα1→2Galβ1→4GlcNAcβ1→6Gal/GalNAc. RT-PCR for FUT1, GCNT1, GCNT2, and GCNT3 showed that F77-positive cell lines indeed express transcripts encoding FUT1 plus one GCNT. F77-positive prostate cancer cells transfected with siRNAs targeting FUT1, GCNT2, and GCNT3 showed significantly reduced F77 antigen, confirming the requirement of these enzymes for epitope synthesis. We also found that hypoxia induces F77 epitope expression in immortalized prostate RWPE1 cells, which express F77 antigen moderately under normoxia but at an elevated level under hypoxia. Quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated up-regulation of FUT1, GCNT2, and GCNT3 transcripts in RWPE1 cells under hypoxia, suggesting that hypoxia up-regulates glycosyltransferase expression required for F77 antigen synthesis. These results define the F77 epitope and provide a potential mechanism for F77 antigen synthesis in malignant prostate cancer. PMID:24753248

  13. A global RNA-seq-driven analysis of CHO host and production cell lines reveals distinct differential expression patterns of genes contributing to recombinant antibody glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Könitzer, Jennifer D; Müller, Markus M; Leparc, Germán; Pauers, Martin; Bechmann, Jan; Schulz, Patrick; Schaub, Jochen; Enenkel, Barbara; Hildebrandt, Tobias; Hampel, Martin; Tolstrup, Anne B

    2015-09-01

    Boehringer Ingelheim uses two CHO-DG44 lines for manufacturing biotherapeutics, BI-HEX-1 and BI-HEX-2, which produce distinct cell type-specific antibody glycosylation patterns. A recently established CHO-K1 descended host, BI-HEX-K1, generates antibodies with glycosylation profiles differing from CHO-DG44. Manufacturing process development is significantly influenced by these unique profiles. To investigate the underlying glycosylation related gene expression, we leveraged our CHO host and production cell RNA-seqtranscriptomics and product quality database together with the CHO-K1 genome. We observed that each BI-HEX host and antibody producing cell line has a unique gene expression fingerprint. CHO-DG44 cells only transcribe Fut10, Gfpt2 and ST8Sia6 when expressing antibodies. BI-HEX-K1 cells express ST8Sia6 at host cell level. We detected a link between BI-HEX-1/BI-HEX-2 antibody galactosylation and mannosylation and the gene expression of the B4galt gene family and genes controlling mannose processing. Furthermore, we found major differences between the CHO-DG44 and CHO-K1 lineages in the expression of sialyl transferases and enzymes synthesizing sialic acid precursors, providing a rationale for the lack of immunogenic NeuGc/NGNA synthesis in CHO. Our study highlights the value of systems biotechnology to understand glycoprotein synthesis and product glycoprofiles. Such data improve future production clone selection and process development strategies for better steering of biotherapeutic product quality.

  14. Expression and characterization of single-chain variable fragment antibody against staphylococcal enterotoxin A in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weifeng; Hu, Li; Liu, Aiping; Li, Jinquan; Chen, Fusheng; Wang, Xiaohong

    2014-11-01

    The staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEs) are potent gastrointestinal exotoxins synthesized by Staphylococcus aureus, which is responsible for various diseases including septicemia, food poisoning, and toxic shock syndrome, as well as bovine mastitis. Among them, staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is one of the most commonly present serotypes in staphylococcal food poisoning cases. In this study, the stable hybridoma 3C12 producing anti-SEA monoclonal antibody was established with an equilibrium dissociation constant (KD) of 1.48 × 10(-8) mol·L(-1), its ScFv-coding genes were obtained and then the anti-SEA single chain variable fragment (ScFv) protein was expressed in Escherichia coli. Characterization of the expressed target ScFv protein was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results demonstrated that the recombinant anti-SEA ScFv protein retained a specific binding activity for SEA, and the KD value of the soluble ScFv was about 3.75 × 10(-7) mol·L(-1). The overall yield of bioactive anti-SEA ScFv in E. coli flask culture was more than 10 mg·L(-1).

  15. Decreased Fc-Receptor expression on innate immune cells is associated with impaired antibody mediated cellular phagocytic activity in chronically HIV-1 infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Tonelli, Andrew; Berger, Christoph T.; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Liu, Qingquan; Sips, Magdalena; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Ghebremichael, Musie; Alter, Galit

    2011-01-01

    In addition to neutralization, antibodies mediate other antiviral activities including antibody-dependent cellular-phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody dependent cellular-cytotoxicity (ADCC), as well as complement deposition. While it is established that progressive HIV infection is associated with reduced ADCC and ADCP, the underlying mechanism for this loss of function is unknown. Here we report considerable changes in FcR expression over the course of HIV infection on both mDCs and monocytes, including elevated FcγRI expression in acute HIV infection and reduced expression of FcγRII and FcγRIIIa in chronic HIV infection. Furthermore, selective blockade of FcγRII alone was associated with a loss in ADCP activity, suggesting that FcγRII plays a central role in modulating ADCP. Overall, HIV infection is associated with a number of changes in FcR expression on phagocytic cells that are associated with changes in their ability to respond to antibody-opsonized targets, potentially contributing to a failure in viral clearance in progressive HIV-1 infection. PMID:21565376

  16. Decreased Fc receptor expression on innate immune cells is associated with impaired antibody-mediated cellular phagocytic activity in chronically HIV-1 infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Dugast, Anne-Sophie; Tonelli, Andrew; Berger, Christoph T; Ackerman, Margaret E; Sciaranghella, Gaia; Liu, Qingquan; Sips, Magdalena; Toth, Ildiko; Piechocka-Trocha, Alicja; Ghebremichael, Musie; Alter, Galit

    2011-07-05

    In addition to neutralization, antibodies mediate other antiviral activities including antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), as well as complement deposition. While it is established that progressive HIV infection is associated with reduced ADCC and ADCP, the underlying mechanism for this loss of function is unknown. Here we report considerable changes in FcR expression over the course of HIV infection on both mDCs and monocytes, including elevated FcγRI expression in acute HIV infection and reduced expression of FcγRII and FcγRIIIa in chronic HIV infection. Furthermore, selective blockade of FcγRII alone was associated with a loss in ADCP activity, suggesting that FcγRII plays a central role in modulating ADCP. Overall, HIV infection is associated with a number of changes in FcR expression on phagocytic cells that are associated with changes in their ability to respond to antibody-opsonized targets, potentially contributing to a failure in viral clearance in progressive HIV-1 infection.

  17. Development and Application of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-Expressed Nucleocapsid Protein-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Antibodies against Infectious Bronchitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Gibertoni, Aliandra M.; Montassier, Maria de Fátima S.; Sena, Janete A. D.; Givisiez, Patrícia E. N.; Furuyama, Cibele R. A. G.; Montassier, Hélio J.

    2005-01-01

    A Saccharomyces cerevisiae-expressed nucleocapsid (N) polypeptide of the M41 strain of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was used as antigen in a recombinant yeast-expressed N protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Y-N-ELISA). The Y-N-ELISA was rapid, sensitive, and specific for detecting chicken serum antibodies to IBV, and it compared favorably with a commercial ELISA. PMID:15815038

  18. Utility of the immunohistochemical detection of FLI-1 expression in round cell and vascular neoplasm using a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Sabrina; Orvieto, Enrico; Furlanetto, Alberto; Laurino, Licia; Ninfo, Vito; Dei Tos, Angelo P

    2004-05-01

    FLI-1 nuclear transcription factor has been proposed as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of small round cell sarcomas. Recently, FLI-1 has been reported as the first nuclear marker of endothelial differentiation. However, its clinical use has been hampered by major interpretation problems, due to the presence of background staining as well as staining variation between different lots of the same antiserum. In this study, a novel monoclonal antibody raised against the carboxyl terminal of the FLI-1 protein (clone GI146-222, BD Pharmingen) was tested in a series of small round cell and vascular neoplasms. Furthermore, in order to assess FLI-1 specificity, we analyzed its expression in a series of common epithelial and nonepithelial malignancies. In total, 15 Ewing's sarcomas, 10 rhabdomyosarcomas, 5 desmoplastic small round cell tumors, 10 synovial sarcomas, 10 high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas, 10 malignant melanomas, 5 Merkel's carcinomas, 10 colonic adenocarcinomas, 10 breast carcinomas, 10 lung adenocarcinomas, 20 angiosarcomas, 5 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas, 10 Kaposi's sarcomas and 10 benign hemangiomas, were stained. A strong FLI-1 immunoreactivity was detected in all Ewing's sarcomas and vascular neoplasms, highlighting the high sensitivity of FLI-1 monoclonal antibody. However, 2/5 Merkel's carcinomas and 1/10 malignant melanomas showed a strong nuclear immunostaining, suggesting that FLI-1 may not be so helpful in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous Ewing's sarcoma. In addition, a weak immunoreactivity was found in 3/5 Merkel cell carcinomas, 3/10 synovial sarcomas, 5/10 malignant melanomas, 6/10 lung adenocarcinomas and in 1/10 breast carcinomas. In contrast, all the rhabdomyosarcomas, desmoplastic small round cell tumors, high-grade pleomorphic sarcomas and colonic adenocarcinomas tested were negative. Importantly, in contrast with previous studies, no background staining was observed. Our results indicate that FLI-1 monoclonal antibody

  19. Response of Pea Varieties to Damage Degree of Pea Weevil, Bruchus pisorum L.

    PubMed Central

    Nikolova, Ivelina Mitkova

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the response of five pea varieties (Pisum sativum L.) to damage degree of Bruchus pisorum: Glyans, Modus, Kamerton, and Svit (Ukrainian cultivars) and Pleven 4 (Bulgarian cultivar). The seeds were classified into three types: healthy seeds (type 1), damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence hole (type 2), and damaged seeds with bruchid emergence hole (type 3) and they were sown. It was found that the weight of 1000 seeds did not affect the field germination of the pea varieties. Healthy and damaged seeds with parasitoid emergence holes (first and second seed types) provide a very good opportunity for growth and development while plants from damaged seeds with bruchid emergence holes had poor germination and vigor and low productivity. These seeds cannot provide the creation of well-garnished seeding and stable crop yields. Among tested varieties, the Ukrainian variety Glyans had considerably higher seed weight, field germination, and index germination and weak egg-laying activity of B. pisorum compared to others. Use of spring pea cultivars that are weakly preferred by the pea weevil in breeding programs would reduce losses due to pea weevil and provide an environmentally safer option to its control. PMID:27042379

  20. A new monoclonal antibody (KB61) recognizing a novel antigen which is selectively expressed on a subpopulation of human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Pulford, K; Ralfkiaer, E; MacDonald, S M; Erber, W N; Falini, B; Gatter, K C; Mason, D Y

    1986-01-01

    The present paper describes a new monoclonal antibody (KB61) raised against hairy cell leukaemia cells. Antibody KB61 recognizes a molecule of approximately 40,000 molecular weight on human B cells. It reacts with B lymphocytes in the peripheral blood, in primary lymphoid follicles, in the mantle zone of secondary follicles, in interfollicular areas and in splenic marginal zone areas. However, germinal centre lymphoid cells do not express the antigen recognized by antibody KB61. The antibody shows limited reactivity outside the lymphoid system, i.e. polymorphs, tissue macrophages endothelial cells in the hepatic sinusoids. Antibody KB61 discriminates between different types of B-cell malignancies, reacting with the neoplastic cells in hairy cell leukaemia, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (of B-cell type), prolymphocytic leukaemia and centrocytic lymphoma, but not with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, germinal centre-derived lymphomas (other than centrocytic), Burkitt's lymphoma and lymphoblastic lymphoma. Antibody KB61 may be of value in the study of B-cell subpopulations and in the differential diagnosis of B-cell neoplasms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3484721

  1. The characterization of the first anti-mouse Muc6 antibody shows an increased expression of the mucin in pancreatic tissue of Cftr-knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Gouyer, Valérie; Leir, Shih-Hsing; Tetaert, Daniel; Liu, Yamin; Gottrand, Frédéric; Harris, Ann; Desseyn, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-01

    Gel-forming mucins are large high-molecular weight secreted O-glycoproteins responsible for the gel-properties of the mucus blanket. Five orthologous gel-forming mucins have been cloned in human and mouse. Among them, the mucin MUC6 has been less studied, particularly in rodents and no anti rodent-Muc6 antibody has been reported yet. In order to further study Muc6 in mice, our aims were to obtain a specific Muc6 antibody, to validate it and to test it in Cftr deficient mice. A polyclonal serum named CP4 was isolated from a rabbit immunized by a mouse Muc6 peptide. In Western blot experiments, the antibody detected a high-molecular weight molecule secreted by the gastric tissue. Using immunohistochemistry, we showed that the antibody reacted strongly with deep glands of duodenum and ileum and mucous neck cells of gastric body. CP4 also recognized Muc6 protein secreted at the surface of the stomach and renal collecting tubules. The centroacinar cells of pancreatic tissue also reacted with the antibody. Cftr-/- mice showed a higher expression of Muc6 at both protein and RNA levels compared with their control Cftr+/+ littermates suggesting that as in the human disease, Muc6 may contribute to the formation of materials that block pancreatic acini and ducts in mouse models of cystic fibrosis. The rabbit anti-mouse Muc6 polyclonal antibody seems highly specific to the mouse mucin and will be useful to study pancreatic pathology in cystic fibrosis.

  2. Antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-Mag) in IgM amyloidosis may influence expression of neuropathy in rare patients.

    PubMed

    Garces-Sanchez, Mercedes; Dyck, Peter J; Kyle, Robert A; Zeldenrust, Steven; Wu, Yanhong; Ladha, Shafeeq S; Klein, Christopher J

    2008-04-01

    We have examined whether antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein (anti-MAG) influence neuropathy occurrence and phenotype in primary (AL IgM) amyloidosis. Anti-MAG and the cross-reacted sulfoglucuronyl paragloboside antibodies (SGPG) were studied in 46 patients with IgM amyloidosis (21 with polyneuropathy), and 21 matched IgM MGUS (monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance) controls without neuropathy. We assessed the occurrence, phenotype of neuropathy, and attributes of nerve conduction and their relation to antibody activity. Twenty of 46 patients with IgM amyloidosis (7 with and 13 without polyneuropathy) had elevation of anti-MAG or SGPG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two of the polyneuropathy patients with IgM amyloidosis had antibodies to MAG based on Western blot (WB) positivity. One of these patients, with the highest anti-MAG titer, had a painful sensory ataxia, with prominent demyelination, and amyloid deposition in sural nerve. The other anti-MAG WB-positive amyloid patient had an axonal neuropathy and dysautonomia. Low levels of anti-MAG antibodies were found in 12 of 21 IgM MGUS controls without neuropathy (mean follow-up, 11 years). We conclude that finding serum anti-MAG antibodies does not exclude the diagnosis of primary amyloidosis. They do not appear to affect the occurrence or expression of polyneuropathy, except possibly in occasional cases with WB positivity.

  3. Race-related differences in antibody responses to the inactivated influenza vaccine are linked to distinct pre-vaccination gene expression profiles in blood.

    PubMed

    Kurupati, Raj; Kossenkov, Andrew; Haut, Larissa; Kannan, Senthil; Xiang, Zhiquan; Li, Yan; Doyle, Susan; Liu, Qin; Schmader, Kenneth; Showe, Louise; Ertl, Hildegund

    2016-09-27

    We conducted a 5-year study analyzing antibody and B cell responses to the influenza A virus components of the inactivated influenza vaccine, trivalent (IIV3) or quadrivalent (IIV4) in younger (aged 35-45) and aged (≥65 years of age) Caucasian and African American individuals. Antibody titers to the two influenza A virus strains, distribution of circulating B cell subsets and the blood transcriptome were tested at baseline and after vaccination while expression of immunoregulatory markers on B cells were analyzed at baseline. African Americans mounted higher virus neutralizing and IgG antibody responses to the H1N1 component of IIV3 or 4 compared to Caucasians. African Americans had higher levels of circulating B cell subsets compared to Caucasians. Expression of two co-regulators, i.e., programmed death (PD)-1 and the B and T cell attenuator (BTLA) were differentially expressed in the two cohorts. Race-related differences were caused by samples from younger African Americans, while results obtained with samples of aged African Americans were similar to those of aged Caucasians. Gene expression profiling by Illumina arrays revealed highly significant differences in 1368 probes at baseline between Caucasians and African Americans although samples from both cohorts showed comparable changes in transcriptome following vaccination. Genes differently expressed between samples from African Americans and Caucasians regardless of age were enriched for myeloid genes, while the transcripts that differed in expression between younger African Americans and younger Caucasians were enriched for those specific for B-cells.

  4. Primary response to GAT in F344 rats: anti-GAT antibodies, nonspecific immunoglobulins, and expression of the GAT-13 idiotype.

    PubMed

    Petit, C; Gilbert, M

    1983-08-01

    It has been reported that antigen induces differentiation of two populations of Ig-containing cells: the first one to appear, IgCC, synthesizes nonspecific Ig and the second, AbCC, synthesizes antibodies. Along with other arguments, the observation that nonspecific Ig bear idiotypic determinants, which cross-react with those of antibodies, had led to the hypothesis that IgCC are precursors of AbCC. However, the synthesis of such idiotype-positive nonspecific Ig before the appearance of the antibodies has not yet been proven. This problem was investigated by analyzing the primary response to poly(Glu60-Ala30-Tyr10) (GAT) in F344 rats. Kinetics studies of cells synthesizing Ig expressing a major idiotype (GAT-13), and of cells synthesizing Ig not expressing GAT-13 idiotype, revealed that these two cell populations were undetectable before the appearance of the anti-GAT antibodies. This demonstrates that IgCC differentiation is not a necessary condition for the development of all antibody responses.

  5. Immunodiagnosis of episomal Banana streak MY virus using polyclonal antibodies to an expressed putative coat protein.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Susheel Kumar; Kumar, P Vignesh; Baranwal, Virendra Kumar

    2014-10-01

    A cryptic Badnavirus species complex, known as banana streak viruses (BSV) poses a serious threat to banana production and genetic improvement worldwide. Due to the presence of integrated BSV sequences in the banana genome, routine detection is largely based on serological and nucleo-serological diagnostic methods which require high titre specific polyclonal antiserum. Viral structural proteins like coat protein (CP) are the best target for in vitro expression, to be used as antigen for antiserum production. However, in badnaviruses precise CP sequences are not known. In this study, two putative CP coding regions (p48 and p37) of Banana streak MY virus (BSMYV) were identified in silico by comparison with caulimoviruses, retroviruses and Rice tungro bacilliform virus. The putative CP coding region (p37) was in vitro expressed in pMAL system and affinity purified. The purified fusion protein was used as antigen for raising polyclonal antiserum in rabbit. The specificity of antiserum was confirmed in Western blots, immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) and antigen coated plate-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA). The antiserum (1:2000) was successfully used in ACP-ELISA for specific detection of BSMYV infection in field and tissue culture raised banana plants. The antiserum was also utilized in immuno-capture PCR (IC-PCR) based indexing of episomal BSMYV infection. This is the first report of in silico identification of putative CP region of BSMYV, production of polyclonal antiserum against recombinant p37 and its successful use in immunodetection.

  6. Partial Protection against Porcine Influenza A Virus by a Hemagglutinin-Expressing Virus Replicon Particle Vaccine in the Absence of Neutralizing Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Ricklin, Meret E.; Vielle, Nathalie J.; Python, Sylvie; Brechbühl, Daniel; Zumkehr, Beatrice; Posthaus, Horst; Zimmer, Gert; Summerfield, Artur

    2016-01-01

    This work was initiated by previous reports demonstrating that mismatched influenza A virus (IAV) vaccines can induce enhanced disease, probably mediated by antibodies. Our aim was, therefore, to investigate if a vaccine inducing opsonizing but not neutralizing antibodies against the hemagglutinin (HA) of a selected heterologous challenge virus would enhance disease or induce protective immune responses in the pig model. To this end, we immunized pigs with either whole inactivated virus (WIV)-vaccine or HA-expressing virus replicon particles (VRP) vaccine based on recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Both types of vaccines induced virus neutralizing and opsonizing antibodies against homologous virus as shown by a highly sensitive plasmacytoid dendritic cell-based opsonization assay. Opsonizing antibodies showed a broader reactivity against heterologous IAV compared with neutralizing antibodies. Pigs immunized with HA-recombinant VRP vaccine were partially protected from infection with a mismatched IAV, which was not neutralized but opsonized by the immune sera. The VRP vaccine reduced lung lesions, lung inflammatory cytokine responses, serum IFN-α responses, and viral loads in the airways. Only the VRP vaccine was able to prime IAV-specific IFNγ/TNFα dual secreting CD4+ T cells detectable in the peripheral blood. In summary, this work demonstrates that with the virus pair selected, a WIV vaccine inducing opsonizing antibodies against HA which lack neutralizing activity, is neither protective nor does it induce enhanced disease in pigs. In contrast, VRP-expressing HA is efficacious vaccines in swine as they induced both potent antibodies and T-cell immunity resulting in a broader protective value. PMID:27446083

  7. IMGN853, a Folate Receptor-α (FRα)-Targeting Antibody-Drug Conjugate, Exhibits Potent Targeted Antitumor Activity against FRα-Expressing Tumors.

    PubMed

    Ab, Olga; Whiteman, Kathleen R; Bartle, Laura M; Sun, Xiuxia; Singh, Rajeeva; Tavares, Daniel; LaBelle, Alyssa; Payne, Gillian; Lutz, Robert J; Pinkas, Jan; Goldmacher, Victor S; Chittenden, Thomas; Lambert, John M

    2015-07-01

    A majority of ovarian and non-small cell lung adenocarcinoma cancers overexpress folate receptor α (FRα). Here, we report the development of an anti-FRα antibody-drug conjugate (ADC), consisting of a FRα-binding antibody attached to a highly potent maytansinoid that induces cell-cycle arrest and cell death by targeting microtubules. From screening a large panel of anti-FRα monoclonal antibodies, we selected the humanized antibody M9346A as the best antibody for targeted delivery of a maytansinoid payload into FRα-positive cells. We compared M9346A conjugates with various linker/maytansinoid combinations, and found that a conjugate, now denoted as IMGN853, with the N-succinimidyl 4-(2-pyridyldithio)-2-sulfobutanoate (sulfo-SPDB) linker and N(2')-deacetyl-N(2')-(4-mercapto-4-methyl-1-oxopentyl)-maytansine (DM4) exhibited the most potent antitumor activity in several FRα-expressing xenograft tumor models. The level of expression of FRα on the surface of cells was a major determinant in the sensitivity of tumor cells to the cytotoxic effect of the conjugate. Efficacy studies of IMGN853 in xenografts of ovarian cancer and non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and of a patient tumor-derived xenograft model demonstrated that the ADC was highly active against tumors that expressed FRα at levels similar to those found on a large fraction of ovarian and non-small cell lung cancer patient tumors, as assessed by immunohistochemistry. IMGN853 displayed cytotoxic activity against FRα-negative cells situated near FRα-positive cells (bystander cytotoxic activity), indicating its ability to eradicate tumors with heterogeneous expression of FRα. Together, these findings support the clinical development of IMGN853 as a novel targeted therapy for patients with FRα-expressing tumors.

  8. Surface expression of protein A on magnetosomes and capture of pathogenic bacteria by magnetosome/antibody complexes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jun; Hu, Junying; Liu, Lingzi; Li, Li; Wang, Xu; Zhang, Huiyuan; Jiang, Wei; Tian, Jiesheng; Li, Ying; Li, Jilun

    2014-01-01

    Magnetosomes are membrane-enclosed magnetite nanocrystals synthesized by magnetotactic bacteria (MTB). They display chemical purity, narrow size ranges, and species-specific crystal morphologies. Specific transmembrane proteins are sorted to the magnetosome membrane (MM). MamC is the most abundant MM protein of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1. MamF is the second most abundant MM protein of MSR-1 and forms stable oligomers. We expressed staphylococcal protein A (SPA), an immunoglobulin-binding protein from the cell wall of Staphylococcus aureus, on MSR-1 magnetosomes by fusion with MamC or MamF. The resulting recombinant magnetosomes were capable of self-assembly with the Fc region of mammalian antibodies (Abs) and were therefore useful for functionalization of magnetosomes. Recombinant plasmids pBBR-mamC-spa and pBBR-mamF-spa were constructed by fusing spa (the gene that encodes SPA) with mamC and mamF, respectively. Recombinant magnetosomes with surface expression of SPA were generated by introduction of these fusion genes into wild-type MSR-1 or a mamF mutant strain. Studies with a Zeta Potential Analyzer showed that the recombinant magnetosomes had hydrated radii significantly smaller than those of WT magnetosomes and zeta potentials less than −30 mV, indicating that the magnetosome colloids were relatively stable. Observed conjugation efficiencies were as high as 71.24 μg Ab per mg recombinant magnetosomes, and the conjugated Abs retained most of their activity. Numbers of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (a common pathogenic bacterium in seafood) captured by recombinant magnetosome/Ab complexes were measured by real-time fluorescence-based quantitative PCR. One mg of complex was capable of capturing as many as 1.74 × 107 Vibrio cells. The surface expression system described here will be useful for design of functionalized magnetosomes from MSR-1 and other MTB. PMID:24765089

  9. Heat Stress Response in Pea Involves Interaction of Mitochondrial Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinase with a Novel 86-Kilodalton Protein1

    PubMed Central

    Escobar Galvis, Martha L.; Marttila, Salla; Håkansson, Gunilla; Forsberg, Jens; Knorpp, Carina

    2001-01-01

    In this work we have further characterized the first mitochondrial nucleoside diphosphate kinase (mtNDPK) isolated from plants. The mitochondrial isoform was found to be especially abundant in reproductive and young tissues. Expression of the pea (Pisum sativum L. cv Oregon sugarpod) mtNDPK was not affected by different stress conditions. However, the pea mtNDPK was found to interact with a novel 86-kD protein, which is de novo synthesized in pea leaves upon exposure to heat. Thus, we have evidence for the involvement of mtNDPK in mitochondrial heat response in pea in vivo. Studies on oligomerization revealed that mtNDPK was found in complexes of various sizes, corresponding to the sizes of e.g. hexamers, tetramers, and dimers, indicating flexibility in oligomerization. This flexibility, also found for other NDPK isoforms, has been correlated with the ability of this enzyme to interact with other proteins. We believe that the mtNDPK is involved in heat stress response in pea, possibly as a modulator of the 86-kD protein. PMID:11351071

  10. Stamina pistilloida, the Pea Ortholog of Fim and UFO, Is Required for Normal Development of Flowers, Inflorescences, and Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Scott; Hofer, Julie; Murfet, Ian

    2001-01-01

    Isolation and characterization of two severe alleles at the Stamina pistilloida (Stp) locus reveals that Stp is involved in a wide range of developmental processes in the garden pea. The most severe allele, stp-4, results in flowers consisting almost entirely of sepals and carpels. Production of ectopic secondary flowers in stp-4 plants suggests that Stp is involved in specifying floral meristem identity in pea. The stp mutations also reduce the complexity of the compound pea leaf, and primary inflorescences often terminate prematurely in an aberrant sepaloid flower. In addition, stp mutants were shorter than their wild-type siblings due to a reduction in cell number in their internodes. Fewer cells were also found in the epidermis of the leaf rachis of stp mutants. Examination of the effects of stp-4 in double mutant combinations with af, tl, det, and veg2-2—mutations known to influence leaf, inflorescence, and flower development in pea—suggests that Stp function is independent of these genes. A synergistic interaction between weak mutant alleles at Stp and Uni indicated that these two genes act together, possibly to regulate primordial growth. Molecular analysis revealed that Stp is the pea homolog of the Antirrhinum gene Fimbriata (Fim) and of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) from Arabidopsis. Differences between Fim/UFO and Stp mutant phenotypes and expression patterns suggest that expansion of Stp activity into the leaf was an important step during evolution of the compound leaf in the garden pea. PMID:11158527

  11. Genomic Tools in Pea Breeding Programs: Status and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Tayeh, Nadim; Aubert, Grégoire; Pilet-Nayel, Marie-Laure; Lejeune-Hénaut, Isabelle; Warkentin, Thomas D.; Burstin, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an annual cool-season legume and one of the oldest domesticated crops. Dry pea seeds contain 22–25% protein, complex starch and fiber constituents, and a rich array of vitamins, minerals, and phytochemicals which make them a valuable source for human consumption and livestock feed. Dry pea ranks third to common bean and chickpea as the most widely grown pulse in the world with more than 11 million tons produced in 2013. Pea breeding has achieved great success since the time of Mendel's experiments in the mid-1800s. However, several traits still require significant improvement for better yield stability in a larger growing area. Key breeding objectives in pea include improving biotic and abiotic stress resistance and enhancing yield components and seed quality. Taking advantage of the diversity present in the pea genepool, many mapping populations have been constructed in the last decades and efforts have been deployed to identify loci involved in the control of target traits and further introgress them into elite breeding materials. Pea now benefits from next-generation sequencing and high-throughput genotyping technologies that are paving the way for genome-wide association studies and genomic selection approaches. This review covers the significant development and deployment of genomic tools for pea breeding in recent years. Future prospects are discussed especially in light of current progress toward deciphering the pea genome. PMID:26640470

  12. Programmed Death-Ligand 1 Expression and Response to the Anti-Programmed Death 1 Antibody Pembrolizumab in Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Daud, Adil I; Wolchok, Jedd D; Robert, Caroline; Hwu, Wen-Jen; Weber, Jeffrey S; Ribas, Antoni; Hodi, F Stephen; Joshua, Anthony M; Kefford, Richard; Hersey, Peter; Joseph, Richard; Gangadhar, Tara C; Dronca, Roxana; Patnaik, Amita; Zarour, Hassane; Roach, Charlotte; Toland, Grant; Lunceford, Jared K; Li, Xiaoyun Nicole; Emancipator, Kenneth; Dolled-Filhart, Marisa; Kang, S Peter; Ebbinghaus, Scot; Hamid, Omid

    2016-12-01

    Purpose Expression of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a potential predictive marker for response and outcome after treatment with anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1). This study explored the relationship between anti-PD-1 activity and PD-L1 expression in patients with advanced melanoma who were treated with pembrolizumab in the phase Ib KEYNOTE-001 study (clinical trial information: NCT01295827). Patients and Methods Six hundred fifty-five patients received pembrolizumab10 mg/kg once every 2 weeks or once every 3 weeks, or 2 mg/kg once every 3 weeks. Tumor response was assessed every 12 weeks per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 by independent central review. Primary outcome was objective response rate. Secondary outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Membranous PD-L1 expression in tumor and tumor-associated immune cells was assessed by a clinical trial immunohistochemistry assay (22C3 antibody) and scored on a unique melanoma (MEL) scale of 0 to 5 by one of three pathologists who were blinded to clinical outcome; a score ≥ 2 (membranous staining in ≥ 1% of cells) was considered positive. Results Of 451 patients with evaluable PD-L1 expression, 344 (76%) had PD-L1-positive tumors. Demographic and staging variables were equally distributed among PD-L1-positive and -negative patients. An association between higher MEL score and higher response rate and longer PFS (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.71 to 0.82) and OS (hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.69 to 0.83) was observed ( P < .001 for each). Objective response rate was 8%, 12%, 22%, 43%, 57%, and 53% for MEL 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Conclusion PD-L1 expression in pretreatment tumor biopsy samples was correlated with response rate, PFS, and OS; however, patients with PD-L1-negative tumors may also achieve durable responses.

  13. Expression of recombinant HA1 protein for specific detection of influenza A/H1N1/2009 antibodies in human serum.

    PubMed

    Luo, Lizhong; Nishi, Krista; Macleod, Erin; Sabara, Marta I; Coleman, Brenda L; Gubbay, Jonathan B; Li, Yan

    2013-01-01

    The hemagglutinin genes (HA1 subunit) from human and animal 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus isolates were expressed with a baculovirus vector. Recombinant HA1 (rHA1) protein-based ELISA was evaluated for detection of specific influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 antibodies in serum samples from vaccinated humans. It was found that rHA1 ELISA consistently differentiated between antibodies recognizing the seasonal influenza H1N1 and pdm09 viruses, with a concordance of 94% as compared to the hemagglutination inhibition test. This study suggests the utility of rHA1 ELISA in serosurveillance.

  14. Selection of antibodies from synthetic antibody libraries.

    PubMed

    Harel Inbar, Noa; Benhar, Itai

    2012-10-15

    More than 2 dozen years had passed since the field of antibody engineering was established, with the first reports of bacterial [1-3] and mammalian cells [4] expression of recombinant antibody fragments, and in that time a lot of effort was dedicated to the development of efficient technological means, intended to assist in the creation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Research focus was given to two intertwined technological aspects: the selection platform and the recombinant antibody repertoires. In accordance with these areas of interest, it is the goal of this chapter to describe the various selection tools and antibody libraries existing, with emphasis on the later, and their applications. This chapter gives a far from exhaustive, subjective "historic account" of the field, describing the selection platforms, the different formats of antibody repertoires and the applications of both for selecting recombinant antibodies. Several excellent books provide detailed protocols for constructing antibody libraries and selecting antibodies from those libraries [5-13]. Such books may guide a newcomer to the field in the fine details of antibody engineering. We would like to offer advice to the novice: although seemingly simple, effective library construction and antibody isolation provide best benefits in the hands of professionals. It is an art as much as it is science.

  15. Accelerated evolution of morph-biased genes in pea aphids.

    PubMed

    Purandare, Swapna R; Bickel, Ryan D; Jaquiery, Julie; Rispe, Claude; Brisson, Jennifer A

    2014-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, the production of alternative phenotypes (or morphs) from the same genotype due to environmental factors, results in some genes being expressed in a morph-biased manner. Theoretically, these morph-biased genes experience relaxed selection, the consequence of which is the buildup of slightly deleterious mutations at these genes. Over time, this is expected to result in increased protein divergence at these genes between species and a signature of relaxed purifying selection within species. Here we test these theoretical expectations using morph-biased genes in the pea aphid, a species that produces multiple morphs via polyphenism. We find that morph-biased genes exhibit faster rates of evolution (in terms of dN/dS) relative to unbiased genes and that divergence generally increases with increasing morph bias. Further, genes with expression biased toward rarer morphs (sexual females and males) show faster rates of evolution than genes expressed in the more common morph (asexual females), demonstrating that the amount of time a gene spends being expressed in a morph is associated with its rate of evolution. And finally, we show that genes expressed in the rarer morphs experience decreased purifying selection relative to unbiased genes, suggesting that it is a relaxation of purifying selection that contributes to their faster rates of evolution. Our results provide an important empirical look at the impact of phenotypic plasticity on gene evolution.

  16. Accelerated Evolution of Morph-Biased Genes in Pea Aphids

    PubMed Central

    Purandare, Swapna R.; Bickel, Ryan D.; Jaquiery, Julie; Rispe, Claude; Brisson, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, the production of alternative phenotypes (or morphs) from the same genotype due to environmental factors, results in some genes being expressed in a morph-biased manner. Theoretically, these morph-biased genes experience relaxed selection, the consequence of which is the buildup of slightly deleterious mutations at these genes. Over time, this is expected to result in increased protein divergence at these genes between species and a signature of relaxed purifying selection within species. Here we test these theoretical expectations using morph-biased genes in the pea aphid, a species that produces multiple morphs via polyphenism. We find that morph-biased genes exhibit faster rates of evolution (in terms of dN/dS) relative to unbiased genes and that divergence generally increases with increasing morph bias. Further, genes with expression biased toward rarer morphs (sexual females and males) show faster rates of evolution than genes expressed in the more common morph (asexual females), demonstrating that the amount of time a gene spends being expressed in a morph is associated with its rate of evolution. And finally, we show that genes expressed in the rarer morphs experience decreased purifying selection relative to unbiased genes, suggesting that it is a relaxation of purifying selection that contributes to their faster rates of evolution. Our results provide an important empirical look at the impact of phenotypic plasticity on gene evolution. PMID:24770714

  17. Efficient intergeneric fusion of pea (Pisum sativum L.) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.) protoplasts.

    PubMed

    Durieu, P; Ochatt, S J

    2000-07-01

    Large numbers of viable protoplasts of pea (Pisum sativum) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) were efficiently and reproducibly obtained and, for the first time, fused. Different procedures for fusion were compared, based either on electrofusion (750, 1000, 1250 or 1500 V cm(-1)), or on the use of macro or micromethods with a polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000 or PEG 1540), or a glycine/high pH solution. Over 10% of viable heterokaryons were obtained, with PEG as the most efficient and reproducible agent for protoplast fusion (>20% of viable heterokaryons). Both the division of heterokaryons and the formation of small calluses were observed.

  18. Iron homeostasis and fire blight susceptibility in transgenic pear plants overexpressing a pea ferritin gene.

    PubMed

    Djennane, Samia; Cesbron, Colette; Sourice, Sophie; Cournol, Raphael; Dupuis, Fabrice; Eychenne, Magali; Loridon, Karine; Chevreau, Elisabeth

    2011-05-01

    The bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora causes the devastating disease known as fire blight in some rosaceous plants including apple and pear. One of the pathogenicity factors affecting fire blight development is the production of a siderophore, desferrioxamine, which overcomes the limiting conditions in plant tissues and also protects bacteria against active oxygen species. In this paper we examine the effect of an iron chelator protein encoded by the pea ferritin gene on the fire blight susceptibility of pear (Pyrus communis). Transgenic pear clones expressing this gene controlled either by the constitutive promoter CaMV 35S or by the inducible promoter sgd24 promoter were produced. The transgenic clones produced were analysed by Q-RT-PCR to determine the level of expression of the pea transgene. A pathogen-inducible pattern of expression of the pea transgene was observed in sgd24-promoter transformants. Adaptation to iron deficiency in vitro was tested in some transgenic clones and different iron metabolism parameters were measured. No strong effect on iron and chlorophyll content, root reductase activity and fire blight susceptibility was detected in the transgenic lines tested. No transformants showed a significant reduction in susceptibility to fire blight in greenhouse conditions when inoculated with E. amylovora.

  19. Water deficit down-regulates miR398 and miR408 in pea (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Jovanović, Živko; Stanisavljević, Nemanja; Mikić, Aleksandar; Radović, Svetlana; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), recently recognized as important regulator of gene expression at posttranscriptional level, have been found to be involved in plant stress responses. The observation that some miRNAs are up- or down regulated by stress implies that they could play vital roles in plant resistance to abiotic and biotic stress. We investigated the effect of water stress treatment during 10 days on expression of conserved miRNAs-miR398a/b and miR408 in pea plants. This time frame reflects the changes as close as possible to the changes where water stress causes visible effects under field condition. It was observed that dehydration strongly down regulates the expression of both miR398a/b and miR408 in pea roots and shoots. The down-regulation of miR398a/b and the up-regulation of potential target genes - copper superoxide dismutase, CSD1, highlight the involvement of this miRNA in pea stress response. To the contrary, the mRNA level of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 5 (COX5b) did not change in roots and shoots of water-stressed plants, compared to control (well) hydrated plants. This suggests that COX5b is not the target of miR398, or that its expression is regulated by some other mechanism. P1B-ATPase expression increased during water deficit only in the shoots of pea; in the roots there were no changes in expression. Our results help to understand the possible role of investigated miRNAs and their contribution to pea capacity to cope with water deficit.

  20. Relation of activation-induced deaminase (AID) expression with antibody response to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination in HIV-1 infected patients.

    PubMed

    Cagigi, Alberto; Pensieroso, Simone; Ruffin, Nicolas; Sammicheli, Stefano; Thorstensson, Rigmor; Pan-Hammarström, Qiang; Hejdeman, Bo; Nilsson, Anna; Chiodi, Francesca

    2013-04-26

    The relevance of CD4+T-cells, viral load and age in the immunological response to influenza infection and vaccination in HIV-1 infected individuals has previously been pointed out. Our study aimed at assessing, in the setting of 2009 A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccination, whether quantification of activation-induced deaminase (AID) expression in blood B-cells may provide additional indications for predicting antibody response to vaccination in HIV-1 infected patients with similar CD4+T-cell counts and age. Forty-seven healthy controls, 37 ART-treated and 17 treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected patients were enrolled in the study. Blood was collected prior to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination and at 1, 3 and 6 months after vaccination. Antibody titers to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine were measured by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay while the mRNA expression levels of AID were measured by quantitative real time PCR. Upon B-cell activation in vitro, AID increase correlated to antibody response to the A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine at 1 month after vaccination in all individuals. In addition, the maximum expression levels of AID were significantly higher in those individuals who still carried protective levels of A(H1N1)pdm09 antibodies after 6 months from vaccination. No correlation was found between CD4+T-cell counts or age at vaccination or HIV-1 viral load and levels of A(H1N1)pdm09 antibodies. Assessing AID expression before vaccination may be an additional useful tool for defining a vaccination strategy in immune-compromised individuals at risk of immunization failure.

  1. Bicistronic expression plasmid encoding allergen and anti-IgE single chain variable fragment antibody as a novel DNA vaccine for allergy therapy and prevention.

    PubMed

    Bandbon Balenga, Nariman Aghaei; Thalhamer, Josef; Weiss, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Several approaches have been applied in order to alleviate the difficulties allergic patients are suffering from. Among them DNA vaccination and anti-IgE antibody have shown promising results. Herewith, a combination of both strategies is proposed to minimize IgE production while inducing high levels of blocking IgG and strong Th1 immune responses. A bicistronic expression plasmid including an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) can express both, allergen and a single chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody against human IgE within antigen presenting cells (APCs) including B cells. Presentation of allergen derived peptides via MHC I and MHC II stimulates specific Th1 responses resulting in high levels of IFN-gamma and IgG. Anti-IgE scFv antibody binds to newly synthesized IgE molecules within B cell cytoplasm and also to free serum IgE, thereby inhibiting attachment of IgE to its receptors on basophils and mast cells. Also, IgE-anti-IgE complex functions as blocking antibody and neutralizes allergens entering the body. Additionally, anti-IgE scFv antibody binds to membrane bound IgE (mIgE) on B cells and interferes with IgE expression. Using assays, such as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), IgG and IgE production in response to this expression system can be evaluated. Also, rat basophil leukemia cell assay (using RBL-2H3 cells) can show the amount of functional IgE in sera as basophil mediator release is regarded as an indicator of the allergic hypersensitive reactions. The proposed approach may result in high levels of blocking IgG and low levels of IgE secretion from B cells. Additionally, it can inhibit activity of IgE in degranulation of basophils and mast cells.

  2. Pediatric measles vaccine expressing a dengue antigen induces durable serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies to dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Brandler, Samantha; Lucas-Hourani, Marianne; Moris, Arnaud; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Combredet, Chantal; Février, Michèle; Bedouelle, Hugues; Schwartz, Olivier; Desprès, Philippe; Tangy, Frédéric

    2007-12-12

    Dengue disease is an increasing global health problem that threatens one-third of the world's population. Despite decades of efforts, no licensed vaccine against dengue is available. With the aim to develop an affordable vaccine that could be used in young populations living in tropical areas, we evaluated a new strategy based on the expression of a minimal dengue antigen by a vector derived from pediatric live-attenuated Schwarz measles vaccine (MV). As a proof-of-concept, we inserted into the MV vector a sequence encoding a minimal combined dengue antigen composed of the envelope domain III (EDIII) fused to the ectodomain of the membrane protein (ectoM) from DV serotype-1. Immunization of mice susceptible to MV resulted in a long-term production of DV1 serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies. The presence of ectoM was critical to the immunogenicity of inserted EDIII. The adjuvant capacity of ectoM correlated with its ability to promote the maturation of dendritic cells and the secretion of proinflammatory and antiviral cytokines and chemokines involved in adaptive immunity. The protective efficacy of this vaccine should be studied in non-human primates. A combined measles-dengue vaccine might provide a one-shot approach to immunize children against both diseases where they co-exist.

  3. Human estrogen receptor beta-specific monoclonal antibodies: characterization and use in studies of estrogen receptor beta protein expression in reproductive tissues.

    PubMed

    Choi, I; Ko, C; Park-Sarge, O K; Nie, R; Hess, R A; Graves, C; Katzenellenbogen, B S

    2001-07-05

    Investigation of the role of the second, more recently described estrogen receptor, denoted ERbeta, will be critical in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying tissue-specific gene regulation by estrogens. Expression of ERbeta in a variety of tissues has been examined predominantly at the mRNA level, and there is little information regarding the cellular localization and size of the endogenous ERbeta protein, due, in part, to the limited availability of human ERbeta-specific antibodies. Thus, our aim was to generate specific antibodies to human ERbeta and use them to determine the tissue-specific distribution and size(s) of the ERbeta protein. To this end, we have cloned three different hybridoma cell lines that produce monoclonal antibodies specific for the hormone-binding domain of human ERbeta. The antibodies, made in mice against human ERbeta amino acids 256-505 (hormone binding domain lacking the F domain), are designated CFK-E12 (E12), CMK-A9 (A9) and CWK-F12 (F12) and were determined to be the IgG gamma1 isotype for E12, and IgG gamma2b for A9 and F12. All three monoclonal antibodies could be used to detect in vitro translated, baculovirus expressed, and cell transfected and expressed ERbeta protein by Western blot analyses, and all failed to detect ERalpha. A9 and F12 were able to immunoprecipitate efficiently the native form of ERbeta protein in the presence and absence of estradiol. Epitope mapping studies indicate that the E12 and F12 antibodies recognize overlapping peptide sequences in the N-terminal region of the hormone-binding domain, a region that is highly conserved among species. Immunocytochemical studies with these antibodies reveal nuclear-specific localization of the ERbeta protein in granulosa cells of the rat ovary. Nuclear ERbeta is also specifically localized in epithelial and some stromal cells of mouse and rat epididymis. Western blot analysis with protein extracts from ovarian granulosa cells of human, rat, mouse, and pig

  4. A human programmed death-ligand 1-expressing mouse tumor model for evaluating the therapeutic efficacy of anti-human PD-L1 antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Anfei; Peng, Di; Guo, Huanhuan; Ben, Yinyin; Zuo, Xiangyang; Wu, Fei; Yang, Xiaoli; Teng, Fei; Li, Zhen; Qian, Xueming; Qin, F. Xiao-Feng

    2017-01-01

    Huge efforts have been devoted to develop therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeting human Programmed death-ligand 1 (hPD-L1) for treating various types of human cancers. However, thus far there is no suitable animal model for evaluating the anti-tumor efficacy of such antibodies against hPD-L1. Here we report the generation of a robust and effective system utilizing hPD-L1-expressing mouse tumor cells to study the therapeutic activity and mode of action of anti-human PD-L1 in mice. The model has been validated by using a clinically proven hPD-L1 blocking antibody. The anti-hPD-L1 antibody treatment resulted in potent dose-dependent rejection of the human PD-L1-expressing tumors in mice. Consistent with what have observed in autochthonous mouse tumor models and cancer patients, the hPD-L1 tumor bearing mice treated by anti-hPD-L1 antibody showed rapid activation, proliferation and reinvigoration of the cytolytic effector function of CD8+T cells inside tumor tissues. Moreover, anti-hPD-L1 treatment also led to profound inhibition of Treg expansion and shifting of myeloid cell profiles, showing bona fide induction of multilateral anti-tumor responses by anti-hPD-L1 blockade. Thus, this hPD-L1 mouse model system would facilitate the pre-clinical investigation of therapeutic efficacy and immune modulatory function of various forms of anti-hPD-L1 antibodies. PMID:28202921

  5. Japanese encephalitis protein vaccine candidates expressing neutralizing epitope and M.T hsp70 induce virus-specific memory B cells and long-lasting antibodies in swine.

    PubMed

    Fei-fei, Ge; Jian, Wang; Feng, Xu; Li-ping, Sheng; Quan-yun, Sun; Jin-ping, Zhou; Pu-yan, Chen; Pei-hong, Liu

    2008-10-16

    Swine are an important amplifier of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus in the paradomestic environment. In this study, two JE protein vaccine candidates were evaluated for immunogenicity in swine. Both vaccine plasmids are based on a prokaryotic vector pET-32a(+). One plasmid, designated pET-32a(+)-epitope, encode a cassette consisting of a neutralizing epitope on envelope (E) protein of JE virus, whereas the other plasmid, designated pET-32a(+)-epitope-hsp70, express the fusion protein of the epitope and M.T hsp70. Some differences were detected in the immunogenicity of these two proteins in swine. Swine immunized twice with 2000pmol of the neutralizing epitope or the fusion protein developed neutralizing antibody titers of respectively, 154 and 300, and anti-neutralizing epitope antibody titers of 10(4.25) and 10(6.0) by 3 weeks after the second immunization. In addition, swine immunized with the neutralizing epitope emulsified with adjuvant S206 or with imported mineral oil and Tween-80 induced neutralizing antibody titers of 196 and 244, and anti-neutralizing epitope antibody titers of 10(5.25) or 10(5.6) at the same time point. However, swine administered two doses of a commercial JE vaccine (attenuated virus preparation; JEV SA14-14-2 strain) developed less favorable antibody responses with neutralizing antibody titer 40 and anti-neutralizing epitope antibody titers 10(3.7). The anamnestic response was followed by monitoring titers 1 week after boosting with a viral antigen; swine immunized twice with the fusion protein showed a 177-fold increase in anti-neutralizing epitope titer, indicating a strong recall of the antibody response. The animals maintained detectable levels of anti-neutralizing epitope antibody for at least 105 days after two immunizations, indicating that these four protein antigens are able to stimulate virus-specific memory B cells and long-lasting antibodies at higher levels than is achieved using a current commercial attenuated JEV vaccine

  6. [Expression and purification of different segments from HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein and their application in detection of antibodies].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Zhang, Ting-Ying; Zhou, Wei-Min; Zhao, Guo-Xia; Zhang, Ling-Lin; Gao, Ji-Min; Tan, Wen-Jie

    2011-05-01

    Prokaryotic expression plasmids carrying N-terminal(1-163aa) and C-terminal(141-306aa) gene of HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein were constructed with pET-30a(+) vector. Consequently, we prepared two purified proteins, Np and Cp, respectively, and established a Western blotting-based line assay (WBLA) for detection of antibodies against HCoV-NL63 using three purified proteins: Np , Cp and Nf, a full-length HCoV-NL63 nucleocapsid protein as previously reported. We detected anti-HCoV-NL63 antibodies among 50 sera samples collected from adult for health-examination by WBLA. The results showed that: 25 (50%), 27 (54%), 36 (72%) of 50 sera were indentified as anti-HCoV-NL63 antibody positive when the antigen was from Nf, Np and Cp, respectively. Among these sera with positive anti-HCoV-NL63 antibody,Cp showed highest antibody positive rate in WBLA,and consistent rates of detection were 64% between Nf and Np, 54% between Nf and Cp, 54% between Np and Cp. Our study provides the foundation for development of HCoV-NL63 serological detection reagents and an experimental tool for immunological research of HCoV-NL63 infection.

  7. Human papillomavirus type 16 virus-like particles expressed in attenuated Salmonella typhimurium elicit mucosal and systemic neutralizing antibodies in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Nardelli-Haefliger, D; Roden, R B; Benyacoub, J; Sahli, R; Kraehenbuhl, J P; Schiller, J T; Lachat, P; Potts, A; De Grandi, P

    1997-01-01

    Attenuated strains of Salmonella are attractive live vaccine candidates for eliciting mucosal as well as systemic immune responses. The ability to induce immune responses in the reproductive tract may be critical for the effectiveness of a prophylactic vaccine against genital human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are important etiologic agents in the development of cervical cancer. To examine the potential of a live Salmonella-based vaccine to prevent genital HPV infection, the L1 major capsid protein from HPV type 16 (HPV16) was constitutively expressed in the PhoPc strain of Salmonella typhimurium. As demonstrated by electron microscopy, the L1 protein expressed in these bacteria assembled into virus-like particles (VLPs) that resemble authentic papillomavirus virions. This is the first demonstration that papillomavirus VLPs can self-assemble in prokaryotes. BALB/c mice were immunized with the HPV16 L1 recombinant PhoPc strain by the oral and nasal routes. Despite a low stability of the L1-expressing plasmid in vivo, a double nasal immunization was effective in inducing L1-specific serum antibodies that recognized mainly native, but not disassembled, VLPs. These antibodies effectively neutralized HPV16 pseudotyped virions in an in vitro infectivity assay. Conformationally dependent anti-VLP immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG were also detected in oral and vaginal secretions, indicating that potentially protective antibody responses were elicited at mucosal sites. Recombinant attenuated Salmonella expressing HPV capsids may represent a promising vaccine candidate against genital HPV infection. PMID:9234794

  8. Anomalous expression of Thy1 (CD90) in B-cell lymphoma cells and proliferation inhibition by anti-Thy1 antibody treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Ishiura, Yoshihito; Kotani, Norihiro; Yamashita, Ryusuke; Yamamoto, Harumi; Kozutsumi, Yasunori; Honke, Koichi

    2010-05-28

    The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (Ab) rituximab is accepted to be an effective therapeutic Ab for malignant B-cell lymphoma; however, discovery of other cell surface antigens is required for the option of antibody medicine. Considering that many tumor-associated antigens are glycans, we have searched glycoconjugates for the candidate antigens that therapeutic Abs target. To this end, we first focused on the difference in the glycogenes expression in terms of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection of a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line, Akata. Using DNA array, flow cytometry and Western blotting, we found that Thy1 was highly expressed in EBV-positive Akata cells. Subsequently, Thy1 was found to be expressed in other B-cell lymphoma cell lines: BJAB, MutuI, and MutuIII, irrespective of EBV infection. Treatment of these cells with an anti-Thy1 monoclonal antibody inhibited proliferation more strongly than the therapeutic Ab rituximab. The B-cell lymphoma cell lines were classified based on the extent of the proliferation inhibition, which was not correlated with the expression level of Thy1. It is suggested that stable residence of receptor tyrosine kinases in lipid rafts sustains cell growth in B-cell lymphoma cells.

  9. Conservation of receptor antagonist anti-tumor activity by epidermal growth factor receptor antibody expressed in transgenic corn seed.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Dale L; Witte, Larry; Hicklin, Daniel J; Prewett, Marie; Bassi, Rajiv; Burtrum, Douglas; Pereira, Daniel S; Jimenez, Xenia; Fox, Floyd; Saxena, Babita; Zhou, Qinwei; Ma, Yuemei; Kang, Xiaoqiang; Patel, Dipa; Barry, Michael; Kussie, Paul; Zhu, Zhenping; Russell, Douglas A; Petersen, William L; Jury, Thomas P; Gaitan-Gaitan, Fernando; Moran, Daniel L; Delannay, Xavier; Storrs, Bradley S; Tou, Jacob; Zupec, Mark E; Gustafson, Karen S; McIntyre, John; Tarnowski, S Joseph; Bohlen, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant protein production in plants such as corn is a promising means to generate high product yields at low comparable production cost. The anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody C225, cetuximab, is a well-characterized receptor antagonist antibody recently approved for the treatment of refractory colorectal cancer. We initiated a study to test and compare the functional activity of glycosylated and aglycosylated C225 produced in stable transgenic corn seed. Both corn antibodies were shown to be functionally indistinguishable from mammalian-derived C225 in demonstrating high-affinity binding to the EGF receptor, blocking of ligand-dependent signaling, and inhibiting cell proliferation. In addition, consistent with cetuximab, both corn antibodies possessed strong anti-tumor activity in vivo. Acute dose primate pharmacokinetic studies, however, revealed a marked increase in clearance for the glycosylated corn antibody, while the aglycosylated antibody possessed in vivo kinetics similar to cetuximab. This experimentation established that corn-derived receptor blocking monoclonal antibodies possess comparable efficacy to mammalian cell culture-derived antibody, and offer a cost effective alternative to large-scale mammalian cell culture production.

  10. Recombinant receptor-binding domain of SARS-CoV spike protein expressed in mammalian, insect and E. coli cells elicits potent neutralizing antibody and protective immunity.

    PubMed

    Du, Lanying; Zhao, Guangyu; Chan, Chris C S; Sun, Shihui; Chen, Min; Liu, Zhonghua; Guo, Hongxiang; He, Yuxian; Zhou, Yusen; Zheng, Bo-Jian; Jiang, Shibo

    2009-10-10

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a newly emerging infectious disease. The potential recurrence of the disease from animal reservoirs highlights the significance of development of safe and efficient vaccines to prevent a future SARS epidemic. In this study, we expressed the recombinant receptor-binding domain (rRBD) in mammalian (293T) cells, insect (Sf9) cells, and E. coli, respectively, and compared their immunogenicity and protection against SARS-CoV infection in an established mouse model. Our results show that all rRBD proteins expressed in the above systems maintained intact conformation, being able to induce highly potent neutralizing antibody responses and complete protective immunity against SARS-CoV challenge in mice, albeit the rRBD expressed in 293T cells elicited stronger humoral immune responses with significantly higher neutralizing activity (P<0.05) than those expressed in Sf9 and E. coli cells. These results suggest that all three rRBDs are effective in eliciting immune responses and protection against SARS-CoV and any of the above expression systems can be used for production of rRBD-based SARS subunit vaccines. Preference will be given to rRBD expressed in mammalian cells for future evaluation of the vaccine efficacy in a non-human primate model of SARS because of its ability to refold into a native conformation more readily and to induce higher level of neutralizing antibody responses than those expressed in E. coli and insect cells.

  11. Human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2: cloning, expression, and production of polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies for osteoarthritis detection and identification of potential binding partners.

    PubMed

    Ranok, Araya; Khunkaewla, Panida; Suginta, Wipa

    2013-10-01

    Human cartilage chitinase 3-like protein 2 (CHI3L2 or YKL-39) is a member of family-18 glycosyl hydrolases that lacks chitinase activity. YKL-39 is known as a potential marker for the activation of chondrocytes and the progression of osteoarthritis. In this study, we cloned and expressed a functional form of human YKL-39 in the bacterial system. The Escherichia coli expressed YKL-30 was used as immugen for production of anti YKL-39 polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Both antibody types were highly selective, reacting only with YKL-39. Isotype mapping identified two hybridoma clones (so called clones 6H11 and 8H3) to be IgM isotype. Dot blot assay showed that the monoclonal antibody was strongly active with the synovial fluid of an osteoarthritis patient, human monocyte, and T lymphocyte cell lines. Database search for protein binding partners gave high hits with several glycoproteins that play particular roles in cartilage tissue scaffolding, connective tissue formation, and cell-cell interactions. In conclusion, anti YKL-39 polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies were raised and tested to be suitable for immunological applications, such as the investigation of the YKL-39 regulating pathway and the development of an immunosensing tool for sensitive detection of cartilage tissue destruction.

  12. Fibril formation from pea protein and subsequent gel formation.

    PubMed

    Munialo, Claire Darizu; Martin, Anneke H; van der Linden, Erik; de Jongh, Harmen H J

    2014-03-19

    The objective of this study was to characterize fibrillar aggregates made using pea proteins, to assemble formed fibrils into protein-based gels, and to study the rheological behavior of these gels. Micrometer-long fibrillar aggregates were observed after pea protein solutions had been heated for 20 h at pH 2.0. Following heating of pea proteins, it was observed that all of the proteins were hydrolyzed into peptides and that 50% of these peptides were assembled into fibrils. Changes on a structural level in pea proteins were studied using circular dichroism, transmission electron microscopy, and particle size analysis. During the fibril assembly process, an increase in aggregate size was observed, which coincided with an increase in thioflavin T binding, indicating the presence of β-sheet aggregates. Fibrils made using pea proteins were more branched and curly. Gel formation of preformed fibrils was induced by slow acidification from pH 7.0 to a final pH of around pH 5.0. The ability of pea protein-based fibrillar gels to fracture during an amplitude sweep was comparable to those of soy protein and whey protein-based fibrillar gels, although gels prepared from fibrils made using pea protein and soy protein were weaker than those of whey protein. The findings show that fibrils can be prepared from pea protein, which can be incorporated into protein-based fibrillar gels.

  13. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) in the genomics era

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pea (Pisum sativum L.) was the original model organism for Mendel´s discovery of the laws of inheritance, making it the foundation of modern plant genetics. However, subsequent progress in pea genomics has lagged behind many other plant species, largely as a consequence of its low multiplication rat...

  14. Plant characteristics and growth parameters of vegetable pigeon pea cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pigeon pea is an important crop in dry land and semi-arid regions and is a supplementary source of dietary protein for the resource-constrained farmers. The aim of this research was to evaluate growth parameters of twelve vegetable pigeon pea genotypes at two locations in Eastern Kenya. The number o...

  15. Development of genetic resources for association mapping in pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study of the allelic diversity of the USDA pea core collection resequenced ten loci of 32 diverse pea germplasm accessions from which SNP assays were designed for Agpl1, AspS2, Cwi1, DRR206c, PPlike, PsAS2, SOD9, Thaumatin1, PsLD, and Viola2 (Aubert et al. 2006; Gilpin et al 1997; Hecht ...

  16. Chapter 8. Genetic Adjustment to Changing Climates: Pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peas are adapted to cool, semi-arid to sub-humid growing conditions and although they are widely grown throughout the world, the best performance is realized in the cool, relatively dry areas of the mid-latitudes. The literature to date on the potential effects of climate change specifically on pea ...

  17. Molecular cloning of isoflavone reductase from pea (Pisum sativum L.): evidence for a 3R-isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Paiva, N L; Sun, Y; Dixon, R A; VanEtten, H D; Hrazdina, G

    1994-08-01

    Isoflavone reductase (IFR) reduces achiral isoflavones to chiral isoflavanones during the biosynthesis of chiral pterocarpan phytoalexins. A cDNA clone for IFR from pea (Pisum sativum) was isolated using the polymerase chain reaction and expressed in Escherichia coli. Analysis of circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the reduction product sophorol obtained using the recombinant enzyme indicated that the isoflavanone possessed the 3R stereochemistry, in contrast to previous reports indicating a 3S-isoflavanone as the product of the pea IFR. Analysis of CD spectra of sophorol produced using enzyme extracts of CuCl2-treated pea seedlings confirmed the 3R stereochemistry. Thus, the stereochemistry of the isoflavanone intermediate in (+)-pisatin biosynthesis in pea is the same as that in (-)-medicarpin biosynthesis in alfalfa, although the final pterocarpans have the opposite stereochemistry. At the amino acid level the pea IFR cDNA was 91.8 and 85.2% identical to the IFRs from alfalfa and chickpea, respectively. IFR appears to be encoded by a single gene in pea. Its transcripts are highly induced in CuCl2-treated seedlings, consistent with the appearance of IFR enzyme activity and pisatin accumulation.

  18. The Effect of Orobanche crenata Infection Severity in Faba Bean, Field Pea, and Grass Pea Productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Flores, Fernando; Rubiales, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Broomrape weeds (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are root holoparasites that feed off a wide range of important crops. Among them, Orobanche crenata attacks legumes complicating their inclusion in cropping systems along the Mediterranean area and West Asia. The detrimental effect of broomrape parasitism in crop yield can reach up to 100% depending on infection severity and the broomrape-crop association. This work provides field data of the consequences of O. crenata infection severity in three legume crops, i.e., faba bean, field pea, and grass pea. Regression functions modeled productivity losses and revealed trends in dry matter allocation in relation to infection severity. The host species differentially limits parasitic sink strength indicating different levels of broomrape tolerance at equivalent infection severities. Reductions in host aboveground biomass were observed starting at low infection severity and half maximal inhibitory performance was predicted as 4.5, 8.2, and 1.5 parasites per faba bean, field pea, and grass pea plant, respectively. Reductions in host biomass occurred in both vegetative and reproductive organs, the latter resulting more affected. The increase of resources allocated within the parasite was concomitant to reduction of host seed yield indicating that parasite growth and host reproduction compete directly for resources within a host plant. However, the parasitic sink activity does not fully explain the total host biomass reduction because combined biomass of host–parasite complex was lower than the biomass of uninfected plants. In grass pea, the seed yield was negligible at severities higher than four parasites per plant. In contrast, faba bean and field pea sustained low but significant seed production at the highest infection severity. Data on seed yield and seed number indicated that the sensitivity of field pea to O. crenata limited the production of grain yield by reducing seed number but maintaining seed size. In contrast

  19. The immunohistochemical expression profile of osteopontin in normal human tissues using two site-specific antibodies reveals a wide distribution of positive cells and extensive expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Kunii, Yasuto; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Seitoh, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Toshimitsu

    2009-09-01

    To elucidate the cellular distribution of osteopontin (OPN) in normal human tissues, we undertook immunohistochemistry using two site-specific OPN antibodies. The 10A16 monoclonal antibody was raised against the amino acid sequence just downstream of the thrombin cleavage site, while the O-17 polyclonal antibody was raised against the N-terminal peptide. Each antibody has been confirmed previously to react with both whole OPN and its relevant fragments. The expression pattern for these two antibodies was similar in distribution. In addition, we also identified expression in Ebner's gland, type II pneumocytes, Kupffer cells, cells of the endocrine organs, anterior lens capsule and ciliary body, synovial type A cells, mesothelia, adipocytes, and mast cells. Neurons and glia in the central nervous system and spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerve sheaths, ganglion cells in the sympathetic ganglion, intestinal plexuses, retina, and choroid plexus also regularly exhibited OPN positivity. Testicular germ cells, pancreatic exocrine cells, and follicular dendritic cells reacted with 10A16 only, whereas lutein cells and taste bud cells exhibited O-17 reactivity alone. These minor differences were hypothesized to reflect the state of OPN in the cells; that is, whether OPN was in its whole molecule or fragmented form. In conclusion, we demonstrate that OPN is widely distributed in normal human cells, particularly those comprising the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  20. Transient co-expression for fast and high-yield production of antibodies with human-like N-glycans in plants.

    PubMed

    Vézina, Louis-P; Faye, Loïc; Lerouge, Patrice; D'Aoust, Marc-André; Marquet-Blouin, Estelle; Burel, Carole; Lavoie, Pierre-Olivier; Bardor, Muriel; Gomord, Véronique

    2009-06-01

    Plant-based transient expression is potentially the most rapid and cost-efficient system for the production of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins, but safety concerns associated with plant-specific N-glycosylation have hampered its adoption as a commercial production system. In this article, we describe an approach based on the simultaneous transient co-expression of an antibody, a suppressor of silencing and a chimaeric human beta1,4-galactosyltransferase targeted for optimal activity to the early secretory pathway in agroinfiltrated Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. This strategy allows fast and high-yield production of antibodies with human-like N-glycans and, more generally, provides solutions to many critical problems posed by the large-scale production of therapeutic and vaccinal proteins, specifically yield, volume and quality.

  1. Ethylene effects in pea stem tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Steen, D.A.; Chadwick, A.V.

    1981-01-01

    The marked effects of ethylene on pea stem growth have been investigated. Low temperatures and colchicine, both known microtubule depolymerization agents, reverse the effects of ethylene in straight growth tests. Low temperature (6 C) also profoundly reduces the effects of gas in terms of swelling, hook curvature, and horizontal mutation. Deuterium oxide, an agent capable of rigidifying microtubular structure, mimics the effects of ethylene. Electron microscopy shows that microtubule orientation is strikingly altered by ethylene. These findings indicate that some of the ethylene responses may be due to a stabilizing effect on microtubules in plant cells.

  2. Chimeric human/murine monoclonal IgM antibodies to HIV-1 Nef antigen expressed on chronically infected cells.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Masahiro; He, Lianying; Kawamura, Takeshi; Omoto, Shinya; Fujii, Yoichi R; Okada, Noriko

    2003-01-01

    Human IgM antibody (Ab) to gangliosides induced cytolysis of HIV-1-infected cells by homologous human complement. We expected that any human IgM Ab reactive with HIV-1 infected cells could cause complement-mediated cytolysis. The trans-chromosome mouse (TC mouse) contains human chromosomes harboring genes responsible for immunoglobulin production. Spleen cells from TC mice immunized with recombinant Nef were fused with mouse myeloma cells to generate hybridomas, and we selected those that produced human mu-chain-positive Abs reactive with Nef fixed on an ELISA plate. However, the L-chain of the monoclonal Abs (mAbs) were murine lambda in type and were chimeric, and we could not succeed in obtaining mAb with human mu- and human kappa-chains. The chimeric mAbs reacted with the HIV-1 infected cells as seen with flow cytometric analysis, and the surface expression of Nef was also detectable on chronically infected OM10.1 cells which had no detectable gp120. However, although the reaction of the chimeric IgM mAb with HIV-1-infected MOLT4 cells induced C3 deposition on cell surfaces on incubation with fresh human serum, the cells remained unlysed, as determined by 51Cr release assay. The amount of Nef antigen on the cells might not have been high enough to overcome the function of HRF20 (CD59) that restricts formation of membrane attack complexes of homologous complement. However, combination of anti-Nef IgM mAb with other IgM mAbs reactive with the surface of HIV-1-infected cells may induce a synergistic effect in complement mediated cytolysis.

  3. Immune tolerance negatively regulates B cells in knock-in mice expressing broadly neutralizing HIV antibody 4E10

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Anthony B.; Ota, Takayuki; Skog, Patrick; Dawson, Phillip E.; Zwick, Michael B.; Schief, William R.; Burton, Dennis R.; Nemazee, David

    2013-01-01

    A major goal of HIV research is to develop vaccines reproducibly eliciting broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). This has proved to be challenging, however. One suggested explanation for this difficulty is that epitopes seen by bNAbs mimic self, leading to immune tolerance. We generated “knock-in” mice expressing bNAb 4E10, which recognizes the membrane proximal external region of gp41. Unlike b12 knock-in mice, described in the accompanying study, 4E10HL mice were found to undergo profound negative selection of B cells, indicating that 4E10 is, to a physiologically significant extent, autoreactive. Negative selection occurred by various mechanisms including receptor editing, clonal deletion and receptor downregulation. Despite significant deletion, small amounts of IgM and IgG anti-gp41 were found in the sera of 4E10HL mice. On a Rag1−/− background 4E10HL mice had virtually no serum immunoglobulins of any kind. These results are consistent with a model in which B cells with 4E10 specificity are counterselected, raising the question of how 4E10 was generated in the patient from whom it was isolated. This represents the second example of an MPER-directed bNAb that is apparently autoreactive in a physiological setting. The relative conservation in HIV of the 4E10 epitope might reflect the fact that it is under less intense immunological selection as a result of B cell self-tolerance. The safety and desirability of targeting this epitope by a vaccine is discussed in light of the newly-described bNAb 10E8. PMID:23940276

  4. Pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae), resistance in Pisum sativum x P. fulvum interspecific crosses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pea weevil, Bruchus pisorum (L.), is one of the most intractable pest problems of cultivated pea, Pisum sativum L., in the world. This study investigated the transfer of pea weevil resistance from two accessions (PI 595946, PI 343955) of wild pea, Pisum fulvum Sibth. & Sm., to interspecific pop...

  5. Minimizing the inhibitory effect of neutralizing antibody for efficient gene expression in the liver with adeno-associated virus 8 vectors.

    PubMed

    Mimuro, Jun; Mizukami, Hiroaki; Hishikawa, Shuji; Ikemoto, Tomokazu; Ishiwata, Akira; Sakata, Asuka; Ohmori, Tsukasa; Madoiwa, Seiji; Ono, Fumiko; Ozawa, Keiya; Sakata, Yoichi

    2013-02-01

    Neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) against adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are known to interfere with AAV vector-mediated gene transfer by intravascular delivery. Evading the inhibitory effects of antibodies against AAV vectors is necessary for efficient transfer of therapeutic genes clinically. For this purpose, we tested the efficacy of saline flushing in order to avoid contact of vectors with NAbs present in blood. Direct injection of the AAV8 vector carrying the factor IX (FIX) gene into the portal vein of macaques using saline flushing achieved transgene-derived FIX expression (4.7 ± 2.10-10.1 ± 5.45% of normal human FIX concentration) in the presence of NAbs. Expression was as efficient as that (5.43 ± 2.59-12.68 ± 4.83%) in macaques lacking NAbs. We next tested the efficacy of saline flushing using less invasive balloon catheter-guided injection. This approach also resulted in efficient expression of transgene-derived FIX (2.5 ± 1.06-9.0 ± 2.37%) in the presence of NAbs (14-56× dilutions). NAbs at this range of titers reduced the efficiency of transduction in the macaque liver by 100-fold when the same vector was injected into mesenteric veins without balloon catheters. Our results suggest that portal vein-directed vector delivery strategies with flushing to remove blood are efficacious for minimizing the inhibitory effect of anti-AAV antibodies.

  6. Structure-Based Mutational Analysis of eIF4E in Relation to sbm1 Resistance to Pea Seed-Borne Mosaic Virus in Pea

    PubMed Central

    Ashby, Jamie A.; Stevenson, Clare E. M.; Jarvis, Gavin E.; Lawson, David M.; Maule, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Pea encodes eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E (eIF4ES), which supports the multiplication of Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV). In common with hosts for other potyviruses, some pea lines contain a recessive allele (sbm1) encoding a mutant eIF4E (eIF4ER) that fails to interact functionally with the PSbMV avirulence protein, VPg, giving genetic resistance to infection. Methodology/Principal Findings To study structure-function relationships between pea eIF4E and PSbMV VPg, we obtained an X-ray structure for eIF4ES bound to m7GTP. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contained eight independent copies of the protein, providing insights into the structurally conserved and flexible regions of eIF4E. To assess indirectly the importance of key residues in binding to VPg and/or m7GTP, an extensive range of point mutants in eIF4E was tested for their ability to complement PSbMV multiplication in resistant pea tissues and for complementation of protein translation, and hence growth, in an eIF4E-defective yeast strain conditionally dependent upon ectopic expression of eIF4E. The mutants also dissected individual contributions from polymorphisms present in eIF4ER and compared the impact of individual residues altered in orthologous resistance alleles from other crop species. The data showed that essential resistance determinants in eIF4E differed for different viruses although the critical region involved (possibly in VPg-binding) was conserved and partially overlapped with the m7GTP-binding region. This overlap resulted in coupled inhibition of virus multiplication and translation in the majority of cases, although the existence of a few mutants that uncoupled the two processes supported the view that the specific role of eIF4E in potyvirus infection may not be restricted to translation. Conclusions/Significance The work describes the most extensive structural analysis of eIF4E in relation to potyvirus resistance. In addition to defining functional

  7. Race-related differences in antibody responses to the inactivated influenza vaccine are linked to distinct pre-vaccination gene expression profiles in blood

    PubMed Central

    Haut, Larissa; Kannan, Senthil; Xiang, Zhiquan; Li, Yan; Doyle, Susan; Liu, Qin; Schmader, Kenneth; Showe, Louise; Ertl, Hildegund

    2016-01-01

    We conducted a 5-year study analyzing antibody and B cell responses to the influenza A virus components of the inactivated influenza vaccine, trivalent (IIV3) or quadrivalent (IIV4) in younger (aged 35-45) and aged (≥65 years of age) Caucasian and African American individuals. Antibody titers to the two influenza A virus strains, distribution of circulating B cell subsets and the blood transcriptome were tested at baseline and after vaccination while expression of immunoregulatory markers on B cells were analyzed at baseline. African Americans mounted higher virus neutralizing and IgG antibody responses to the H1N1 component of IIV3 or 4 compared to Caucasians. African Americans had higher levels of circulating B cell subsets compared to Caucasians. Expression of two co-regulators, i.e., programmed death (PD)-1 and the B and T cell attenuator (BTLA) were differentially expressed in the two cohorts. Race-related differences were caused by samples from younger African Americans, while results obtained with samples of aged African Americans were similar to those of aged Caucasians. Gene expression profiling by Illumina arrays revealed highly significant differences in 1368 probes at baseline between Caucasians and African Americans although samples from both cohorts showed comparable changes in transcriptome following vaccination. Genes differently expressed between samples from African Americans and Caucasians regardless of age were enriched for myeloid genes, while the transcripts that differed in expression between younger African Americans and younger Caucasians were enriched for those specific for B-cells. PMID:27588486

  8. Comparison of GD2 Binding Capture ELISA Assays for Anti-GD2-Antibodies Using GD2-Coated Plates and a GD2-Expressing Cell-Based ELISA

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Gopalan; Yang, Xiaoyi; Jiang, Hengguang; Giardina, Steve; Mitra, Gautam

    2011-01-01

    Two assay methods for quantification of the disialoganglioside (GD2)-specific binding activities of anti-GD2 monoclonal antibodies and antibody immunofusion proteins, such as ch14.18 and hu14.18-IL2, were developed. The methods differed in the use of either microtiter plates coated with purified GD2 or plates seeded with GD2-expressing cell lines to bind the anti-GD2 molecules. The bound antibodies were subsequently detected using the reactivity of the antibodies to an HRP-labeled anti-IgG Fc or antibodies recognizing the conjugate IL-2 part of the Hu 14.18IL-2 fusion protein. The bound HRP was detected using reagents such as orthophenylene diamine, 2, 2’-azinobis [3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid] or tetramethylbenzidine. The capture ELISA using GD2-coated plates was developed earlier in assay development and used to demonstrate assay specificity and to compare lot-to-lot consistency and stability of ch14.18, and Hu14.18 IL-2 in clinical development. During this study, we found a number of issues related to plate-to-plate variability, GD2 lot variability, and variations due to GD2 storage stability, etc., that frequently lead to assay failure in plates coated with purified GD2. The cell-based ELISA (CbELISA) using the GD2 expressing melanoma cell line, M21/P6, was developed as an alternative to the GD2-coated plate ELISA. The results on the comparability of the capture ELISA on GD2-coated plates and the cell-based assay show that both assays give comparable results. However, the cell-based assay is more consistent and reproducible. Subsequently, the anti-GD2 capture ELISA using the GD2-coated plate was replaced with the CbELISA for product lot release testing and stability assessment. PMID:21893062

  9. Copy Number Variation in Intron 1 of SOX5 Causes the Pea-comb Phenotype in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Dominic; Boije, Henrik; Meadows, Jennifer R. S.; Bed'hom, Bertrand; Gourichon, David; Vieaud, Agathe; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Rubin, Carl-Johan; Imsland, Freyja; Hallböök, Finn; Andersson, Leif

    2009-01-01

    Pea-comb is a dominant mutation in chickens that drastically reduces the size of the comb and wattles. It is an adaptive trait in cold climates as it reduces heat loss and makes the chicken less susceptible to frost lesions. Here we report that Pea-comb is caused by a massive amplification of a duplicated sequence located near evolutionary conserved non-coding sequences in intron 1 of the gene encoding the SOX5 transcription factor. This must be the causative mutation since all other polymorphisms associated with the Pea-comb allele were excluded by genetic analysis. SOX5 controls cell fate and differentiation and is essential for skeletal development, chondrocyte differentiation, and extracellular matrix production. Immunostaining in early embryos demonstrated that Pea-comb is associated with ectopic expression of SOX5 in mesenchymal cells located just beneath the surface ectoderm where the comb and wattles will subsequently develop. The results imply that the duplication expansion interferes with the regulation of SOX5 expression during the differentiation of cells crucial for the development of comb and wattles. The study provides novel insight into the nature of mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution and is the first description of a spontaneous and fully viable mutation in this developmentally important gene. PMID:19521496

  10. Variability within a pea core collection of LEAM and HSP22, two mitochondrial seed proteins involved in stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Payet, Nicole; Lalanne, David; Neveu, Martine; Tolleter, Dimitri; Burstin, Judith; Macherel, David

    2015-07-01

    LEAM, a late embryogenesis abundant protein, and HSP22, a small heat shock protein, were shown to accumulate in the mitochondria during pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed development, where they are expected to contribute to desiccation tolerance. Here, their expression was examined in seeds of 89 pea genotypes by Western blot analysis. All genotypes expressed LEAM and HSP22 in similar amounts. In contrast with HSP22, LEAM displayed different isoforms according to apparent molecular mass. Each of the 89 genotypes harboured a single LEAM isoform. Genomic and RT-PCR analysis revealed four LEAM genes differing by a small variable indel in the coding region. These variations were consistent with the apparent molecular mass of each isoform. Indels, which occurred in repeated domains, did not alter the main properties of LEAM. Structural modelling indicated that the class A α-helix structure, which allows interactions with the mitochondrial inner membrane in the dry state, was preserved in all isoforms, suggesting functionality is maintained. The overall results point out the essential character of LEAM and HSP22 in pea seeds. LEAM variability is discussed in terms of pea breeding history as well as LEA gene evolution mechanisms.

  11. A Novel Anti-Beta2-Microglobulin Antibody Inhibition of Androgen Receptor Expression, Survival, and Progression in Prostate Cancer Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Because there is currently no effective therapy for the management of hormone-refractory prostate cancer, we undertook the investi- gation of the...intratumorally with the h2M antibody as evaluated by their body weights and physical appearance (data not shown). This observation is concurred by the early...vivo . These results could have significant clinical implications. For example, the h2M antibody could be superior to other antiandrogenic therapies

  12. Glycolate transporter of the pea chloroplast envelope

    SciTech Connect

    Howitz, K.T.

    1985-01-01

    The discovery of a glycolate transporter in the pea (Pisum sativum) chloroplast envelope is described. Several novel silicone oil centrifugation methods were developed to resolve the initial rate kinetics of (/sup 14/C)glycolate transport by isolated, intact pea chloroplasts. Chloroplast glycolate transport was found to be carrier mediated. Transport rates saturated with increasing glycolate concentration. N-Ethylmaleimide (NEM) pretreatment of chloroplasts inhibited transport, an inhibition prevented by glycolate. Glycolate distributed across the envelope in a way which equalized stromal and medium glycolic acid concentrations, limiting possible transport mechanisms to facilitated glycolic acid diffusion, proton symport or hydroxyl antiport. The effects of stomal and medium pH's on the K/sub m/ and V/sub max/ fit the predictions of mobile carrier kinetic models of hydroxyl antiport or proton symport (H/sup +/ binds first). The carrier mediated transport was fast enough to be consistent with in vivo rates of photorespiration. The 2-hydroxymonocarboxylates, glycerate, lactate and glyoxylate are competitive inhibitors of chloroplast glycolate uptake. Glyoxylate, D-lactate and D-glycerate cause glycolate counterflow, indicating that they are also substrates of the glycolate carrier. This finding was confirmed for D-glycerate by studies on glycolate effects on (1-/sup 14/C)D-glycerate transport.

  13. Expression Profile of Human Fc Receptors in Mucosal Tissue: Implications for Antibody-Dependent Cellular Effector Functions Targeting HIV-1 Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, Hannah M.; Carias, Ann M.; Evans, Abbey B.; Olejniczak, Natalia J.; Ziprin, Paul; King, Deborah F. L.; Hope, Thomas J.; Shattock, Robin J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of new Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1 infections are acquired via sexual transmission at mucosal surfaces. Partial efficacy (31.2%) of the Thai RV144 HIV-1 vaccine trial has been correlated with Antibody-dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity (ADCC) mediated by non-neutralizing antibodies targeting the V1V2 region of the HIV-1 envelope. This has led to speculation that ADCC and other antibody-dependent cellular effector functions might provide an important defense against mucosal acquisition of HIV-1 infection. However, the ability of antibody-dependent cellular effector mechanisms to impact on early mucosal transmission events will depend on a variety of parameters including effector cell type, frequency, the class of Fc-Receptor (FcR) expressed, the number of FcR per cell and the glycoslyation pattern of the induced antibodies. In this study, we characterize and compare the frequency and phenotype of IgG (CD16 [FcγRIII], CD32 [FcγRII] and CD64 [FcγRI]) and IgA (CD89 [FcαR]) receptor expression on effector cells within male and female genital mucosal tissue, colorectal tissue and red blood cell-lysed whole blood. The frequency of FcR expression on CD14+ monocytic cells, myeloid dendritic cells and natural killer cells were similar across the three mucosal tissue compartments, but significantly lower when compared to the FcR expression profile of effector cells isolated from whole blood, with many cells negative for all FcRs. Of the three tissues tested, penile tissue had the highest percentage of FcR positive effector cells. Immunofluorescent staining was used to determine the location of CD14+, CD11c+ and CD56+ cells within the three mucosal tissues. We show that the majority of effector cells across the different mucosal locations reside within the subepithelial lamina propria. The potential implication of the observed FcR expression patterns on the effectiveness of FcR-dependent cellular effector functions to impact on the initial events in

  14. Various cell types in human atherosclerotic lesions express ICAM-1. Further immunocytochemical and immunochemical studies employing monoclonal antibody 10F3.

    PubMed Central

    Printseva OYu; Peclo, M. M.; Gown, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    The specificity of monoclonal antibody 10F3, generated to smooth muscle cells isolated from fetal human aorta, has been further explored in a series of biological, biochemical, and immunocytochemical studies. In the first assay, it was found that 10F3 could inhibit aggregation of phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced lymphocytes in a manner comparable to that of antibody RR1/1, an anti-intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) monoclonal antibody. In immunoprecipitation experiments followed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis, both 10F3 and RR1/1 immunoprecipitated 90 kd proteins, with results suggesting that the two antibodies recognized different epitopes of the same molecule. A series of immunocytochemical studies on human atherosclerotic lesions was performed; using single-labeling techniques, 10F3-positive cells were found in the vessel wall and in lesions of virtually all specimens of fatty streaks and fibrous plaques. Using double-labeling techniques, 10F3-positive macrophages and 10F3-positive smooth muscle cells were found; however, there were also a significant number of non-smooth muscle, nonmacrophage 10F3-positive cells. These studies demonstrate that 10F3 identifies ICAM-1, and that this protein is expressed on a variety of cell types in human atherosclerotic lesions. ICAM-1 may represent a developmentally regulated protein that is expressed in fetal but not adult mesenchymal cells, but can be re-expressed in pathologic processes such as atherosclerosis. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1348606

  15. Development of monoclonal antibody-linked ELISA for sero-diagnosis of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV-IN) using baculovirus expressed glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kweon, Chang Hee; Kwon, Byung Joon; Kim, In Joong; Lee, Se Young; Ko, Young Joon

    2005-12-01

    The gene encoding the envelope glycoprotein (GP) of vesicular stomatitis virus serotype, Indiana (VSV-IN), was expressed under the polyhedron promoter of baculovirus. The recombinant GP was applied as a diagnostic antigen for the detection of cattle and horse antibodies to VSV. In addition, the neutralizing monoclonal antibody (Mab) to GP of VSV-IN was used as trapping antibody in a Mab-linked indirect ELISA (MLI-ELISA) or detecting antibody in a Mab-linked competitive ELISA (MLC-ELISA). The diagnostic efficiencies of MLI-ELISA and MLC-ELISA were evaluated with currently available C-ELISA from OIE reference laboratory for vesicular stomatitis as a gold standard by using VSV-positive equine sera and negative bovine sera vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the field. When naturally infected equine sera and FMDV vaccinated bovine sera were tested, MLI-ELISA and MLC-ELISA showed relative sensitivities of 80% and 95% with relative specificity of 97% and 99%, respectively. However, both ELISAs cross-reacted with equine sera against New Jersey (VSV-NJ) serotype. The comparison of the two ELISAs revealed that MLC-ELISA was relatively more sensitive and specific than MLI-ELISA, indicating that MLC-ELISA can be applied to sero-diagnosis for VSV-IN infection.

  16. Expression of Ia-like antigens by human vascular endothelial cells is inducible in vitro: demonstration by monoclonal antibody binding and immunoprecipitation.

    PubMed Central

    Pober, J S; Gimbrone, M A

    1982-01-01

    The expression of Ia-like antigens by cultured human endothelial cells has been investigated by means of monoclonal antibody binding to intact cells and by immunoprecipitation of radioiodinated membrane proteins. Primary growing and confluent cultures of human umbilical vein endothelium express little, if any, detectable Ia-like antigens under standard culture conditions. However, treatment of primary cultures with the lectin phytohemagglutinin induces the expression of Ia-like antigens. This action of the lectin uniformly affects all the endothelial cells in a culture, does not depend on cell division, and is associated with a cell shape change. The data presented in this report provide unequivocal serological and biochemical demonstration of Ia-like antigens on human vascular endothelial cells. The fact that the expression of Ia-like antigens by endothelium can be induced may have important implications for organ transplantation and for regulation of the immunological response. Images PMID:6815654

  17. Dynamics of a Recurrent Buchnera Mutation That Affects Thermal Tolerance of Pea Aphid Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Gaelen R.; McLaughlin, Heather J.; Simon, Jean-Christophe; Moran, Nancy A.

    2010-01-01

    Mutations in maternally transmitted symbionts can affect host fitness. In this study we investigate a mutation in an obligate bacterial symbiont (Buchnera), which has dramatic effects on the heat tolerance of pea aphid hosts (Acyrthosiphon pisum). The heat-sensitive allele arises through a single base deletion in a homopolymer within the promoter of ibpA, which encodes a universal small heat-shock protein. In laboratory cultures reared under cool conditions (20°), the rate of fixation (1.4 × 10−3 substitutions per Buchnera replication) is much higher than the previously estimated mutation rate for single base deletions in homopolymers in the Buchnera genome, implying a strong selective benefit. This mutation recurs in natural populations, but seldom reaches high frequencies, implying that it is only rarely favored by selection. Another potential source of physiological stress in pea aphids is infection by other microorganisms, including facultative bacterial symbionts, which occur in a majority of pea aphids in field populations. Frequency of the heat-sensitive Buchnera allele is negatively correlated with presence of facultative symbionts in both laboratory colonies and field populations, suggesting that these infections impose stress that is ameliorated by ibpA expression. This single base polymorphism in Buchnera has the potential to allow aphid populations to adapt quickly to prevailing conditions. PMID:20610410

  18. Cloning and functional characterization of a homoglutathione synthetase from pea nodules.

    PubMed

    Iturbe-Ormaetxe, Iñaki; Heras, Begoña; Matamoros, Manuel A; Ramos, Javier; Moran, Jose F; Becana, Manuel

    2002-05-01

    The thiol tripeptide glutathione (GSH; gammaGlu-Cys-Gly) is very abundant in legume nodules where it performs multiple functions that are critical for optimal nitrogen fixation. Some legume nodules contain another tripeptide, homoglutathione (hGSH; gammaGlu-Cys-betaAla), in addition to or instead of GSH. We have isolated from a pea (Pisum sativum L.) nodule library a cDNA, GSHS2, that is expressed in nodules but not in leaves. This cDNA was overexpressed in insect cells and its protein product was identified as a highly active and specific hGSH synthetase. The enzyme, the first of this type to be completely purified, is predicted to be a homodimeric cytosolic protein. It shows a specific activity of 3400 nmol hGSH min-1 mg-1 protein with a standard substrate concentration (5 mM beta-alanine) and Km values of 1.9 mM for beta-alanine and 104 mM for glycine. The specificity constant (Vmax/Km) shows that the pure enzyme is 57.3-fold more specific for beta-alanine than for glycine. Southern blot analysis revealed that the gene is present as a single copy in the pea genome and that there are homologous genes in other legumes. We conclude that the synthesis of hGSH in pea nodules is catalysed by a specific hGSH synthetase and not by a GSH synthetase with broad substrate specificity.

  19. PED/PEA-15 gene controls glucose transport and is overexpressed in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed Central

    Condorelli, G; Vigliotta, G; Iavarone, C; Caruso, M; Tocchetti, C G; Andreozzi, F; Cafieri, A; Tecce, M F; Formisano, P; Beguinot, L; Beguinot, F

    1998-01-01

    We have used differential display to identify genes whose expression is altered in type 2 diabetes thus contributing to its pathogenesis. One mRNA is overexpressed in fibroblasts from type 2 diabetics compared with non-diabetic individuals, as well as in skeletal muscle and adipose tissues, two major sites of insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes. The levels of the protein encoded by this mRNA are also elevated in type 2 diabetic tissues; thus, we named it PED for phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes. PED cloning shows that it encodes a 15 kDa phosphoprotein identical to the protein kinase C (PKC) substrate PEA-15. The PED gene maps on human chromosome 1q21-22. Transfection of PED/PEA-15 in differentiating L6 skeletal muscle cells increases the content of Glut1 transporters on the plasma membrane and inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose transport and cell-surface recruitment of Glut4, the major insulin-sensitive glucose transporter. These effects of PED overexpression are reversed by blocking PKC activity. Overexpression of the PED/PEA-15 gene may contribute to insulin resistance in glucose uptake in type 2 diabetes. PMID:9670003

  20. The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) genome encodes two divergent early developmental programs.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Elizabeth J; Leask, Megan P; Dearden, Peter K

    2013-05-01

    The pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) can reproduce either sexually or asexually (parthenogenetically), giving rise, in each case, to almost identical adults. These two modes of reproduction are accompanied by differences in ovarian morphology and the developmental environment of the offspring, with sexual forms producing eggs that are laid, whereas asexual development occurs within the mother. Here we examine the effect each mode of reproduction has on the expression of key maternal and axis patterning genes; orthodenticle (otd), hunchback (hb), caudal (cad) and nanos (nos). We show that three of these genes (Ap-hb, Ap-otd and Ap-cad) are expressed differently between the sexually and asexually produced oocytes and embryos of the pea aphid. We also show, using immunohistochemistry and cytoskeletal inhibitors, that Ap-hb RNA is localized differently between sexually and asexually produced oocytes, and that this is likely due to differences in the 3' untranslated regions of the RNA. Furthermore, Ap-hb and Ap-otd have extensive expression domains in early sexually produced embryos, but are not expressed at equivalent stages in asexually produced embryos. These differences in expression likely correspond with substantial changes in the gene regulatory networks controlling early development in the pea aphid. These data imply that in the evolution of parthenogenesis a new program has evolved to control the development of asexually produced embryos, whilst retaining the existing, sexual, developmental program. The patterns of modification of these developmental processes mirror the changes that we see in developmental processes between species, in that early acting pathways in development are less constrained, and evolve faster, than later ones. We suggest that the evolution of the novel asexual development pathway in aphids is not a simple modification of an ancestral system, but the evolution of two very different developmental mechanisms occurring within a single

  1. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to calpain 3 and protein expression in muscle from patients with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A.

    PubMed

    Anderson, L V; Davison, K; Moss, J A; Richard, I; Fardeau, M; Tomé, F M; Hübner, C; Lasa, A; Colomer, J; Beckmann, J S

    1998-10-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were raised to two regions of calpain 3 (muscle-specific calcium-activated neutral protease), which is the product of the gene that is defective in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A. The antibodies produced characteristic patterns of bands on Western blots: normal calpain 3 protein was represented by bands at 94 kd, plus additional fragments at approximately 60 or 30 kd, according to the antibody used. Specificity was confirmed by the loss of all bands in patients with null gene mutations. The "normal" profile of bands was observed in muscle from 33 control subjects and 70 disease-control patients. Calpain 3 protein was found to be extremely stable in fresh human muscle, with full-size protein being detected 8 hours after the muscle had been removed. Blots of muscle from nine limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A patients with defined mutations showed variation in protein expression, with seven showing a clear reduction in the abundance of protein detected. No simple relationship was found between the abundance and clinical severity. Two patients showed normal expression of the full-size 94 kd band accompanied by a clear reduction in the smaller fragments. This pattern was also observed in one patient with an undefined form of limb-girdle dystrophy. These results indicate that immunodiagnosis is feasible, but caution will need to be exercised with the interpretation of near-normal protein profiles.

  2. Cell surface expression of MR1B, a splice variant of the MHC class I-related molecule MR1, revealed with antibodies.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Hisateru; Tsukamoto, Kentaro; Hashimoto, Keiichiro

    2014-01-10

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-related molecule, MR1, is highly conserved in mammals and can present bacteria-derived vitamin B metabolites to mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, possibly having important defense function in the microbial infection. MR1B is a splice variant of MR1 and possesses an intriguing domain structure with only two extracellular domains resembling some NKG2D ligand molecules. Thus far, cell surface expression of MR1B could not be analyzed with flow cytometry due to a lack of appropriate antibodies reactive with MR1B. Here we clarified the expression of MR1B recombinant protein on the cell surface of the transfected cells by flow cytometry analyses using the antiserum against MR1. Consistently, MR1B tagged with FLAG peptide at the N-terminus also could be detected with anti-FLAG monoclonal antibodies. Our result showed that MR1B can be recognized on the cell surface by macromolecules such as antibodies, indicating its potential of interaction with certain receptor(s). We discuss possibility of interaction of MR1B and/or the full-length MR1 with some receptor(s) other than αβ T cell receptor (TCR) of MAIT cells based on the highly conserved characteristic residues of the ligand-binding domains of MR1 and its MAIT cells αβTCR footprints.

  3. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies suppress let-7a expression in monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and facilitate the inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ning-Sheng; Yu, Hui-Chun; Yu, Chia-Li; Koo, Malcolm; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lu, Ming-Chi

    2015-12-01

    We hypothesized that anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) could affect the expression of miRNAs in monocytes and contribute to the inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression profiles of 270 human miRNAs, co-cultured with ACPAs or human immunoglobulin G (IgG), were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ten miRNAs exhibited differential expression in U937 cells after co-cultured with ACPAs compared with human IgG. The expression levels of these miRNAs were investigated in monocytes from 21 ACPA-positive RA patients and 13 controls. Among these miRNAs, the expression levels of let-7a was decreased in monocytes from ACPA-positive RA patients. The expression levels of let-7a showed a negative correlation with positivity of rheumatoid factor in patients sampled. We found that transfection of U937 cells with let-7a mimic suppressed K-Ras protein expression. In the ACPA-mediated signaling pathway, transfection of U937 cells with let-7a mimic suppressed the ACPA-enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and the expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. In conclusion, ACPA-mediated decreased let-7a expression in monocytes from ACPA-positive RA patients. Decreased let-7a expression was associated with the positivity of RF in ACPA-positive RA patients. The decreased expression of let-7a could facilitate the inflammatory pathway via enhanced ACPA-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK and increased expression of IL-1β through an increase in the expression of Ras proteins.

  4. Protective antibody responses against Clostridium difficile elicited by a DNA vaccine expressing the enzymatic domain of toxin B.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ke; Wang, Shixia; Zhang, Chunhua; Xiao, Yanling; Lu, Shan; Huang, Zuhu

    2013-01-01

    A DNA vaccination approach was used in the current study to screen for the immunogenicity of different fragments of toxin A and toxin B from Clostridium difficile. With this approach, protein antigens do not need to be produced in vitro and the immunogenicity of candidate C. difficile antigens can be identified directly in animals. Codon optimized toxin gene fragments were individually cloned into the DNA vaccine vector and tested in mice and rabbits for their ability to elicit C. difficile toxin-specific antibody responses. Only a subset of the C. difficile toxin fragments, including the C-terminal receptor binding domain of toxin A and a novel N-terminal enzymatic domain of toxin B, were able to elicit protective antibody responses as determined by protection of target cells in a cytotoxicity assay or by preventing death of mice in a passive antibody protection study. Significantly, antibodies elicited by the novel N-terminus of the toxin B DNA vaccine were able to increase the level of protection when used in combination with anti-toxin A antibodies in a toxin challenge model in mice.

  5. Expression of Receptors for Tetanus Toxin and Monoclonal Antibody A2B5 by Pancreatic Islet Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenbarth, G. S.; Shimizu, K.; Bowring, M. A.; Wells, S.

    1982-08-01

    Studies of the reaction of antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin with pancreatic islet cells, islet cell tumors, and other human amine precursor uptake and decarboxylation (APUD) tumors are described. By indirect immunofluorescence, antibody A2B5 and tetanus toxin were shown to specifically bind to the plasma membrane of human, rat, chicken, and mouse islet cells. The binding of antibody A2B5 to the cell surface of living islet cells has allowed isolation of these cells from a suspension of pancreatic cells by using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. In studies designed to determine whether tetanus toxin and antibody A2B5 bound to the same surface antigen, A2B5 and tetanus toxin did not compete for binding to normal islet cells, a human islet cell tumor, or a rat islet cell tumor. In addition to binding to islet cell tumors, antibody A2B5 reacts with frozen sections, isolated cells, and cell lines of neural, neural crest, and APUD origin.

  6. Antimitochondrial antibody

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003529.htm Antimitochondrial antibody To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Antimitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are substances ( antibodies ) that form against mitochondria. ...

  7. The Influence of Sub-Unit Composition and Expression System on the Functional Antibody Response in the Development of a VAR2CSA Based Plasmodium falciparum Placental Malaria Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten A.; Resende, Mafalda; de Jongh, Willem A.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Houard, Sophie; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Hamborg, Mette; Massougbodji, Achille; Issifou, Saddou; Strøbæk, Anette; Poulsen, Lars; Leroy, Odile; Kremsner, Peter G.; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Deloron, Philippe; Theander, Thor G.; Dyring, Charlotte; Salanti, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The disease caused by Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) involves different clinical manifestations that, cumulatively, kill hundreds of thousands every year. Placental malaria (PM) is one such manifestation in which Pf infected erythrocytes (IE) bind to chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) through expression of VAR2CSA, a parasite-derived antigen. Protection against PM is mediated by antibodies that inhibit binding of IE in the placental intervillous space. VAR2CSA is a large antigen incompatible with large scale recombinant protein expression. Vaccines based on sub-units encompassing the functionally constrained receptor-binding domains may, theoretically, circumvent polymorphisms, reduce the risk of escape-mutants and induce cross-reactive antibodies. However, the sub-unit composition and small differences in the borders, may lead to exposure of novel immuno-dominant antibody epitopes that lead to non-functional antibodies, and furthermore influence the folding, stability and yield of expression. Candidate antigens from the pre-clinical development expressed in High-Five insect cells using the baculovirus expression vector system were transitioned into the Drosophila Schneider-2 cell (S2) expression-system compliant with clinical development. The functional capacity of antibodies against antigens expressed in High-Five cells or in S2 cells was equivalent. This enabled an extensive down-selection of S2 insect cell-expressed antigens primarily encompassing the minimal CSA-binding region of VAR2CSA. In general, we found differential potency of inhibitory antibodies against antigens with the same borders but of different var2csa sequences. Likewise, we found that subtle size differences in antigens of the same sequence gave varying levels of inhibitory antibodies. The study shows that induction of a functional response against recombinant subunits of the VAR2CSA antigen is unpredictable, demonstrating the need for large-scale screening in order to identify antigens that induce a

  8. Human antibody expression in transgenic rats: comparison of chimeric IgH loci with human VH, D and JH but bearing different rat C-gene regions.

    PubMed

    Ma, Biao; Osborn, Michael J; Avis, Suzanne; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; Ménoret, Séverine; Anegon, Ignacio; Buelow, Roland; Brüggemann, Marianne

    2013-12-31

    Expression of human antibody repertoires in transgenic animals has been accomplished by introducing large human Ig loci into mice and, more recently, a chimeric IgH locus into rats. With human VH, D and JH genes linked to the rat C-region antibody expression was significantly increased, similar to wild-type levels not found with fully human constructs. Here we compare four rat-lines containing the same human VH-region (comprising 22 VHs, all Ds and all JHs in natural configuration) but linked to different rat CH-genes and regulatory sequences. The endogenous IgH locus was silenced by zinc-finger nucleases. After breeding, all lines produced exclusively chimeric human H-chain with near normal IgM levels. However, in two lines poor IgG expression and inefficient immune responses were observed, implying that high expression, class-switching and hypermutation are linked to optimal enhancer function provided by the large regulatory region at the 3' end of the IgH locus. Furthermore, exclusion of Cδ and its downstream interval region may assist recombination. Highly diverse IgG and immune responses similar to normal rats were identified in two strains carrying diverse and differently spaced C-genes.

  9. Intermediate monocytes in ANCA vasculitis: increased surface expression of ANCA autoantigens and IL-1β secretion in response to anti-MPO antibodies.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Eóin C; Abdulahad, Wayel H; Rutgers, Abraham; Huitema, Minke G; O'Reilly, Vincent P; Coughlan, Alice M; Harrington, Mark; Heeringa, Peter; Little, Mark A; Hickey, Fionnuala B

    2015-07-07

    ANCA vasculitis encompasses several autoimmune conditions characterised by destruction of small vessels, inflammation of the respiratory tract and glomerulonephritis. Most patients harbour autoantibodies to myeloperoxidase (MPO) or proteinase 3 (PR3). Clinical and experimental data suggest that pathogenesis is driven by ANCA-mediated activation of neutrophils and monocytes. We investigated a potential role for distinct monocyte subsets. We found that the relative proportion of intermediate monocytes is increased in patients versus control individuals, and both MPO and PR3 are preferentially expressed on these cells. We demonstrate that MPO and PR3 are expressed independently of each other on monocytes and that PR3 is not associated with CD177. MPO expression correlates with that of Fc receptor CD16 on intermediate monocytes. Monocyte subsets respond differently to antibodies directed against MPO and PR3, with anti-MPO but not anti-PR3 leading to increased IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 production. In concordance with the observed higher surface expression of MPO on intermediate monocytes, this subset produces the highest quantity of IL-1β in response to anti-MPO stimulation. These data suggest that monocytes, specifically, the intermediate subset, may play a role in ANCA vasculitis, and also indicate that substantial differences exist between the effect of anti-MPO and anti-PR3 antibodies on these cells.

  10. Expression, purification and characterization of two truncated peste des petits ruminants virus matrix proteins in Escherichia coli, and production of polyclonal antibodies against this protein.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fuxiao; Wu, Xiaodong; Li, Lin; Liu, Zengshan; Wang, Zhiliang

    2013-09-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV), the etiological agent of peste des petits ruminants, is classified into the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae. The PPRV matrix (M) gene is composed of 1483 base pairs, encoding a 335 amino acids M protein with a molecular weight of approximately 38kD. We have demonstrated previously that the full-length M protein was expressed at an extremely low level or not even expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). In this study, the M protein was split into two truncated forms to be successfully expressed in E. coli at a high level using the pET30a (+) vector, respectively, by analysis of SDS-PAGE, western blot and MALDI-TOF-MS. The optimization of culture conditions led us to perform the recombinant protein induction with 0.2mM IPTG at 28°C for 12h, whereby both proteins nevertheless were expressed in the insoluble form. Therefore, both His-tagged proteins were purified under the denaturing condition using a commercially available kit. Balb/c mice were immunized with the complex of purified proteins and then effectively produced polyclonal antibodies, which reached to a relatively high titer by the analysis of ELISA. The specificity of the prepared polyclonal antibodies was checked by western blot and immunofluorescence, revealing them with the desirable specificity against both non-denatured and denatured M proteins.

  11. Expression and Functional Properties of an Anti-Triazophos High-Affinity Single-Chain Variable Fragment Antibody with Specific Lambda Light Chain

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Liang, Xiao; Xiang, Dandan; Guo, Yirong; Liu, Yihua; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-01-01

    Triazophos is a widely used organophosphorous insecticide that has potentially adverse effects to organisms. In the present study, a high-affinity single-chain variable fragment (scFv) antibody with specific lambda light chain was developed for residue monitoring. First, the specific variable regions were correctly amplified from a hybridoma cell line 8C10 that secreted monoclonal antibody (mAb) against triazophos. The regions were then assembled as scFv via splicing by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction. Subsequently, the recombinant anti-triazophos scFv-8C10 was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli strain HB2151 in soluble form, purified through immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography, and verified via Western blot and peptide mass fingerprinting analyses. Afterward, an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was established based on the purified anti-triazophos scFv-8C10 antibody. The assay exhibited properties similar to those based on the parent mAb, with a high sensitivity (IC50 of 1.73 ng/mL) to triazophos and no cross reaction for other organophosphorus pesticides; it was reliable in detecting triazophos residues in spiked water samples. Moreover, kinetic measurement using a surface plasmon resonance biosensor indicated that the purified scFv-8C10 antibody had a high affinity of 1.8 × 10−10 M and exhibited good binding stability. Results indicated that the recombinant high-affinity scFv-8C10 antibody was an effective detection material that would be promising for monitoring triazophos residues in environment samples. PMID:27338340

  12. Development and application of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of bovine viral diarrhea antibody based on Erns glycoprotein expressed in a baculovirus system.

    PubMed

    Grego, E; Uslenghi, F; Strasser, M; Luzzago, C; Frigerio, M; Peletto, S; Rosati, S

    2007-01-01

    The BVDV envelope glycoprotein E(rns)/gp48 and the C terminal 79 amino acids of the capsid protein coding region were expressed in a baculovirus system and antigenically characterized. Western blot assay was used to detect recombinant E(rns) (r-E(rns)) in infected insect cells using specific monoclonal antibodies. The r-E(rns) was then used in an indirect ELISA to detect BVDV specific antibodies in a panel of 540 well-characterized sera. Results of the r-E(rns) ELISA were compared to those obtained with a commercially available competitive ELISA targeting anti-NS2/3 antibodies. A good correlation was observed between the 2 ELISA (kappa = 0.916, 95% C.I.: 0.876, 0.956). Using the commercial NS2/3 ELISA as the reference test, the relative sensitivity of r-E(rns) ELISA was 97.5% (95% C.I.: 94.3%, 99.1%) and the relative specificity was 93.9% (95% C.I.: 89.4%, 96.9%), while relative specificity was 100% (95% C.I.: 97%, 100%) using true negative sera (derived from a negative herd). All but 1 antigen positive animals (n = 36) tested negative in the r-E(rns) ELISA; among them all 22 confirmed PI animals were negative by r-E(rns) ELISA. The ability of r-E(rns) ELISA to identify cattle immunized with inactivated vaccine was also demonstrated in a small group of cattle, compared to an NS2/3 antibody ELISA. Results suggest that r-E(rns) ELISA represents an alternative test for antibody generated by natural infection or BVDV vaccination.

  13. Expression, purification and development of neutralizing antibodies from synthetic BoNT/B LC and its application in detection of botulinum toxin serotype B.

    PubMed

    Ponmariappan, S; Jain, Swati; Sijoria, Richa; Tomar, Arvind; Kumar, Om

    2012-03-01

    Botulism is a neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum, which produces seven (A-G) neurotoxins (BoNTs). The mouse bioassay is the gold standard for the detection of botulinum neurotoxins, however it requires at least 3-4 days for completion. Most of the studies were carried out in botulinum toxin A and less on type B. Attempts have been made to develop an ELISA based detection system, which is potentially an easier and more rapid method of botulinum neurotoxin detection. In the present study, the synthetic BoNT/B LC gene was constructed using PCR overlapping primers, cloned in a pET28a+ vector and expressed in E. coli BL21DE3. The maximum yield of recombinant proteins was optimized after 16 hrs of post induction at 21°C and purified the recombinant protein in soluble form. Antibodies were raised in Mice and Rabbit. The IgG antibody titer in the case of Mice was 1: 1,024,000 and Rabbit was 1: 512,000 with alum as adjuvant via intramascular route. The biological activity of the recombinant protein was confirmed by in-vitro studies using PC12 cells by the synaptobrevin cleavage, the rBoNT/B LC protein showed the maximum blockage of acetylcholine release at a concentration of 150nM rBoNT/B LC in comparison to the control cells. When the cells were incubated with rBoNT/B LC neutralized by the antisera raised against it, the acetylcholine release was equivalent to the control. IgG specific to rBoNT/B LC was purified from raised antibodies. The results showed that the developed antibody against rBoNT/B LC protein were able to detect botulinum toxin type B approximately up to 1 ng/ml. These developed high titer antibodies may prove useful for the detection of botulinum neurotoxins in food and clinical samples.

  14. Carboxy-terminally truncated Dengue 4 virus envelope glycoprotein expressed in Pichia pastoris induced neutralizing antibodies and resistance to Dengue 4 virus challenge in mice.

    PubMed

    Muné, M; Rodríguez, R; Ramírez, R; Soto, Y; Sierra, B; Rodríguez Roche, R; Marquez, G; Garcia, J; Guillén, G; Guzmán, M G

    2003-11-01

    We have expressed a recombinant Dengue 4 virus envelope glycoprotein (E4rec), truncated at its C-terminus by 53 amino acids, in Pichia pastoris. The presence of E4rec was confirmed by Western-blot using anti-DEN 4 hyper immune mouse ascitic fluid. E4rec migrated during SDS-PAGE as a 64 kDa protein. Treatment with endoglycosidases showed that the E protein was modified by the addition of short mannose chains and the absence of hyperglycosylation. When administered to BALB-C mice, E4rec elicited a DEN 4 neutralizing antibody response haemagglutination inhibition antibodies and specific memory T cell response. Mice immunized were also significantly protected against lethal DEN 4 virus challenge (86.6%, p < 0.001).

  15. Comparison of Internal Ribosome Entry Site (IRES) and Furin-2A (F2A) for Monoclonal Antibody Expression Level and Quality in CHO Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Steven C. L.; Bardor, Muriel; Li, Bin; Lee, Jia Juan; Song, Zhiwei; Tong, Yen Wah; Goh, Lin-Tang; Yang, Yuansheng

    2013-01-01

    Four versions of tricistronic vectors expressing IgG1 light chain (LC), IgG1 heavy chain (HC), and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) in one transcript were designed to compare internal ribosome entry site (IRES) and furin-2A (F2A) for their influence on monoclonal antibody (mAb) expression level and quality in CHO DG44 cells. LC and HC genes are arranged as either the first or the second cistron. When using mAb quantification methods based on the detection antibodies against HC Fc region, F2A-mediated tricistronic vectors appeared to express mAb at higher levels than the IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors in both transient and stable transfections. Further analysis revealed that more than 40% of products detected in stably transfected pools generated using the two F2A-mediated tricistronic vectors were aggregates. LC and HC from the F2A stably transfected pools were not properly processed, giving rise to LC+F2A+HC or HC+F2A+LC fusion proteins, LC and HC polypeptides with F2A remnants, and incorrectly cleaved signal peptides. Both IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors express mAb with correct sizes and signal peptide cleavage. Arrangement of LC as the first cistron in the IRES-mediated tricistronic vectors exhibits increased mAb expression level, better growth, and minimized product aggregation, while arrangement of HC as first cistron results in low expression, slower growth, and high aggregation. The results obtained will be beneficial for designing vectors that enhance mAb expression level and quality in mammalian cells. PMID:23704898

  16. Efficient production of human acidic fibroblast growth factor in pea (Pisum sativum L.) plants by agroinfection of germinated seeds

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background For efficient and large scale production of recombinant proteins in plants transient expression by agroinfection has a number of advantages over stable transformation. Simple manipulation, rapid analysis and high expression efficiency are possible. In pea, Pisum sativum, a Virus Induced Gene Silencing System using the pea early browning virus has been converted into an efficient agroinfection system by converting the two RNA genomes of the virus into binary expression vectors for Agrobacterium transformation. Results By vacuum infiltration (0.08 Mpa, 1 min) of germinating pea seeds with 2-3 cm roots with Agrobacteria carrying the binary vectors, expression of the gene for Green Fluorescent Protein as marker and the gene for the human acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) was obtained in 80% of the infiltrated developing seedlings. Maximal production of the recombinant proteins was achieved 12-15 days after infiltration. Conclusions Compared to the leaf injection method vacuum infiltration of germinated seeds is highly efficient allowing large scale production of plants transiently expressing recombinant proteins. The production cycle of plants for harvesting the recombinant protein was shortened from 30 days for leaf injection to 15 days by applying vacuum infiltration. The synthesized aFGF was purified by heparin-affinity chromatography and its mitogenic activity on NIH 3T3 cells confirmed to be similar to a commercial product. PMID:21548923

  17. Complete amino acid sequence of heavy chain variable regions derived from two monoclonal anti-p-azophenylarsonate antibodies of BALB/c mice expressing the major cross-reactive idiotype of the A/J strain

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The primary structure of A/J anti-p-azophenylarsonate (anti-Ars) antibodies expressing the major A-strain cross-reactive idiotype (CRIA) has provided important insights into issues of antibody diversity and the molecular basis of idiotypy in this important model system. Until recently, this idiotype was thought to be rarely, if ever, expressed in BALB/c mice. Indeed, it has been reported that BALB/c mice lack the heavy chain variable segment (VH) gene that is utilized by the entire family of anti-Ars antibodies expressing the A/J CRI. Recently, however, it has been possible to elicit CRIA+, Ars binding antibodies in the BALB/c strain by immunizing first with anti-CRI and then with antigen. Such BALB/c, CRIA+ anti-Ars antibodies can be induced occasionally with antigen alone. VH region amino acid sequences are described for two CRIA+ hybridoma products derived from BALB/c mice. While remarkably similar to each other, their VH segments (1-98) differ from the VH segments of A/J CRIA+, anti-Ars antibodies in over 40 positions. Rather than the usual JH2 gene segment used by most A/J CRIA+ anti-Ars antibodies, one BALB/c CRIA+ hybridoma utilizes a JH1 gene segment, while the other uses a JH4. However, the D segments of both of the BALB/c antibodies are remarkably homologous to the D segments of several A/J CRIA+ antibodies sequenced previously, as are the amino terminal amino acid sequences of their light chains. These data imply that BALB/c mice express the A/J CRIA by producing antibodies with very similar, if not identical, light chain and heavy chain D segments, but in the context of different VH and JH gene segments than their A/J counterparts. The results document that molecules that share serologic specificities can have vastly different primary structures. PMID:6207261

  18. Glycerolipid biosynthesis in isolated pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Lingru; Sparace, S.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Plastids have been isolated from germinating pea (Pisum sativum L.) roots by differential centrifugation and purified on Percoll gradients. Marker enzymes (NADPH: cytochrome c reductase, fumarase and fatty acid synthesis) indicate that greater than 50% of the plastids are recovered essentially free from mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum contamination. Fatty acids synthesized from ({sup 14}C)acetate by Percoll-purified plastids are primarily 16:0, 16:1 and 18:1. ({sup 14}C)Acetate-labelled fatty acids and ({sup 14}C)glycerol-3-phosphate are both readily incorporated into glycerolipid. Approximately 12% of the total activity for glycerolipid biosynthesis from glycerol-3-phosphate is recovered in the purified plastid fraction. Glycerolipids synthesized from these precursors are primarily TAG, DAG, PE, PG, PC, PI and PA. Acyl-CoA's also accumulate when acetate is the precursor.

  19. Ozone stress proteins in pea plants

    SciTech Connect

    Beckett, P.; Mozley, D.; Price, A.; Hetherington, A.; Lea, P. )

    1989-04-01

    21 day old pea plants were fumigated with 200, 100, 50 and 0 ppb ozone (8 hrs/day) for 5 days. Soluble proteins were extracted from the first 6 leaves and analyzed by 1D SDS PAGE. Polypeptides were visualized after coomassie blue staining. With respect to controls, fumigation resulted in a dose dependent decrease in staining intensity of several polypeptides (of approximate M.W. 94, 54, 35 kD). However, treatment with 200 ppb ozone resulted in the appearance of a polypeptide with a molecular weight of circa 32 kD. This polypeptide was absent from control (0 ppb ozone) plants. Currently, we are (1) purifying the c32kD polypeptide, (2) studying the temporal aspects of the synthesis of this polypeptide and (3) investigating whether this represents a general response to pollutant gases.

  20. Protein methylation reactions in intact pea chloroplasts

    SciTech Connect

    Niemi, K.J. )

    1989-04-01

    Post-translational protein methylation was investigated in Pisum sativum chloroplasts. Intact pea chloroplasts were incubated with ({sup 3}H-methyl)-S-adenosylmethionine under various conditions. The chloroplasts were then separated into stromal and thylakoid fractions and analyzed for radioactivity transferred to protein. Light enhanced the magnitude of labeling in both fractions. One thylakoid polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa was labeled only in the light. Several other thylakoid and stromal proteins were labeled in both light and dark-labeling conditions. Both base-labile methylation, carboxy-methylesters and base-stable groups, N-methylations were found. Further characterization of the methyl-transfer reactions will be presented.

  1. Pea2 protein of yeast is localized to sites of polarized growth and is required for efficient mating and bipolar budding

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae exhibits polarized growth during two phases of its life cycle, budding and mating. The site for polarization during vegetative growth is determined genetically: a and alpha haploid cells exhibit an axial budding pattern, and a/alpha diploid cells exhibit a bipolar pattern. During mating, each cell polarizes towards its partner to ensure efficient mating. SPA2 is required for the bipolar budding pattern (Snyder. M 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1419-1429; Zahner, J.A., H.A. Harkins, and J.R. Pringle. 1996. Mol. Cell. Biol. 16:1857-1870) and polarization during mating (Snyder, M., S. Gehrung, and B.D. Page. 1991. J. Cell Biol. 114: 515-532). We previously identified mutants defective in PEA2 and SPA2 which alter cell polarization in the presence of mating pheromone in a similar manner (Chenevert, J., N. Valtz, and I. Herskowitz. 1994. Genetics, 136:1287-1297). Here we report the further characterization of these mutants. We have found that PEA2 is also required for the bipolar budding pattern and that it encodes a novel protein with a predicted coiled-coil domain. Pea2p is expressed in all cell types and is localized to sites of polarized growth in budding and mating cells in a pattern similar to Spa2p, Pea2p and Spa2p exhibit interdependent localization: Spa2p is produced in pea2 mutants but fails to localize properly; Pea2p is not stably produced in spa2 mutants. These results suggest that Pea2p and Spa2p function together as a complex to generate the bipolar budding pattern and to guarantee proper polarization during mating. PMID:8909546

  2. Expression and Characterization of the Extracellular Domain of Human HER2 from Escherichia Coli, and Production of Polyclonal Antibodies Against the Recombinant Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yong; Feng, Xue; Qu, Jiao; Han, Wenqi; Liu, Zi; Li, Xu; Zou, Ming; Zhen, Yuhong; Zhu, Jie

    2015-06-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family. In this study, the whole extracellular domain gene of HER2 was amplified by RT-PCR from human breast cancer cell line SK-BR-3. The genes of membrane-distal region (A) and membrane proximal region (B) of HER2 extracellular domain were amplified from the cloned template, and then inserted into the expression vector pET-28a and pET-30a, respectively. The recombinant expression vectors were transformed into Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells and induced by isopropyl-b-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) for expression of proteins His-A and His-B. The expressed proteins were detected by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot. The optimization of culture conditions led us to accomplish the recombinant protein induction with 1.0 mM IPTG at 37 °C for 8 h, and both proteins were expressed in the insoluble form. Both proteins were purified under the denaturing condition using Ni-NTA sepharose column. Balb/c mice were immunized with the purified proteins and then effectively produced polyclonal antibodies, which reached to a relatively high titer by ELISA testing and had good specificity by western blot detection. The HER2 ECD proteins His-A and His-B could be expressed in E. coli and were suitable for production of high titer antibodies against HER2 ECD.

  3. Lyα and UV Sizes of Green Pea Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Leitherer, Claus; Wofford, Aida; Jiang, Tianxing; Wang, Junxian

    2017-03-01

    Green Peas are nearby analogs of high-redshift Lyα-emitting galaxies (LAEs). To probe their Lyα escape, we study the spatial profiles of Lyα and UV continuum emission of 24 Green Pea galaxies using the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. We extract the spatial profiles of Lyα emission from their 2D COS spectra, and of the UV continuum from both 2D spectra and NUV images. The Lyα emission shows more extended spatial profiles than the UV continuum, in most Green Peas. The deconvolved full width at half maximum of the Lyα spatial profile is about 2–4 times that of the UV continuum, in most cases. Because Green Peas are analogs of high z LAEs, our results suggest that most high-z LAEs probably have larger Lyα sizes than UV sizes. We also compare the spatial profiles of Lyα photons at blueshifted and redshifted velocities in eight Green Peas with sufficient data quality, and find that the blue wing of the Lyα line has a larger spatial extent than the red wing in four Green Peas with comparatively weak blue Lyα line wings. We show that Green Peas and MUSE z = 3–6 LAEs have similar Lyα and UV continuum sizes, which probably suggests that starbursts in both low-z and high-z LAEs drive similar gas outflows illuminated by Lyα light. Five Lyman continuum (LyC) leakers in this sample have similar Lyα to UV continuum size ratios (∼1.4–4.3) to the other Green Peas, indicating that their LyC emissions escape through ionized holes in the interstellar medium.

  4. Direct discovery and validation of a peptide/MHC epitope expressed in primary human breast cancer cells using a TCRm monoclonal antibody with profound antitumor properties.

    PubMed

    Verma, Bhavna; Hawkins, Oriana E; Neethling, Francisca A; Caseltine, Shannon L; Largo, Sherly R; Hildebrand, William H; Weidanz, Jon A

    2010-04-01

    The identification and validation of new cancer-specific T cell epitopes continues to be a major area of research interest. Nevertheless, challenges remain to develop strategies that can easily discover and validate epitopes expressed in primary cancer cells. Regarded as targets for T cells, peptides presented in the context of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) are recognized by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). These mAbs are of special importance as they lend themselves to the detection of epitopes expressed in primary tumor cells. Here, we use an approach that has been successfully utilized in two different infectious disease applications (WNV and influenza). A direct peptide-epitope discovery strategy involving mass spectrometric analysis led to the identification of peptide YLLPAIVHI in the context of MHC A*02 allele (YLL/A2) from human breast carcinoma cell lines. We then generated and characterized an anti-YLL/A2 mAb designated as RL6A TCRm. Subsequently, the TCRm mAb was used to directly validate YLL/A2 epitope expression in human breast cancer tissue, but not in normal control breast tissue. Moreover, mice implanted with human breast cancer cells grew tumors, yet when treated with RL6A TCRm showed a marked reduction in tumor size. These data demonstrate for the first time a coordinated direct discovery and validation strategy that identified a peptide/MHC complex on primary tumor cells for antibody targeting and provide a novel approach to cancer immunotherapy.

  5. Gene Expression Driven by a Strong Viral Promoter in MVA Increases Vaccination Efficiency by Enhancing Antibody Responses and Unmasking CD8⁺ T Cell Epitopes.

    PubMed

    Becker, Pablo D; Nörder, Miriam; Weissmann, Sebastian; Ljapoci, Ronny; Erfle, Volker; Drexler, Ingo; Guzmán, Carlos A

    2014-07-22

    Viral vectors are promising tools for vaccination strategies and immunotherapies. However, CD8⁺ T cell responses against pathogen-derived epitopes are usually limited to dominant epitopes and antibody responses to recombinant encoded antigens (Ags) are mostly weak. We have previously demonstrated that the timing of viral Ag expression in infected professional Ag-presenting cells strongly shapes the epitope immunodominance hierarchy. T cells recognizing determinants derived from late viral proteins have a clear disadvantage to proliferate during secondary responses. In this work we evaluate the effect of overexpressing the recombinant Ag using the modified vaccinia virus early/late promoter H5 (mPH5). Although the Ag-expression from the natural promoter 7.5 (P7.5) and the mPH5 seemed similar, detailed analysis showed that mPH5 not only induces higher expression levels than P7.5 during early phase of infection, but also Ag turnover is enhanced. The strong overexpression during the early phase leads to broader CD8 T cell responses, while preserving the priming efficiency of stable Ags. Moreover, the increase in Ag-secretion favors the induction of strong antibody responses. Our findings provide the rationale to develop new strategies for fine-tuning the responses elicited by recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara by using selected promoters to improve the performance of this viral vector.

  6. Expression and characterization of recombinant interleukin-21 receptor and its targeting single-chain variable fragment antibodies selected from a human phage display library.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qinhang; Zhang, Juan; Luo, Chen; Zhang, Tao; Wang, Tong; Wang, Min

    2012-10-01

    Interleukin-21 receptor (IL-21R) is widely expressed in lymphocytes, and plays an important role in immunological cell proliferation and cytokine production. The present study aims to express a recombinant extracellular domain of human IL-21R (rhIL-21R-ECD) with high yield, and to screen the anti-IL-21R single-chain variable fragments (scFvs) from a synthetic human phage display library. The rhIL-21R-ECD, being expressed mainly as insoluble inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), was purified and refolded. ELISA analysis showed that the refolded rhIL-21R-ECD bound to its ligand IL-21 in a concentration-dependent manner. Using a phage display technique, anti-IL-21R scFvs were screened from a naïve human phage display library by biopanning. After four rounds of panning, positive clones were isolated, sequenced, and characterized. The clone with highest activity was designated as C2. Flow cytometry analysis showed that the scFv C2 could recognize IL-21R on Jurkat cells. Furthermore, proliferation assay revealed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of C2 on the Jurkat cell, with fifty percent inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 78 nM. A human scFv antibody C2 with a high binding specificity to IL-21R was isolated and characterized. The antibody showed a concentration-dependent inhibitory effect on Jurkat cell proliferation.

  7. A bcl-2 transgene expressed in hepatocytes protects mice from fulminant liver destruction but not from rapid death induced by anti-Fas antibody injection

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Stimulation of the Fas (APO-1, CD95) receptor, which is present on a variety of cells, usually triggers a process of programmed cell death. Systemic injection of anti-Fas antibody into mice leads to fulminant liver destruction resulting from massive hepatocyte apoptosis, and to rapid death. Hepatocytes bear Fas but do not express Bcl-2, a protein that plays, in a number of conditions, a protective role against apoptosis. We have generated mice whose liver expresses Bcl-2 as the result of bcl-2 transgene placed under the control of the hepatocyte- specific alpha1-anti-trypsin gene promoter, but is otherwise not distinguishable from that of normal mice. These mice display a marked to almost total resistance to liver damage induced by anti-Fas antibody injection. This protective effect of Bcl-2 occurs in the absence of significant variations, in the stimulated livers, in the level of expression of other proteins also involved in resistance or sensitivity to apoptosis, namely Bcl-x, Bax, Bad, Bak, and p53. Mice with protected livers, however, die almost as rapidly as normal mice, which indicates that acute lethality results from stimulation of Fas receptors present on other target organs or cells. PMID:8642244

  8. An intact signal peptide on dengue virus E protein enhances immunogenicity for CD8(+) T cells and antibody when expressed from modified vaccinia Ankara.

    PubMed

    Quinan, Bárbara R; Flesch, Inge E A; Pinho, Tânia M G; Coelho, Fabiana M; Tscharke, David C; da Fonseca, Flávio G

    2014-05-23

    Dengue is a global public health concern and this is aggravated by a lack of vaccines or antiviral therapies. Despite the well-known role of CD8(+) T cells in the immunopathogenesis of Dengue virus (DENV), only recent studies have highlighted the importance of this arm of the immune response in protection against the disease. Thus, the majority of DENV vaccine candidates are designed to achieve protective titers of neutralizing antibodies, with less regard for cellular responses. Here, we used a mouse model to investigate CD8(+) T cell and humoral responses to a set of potential DENV vaccines based on recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (rMVA). To enable this study, we identified two CD8(+) T cell epitopes in the DENV-3 E protein in C57BL/6 mice. Using these we found that all the rMVA vaccines elicited DENV-specific CD8(+) T cells that were cytotoxic in vivo and polyfunctional in vitro. Moreover, vaccines expressing the E protein with an intact signal peptide sequence elicited more DENV-specific CD8(+) T cells than those expressing E proteins in the cytoplasm. Significantly, it was these same ER-targeted E protein vaccines that elicited antibody responses. Our results support the further development of rMVA vaccines expressing DENV E proteins and add to the tools available for dengue vaccine development.

  9. Purification and immunolocalization of an annexin-like protein in pea seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, G. B.; Dauwalder, M.; Roux, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a study to identify potential targets of calcium action in plant cells, a 35-kDa, annexin-like protein was purified from pea (Pisum sativum L.) plumules by a method used to purify animal annexins. This protein, called p35, binds to a phosphatidylserine affinity column in a calcium-dependent manner and binds 45Ca2+ in a dot-blot assay. Preliminary sequence data confirm a relationship for p35 with the annexin family of proteins. Polyclonal antibodies have been raised which recognize p35 in Western and dot blots. Immunofluorescence and immunogold techniques were used to study the distribution and subcellular localization of p35 in pea plumules and roots. The highest levels of immunostain were found in young developing vascular cells producing wall thickenings and in peripheral root-cap cells releasing slime. This localization in cells which are actively involved in secretion is of interest because one function suggested for the animal annexins is involvement in the mediation of exocytosis.

  10. Phorbol esters induce intracellular accumulation of the anti-apoptotic protein PED/PEA-15 by preventing ubiquitinylation and proteasomal degradation.

    PubMed

    Perfetti, Anna; Oriente, Francesco; Iovino, Salvatore; Alberobello, A Teresa; Barbagallo, Alessia P M; Esposito, Iolanda; Fiory, Francesca; Teperino, Raffaele; Ungaro, Paola; Miele, Claudia; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco

    2007-03-23

    Phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes/phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes (PED/PEA)-15 is an anti-apoptotic protein whose expression is increased in several cancer cells and following experimental skin carcinogenesis. Exposure of untransfected C5N keratinocytes and transfected HEK293 cells to phorbol esters (12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)) increased PED/PEA-15 cellular content and enhanced its phosphorylation at serine 116 in a time-dependent fashion. Ser-116 --> Gly (PED(S116G)) but not Ser-104 --> Gly (PED(S104G)) substitution almost completely abolished TPA regulation of PED/PEA-15 expression. TPA effect was also prevented by antisense inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC)-zeta and by the expression of a dominant-negative PKC-zeta mutant cDNA in HEK293 cells. Similar to long term TPA treatment, overexpression of wild-type PKC-zeta increased cellular content and phosphorylation of WT-PED/PEA-15 and PED(S104G) but not of PED(S116G). These events were accompanied by the activation of Ca2+-calmodulin kinase (CaMK) II and prevented by the CaMK blocker, KN-93. At variance, the proteasome inhibitor lactacystin mimicked TPA action on PED/PEA-15 intracellular accumulation and reverted the effects of PKC-zeta and CaMK inhibition. Moreover, we show that PED/PEA-15 bound ubiquitin in intact cells. PED/PEA-15 ubiquitinylation was reduced by TPA and PKC-zeta overexpression and increased by KN-93 and PKC-zeta block. Furthermore, in HEK293 cells expressing PED(S116G), TPA failed to prevent ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the protein. Accordingly, in the same cells, TPA-mediated protection from apoptosis was blunted. Taken together, our results indicate that TPA increases PED/PEA-15 expression at the post-translational level by inducing phosphorylation at serine 116 and preventing ubiquitinylation and proteosomal degradation.

  11. Strigolactones suppress adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis and pea.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Amanda; Mason, Michael Glenn; De Cuyper, Carolien; Brewer, Philip B; Herold, Silvia; Agusti, Javier; Geelen, Danny; Greb, Thomas; Goormachtig, Sofie; Beeckman, Tom; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2012-04-01

    Adventitious root formation is essential for the propagation of many commercially important plant species and involves the formation of roots from nonroot tissues such as stems or leaves. Here, we demonstrate that the plant hormone strigolactone suppresses adventitious root formation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and pea (Pisum sativum). Strigolactone-deficient and response mutants of both species have enhanced adventitious rooting. CYCLIN B1 expression, an early marker for the initiation of adventitious root primordia in Arabidopsis, is enhanced in more axillary growth2 (max2), a strigolactone response mutant, suggesting that strigolactones restrain the number of adventitious roots by inhibiting the very first formative divisions of the founder cells. Strigolactones and cytokinins appear to act independently to suppress adventitious rooting, as cytokinin mutants are strigolactone responsive and strigolactone mutants are cytokinin responsive. In contrast, the interaction between the strigolactone and auxin signaling pathways in regulating adventitious rooting appears to be more complex. Strigolactone can at least partially revert the stimulatory effect of auxin on adventitious rooting, and auxin can further increase the number of adventitious roots in max mutants. We present a model depicting the interaction of strigolactones, cytokinins, and auxin in regulating adventitious root formation.

  12. Preclinical Testing Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Strain GLV-5b451 Expressing an Anti-VEGF Single-Chain Antibody for Canine Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Adelfinger, Marion; Bessler, Simon; Frentzen, Alexa; Cecil, Alexander; Langbein-Laugwitz, Johanna; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Szalay, Aladar A

    2015-07-20

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is a novel approach for canine cancer therapy. Here we describe, for the first time, the characterization and the use of VACV strain GLV-5b451 expressing the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) single-chain antibody (scAb) GLAF-2 as therapeutic agent against different canine cancers. Cell culture data demonstrated that GLV-5b451 efficiently infected and destroyed all four tested canine cancer cell lines including: mammary carcinoma (MTH52c), mammary adenoma (ZMTH3), prostate carcinoma (CT1258), and soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1). The GLV-5b451 virus-mediated production of GLAF-2 antibody was observed in all four cancer cell lines. In addition, this antibody specifically recognized canine VEGF. Finally, in canine soft tissue sarcoma (CSTS) xenografted mice, a single systemic administration of GLV-5b451 was found to be safe and led to anti-tumor effects resulting in the significant reduction and substantial long-term inhibition of tumor growth. A CD31-based immuno-staining showed significantly decreased neo-angiogenesis in GLV-5b451-treated tumors compared to the controls. In summary, these findings indicate that GLV-5b451 has potential for use as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of CSTS.

  13. Preclinical Testing Oncolytic Vaccinia Virus Strain GLV-5b451 Expressing an Anti-VEGF Single-Chain Antibody for Canine Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Adelfinger, Marion; Bessler, Simon; Frentzen, Alexa; Cecil, Alexander; Langbein-Laugwitz, Johanna; Gentschev, Ivaylo; Szalay, Aladar A.

    2015-01-01

    Virotherapy on the basis of oncolytic vaccinia virus (VACV) strains is a novel approach for canine cancer therapy. Here we describe, for the first time, the characterization and the use of VACV strain GLV-5b451 expressing the anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) single-chain antibody (scAb) GLAF-2 as therapeutic agent against different canine cancers. Cell culture data demonstrated that GLV-5b451 efficiently infected and destroyed all four tested canine cancer cell lines including: mammary carcinoma (MTH52c), mammary adenoma (ZMTH3), prostate carcinoma (CT1258), and soft tissue sarcoma (STSA-1). The GLV-5b451 virus-mediated production of GLAF-2 antibody was observed in all four cancer cell lines. In addition, this antibody specifically recognized canine VEGF. Finally, in canine soft tissue sarcoma (CSTS) xenografted mice, a single systemic administration of GLV-5b451 was found to be safe and led to anti-tumor effects resulting in the significant reduction and substantial long-term inhibition of tumor growth. A CD31-based immuno-staining showed significantly decreased neo-angiogenesis in GLV-5b451-treated tumors compared to the controls. In summary, these findings indicate that GLV-5b451 has potential for use as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of CSTS. PMID:26205404

  14. Antibody expression from the core region of the human IgH locus reconstructed in transgenic mice using bacteriophage P1 clones

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, S.D.; Cook, G.P.; Davies, S.L.

    1996-08-01

    Mice carrying transgenic human immunoglobulin gene miniloci can be used for the production of human monoclonal antibodies. The human variable region (V) gene segments in these miniloci undergo productive rearrangement in mouse lymphoid tissue to yield a population of B lymphocytes expressing a repertoire of antibodies. Many of the miniloci studied to date have included only a small number of germline gene segments in an artificially compact configuration. Here we describe the use of the bacteriophage P1 cloning system to create mice carrying the core region of the human immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus. Three P1 clones carrying overlapping regions of the human IgH locus (spanning the five J{sub H}-proximal V{sub H} segments, the entire D{sub H} and J{sub H} clusters, and the C{mu} and C{delta} constant regions) were injected into mouse eggs and appear to have reconstituted the core region of the locus (>180 kb) following homologous recombination with each other. While this translocus yielded a titer of serum immunoglobulin similar to that obtained with a smaller plasmid-basid minilocus, the P1-based locus gave rise to substantially greater diversification by somatic hypermutation. Such diversification is important for obtaining high-affinity antibodies. The results show the usefulness of the P1 system in facilitating the manipulation and recreation of large transgenes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Correlation of ADCC activity with cytokine release induced by the stably expressed, glyco-engineered humanized Lewis Y-specific monoclonal antibody MB314.

    PubMed

    Kircheis, Ralf; Halanek, Nicole; Koller, Iris; Jost, Wolfgang; Schuster, Manfred; Gorr, Gilbert; Hajszan, Klaus; Nechansky, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    A major limitation to the application of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) is their reduced in vivo efficacy compared with the high efficacy measured in vitro. Effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) are dramatically reduced in vivo by the presence of high amounts of endogenous IgG in the serum. Recent studies have shown that modification of the glycosylation moieties attached to the Fc part of the mAb can enhance binding affinity to FcγRIIIα receptors on natural killer cells and thus may counteract the reduced in vivo efficacy. In the present study, a humanized IgG1/κ monoclonal antibody recognizing the tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen Lewis Y was stably produced in a moss expression system that allows glyco-engineering. The glyco-modified mAb (designated MB314) showed a highly homogeneous N-glycosylation pattern lacking core-fucose. A side-by-side comparison to its parental counterpart produced in conventional mammalian cell-culture (MB311, formerly known as IGN311) by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis confirmed that the target specificity of MB314 is similar to that of MB311. In contrast, ADCC effector function of MB314 was increased up to 40-fold whereas complement dependent cytotoxicity activity was decreased 5-fold. Notably, a release of immunostimulatory cytokines, including interferon γ, monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was particularly induced with the glyco-modified antibody. TNF release was associated with CD14 (+) cells, indicating activation of monocytes.

  16. Production of site-specific antibody-drug conjugates using optimized non-natural amino acids in a cell-free expression system.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Erik S; Heibeck, Tyler H; Gill, Avinash; Li, Xiaofan; Murray, Christopher J; Madlansacay, Mary Rose; Tran, Cuong; Uter, Nathan T; Yin, Gang; Rivers, Patrick J; Yam, Alice Y; Wang, Willie D; Steiner, Alexander R; Bajad, Sunil U; Penta, Kalyani; Yang, Wenjin; Hallam, Trevor J; Thanos, Christopher D; Sato, Aaron K

    2014-02-19

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a targeted chemotherapeutic currently at the cutting edge of oncology medicine. These hybrid molecules consist of a tumor antigen-specific antibody coupled to a chemotherapeutic small molecule. Through targeted delivery of potent cytotoxins, ADCs exhibit improved therapeutic index and enhanced efficacy relative to traditional chemotherapies and monoclonal antibody therapies. The currently FDA-approved ADCs, Kadcyla (Immunogen/Roche) and Adcetris (Seattle Genetics), are produced by conjugation to surface-exposed lysines, or partial disulfide reduction and conjugation to free cysteines, respectively. These stochastic modes of conjugation lead to heterogeneous drug products with varied numbers of drugs conjugated across several possible sites. As a consequence, the field has limited understanding of the relationships between the site and extent of drug loading and ADC attributes such as efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity. A robust platform for rapid production of ADCs with defined and uniform sites of drug conjugation would enable such studies. We have established a cell-free protein expression system for production of antibody drug conjugates through site-specific incorporation of the optimized non-natural amino acid, para-azidomethyl-l-phenylalanine (pAMF). By using our cell-free protein synthesis platform to directly screen a library of aaRS variants, we have discovered a novel variant of the Methanococcus jannaschii tyrosyl tRNA synthetase (TyrRS), with a high activity and specificity toward pAMF. We demonstrate that site-specific incorporation of pAMF facilitates near complete conjugation of a DBCO-PEG-monomethyl auristatin (DBCO-PEG-MMAF) drug to the tumor-specific, Her2-binding IgG Trastuzumab using strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) copper-free click chemistry. The resultant ADCs proved highly potent in in vitro cell cytotoxicity assays.

  17. Modulation of immune response to Lol p I by pretreatment with anti-idiotypic antibody is not restricted to the idiotypic expression.

    PubMed

    Boutin, Y; Hébert, J

    1994-05-01

    To study the role of anti-idiotypic antibodies in the regulation of the immune response to Lol p I (the major allergenic component of rye grass pollen), we have recently generated a panel of three MoAbs directed against distinct epitopes of Lolp I and an anti-idiotypic MoAb directed against the idiotype borne by one of the anti-Lol p I MoAbs (290A-167). The effects of pretreatment with this anti-idiotypic MoAb in BALB/c mice before immunization with the antigen have been examined. The anti-idiotypic MoAb or unrelated MoAb were given weekly for 8 weeks intraperitoneally. Mice then received the antigen (2 micrograms) adsorbed with alum (2 mg) at weeks 9, 11 and 13. Serum anti-Lol p I antibodies (IgG or IgE) and specific idiotypic responses were measured. Anti-Lol p I IgG antibodies could be detected before immunization with Lol p I only in mice pretreated with anti-idiotypic MoAb. Immunization with Lol p I induced an anti-Lol p I IgG response in both groups, but this response was higher in mice that received anti-idiotypic MoAb. Similar profiles were seen for specific IgE antibodies and idiotypic responses. Surprisingly, idiotypes borne by other anti-Lol p I MoAbs (539A-6 and 348A-6) had also been enhanced after pretreatment with the anti-290A-167 MoAb. These observations suggested that the pretreatment with this anti-idiotypic MoAb modulates not only the expression of the respective idiotype, but also affects other idiotype responses.

  18. Production and characterization of high-affinity human monoclonal antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoproteins in a mouse model expressing human immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Sheppard, Neil C; Davies, Sarah L; Jeffs, Simon A; Vieira, Sueli M; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2007-02-01

    Human (Hu) monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoproteins (Env) are useful tools in the structural and functional analysis of Env, are under development both as potential prophylaxis and as therapy for established HIV-1 infection, and have crucial roles in guiding the design of preventative vaccines. Despite representing more than 50% of infections globally, no MAbs have been generated in any species against C clade HIV-1 Env. To generate HuMAbs to a novel Chinese C clade Env vaccine candidate (primary isolate strain HIV-1(97CN54)), we used BAB5 mice that express a human immunoglobulin (Ig) M antibody repertoire in place of endogenous murine immunoglobulins. When immunized with HIV-1(97CN54) Env, these mice developed antigen-specific IgM antibodies. Hybridoma fusions using splenocytes from these mice enabled the isolation of two Env-specific IgM HuMAbs: N3C5 and N03B11. N3C5 bound to HIV-1 Env from clades A and C, whereas N03B11 bound two geographically distant clade C isolates but not Env from other clades. These HuMAbs bind conformational epitopes within the immunodominant region of the gp41 ectodomain. N3C5 weakly neutralized the autologous isolate in the absence of complement and weakly enhanced infection in the presence of complement. N03B11 has no effect on infectivity in either the presence or the absence of complement. These novel HuMAbs are useful reagents for the study of HIV-1 Env relevant to the global pandemic, and mice producing human immunoglobulin present a tool for the production of such antibodies.

  19. Gibberellin-induced changes in the populations of translatable mRNAs and accumulated polypeptides in dwarfs of maize and pea

    SciTech Connect

    Chory, J.; Voytas, D.F.; Olszewski, N.E.; Ausubel, F.M.

    1987-01-01

    Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was used to characterize the molecular mechanism of gibberellin-induced stem elongation in maize and pea. Dwarf mutants of maize and pea lack endogenous gibberellin (GA/sub 1/) but become phenotypically normal with exogenous applications of this hormone. Sections from either etiolated maize or green pea seedlings were incubated in the presence of (/sup 35/S) methionine for 3 hours with or without gibberellin. Labeled proteins from soluble and particulate fractions were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and specific changes in the patterns of protein synthesis were observed upon treatment with gibberellin. Polyadenylated mRNAs from etiolated or green maize shoots and green pea epicotyls treated or not with gibberellin (a 0.5 to 16 hour time course) were assayed by translation in a rabbit reticulocyte extract and separation of products by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Both increases and decreases in the levels of specific polypeptides were seen for pea and corn, and these changes were observed within 30 minutes of treatment with gibberellin. Together, these data indicate that gibberellin induces changes in the expression of a subset of gene products within elongating dwarfs. This may be due to changes in transcription rate, mRNA stability, or increased efficiency of translation of certain mRNAs.

  20. A pea homologue of human DNA helicase I is localized within the dense fibrillar component of the nucleolus and stimulated by phosphorylation with CK2 and cdc2 protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Tuteja, N; Beven, A F; Shaw, P J; Tuteja, R

    2001-01-01

    DNA helicases catalyse the transient opening of duplex DNA during nucleic acid transactions. Here we report the isolation of a second nuclear DNA helicase (65 kDa) from Pisum sativum (pea) designated pea DNA helicase 65 (PDH65). The enzyme was immunoaffinity purified using an antihuman DNA helicase I (HDH I) antibody column. The purified PDH65 showed ATP- and Mg(2+)-dependent DNA and RNA unwinding activities, as well as ssDNA-dependent ATPase activity. The direction of DNA unwinding was 3' to 5' along the bound strand. Antibodies against HDH I recognized the purified PDH65, and immunodepletion with these antibodies removed the DNA and RNA unwinding and ATPase activities from purified preparations of PDH65. The DNA and RNA unwinding activities were upregulated after phosphorylation of PDH65 with CK2 and cdc2 protein kinases. By incorporation of BrUTP into pea root tissue, followed by double immunofluorescence labelling and confocal microscopy, PDH65 was shown to be localized within the dense fibrillar component of pea root nucleoli in the regions around the rDNA transcription sites. These observations suggest that PDH65 may be involved both in rDNA transcription and in the early stages of pre-rRNA processing.

  1. The influence of the lpr gene on B cell activation: differential antibody expression in lpr congenic mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Warren, R W; Caster, S A; Roths, J B; Murphy, E D; Pisetsky, D S

    1984-04-01

    Spontaneous immunoglobulin production in four strains of lpr/lpr congenic mice was investigated to identify genetic interactions in lpr-induced polyclonal B cell activation. Sera were obtained from male and female lpr/lpr mice of the MRL, B6, C3H, and AKR strains as well as controls of +/+ genotypes. Antibody levels were compared at the time of peak response. Quantitative antibody determinations were performed by isotype-specific ELISA assays using responses to single-stranded DNA (sDNA), mouse IgG, rabbit IgG, and keyhole limpet hemocyanin as models. Among the strains studied there were significant differences in the antibody levels observed, with the strain producing highest levels dependent on the response measured. Thus, MRL-lpr/lpr produced the highest levels of IgG anti-sDNA while B6-lpr/lpr mice produced more anti-IgG than mice of other strains. Within each strain, the lpr gene appeared to affect the IgG more than the IgM response. A consistently high response by females was observed only in B6-lpr/lpr mice. These studies suggest that lpr-induced polyclonal B cell activation is influenced by the background genome with the extent of these genetic effects variable among responses.

  2. Epitopes of anti-RIFIN antibodies and characterization of rif-expressing Plasmodium falciparum parasites by RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ch’ng, Jun-Hong; Sirel, Madle; Zandian, Arash; del Pilar Quintana, Maria; Chun Leung Chan, Sherwin; Moll, Kirsten; Tellgren-Roth, Asa; Nilsson, IngMarie; Nilsson, Peter; Qundos, Ulrika; Wahlgren, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Variable surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum have been a major research focus since they facilitate parasite sequestration and give rise to deadly malaria complications. Coupled with its potential use as a vaccine candidate, the recent suggestion that the repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) mediate blood group A rosetting and influence blood group distribution has raised the research profile of these adhesins. Nevertheless, detailed investigations into the functions of this highly diverse multigene family remain hampered by the limited number of validated reagents. In this study, we assess the specificities of three promising polyclonal anti-RIFIN antibodies that were IgG-purified from sera of immunized animals. Their epitope regions were mapped using a 175,000-peptide microarray holding overlapping peptides of the P. falciparum variable surface antigens. Through immunoblotting and immunofluorescence imaging, we show that different antibodies give varying results in different applications/assays. Finally, we authenticate the antibody-based detection of RIFINs in two previously uncharacterized non-rosetting parasite lines by identifying the dominant rif transcripts using RNA sequencing. PMID:28233866

  3. Epitopes of anti-RIFIN antibodies and characterization of rif-expressing Plasmodium falciparum parasites by RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Ch'ng, Jun-Hong; Sirel, Madle; Zandian, Arash; Del Pilar Quintana, Maria; Chun Leung Chan, Sherwin; Moll, Kirsten; Tellgren-Roth, Asa; Nilsson, IngMarie; Nilsson, Peter; Qundos, Ulrika; Wahlgren, Mats

    2017-02-24

    Variable surface antigens of Plasmodium falciparum have been a major research focus since they facilitate parasite sequestration and give rise to deadly malaria complications. Coupled with its potential use as a vaccine candidate, the recent suggestion that the repetitive interspersed families of polypeptides (RIFINs) mediate blood group A rosetting and influence blood group distribution has raised the research profile of these adhesins. Nevertheless, detailed investigations into the functions of this highly diverse multigene family remain hampered by the limited number of validated reagents. In this study, we assess the specificities of three promising polyclonal anti-RIFIN antibodies that were IgG-purified from sera of immunized animals. Their epitope regions were mapped using a 175,000-peptide microarray holding overlapping peptides of the P. falciparum variable surface antigens. Through immunoblotting and immunofluorescence imaging, we show that different antibodies give varying results in different applications/assays. Finally, we authenticate the antibody-based detection of RIFINs in two previously uncharacterized non-rosetting parasite lines by identifying the dominant rif transcripts using RNA sequencing.

  4. Characterization of N-glycan structures and biofunction of anti-colorectal cancer monoclonal antibody CO17-1A produced in baculovirus-insect cell expression system.

    PubMed

    Song, Mira; Park, Da-Young; Kim, Youngkwan; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Lu, Zhe; Ko, Kinarm; Choo, Young Kug; Han, Yeon Soo; Ahn, Mi-Hyun; Oh, Doo-Byoung; Ko, Kisung

    2010-08-01

    Advantages of the baculovirus insect cell expression system for production of recombinant proteins include high capacity, flexibility, and glycosylation capability. In this study, this expression system was exploited to produce anti-cancer monoclonal antibody (mAb) CO17-1A, which recognizes the antigen GA733. The heavy chain (HC) and light chain (LC) genes of mAb CO17-1A were cloned under the control of P(10) and Polyhedrin promoters in the pFastBac dual vector, respectively. Gene expression cassettes carrying the HC and LC genes were transposed into a bacmid in Escherichia coli (DH10Bac). The transposed bacmid was transfected to Sf9 insect cells to generate baculovirus expressing mAb CO17-1A. Confocal immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses confirmed expression of mAb CO17-1A in baculovirus-infected insect cells. The optimum conditions for mAb expression were evaluated at 24, 48, and 72 h after the virus infection at an optimum virus multiplicity of infection of 1. Expression of mAb CO17-1A in insect cells significantly increased at 72 h after infection. HPLC analysis of glycosylation status revealed that the insect-derived mAb (mAb(I)) CO17-1A had insect specific glycan structures. ELISA showed that the purified mAb(I) from cell culture supernatant specifically bound to SW948 human colorectal cancer cells. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis showed that, although mAb(I) had insect specific glycan structures that differed from their mammalian counterparts, mAb(I) similarly interacted with CD64 (FcgammaRI) and Fc of IgG, compared to the interactions of mammalian-derived mAb. These results suggest that the baculovirus insect cell expression system is able to express, assemble, and secrete biofunctional full size mAb.

  5. Synthesis of the alpha and beta subunits of coupling factor 1 by polysomes from pea chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Bhaya, D; Jagendorf, A T

    1985-02-15

    Washed thylakoids of pea chloroplasts, containing tightly bound polysomes, incorporate radioactive amino acids into protein when supplied with soluble factors from Escherichia coli. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with lithium dodecyl sulfate, followed by autoradiography of the labeled products, showed the synthesis of a number of different polypeptides. Two of the most heavily labeled products were in the region expected for the alpha and beta subunits of coupling factor 1, at 57 and 54 kDa. Positive identification of the subunits was made using monospecific antibodies. Furthermore, the same two polypeptides made by soluble polysomes located in the chloroplast stroma were found. While the major proportion of the newly formed alpha and beta subunits made by thylakoid-bound polysomes remained with the thylakoids after protein synthesis occurred, no evidence was found of incorporation into complete, EDTA-extractable coupling factor 1.

  6. HDAC Inhibitors Upregulate B Cell microRNAs that Silence AID and Blimp-1 Expression for Epigenetic Modulation of Antibody and Autoantibody Responses

    PubMed Central

    White, Clayton A; Pone, Egest J; Lam, Tonika; Tat, Connie; Hayama, Ken L; Li, Guideng; Zan, Hong; Casali, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Class-switch DNA recombination (CSR) and somatic hypermutation (SHM), which require AID, and plasma cell differentiation, which requires Blimp-1, are critical for the generation of class-switched and hypermutated (mature) antibody and autoantibody responses. We showed here that the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors (HDI) valproic acid (VPA) and butyrate upregulated miR-155, miR-181b and miR-361, which silenced AICDA/Aicda (AID) mRNA, and miR-23b, miR-30a and miR-125b, which silenced PRDM1/Prdm1 (Blimp-1) mRNA, in human and mouse B cells. This led to downregulation of AID, Blimp-1 and Xbp-1 expression, thereby dampening CSR, SHM and plasma cell differentiation without altering B cell viability or proliferation. The selectivity of HDI-mediated silencing of AICDA/Aicda and PRDM1/Prdm1 was emphasized by unchanged expression of HoxC4 and Irf4 (important inducers/modulators of AICDA/Aicda), Rev1 and Ung (central elements for CSR/SHM), and Bcl6, Bach2 or Pax5 (repressors of PRDM1/Prdm1 expression), as well as unchanged expression of miR-19a/b, miR-20a and miR-25, which are not known to regulate AICDA/Aicda or PRDM1/Prdm1. Through these B cell intrinsic epigenetic mechanisms, VPA blunted class-switched and hypermutated T-dependent and T-independent antibody responses in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, it decreased class-switched and hypermutated autoantibodies, ameliorated disease and extended survival in lupus MRL/Faslpr/lpr mice. Our findings outline epigenetic mechanisms that modulate expression of an enzyme (AID) and transcription factors (Blimp-1 and Xbp-1) that critical to the B cell differentiation processes that underpin antibody and autoantibody responses. They also provide therapeutics proof-of-principle in autoantibody-mediated autoimmunity. PMID:25392531

  7. Efficient expression of single chain variable fragment antibody against paclitaxel using the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid DNA system and its characterizations.

    PubMed

    Yusakul, Gorawit; Sakamoto, Seiichi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    A single chain variable fragment (scFv), the smallest unit of functional recombinant antibody, is an attractive format of recombinant antibodies for various applications due to its small fragment and possibility of genetic engineering. Hybridoma clone 3A3 secreting anti-paclitaxel monoclonal antibody was used to construct genes encoding its variable domains of heavy (VH) and light (VL) chains. The VH and VL domains were linked to be the PT-scFv3A3 using flexible peptide linker in a format of VH-(GGGGS)5-VL. The PT-scFv3A3 was primarily expressed using the pET28a(+) vector in the Escherichia coli system, and was then further expressed by using the Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) bacmid DNA system. Interestingly, the reactivity of PT-scFv3A3 expressed in the hemolymph of B. mori using the BmNPV bacmid DNA system was much higher than that expressed in the E. coli system. Using indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), the PT-scFv3A3 (B. mori) reacted not only with immobilized paclitaxel, but also with free paclitaxel in a concentration-dependent manner, with the linear range of free paclitaxel between 0.156 and 5.00 µg/ml. The PT-scFv3A3 (B. mori) exhibited less cross-reactivity (%) than its parental MAb clone 3A3 against paclitaxel-related compounds, including docetaxel (31.1 %), 7-xylosyltaxol (22.1 %), baccatin III (<0.68 %), 10-deacetylbaccatin III (<0.68 %), 1-hydroxybaccatin I (<0.68 %), and 1-acetoxy-5-deacetylbaccatin I (<0.68 %). With the exception of cephalomannine, the cross-reactivity was slightly increased to 8.50 %. The BmNPV bacmid DNA system was a highly efficient expression system of active PT-scFv3A3, which is applicable for PT-scFv3A3-based immunoassay of paclitaxel. In addition, the PT-scFv3A3 can be applied to evaluate its neutralizing property of paclitaxel or docetaxel toxicity.

  8. Oral immunisation of mice with transgenic rice calli expressing cholera toxin B subunit fused to consensus dengue cEDIII antigen induces antibodies to all four dengue serotypes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Byeong-Young; Oh, Sun-Mi; Reljic, Rajko; Jang, Yong-Suk; Yang, Moon-Sik

    2016-10-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) infection is an emerging global health threat. DENV consists of four distinct serotypes, necessitating a tetravalent vaccine. In this study, expression of consensus envelope protein domain III (cEDIII) fused to cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) in transgenic rice calli was improved using the luminal binding protein BiP at the N-terminus and the SEKDEL signal sequences at the C-terminus, targeting the recombinant protein to endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We found that the fusion protein showed higher levels of expression when compared to the fusion proteins using rice amylase 3D (RAmy3D) or CTB native signal sequence only. The CTB-cEDIII fusion protein was evaluated as an oral dengue vaccine candidate in mice. Serotype specific systemic IgG antibodies and specific IgA response in feces were detected and furthermore, T cell proliferation and high frequency antibody-secreting B cells were detected in the spleen. These results suggest the possible use of plant-based dengue tetravalent vaccine targeted to the mucosal immune system for induction of systemic and mucosal immune responses to DENV infection.

  9. Incidence of Lettuce mosaic virus in lettuce and its detection by polyclonal antibodies produced against recombinant coat protein expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prachi; Sharma, Susheel; Singh, Jasvir; Saha, Swati; Baranwal, V K

    2016-04-01

    Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV), a member of the genus Potyvirus of family Potyviridae, causes mosaic disease in lettuce has recently been identified in India. The virus is seed borne and secondary infection occurs through aphids. To ensure virus freedom in seeds it is important to develop diagnostic tools, for serological methods the production of polyclonal antibodies is a prerequisite. The coat protein (CP) gene of LMV was amplified, cloned and expressed using pET-28a vector in Escherichia coli BL21DE3 competent cells. The LMV CP was expressed as a fusion protein containing a fragment of the E. coli His tag. The LMV CP/His protein reacted positively with a commercial antiserum against LMV in an immunoblot assay. Polyclonal antibodies purified from serum of rabbits immunized with the fusion protein gave positive results when LMV infected lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was tested at 1:1000 dilution in PTA-ELISA. These were used for specific detection of LMV in screening lettuce accessions. The efficacy of the raised polyclonal antiserum was high and it can be utilized in quarantine and clean seed production.

  10. Differentially expressed genes of human microvascular endothelial cells in response to anti-dengue virus NS1 antibodies by suppression subtractive hybridization.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yue; Jiang, Lan; Fang, Danyun; Jiang, Lifang; Zhou, Junmei

    2013-06-01

    It has been previously shown that anti-dengue virus (DENV) nonstructural protein NS1 antibodies could act as autoantibodies that direct against one or more of the host's own proteins, which has potential implications for dengue hemorrhagic fever pathogenesis. In the present study, we have employed suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify the differentially expressed genes from human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) in response to anti-dengue virus type 2 NS1 antibodies (anti-DENV2 NS1 Abs). A total of 35 clones from the SSH cDNA library were randomly selected for further analysis using bioinformatics tools after vector screening. After searching for sequence homology in NCBI GenBank database with BLASTN and BLASTX programs, 23 obtained sequences with significant matches (E-values <1×10(-4)) in the SSH library. The predicted genes in the subtracted library include immune response molecules (CD59 antigen preproprotein preproprotein, MURR1), signal transduction molecules (Nuclear casein kinase and cyclin-dependent kinase substrate 1), calcium-binding proteins (S100A6, Annexin A2 isoform 1/2), and cell-membrane component (Yip1 domain family). From these clones, 5 upregulated genes were selected for differential expression profiling by real-time RT-PCR to confirm their upregulated status. The results confirmed their differential upregulation, and thus verified the success of SSHs and the likely involvement of these genes in dengue pathogenesis.

  11. Purification and Characterization of Pea Epicotyl beta-Amylase.

    PubMed

    Lizotte, P A; Henson, C A; Duke, S H

    1990-03-01

    The most abundant beta-amylase (EC 3.2.1.2) in pea (Pisum sativum L.) was purified greater than 880-fold from epicotyls of etiolated germinating seedlings by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography, glycogen precipitation, and preparative electrophoresis. The electrophoretic mobility and relative abundance of this beta-amylase are the same as that of an exoamylase previously reported to be primarily vacuolar. The enzyme was determined to be a beta-amylase by end product analysis and by its inability to hydrolyze beta-limit dextrin and to release dye from starch azure. Pea beta-amylase is an approximate 55 to 57 kilodalton monomer with a pl of 4.35, a pH optimum of 6.0 (soluble starch substrate), an Arrhenius energy of activation of 6.28 kilocalories per mole, and a K(m) of 1.67 milligrams per milliliter (soluble starch). The enzyme is strongly inhibited by heavy metals, p-chloromer-curiphenylsulfonic acid and N-ethylmaleimide, but much less strongly by iodoacetamide and iodoacetic acid, indicating cysteinyl sulfhydryls are not directly involved in catalysis. Pea beta-amylase is competitively inhibited by its end product, maltose, with a K(i) of 11.5 millimolar. The enzyme is partially inhibited by Schardinger maltodextrins, with alpha-cyclohexaamylose being a stronger inhibitor than beta-cycloheptaamylose. Moderately branched glucans (e.g. amylopectin) were better substrates for pea beta-amylase than less branched or non-branched (amyloses) or highly branched (glycogens) glucans. The enzyme failed to hydrolyze native starch grains from pea and glucans smaller than maltotetraose. The mechanism of pea beta-amylase is the multichain type. Possible roles of pea beta-amylase in cellular glucan metabolism are discussed.

  12. Monoclonal antibodies against muscle actin isoforms: epitope identification and analysis of isoform expression by immunoblot and immunostaining in normal and regenerating skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chaponnier, Christine; Gabbiani, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    Higher vertebrates (mammals and birds) express six different highly conserved actin isoforms that can be classified in three subgroups: 1) sarcomeric actins, α-skeletal (α-SKA) and α-cardiac (α-CAA), 2) smooth muscle actins (SMAs), α-SMA and γ-SMA, and 3) cytoplasmic actins (CYAs), β-CYA and γ-CYA. The variations among isoactins, in each subgroup, are due to 3-4 amino acid differences located in their acetylated N-decapeptide sequence. The first monoclonal antibody (mAb) against an actin isoform (α-SMA) was produced and characterized in our laboratory in 1986 (Skalli  et al., 1986) . We have further obtained mAbs against the 5 other isoforms. In this report, we focus on the mAbs anti-α-SKA and anti-α-CAA obtained after immunization of mice with the respective acetylated N-terminal decapeptides using the Repetitive Immunizations at Multiple Sites Strategy (RIMMS). In addition to the identification of their epitope by immunoblotting, we describe the expression of the 2 sarcomeric actins in mature skeletal muscle and during muscle repair after micro-lesions. In particular, we analyze the expression of α-CAA, α-SKA and α-SMA by co-immunostaining in a time course frame during the muscle repair process. Our results indicate that a restricted myocyte population expresses α-CAA and suggest a high capacity of self-regeneration in muscle cells. These antibodies may represent a helpful tool for the follow-up of muscle regeneration and pathological changes. PMID:27335638

  13. Expression of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Envelope Glycoprotein E2 in Yeast Pichia pastoris and its Application to an ELISA for Detection of BVDV Neutralizing Antibodies in Cattle.

    PubMed

    Behera, Sthita Pragnya; Mishra, Niranjan; Nema, Ram Kumar; Pandey, Pooja Dubey; Kalaiyarasu, Semmannan; Rajukumar, Katherukamem; Prakash, Anil

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to express envelope glycoprotein E2 of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) in yeast Pichia pastoris and its utility as a diagnostic antigen in ELISA. The BVDV E2 gene was cloned into the pPICZαA vector followed by integration into the Pichia pastoris strain X-33 genome for methanol-induced expression. SDS-PAGE and Western blot results showed that the recombinant BVDV E2 protein (72 kDa) was expressed and secreted into the medium at a concentration of 40 mg/L of culture under optimized conditions. An indirect ELISA was then developed by using the yeast-expressed E2 protein. Preliminary testing of 300 field cattle serum samples showed that the E2 ELISA showed a sensitivity of 91.07% and a specificity of 92.02% compared to the reference virus neutralization test. The concordance between the E2 ELISA and VNT was 91.67%. This study demonstrates feasibility of BVDV E2 protein expression in yeast Pichia pastoris for the first time and its efficacy as an antigen in ELISA for detecting BVDV neutralizing antibodies in cattle.

  14. Stimulation of nodulation in field peas (Pisum sativum) by low concentrations of ammonium in hydroponic culture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterer, J. G.; Vessey, J. K.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1992-01-01

    Although the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of mineral N (> 1.0 mM) on nodule development and function have often been studied, the effects of low, static concentrations of NH4+ (< 1.0 mM) on nodulation are unknown. In the present experiments we examine the effects of static concentrations of NH4+ at 0, 0.1 and 0.5 mM in flowing, hydroponic culture on nodule establishment and nitrogenase activity in field peas [Pisum sativum L. cv. Express (Svalof AB)] for the initial 28 days after planting (DAP). Peas grown in the presence of low concentrations of NH4+ had significantly greater nodule numbers (up to 4-fold) than plants grown without NH4+. Nodule dry weight per plant was significantly higher at 14, 21 and 28 DAP in plants grown in the presence of NH4+, but individual nodule mass was lower than in plants grown without NH4+. The nodulation pattern of the plants supplied with NH4+ was similar to that often reported for supernodulating mutants, however the plants did not express other growth habits associated with supernodulation. Estimates of N2 fixation indicate that the plus-NH4+ peas fixed as much or more N2 than the plants supplied with minus-NH4+ nutrient solution. There were no significant differences in nodule numbers, nodule mass or NH4+ uptake between the plants grown at the two concentrations of NH4+. Nodulation appeared to autoregulate by 14 DAP in the minus-NH4+ treatment. Plant growth and N accumulation in the minus-NH4+ plants lagged behind those of the plus-NH4+ treatments prior to N2 fixation becoming well established in the final week of the experiment. The plus-NH4+ treatments appeared not to elicit autoregulation and plants continued to initiate nodules throughout the experiment.

  15. Red light regulation of ethylene biosynthesis and gravitropism in etiolated pea stems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steed, C. L.; Taylor, L. K.; Harrison, M. A.

    2004-01-01

    During gravitropism, the accumulation of auxin in the lower side of the stem causes increased growth and the subsequent curvature, while the gaseous hormone ethylene plays a modulating role in regulating the kinetics of growth asymmetries. Light also contributes to the control of gravitropic curvature, potentially through its interaction with ethylene biosynthesis. In this study, red-light pulse treatment of etiolated pea epicotyls was evaluated for its effect on ethylene biosynthesis during gravitropic curvature. Ethylene biosynthesis analysis included measurements of ethylene; the ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC); malonyl-conjugated ACC (MACC); and expression levels of pea ACC oxidase (Ps-ACO1) and ACC synthase (Ps-ACS1, Ps-ACS2) genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. Red-pulsed seedlings were given a 6 min pulse of 11 micromoles m-2 s-1 red-light 15 h prior to horizontal reorientation for consistency with the timeline of red-light inhibition of ethylene production. Red-pulse treatment significantly reduced ethylene production and MACC levels in epicotyl tissue. However, there was no effect of red-pulse treatment on ACC level, or expression of ACS or ACO genes. During gravitropic curvature, ethylene production increased from 60 to 120 min after horizontal placement in both control and red-pulsed epicotyls. In red-pulsed tissues, ACC levels increased by 120 min after horizontal reorientation, accompanied by decreased MACC levels in the lower portion of the epicotyl. Overall, our results demonstrate that ethylene production in etiolated epicotyls increases after the initiation of curvature. This ethylene increase may inhibit cell growth in the lower portion of the epicotyl and contribute to tip straightening and reduced overall curvature observed after the initial 60 min of curvature in etiolated pea epicotyls.

  16. Olfactory cues from different plant species in host selection by female pea moths.

    PubMed

    Thöming, Gunda; Norli, Hans Ragnar

    2015-03-04

    In herbivorous insects specialized on few plant species, attraction to host odor may be mediated by volatiles common to all host species, by specific compounds, or combinations of both. The pea moth Cydia nigricana is an important pest of the pea. Volatile signatures of four host plant species were studied to identify compounds involved in pea moth host selection and to improve previously reported attractive volatile blends. P. sativum and alternative Fabaceae host species were compared regarding female attraction, oviposition, and larval performance. Pea moth females were strongly attracted to the sweet pea Lathyrus odoratus, but larval performance on that species was moderate. Chemical analyses of sweet pea odor and electrophysiological responses of moth antennae led to identification of seven sweet-pea-specific compounds and ten compounds common to all tested host species. Blends of these specific and common cues were highly attractive to mated pea moth females in wind tunnel and field experiments.

  17. MUC-1 expression in pleomorphic adenomas using two human milk fat globule protein membrane antibodies (HMFG-1 and HMFG-2)

    PubMed Central

    PONCE-BRAVO, Santa; LEDESMA-MONTES, Constantino; GARCÉS-ORTÍZ, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common salivary gland tumor and its microscopic features and histogenesis are a matter of debate. Human milk fat globule protein membrane (HMFG) monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) comprise a set of antibodies against the mucin 1 (MUC-1) protein detected in several salivary gland tumors. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the immunoexpression of the PA neoplastic cells to MUC-1 protein using HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs, contrasting these results with those from normal salivary gland tissue. Material and Methods Immunohistochemical detection of MUC-1 protein using HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs was made in 5 mm thick, paraffin embedded slides, and the avidin-biotin method was used. Results Positivity to HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 MoAbs was found in ductal, squamous metaplastic and neoplastic myoepithelial cells, keratin pearls and intraductal mucous material. Two kinds of myoepithelial cells were identified: classic myoepithelial cells around ducts were negative to both MoAbs, and modified myoepithelial cells were positive to both MoAbs. This last cellular group of the analyzed tumors showed similar MUC-1 immunoexpression to ductal epithelial cells using both HMFG antibodies. Intraductal mucous secretion was also HMFG-1 and HMFG-2 positive. Conclusions Our results showed there are two kinds of myoepithelial cells in PA. The first cellular group is represented by the different kinds of neoplastic myoepithelial cells and is HMFG-positive. The second one is HMFG-negative and represented by the neoplastic myoepithelial cells located around the ducts. PMID:26221920

  18. LGR5 expressing cells of hair follicle as potential targets for antibody mediated anti-cancer laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popov, Boris V.

    2013-02-01

    Near infrared laser immunotherapy becomes now a new promising research field to cure the patients with cancers. One of the critical limitation in medical application of this treatment is availability of the specific markers for delivery of laser-sensitive nanoparticles. When coupled to antibodies to the cancer stem cells markers these nanoparticles may be delivered to the cancer tissue and mediate the laser induced thermolysis of the cancer stem cells that initiate and drive growth of cancer. This paper addresses the Lgr5 cell surface marker mediating the Wnt/β-catenin signal transduction as a potential target for anti-cancer laser immunotherapy of skin cancers.

  19. Evaluation of a novel type of imaging probe based on a recombinant bivalent mini-antibody construct for detection of CD44v6-expressing squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    HAYLOCK, ANNA-KARIN; SPIEGELBERG, DIANA; MORTENSEN, ANJA C.; SELVARAJU, RAM K.; NILVEBRANT, JOHAN; ERIKSSON, OLOF; TOLMACHEV, VLADIMIR; NESTOR, MARIKA V.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed the CD44v6-targeting human bivalent antibody fragment AbD19384, an engineered recombinant human bivalent Fab antibody formed via dimerization of dHLX (synthetic double helix loop helix motif) domains, for potential use in antibody-based molecular imaging of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region. This is a unique construct that has, to the best of our knowledge, never been assessed for molecular imaging in vivo before. The objective of the present study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro and in vivo binding properties of radio-iodinated AbD19384, and to assess its utility as a targeting agent for molecular imaging of CD44v6-expressing tumors. Antigen specificity and binding properties were assessed in vitro. In vivo specificity and biodistribution of 125I-AbD19384 were next evaluated in tumor-bearing mice using a dual-tumor setup. Finally, AbD19384 was labeled with 124I, and its imaging properties were assessed by small animal PET/CT in tumor bearing mice, and compared with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG). In vitro studies demonstrated CD44v6-specific binding with slow off-rate for AbD19384. A favorable biodis-tribution profile was seen in vivo, with tumor-specific uptake. Small animal PET/CT images of 124I-AbD19384 supported the results through clearly visible high CD44v6-expressing tumors and faintly visible low expressing tumors, with superior imaging properties compared to 18F-FDG. Tumor-to-blood ratios increased with time for the conjugate (assessed up to 72 h p.i.), although 48 h p.i. proved best for imaging. Biodistribution and small-animal PET studies demonstrated that the recombinant Fab-dHLX construct AbD19384 is a promising tracer for imaging of CD44v6 antigen expression in vivo, with the future aim to be used for individualized diagnosis and early detection of squamous cell carcinomas in the head and neck region. Furthermore, this proof-of-concept research established the feasibility of using

  20. Evaluation of a novel type of imaging probe based on a recombinant bivalent mini-antibody construct for detection of CD44v6-expressing squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Haylock, Anna-Karin; Spiegelberg, Diana; Mortensen, Anja C; Selvaraju, Ram K; Nilvebrant, Johan; Eriksson, Olof; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Nestor, Marika V

    2016-02-01

    We have developed the CD44v6-targeting human bivalent antibody fragment AbD19384, an engineered recombinant human bivalent Fab antibody formed via dimerization of dHLX (synthetic double helix loop helix motif) domains, for potential use in antibody-based molecular imaging of squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck region. This is a unique construct that has, to the best of our knowledge, never been assessed for molecular imaging in vivo before. The objective of the present study was to evaluate for the first time the in vitro and in vivo binding properties of radio-iodinated AbD19384, and to assess its utility as a targeting agent for molecular imaging of CD44v6-expressing tumors. Antigen specificity and binding properties were assessed in vitro. In vivo specificity and biodistribution of 125I-AbD19384 were next evaluated in tumor-bearing mice using a dual-tumor setup. Finally, AbD19384 was labeled with 124I, and its imaging properties were assessed by small animal PET/CT in tumor bearing mice, and compared with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose (18F-FDG). In vitro studies demonstrated CD44v6-specific binding with slow off-rate for AbD19384. A favorable biodistribution profile was seen in vivo, with tumor-specific uptake. Small animal PET/CT images of 124I-AbD19384 supported the results through clearly visible high CD44v6-expressing tumors and faintly visible low expressing tumors, with superior imaging properties compared to 18F-FDG. Tumor-to-blood ratios increased with time for the conjugate (assessed up to 72 h p.i.), although 48 h p.i. proved best for imaging. Biodistribution and small-animal PET studies demonstrated that the recombinant Fab-dHLX construct AbD19384 is a promising tracer for imaging of CD44v6 antigen expression in vivo, with the future aim to be used for individualized diagnosis and early detection of squamous cell carcinomas in the head and neck region. Furthermore, this proof-of-concept research established the feasibility of using

  1. Fatty acid biosynthesis in pea root plastids

    SciTech Connect

    Stahl, R.J.; Sparace, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    Fatty acid biosynthesis from (1-{sup 14}C)acetate was optimized in plastids isolated from primary root tips of 7-day-old germinating pea seeds. Fatty acid synthesis was maximum at approximately 80 nmoles/hr/mg protein in the presence of 200 {mu}M acetate, 0.5 mM each of NADH, NADPH and CoA, 6 mM each of ATP and MgCl{sub 2}, 1 mM each of the MnCl{sub 2} and glycerol-3-phosphate, 15 mM KHCO{sub 3}, and 0.1M Bis-tris-propane, pH 8.0 incubated at 35C. At the standard incubation temperature of 25C, fatty acid synthesis was linear from up to 6 hours with 80 to 100 {mu}g/mL plastid protein. ATP and CoA were absolute requirements, whereas KHCO{sub 3}, divalent cations and reduced nucleotides all improved activity by 80 to 85%. Mg{sup 2+} and NADH were the preferred cation and nucleotide, respectively. Dithiothreitol and detergents were generally inhibitory. The radioactive products of fatty acid biosynthesis were approximately 33% 16:0, 10% 18:0 and 56% 18:1 and generally did not vary with increasing concentrations of each cofactor.

  2. Protein import into isolated pea root leucoplasts

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Chiung-Chih; Li, Hsou-min

    2015-01-01

    Leucoplasts are important organelles for the synthesis and storage of starch, lipids and proteins. However, molecular mechanism of protein import into leucoplasts and how it differs from that of import into chloroplasts remain unknown. We used pea seedlings for both chloroplast and leucoplast isolations to compare within the same species. We further optimized the isolation and import conditions to improve import efficiency and to permit a quantitative comparison between the two plastid types. The authenticity of the import was verified using a mitochondrial precursor protein. Our results show that, when normalized to Toc75, most translocon proteins are less abundant in leucoplasts than in chloroplasts. A precursor shown to prefer the receptor Toc132 indeed had relatively more similar import efficiencies between chloroplasts and leucoplasts compared to precursors that prefer Toc159. Furthermore we found two precursors that exhibited very high import efficiency into leucoplasts. Their transit peptides may be candidates for delivering transgenic proteins into leucoplasts and for analyzing motifs important for leucoplast import. PMID:26388889

  3. CD1d Expression in Paneth Cells and Rat Exocrine Pancreas Revealed by Novel Monoclonal Antibodies Which Differentially Affect NKT Cell Activation

    PubMed Central

    Monzon-Casanova, Elisa; Steiniger, Birte; Schweigle, Stefanie; Clemen, Holger; Zdzieblo, Daniela; Starick, Lisa; Müller, Ingrid; Wang, Chyung-Ru; Rhost, Sara; Cardell, Susanna; Pyz, Elwira; Herrmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Background CD1d is a nonpolymorphic MHC class I-like molecule which presents nonpeptide ligands, e.g. glycolipids, to NKT cells. These cells are known to have multiple effects on innate and adaptive immune responses and on the development of pathological conditions. In order to analyze CD1d expression and function in the rat, the first rat CD1d-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated. Methodology/Principal Findings Two mAbs, WTH-1 and WTH-2, were generated which bound equally well to cell surface-expressed rat and mouse CD1d. Their non-overlapping epitopes were mapped to the CD1d heavy chain. Flow cytometry and immunohistological analyses revealed a nearly identical degree and pattern of CD1d expression for hematopoieitic cells of both species. Notable is also the detection of CD1d protein in mouse and rat Paneth cells as well as the extremely high CD1d expression in acinar exocrine cells of the rat pancreas and the expression of CD4 on rat marginal zone B cells. Both mAbs blocked α-galactosylceramide recognition by primary rat and mouse NKT cells. Interestingly, the two mAbs differed in their impact on the activation of various autoreactive T cell hybridomas, including the XV19.2 hybridoma whose activation was enhanced by the WTH-1 mAb. Conclusions/Significance The two novel monoclonal antibodies described in this study, allowed the analysis of CD1d expression and CD1d-restricted T cell responses in the rat for the first time. Moreover, they provided new insights into mechanisms of CD1d-restricted antigen recognition. While CD1d expression by hematopoietic cells of mice and rats was extremely similar, CD1d protein was detected at not yet described sites of non-lymphatic tissues such as the rat exocrine pancreas and Paneth cells. The latter is of special relevance given the recently reported defects of Paneth cells in CD1d−/− mice, which resulted in an altered composition of the gut flora. PMID:20927351

  4. Role of cytochrome P450 IA2 in acetanilide 4-hydroxylation as determined with cDNA expression and monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Gelboin, H V; Myers, M J

    1991-02-01

    The role of P450 IA2 in the hydroxylation of acetanilide was examined using an inhibitory monoclonal antibody (MAb) 1-7-1 and vaccinia cDNA expression producing murine P450 IA1 (mIA1), murine P450 IA2 (mIA2), or human P450 IA2 (hIA2). Acetanilide hydroxylase (AcOH) activity was measured using an HPLC method with more than 500-fold greater sensitivity than previously described procedures. This method, which does not require the use of radioactive acetanilide, was achieved by optimizing both the gradient system and the amount of enzyme needed to achieve detection by uv light. MAb 1-7-1 inhibits up to 80% of the AcOH activity in both rat liver microsomes and cDNA expressed mouse and human P450 IA2. MAb 1-7-1, which recognizes both P450 IA1 and P450 IA2, completely inhibits the aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity of cDNA expressed in IA1. The inhibition of only 80% of the AHH activity present in MC liver microsomes by MAb 1-7-1 suggests that additional P450 forms are contributing to the overall AHH activity present in methylcholanthrene (MC)-liver microsomes as MAb 1-7-1 almost completely inhibits the AHH activity of expressed mIA1. Maximal inhibition of IA2 by 1-7-1 results in an 80% decrease in acetanilide hydroxylase activity in both liver microsomes and expressed mouse and human IA2. The capacity of MAb 1-7-1 to produce identical levels of inhibition of acetanilide hydroxylase activity in rat MC microsomes (80%) and in expressed mouse (81%) and human P450 IA2 (80%) strongly suggests that P450 IA2 is the major and perhaps the only enzyme responsible for the metabolism of acetanilide. These results demonstrate the complementary utility of monoclonal antibodies and cDNA expression for defining the contribution of specific P450 enzymes to the metabolism of a given substrate. This complementary approach allows for a more precise determination of the inhibitory capacity of MAb with respect to the metabolic capacity of the target P450.

  5. A phase I toxicity, pharmacology, and dosimetry trial of monoclonal antibody OKB7 in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: Effects of tumor burden and antigen expression

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinberg, D.A.; Straus, D.J.; Yeh, S.D.; Divgi, C.; Garin-Chesa, P.; Graham, M.; Pentlow, K.; Coit, D.; Oettgen, H.F.; Old, L.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Eighteen patients with relapsed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) were infused with escalating doses of monoclonal antibody (mAb) OKB7, trace-labeled with iodine-131 (131I), in order to study toxicity, pharmacology, antibody localization, and dosimetry of radioiodine. OKB7 is a noncytotoxic mouse immunoglobulin G2b (IgG2b) mAb reactive with B cells and most B-cell NHL. Three patients each were treated at six dose levels ranging from 0.1 mg to 40 mg. All patients had radionuclide imaging and counting daily, had serial blood sampling to study pharmacokinetics, human antimouse antibody (HAMA), and circulating antigen, and had a biopsy of accessible lymphoma to determine delivery of isotope to tumors and assess the effect of tumor antigen expression on mAb delivery. Bone marrow biopsies were also done in the majority of patients. There was no toxicity. Serum clearance showed a median early phase half-life of 1.9 hours and a later phase half-life of 21.7 hours. Median total body clearance half-life was 22 hours. Pharmacokinetics were not dose-related. Circulating blocking antigen was detected in the serum of four patients, but at levels that were of pharmacologic consequence only in one. Biopsied tumor tissue from five patients did not express OKB7 antigen. No significant uptake of antibody was seen in these tumor sites. Mean total uptake of isotope into lymphoma measured in biopsies correlated linearly over the 400-fold increase in injected mAb dose. However, the percent of injected dose found per gram of tumor was unrelated to dose, but correlated inversely with tumor burden. In two patients with minimal tumor burden, 1.0 mg and 5.0 mg doses of OKB7 resulted in tumor to body radioisotope dose ratios of 22 and 7, which would theoretically permit tolerable delivery of 4,400 and 1,400 rads to these tumors, respectively, if OKB7 were conjugated with higher doses of 131I.

  6. Monoclonal Antibodies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killington, R. A.; Powell, K. L.

    1984-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies have provided an exciting addition to the "armory" of the molecular biologist and immunologist. This article discusses briefly the concept of, techniques available for, production of, and possible uses of monoclonal antibodies. (Author)

  7. Genome sequence of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum.

    PubMed

    2010-02-23

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems.

  8. Genome Sequence of the Pea Aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and sugar transport. Gene losses include genes central to the IMD immune pathway, selenoprotein utilization, purine salvage, and the entire urea cycle. The pea aphid genome reveals that only a limited number of genes have been acquired from bacteria; thus the reduced gene count of Buchnera does not reflect gene transfer to the host genome. The inventory of metabolic genes in the pea aphid genome suggests that there is extensive metabolite exchange between the aphid and Buchnera, including sharing of amino acid biosynthesis between the aphid and Buchnera. The pea aphid genome provides a foundation for post-genomic studies of fundamental biological questions and applied agricultural problems. PMID:20186266

  9. Expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 in Renal Tissue of Patients with Chronic Active Antibody-mediated Renal Graft Rejection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and tissue inhibitor of metallopropteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in the renal allografts of patients with chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (AMR), and to explore their role in the pathogenesis of AMR. Methods Immunohistochemistry assay and computer-assisted image analysis were used to detect the expression of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 in the renal allografts with interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy (IF/TA) in 46 transplant recipients and 15 normal renal tissue specimens as the controls. The association of the expression level of either MMP-2 or TIMP-1 with the pathological grade of IF/TA in AMR was analyzed. Results The expression of either MMP-2 or TIMP-1 was significantly increased in the renal allografts of the recipients as compared with the normal renal tissue (P < 0.05). MMP-2 expression tended to decrease, while TIMP-1 and serum creatinine increased along with the increase of pathological grade of IF/TA (P < 0.05). In IF/TA groups, the expression of TIMP-1 was positively correlated to serum creatinine level (r = 0.718, P < 0.05). Conclusions It is suggested by the results that abnormal expressions of MMP-2 and TIMP-1 might play roles in the development of renal fibrosis in chronic AMR. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1128474926172838 PMID:23057632

  10. Antithyroid microsomal antibody

    MedlinePlus

    Thyroid antimicrosomal antibody; Antimicrosomal antibody; Microsomal antibody; Thyroid peroxidase antibody; TPOAb ... Granulomatous thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis High levels of these antibodies have also been linked with an increased risk ...

  11. MetQ of Neisseria gonorrhoeae Is a Surface-Expressed Antigen That Elicits Bactericidal and Functional Blocking Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Semchenko, Evgeny A.; Day, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI) gonorrhea, is a growing public health threat for which a vaccine is urgently needed. We characterized the functional role of the gonococcal MetQ protein, which is the methionine binding component of an ABC transporter system, and assessed its potential as a candidate antigen for inclusion in a gonococcal vaccine. MetQ has been found to be highly conserved in all strains investigated to date, it is localized on the bacterial surface, and it binds l-methionine with a high affinity. MetQ is also involved in gonococcal adherence to cervical epithelial cells. Mutants lacking MetQ have impaired survival in human monocytes, macrophages, and serum. Furthermore, antibodies raised against MetQ are bactericidal and are able to block gonococcal adherence to epithelial cells. These data suggest that MetQ elicits both bactericidal and functional blocking antibodies and is a valid candidate antigen for additional investigation and possible inclusion in a vaccine for prevention of gonorrhea. PMID:27895130

  12. Brain delivery of AAV9 expressing an anti-PrP monovalent antibody delays prion disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Moda, Fabio; Vimercati, Chiara; Campagnani, Ilaria; Ruggerone, Margherita; Giaccone, Giorgio; Morbin, Michela; Zentilin, Lorena; Giacca, Mauro; Zucca, Ileana; Legname, Giuseppe; Tagliavini, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are caused by a conformational modification of the cellular prion protein (PrP (C)) into disease-specific forms, termed PrP (Sc), that have the ability to interact with PrP (C) promoting its conversion to PrP (Sc). In vitro studies demonstrated that anti-PrP antibodies inhibit this process. In particular, the single chain variable fragment D18 antibody (scFvD18) showed high efficiency in curing chronically prion-infected cells. This molecule binds the PrP (C) region involved in the interaction with PrP (Sc) thus halting further prion formation. These findings prompted us to test the efficiency of scFvD18 in vivo. A recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral vector serotype 9 was used to deliver scFvD18 to the brain of mice that were subsequently infected by intraperitoneal route with the mouse-adapted scrapie strain RML. We found that the treatment was safe, prolonged the incubation time of scrapie-infected animals and decreased the burden of total proteinase-resistant PrP (Sc) in the brain, suggesting that scFvD18 interferes with prion replication in vivo. This approach is relevant for designing new therapeutic strategies for prion diseases and other disorders characterized by protein misfolding.

  13. The expression of acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins on the surface membrane of different tissues in autoimmune and normal mice which are the target molecules for anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, K H; Liu, W T; Tang, S J; Tsai, C Y; Hsieh, S C; Wu, T H; Han, S H; Yu, C L

    1996-01-01

    Affinity-purified polyclonal anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) antibodies from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) exert a cytostatic effect on cultured rat glomerular mesangial cells (MC). The cognate antigens expressed on the surface of MC have been proved to be acidic ribosomal phosphoproteins (P proteins) in our previous study. The mesangial cytostatic effect of anti-dsDNA antibodies is attributed to the cross-reactivity of the antibodies with membrane-expressed P proteins, but not to the effect of minute amounts of anti-ribosomal P proteins antibodies contained in the anti-dsDNA preparations. Immunofluorescence staining of the native cells demonstrated that anti-dsDNA antibodies bound to the surface of rat mesangial cells, rat brain astrocytes (RBA-1) and mouse fibroblasts (3T3). Anti-dsDNA antibodies also exert potent cytostatic effects on these cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the plasma membranes of different cell lines and tissues from normal and autoimmune mice were isolated and probed by anti-dsDNA antibodies in Western blot analysis. We found the actively proliferating cells such as MC, RBA-1 and 3T3 may express both P0 (38,000 MW) and P1 (19,000 MW) on the surface membrane. In addition, the kidney, liver and spleen from either autoimmune MRL-lpr/lpr or BALB/c mice may constantly express P0 protein, but the expression of P1 is inconsistent. In contrast, brain and muscle from either mice failed to express P proteins on their surface. Unexpectedly, a high molecular weight substance (larger than 205,000 MW) with unknown nature appears in the membrane of brain and muscle tissues in both mice. Immunoprecipitation of the surface-biotinylated MC-lysate by anti-dsDNA antibodies further confirmed that P1 (19,000 MW) and P2 (17,000 MW) are really expressed on the cell surface. These results suggest that P proteins expressed on the surface of different tissues become the targets for anti-dsDNA antibodies mediating pleomorphic tissue

  14. Purification and refolding of anti-T-antigen single chain antibodies (scFvs) expressed in Escherichia coli as inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Noriyuki; Koyama, Tsubasa; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko

    2014-02-01

    T-antigen (Galβ1-3GalNAcα-1-Ser/Thr) is an oncofetal antigen that is commonly expressed as a carbohydrate determinant in many adenocarcinomas. Since it is associated with tumor progression and metastasis, production of recombinant antibodies specific for T-antigen could lead to the development of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. Previously, we isolated and characterized 11 anti-T-antigen phage clones from a phage library displaying human single-chain antibodies (scFvs) and purified one scFv protein, 1G11. More recently, we purified and characterized 1E8 scFv protein using a Drosophila S2 expression system. In the current study, four anti-T-antigen scFv genes belonging to Groups 1-4 were purified from inclusion bodies expressed in Escherichia coli cells. Inclusion bodies isolated from E. coli cells were denatured in 3.5 M Gdn-HCl. Solubilized His-tagged scFv proteins were purified using Ni(2+)-Sepharose column chromatography in the presence of 3.5 M Gdn-HCl. Purified scFv proteins were refolded according to a previously published method of step-wise dialysis. Two anti-T-antigen scFv proteins, 1E6 and 1E8 that belong to Groups 1 and 2, respectively, were produced in sufficient amounts, thus allowing further characterization of their binding activity with T-antigen. Specificity and affinity constants determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR), respectively, provided evidence that both 1E8 and 1E6 scFv proteins are T-antigen specific and suggested that 1E8 scFv protein has a higher affinity for T-antigen than 1E6 scFv protein.

  15. Impact of Cell-surface Antigen Expression on Target Engagement and Function of an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor × c-MET Bispecific Antibody*

    PubMed Central

    Jarantow, Stephen W.; Bushey, Barbara S.; Pardinas, Jose R.; Boakye, Ken; Lacy, Eilyn R.; Sanders, Renouard; Sepulveda, Manuel A.; Moores, Sheri L.; Chiu, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of engaging multiple drug targets using bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) is affected by the relative cell-surface protein levels of the respective targets. In this work, the receptor density values were correlated to the in vitro activity of a BsAb (JNJ-61186372) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET). Simultaneous binding of the BsAb to both receptors was confirmed in vitro. By using controlled Fab-arm exchange, a set of BsAbs targeting EGFR and c-MET was generated to establish an accurate receptor quantitation of a panel of lung and gastric cancer cell lines expressing heterogeneous levels of EGFR and c-MET. EGFR and c-MET receptor density levels were correlated to the respective gene expression levels as well as to the respective receptor phosphorylation inhibition values. We observed a bias in BsAb binding toward the more highly expressed of the two receptors, EGFR or c-MET, which resulted in the enhanced in vitro potency of JNJ-61186372 against the less highly expressed target. On the basis of these observations, we propose an avidity model of how JNJ-61186372 engages EGFR and c-MET with potentially broad implications for bispecific drug efficacy and design. PMID:26260789

  16. Impact of Cell-surface Antigen Expression on Target Engagement and Function of an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor × c-MET Bispecific Antibody.

    PubMed

    Jarantow, Stephen W; Bushey, Barbara S; Pardinas, Jose R; Boakye, Ken; Lacy, Eilyn R; Sanders, Renouard; Sepulveda, Manuel A; Moores, Sheri L; Chiu, Mark L

    2015-10-09

    The efficacy of engaging multiple drug targets using bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) is affected by the relative cell-surface protein levels of the respective targets. In this work, the receptor density values were correlated to the in vitro activity of a BsAb (JNJ-61186372) targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and hepatocyte growth factor receptor (c-MET). Simultaneous binding of the BsAb to both receptors was confirmed in vitro. By using controlled Fab-arm exchange, a set of BsAbs targeting EGFR and c-MET was generated to establish an accurate receptor quantitation of a panel of lung and gastric cancer cell lines expressing heterogeneous levels of EGFR and c-MET. EGFR and c-MET receptor density levels were correlated to the respective gene expression levels as well as to the respective receptor phosphorylation inhibition values. We observed a bias in BsAb binding toward the more highly expressed of the two receptors, EGFR or c-MET, which resulted in the enhanced in vitro potency of JNJ-61186372 against the less highly expressed target. On the basis of these observations, we propose an avidity model of how JNJ-61186372 engages EGFR and c-MET with potentially broad implications for bispecific drug efficacy and design.

  17. Hybrid metabolic flux analysis and recombinant protein prediction in Pichia pastoris X-33 cultures expressing a single-chain antibody fragment.

    PubMed

    Isidro, Inês A; Portela, Rui M; Clemente, João J; Cunha, António E; Oliveira, Rui

    2016-09-01

    Despite the growing importance of the Pichia pastoris expression system as industrial workhorse, the literature is almost absent in systematic studies on how culture medium composition affects central carbon fluxes and heterologous protein expression. In this study we investigate how 26 variations of the BSM+PTM1 medium impact central carbon fluxes and protein expression in a P. pastoris X-33 strain expressing a single-chain antibody fragment. To achieve this goal, we adopted a hybrid metabolic flux analysis (MFA) methodology, which is a modification of standard MFA to predict the rate of synthesis of recombinant proteins. Hybrid MFA combines the traditional parametric estimation of central carbon fluxes with non-parametric statistical modeling of product-related quantitative or qualitative measurements as a function of central carbon fluxes. It was observed that protein yield variability was 53.6 % (relative standard deviation) among the different experiments. Protein yield is much more sensitive to medium composition than biomass growth, which is mainly determined by the carbon source availability and main salts. Hybrid MFA was able to describe accurately the protein yield with normalized RMSE of 6.3 % over 5 independent experiments. The metabolic state that promotes high protein yields is characterized by high overall metabolic rates through main central carbon pathways concomitantly with a relative shift of carbon flux from biosynthetic towards energy generating pathways.

  18. 76 FR 21712 - Notice of Availability for Final PEA and Draft FONSI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Availability for Final PEA and Draft FONSI AGENCY: Department of the Navy... of the Navy announces the availability of, the Final Programmatic Environmental Assessment (PEA) and... appropriate. Dates and Addresses: The waiting period for the Final PEA and FONSI will end 30 days...

  19. 76 FR 37136 - Post-Entry Amendment (PEA) Processing Test: Modification, Clarification, and Extension

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Post-Entry Amendment (PEA) Processing Test: Modification... (CBP's) Post-Entry Amendment (PEA) Processing test, which allows the amendment of entry summaries prior to liquidation. The test is being modified to reflect that PEA procedures will no longer be...

  20. The International Pea Genome Sequencing Project: Sequencing and Assembly Progresses Updates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Consortium for the Pea Genome Sequencing (ICPG) includes scientists from six countries around the world. Its aim is to provide a high quality reference of the pea genome to the scientific community as well as to the pea breeder community. The consortium proposed a strategy that int...

  1. Differences in weed seedling emergence is not involved in pea synergism to corn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have observed the dry pea is synergistic to corn and improves its tolerance to weeds. We are examining various aspects of this interaction between dry pea and corn to understand this natural benefit. This study compared the impact of soybean and dry pea on corn growth and tolerance to foxtail m...

  2. Potential alternative hosts for the pea powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe trifolii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of pea (Pisum sativum) is an important disease in the field and in the greenhouse. The most widely documented powdery mildew pathogen on pea is Erysiphe pisi, but E. baeumleri and E. trifolii have also been reported. We recently showed that E. trifolii is frequently found on pea in th...

  3. The LS locus of pea encodes the gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme ent-kaurene synthase A.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ali, T; Swain, S M; Reid, J B; Sun, T; Kamiya, Y

    1997-03-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are hormones required for several aspects of plant development, including internode elongation and seed development in pea (Pisum sativum L.). The first committed step in the GA biosynthesis pathway is the conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to ent-kaurene via copalyl diphosphate (CDP). These two reactions are catalyzed by the cyclases ent-kaurene synthase A (KSA) and ent-kaurene synthase B (KSB), respectively. Previous genetic and biochemical analysis of the GA-responsive ls-1 mutant of pea suggested that GA levels are reduced in a developmental- and organ-specific manner due to reduced GA biosynthesis. Analysis of cellfree enzyme preparations from WT and ls-1 embryos at contact point reveals that ls-1 reduces the activity of KSA but not KSB. To characterize the ls-1 mutation in more detail, a cDNA coding for a pea KSA was cloned and shown to be encoded by the LS locus. The ls-1 mutation results from an intronic G to A substitution that causes impaired RNA splicing. To determine the activity of the KSAs encoded by the LS and ls-1 alleles, a new in vitro assay for combined KSA and KSB activity has been developed using the KSB gene of pumpkin. Using recombinant WT KSA and KSB fusion proteins, GGDP is converted to ent-kaurene in vitro. Based on the sequence of RT-PCR products, three different truncated KSA proteins are predicted to exist in ls-1 plants. The most abundant mutant KSA protein does not possess detectable activity in vitro. Nevertheless, the ls-1 allele is not null and is able to encode at least a partially functional KSA since a more severe is allele has been identified. The ls-1 mutation has played a key role in identifying a role for GAs in pea seed development in the first few days after fertilization, but not in older seeds. KSA expression in seeds is developmentally regulated and parallels overall GA biosynthesis, suggesting that KSA expression may play an important role in the regulation of GA biosynthesis and seed

  4. Protein design of IgG/TCR chimeras for the co-expression of Fab-like moieties within bispecific antibodies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiufeng; Sereno, Arlene J; Huang, Flora; Zhang, Kai; Batt, Micheal; Fitchett, Jonathan R; He, Dongmei; Rick, Heather L; Conner, Elaine M; Demarest, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulins and T cell receptors (TCRs) share common sequences and structures. With the goal of creating novel bispecific antibodies (BsAbs), we generated chimeric molecules, denoted IgG_TCRs, where the Fv regions of several antibodies were fused to the constant domains of the α/β TCR. Replacing CH1 with Cα and CL with Cβ, respectively, was essential for achieving at least partial heavy chain/light chain assembly. Further optimization of the linker regions between the variable and constant domains, as well as replacement of the large FG loop of Cβ with a canonical β-turn, was necessary to consistently obtain full heavy chain/light chain assembly. The optimized IgG_TCR molecules were evaluated biophysically and shown to maintain the binding properties of their parental antibodies. A few BsAbs were generated by co-expressing native Fabs and IgG_TCR Fabs within the same molecular construct. We demonstrate that the IgG_TCR designs steered each of the light chains within the constructs to specifically pair with their cognate heavy chain counterparts. We did find that even with complete constant domain specificity between the CH1/CL and Cα/Cβ domains of the Fabs, strong variable domain interactions can dominate the pairing specificity and induce some mispairing. Overall, the IgG_TCR designs described here are a first step toward the generation of novel BsAbs that may be directed toward the treatment of multi-faceted and complex diseases.

  5. Expressed antibody repertoires in human cord blood cells: 454 sequencing and IMGT/HighV-QUEST analysis of germline gene usage, junctional diversity, and somatic mutations.

    PubMed

    Prabakaran, Ponraj; Chen, Weizao; Singarayan, Maria G; Stewart, Claudia C; Streaker, Emily; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S

    2012-05-01

    Human cord blood cell-derived IgM antibodies are important for the neonate immune responses and construction of germline-based immunoglobulin libraries. Several previous studies of a relatively small number of sequences found that they exhibit restrictions in the usage of germline genes and in the diversity of the variable heavy chain complementarity determining region 3 compared to adults. To further characterize such restrictions on a larger scale and to compare the early B-cell diversity to adult IgM repertoires, we performed 454 sequencing and IMGT/HighV-QUEST analysis of cord blood IG libraries from two babies and determined germline gene usage, V-D-J rearrangement, VHCDR3 diversity, and somatic mutations to characterize human neonate repertoire. Most of the germline subgroups were identified with frequencies comparable to those present in the adult IgM repertoire except for the IGHV1-2 gene that was preferentially expressed in the cord blood cells. The gene usage diversity contributed to 1,430 unique IGH V-D-J rearrangement patterns while the exonuclease trimming and N region addition at the V-D-J junctions along with gene diversity created a wide range of VHCDR3 with different lengths and sequence variability. We observed a lower degree of somatic mutations in the CDR and framework regions of antibodies from cord blood cells compared to adults. These results provide insights into the characteristics of human cord blood antibody repertoires, which have gene usage diversity and VHCDR3 lengths similar to that of the adult IgM repertoire but differ significantly in some of the gene usages, V-D-J rearrangements, junctional diversity, and somatic mutations.

  6. The branching gene RAMOSUS1 mediates interactions among two novel signals and auxin in pea.

    PubMed

    Foo, Eloise; Bullier, Erika; Goussot, Magali; Foucher, Fabrice; Rameau, Catherine; Beveridge, Christine Anne

    2005-02-01

    In Pisum sativum, the RAMOSUS genes RMS1, RMS2, and RMS5 regulate shoot branching via physiologically defined mobile signals. RMS1 is most likely a carotenoid cleavage enzyme and acts with RMS5 to control levels of an as yet unidentified mobile branching inhibitor required for auxin inhibition of branching. Our work provides molecular, genetic, and physiological evidence that RMS1 plays a central role in a shoot-to-root-to-shoot feedback system that regulates shoot branching in pea. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) positively regulates RMS1 transcript level, a potentially important mechanism for regulation of shoot branching by IAA. In addition, RMS1 transcript levels are dramatically elevated in rms3, rms4, and rms5 plants, which do not contain elevated IAA levels. This degree of upregulation of RMS1 expression cannot be achieved in wild-type plants by exogenous IAA application. Grafting studies indicate that an IAA-independent mobile feedback signal contributes to the elevated RMS1 transcript levels in rms4 plants. Therefore, the long-distance signaling network controlling branching in pea involves IAA, the RMS1 inhibitor, and an IAA-independent feedback signal. Consistent with physiological studies that predict an interaction between RMS2 and RMS1, rms2 mutations appear to disrupt this IAA-independent regulation of RMS1 expression.

  7. Changes in Olfactory Receptor Expression Are Correlated With Odor Exposure During Early Development in the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Calfún, Cristian; Domínguez, Calixto; Pérez-Acle, Tomás; Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2016-05-01

    We have previously shown that exposure to phenyl ethyl alcohol (PEA) causes an increase in the expression of the transcription factor otx2 in the olfactory epithelium (OE) of juvenile zebrafish, and this change is correlated with the formation of an odor memory of PEA. Here, we show that the changes in otx2 expression are specific to βPEA: exposure to αPEA did not affect otx2 expression. We identified 34 olfactory receptors (ORs) representing 16 families on 4 different chromosomes as candidates for direct regulation of OR expression via Otx2. Subsequent in silico analysis uncovered Hnf3b binding sites closely associated with Otx2 binding sites in the regions flanking the ORs. Analysis by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and RNA-seq of OR expression in developing zebrafish exposed to different isoforms of PEA showed that a subset of ORs containing both Otx2/Hnf3b binding sites were downregulated only in βPEA-exposed juveniles and this change persisted through adult life. Localization of OR expression by in situ hybridization indicates the downregulation occurs at the level of RNA and not the number of cells expressing a given receptor. Finally, analysis of immediate early gene expression in the OE did not reveal changes in c-fos expression in response to either αPEA or βPEA.

  8. [Graviresponse in higher plants and its regulation in molecular bases: relevance to growth and development, and auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Junichi; Miyamoto, Kensuke

    2003-08-01

    We review the graviresponse under true and simulated microgravity conditions on a clinostat in higher plants, and its regulation in molecular bases, especially on the aspect of auxin polar transport in etiolated pea (Pisum sativum L. cv. Alaska) seedlings which were the plant materials subjected to STS-95 space experiments. True and simulated microgravity conditions substantially affected growth and development in etiolated pea seedlings, especially the direction of growth of stems and roots, resulting in automorphosis. In etiolated pea seedlings grown in space, epicotyls were the most oriented toward the direction far from the cotyledons, and roots grew toward the aerial space of Plant Growth Chamber. Automorphosis observed in space were well simulated by a clinorotation on a 3-dimensional clinostat and also phenocopied by the application of auxin polar transport inhibitors of 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid, N-(1-naphtyl)phthalamic acid and 9-hydroxyfluorene-9-carboxylic acid. Judging from the results described above together with the fact that activities of auxin polar transport in epicotyls of etiolated pea seedlings grown in space substantially were reduced, auxin polar transport seems to be closely related to automorphosis. Strenuous efforts to learn in molecular levels how gravity contributes to the auxin polar transport in etiolated pea epicotyls resulted in successful identification of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 genes located in plasma membrane which products are considered to be putative efflux and influx carriers of auxin, respectively. Based on the results of expression of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 genes under various gravistimulations, a possible role of PsPIN2 and PsAUX1 genes for auxin polar transport in etiolated pea seedlings will be discussed.

  9. Directed Evolution of a Yeast-Displayed HIV-1 SOSIP gp140 Spike Protein toward Improved Expression and Affinity for Conformational Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Grimm, Sebastian K.; Battles, Michael B.; Ackerman, Margaret E.

    2015-01-01

    Design of an envelope-based immunogen capable of inducing a broadly neutralizing antibody response is thought to be key to the development of a protective HIV-1 vaccine. However, the broad diversity of viral variants and a limited ability to produce native envelope have hampered such design efforts. Here we describe adaptation of the yeast display system and use of a combinatorial protein engineering approach to permit directed evolution of HIV envelope variants. Because the intrinsic instability and complexity of this trimeric glycoprotein has greatly impeded the development of immunogens that properly represent the structure of native envelope, this platform addresses an essential need for methodologies with the capacity to rapidly engineer HIV spike proteins towards improved homogeneity, stability, and presentation of neutralizing epitopes. We report for the first time the display of a designed SOSIP gp140 on yeast, and the in vitro evolution of derivatives with greatly improved expression and binding to conformation-dependent antibodies. These efforts represent an initial and critical step toward the ability to rapidly engineer HIV-1 envelope immunogens via directed evolution. PMID:25688555

  10. Study of idiotypes expressed by monoclonal antibodies to the 35 kD and 12 kD antigens of Mycobacterium leprae.

    PubMed Central

    Praputpittaya, K; Ivanyi, J

    1987-01-01

    Rabbit antisera were raised against four monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) binding with the 35 kD protein and four MoAb binding with the 12 kD protein antigen of Mycobacterium leprae. Antisera showed idiotype (Id) specificity following cross-absorption with normal mouse globulin. One Id on a single MoAb and another Id shared between three MoAb were identified for each group. Functional studies were carried out with the Rb04 anti [anti-35 kD] specificity. The expression of this Id and paratope in antigen immunized mice was associated with Igh alleles. Inoculation of mice with anti-Id Rb04 induced an 'Ab3' serum response of corresponding Id specificity only when the anti-Id was given in emulsion with incomplete Freund's adjuvant (IFA). Conversely, prior injection of soluble anti-Id inhibited the subsequent Ab3 response to Rb04/IFA. Moreover, the suppressive effect of soluble anti-Id was abrogated by prior injection of 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. These results indicate that regulatory mechanisms similar to those involved in antigenic stimulation may explain the stimulatory or suppressive potency of anti-Id antibodies. Finally, the Ab3 responses to the two tested anti-Ids did not contain any antigen binding activity. PMID:3322615

  11. Characterization by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of monoclonal antibodies to Pisum and Avena phytochrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cordonnier, M.M.; Greppin, H.; Pratt, L.H.

    1984-01-01

    Nine monoclonal antibodies to pea (Pisum sativum L.) and 16 to oat (Avena sativa L.) phytochrome are characterized by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against phytochrome from six different sources: pea, zucchini (Cucurbita pepo L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), oat, rye (Secale cereale L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). All antibodies were raised against phytochrome with a monomer size near 120,000 daltons. Nevertheless, none of them discriminated qualitatively between 118/114-kilodalton oat phytochrome and a photoreversible, 60-kilodalton proteolytic degradation product derived from it. In addition, none of the 23 antibodies tested discriminated substantially between phytochrome - red-absorbing form and phytochrome - far red-absorbing form. Two antibodies to pea and six to oat phytochrome also bound strongly to phytochrome from the other species, even though these two plants are evolutionarily widely divergent. Of these eight antibodies, two bound significantly to all of the six phytochrome preparations tested, indicating that these two may recognize highly conserved regions of the chromoprotein. Since the molecular function of phytochrome is unknown, these two antibodies may serve as unique probes for regions of this pigment that are important to its mode of action. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  12. CD79a is heterogeneously expressed in neoplastic and normal myeloid precursors and megakaryocytes in an antibody clone-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Parul; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Ross, Jeffrey S; Azumi, Norio; Bagg, Adam

    2007-08-01

    CD79a, a component of the B-cell antigen receptor complex, can also be expressed in certain non-B-cell malignancies. The reported frequency of CD79a expression in acute myeloid leukemias (AML) ranges from 0% to 90%. We evaluated 39 bone marrow biopsy specimens (29 AML and 10 normal cases) using 5 different commercially available anti-CD79a monoclonal antibody (MoAb) clones. Of 7 acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases, 6 (86%) stained for CD79a with clones HM47/A9 (Novocastra, Newcastle Upon Tyne, England) and HM57 (DAKO, Carpinteria, CA) but were negative with clones 11E3 (Novocastra), and JCB117 (DAKO). Half of 6 acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) cases and normal megakaryocytes in 14 (67%) of 21 cases were immunoreactive using clone 11D10 (Novocastra). Approximately one third of non-APL/non-AMKL AML and myeloid precursors in normal marrow specimens stained with clones HM57 and 11D10. This heterogeneity of CD79a expression in AML, megakaryocytes, and myeloid precursors is MoAb clone-dependent, likely owing to different epitope detection, and may be of diagnostic usefulness.

  13. Mucosal immunization with attenuated Salmonella Typhi expressing anthrax PA83 primes monkeys for accelerated serum antibody responses to parenteral PA83 vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Galen, James E.; Chinchilla, Magaly; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Wang, Jin Yuan; Zhao, Licheng; Arciniega-Martinez, Ivonne; Silverman, David J.; Levine, Myron M.

    2008-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi vaccine strain CVD 908-htrA was genetically engineered for stable plasmid-based expression of protective antigen of anthrax toxin (PA83) fused with the export protein ClyA (ClyA-PA83). The priming potential of CVD 908-htrA expressing ClyA-PA83 was assessed in 12 rhesus and 20 cynomolgus macaques immunized mucosally (intranasally) on days 0 and 14. A parenteral boost with purified PA83 plus alum was given to rhesus macaques on days 42 and 225; cynomolgus monkeys were boosted only once, 3 months after priming, with either PA or licensed anthrax vaccine (Biothrax®). Monkeys primed with S. Typhi expressing ClyA-PA83 developed high levels of serum toxin neutralization activity (TNA) antibodies (> 1.3 ×103 ED50), 7 days after boosting, while unprimed controls lacked serum TNA (0 ED50). The success in non-human primates of this anthrax vaccine strategy based on heterologous mucosal prime followed by parenteral subunit vaccine boost paves the way for clinical trials. PMID:19099487

  14. Expression of cytochromes P-450 in rat hepatoma cells. Analysis by monoclonal antibodies specific for cytochromes P-450 from rat liver induced by 3-methylcholanthrene or phenobarbital.

    PubMed

    Wiebel, F J; Park, S S; Kiefer, F; Gelboin, H V

    1984-12-17

    We have studied the expression of aldrin eposidase (AE), 7-ethoxycoumarin-O-deethylase (ECDE), and aryl hydrocarbon (benzo[a]pyrene) hydroxylase (AHH) in nine differentiated or dedifferentiated cell lines derived from H4IIEC3 rat hepatoma cells. The nature of the cytochromes P-450 mediating AE, ECDE and AHH activities was analysed using monoclonal antibodies (MAb) made to the major 3-methylcholanthrene-induced cytochrome P-450 (MAb-MC) or phenobarbital-induced cytochrome P-450 (MAb-PB) from rat liver. The cells were treated with 5 microM dexamethasone for 30 h to increase the levels of the monoxygenase activities. (a) The six differentiated cell lines examined (Faza967, Fao, HF1-4, 2sFou, C2Rev7, and H4IIEC3/G-) contained MAb-PB-sensitive AE comprising 30-75% of the total AE activity. In most of these cell lines MAb-PB also markedly inhibited ECDE; however, the antibody had a considerably weaker effect on AHH. (b) MAb-PB-sensitive AHH, ECDE and AE activities were also observed in untreated and phenobarbital-treated cells. (c) MAb-MC inhibited AHH and ECDE in the two dedifferentiated lines HF1 and H5 by 50-80%. The antibody also inhibited AHH activities in the poorly differentiated line H4IIEC3/T and in the majority of the differentiated lines by 40-65%. MAb-MC-sensitive AHH was found in Fao cells after treatment with benz[a]anthracene but induced AHH in H4IIEC3/T, H4IIEC3/G-, and 2sFou cells 20-30-fold and in Faza967 and Fao cells 3-5-fold. Benz[a]anthracene remained without effect on AHH activity in C2Rev7 cells. The results show that the hepatoma cells examined express to various degrees phenobarbital-inducible cytochrome P-450 and/or 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible cytochrome P-450. These cell lines are versatile tools for studying the regulation of monooxygenase activities and analysing their role in the activation and inactivation of xenobiotics such as carcinogens, drugs and pesticides.

  15. HBV/HCV dual infection impacts viral load, antibody response, and cytokine expression differently from HBV or HCV single infection

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Wen, Bo; Luo, Shan; Lin, Yingbiao; Ou, Wensheng; Guo, Fengfan; Tang, Ping; Liu, Wenpei; Qu, Xiaowang

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus/hepatitis C virus (HBV/HCV) dual infection is common among high-risk individuals. To characterize the virological and immunological features of patients with HBV/HCV dual infection, we enrolled 1,049 individuals who have been identified as injection drug users. Patients were divided into single and dual infection groups according to the serological markers. We found the average HCV RNA level was significantly lower; however, HBV viral load was significantly higher in HBV/HCV dual-infected patients (n = 42) comparing HCV single infection (n = 340) or HBV single infection (n = 136). The level of anti-HBs in patients who experienced spontaneous HBV clearance was higher than that in HCV single-infected patients with HBV spontaneous clearance. The level of anti-HCV E2 in HBV/HCV dual infection was lower than that detected in HCV single infection. Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were significantly lower in HBV/HCV dual-infected patients than in patients infected with HBV or HCV alone. Taken together, two viral replications are imbalanced in dual infected patients. The anti-HBs and anti-HCV E2 antibody production were impaired and proinflammatory IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α also downregulated due to dual infection. These findings will help further understanding the pathogenesis of HBV/HCV dual infection. PMID:28009018

  16. Codon modification for the DNA sequence of a single-chain Fv antibody against clenbuterol and expression in Pichia pastoris

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To improve expression efficiency of the recombinant single-chain variable fragment (scFv) against clenbuterol (CBL) obtained from mouse in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris (P. pastoris) GS115, the DNA sequence encoding for CBL-scFv was designed and synthesized based on the codon bias of P. p...

  17. A preliminary report on green peas in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western Regional Plant Introduction Station at Pullman, Washington and Seneca Foods Corporation in Dayton, WA collaborated with the Sub-arctic Agricultural Research Unit (SARU) to test a set of established cultivars and breeding lines of green peas under sub-arctic growing conditions. This test set ...

  18. Diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum from pea fields in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizobia-mediated biological nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes contributes to yield potential in these crops and also provides residual fertilizer to subsequent cereals. Our objectives were to collect isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum from several pea fields in Washington, examine genetic diversity...

  19. A diagnostic guide for Fusarium Root Rot of pea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. pisi, is a major root rot pathogen in pea production areas worldwide. Here we